Greenwood Village fitness center

Material Information

Greenwood Village fitness center
Weidl, Shelley
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
179 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Physical fitness centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Greenwood Village ( lcsh )
Clinics -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Greenwood Village ( lcsh )
Clinics ( fast )
Physical fitness centers ( fast )
Colorado -- Greenwood Village ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Shelley Weidl.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16734105 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1987 .W42 ( lcc )

Full Text

Shelley Weidl
The Thesis of
is approved.
Rod Armstrong, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Spring, 1987

An Architectural Thesis presented to the School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.

I would like to thank
my parents whose encouragement and constant support allowed me to realize my dream .

Project Description Introduction Thesis Statement Greenwood Village Zoning Code Analysis Site Information Climate Analysis
Summary of Program Space Requirements

The Greenwood Village Fitness Center is currently under construction on a site to the north-west of the intersection of South Quebec Street and East Orchard Road in Greenwood Village. The architect is WZMH Group, in conjunction with Haller & Larson, Architects; the developer is John Madden Co.; and, the medical liaison is St. Joseph Hospital. The facility is slated for completion in January of 1987.
Two distinct areas comprise the health complex: the Fitness Center and the Wellness Center Clinic. The former will offer aerobic exercise classes, weight training, racquetball and squash, basketball, volleyball, swimming, running and tennis to over 2,000 club members. State-of-the-art equipment will be provided with expert instruction and supervision. The club will also offer facilities for relaxation and dining. A sauna area will consist of jacuzzi, steam room, sauna, massage room, tanning booths, and an outdoor sun deck. The restaurant/ bar will provide "healthy food and beverages along with beer and wine, as well as a snack service for the sauna area. Outdoor dining with views to the mountain will also be available during good weather. Additional amenities, such as a nursery and laundry, will be available to club members.
The Wellness Center Clinic is to be operated by St. Joseph Hospital in conjunction with Dr. Kenneth Cooper, who is responsible for introducing aerobics to America. It will provide 3 distinct services: extensive health examinations, sports medicine, and cardiovascular testing and rehabilitation. The comprehensive program will serve the needs of club members, Denver and outlying communities, as well as out-of-state individuals who come especially for executive physicals. Additionally, the hospital will sublease approximately 800 s.f. to the Samaritan Institute to be used for psychological counseling and national training center. Space will also be subleased to the P.A.L.S. (Personalized Aerobic Lifestyle) group who create individualized programs for training and exercise. Finally, St. Joseph Hospital will implement a Health Promotion Department which offers classroom instruction and seminars on nutrition, health and fitness.
The Greenwood Village Fitness Center will staff physicians and other health and fitness professionals who are committed to the service, instruction, and supervision of individuals seeking a healthier more fulfilling life.
The program requires approximately 70,000 s.f. of building area, and 140,000 s.f. of surface parking (350 spaces) on the 11 acre site. The building height is restricted by code to 2 stories.
Outdoor facilities for summer activities will be provided by the Greenwood Village Fitness Center to ensure member involvement on a year-round basis. Two outdoor tennis courts, a sand volleyball pit, and sun deck will encourage tennis and volleyball events, sunbathing, picnics, and summer parties.
Another site, adjacent on the west, is to be landscaped as a park with streams, ponds, and 1 mile paved jogging path. The proposed park is not a part of the project, and is intended for use by Greenwood Village residents. Although, club members are welcome and the park should serve to enhance the outdoor activities of the Fitness Center.

The owner and business managers of the Greenwood Village Fitness Center are targeting the middle to upper middle class market with emphasis on memberships to business people in the area. The average age is considered to be between 25 to 45 years old, although there is no restriction on age.
Athletic memberships will range from singles, couples, to family packages. The fee is $60 per month for singles, $85 per month for couples and families with a $150 initiation fee in all cases. There is no charge for children. Youth fitness classes will be offered to these children at designated times, but there are no restrictions on times they may use the facility.
The club will be open from 5:45 AM to 10:00 PM weekdays and from 7:45 AM to 8:00 PM on weekends. Although the clinic is a separate entity, club members will have speial priviledges. The clinic and the business office will be open 8 to 5 MWF and the Samaritan Center will also have restricted hours.

The search for total well-being and fulfillment in ones life has been an ongoing endeavor since antiquity. The Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans have all strived for health and enjoyment in life. The Romans flocked to their Baths, and the Greeks journeyed to places such as the Sanctuary of Asclepius, a sacred health resort devoted entirely to miraculous cures. These places offered hope to those seeking the answer to good health and a more rewarding life.
The increasing complexities of lifestyles and the subsequent lack of time have prevented many from "getting away" to health resorts. Most cannot even afford them. The 70s saw an emergence of neighborhood health clubs as an answer to this problem. Many of the same functions and services of the traditional health resort were offered at an affordable price. These clubs were so successful that by the early 80s the market became saturated with facilities claiming to be bigger and better with more services. Unfortunately, these clubs strayed from their original purpose of health and fitness to little more than "singles" meeting places. They no longer served the needs of the general public.
There is a trend now which is moving back to the original intention set forth by health facilities. Traditional attitudes towards health are once again being re-evaluated. Some new issues concerning stress in our society are arising. Health professionals are discovering that stress-induced psychosomatic illnesses are becoming a major health problem. They are realizing the extent to which emotional stress adversely affects the body. This fact has led to a movement from traditional treatment methods to a more holistic approach towards health. As a result of the efforts of Dr. Kenneth Cooper, a new kind of health club is emerging.
Dr. Cooper began researching the effects of physical exercise and nutrition on the human body nearly 15 years ago. He is responsible for revolutionizing the exercise habits of Americans. During that time, he founded the Aerobics Center in Dallas, Texas, a research facility devoted entirely to health and exercise related issues. His most recent work involve the relationship between exercise, diet, and emotional balance. Dr. Cooper believes that all three areas must be in balance to insure what he calls "total well-being." His 3-point plan is currently being instituted in health clubs throughout the U.S.
Multi-disciplinary health complexes are now being considered and tested throughout the U.S. using the principles set forth by Dr. Cooper. These facilities are staffed by a wide range of health professionals (i.e., physicians, chiropractors, podiatrists, physical therapists, dietitians, counselors, etc.). Services are offered in such areas as physical fitness, psychological counseling, sports medicine, and nutrition, and are combined in one comprehensive facility. The Greenwood Village Fitness Center is one such facility and is based on Dr.
Coopers philosophy of health, offering a myriad of health related services to individuals in the pursuit of improved health, performance and enjoyment in their lives.
Other health professionals are now actively educating the public about preventative health issues. This new awareness is leading to a change of attitude in individuals and even society as a whole. Society is aware, now more than ever, of the implications of good health for a more rewarding life.

"Art is an effort to create, beside the real world a more human world." Andre Maurois
Architecture has a responsibility to individuals and society. As an integral part of our culture, architectural design should reflect attitudes and beliefs in a timely, positive way. The purpose of a structure is to satisfy the needs of its users through its functions, aesthetics, image and spirit. Architecture is for people not the owner, developer, or architect. A building is more than a mass of stone or steel. It is also more than an art form. Architecture is an experience. Its goal is to produce functional, aesthetic buildings with meaning and purpose.
The purpose of Architecture is to create enjoyable, comfortable and safe environments for its users whether for living, working, or recreation. It must enhance the quality of life. To this end, architecture should reflect Maurois' notion of art. It must support the functions of a building, the image it creates, the spirit of the place, and the philosophy behind the building type.
A health club represents "balance" in daily living. The building, to be successful, must reflect this balance in its form, functions, spatial qualities, circulation, materials and colors. The functions of the health complex find immediate expression in the Fitness Center (physical), the Samaritan Institute (psychological) and restaurant (nutrition). The notion of balance is expressed in the spatial variety, quality and organization of the building. There are public spaces for activity and socializing, and private spaces for relaxation, solitude, and reflection. The materials are varied, the surfaces both smooth and textured. Colors can be both subdued and vibrant.
Although all of these factors are quite distinct if not opposite in nature from one another (e.g., public/private, large/small, smooth/rough), they are necessary for achieving balance in the building's Architecture. The end result must be a unified expression, possibly manifesting itself in a centralized scheme reflecting balance and centeredness.
"A useful theory of human motivation based on the concept of equilibrium has been drawn from such varied sources as the principle of entropy in physics, ^ homeostasis in physiology, and the law of simplicity in gestalt psychology." In visual perception, the human brain has a tendency to perceive the most regular, symmetrical, stable form and it strives for the best possible equilibrium. "A person requires clarity and simplicity for the purpose of orientation; balance and unity for^tranquillity and good functioning; variety and tension for stimulation." Since Architecture is an experience and evokes the senses, it must contain these elements of clarity and simplicity, balance and unity, variety and tension to support the need for equilibrium within the user. This leads to the fact that aesthetically, a well-organized form produces pleasure.
1. Arnheim, Rudolf, "Toward a Psychology of Art," Univ. of California. Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 1966, p. 21.
2. Ibid., p. 103.

