Citation
The Denver archicenter

Material Information

Title:
The Denver archicenter the Bromley building
Creator:
Woods, Jeffrey E
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
71 leaves : illustrations, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 66-71).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jeffrey E. Woods.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16733871 ( OCLC )
ocm16733871
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .W668 ( lcc )

Full Text
trfoob5
THE DENVER ARCHICENTER THE BROMLEY BUILDING
ARCHITECTURAL THESIS JEFFREY E. WOODS
MAY 20, 1987


Thesis of Jeffrey E. Woods is Approved
Committee Chairman
Principal Advisor
The University of Colorado at Denver, December, 1986


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface...................................................1-3
Introduction..............................................4-7
Thesis Statement..........................................8-20
Analysis..................................................21-37
Zoning....................................................38-40
Code .....................................................41-42
Program...................................................43-57
Conclusion................................................58-60
Footnotes.................................................61-65
Bibliography..............................................66-70


THE DESIGN AND PLANNING SCHOOL
THE PURPOSE
In 1976 the graduate program of the College of Environmental Design (now the College of Design and Planning) moved from Boulder, Colorado to Denver. The major impetus for the move was the desire by the faculty to hold graduate studies in the strongest possible design laboratory, the city. Denver, it was felt, would provide the school with a strong interaction with both the design professions and the bustling urban fabric so vital to a complete understanding of the design and planning fields. Since 1976, the program has emphasized these connections along with its multi-disciplinary curriculum to become a fast-growing, dynamic graduate experience. Today, the program is seeking a qualitative stability while strengthening the original purpose of the program.
The rapidly growing Denver metropolitan area has provided students in all five programsArchitecture, Landscape Architecture, Interiors, Urban Design, and Planning-the ideal learning situation in studio and a multitude of job opportunities which exist because of the city's size. These relevant experiences in studio and the work place are supplemented by the unique opportunities offered to the students through the Center for Community Development and Design (CCDD). CCDD, an integal educational tool, provides public service, education, and research for both urban and rural Colorado. The statewide network of offices offer all five college divisions a wide variety of projects which emphasize interdisciplinary team problemsolving. These complex problems in the real world, coupled with the experiences of an academic nature provided for in both studio and theory classes, allow for a balanced educational experience for the graduate students enrolled in the program.
The other major benefit of having the school located in the urban context is the educational opportunities offered the practicing professionals. With today's fast changing world, it is imperative that the professions are kept abreast of the many changes in both technology and society in general. The interdisciplinary approach espoused by the school reflects today's professions which have become increasingly interrelated. Thus the strong ties between the profession and the school are mutually beneficial and need to be exploited even more fully.
1


The educational experience is not complete unless the public is allowed to participate. The public, which includes both the clients and the users of planning and design products that we as professionals turn out, is the most important factor if a project is to be successful. The students of the graduate program have the opportunity to research, test, and analyze how design and planning affects the real world. The school, through the CCDD program and many of the studio projects, has begun to use the vast resource of the city which is so readily available but easily overlooked. Yet, like many of the goals of the school, other potential opportunities involving the general public need to be more fully utilized. The mutually beneficial relationship that exists with the design professions should also include the public so that it can become aware of the great resource available to it.
It should be apparent that while the school has come a long way in ten years, the future is filled with many potential potholes. The most obvious is the overcrowding of the existing facilities and the budget constraints. Yet, a potentially more serious crisis facing the school is the lack of cooperation between departments. Today, the school, which is officially pushing an interdisciplinary approach to design, has in reality become somewhat fragmented. While each division has many unique needs which need to be addressed, it is perhaps more pertinent to look for the common threads and needs which intertwine the school. For a detailed educational purpose statement, it is suggested that the reader take time to study the policy statement that is part of the recent NCARB accreditation report for the Graduate Architecture Program. (See Appendix)
The strongest common thread between the divisions is the design and planning process. One of the most complex problems facing each of the design fields is the need to understand the delicate balance which exists today with the awesome growth in technology and its far reaching effects on society. The method of solving this is the design and planning process which begins by understanding and defining the problem, then analyzing it and solving it methodically. These solutions, while varying in scope and scale between the professions from the macro scale of regional planning to the intimate scale of one's home, have to be communicated in a similar fashion. Students in each of the five divisions must leam essentially the same communications skills, verbal, written and graphic.
2


Together with the interdisciplinary approach so vital to the professions, it is apparent through these common threads that the school needs to pull together. This can be accomplished on two fronts; one is to improve the quality of education stressing these common threads while exploring each of the field's unique challenges. The other obvious need is the improvement of the educational facilities. Both of these needs are apparent to the faculty, the students, the new Dean, and the professions through the accreditation process. The school is in the process of addressing both of these issues and will implement changes to the curriculum next fall. The improvement of the facilities, on the other hand, is still only in the beginning stages of design.
The most obvious and, until recently, most likely course for facility improvement, was a replacement facility on the Auraria campus. Yet, because of a variety of reasons, the Design and Planning School was overlooked in the new facility being built this summer. With a severe financial and budgetary crisis facing the Board of Tmstees, it may be some time before the school gets a new home. What this thesis will propose is that another alternative to a new facility is possible and, in my opinion, preferable. Based on the assumption of the need for a high quality Graduate Program for both Denver and Colorado, I will attempt to show the many positive features which will be lost should the present school, located in the Bromley Building, be moved to a new "improved" facility on the Auraria Campus. What this thesis will attempt to show is that it is possible to create a high quality facility by renovating and adding on to the Bromley Building.
3


PROJECT INTRODUCTION
The 1901 Bromley Building, which was once a warehouse for drugs, has evolved into the temporary home for the Design and Planning Graduate School of the University of Colorado at Denver. The four-story brick building houses the schools of Architecture, Planning, Landscape Architecture, Interior Design, and Urban Design. Since 1976 when the Graduate School of Environmental Design moved from Boulder to its present location, these combined schools have tried to utilize this building for design studio, offices, model and photography labs, a library and class rooms. The result is both chaotic and inefficient, with scheduling conflicts and a seeming shortage of space as an everyday occurrence for both the students and teachers. To resolve this problem, a new building for Design and Planning has been proposed across Cherry Creek on the Auraria Campus. The obvious benefits of a new building are many, yet a great potential will be lost forever if this move comes about.
The College of Design and Planning, with its strong inter-disciplinary approach to teaching was separated from the Boulder Campus to become part of the urban fabric of Denver. It was felt that the benefits of a strong interaction with both the professions and the busding downtown were essential to creating the strongest possible graduate experience. By moving the school to the Auraria Campus these benefits would be lost since the school would be isolated from the city. Bromley, on the other hand, is an ideal space for this interface to occur. What is proposed is to weave a restoration of the Bromley Building with an addition to create a functional, yet beautiful home for the College of Design and Planning. The result of this new fabric would be a historic structure knitted with modem architecture, the very essence of the city of today and tomorrow.
"It is our goal for the purpose of associating those interested in the profession of architecture and its related fields with a view to mutual encouragement and help in studies, and acquiring and maintaining a suitable premise necessary for a social club, a school, and for holding public lectures, exhibits, and entertainment for these fields."
The Boston Architectural Center Charter, 1889
The ultimate goal of my thesis is not only to create a worthy home for the Graduate School of Design and Planning, but to create a "Design Center"
4


which can serve as a public forum for the exchange of ideas. It will be similar to "Design Centers" in other major cities such as the Boston Architectural Center and Chicago's Archicenter. In both these cities the design fields have established a forum for the exchange of ideas between the professions, the design schools, and the general public. This intercourse has created a public forum to explore both design philosophy, and more importantly, a chance to display new ideas. This exchange, which is vital to the design fields, cannot take place if any one of the three players is not allowed to participate. The exchange of ideas can take place in a disjointed fashion as it does in Denver, or it can be encouraged, massaged, and cultivated so that the end result is a more enlightened profession, public, and a stimulated educational process. The "Design Center" can accomplish this by: sponsoring exhibitions, both permanent and temporary; and having a space for public gatherings, holding classes, and serving as a resource for the profession, the students, and the public.
The Bromley Building and the Graduate School of Design and Planning would make an ideal home for the "Denver Archicenter." The Archicenter combined with the Graduate School would provide an ideal fomm for the students, with the interplay between the professions and the school. The professions would be challenged and stimulated by new ideas which would be cultivated from this exchange. The public would be a beneficiary, since a better educated professional would be better equipped to analyze and solve the complex design and planning issues facing the region. To design this forum, it is necessary to create an environment that is conducive to learning the many facets of design and planning, while becoming an integral resource for both the design community and the citizens of Denver.
A general program includes the school with all its attendant needs, offices for the different design professional organizations, a gallery space which would be open to the public, and a public meeting space which could serve the school, the professions, and the public. The challenge of this project is to fit all of these varying space requirements into a historic building which presently does not have even adequate space for the Graduate School alone.
It is felt, though, with the proper spatial organization, along with the additional space required, that the Bromley Building can be transformed into the Denver Archicenter.
The most logical way for gaining the additional space is to utilize the whole Bromley site, including moving the Building's west wall to the alley;
5


organizing the building's horizontal and vertical circulation; adding additional stories; and using the existing space more efficiently. Yet, the creation of additional space and using the existing space efficiently will not necessarily create an appropriate home for the Denver Archicenter. It is just as important to create a building for the School, the profession and the public which captures the essence of what constitutes a good urban environment. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary that the design create an enviroment that is conducive to learning the many facets of design and planning, while becoming an integral resource for both the design community and the citizens of Denver.
The Archicenter will be 95,000 square feet in size with 50,000 square feet of restoration to the existing Bromley Building and 45,000 square feet of new building in the form of an addition. This addition would include two new floors above the existing Bromley Building, and a ten-story addition which could be built in the abandoned alley between the Bromley Building and the Tower Buildings and the 32 foot strip of land which is west of the Bromley Building. (Without modifying the structure, it is possible to add at least two floors, according to Davis Holder, a structural engineer who teaches the technical courses for the School of Architecture.) The scale of this project and the creation of new space will be determined by both program requirements of the Denver Archicenter and physical and aesthetical constraints of the historic 1901 light brick structure. Finally, the Archicenter has the potential of serving as an important link between the Auraria Campus and downtown Denver, making the University of Colorado at Denver a truly urban campus.
To make this project become a reality will take a creative development strategy. The University of Colorado at Denver currently owns three parcels of land, located in the 14th and Lawrence Block, which are for sale. The University hopes to offset the new construction costs of the replacement facility that is currently under constmction and the proposed new facility for the School of Design and Planning planned at the Auraria Campus. While the sale may be a foregone conclusion in the University Administration's eyes, there is one major roadblock to this scheme. According to several knowledgeable developers, the glut of both developed space and vacant parcels in the downtown area has caused the value of these properties to plummet.(l) On top of this situation, the property owned by the University is located in the Skyline Urban Renewal District, and because of zoning regulations, only 50 percent of the normal floor area of the B-5 Zone can be
6


built on this downtown property, diminishing the properties' value even more. In the face of these current market conditions, the University has several alternatives for these buildings which include:
1. Sale of the land in today's market. The school has set a figure of 75 dollars a square foot as the minimum price for which they are willing to sell it. According to real estate brokers, the land today is worth at most, half of that amount.
2. Hold on to the land until the market rebounds, if it does. Several developers feel this may take as long as the year 2000. While these predictions are mere speculations, it is a fact that Denver has more surface parking than any city of comparable size in the United States. This abundance of surface parking lots is a sure sign that there is a glut of developable land, much of it located in more desirable parts of downtown. (From the developers' point of view.)
3. A third alternative is to work creatively with a developer, use the properties' advantages, along with a reasonable development plan to maximize the value of the property. The historic air rights of the property which can be transferred to more valuable land elsewhere in Downtown Denver, along with the public ownership of the property, allow for some interesting possibilities for potential redevelopment. The fact that the Tramway Complex is on the National Register, along with the likelihood that the Bromley Building, will soon be added to it, opens up an interesting avenue the University getting a needed facility and still receiving an equitable payment for their property.
I will pursue the third alternative as part of my thesis design, looking for a way through the redevelopment of the entire property, which will provide a means of financing the development of the Graduate School and the Denver Archicenter.
7