Websters definition of equilibrium is "any condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others resulting in a stable, balanced, or unchanging system. Therefore, equilibrium or balance "represents the state of distribution in which all elements have come to rest." Although this does not preclude the notion of tension in balance. For example, in Architecture, the golden section is admittedly balanced and yet the parts are in tension. There can be movement while maintaining equilibrium which manifests itself in what is called the dynamic complexity of form. One strives not only for equilibrium but also for the ^maximum of potential energy and to apply the best possible equilibrium to it." This is called "unity in variety," or more specifically, the desire
of organizing a maximum of dynamic richness in well-balanced form." As in nature and art, so should Architecture be dynamic and reflect a richness and complexity of form to produce a balanced and unified whole.
Thus, balance is a vital requirement of any aesthetic composition. Conversely, an unbalanced composition can look haphazard and awkward to the human eye. The brain tries unsuccessfully to move elements around to their proper places. As a result, the composition can be visually disturbing and elicit an uncomfortable feeling. The natural dynamics of the form is interrupted. Variety and richness are not realized. Therefore, a balanced building can produce a pleasurable harmony for the user.
Forms in Architecture, as in Gestalt psychology, are not merely an assemblage of modular units or parts. Instead, the parts must be £an integrated organization of the whole which produces the feeling of balance." The whole structure is perceived rather than the sum of its parts.
The parts of a building cannot be separated from each other just as the building itself cannot be isolated from its surroundings. It cannot stand alone. The building must interact and integrate with the site, each enhancing the other. They are components of the whole and thus should co-exist in harmony and balance. Since the building is surrounded by an open and natural site, there is the opportunity to have that unity of expression not only in the building itself, but in the unity and wholeness of the site as well.
The architecture of the health complex should reflect the "unity of variety" through its subdued yet rich forms and materials. It should be reflective and inward looking, offer a feeling of peace and well-being, and, at the same time, be dynamic to reflect the activities and social intentions of the facility.
Above all, it should be a place where individuals exposed to the pressures and stresses of everyday living can feel comfortable, exercise, socialize, re-evaluate and relax.
3. Ibid., p. 76.
4. Ibid., p. 76.
5. Ibid., p. 76.
6. Ibid., p. 114.

PROJECT NAME: Greenwood Village Fitness Center
LOCATION: Northwest of the intersection of S. Quebec Street & Orchard Road,
Greenwood Village, CO.
Section Item
5-2-4 Proposed Uses: Athletic/fitness center.
5-2-4 5-2-4 Presenting Zoning Classification: Town Center Applicable Allowable Uses: residents, offices, services, consumer support, Medical Offices & Facilities, Pharmacies, Recreation, Light Industrial, Research Laboratories, and Associated uses. Zoning Change Required? NO
5-2-5 Minimum Lot Size area: 5 acres (combined interior/exterior athletic facility) width: 300 Ft.
5-2-5 Minimum Tard Requirements front: 100 Ft. rear: 100 Ft. side: 50 Ft. Maximum FAR: 3:1 Available Bonuses: None
5-2-5 Maximum Height feet: Shall not exceed 28 Ft. stories: 2 Stories. Offstreet Parking rqd. spaces by use: Not stipulated. General requirement of the T.C.: surface/structure parking not to exceed 40% of gross land area within the District rqd spaces for project: 200-250 surface spaces parking permited in setbacks: Yes; only if not adjacent to public right-of-way (see landscaping); not allowed on public streets, handicap parking: not stipulated small car allotments: not stipulated
5-2-4 Open Space Requirements Minimum of 30% of the gross acreage within the T.C. (Project has 40% open space)
5-2-5 Landscaping Requirements: (1) Parking adjacent to public right-of-way must be separated by a 35' landscaped strip. (2) Circulation must be separated from public right-of-ways by landscaping.

Fences No restrictions on this site. (There will be no fences on this project).
Sign Restrictions No restrictions at present. Must be reviewed by Planning Committee.
5-2-4 Other Special Requirements
minimum setbacks: Buildings around the perpheral of any T.C.
shall be set back at least 25' from the District line.

Zoning for this site is governed by what is called "The Town Center District" (T.C.) which is similar to a PUD. It is a general set of guidelines covering broad categories of uses and requirements.
A masterplan proposal for a particular site within the District must be submitted to the Greenwood Village Planning Committee for approval. Since there are no specific uses or criteria stipulated for a particular piece of land, the approved masterplan becomes a mini-PUD. in a sense, as long as it satisfies the general requirements of the T.C. Each proposal can vary from the general requirements of the Town Center District, as long as the entire district remains within the guidelines set forth after all development is completed. For example, the Town Center District must have an overall open space requirement of 30%. A specific development can have open space which is greater than or less than 30% as long as total development does not exceed the general requirements. Each proposal presented to the Planning Committee is tailored to previous development. The planning, therefore, is an ongoing process, and becomes more specific and rigid as the area is developed.

PROJECT NAME: Greenwood Village Fitness Center
LOCATION: Northwest of the intersection of S. Quebec Street & Orchard Road,
Greenwood, Village, CO APPLICABLE CODE NAME: UBC, 1985 Edition
Section Item
601 701 Occupancy Classification Principle: A-l (Athletic Club) Others (specify): B-2 (Medical Clinic)
1901 Construction Type: Type II (Fire Resistive)(See Table 17-A p. 89)
503 c & d Occupancy separations required: 3 HR A-l to B-2 = 3 hours (Table 5-B, p. 40) Change in occupancy: None
505b Maximum Allowable Floor Area: A-l 29,900 (Table 5-C p. 41) B-2 39,400 (Table 5-C p. 41) If adjacent to open area on two or more sides:
506a 1. Separation on Two Sides: Where public ways or yards more than 20 feet in width extend along and adjoin two sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 1-1/4 percent for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet but the increase shall not exceed 50 percent. 2. Separation on Three Sides: Where public ways or yards more than 20 feet in width extend along and adjoin three sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 2-1/2 percent for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet, but the increase shall not exceed 100 percent. 3. Separation on All Sides: Where public ways or yards more than 20 feet in width extend on all sides of a building and adjoin the entire perimeter, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 5 percent for each foot by which the minimum exceeds 20 feet. Such increases shall not exceed 100 percent.
505b 505c If over one story: 2 x that permitted for 1 story If Sprinklered: Allowable areas may be doubled in buildings over 1 story.
505d Unlimited in group B if entirely surrounded by public right-of-ways or yards not less than 60' in width. Increases for fire separations: None

Maximum Allowable Height *A-1 4 stories
*B-2 12 stories 160 feet maximum.
* One story increase if building sprinkled throughout although not allowed if used to increase floor area. (Table 5-D, p. 42).
Fire Resistance of Exterior Vails: (see occupancy & construction)
Exterior Bearing Vailst 4 hrs (A-l) 2 hrs (B-2)
Exterior Non-Bearing Walls: 1 hr (A-l/B-2) where unprotected
openings permitted 2 hr (A-l/B-2) where fire protected openings required.
Exceptions; 1. Non-bearing walls fronting on public ways or
yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected, noncombustible construction.
2. In Groups R, Division I, and B Occupency exterior bearing walls of Type II-F.R. buildings may be of two-hour fire resistive non-combustible construction where openings are permitted.
3. In other than group H Occupancies, exterior non-bearing walls of Type II-F.R. buildings may be of one-hour fire resistive non-combustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and two-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
Setbacks (requiring protection of openings in exterior walls):
All openings in exterior walls of Type II-F.R. buildings shall conform to the requirements of Section 504(b) and shall be protected by a fire assembly having three-fourths-hour fire protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line or the center line of a public way. No openings shall be permitted in exterior walls of Type II-F.R. buildings housing Groups A, E, I, H, and B, Divisions 1, 2, and 3 Occupancies less than 5 feet from the property line.
Location within city/location on property:
Group A: Building housing Group A occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance of the building shall be located on a public street or on the access way. The main assembly floor of Division 1 Occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level.
Group B: Buildings shall adjoin or have access to a public way
or yard on not less than one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained. For the purpose of this Section, the center line of an adjoining public way shall be considered an adjacent property line.