THESIS STATEMENT
THE HOVER BUILDING THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION
"Today has meaning only if it stands between yesterday and
tomorrow. It is the process of transition that forms the link between the past and the future."
Carl Jung
The Hover Building (Bromley's original name) marks the end of an era, or maybe more significantly it ushers in an era affectionately known as the "Machine Age." The seemingly stark 1898 drug warehouse upon first glance would seem to have little historical signifcance other than its age. Upon further exploration, one soon realizes that the Hover Building paints a remarkable picture of a revolutionary change in technology which took place at the turn of the century. These changes would alter drastically both society and its architecture.
Upon inspecting Robert Roeschlaub's linen drawings, even the more casual observer soon realizes that when this building was conceived in 1898, the people of Denver were from a different eraa time when the main urban transportation used for moving its goods was still the horse and wagon; the main means of crossing the continent the train, and the ocean was crossed only by ship. The magic of electricity which was so awesomely displayed at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, was starting to revolutionize industry and society. Yet, from Roeschlaub's romantic watercolor, the only hint of the coming turmoil facing society at that time is his stormy summer sky.
Hidden behind the W.A. Hover Drug Warehouse's calm exterior is a remarkable conflict of structural techiques which mark a transition in both architecture and history. The potpourri of structural techniques used in the building ranges from ancient to modem. Its bearing walls and timber perlins are rooted in antiquity, while the steel I-beams and interior sprinkling systems were new inventions which altered the very fabric of architecture. Whether the architectural revolution taking place in commercial and industrial architecture was apparent to Robert Roeschlaub is a matter of conjecture. Yet, the excitement of Chicago's World Fair was only beginning to spread throughout the nation's heartland, and the technology which was
8


displayed at the Exhibition was a source of amazement and pride for the people of America. It is precisely this collision of eras which produced some of the nation's most interesting architecture. This era is the birth place of "Modem Architecture", the roots of all building taking place today.
WHERE DO WE GO?
It is the opinion of Architectectural Historian Charles Jenkes that with the conclusion of the Modem movement, we as professionals have run into a dead end.(2) Today, then, we must embark on a new road, with its intrinsic excitement and dangers. Where do we go as designers? What is the correct path to follow? Logic says that we look to the last movement for guidance, avoid the Modem Movement's pitfalls, and carry on. Many of today's designers subscribe to this rational process and are in fact known as the Rationalists. Others, on the other hand, have rejected Modernism in favor of a Classical eclecticism. The Post Modernists, as they call themselves, have decided it is necessary to add a Doric Column here and Roman Arch there, apply some primary colors and add to these montages of colors and forms a riddle that only academicians can possibly answer. This eclectic approach, which is rapidly gaining a stronghold on the field of architecture today is considered by many as a radical departure from the tenets of Modernism. This path of falling into eclecticism is predictable and conservative. The Beaux Arts lives! While both routes seem to have many supporters, the majority of today's architects seem to have taken the middle route of using the recipe of designing a Modem building and then adding a pinch of ornament. The resulting Architecture many times approaches a state near chaos. There is one other route which few seem to be exploring. This is the route I propose to explore, a route which I hope will prove to be logical and prudent.
The course I propose to take is to reject studying the Modem Movement as practiced by the Bauhaus and its followers world wide. This course, I feel, is logical since architecture is a continuum; and since the Modem School rejected the past, it violates the theory of architecture-building upon the past. The fact that in reality it is impossible to reject the past no matter how hard we try, means that though I am consciously rejecting the Modem School (as the Modem School attempted to reject the Beaux Arts), it is in fact impossible for me to ignore the fact that I was educated in the Movement, and the Movement's buildings are all around me. This undoubtedly will affect me subconsciously, much as the Beaux Arts affected the Modem movement.
9


I also want to reject a simple eclecticism in favor of exploring the true modem movementits use of materials, its intuitive understanding of the spirit of place, its exploration of technology, and finally, how the architecture they built related to its surroundings and the society which created it, that is the Commercial Architecture of Middle America from 1880 to 1910.
The Modem Movement Background
"The aesthetic principles of the International Style are based primarily upon the nature of modem materials and structure and upon modem requirements in planning. Slender steel posts and beams, and concrete reinforced by steel have made possible structures of skeleton-like strength and lightness.
These technical and utilitarian factors in the hands of designers who understand inherent aesthetic possibilities have resulted in an architecture which is comparable in integrity and beauty to styles past. Just as the modem architect has had to adjust himself to modem problems so must the modem public adjust and make parallel adjustments to architecture which seems new and strange."(3)
A group of young European architects led by Dutch Architect J.J.P. Oud and theorist Theo Van Doesburg decided that industrialism was the essence of modem society, and its forms and materials were to be used in an abstract form to create a new order of architecture, an International Style. Today, we see fifth generation abstractions of this architecture which we call Modem. These abstractions have lost any meaning, having long ago lost any connection with the Modem Movement and its spirit. Much of the recent Modem Architecture can be compared to the origins of modem art and a blob of paint tossed on a canvas, by a chimpanzee.
THE INVESTIGATION
Instead of following this practice of abstracting an abstraction from an abstraction...we should take a look at the first generation of modem architecture, its technology, its spirit and how this architecture can serve as a springboard to the creation of an architecture which is both new and a continuation of architecture created 100 years ago. With this knowledge in hand, an attempt is made to use it on the transformation of Bromley into the Denver Archicenter. Building upon an eighty-five year old base, an attempt
10


will be made to abstract the building's essence and use this essence as a foundation for creating an architecture that is romantic yet practical, related to history yet new, organic yet applicable anywhere to find a place's "spirit of place." This architecture, which sounds very similar to International Style, (as the Modem Movement was coined by Phillip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock over sixty years ago), yet, it will display one critical difference to the architects International Style. Instead of emphasizing the second goals, emphasis will be placed the first, the same order that the original modem architects prescribed. The final result will be a building which will serve as a place for learning and interaction with history and its importance, the spirit of place (including light, the climate, and the region's ecology), the language of architecture and how this language can be applied, and finally, how new "Modem Design" can fit contextually into the existing urban fabric. An understanding of the ages old conflict between Rationalism and Romanticism, the primary difference between Classical thought, and Gothic architecture, between the modem movement and the industrial architecture practiced in Middle America by men such as Sullivan, Jenny, Root, and Denver architects Edbrooke and Roeschlaub, will be the final objective of this project.
The course this search will take is to begin with an examination of the commercial and industrial architecture practiced in Middle America, with Chicago being the primary source of this architecture. With a thorough knowledge of this architecture, the aim will be to break it down into its primary parts both functionally and, more importantly, its underlying spirit. Using the analogy of telescope I will then zoom in step by step progressively closer to the problem of adding a new addition to a Historic building. After looking at the larger picture of commercial and industrial architecture in Middle America, it will be observed how this movement affected Denver's Architecture and its architects. The next step will be to study Lower Downtown, which is primarily composed of buildings of this period, looking at both individual buildings and then exploring their contextual relationships. As I focus in on the movement, I will study the Bromley Building, both as it was conceived and the way in which it appears today. Finally, I will attempt to divine the essence of this movement and create a building which functions on a practical level while also functioning on a level of metaphor, symbolism, and contextualism both historic and physical, to create a more pleasing environment. By combining these elements, along with exploring the newest materials and technology, it is possible to create an architecture which celebrates the future while acknowledging its historic roots.


COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE ITS ROOTS
During the late 18th and the entire 19th centuries, architecture was in a constant state of change. In Western countries, technology and society changed from an agricultural society to an industrial one. Nowhere did this state of change affect society greater than in the United States. In less than a hundred years of its official founding, the United States went from a collection of 13 colonies on the edge of a vast wilderness to a tamed nation which spread out over the great landscape of America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This rapid expansion was a direct result of the industrialization of the nation. At first, this settlement took place at a relatively slow pace, yet, as technology started to accelerate during the mid to late 19th century, the nation's development kept pace. While the first settlers reached the West by horse and wagon, the expansion of the railroad which covered the nation by 1870 effectively linked 3000 miles of vast wilderness into one republic.
A major technological development during this period was the first use of iron, then later, steel, to build the infrastructure of America. Iron was used initially for industrial purposes, yet, by 1770 English Architects had found a structural use for cast iron. One of the first documented uses of iron structure was the St. Ames, located in Liverpool, England, which employed interior iron columns.(l) The iron columns were able to carry far more weight than wood columns, yet it took another seventy years before the full potential of this new technology was exploited. In 1851, John Paxton designed the Crystal Palace for the World's Exhibition in London. The structure employed an iron structural system enclosed by a transparent glass skin. This extraordinary structure galvanized the full potential of this modem technology. The grand scale which was made possible by the use of the iron structure soon found its way into industrial warehouses and train sheds because of the large spans which could be created that were free of columns. The greatest of these train sheds was New York's Grand Central Terminal, which was built less than 15 years after the Crystal Palace.
It was another building, though, that started to show the possibilities of a new style of architecture. In Cincinnati the four story, John Shileto Store, designed in 1876, used a system of columns and beams made of iron. This in itself was not new, but for the first time a building elevation became cellular which allowed for greater window area than any previous store architecture. This development foreshadowed the Commercial Style which would come out of Chicago a few years later.
12


59. SECOND RAND McNALLY BUILDING, 1889-90
Burnham anh Root
Detail of the east entrance. (From .Harriet Monroe,
John IVcIlborn Root | Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1890].)