605 &
Vindovs Required in Rooms (Group A and B): All enclosed rooms of Group A occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. Toilet rooms shall be provided with a fully openable exterior window at least 3 square feet in area; or a verticle duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility, with 50 additional square inches for each additional facility..., or a mechanically operated exhaust system...
Pire Resistive Requirements:
exterior bearing walls 4 hrs (A-l)(See Table 17-A, pg. 89).
2 hrs (B-2)(See Table 17-A, pg. 89). interior bearing walls 2 hrs
exterior non-bearing walls 1 hr (A-l/B-2)(See Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls)
2 hr (A-l/B-2)(See Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls).
2 hrs 1 hrs
1 hrs
2 hrs 2 hrs
1 (see section 1906)
3/4 hrs when < 20' from an adjacent PL or CL of a public way. same
for 3-4 stories, min. clear opening of 20', min area = 400 s.f.
mezzanine floors (area allowed) shall be consistent with
requirements of Type II or only 1 hr if unenclosed.
roof coverings fire retardant
structural frame permanent partitions exit corridor walls shaft enclosures floors roofs
exterior doors & windows exit doors & frames atrium openings
roofs 1.
2 hrs (steel, iron, concrete or masonry)
Reinforced concrete, iron or steel with treads & risers of concrete, iron or steel, brick, marble, tile or other hard non-combustible materials may be used for the finish of such treads or risers.
For wood flooring with wood sleepers on masonry or concrete fire resistive floors of type II-F.R. buildings, the space between must be filled with non-combustible material or fire stopped so there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 s.f. (Exception: no fire stopping required when at or below grade in gymnasiums.)
If roof is more than 25' above any floor, balcony or gallery, it may be of unprotected non-combustible materials; or

2. If roof of Group A or B occupancy is not less than 25
feet above any floor, balcony or j gallery, fire
protection of roof and its structural frame may be
omitted, or
3. If roof of Group A or E Occupancy is more than 18 feet
and less than 25 feet above any floor, balcony or
gallery, the roof construction shall be constructed by
a ceiling of not less than one hour fire-resistive
3302 Exits
Table 33-A p. 582
9 9 Occupant Load
Occupancy Type (For A-l) Basis (FT ) Area (Fr ) (Area/Basis)
Dining Rooms 15 3230 216
Gymnasiums 15 7630 509
Lounges 15 900 60
Classrooms 20 1000 50
Ki tchen-Commercial 200 710 4
Locker Rooms 50 9774 196
Mechanical Equipment Room 300 3128 11
Nurseries (Day Care) 35 1000 29
Offices 100 3165 32
Storage and Stock Room 300 758 3
Swimming Pools (Pool Area) 50 5166 104
(on Deck) 15 2976 199
3303a Number of exists required
- Every story (or portion thereof) having an occupant load of 501-1000 shall have not less than 3 exits
- Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 1001 or more shall have not less than 4 exits.
- Minimum of two exits other than elevators are required where
number of occupants is at least 50: Dining Room, Gymnasium,
lounge, Classrooms, Swimming Pool Area.
- Minimum of two exits other than elevators are required where number of occupants is at least 30: Kitchen, Locker Rooms, Mech. Equipment Room, Offices, Storage.
- Minimum of two exits where number of occupants is at least 7: Nursery.
- Access by means of a ramp or an elevator must be provided for the physically handicapped in these areas: Dining Room, Gym, Lounge, Classrooms, Locker Rooms, Nursery, Offices, Swimming Ppool.
3303b Minimum Width of Exits: Total width of exits shall not be not
less than the total occupant load served divided equally among separate exits; and, including a percentage 50; of occupancy loads of adjacent floors.
Exit Separation Arrangement:
- Exits shall be placed apart not less than 1/2 the diagonal distance of building.

- When three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged reasonably apart.
Maximum Allovable Travel Distance to Exit: 150' (with sprinklers: 200')
Exception: Distances may be increased when the last 150' is within a corridor. Rooms may have 1 exit through an adjoining or intervening room which provides a direct means of travel to an exit corridor.
exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas): Rooms may have one exit through an adjoining or intervening room, which provides a direct obvious and unobstructed means of travel to an exit corridor, ... provided the total distance does not exceed that provided by other provisions of the code. Exits shall not pass through kitchens, store rooms, rest rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes. Foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Exit Doors: Shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving an occupant load of 50 or more. minimum width & height: min 3' width; min 6'8" height maximum leaf width: shall not exceed 4' in width
swing: in direction of exit travel when occup load > 50. change in floor level at door: Shall be a floor or landing on each side of door. When handicapped accessible, the floor of landing not greater than 1/2" lower than threshold of doorway or not greater than 1" in all other cases.
Exit Corridors:
required width: not greater than 44" when occup load of > 10 required height: not greater than 7' measured from lowest projection from ceiling.
dead end corridors length: not to exceed 20' fire resistance: 1 hr.
doors: Protected by a tight-fitting smoke-and draft-control assembly having a fire protection rating of < 20 min. Shall be self-closing or of automatic closing. Smoke and draft control assemblies provided with a gasket to provide a seal. other than doors: Protective by fixed, 1/4" thick wired glass installed in steel frames. Total area of openings in corridors shall not exceed 25% of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor. Stairs:
min width: 44", occ. load of 50 or more.
Maximum riser allowed: not greater than 7"
Minimum tread allowed: not less than 11"
Winding, circular spiral stairs: Winding and spiral not allowed. Circular allowed if minimum width of tread is not less than 10" and the smaller radius not less than 2x width of stairway.

Landings: Dimension measured in direction of travel equal to width of stairway, run cannot exceed 44" when stair has a straight run.
veritcal distance between landings: Max. 12'
Stair to Roof Required: No
Stair to Basement Restrictions: When a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure a barrior shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into the basement.
Stair Enclosure Required? Yes. Every stair and elevator shall be of Type II-F.R. construction
enclosures: To include landings and corridors on ground floor. Stair Headroom: not less than 6'6"
required at each side: Yes.
intermediate rails required: If width exceeds 88" > 1 intermediate handrail for each 88" of width required height: not less than 30" or not greater than 34" above nosing of treads
maximum openings in rails: 6" maximum, Sec. 1711
height above nosing: not less than 30" or not greater than
34" above nosing of treads.
extension of railing: not less than 6" beyond top and bottom risers
projection from wall: not less than 1-1/2" between wall and handrail.
exceptions Stairways < 44" wide.
Horizontal Exit Requirements:
a) Used as a Required Exit: Shall not serve as the only exit from the building when 2 or more exits are required and not more than 1/2 of total number of exits or total exit width may be horizontal exits.
b) Openings: In 2-hour fire-resistive wall which provides a horizontal exit shall have a fire-protection rating of not less than 2-1/2 hours.
c) Discharge in Areas: Shall lead into a floor area not less than the occupant load served by such exit. Capacity is determined by allowing 3 Ft of net-clear floor
area per ambulatory occupant and 30 Ft per ambulatory occupant.
width: As required for stairways
maximum slope: Not steeper than 1 vertical to 12 horizontal Ramps steeper than 1:15 must have landings at top and bottom, and intermediate landing provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top/intermediate landings shall have dimension measured in direction of ramp run of not less than 5". Bottoms landing not less than 6'.

Handrails: If steeper than 1:15 shall have handrails as required for stairways, except intermediate handrails not required.
Exit signs required: When occupant load > 50.
Toilet Rood Requirements: Each Water Closet stool must be located in a clear space not less than 30" in width and clear space in front of the toilet of not less than 24".
Drinking Fountains: Spout within 33" of floor and hand-operated. If located in Alcove then Alcove not less than 32" in width.
Shovers: Shall have a smooth, hand, non-absorbant surface which extends not less than 70" above drain inlet.
Accessible Bathrooms: One Toilet per each sex at least.