CHICAGO 1871- THE GREAT FIRE
In 1871 it would have seemed highly improbable that within ten years Chicago would become the major architectural center of the United States.
In 1871 Chicago was filled with cheap wooden structures that were hurriedly tossed up to meet the huge population explosion which the city was experiencing. Founded in 1838, the city had ballooned to nearly 300,000 residents by 1870. Yet, fate was about to totally change both Chicago and its architecture. On October 7th, 1871, the city and its wooden shanties were engulfed in an inferno that destroyed the city. The lack of any architectural codes or fire protection added significantly to the fire's fury. Within days, rebuilding began, only this time fire protection was mandated and wood structures banned. The immense rebuilding project offered a great opportunity for the many young architects who flocked to the city after the fire.
Most of these architects were either trained or apprenticed in the East, since Chicago at this time was without any official Architectural School. Apprenticeship, more than any other event, led to the unique architectural style which Chicago would soon develop. The on-the-job training these young architects were about to receive allowed precious little time to worry about correct style as was being practiced in the East.
The great opportunity to rebuild the city, and especially the downtown core after the fire, allowed developers to build much larger structures, since the value of the land was so high. The combination of the fear of a reccurrence of the fire, along with the need for taller buildings, brought about a search for an architecture which could be quickly and economically erected. This led architects to explore new design techniques and materials. The logical framing system was cast iron since it allowed for taller structures. Yet, a major drawback to iron was the fact that it was not even as fire resistant as timber construction. This led Chicagos architects to search for a means of insulating the iron from the devasting effects of fire. The method they employed was to encase the iron with terra cotta tile. This was the first of many engineering solutions that the Chicago Architects would invent. The wood floors were also encased in terra cotta tile to increase the buildings's fire resistance.(2) The building boom which was about to take place during the '70s and '80s stretched the very imagination and endurance of the city's architects. The building pace was so frenzied that traditional construction
13


hurdles such as winter and nighttime were quickly surmounted. Salts were added to the mortar, along with the use of straw and canvas, which were used to insulate the freshly poured concrete; these ingenous techniques allowed for winter construction.(3) Night time construction was soon made possible. Combined with winter techniques, this allowed for 24-hour year round constmction. These practical solutions to the construction process were only the beginning of the engineering prowess Chicago's architects would exhibit.
The real estate developers who were constantly pushing for taller buildings would provide the incentive to challenge the very foundations of traditional architecture. Yet, the buildings not only had to be taller, they needed to allow more light and air into the buildings' interiors. Thus, the need for more space and ventilation soon overrode aesthetic concerns for these developers. This push by the developers, along with Chicagos architectural adeptness at using new structural and high-tech materials such as iron and glass, made it only logical that a new architectural style would develop. The other significant factor was that the architects in Chicago at that time all had extensive engineering training. This factor, coupled with Chicago's lack of architectural roots because of its age and its relative isolation from the Eastern society and its European influences allowed for great design freedom in resolving the developers' challenges.
Yet, a structural limitation of iron became apparent since iron is fairly brittle, thus limiting its spanning capability. Yet, in 1883, William LeBaron Jenny was able to exploit this material as no one had before. He designed the Leiter Building which employed a structural system of iron and timber. Major breakthrough was not in the materials however, rather it was the way in which they were used. The skeletal structural system which Jenny invented allowed for the removal of bearing walls while at the same time fully exploiting iron's structural capabilities. In the place of a masonry bearing wall, he was able to create curtain walls of glass. Jenny used this structural technique to its fullest potential in the Home Insurance Building which he designed two years later. Jenny, who had extensive training as an engineer, had little regard for copying past architectural styles. Making full use of his structural knowledge, he was able to create the first "skyscrapers." This structural discovery, along with the real estate developers' constant push for bigger and more functional buildings, led to the invention of Commercial Architecture.
14


"Commercial Architecture" is the title to be applied to the great airy buildings of the present. They are truly American architecture in conception and utility. The style is a monument to the advance of Chicago in commerce and commercial greatness and to the prevailing penchant for casting out art that interferes with the useful. It is a commandeering style without being venerable... The Commercial Style, if structurally ornamental, becomes architecture.
Industrial Chicago 1891
The rapid explosion in the Commercial Style that took place in Chicago came about because most of the influential architects working in the architectural city at that time apprenticed under Jenny. The architects who trained under Jenny included Louis Sullivan, William Holibird, D. H. Burnham, and Martin Roche.(4) Yet Jenny, who is considered the father of the skyscraper, was interested in far more than mere engineering problems. Like most educated men of the period, he was trained in his specialty while receiving a good dose of music, history, and the arts. His wide range of interests was displayed when he gave a series of lectures on the history of architecture at the University of Chicago in 1883. During this period he also published Inland Architect, one of the nations premier architectural publications during the same period.(5) (This publication had a direct effect on architects throughout middle-America, including Denver. In fact, this publication helped spawn Denver's Western Architect and Builder, an exquisite architectural publication, six years later.) He was particularly interested in the technical aspects of material preservation, and how they could be applied to historic preservation.
While many today debate whether Jenny was primarily an engineer or an architect, the point is moot. In a period of less than twenty years, he was able to transform the very structure of architecture and train the young architects who would take his initial ideas and dreams and turn them into some of the greatest architecture the world has seen. The primary lesson he taught men like Sullivan and Burnham was the importance of integrating structure and art. They were able to take his theories and distill the essence of their era and place into the building's structure and its technology, and create a style of architecture which has yet to be surpassed.
"Whenever in the world there is a period or style of architecture worth preserving, its inner spirit is so closely fitted to the age wherein it flourished, that the style could not be fully preserved, either by the people who
15


!
} Z3. THE ROOKERY, 1H85-86 Burnham and Root i. Class and iron dome above the light court. (Veter Weil.)


immediately succeeded it, or by us after many years. The object of all this study of architectural styles must be to acquire from former times the spirit in which our predecessors worked, not to copy what they did! Where architects faithfully follow out the logic of a predetermined theory of their building, they have purity of style....
John Wellborn Root(6)
What exacdy was this style? What was its essence or spirit? What was the energy of the times that allowed for such exuberance in style? And finally can this spirit and exuberance be distilled, studied and used today? Art historian J. Carlson Webster outlined what he felt were the essential elements of this period and its architecture which include:
1. Essential characteristics (the end) -
a. Great height (relative to previous buildings).
b. Arrangement (interior) in stories.
c. Utmost space and light (potentially) in each story.
2. Necessary means -
a. A structural system adequate to achieving the essential characteristics taken together. To date, this means skeleton construction.
b. Materials necessary to the structural system, above all steel (iron and reinforced concrete as possible alternatives) and fireproofing, heat resisting material.
c. Passenger elevators.
3. Favoring conditions -
a. Economic such as high value of land, availability of labor and capital, etc.
b. Social such as living in large groups, enterprise, organization of work, publicity, etc.
c. Technological such as availability of suitable tools, processes, and sources of power; development of plumbing, heating, etc; growth of engineering; development of craft of building, etc.
d. Psychological desires conscious and unconscious which tall forms can express.
e. Aesthetic liking height, preference for the effect of towers related to lower buildings, etc. This outline is distilled further by Louis Sullivan when he described the essence of the Commercial Style practiced in Chicago as, "Essentially architecture which could be broken down into two parts; there was the group of technological problems, how to utilize iron and steel so the building would be least heavy, how to anchor it, how to give it light, air, heat,
16


and mechanical circulation its occupants required; there were the aesthetic problems, how to express the structure of steel and iron in an exterior fireproof cladding, and how to unify the composition by using proportions, scale, rhythmns, and most importantly, ornament that was appropriate to the building's size and function."(8)
THE ESSENCE
In studying both the architects and their buildings of the period dating from 1885 through 1910, it becomes apparent that there is a dualism of function and spirit which created the great architecture of the period. Technology in the form of materials, systems, and methods all contributed to the creation of the style. Yet, one must ask why these buildings look so different from the buildings designed by the Bauhaus and the International Style, since the technology used by both Movements (Excluding thin shell concrete) is steel frame construction which was honestly expressed. The radical difference which exists between the buildings of the two movements is the way in which the Bauhaus translated the theories and forms of the Commercial Style.
These young European architects rallied around the famous Louis Sullivan design rule, "that form follows function." They interpretted it to mean that function is only one dimension, that of actual building engineering. It is obvious that Sullivan and his fellow architects, such as John Wellborn Root, understood this to mean a more basic structure which exists at many levels, both physical and spiritual.
As one looks at the buildings of the two movements, it becomes apparent both styles strove for engineering honesty, though it is important to realize that the Chicago Architects invented the structural methods which the modernists used. Rather than further experimentation in new structural techniques, the Modernists reduced structure to pat formulas which led to a look-a-like world of glass boxes. The Chicago architects approached each problem as a unique challenge and derived their architecture from the site (Organically), employing materials and ornament which captured the essence of the place and time. In contrast, the Modernists reduced architecture to glass and steel, a truly International Style that manages to speak neither of its place in society nor the special spirit that each place exudes. The Chicago architects scaled their buildings to reinforce their monumentality while humanizing the scale by breaking down the building into three distinct layers; the base, the body, and the crown. The Modem architects managed to create monuments, yet they lack the humanity of their predecessors. The Chicago architects used
17


ornament which was integral to the design; the Modernists abolished ornament becuse it was frivolous and part of the Bourgeois. While both schools preached functionalism, their paths again diverged, with the Modernists literally interpreting function on a practical, quantifiable, engineering level (this was appropriate in their eyes since they felt that technology was the essence of society), while the Chicago School being influenced by romantic notions of the period felt that functionalism existed at many levels, from the obvious engineering and technological ones to the non-definable esoteric levels of deriving ornament from nature, and crowning their technology against nature by punctuating the building aginst the prairie sky. Finally, they were able to capture the very essence of the sun by the use of man-made and natural materials which play the seasonal dance of light and shadow, and the facades they created managed to divine the sun's warmth through materials and colors appropriate to the local. Thus, they were able to create a true organic architecture which celebrated Chicagos "genus loci".
This movement spread rapidly from Chicago to the nations heartland.
Denver was strongly influenced by its Chicago counterparts and created an architecture which was able to capture its genus loci. The next step in this study is to look at specific examples of Commercial Architecture in Denver.
ITS APPLICATION
The Chicago architects, along with their counterparts in Denver, practiced a Commercial Architecture which captured the essence of a romantic vision of their time. This romantic approach to design is stmctured and understandable and breaks down into four basic elements that all the architecture created by these architects possesses. Further, it is felt that these basic elements can be distilled and used by architects today to create a more humane and functional architecture. The four basic elements of a Romantic Architecture are:
1. "The Spirit of Place."
2. "The Spirit of the Time."
3. "The Spirit of Technology."
4. "The Spirit of Exuberance."
The "Spirit of Place" is present in all the Commercial architecture designed by Chicago architects such as Sullivan, Root, and Jenny, along with their counterparts in Denver, such as Frank Edbrooke and Robert Roeschlaub.
18


Today we can use their understanding of this spirit by using the places' quality of light, and the way in which it affects materials, along with instilling the uniqueness of a places' landscape character. This is possible, as proven by the Commercial architects, by using native and indigenous materials, colors, textures, and patterns, and finally, to integrate an organically derived ornament into the very fabric of the structure. If the preceding elements are instilled into today's architecture, it will begin to carry on a harmonious dialogue with the "Spirit of Place."
A common denominator between our time and era which produced Commercial Architecture is the "Spirit of the Time." Both eras were ages of transition, with new technology altering the very fabric of life. The ensuing uncertainty of what is down the road was and is offset by a general optimism which makes our society function. As so eloquently pointed out by John Wellborn Root, it is vital to understand your own time but is just as important to understand the essence of the times preceding. The challenge then is to translate the essence of "the Spirit of the Time" into the building's character and stmcture.
Both our eras faced a boom in technology. Yet, the preceding age was able to display proudly the "Spirit of Technology" without its dominating their spirit. This is a primary difference between our eras, since today's technology is on the brink of overwhelming our society. The challenge of our generation is to take control of our technology. If we do manage to take control, we too can display proudly the "Spirit of Technology." This can only come about if we realize that our spirit is more powerful than the technology that we have created.
Finally, architecture should instill and celebrate mans highest aspirations. "The Spirit of Exuberance" is a combination of the three other spirits into a built form. This form in turn must speak proudly of its time, place, and technological accomplishments. The Commercial architecture of middle-America was a celebration of the man-made and natural worlds. This pride which is exhibited from the new structural systems which they invented, down to the most intricate ornamental detail, showed a concern for creating architecture which was humane. We too can instill this exuberance in our built environment, which in turn will create an architecture which instills and reflects mans highest aspirations.
19


CONCLUSION
These basic Romantic truths are diametrically opposed to the Rational approach we so casually embrace. Yet, the romantic notions we all harbor are just as valid and practical. What this thesis will attempt to accomplish is to instill these four "spirits" into the new Denver Archicenter. It is vitally important for today's students, professionals, and general public to understand that knowledge is both intuitive and rational. This conflict has raged since the beginning of Western civilization and is the very essence of all architectural thought. It is hoped that by contrasting these romantic truths against the pragmatic rational framework of today's architecture,that designers can fully appreciate and understand the many complexities that need to be addressed if we are to create an architecture that is functional on two levels. The first is a practical level, which we seem to understand fully and have no problem incorporating into our architecture. It is the second level that today's designers are struggling with, that of creating architecture which functions on an intuitive and spiritual level. It is hoped that the Denver Archicenter can use this conflict and exploit the tensions between Rational and Romantic thought. If it does, this thesis will be successful.
20


THE SITE AND ITS NEIGHBORS
The Bromley Building is strategically located on the edge of downtown. Its highly visible position with thousands of people passing the Bromley Building daily as they enter downtown from the west makes the building an ideal gateway to Downtown Denver. Further strengthening the Design Center's connection to the urban fabric is the fact that the Bromley Building is also located half way between the two major generators of pedestrian traffic in downtown Denver. The 16th Street Mall and the Auraria Campus, which are located just blocks away, give the building the potential of serving as a linkage between the two people spaces. Further strengthening the Design Center's potential importance to the city as a whole is the fact that the Center is located in the heart of the downtown activity, being adjacent to Denver's cultural, entertainment, shopping, financial, and educational districts. With Denver's most exciting architecture, cultural, entertainment and social facilities as neighbors, the school has the potential of serving as an important hub, weaving all these activites into the educational experience of the graduate design and planning students. Most importantly to both the school and the professions which have been proposed to be housed in the Design Center is the fact that this location has the potential to serve as an important cultural facility for the residents of Denver
To understand fully the Bromley Building's unique position in the city of Denver, it is important to look at its geographical relationship to downtown and the city as a whole, as detailed in the history section of this thesis, Denver's origins began just a few blocks north of the site at the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek. A small band of settlers led by General William Larimer founded a new town at this confluence in 1858. Its location on the great prairie at the foot of the Rockies was cemented because the life-giving water carried by these two streams assured the settlers of a plentiful water supply.
Using common sense, General Larimer laid out the street system roughly parallel to the ninety degree angle formed by the confluence of these two rivers. It made perfect sense to Larimer to lay out the city to maximize the precious resourcethe rivers and the water they carried. The only problem with this organically derived grid layout was that it was skewed at a 45 degree angle from true north. During Denver's first thirty years, as the city thrived and grew, this idiosyncrasy was accepted. But by the late 1880's,
21


residential growth began to put pressure on the city to develop beyond its present boundaries which were roughly the Platte River to the north, Cherry Creek to the west, Broadway to the east, and Colfax to the South. To simplify layout to accommodate this rapid new development, it was decided to turn the grid to correspond to true north. This, it was felt, would allow for easier and more timely surveying for the mass development that was beginning to take place in Denver because of the "Silver Boom." A common mistake made by many people today is the belief that downtown Denver is skewed, when in reality, the rest of the city's grid is actually skewed from the generator of the city, the confluence of two rivers.
The city block that Bromley, the Tramway Complex, and Lawrence Development occupy is roughly 300 feet along 14th Street and 450 feet in the opposite direction along Lawrence Street. It is located at the present western edge of downtown Denver with Cherry Creek as its northwest boundary.
This complex, owned by the University of Colorado at Denver, along with Lawrence Street Center, a mixed use office/housing project, are part of the urban curtain which forms along Cherry Creek and Speer Boulevard. This curtain is contained by the major vehicular route into downtown Denver from its southeast and northwest neighborhoods. Following Cherry Creek, Speer Boulevard is one of the major spines in Denver's historic Parks and Parkways system which tie the city's urban fabric together. This historic fabric is integral to the development of Denver and especially the area known as Lower Downtown. As part of Lower Downtown, the Bromley Building serves to reinforce its importance in the development of the city.
Further west across Speer Boulevard and Cherry Creek is the Auraria Center for Higher Education. This campus complex houses three distinct schools, the University of Colorado at Denver, Metropolitan State University, and the Community College of Denver. Currently, many of the classes are held in what is called the East Classroom, which is the old carbarn for the Tramway Complex. While it is generally acknowledged that Speer Boulevard bisects the East Classroom from Auraria, the large amount of pedestrian traffic which crosses between them seems to minimize this barrier. If Bromley is to continue to house the Design and Planning College and provide the potential of serving Denver as a Design Center, it is necessary to address this connection and to minimize the barrier of Speer Boulevard. If the design is successful, the Bromley Building, along with the Tramway Complex have the potential to strengthen the relationship between downtown Denver and the Auraria campus, an expressed goal of the Auraria Master Plan.(l)
22


THE NEIGHBORS
The Dravo Plaza building, an office tower, is located immediately across Lawrence Street, the northwest boundary to the Bromley Building. The modem office building attempts to minimize its scale by massing setbacks, and has retail on the first floor and offices on the next seven levels. The light buff building is connected to Cherry Creek on the west by a small green space which is attractively landscaped and serves as a park for both Dravo's tenants and the general public. One block farther north is the Larimer Square Historic District, registered on the National Register of Historic Places.
Larimer Square is a renovated collection of 1870 to 1890s three- and four-story brick and pressed metal storefronts which have been renovated into a specialty retail, restaurant and entertainment district. This district is the only remaining collection of historic buildings (besides the Bromley and Tramway Buildings) left in the area designated the Skyline Urban Renewal District. Through the efforts of Ms. Dana Crawford, a local preservationist, the once notorious brothel and gambling district of Denver was saved from sure demolition, a fate which befell the 31 block Skyline area, in the name of urban renewal. Led by Crawford, an ingenious restoration strategy was devised which included the transfer of air rights for historic buildings. Denver, because of this unique method of transfer of rights became a pioneer in restoration of its architectural heritage. The turnaround of the area is astounding when one realizes that less than twenty years ago, Larimer Street was skid row. Today, Larimer Square is one of the most successful retail centers in Denver, proving restoration of architecture can be profitable, both economically and socially.
Farther north of Larimer Square is the old warehouse and manufacturing district known as Lower Downtown. This collection of 19th century warehouses and manufacturing plants is considered by the National Trust as the best example remaining of a warehouse district in the United States.(2) The Bromley building's scale, its original use as a warehouse, its architectural style, and its location link it both in spirit and fact to this district. In fact, Bromley, the Tramway building, and Larimer Square were all once considered part of Lower Downtown.(3) The fate of Lower Downtown is questionable, yet it seems that with the many restorations already accomplished in the district, along with the Denver Partnership's Task Force on Lower Downtown, the district's chances of survival are good.
23


It is in this rich conglomeration of late nineteenth century industrial architecture that I hope to be able to analyze, study and hopefully to integrate this myriad of information into my project. This valuable resource, as it exists, and from the many renovations now in place, will serve as a perfect laboratory for fully understanding the period, the rich use of materials, and the exuberance from which Bromley sprang, and the many different methods and approaches available for renovation, restoration, and adaptive reuse.
Just east of Bromley is a block of property owned by the Central Bank. The whole block is now used as a parking lot, except for the southeast comer, which is a tum-of-the-century building which houses offices for the Central Bank. One block farther east is the new 16th Street Mall and the Tabor Center, a mixed use retail market, hotel, and office complex. Along with Writer Square and Larimer Square, the Tabor Center has become the retail hub of downtown. The Kohn, Pederson, and Fox development is a good example of designing a new structure which recalls the past while maintaining a modem honesty. The strength of the spirit of Lower Downtown was obvious to the firm, and this spirit was expertly integrated into the design. It is this marriage of past and present that I hope to integrate into the redevelopment of the Bromley property into a Design Center for the fields of Design and Planning.
One other element of the Tabor Center is of importance--the creation of a space which celebrates both people and their movement. Movement both vertically and horizontally was and is of primary importance to architects and architecture. This lesson is essential to developing architects and is vital to the success of my project. The movement of people, which both the 16th Street Mall and Tabor Center generates, along with the pedestrian traffic generated by Auraria and the Tivoli Center, allows for Bromley which is the half way point, to take on added significance as a potential link to the pedestrian movement system of downtown.
Another major generator of pedestrian activity is the Denver Center for the Performing Arts which is located southeast of the Bromley Building, across Arapahoe Street. This cultural complex includes a theater, concert hall, auditorium, and an exhibit hall. The nighttime traffic generated by this complex is a boon for downtown and adds life to the area at a time when much of the rest of downtown is dead. While much of the traffic is internal to the complex, Larimer Square is a major beneficiary of this night time
24


activity. The traffic generated by the patrons of the D.C.P.A., walking to and from, must move immediately past the Bromley Building.
The performing arts complex is a collection of buildings ranging from the Auditorium an early 1900's building, to Roch/Dinkaloo Associates' Modem Galleria. The auditorium, which is slated for restoration, is the only one of the buildings of this complex which can be entered at street level. The rest are connected by the Galleria which starts at street level at the comer, of 14th and Curtis streets and climbs one story to Boettcher Hall and the theater. The north building in the complex is an eight-story parking garage with retail on the first level. (It should be noted that only 50% of the retail is leased). This parking garage, used for the Performing Arts Center at night, is also used during the day by students at Auraria, especially students who use the East Classroom complex.
THE SITE
The three buildings owned by the University of Colorado at Denver have been a part of Denver's glorious past for the last 75 years. The Tramway Building, which is located at the comer of 14th and Arapahoe streets, is an eight-story office building that now houses University of Colorado at Denver administration offices. The red brick steel framed office tower was one of the first "skyscrapers" built in Denver.(4) Built in 1910 as the administrative offices for the Denver Tramway Company, the building's striking size and character have made the building a Denver landmark. The red brick facade is accented with a distinctive comice and trim made of a light terra cotta. It should be noted that the terra cotta trim around the first story windows and entries is shaped in the form of a street car symbolically marking the importance of the business that helped shape Denver. As one looks to the southeast, down Arapahoe Street, the rest of the former Tramway complex fills the block. Immediately connected to the tower is the three-story Lobby area, which occupies roughly one quarter of the block. Occupying the rest of the block is the one hundred yard long "car bam." The two story structure originally housed the street cars which the Tramway Company operated.(5) A third story has been recently added, and the building now serves as classrooms for the University of Colorado at Denver. The building's importance to Denver, both architecturally and historically, has been marked, and it is on the National Historic Register.
25


THE BROMLEY BUILDING (W.A. HOVER DRUG COMPANY BUILDING)
Connected by a firestair northwest of the Tramway Building is the Bromley Building, now home to the Design and Planning Graduate School for the University of Colorado at Denver. The four-story beige brick building accented by a dark brown comice and window trim was designed by noted Denver architect Robert Roeschlaub in 1898 for the W.A. Hover Drug Company. The four-story warehouse and office building created quite a stir locally as it rose from the comer of 14th and Lawrence streets in 1901. Writen up extensively by the local press, the Hover Building was the "largest Drug Warehouse west of the Mississippi", at its unique "Modem Styling" was chronicled by the local press, and a published ink and water color rendering of the proposed building done by Roeschlaub was published by the Denver Times in the spring of 1899.
In 1901, Jerome Smiley wrote his widely respected historical account of Denver's early growth from a wild pioneering outpost to a highly cultured city at the turn of the century. Both W.A. Hover and the Hover Building were considered an important enough part of Denvers history to be included by Smiley in his book "History of Denver."(6) The same Roeschlaub rendering of the Hover Building appears in the book along with a detailed account of the life of W.A. Hover, a prominent Denver businessman of the period.(7) Hover was known for his wise business sense and good timing, which allowed him to become one of Denver's leading citizens within twenty years of arriving in the town. Bom on March 8, 1856 in Mazomie, Wisconsin, Hover decided to come West after graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1877. With his degree in Mining Engineering, this made sense, since Denver, during this period, was considered the "Mining Capital" of the United States, and jobs abounded in his specialty.
Yet, with his arrival in Denver in 1878, and his subsequent partnership with J.O. Bosworth, there is no indication that he ever put his formal education to direct use.(8) Yet, his business acmen is well chronicled, and by 1882 J.O. Bosworth and Company, a small drug wholesale company, had become the W.A. Hover Company. From the company's small beginning, Hover developed the company into the largest drug wholesale company outside of New York by the turn of the century.(9) With several business addresses, Hover, by 1898, was in need of a much larger facility.
26