The site of the proposed fitness center is located in the heart of Greenwood Village, Colorado, approximately 1/2 mile west of 1-25. It lies within approximately 11 acres on the southeast corner of the intersection of East Orchard Road and South Quebec Street. The site is bounded on the south by East Orchard Road; on the east by South Quebec Street; and on the north and west sides by a residential development.
The land is owned by the John Madden Company. Eventually, another 11 acres on the northwest corner is to be developed as offices. The two sites are separated by drainage channels and a holding pond which cut diagonally through the parcel from the northeast corner to the southwest corner. This area is to be landscaped and used as a park for Greenwood Village. A jogging trail will be added to the park which will serve as an additional feature of the fitness center.
The site slopes down to the south and west (to the holding pond) from the high point at the northwest corner. The high point is 5655 ft. and the low point is 5605 ft. The difference in elevation across the site is 50 ft. The low point is along the western boundary of the site, and is a relatively wet, sedimentary area. The site was previously used for the importation of earth and construction rubble fill, and has very few existing trees. It is to be re-graded and extensively landscaped.

* Foxton %

Greenwood Village is a sub-division of Denver located on the northern border of Arapahoe County. The town is an exclusive development consisting of high-end housing, shopping centers, and office parks. The Towncenter District's open space requirements call for 40% open space, extensively landscaped as parks and ponds. Green rolling hills and expensive homes gives Greenwood Village the image of an exclusive community.

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The following information pertaining to soils and foundation investigation was extracted from the soils report prepared for WZMH Group, Inc. by Fox & Associates of Colorado, Inc., Consulting Engineers and Geologists.
Three basic strata were encountered in the test holes. These include: (a) manmade fill; (b) natural clay and sand overburden soils; and (c) bedrock. The depths these materials were encountered across the site varies considerably. Refer to Figure 2, Logs of Test Holes for stratographic descriptions of the test holes and test pits.
In general, the man-made fill consists of sandy clay and clayey sand with some construction rubble. It varies in thickness from 0 to about 11 feet, with an average across the site of about 6 to 8 feet. The fill also has erratic moisture and density, and it is known that it was not placed in a controlled manner.
The native overburden soils consists primarily of sandy clays and clayey sands. In Test Hole 3, however, a stratum of clean medium to fine sand was encountered. The overburdened soils were not encountered in four of the five test holes where bedrock was encountered very near the surface or below man-made fill. This suggests that this area may have been used as a borrow pit in the past. The overburden clays are stiff to very stiff in consistency, and the sands are medium dense.
Bedrock was encountered in all of the deep test holes at depths ranging from a few inches to 19 feet below ground surface. The bedrock consists of interbedded claystone and sandstone. It is generally medium hard where first encountered and becomes hard to very hard after about five feet of penetration.

Ground water was encountered in four of the test holes during drilling. The depth of groundwater below the existing ground surface varies from about 7 feet to 11 feet. These depths appear to be consistent with the water surface noted in the flood plain area to the west and the pond in the western central portion of the site.
We understand that site grading will include cuts of as much as 12 feet in the northeast corner if the site and fills in the central and southern portions. A large portion of the cut materials will be man-made fill consisting of sandy clays to clayey sands with some inter-mixed construction rubble.
The presence of the existing man-made fill presents some risk of future settlement for new facilities constructed on it. In order to eliminate this risk, it would be necessary to remove all fill and replace it with a controlled structural fill...this may not be cost effective.
The areas to receive fill consist of both native subgrade soils in the lower areas of the site (along the western property line), and man-made fill over most of the site.
In areas where man-made fill presently exists, scarifying and recompacting the subgrade will also be required. In non-structural areas, 12 inches of scarifacation and recompaction will be sufficient. In parking and roadway areas, at least 12 inches of scarified and recompacted subgrade and at least 12 inches of compacted fill will be required. In pavement areas, including hard surface athletic courts, where new fill will be less than 12 inches thick, deeper scarification will be required to achieve the total of 24 inches of compacted fill.

In the building envelope and including adjacent patios and sidewalks, the
minimum depth of scarification and recompaction should be 36 inches.
It is anticipated that new fill will be placed adjacent to existing slopes of either man-made fill or native materials. Where the existing slope is steeper than 5 horizontal to 1 vertical, benching will be required to achieve structural integrity.
We recommend that structural loads for the proposed building be supported by a drilled pier and grade beam foundation system. All piers should have a minimum length of 15 feet and should penetrate at least 5 feet into medium hard bedrock.
All beams spanning between piers should have at least a 3 inch void space between the bottom of the beam and the subgrade to allow for expansion of potentially swelling soils.
We anticipate that concrete slab-on-grade floors will be used for the lower levels. Because of the presence of the existing fill, which is presumed to have been dumped and graded, some risk of settlement must be assumed by the owners.
To eliminate this risk, it would be necessary to remove all the fill and construct a new compact fill, provide a structural floor, or construct a post-tensioned slab floor. If some risk of movement is acceptable, the floors may be constructed as slabs-on-grade.
Slabs on grade should be isolated from foundations, walls, and columns to allow for their independent movement.
Interior partition walls that bear on slabs should be constructed with a minimum
2 inch void space either above or below the partition.

In the building envelope and including adjacent patios and sidewalks, the
minimum depth of scarification and recompaction should be 36 inches.
It is anticipated that new fill will be placed adjacent to existing slopes of
either man-made fill or native materials. Where the existing slope is steeper than 5 horizontal to 1 vertical, benching will be required to achieve structural integrity.
We recommend that structural loads for the proposed building be supported by a drilled pier and grade beam foundation system. All piers should have a minimum length of 15 feet and should penetrate at least 5 feet into medium hard bedrock.
All beams spanning between piers should have at least a 3 inch void space between the bottom of the beam and the subgrade to allow for expansion of potentially swelling soils.
We anticipate that concrete slab-on-grade floors will be used for the lower levels. Because of the presence of the existing fill, which is presumed to have been dumped and graded, some risk of settlement must be assumed by the owners.
To eliminate this risk, it would be necessary to remove all the fill and construct a new compact fill, provide a structural floor, or construct a post-tensioned slab floor. If some risk of movement is acceptable, the floors may be constructed as slabs-on-grade.
Slabs on grade should be isolated from foundations, walls, and columns to allow for their independent movement.
Interior partition walls that bear on slabs should be constructed with a minimum
2 inch void space either above or below the partition.

Retaining walls will be used as exterior walls on portions of the lower level. Lateral pressures will be exerted on these walls by backfill soils, surcharge loads, and possibly hydrostatic forces. We recommend providing a backfill drain system to eliminate hydrostatic pressures against retaining walls.
A drain system will be required behind retaining walls and around the swimming pool to relieve hydrostatic pressures.
The swimming pool should be protected against hydrostatic pressures with a drain system as shown in Figure 8, Swimming Pool and Deck Slab Drain System. As a backup to this system, we recommend that pressure relief valves be installed in the bottom of the pool.
The final grade of the backfill surrounding the building should have a positive slope away from foundation walls on all sides. We recommend using a minimum slope of 12 inches in the first 10 feet in landscaped areas.
Sprinkler systems for lawns should not be installed next to foundation walls or next to exterior slabs. If a sprinkler system is used, the sprinkler heads should be positioned so the spray, under full pressure, does not fall within 5 feet of foundation walls. If plantings are placed in the backfill zone adjacent to foundation walls, a low head drip irrigation system is recommended. It is advisable to plant only native vegetation adjacent to foundation walls that require minimal watering for survival.

Little Dry Creek, known as the Greenwood Gulch in this area, flows diagonally and south through the Greenwood Village Office Park. However, the flood plain for the 100-year flood does not affect the site in any way.
A small stream and ponds which cut diagonally through the 22-acre parcel from the northeast corner to the southwest corner are for water retention only and are not part of any significant drainage basin.



Chapter I
The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation and cloud cover.
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Tabl; I gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
Month Daily Maximum Daily Minimum Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Normal Degree Days Base 65F
90F and above 32F and below
(Heating) (Cooling)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 1 U> o 902 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 068 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 , 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
May 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 A 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Jut 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 248 15 o
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sep 77.7 47.8 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - 8 768 0 0 25
Dec 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50.1 104 -30 6016 625 32 162
* Less than one haJf.
Source: Department of Commerce, 1977

Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Table II shows Denver's precipitation characteristics.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 inches, respectively.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in Table III. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is func-
Total Precipitation Mean Number a of Days with Precipitation >,,01 inch Snow Mean Number a of Days with Snow 1.0 inch
Month Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Monthly Mean Max imum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.1 ' 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 *b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 Tc 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aup: 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 T* 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1. 38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 re 3.55 88 59.9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. b*Denotes less than one-half. cTnnotes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1977

Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 S 45 NW
Nov 00 S 48 W
Dec 9.0 S 51 NE
Annual 9.1 S 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977
mph; Oir. mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir. ph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir mph Oir. mph Dir. mph Oir mph Oir mph Oir. mph
AM 1:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 S 7.0 S 6.5 S 6.3 S 6.3 S 6.2 S 6.3 S 6.7 S 7.0 S 7.3 s 6.7
2:00 s 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 s 6.8 S 6.3 5 6.1 s 6.1 S 6.0 S 6.3 S 6.5 S 7.1 s 7.4 5 6.6
3:00 s 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.8 s 6.8 S 6.0 S 5.9 s 5.7 s 5.9 s 6.1 S 6.5 s 7.1 S 7.4 S 6.5
4:00 s 7.2 S 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.7 S 5.8 S 5.7 s i. 4 s 5.6 s 6. C s 6.4 c 7.2 S 7.5 S 6.4
5:00 s 7.2 t 6.7 s 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 S 5.5 s 5.2 s 3.3 s G.n S 6.5 s 7.3 S 7.5 S e.4
6:00 s 7.3 s 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 S 5.3 s 5.1 s 5.3 c 5.5 s 6.6 s 7.3 S 7.6 s 6.4
7:00 s 7.5 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 6.6 s 5.7 S 5.3 c 5.0 s 3.1 s 5.9 s 6.6 s 7.4 3 7.6 s 6.4
8:00 s 7.5 s 7.0 s 7.0 s 6.9 s 6.2 S 5.7 s 5.3 5 5.0 c 5.6 s 6.4 s 7.4 S 7.7 s 6.5
9:00 s 7.7 s 7.3 s 7.5 ! 7.4 s 6.8 s 6.1 s 5.5 5 5.1 s 5.7 6 6.4 s 7.4 s 7.7 s 6.7
j 10:00 s 7.7 s 7.6 s 8.0 N 8.0 N 7.6 il 6.7 N 5.5 NE 3.4 s 5.9 c 6.3 s 7.1 s 7.7 s 7.0
11 :00 s 8.0 s 8.2 N 8.7 HE 8.8 iE 8.3 NE 7.6 NE 6.6 NE 6.3 NC C.5 Nt 7.0 s 7.4 s 7.9 NE 7.6
12:00 s 8.3 NE 3.8 N 9.5 E 9.4 NE C.9 NE 8.3 NE 7.2 NC 6.9 NE 7.1 NE 7.6 s 7.2 s e.i NE 8.2
PM 1:00 s 9.1 iE 9.5 IE 10.2 NE 10.2 NE 9.6 NE 9.1 NE 7.9 NE 7.7 NE 7:8 NE E ? NE 8.4 s 8.6 NE 8.9
2:00 NE 9.3 NE 10.0 1 10.7 NE 10.6 E 10.3 NE 9.6 N 8.6 NE 8.1 NE 8.1 ..E S.7 .E 8.5 ti 8.7 NE 9.3
3:00 NE 9.5 NE 10.1 .iE 11.C NE 10.9 NE 10.6 NE 10.2 N 9.4 w K. 7 NE 8.6 NE 9.0 NE 8.6 NE 8.7 ut 9.6
4:00 N 9.1 .it 10.2 NE 11.2 iE 11.2 NW 10.8 NE 10.5 N 9.6 N 9.1 N 8.0 N[ 3.8 NC 3.5 N 8.3 NT 9.7
5:00 NE 8.4 ;.E 9.7 NW 11.1 inE 11.2 uE 10.8 N 10.5 N 9.7 w 9.3 NE e.7 NE 8.5 NE 7.7 N 7.6 NE 9.4
6:00 NE. 7.7 NE 8.3 N 10.1 fl 10.6 NE 10.2 NE 10.1 SW 9.3 NW 8.6 ;; a.o NE 7.5 H 6.8 S 7.0 NE 0.7
j 7:00 5 7.3 li 7.2 N 8.7 ME 9.3 NE 9.3 NE 9. i s 0.5 SE 7.7 N 7.2 NE 6.7 S 6.4 s 6.8 NE 7.9
8:00 S 7.1 s 6.7 Ji 7.8 N 8.4 NE 8.4 NW 8.0 s 7.7 S 7 1 s 6.7 S 6.3 s 6.7 s 7.0 s 7.3
9:00 S 7.1 s 6.9 S 7.1 SW 7.7 SW 7.7 S 7.3 J 7.2 S 6.6 s 6.3 S 6.4 s 7.0 s 7.1 S 7.C
i 10:00 s 7.1 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 7.4 S 7.1 i. 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.6 5 6.4 S 6.6 s 7.2 s 7.2 S 6.9
11:00 s 7.2 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 7.1 s 6.8 s 6.7 s 6.7 s 6.4 S 6.5 S 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.3 S 6.9
12:00 s 7.1 s 6.9 s 6.9 s 7.0 s 6.7 s 6.5 s 6.5 s 6.3 S 6.3 S 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.2 S 6.8
J1692 to 1930 Data Source: U.S. Vuthr Bureau
2jb81 to 19S0 Location of Wind Vanee: Downtown Denver, rooftop elevation* at or near Ha in Boat Office

Denver, Colorado ____________
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number ofa Clear Days Number ofa Partly Cloudy Days Number ofa Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8 j
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
aMonthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
tioning. Tables III and IV, used together, may be of some limited use in this regard.
Table III presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour with April having the highest average (10.4 miles per hour). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in Table IV.
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring.
Annually Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover). Table V presents daytime solar and cloud data at Denver.
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atmosphere. Table VI is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver and other western cities.

Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. 0. -121.3
5:00 a.m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a.m. 0. -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a.m. 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a.m. 20.7 -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a.m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2 -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4 0.0
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES (in feet per one foot of obstruction)
Solar Time Level Ground 5% S* Slope 5% N Slope 5% W Slope 5% E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4.7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.-* 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9
* Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.
The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For construction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air tempera-
ture will be a necessity. Refer to Tables I, V, VII, VIII, and IX for relevant Denver data.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost. In some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.

FIG. 1
o 65*


FIG. 4
LAT. 3950'N LONG10450'W

Where it is not possible to be located on an east-west street, roof slant, trees and lot size and setback become more critical. The goal is to not build or buy at a disadvantage from the standpoint of potential solar collection.
direction of a perpendicular to the wall. The required point on the solar chart is located and the graduations on the radial and curved lines of the protractor show respectively the horizontal and vertical shadow angles.
There are three principal functions of solar collectors: those installed for winter space heating, for hot water, and for cooling. Early morning heating is often desired in winter since there may not be much heat left from the day before, and a prompt warming in the A.M. is desirable. The collector in these cases should be oriented a little east of south. Likewise, for solar hot water heating if more hot water is needed early in the day the collector should be oriented so that the peak solar collection period comes early in the day. Use Table VII to compute potential solar heat gain in btu's for Denver (40 N. latitude).
To find the sun's position for a given date and time, select the point of intersection of appropriate lines. The suns altitude at various times of the day is read off by means of the concentric circles and the azimuth is the bearing shown by the line radiating from the center through this point of intersection. (Figure 4.)
Shadow angles are found by placing the shadow angle pro tractor (Figure 5) over the solar chart with the centers coinciding and the base line oriented to represent the wall. In this position the central line (C) of the protractor points in the
The shadow angles for a given wall are found by placing the Protractor over a Solar Chart, with centres coinciding and the base line oriented to represent the wall. The point on the chart is located for the selected position of the sun. The graduations on the radial and curved lines through this point show respectively the horizontal and vertical angles which the suns rays make with a line perpendicular to the wall.
There are three principal uses of the solar chart. First, to define the shape and extent of a shadow cast upon a surface; second, to predict the amount of penetration of sunlight into a room or between buildings; and third, to predict the time at which a given point will receive sunlight, either in a room or on a building wall or window.
The vertical shadow angle is the angle between the suns direct rays and the horizontal plane drawn perpendicular to the face of the wall. The horizontal shadow angle is the angle between the sun's direct rays and a vertical plane drawn perpendicular to the face of the wall. Figures 6 and 7 will make this clear.