Employing Robert Roeschlaub, a prominent Denver architect to design Hover's new "Drug Palace," was logical for Hover who by 1898 was a wealthy businessman. Being a neighbor of Roeschlaub, Hover was well acquainted with Roeschlaub's work. This is not an unusual set of circumstances for the development of an architect/client relationship, had Hover not hired Roeschlaub's main competitor, Frank Edbrooke, to design his house at 1507 Lafayette Street (Demolished). The fact that he hired Denver's premier commercial architect, Edbrooke, to design his house, and the city's outstanding institutional architect, Roeschlaub, to design his new company headquarters is an interesting twist that can be only speculated about. Yet, Hover's good business timing deserted him on January 27,1900 when his dmg warehouse collapsed from overloading. It is no surprise following this disaster, that Hover decided to make a few changes in the new-planned warehouse's structure.(10)
In 1901 the ground was broken, and within one year the W.A. Hover Company had moved into its new modem "Dmg Palace." It was designed in a style which can best be described as commercial architecture, a style which was invented in Chicago less than 15 years earlier. The four-story brick building has little ornament, though the original drawings indicate terra cotta ornamental bands which were deleted for cost-cutting reasons. The simple and stark elevation has a geometric and proportional sophistication that the best of the Chicago School and Edbrooke commercial structures exhibit. The facade's structural honesty further ties the building to the early commercial movement. It is precisely this type of architecture that planted the seed from which the early Modem School took root twenty years later.
The Hover Building street elevations break down into three distinct horizontal bands. The first floor, which is approximately fourteen feet high, forms a distinctive base and is capped first by a thin, horizontal band, and three feet higher by a heavier band which forms the window sill for the second story. This fenestration, which runs uninterrupted across the street facades, forms a strong horizontal line which marks the building's steel structure. The top band marks the second floor level and serves as an appropriately scaled base for the middle two floors which form the body of the building. The body of the building is delineated by another thin, horizontal band of moulded brick, the fourth floor windows were scaled down to approximately half the size of the third floor windows, a design trick Roeschlaub used to accentuate the Hover Building's verticality. The building is topped with an appropriately scaled comice which crowns the building,
27


punctuating the building against the Colorado sky. The crown jewel, so to speak, is the flag pole that marks the comer of 14th and Lawrence streets.
Adding to the complexity of the seemingly simple face are the vertical punctuations by the large windows which turns the bearing wall into a series of masonry columns. The large amount of glass is made possible by Roeschlaub's use of steel window headers which transfer the load to masonry columns. These masonry columns serve as visual counterpoint to the strong horizontal layers. Giving further strength to the vertical texture of the facade are the four bands of windows which grow proportionally smaller as they climb the buildings facade, creating a false perspective. The first floor windows, which form square openings, are divided into squares and rectangles which create a simple plain texture against the simple structure of the building.
Robert Roeschlaub's use of the language of simple geometry is the language of architecture. By using fundamental forms such as the line, the rectangle, and the square, an infinite variety of forms and conclusions are possible. By using this language fluently through repetition, reflection, scale, proportion, experimentation and transformation, he was able to create an art called architecture.
Robert Roeschlaub was influenced by what he considered proper architecture for the function of the building. Many of his institutional buildings, for example, are Richardsonian in character. For commercial architecture, it is quite apparent that he chose the Chicago School for inspiration. Whether the Chicago School is a direct inspiration for the Hover Building is a matter of conjecture. It is known that Roeschlaub kept abreast of the national developments in architecture as did his contemporaries through the many architectural journals of the period, including the "The Western Architect and Building News" which was published in Denver from 1889 through 1891. Closer to home, Frank Edbrooke created commercial architecture which some architectural historians feel is as important to the developemnt of the typology as the architecture that was built in Chicago during this period.(ll) Thus, Denver in the 1890's provided Roeschlaub with plenty of examples of this new architectural typology, which he employed in the 1898 design of the Hover Building.
The Hover Building's sophisticated exterior facade was matched by an honest and relatively unadorned interior which functioned well as a drug
28


warehouse. The building's main entry was originally located at the comer of 14th and Lawrence streets. This entry served the company offices which were located on the first floor. Upon entering the company's offices the visitor immediately noticed the fourteen-foot ceiling and dark wood-paneled walls which created a proper ambience in which to conduct the firm's business. The interior frame which was exposed on all the ceilings was a complex combination of steel beams on a 16 x 18 foot grid supported by cast iron columns. Perlins made of 8 x 16 timber supported the wood floor which held up the heavy loads of the drug warehouse. Roeschlaub made sure that the same fate did not befall the new building which happened to the previous warehouse that collapsed because of overloading.(12) The entire building interior with the exception of the paneling on the first floor and the classic columns and fireplace which adorned Hover's office, was completely unadorned.
Each of the three floors above the office used the fourteen-foot ceilings to the maximum advantage for storing supplies. On each floor, a system of steel catwalks provided a mezzanine to allow the storage of supplies all the way up to the ceiling. The industrial flavor of the building was reinforced by Roeschlaub by the use of exposed structure which gave the simple interior a msticated ornament. The steel I-beams, along with the cast iron columns employed by Roeschlaub, were proudly exposed. One example of this pride was the well thought out rivet pattern which functioned on two levels, as necessary connection and as ornament. The carefully designed and drafted steel details show Roeschlaub's affinity with the total design. It also should be noted that steel as structural element was still relatively new technology being used first only in a post and beam situation by William LeBaron Jenny eighteen years prior. Edbrooke used steel extensively in many of his commercial buildings during the 1890's, including the Brown Palace in 1890. This fact, combined with Roeschlaub's atrium which he designed for the old East High School in 1888, demonstrate his technical prowess and his keen eye for borrowing ideas from leading designers. Roeschlaub's conservative nature, along with cost-saving techniques, explain the unique combination of all the various structural systems employed in the Hover Building. Roeschlaub's Hover design marked both the beginning of the new century and, more importantly to architecture, the building marks the great conflicts and opportunities which the field of architecture and society faced, by the collision of new and old technology. To protect against the possibility of fire which would wreak havoc with the exposed steel and iron columns, the building was sprinkled throughout.
29


HVi '/*> ***** *" ** ** "w
PROTECTl'Mi Y CO/1 .{Kill i LAV/ (Title
17 U.a.COi/ii)
r()PY PROVIDED i* Y 1 Ilei VftiSTBRN HISTORY L>EVARTMRNT Of tHSi UtfNVliU PORI,1C MRRAR^


The Bromley Building, as it is known today, has changed relatively little in the ensuing 85 years. The use went from a drug warehouse, to the first University Library, to today being the temporary home of the Design and Planning Graduate School of the University of Colorado at Denver. It is somehow appropriate that the school is quartered in Denver's first architects last remaining commercial building. (There is in fact one other commercial structure located at the comer of California and the 16th Street Mall, though it has been completely altered.) This fact, coupled with Robert Roeschlaub's status as Denver's first practicing architect, (having started a practice in 1873 and continuing uninterrupted for the next forty years), is the foundation for efforts now under way to put the Bromley Building on the National Register. If this effort is successful, it will mean that at least one of each of his buildings in commercial, residential, institutional, and spiritual categories will be protected by inclusion on the National Register-a testimony to his broad skills as one of Denver's finest architects (skills from which today's architects have much to leam).
THE BROMLEY BUILDING THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
To understand how well the Bromley Building functions as the home of the Design and Planning School, it is important to analyze it thorougly, first its historic character, second, today's conditions, and finally the unique opportunities the building possesses and what can be done to it to transform this warehouse into the School's permanent home.
BROMLEY BUILDING 1986
While little has changed in the Bromley Building's appearance, the warehouse has become a temporary home for the School of Design and Planning. For the past few years the old warehouse has functioned with reasonable success, but today the Bromley Building has serious problems which are affecting the quality of education. A shortage in studio space, an overcrowded library, and a general lack of spatial organization have caused the school to look for solutions which will alleviate these probleems permanently. Before exploring these different alternatives, it will be helpful to look at the Bromley Building and its many serious deficiencies.
30


A quick verbal map of the way in which the four-story Bromley Building as it is presently arranged is needed in order to orient the reader. The major portion of the first floor and mezzanine is devoted to the University Administration Offices, with the remainder of the floor being used by the Division of Planning as a classroom and studio. Tucked into the building's north comer (Bromley's old main entry, off of the comer of 14th and Lawrence streets), is an office for the CCDD Rural Program. The second floor is used as the Graduate School of Design and Planning Administrative Office, faculty offices, the library, and a computer lab. The third and fourth floors are being used as studio space for the architects, landscape architects, and the interiors students. Until an asbestos problem closed the area this year, the basement was used as a shop for model building. The School's main entry was moved from the comer of the building west along Lawrence Street to an addition which abuts the building's west wall and an alley which exists between the Bromley Building and the Lawrence Street center. Also located in the 25 foot by 25 foot addition is one of the firestairs which function as the building's main vertical access, an elevator, and the restrooms. In between the Bromley Building and the Tramway Tower is the other firestairs which exit to both the alley and 14th street.
It is quickly apparent that both the organization of the building and the functions which take place in it take little advantage of the buildings original architecture and organization. The first floor, which houses the University Administrative Offices, has had its large glass windows boarded up along 14th Street and the Office's entry moved to the west alley. The office's interior has been transformed from an open office layout into a series of gypsum board cubicles. Replacing the natural light which was once abundant are three small windows which were cut in the west wall. This minute amount of natural light is supplemented with a forest of fluorescent lights. The thin sliver of space which is not used by the University Offices along the windows of Lawrence Street is now used as the Planning Studio and classroom. The interior of this small segment still retains its original dark wood paneling, the abundance of natural light which the large windows allow in, and the hustle and bustle of the street. While this can interrupt class at times, all the planning student needs to get inspired is look out the windows into urban Denver. The middle section of the ceiling hs been lowered in order to hide the ductwork of the cooling system. The entry to this studio and the rest of the Design and Planning School is the firestair addition.
31