Landscaping and /or vegetation can have a positive or negative effect upon energy conservation depending on where the vegetation or site slopes are in relation to the structure. Trees along the east and west sides of a house will not usually create shading problems. Fortunately, three-fourths of the housing in Denver face streets which run north-south and therefore have front and back yards on the east and west sides of the houses. This situation favors the maximum tree planting with still adequate solar access to the house. At least one basic problem in Denver exists, that of generally unfavorable roof and house orientation for solar retrofit devices on much of the existing housing. This problem, however, is not apparent everywhere and is not insurmountable.
Trees should be spaced so as not to interfere with solar collectors when they are needed. This usually means that deciduous trees are best placed on the west side to offer protection from late afternoon summer sun. Wise planting of trees and landscaping can provide much needed solar control without excessive blocking of solar collectors.( Figures 10 and 24.)
Our communities need both trees and solar access so some compromises may be necessary. The major point is consideration of others and awareness of the need for conservation.
FIG. 11
Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of buildings can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs on windward side, minimum on lee side. Reduced pressure occurs as moving air accelerates over the top of the building. Vortices are formed on lee sides of buildings, in which air pollutants are trapped at street level.
FIG. 12
Wind is accelerated as it enters a passage between buildings. The effect is maximum when passage is narrow, 2 to 5 meters in width (W). If buildings are tall, the maximum increase (for a given width) occurs when wind enters the passage at an angle of 0 to 45 degrees.
Figure 13 provides generalized information regarding the direction from which various weather elements normally attack a structure or site in Denver. For example, west frequently brings the strongest winds, north the coldest, and southeast the gentlest. The arc of effective sunshine is much smaller from the south in winter than in summer. Snow usually blows in from the northeast quadrant and rain from the west and northwest in Denver. These are some local characteristics which are useful in planning and developing.
FIG. 13

Main Entrance/Reception
Reception/Seating Control Desk Area Pro-Shop Storage Room
Administrative/Business Area
Sales Offices
(5 @ 150 s.f. ea.)
Sales Closing Room Accounting/Bookkeeping (5 @ 75 s.f. ea.) Supply/Computer/Xerox Room Director's Suite
(office and reception)
Play Area Office
Toilets (2 @ 20 s.f. ea.) Restaurant/Bar
Dining Area (100 seats capacity) Bar Lounge (50 seats capacity) Kitchen/Service Toilets (2 @ 80 s.f. ea.)
Locker Rooms (ea.)
Locker/Dressing Area Shower Room Drying Room Sinks/Vanity Area Toilets Sauna Area
Laundry Room Towel Desk Area
Athletic Director's Offices
Director's Office 1 Office with A work stations Rest/Change Area
200 s.f.
150 s.f.
400 s.f.
80 s.f.
750 s.f.
150 s.f.
375 s.f.
200 s.f.
300 s.f.
100 s.f.
480 s.f.
80 s.f.
40 s.f.
1,800 s.f.
900 s.f.
1,600 s.f.
160 s.f.
300 s.f.
410 s.f.
200 s.f.
200 s.f.
180 s.f.
620 s.f.
350 s.f.
80 s.f.
180 s.f.
150 s.f.
150 s.f.
830 s.f EX. 330 s.f
1,875 s.f
600 s.f A,460 s.f
9,100 s.f (2x4550 s.f.
430 s.f 580 s.f

Swimming Pool
Pool Surface (82' x 63')
Pool Deck. (10' apron, all sides) Office
Pool Storage Pool Water Services
Chlorine Gas Stores Room
Basketball Court Running Track Office Storage
Squash Courts (3) Racquetball Courts (6) Weight Training Room Aerobic Room Cardiovascular Room
5,166 s.f. 2,900 s.f. 315 s.f. 218 s.f. 3,100 s.f.
4,700 s.f.
3,280 s.f.
100 s.f.
700 s.f.
WELLNESS CENTER Reception/Waiting Area
Reception 80 s.f. Office 80 s.f. Waiting Area 144 s.f.
Administrative Offices
Director's Office 140 s.f. Secretary's Office 140 s.f. Clerk/Typist Office 80 s.f.
Internal Waiting Area Locker Rooms
Mens Locker Room 150 s.f.
Womens Locker Room 150 s.f.
Clinic Offices
Medical Director's Office 120 s.f.
Support Physicians Office 120 s.f.
Dietitian's Office 90 s.f.
Stress Test Rooms
Stress Test Room 1 120 s.f.
Stress Test Room 2 160 s.f.
699 s.f.
100 s.f. 780 s.f.
776 s.f. 800 s.f. 000 s.f. 000 s.f. 300 s.f.
304 s.f.
360 s.f.
575 s.f. 225 s.f. 300 s.f.
100 s.f. 330 s.f.
280 s.f.

Exam Rooms
6 rooms @ 90 s.f. ea.
X-Ray Room
Sports Medicine
Sports Medicine Room Office
Work Station
Samaritan Institute
1 Office @
4 Offices @
Storage Room
Director's Office Secretary's Office Office (2-3 staff members)
Total Net Square Footage
Gross Square Footage
540 s.f
295 s. f
1,003 s.f.
895 s.f.
108 s.f.
140 s. f
816 s. f
168 s.f.
144 s.f.
72 s.f.
320 s. f
80 s.f.
80 s.f.
160 s.f.
57,918 s. f
x 1.25
72,398 s. f

Adjacency Legend
(1) Directly adjacent
(2) Close relationship, but not adjacent
(3) Some relationship, but not always necessary


SPACE: Main Entrance/Reception
AREA: Reception/Seating 200 s.f. 830 s.f. Control Desk Area 150 s.f. Pro-Shop 400 s.f. Storage Room 80 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Information, members check-in, activity registration, control of all traffic. Pro-shop sells athletic attire and equipment. Office supplies, pro-shop supplies, and some check-out equipment stored in storage room.
ADJACENCIES: Administration Offices (1) Wellness Center (1) Nursery (1) Restaurant/Restrooms (2) Fitness Center Areas (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Reception/Seating must be centrally located at entrance. Control desk must have visual control of entrance from parking, stairs to lower level, lobby, and pro-shop. Pro-shop must be adjacent to and controlled by front desk. Should have much glass to lure people in while walking by. Sliding glass doors required to allow are to be closed off while other club functions still ongoing. Laser type indicator required at entrance for security.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Reception area: Seating for up to 25 people Tables Magazine rack Bulletin Board Control Desk: 20-25 lineal feet of counter space (42" H x 12" D) Filing cabinets for 2,000 participant files Phones with central paging system CRT Pro-Shop: Display racks and glass cases Carpeting in all areas.
NOTES: Central control systems for HVAC and security controlled by front desk. Main Entrance/Reception open during all times.

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SPACE: Administration/Business Area
AREA: Sales Offices 750 s.f. 1,875 s.f. (5 @ 150 s.f. ea.) Sales Closing Room 150 s.f. Accounting/Bookkeeping 375 s.f. (5 @ 75 s.f. ea.) Supply/Computer/ Xerox Room 200 s.f. Director's Suite 300 s.f. (office and reception) Storage 100 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Sales, membership records, payable and receivable file upkeep, payroll files, financial reporting, and small meetings. Receptionist handles all incoming calls during business hours. Phones switched over to control desk during all other hours. Receptionist directs all traffic to appropriate locations. Accounting area and computer shared with Wellness Center.
ADJACENCIES: Entrance Lobby (1) Fitness Center Areas (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Area should be closable during late Fitness Center hours Sales Office should be as close to main traffic floor, reception area, and club entry as possible. Reception area must be at entrance of Business/Administration area. Computer must be in separate, air conditioned room (80 Square Feet). Sale Closing Room should have much glass for viewing of activities.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Standard desks/chairs in Accounting/Bookkeeping Executive desks/chairs in Sales and Director's offices Supplies/Xerox/Computer File cabinets in all offices Book shelves Standard office equipment Carpeting
NOTES: Hours: 8-5 M-F

SPACE: Nursery
AREA: Play Area 480 s.f. 600 s.f Office 80 s.f. Toilets 40 s.f. (2 @ 20 s.f. ea.)
ACTIVITIES: Supervision of children for a maximum of 2 1/2 hours. Minimum age is 2 months.
ADJACENCIES: Fitness Center Entrance (1) Exterior Play Area (1)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Exterior play area desirable 2 Toilets/sinks required Separation of older children from infants desirable (60-40% split) in the form of a partition or partial wall.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Supplied by leasee Carpeting/Finishes should be tough/durable Colorful Furnishings
NOTES: Leased out to independent party. Open during Fitness Center hours.