The addition designed by Rogers, Nagel, and Langhart Architects in 1968 was designed to service the UCD Library. It was during this time that the windows along 14th Street were boarded up, the wood paneling removed, as well as the vaults which were used to store flammable chemicals.(13 ) Since 1976, the School of Planning and Design has used the pair of steel fire doors as the main entry to the school. The addition, made out of the same brick, adds little to the Lawrence Street facade, and its ceremony of entrance is totally missing. Upon entering the addition from Lawrence Street, the firestairs climb the four stories. Access for handicapped and persons wanting to use the elevator is through the alley, up a ramp, and through the back door. The ramp and stairs are part of a 100 foot by 25 foot sliver of open space. The ramp also serves the entry to the Administration Office and the East Classroom. Once through the backdoor, one enters the elevator lobby. The elevator is situated between the mens and women's restrooms. (This layout is identical for the next three floors except on second and fourth floors, a darkroom and student lobby replace the restrooms.) Entry to the Planning Studio is to the right through a set of firedoors. (This sequence is also repeated for the next three floors.)
The Graduate School for Design and Planning Administration Offices are located along the Lawrence Street facade directly above the Planning studio. The seriously overcrowded office includes a receptionist, two secretaries, a work room, a conference room, and the Directors of Architecture and Landscape Architecture offices. All of these functions are contained within an 825 square foot area, which is approximately 40 percent of what is required. Faculty offices run the total length of 125 feet along the 14th Street Mall. Divided by partitions, each of the offices has natural light from the large window. The major drawback to these offices is the lack of acoustical privacy.
The offices enclose the library and computer lab in an L-shape. The library is also enclosed by partitions which offer little acoustic insulation. Inside the library many problems are evident. The lack of space is the major problem. Reading areas are crowded against the wall, the stacks are too close together, the slide library is crammed into a comer, and the reference section intrudes upon the librarian's check-out area. The shortage of space, which is apparent to the most casual observer, is even more evident when one looks at the current 3000 square feet of occupied space, which is approximately half of what is now needed. A similar shortage of space faces the ever-expanding computer lab. Today, there is a total of six personal computers and no
32


graphic work station. The computer lab will soon need room for twenty new personal computers and fifteen graphic work stations. The library and computer lab are in critical need of more space as soon as possible.
The third and fourth floors house the design studios, and since they are laid out similarly, they will be analyzed as one. The open floor plan, fourteen-foot ceilings, and large expanses of windows on the north and east walls, along with the industrial atmosphere (which currently is so chic with the design crowd), creates an ideal atmosphere for studio, the clutter and noise add to the ambience and help make the studios work fairly well. The major drawback is space, though currendy this is not as critical a space shortage as that which faces the library facility. The studio space takes up 15,000 squre feet of floor area, with projected studio needs of 27,000 squre feet. Not including Planning (mostly part time students), there are approximtely 225 full time students in the design studios, which, when multiplied by 65 square feet per student, comes to 15,000 square feet of required space. One possibility of increasing the efficiency of the present situation is to come up with a better desk and storage system.
Of all the spaces in Bromley, the studios have the most going for them. The exposed structure and tall ceilings allow the students to perceive space when designing. The large expanses of windows allow ample natural light to fdter into the studio, and the double hung windows can be opened to allow for natural ventilation. The street and city skyline, which students can observe through the windows, allow the studio to become part of the activity of the urban scene. Open 24 hours a day (via a key system), the third and fourth floors are lit all night long, adding immeasurably to the street life of the area.
33




/\JI


/V'll r











Open Space
DENVER COLORADO
Q! in ml in
50 i


FUNCTION: Faculty Offices
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Office space for each full time faculty
2. Offices for visiting faculty
3. Storage area
4. Shelves for books
5. Seating for 1 or 2 students or visitors
6. Natural Light
7. Audio and Visual privacy
ADJACENCIES:
1. Faculty lounge
2. Design studios
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
1. A comfortable workspace
2. A space for interchange (private) between student/teacher and teacher colleague
3. Flexible interior design so each office can be customized to each teachers needs.


FUNCTION: Support Facilities
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Security
2. Spatial requirements vary with each facility
3. All need isolation from other facilities in school both visual and sound
4. None of the facilities need natural light
5. Office for facilities' administrator needs natural light.
ADJACENCIES:
1. Design studios
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
1. Each space differs with task.
2. Few of the support facilities need light
3. All of the tasks are industrial in nature and need little in the way of finished wall treatments except for specialized needs for each area; i.e. Darkroom
- ventilation
- total darkness
- water with temperature control
- proper storage facilities and counter space
4. Best layout would be to group all support facilites in one area so faculty can be best used. Also it would facilitate security and control.


FUNCTION: Faculty Lounge
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. High quality space (Comfortable)
2. Seating area with chairs, sofas, tables
3. Shelving for books, magazines, etc.
4. Vending machines, kitchenette
5. Dignified space with exterior view
ADJACENCIES:
1. Faculty offices
2. Exterior, the sky, garden area
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


FUNCTION: Classrooms
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. 3 small classrooms (less than 50 students per room)
2. 1 large classroom/lecture hall (fixed seating in tiers, A/V capacity
3. Controllable lighting
4. Chalk boards and tack up space
ADJACENCIES:
1. Large classroom can serve as meeting room
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


FUNCTION: Design Studios
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Open floor plan with flexibility critical
2. Well lit with natural light a bonus
3. Access 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
4. Security needed at night
5. Good ventilation
6. Locker Space
7. Work station with desk, storage space, tack up space for each student
8. Large continuous space with high ceilings
ADJACENCIES:
1. Critique space with tack up space, audio visual area, chalk boards
2. Lobby Area
3. Other design studios
4. Lecture Area (Maybe combined with critique area)
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


FUNCTION: Center for Community Design and Development
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Public Access
2. Administrative offices
3. Work stations
4. Conference area
5. High public visibility
6. Reception area with waiting area
7. Display area
8. Conference area
ADJACENCIES:
1. School Administration offices to use similar facilities
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


FUNCTION: Professional Organizations Offices
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Receptionist and lobby area
2. Administration and secretarial area
3. Easy public access
4. High public visibility
5. Conference area
6. Public meeting area
ADJACENCIES:
1. Design studios
2. Library
3. Design gallery
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


FUNCTION: Student Lounge Area
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Seating area with couches (So students can lie down during all nighters)
2. High quality space
3. Interaction possible between different programs
4. Kitchenette, vending machines, drinking water
5. Telephones
ADJACENCIES:
1. Restrooms
2. Studios
3. The exterior, natural light, the sky
4. Garden space
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
1. A space which will promote interaction and at the same time be a place for relaxation.
2. A place to eat, drink and socialize.
3. Vital to lounges success is that it possess kinetic energy
4. A strong link to the studios is important so students from different studios can get
a feel for what is going on in the rest of the school.
5. A place where the batteries can be recharged; the spirit of the outdoors must be integrated into the gathering spot.


FUNCTION: Design Gallery
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. High public visibility and access
2. Flexible space and lighting
3. High ceiling
4. Proper atmosphere for showing projects
5. Audiovisual capabilities
6. Show case for both school and design professions
ADJACENCIES:
1. To street and public activity
2. To administration office
3. Design profession organizations
SPATIAL QUALITIES:


/


w
/
V
FOfi. ( ,\£ te f-kyr*&
rue? ny)
dm or ptAtW t Me extr<£? Miis-MT.
.1 Tioo
<5JVHY$ O'fP '3TA^*S p?
THes
rwAC
TOlStWl
n
> *; -TJ
(c&UZrz.
A&P-
CJLPtt
L-I£f£42y
ee**&
Otf-
j2^/^r>/Mtb c&f-rrw^ o^ss
UJtf- P£ADlM£?
*=> IMPL3S /t?l&J\f*l=p>
-rwe at
t>wa~



-jue ppAjpi




tf?1H


I
1
I
I
i


De>pc^y
a
8
£
§


CLIMATE
Denver's skyline is silhouetted against a brilliant azure blue sky over 300 days a year. The glistening new glass towers shimmer in the warm Colorado sun seeming in perfect harmony with both the land and its climate. Yet, this romantic illusion that so many of Denver's architects seem to have fallen for has created buildings that are alien both to the landscape and the climate. These hermetically sealed buildings take advantage of neither the ever present cooling summer breezes nor the hot prairie sun. Today's Denver architects need only look to the architects who built much of the city during Denver's last great boom during the eighties and early nineties of the last century to gain inspiration and guidance on how to build in Denver's climate. They used the positive qualities of Denver's climate while protecting against its harsh qualities that can turn the seeming ideal climate into a semi-arid desert.
Architects such as Roeschlaub, Edbrooke, and Lang used materials, forms and common sense to create buildings which took advantage of the Denver landscape and its climate. Using colors and materials which exist natively here, they were able to create an architecture unique to this place. The materials used by these architects, the red sandstone blocks, the light gray and violet granite blocks, and the many hues of clays used to make masonry had one common demoninator: their spirit came to life in the Denver sun. Buildings danced into the foreground and then receded into the background in perfect harmony with the spirit of the land. This dance took place daily with subtle changes caused by the inevitable celestial cycles. The morning sun brought buildings such as the Kittredge building to life as the greys, greens, and violets in the granite were accentuated by the early morning sun as it rose over the great prairie, while buildings that were built out of the Lyons sandstone jumped to life in the warm rosy setting sun. Buildings such as Bromley also reached their zenith during this setting sun with a subtle warm glow that only masonry can possess.
The use of ornamentation, both classically and organically inspired, gave detail to the skin of the masonry buildings erected during Denver's great boom. While many of the Modem movement architects saw ornament as a frilly extra, often compared to frosting on a wedding cake, architects such Roeschlaub and Edbrooke used ornament as an integral component of the building. Nowhere is this more evident than on the many schools Roeschlaub designed and on Edbrooke's commercial buildings. While comparing their
34


architectural styles, which are different because of building function, the one common thread is the use of ornament on the building's skin. Compounded with the use of stone and masonry, their buildings' facades came to life, not only because of materials, but because the ornament created shadows and texture. Like nature, which both architects used extensively for inspiration for ornament, the juxtaposition of materials, texture, and forms is the very essence of life. Not only did this ornament take advantage of Denver's unending sunlight, it accentuated Denver's frequent summer showers and winter snows. By capturing the moisture on its skin, the building became part of the cycle of nature. The rain streaked down the textured walls causing a multitude of patterns and colors. In the winter, this cycle of nature is even more dramatically captured as the snow accents and sculpts, turning the textured skin into a rocky ledge covered with nature and its many, many mysteries which are brought forth by the new frosting of snow.
Denver's climate, which can be so beautiful the great majority of the time, must be respected because it can change into as harsh a climate as one can imagine. During the summer, violent electrical storms punctuate almost every afternoon, yet the clean cool evening air makes the need for artificial cooling unnecessary. The winter for the most part is relatively mild, yet ferocious blizzards and hurricane-like winds can crop up at a moments notice. The generator of this weather is the collison of two great landscapes: to the west, the Rocky Mountains tower over the immense prairie sea which unrolls like a giant carpet for over 1200 miles. The Rockies lift and block the moisture- laden Pacific air; like a giant wringer, it manages to remove the vast majority of the precipitation before it reaches the great prairie. Thus, Denver receives a scant 14.6 inches of precipitation annually. This small amount of moisture is insufficient to keep semi-arid Denver green, as the early founders understood well.
First by settling at the confluence of two rivers, Cherry Creek and the South Platte, and then irrigating the city in 1872 with the City Ditch, they were able to transform the vast arid prairie into a green emerald sitting on the vast golden sea of grass. This important legacy, left in the form of Denver's Parks, Parkways and Street tree plantings has caused people to delude themselves that growth in Denver should take the appearance of a lush English Landscape. This delusion will have to be addressed with the impending water shortage if Denver's beautiful environment, both natural and manmade, is to survive.
35


While the materials used by Denver's founders function on an aesthetic level, they also function on a practical level in relation to the climate. The heavy block and masonry walls with proportionally small windows that form the skin of these 1880's and 90's buildings take advantage of solar gain. During the summer, the buildings, because of their mass, are slow to heat up, while during the winter they retain their heat longer because of this mass. The double hung windows used so extensively in the buildings of this period open, thus allowing for natural ventilation during Denvers midday summer heat. The openings, while small, as compared to today's glass boxes allowed for plenty of natural light to penetrate and create a well-lit environment for the building's users.
Both Roeschlaub and Edbrooke understood the importance of natural light reaching deep into their building's hearts. Through the use of atriums which both architects employed, they were able to accomplish this goal. Roeschlaub pioneeered the atrium in Denver with East High School which he designed in 1881. The three-story building had a central court which served as a grand entry with light streaming down through a skylight, illuminating the delicate woodwork and patterned tile below. Perhaps inspired by Roeschlaub, Edbrooke created what some historians consider Denver's finest building, the Brown Palace Hotel.(l) Designed in 1890, the Brown Palace has an eight-story atrium which manages to capture the sun's brilliance and spirit while functioning on a practical level of lighting the large interior which includes restaurants, the lobby, and the grand ballroom.
To use the climate properly, it is important to employ the best technology and energy-saving design features possible. Just as important, though is undersanding the climate on an intuitive level as shown by men such as Roeschlaub and Edbrooke. By using the newest technology while understanding the principles of design and their relation to the land and the climate, it is possible to create, in spirit buildings which are functional while working with the essence of a place, its landscape, its light, and its environment.
36


GEOLOGY OF THE SITE AND ITS STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONS
The Archicenter Site gently slopes to the southwest dropping approximately 12 feet between 14th and 13th streets. The site which was once located in the historic natural floodplain of Cherry Creek has today been removed from the five hundred year floodplain by a combination of dams and channelization. Located approximately one hundred yards west of the Bromley Building, Cherry Creek flows north into the South Platte River, today but a sad reminder of the former awesome strength this major tributary once displayed in the physical and historical evolution of Denver.
The original settlers were able to overlook the confluence of the Platte River and Cherry Creek from the site, the location of the original settlement of the city. The seemingly peaceful cottonwood lined creek displayed awesome fury in 1868, flooding the developing Denver which caused twelve deaths and millions of dollars in property damage.(14 ) Soon after these devastating floods the city was rebuilt with a greater respect for the creek's periodic flooding. The then Governor, John Evans, decided to build a home for himself and his family, choosing the comer of Arapahoe and Fourteenth streets as the ideal place to build. To the west he had an unobstructed view of the meeting of the Great Prairie and the Rockies. Straddling the Cherry Creek which cuts through the immense prairie sea he was able to oversee the development of Denver from a wild pioneer outpost to the "Queen City of the Plains." By 1908 the Tramway Building along with the Bromley Building had replaced Evans' pastoral estate with modem urban commercial architecture complete with the channelization of Cherry Creek. Yet, this channelization which was instituted by Mayor Robert Speer managed to capture the beauty and essence the proud prairie creek displayed when the first white men settled here less than 50 years earlier. Thus from 1908 until the Lawrence Street Plaza Development in 1976, the site stood unchanged.
In order for the Hover Building to be built in 1901, Robert Roeschlaub had to engineer the site to accommodate the massive proposed structure. The site had to be graded and up to five feet of fill imported to level it. As the basement and sub-basement were excavated, layers of loose to medium dense sands were encountered, along with occasional layers of stiff clays which were deposited by the creek. The structural system he decided to employ consisted of masonry bearing walls which sit on spread footings along with steel columns that rest on ten-foot pad footings, all of which sit on compacted earth. The one problem encountered during excavation and subsequent
37


construction was the high water table which is within ten feet of the ground surface. Yet, in spite of this obstacle which was probably overcome through dewatering, Roeschlaub was able to design a structure which has lasted over 85 years with only minor settling (evidenced by small cracks in the masonry wall near the comer of 14th and Lawrence.)
The proposed restoration and addition will need to modify the original structure in order to carry the additional weight of the extra floors.
With the addition of one to three floors it may be necessary to modify the footing design for the existing Bromley Building. This modification will most likely include caissons which will need to reach the claystone bedrock 25 feet below ground level. An alternative will be to use caissons for the west addition and through the use of transfer structure distribute the load of the additional stories on the new caisson footings needed for this additional5 ) Further, dewatering during construction along with footing drains will be necessary to protect the structure and its foundation from the ravages of water.
Robert Roeschlaub likely understood that Denver was not located in a high risk earthquake zone (based on the limited knowledge of the period). Yet, today his intuitive knowledge is supported by the Uniform Building Code which rates Denver as a Zone 1 seismic zone. Thus, wind, rather than earthquakes, will determine the structural systems that need to be employed in the new construction.
38


ZONING
The Bromley Building is located in the Skyline Urban Renewal Area and is regulated by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA). In 1967 DURA officially approved the plan which guides the redevelopment of the 27 block Skyline Area. The drastic plan which would be in effect until 1995 came about because of the serious urban blight in lower downtown Denver. The plan had many stated goals including; encouraging renovation, both economic and structural, improving traffic, providing parcels of land for development, and the elimination of skid row. These goals were an admirable though naive attempt to resolve urban blight through wiping the slate clean. While this wiping the slate clean philosophy effectively destroyed much of the urban core of Denver there are a few notable successes. The major success of the Skyline Plan is the Tabor Center, a mixed use development of office, hotel and retail which has helped revitalize downtown retail. Other successes are more tenuous and are successful only on one two levels as in the case of the Brooks Towers. Yet, except for these few successes, the Skyline Project has managed to destroy the urban vitality and fabric of this lower downtown area.
The bulldozer approach to urban renewal that was so enthusiastically pushed by the Modem school planners and architects across the United States during the sixties and early seventies managed to destroy in a period less than one decade what had taken over a hundred years to evolve. In return for eradicating this blight and obsolete architecture the Modernists promised the country, and specifically Denver, that "through the use of bulldozers, wrecking balls and dynamiters who will do their job well, old business blocks and office buildings such as the Mining Exchange and the Daniels and Fisher building will be removed. In their place will be modem and stately new palaces of commerce, culture, and civilization which will include die Brooks Towers Apartments and the Park Central Bank Building, an orderly mass of steel and reflecting glass."(16) Yet, as the Modem architects and planners soon learned, these glistening edifices to modem society were mere mirages since they lacked one vital ingredient, humanity, the very essence of the city.
This urban blight which these forward thinkers so wanted to eradicate was nowhere more evident than on Larimer Steeet, the skid row of Denver. This area was the driving force behind the Skyline Plan and its backers. The concentration of bars, pawn shops, and other elements of skid row had once
39


been Denver's entertainment district. This area has played an important role in Denver's development and history though much of it was notorious. Since Denver became "civilized" in the 1870s the morally upstanding citizens of the city had wanted to cleanse the city of this collection of bars, brothels, and places of sin. After nearly a hundred years of futile efforts, the city fathers had a menas of eliminating this source of embarrassment. Ironically, a group of self-described crazies led by Dana Crawford decided that this decrepit and decaying part of Denver was an essential part of Denver's history and should be preserved somehow. Through shrewd efforts, including creating the nation's first transfer of historic development rights ordinance, Ms.
Crawford was able to save skid row from the "period of insanity when everything was tom down." (17) Today one cannot escape the irony that the old and obsolete architecture, the very reason the Skyline Area was formed, was preserved. Larimer Square, as this area is known, has again become the major retail and entertainment center of downtown Denver, while many of the Modem Palaces of commerce have either never materialized or did not quite live up to the utopian dreams of the Modem planners.
The re-development that has taken place in the Skyline Area came at extremely high cost to the historic fabric of the city, and more importantly the costs economically were even higher. Only through massive federal subsidies, regulations and heavy handed planning did any development take place in the Skyline Zone. Regulations such as a 5:1 floor area ratio which is half of the 10:1 floor area ratio in the rest of downtown's B-5 zoning areas supposedly were to create a better urban environment through total architectural control which included more open space. Yet, the high economic cost of these regulations were passed on the the taxpayers, since the developers could not afford to develop as low a density as the plan called for.(18) This method of zoning had far greater costs caused by mandatory design features such as the second story plazas and pedestrian bridges which were total design failures, and which to this day have a negative impact on the architectural character of the city and the people who use it. The ultimate failure of these Skyline Guidelines is that the only new developemnt that will take place today in this area will be historic redevelopment or else subsidized development which is non-existent. Instead, developers are waiting until 1995 when the guidelines expire or else they will use transfer of development rights to develop somewhere else in downtown where the B-5 Zoning regulations apply.
40


The challenge of the Denver Archicenter will be to use and manipulate these zoning regulations to maximize both the beauty of the architecture and the value of the University property. By taking advantage of the building's historic status, certain zoning regulations can be waived or modified and may be treated case by case. The existing building does not meet open space and parking requirements; thus the re-use plan of the Bromley Building and the adjacent University properties will necessitate zoning variances.
41


CODE ANALYSIS
The site, as is all of Denver, is regulated by the Denver Code as adopted in 1982. (The Denver Code for the most part is similar to the Uniform Building Code.) The major implication of this code as it affects the Bromley Building is the building's historic status and its construction type. Since the Bromley Building qualifies as a Historic Structure it is exempt from code regulations which do not affect health or safety of the occupants unless major reconstruction is to take place. Since the proposed restoration and additional constmction of the Archicenter is defined as a major construction, the Denver Code applies. Since the building is to be used as a combination of offices, school facilities, and a public gallery, occupancy is considered F2 which dictates how the building is used and the number of people who can be in any room at once. According to F2 regulations the largest gathering in any one room is 50 people. The other major design determinant is the type of constmction. The existing Bromley Building is considered a Type HI constmction and the new addition will need to be Type I constmction. The major effect of these ratings is the fire protection methods and the required fire separation in hours. Type HI buildings can be only 65 feet high while Type I does not have a height limitation. The major implication of this is that in order to add floors, the new floors must be separated effectively from the old structure. The other major design implications caused by code are the ingress and egress issues. According to calculations two fire and emergency exits are required to handle the anticipated user loads. These exits must access public ways and be separated from the building so as to afford fire protection as required by code.
The challenge of integrating these code requirements into an existing structure and the proposed new constmction will surely test patience and design abilities. Yet, the creative use of the code regulations allows for a design structure and can lead to more creative design if they are looked upon as challenges rather than negative regulations which dictate design. Further, through creative use of the code it is possible to lower constmction costs.
42


PRQPQSiDPRgGRAM_=_GRADyAIE_SCHOQL_OF_DESIGN_AND_F:LANNING
SPACE AND DESCRIPTION 3Q. FT.
DESIGN STUDIOS:
Architecture ... . 150 St at ions at 50 sq.tt ea. 7500
Land ., Arch . 56 II 2800
Inter i ors...... . 42 II 2100
F'l anni ng. . M od-O II 1400
Urban Design... . 14 11 7 0 0
Lockers. Print Room. . 290 Lockers at 4 so. ft. ea. 1160 150
15, £5 i o
Hovab 1 e p air t i on s, t a i_ k u p space, chalkboards
RITIQUE AMD JURY SPACE: Architecture... 2 Spaces at 600 sq. tt. ea. 1200
Land. Arch ...... 1 Space II 600
Interiors....... 1 Space ll 600
FT anni ng........ . 1 Space ii 600
Combi ne two into one 1200 sq. ft., tack up 3000
space. Audio Visual, chalkboards, adjustable .1 i g h t. i n g
CLASSROOM/LECTURE HALL:
Classroom. ...... 3 Rooms at 50 students x 20 s.t. 3000
Lecture Hall.... 1 Room at 150 students x 20 s.t. 3000
6000
T a c k up spac e, c h a 1 k b o a r d s, A u cl i o V i s u a I adjustab1e 1i ght i ng
FACULTY:
Fulltime....... 20 Ottices at 100 s.t. 2000
Par time. ........ 10 Ottices at SO s.t. SCO
Faculty Lounge 600
3400