SPACE: Restaurant/Bar
AREA: Dining Area 1,800 s.f. 4,460 s.f. (100 seats capacity) Bar Lounge 900 s.f. (50 seats capacity) Kitchen/Service 1,600 s.f. Toilets 160 s.f. (2 @ 80 s.f. ea.)
ACTIVITIES: Serves healthy food, beverages, beer and wine for indoor and outdoor dining. Bar: (serves sandwiches) when restaurant is closed. Some snack service possible to Sauna area.
ADJACENCIES: Kitchen (1) Patio (1) Fitness Center lobby (2) Pool & Gym (3) (possibly overlooking them) Sauna (3) (via dumbwaiter to lounge)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Must be centrally located Must be visible from entrance lobby Toilets should be adjacent to Dining area Exterior patio should have a southern exposure with views to mountains and ponds. (50 seats capacity).
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Restaurant/Bar Kitchen equipment and furnishings supplied by leasee. Carpeting
NOTES: Serves healthy food not health food. Should have comfortable relaxing atmosphere: casual, open and spacious; warm and inviting.


Locker Rooms (1 ea. for men and women)
3,510 s.f. ea.
Locker/Dressing Area Shower Room Drying Room Sinks/Vanity Area Toilets Sauna Area
300 s.f. 1,500 s.f. 410 s.f. 200 s.f. 200 s.f. 180 s.f. 620 s.f.
Changing, showering, and grooming period, Therapeutic and relaxing activities.
Pool (1) (shallow end)
Gym, Courts (2)
Weight Room, Aerobic Room (3) Fitness Center Lobby (3)
Both locker rooms must be grouped together
ea. locker room must be divided into a dry area and wet area Locker rooms must be on the same level as pool Access to pool through locker rooms only.
See following descriptions of individual spaces.
This area should be the most impressive part of the club. More time is spent in the locker room than in any other part of the Fitness Center. The feeling should be open and spacious. The mechanical systems should be large enough and of highest quality to prevent humidity, condensation and other related moisture problems from occurring. Any metal, mirrors, lighting, air returns and fixtures must be non-corrosive.

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SPACE: Lounge (1 ea. for men and women)
AREA: 200 s.f. 200 s.f. ea.
ACTIVITIES: Waiting and relaxing, Snack vending (fruit juices) available
ADJACENCIES: Locker Area (1) Dry Area (1) Locker Room entry (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Should be separate from locker area.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Sofa Clock Full length mirror Vending machines Drinking Fountain Bulletin Board Anti-bacterial, high quality carpeting Durable wear resistant finishes


SPACE: Locker Areas (1 ea. for men and women)
AREA: 2,640 s.f
ACTIVITIES: Changing area, Storage of clothing and personal items.
ADJACENCIES: Locker Room Entry (1) (Dry Area) Shower Area (1) (Wet Area) Lounge (1) Vanity Area (1) Gym, Courts (2) Weight Room, Aerobic Room (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: A 4 foot circulation aisle is desired at ea. end of locker bays. Lockers must be on raised base with a 2" 4" ventilation space between backs.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: 1125 1/2 size lockers (750 s.f.) 225 Full size lockers (750 s.f.) Lockers will be numbered. Best locker arrangement is in bays. Maximum number of lockers in a bay is 16. Full size and 1/2 size lockers can be mixed. Fixed hard wood benches, 16 inches high. Maximum length of a single bench is 15 feet. Beyond 15 feet there must be a 3 foot space. See diagram for standard locker sizes. See diagram for aisle spacing. Anti-bacterial high quality carpeting Walls of study washable material. Light color for open feeling.

SPACE: Shower Area (1 ea. for men & women)
AREA: 22 Showers 410 s.f. 590 s.f 4 Toilets 180 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Showering and grooming.
ADJACENCIES: Toweling Area (1) Locker Area (1) Pool (1) Sauna Area (1) Dry Area (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Ample drainage to prevent puddles in showers, drying areas. Significant pitch to the drains. Tiled walls extended to ceiling. Showers must be 6'6" from floor (mens) and 6'3" (womens). See diagram. No 90u corners in shower area. (Floor tile must curve up to meet wall tile). Vision barriers at entrance to showers. Coarse flooring to prevent slipping. All surfaces must be moisture resistant and washable.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: 11 stall type showers (3'6" x 3'6") 11 showers in gang formation (see diagram). Heat lamps in drying area. 10 wall mounted hair dryers in drying area 2 Toilets (1 handicapped accessible), 1 urinal for men 4 Toilets (1 handicapped accessible) for women Ceramic holders for towels
NOTES: Everyone must pass through the showers on their way to the pool. Toilets located so that one must pass through shower area again on return to pool. Waste water could be run through heat exchanger.

SPACE: Vanity Area (1 ea. for men & women)
AREA: 150 s.f. ea
ADJACENCIES: Locker Area (1) Locker Room Entry (2) Shower Area (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Brick or -tile faced concrete block desirable.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Mirrors with bright lighting above sinks. Marble or synthetic marble counter tops 34" from floor (men's) and 30" from floor (women's). Recessed ledge for storage of toiletries. Wall mounted paper towel dispensers by sinks. Locking cabinets for storage of toiletries. Light colored walls. Anti-bacterial carpeting. Vanity cabinets should not be very deep. Walls and floors of sturdy washable materials.

SPACE: Sauna Area
AREA: Jacuzzi 160 s.f. 620 s.f. Steam Bath 100 s.f. Sauna 100 s.f. Tanning (2 booths) 80 s.f. Massage Room 80 s.f. Office 100 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Therapeutic and relaxing activities. Office supplies towels, robes, and snacks (via the restaurant/bar).
ADJACENCIES: Shower Area (1) Locker Area (2) Drying Area (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Sauna area must be separate from all other areas. Steam Room: Tile on concrete block required. Sloped ceiling required. Massage Room: Access to both locker rooms necessary. Sounding proofing system desirable.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Mirrors around Jacuzzi (non-corrosive) to provide open, spacious feeling. Ozone whirlpool system. Cedar-lined sauna room. Sink and storage cabinet required in massage room. Dimmer lights desirable in massage room. Sun-tanning benches in sun rooms. Massage table Carpeting in dry area, non-slip tile in wet areas.
NOTES: One must shower before entering sauna area. Possible exterior yard for sunning.


SPACE: Laundry
AREA: Laundry Room 350 s.f. 430 s.f. Towel Desk Area 80 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Washing, drying and storage of towels & robes for Fitness Center. Clean items distributed throughout center. Towels, robes, shampoos, soaps, etc. available at towel desk.
ADJACENCIES: Locker Rooms (1) Pool (2) Sports Areas (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Towel Desk Area: Wall back to laundry should be open below to allow for laundry carts (2) to roll underneath. Should be closed off to eliminate noise, view of machines & storage. There must be an 18" drop from laundry room floor with 3000# mix with rebar. This floor must be separate from other concrete block because of intense vibration. Should have linoleum over concrete so iron from concrete doesn't absorb into towels. Drain trough 12" deep by 8" wide with 3x3x3 trap needed. Venting of dryers should be 18" inside drain. All water & electricity must fit existing design of rooms. Folding area.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Large capacity washers & dryers. Lockable storage cabinets for clean items. Towel Desk counter top. Cash Register.

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Athletic Directors Offices
Director's Office 180 s.f. 580 s.f.
1 office with 4
work stations 150 s.f.
Rest/Change Area 150 s.f.
Coordinate sports activities . Private meetings. Rest/Change
area for meals, showers and storage of personal items.
Weight Room (1) Exercise Area (1) Sports Areas (2)
Much glass to provide visibility of athletic staff and accessibility to members.
Rest/change area located away from sports areas for privacy.
desk/chair, 2 arm chairs in Director's office.
Office: 4 desks/chairs in office.
File Cabinets, Book shelves, CRTs & phones in ea. Shower, toilet, sink, 10 lockers in rest/change areas. Anti-bacterial carpeting in offices Non-slip surface in wet areas.
Standard office quality.