ADMINISTRATIONS
Deans Office 250
Administrative Assistant .150
Directors. . 5 Offices at 130 s.f. 900
Secretary. . 3 Work Stations at 125 s.f. 375
Reception/Waiting 250
Records/Work Room 350
Conference Room 500
Di gn i f i e;d Char act er, Pr oper h i er ar oh i a 1 spatial relationship, visual and accoustic privacy essential
CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT:
Directors Office 150
Staff Offices... 4 Offices at 100 s.f. 400
Recep t i on/Wai t i ng Secretari al Records Conference
Work Stations... 5 at 50 s.f. ea.
250 125 150 150
147
Pub lie vi si b i 1 i t v i mp or t an t c ou .1 d easi 1 y function in conjunction with the administrative offices usi ng common f ac i 111 .i es
LIBRARY:
Librarian Office 2 at 125 s.f. ea.
C hec k out Des k
Stacks
Reading Room ...50 at 40 s.f. ea. Slide Storage Audio/Vi sual Card Catalog
125
500
3000
2000
250
250
COMPUTER LAB:
F'.C. Computers 10 at 40 s.f. ea. Graphic Stations 5 at 50 s.f. ea. Faculty Off i ce
400
250
125


DESIGN GALLERY:
Exhibit Space (Temporary) Exhibit Space (Permanent)
1500
500
2000
SUPPORT FACILITIES:
Audio/Visual Phot ogr aph i c Room Dark Room Sound Studio Model Shop
Research Labs... 6 at 250 s., -f. ea. Faculty Office Pub1i cat ions Lab Archives
250
250
250
200
1600
1500
250
200
3000
500
STUDENT LOUNGE:
Student Lounge... 3 at 500 s.f. ea. 1500
Kitchenette, Vending Machines, tables, so-fas, chairs, drinking water, telephones
RESTROOMS:
Mens. ............ 3 at 150 s.f. ea. 450
Womens........... 3 at 150 s.f. ea. 450
900
The square footage based on Denver Code requirements for public restrooms, h an d i c ap r e qui r ements w i11 be met
STORAGE:
Storage 1000
CIRCULATION AND MEHANICAL
at 307.
SUB-TOTAL
52,510
15.750
63,263
0TAL S.F


COMCLUSION
This thesis attempted to show the possibi 1 ities that exist -for creating an Archicenter out ot the turn of the century Bromley Building. On this level, it is felt that this project is both feasible and desirable. If the current administrati on takes an objective look at the great potential contained behind the plain walls of this former warehouse, they will pursue the option of renovating the Bromley Building over the other possible locations for the School. The advantages of the Bromley Buildings location and flexibility have been demastrated with this thesis. Yet, the transfcrmation of the Bromley Building into the Archicenter was only the project of myth esi s
The Spirit of time, technology, place and exuberance were underlying themes of the thesis. While the Archicenter offered the perfect case study for the creation of an architecture which exhibits these Spirits, it is felt that this type of process can be used on all levels of design. A design style based on a regions character and spirit was obvious to well known designers such as Olmsted, Jensen, and Wright. In fact, much of Americas strength and spirit is based on the native landscape encountered by the pioneers. From the tall forests of New England to the vast prairie of our nations heartland, the native landscape shaped our society and its structures. Travelling across the country it is possible to see designs which are suited to the environment and functions of the various regions, from the prairie towns grain elevators to the warehouse districts of towns such as Chicago and Denver. This architecture is functional on a practical level, but it also functions on a deeper, more intuitive level of expressing the pride of place.
Using my knowledge gained as an landscape architect combined with knowledge gained as student of architecture, and best expressed with this thesis, I hope to explore the possibilities of a new regional prairi e archi tecture. Wi th the prai r.i e as a source of inspiration, I see the chance to design buildings derived from the land, using the materials of today and tomorrow. From the brilliant prairie sun to the vast, wind blown land, colors, forms, and the regions underlying spirit can be used to build structures which are both beautiful and environmentally functional.
With the dawning of a new age it is very important to channel the winds of change into a better world in which to live. The challenge facing the design world is understanding the past while moving into the future. By using Americas regional spirit and beauty, this is possible


U.C.D. THE DESIGN CENTER


B i
Sub-Basement
Z 1 0
1 /1 6


0-,l =.,91/1
IU3UI3SBQ


Design Center: 1st Floor
LAWRENCE ST.


Studio: 2nd Floor


Studio: 4th Floor
1 / 16 = 1 0


Mechanical Plan
1 /16 = l-0


Library: 5th Floor
1 / 16 : 1 0"


' f MEN^l r ial Q wo
J
I
D
lEN
Library: 6th Floor
1 /1 6 : 1 O


PLUMBING
STACKS
Structural Plan
= I-O
1 /16


Administration: 7th Floor
1 /I 6 = 1 0


Reception Hall: 10th Floor
1/16: l-0


Roof Plan
1 /16"= 1-0




3/32"* 1 -O'*




JIM ST
LAWRENCE ST. ELEVATIOt


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brenneman, Bill, MIRACLE ON CHERRY CREEK. World Press Inc. Denver, CO. 1973.
A brief history of Denver and the downtown area bordered on the south by Arapahoe Street and on the north by Lawrence Street, the east by 16th Street and to the west by Cherry Creek. This book tells the story of the site from when it was a vast prairie on a gently meandering creek to its eventual development as a vital urban section of Denver.
Brettell, Richard. HISTORIC DENVER THE ARCHITECTS AND THE ARCHITECTURE (1858-18931. Historic Denver Inc. Denver, CO. 1973
A concise historical overview of Denver's 19th century architecture. A detailed account of three of Denver's most important architects of that period, Frank Edbrooke, Robert Roeschlaub, William Lang, what their influences in design were, what buildings they designed and most importantly what their philosophy was related to the buildings they designed.
Brooklyn Museum Publication. THE AMERICAN RENAISSANCE 1876-1917. Pantheon Books. New York, NY. 1979
An overview of the great push in the arts and its allied fields in America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. An exceptionally strong analysis of the intertwining of the development of these arts and the American built environment during this period.
Condit, Carl W. THE CHICAGO SCHOOL OE ARCHITECTURE A History of Commercial and Puhlic Building in the Chicago Area. 1875 -1225. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL. and London, England. 1964.
A detailed account of Chicago's Commercial Architecture and its architects. A chapter is devoted to the pioneering of materials, forms and technology by Chicago's architects and engineers. This experimentation changed architecture worldwide and had far reaching consequences which to this day are still affecting society.
66


Edbrooke, Frank E. FRANK E. EDBROOKE Privately printed,_1918.
An informative autobiography on one of Denver's premier architects. A good source for background information on the architecture and society of the period.
Fuller, Kenneth R. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ROESCHLAIIB/FIJLLER OFFICES. (Unpublished) Denver, CO. 1985.
A brief biography of Colorado's oldest Architectural firm. Gives the only complete background of Robert Roeschlaub's childhood and early architectural design work in Quincy, Illinois before his arrival in Denver in 1873.
Hitchcock, Henry Russell, and Johnson, Phillip. MODERN ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION New York Museum of Modern Art. Amo Press, New York, NY, 1932.
The New York Museum of Modem Art exhibition of Modem Architecture which is generally considered as America's introduction to the European Modem Movement which was coined as the "International Style" by Hitchcock and Johnson. Architects featured included Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Mies Van Der Rohe, and Frank Lloyd Wright, though the latter did not belong to the movement but was included since his Wasmuth Folios and subsequent Berlin Exhibition were considered as the inspiration for the movement.
Hitchcock, Henry Russell. ARCHITECTURE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES. Penguin Books. Baltimore, MD. 1958.
An overview of architecture from 1800-1955. This book paints a picture of the relationships of architecture history and styles. Good chapters on H.H. Richardson, and commercial architecture in America with the advent of the steel structure.
Jensen, Robert, and Conway, Patricia, Foreword by Goldberger, Paul. ORNAMENTALISM The New Decorativeness in Architecture and Design.
Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. New York, NY. 1982.
67


The rebirth of omamentalism in architecture and design so popular today is chronicled with chapters dealing with offices, shops, living, public buildings, and spaces.
Lespikowski, Wojciech G. RATIONALISM AND ROMANTICISM IN ARCHITECTURE. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY. 1982
A comparative study of the conflicting philosophies of Rationalism and Romanticism, its practitioners and their architecture. The format is a historical look at the field and how there are watershed moments in history where the pendulum switched between Rationalism and Romanticism.
National Trust for Historic Preservation. AMERICA'S FORGOTTEN ARCHITECTURE. Pantheon Books. New York, NY. 1976.
The National Trust's composite study of Americas hidden inheritance, its architectural heritage. Besides preservation definitions the photographic essays document a wide range of architecture by typology including Commercial and Industrial Architecture.
Saliga, Pauline, and Zukowsky, John. CHICAGO ARCHITECTS DESIGN -A Century of Architectural Drawings from the Art Institute of Chicago. Art Institute of Chicago and Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York, NY. 1982.
Since 1918 the Burnham Library has housed one of the foremost collections of Architectural drawings and literature in the United States. Chicago, as one of the great architectural cities with first the Chicago School, followed by the Prairie School and the International Style, this exhibit chronicles the sequence of these movements through architectural drawings of Sullivan, Jenny, Root, Wright, Van Der Rohe, and finally concludes with today's Chicago Architects.
Smiley, Jerome C. HISTORY OF DENVER. Times Sun Publishing. Denver, CO. 1901.
The definitive historic account of Denver's birth and growth into a large city by the end of the 19th century.
68


University Facilities Research Center. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CIRCULATION IN UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS. University Facilities Research Center. Madison, WI. 1961.
A programming and design guide to designing new University buildings' horizontal and vertical circulation systems.
Wolfe, Tom. FROM BAUHAUS TO OUR HOUSE. Farrar Straus Giroux. New York, NY. 1981.
Criticism of the Modem Movement of Architecture known as the "Bauhaus." Wolfe questions not only the Movements architecture but its philosophy and how it still is entrenched in today's Post-Modem architecture.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. IN THE CAUSE OF ARCHITECTURE. McGraw-Hill Publications. New York, NY. 1975.
A series of articles in THE ARCHITFCTIJRAL RECORD record Wright's design philosophy and its evolution into built forms. The first article was written in 1908 during his Prairie Period followed by seven more articles over the next 45 years of his career.
No author. DENVER. PICTURESQUE AND DESCRIPTIVE. Art Publishing Co. Neenah, WI. 1889.
A collection of photographs and accompanying text which outline Denver as it grew from a prairie's settlement to a large city (1858-1889). Many excellent photographs of downtown Denver including commercial buildings and warehouses.
DOCUMENTS AND PERIODICALS
ALA COLORADO FIELD REPORT. Background history of AIA Colorado. Denver. CO. 1985.
BOSTON ARCHITECTURAL CENTER SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. 1981-1982. School Catalogue. Boston, MA.
69


HOW TO COMPLETE NATIONAL REGISTER FORMS. National Register Division, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, Department of Interior, Washington D.C. January, 1977.
PRESERVATION IN THE WEST. Western Field Office of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. San Francisco, CA. 1972.
SKYLINE URBAN RENEWAL PLAN. Officially Approved Plan, Denver Urban Renewal Authority, February 1969.
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND PLANNING ACCREDITATION REPORT. NCARB Official Report for Architectural Accreditation. 1985.
W.A. HOVER BUILDING ORIGINAL ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS.
Robert Roeschlaub, Architect. 1898.
WESTERN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. Denver, CO. 1889-1891.
During Denver's big building boom this publication kept its professionals abreast of current building technologies and styles, both here in Denver and what was going on in the profession around the nation. This magazine promoted both the avante-garde and the every day approaches even-handedly, thus allowing Denver's architects a good overview of the field.
70


NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
DENVER TIMES. DRUG PALACE. March 2,1899.
HOVER BUILDING PERMIT. March 11,1901.
INTERVIEWS:
Fuller, Kenneth. "Background on the Hover Building and the Architect Robert Roeschlaub." March 4,1986
Heath, Paul, "School of Design and Planning Program."
Holder, Davis. "Bromley Building Structural System Analysis."
71