Swimming Pool
Pool Surface 5,166 s. f.
(82x63) Pool Deck 2,900 s. f.
(10 feet apron, all sides)
Office 315 s. f.
Pool Storage 218 s. f .
Pool Water Services 3,100 s. f .
(60% of pool water area)
Swimming, Water Polo, Sub-Aqua activities, pool services and pool equipment storage.
Locker Rooms/Showers (1)
Laundry (1)
Exterior Sun Deck (1)
Gym, Other Sports Areas (3)
Restaurant (3) (may overlook pool)
Pool Size: 25 m x 17 m (8 lanes)
Pool depth 3'6" to 5' at deep end
Interior lanes, 2m; Exterior lanes 2.5 m for back wash. 10' apron sloped a minimum of 1:24.
Exterior access for chemical deliveries in plant room. Gradual steps off first lane for seniors and handicapped. Continuous floor drain
(See diagram for in-ground pool construction.)
Walls and ceiling must be water/corrosion resistant and acoustically sound.
(See diagram/information on superstructure construction.)
Hook-ups for stainless steel starter blocks Lane Ropes Timing clock
Heated pool side seats (see diagram)
Possibly an underwater sound system
Towel hooks
Sub/Aqua Equipment
Polo Nets
Drinking Fountain


SPACE: Chlorine Gas Stores Room
AREA: 100 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Storage of chlorine for disinfecting
ADJACENCIES: Pool Water Services (Plant Room) (1) Exterior Delivery (1) Pool (1)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Room must be separated from rest of building by concrete, brick or other fire rated walls. Must be at ground level, away from building entrances and exits. Must have direct external access to chlorine delivery. Escape door must open to outside. Ventilation outlets must be remote from public areas and from inlet ventilation areas. Ventilation must be a low levels due to heaviness of gas.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Chlorine Gas Detector Warning signs Internal window for visual checking
NOTES: Room must not be damp.


SPACE: Gymnasium
AREA: Basketball court 4,700 s.f. 8,780 s.f (94'x50'x24' high) Running track 3,280 s.f. (10 foot apron, l/16th mile) Office 100 s.f. Storage 700 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Multi-purpose area for activities such as basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong and jogging. Coordination of activities by office personnel.
ADJACENCIES: Locker Rooms (2) Aerobic Room, Weight Room (3) Fitness Center Lobby (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Suspended wood floor on sleepers. 10' safety zone required on ends of basketball court. In-floor hook-ups for volleyball badminton standards. Storage must have secure double doors with locks. Much glass and outdoor light as possible for open feeling. Skylights desirable. Running track must have banked rubber surface with sleeper system. Running track could be elevated above Gym.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Sound system Score board Dividing Screen to allow for more than one activity Pace clock Drinking fountain Wall mats with wall hooks Permanent and portable blea.ers Back boards (6) Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Ping-Pong equipment Desk, 3 chairs, bookshelves, filing cabinet Rubber benches.


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SPACE: Squash Courts
AREA: 3 Court @ 592 s.f. ea. 1,776 s.f. (18'6"x32'xl8'h)
ACTIVITIES: Squash and Spectator viewing.
ADJACENCIES: Other Courts (1) Locker Rooms (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Solid wall construction with plastered surface or prefabricated concrete panels or prefabricated framed panels faced with plastic (painted white). Hard-wood flooring with sleeper system. Walls must be able to withstand impact and condensation. Much glass on rear wall for spectator viewing. Ceiling should be light colored with PVC faced plaster board in a grid. (See diagrams for court layout.)
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Extract fans must be mounted centrally at high level in rear wall or ceiling (one fan/court) 4 air changes per hour required. Radiant heating system in ceiling required to eliminate wall condensation.

SPACE: Racquetball Courts
AREA: 6 courts @ 600 s.f. ea. (20'x40'x20' h) 4,800 s.f
ACTIVITIES: Racquetball and spectator viewing
ADJACENCIES: Other Courts (1) Locker Rooms (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Same as for Squash Courts. (See diagrams for court layout.)
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Same as for Squash Courts.

SPACE: Weight Training Room
AREA: Weight Room 2,700 s.f. 3,000 s.f Storage Area 300 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Nautilus and free-weight training.
ADJACENCIES: Athletic Director's Office (1) Aerobics Room (1) Locker Rooms (3) Other Dry Sports Areas (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Must be located on first level due to noise of weights hitting floor. Recommended ceiling height is 11 feet. Windows desirable for open feeling. Walls should be mirrored. Sound absorption required on ceiling and walls.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Nautilus equipment Free weights Weight racks Rowing machines Treadmills Stationary bikes

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Aerobic Room
AREA: 4,000 s.f
ACTIVITIES: Aerobic exercise, jazz-er-cise, and dance instruction.
ADJACENCIES: Locker Rooms (3) Other Dry Sports Areas (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: At least one 7'6" h mirrored wall necessary. Windows desirable Semi-spring hardwood flooring system required. Ceiling height: 10-6 minimum
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Colorful, textured walls Ventilation requirements: 2 air changes per hours for high occupancies. 3'x6' floor mats for exercising Ballet bars Columns must be padded.


Cardiovascular Room
Exercise Room 200 s.f. 300 s.f
Cardiologist's Office 100 s.f.
Physical examinations and cardiovascular diagnosis.
Running Track, Weight Room (2)
Pool (2)
Wellness Center (3)
Must be near sports areas for shared use of rowing machines exercise bikes, etc.
Exam tables Treadmills
Desk and 3 chairs in office
Cardiovascular room to be shared with Wellness Center.

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SPACE: Reception/Waiting Area
AREA: Reception 80 s.f. 304 s.f. Office 80 s.f. Waiting Area 144 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Check-in and waiting for physical exams and counseling. Create files for new patients and store/update existing files.
ADJACENCIES: Entrance Lobby of Fitness Center (1) Samaritan Institute (2) Interior Waiting/Clinic Areas (2) Personalized Aerobic Lifestyle (P.A.L.S.) Offices (3) Business Offices (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Must face main corridor of building. Must be secured from the corridor by a floor to ceiling windows, wall to allow for privacy of clients while giving the appearance of openess and spaciousness. Entrance area must be closeable when clinic is closed but when Fitness Center is open.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Wall shelf for magazines and brochures Seating for up to 20 people Tables Desk/Chair, typewriter, CRT, storage, phone in Reception Area Desk/chair, phone, CRT, file cabinet in office Carpeting
NOTES: Clinic Hours: 8-5 M-F

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SPACE: Administrative Offices
AREA: Director's Office 140 s.f. 360 s.f Secretary's Office 140 s.f. Clerk/Typist Office 80 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Administrative functions for the Clinic.
ADJACENCIES: Wellness Center (2) Fitness Center (3)
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: 3 Desks/chairs Typewriters, CRT's, filing cabinets Table and 4 chairs in Director's Office Carpeting
NOTES: Space could be shared with Fitness Center Administrative Offices

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SPACE: Classroom
AREA: 575 s.
ACTIVITIES: Seminars and conferences on health and fitness related issues. The space will be shared by the Clinic, Fitness Center, Samaritan Institute and the Saint Joseph Hospital Health Promotion Department.
ADJACENCIES: Fitness Center Lobby (1) Samaritan Institute (3) Wellness Center (3)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Must be accessible to the Fitness Center and the Samaritan Institute when the Clinic is closed. Should have a room divider of high quality sound barrier design to accommodate two functions simultaneously. Closet to store audio-visual equipment.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Chalkboard Hangdown Screen Audio-visual equipment Portable podium 40 chairs with writing arms Carpeting

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SPACE: Internal Waiting Area
AREA: 225 s.f
ACTIVITIES: Short-term holding of patients for Clinic, Samaritan Institute, and P.A.L.S. while forms are completed before appointments.
ADJACENCIES: Locker Rooms (1) Clinic Area (1) Samaritan Institute (2) P.A.L.S. Offices (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Skylight desirable to maximize feeling of openness
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Built-in desk area for completion of clinic forms Seating for 15 people Tables Paintings and Graphics Carpeting

SPACE: Locker Rooms
AREA: Mens Locker Room 150 s.f. 300 s.f Womens Locker Room 150 s.f.
ACTIVITIES: Changing and showering before and after exams. Also serves as public restroom area for the Clinic.
ADJACENCIES: Interior Waiting (2) Entrance (2) Clinic Area (2)
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISHINGS: Mens Locker Room: 2 showers 2 vanity sinks with mirrors 20 full-length lockers 2 benches 1 toilet (wheel chair accessible), 1 urinal Carpeting in dry area; tile in wet areas. Womens Locker Room: 2 showers 2 vanity sinks with mirrors 20 full-lenth lockers 2 benches 2 toilets (1 wheelchair accessible) Carpeting in dry area; tile in wet areas.
NOTES: Bathrobes provided.