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Making sense

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Title:
Making sense experience and transformation in post mining landscapes
Added title page title:
Experience and transformation in post mining landscapes
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Bolton, Katharine ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
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University of Colorado Denver
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English
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1 electronic file (122 pages) : ;

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Master's ( Master of landscape architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape architecture

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Subjects / Keywords:
Abandoned mined lands reclamation ( lcsh )
Abandoned mined lands reclamation ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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This research explores the ways in which post-mining landscapes (PMLs) are experienced and theoretically situated within the fields of cultural geography and landscape architecture. Employing multiple methods of discovery, this thesis seeks to 'make sense' of PMLs as they are related to the past, present, and future narratives of landscape in the American West. They are ongoing sites of co-authorship between human and nonhuman forces, 'timefull' and palimpsestic, experientially sublime, and ruins of both nature and culture. Post-mining landscapes represent an expanding landscape typology nationally and globally, so investigations of how they can be critically 'read' and described stand to impact a broad array of landscapes at varying scales. The fields of geography and landscape architecture offer fertile theoretical grounds in which these 'thick descriptions' might blossom into a deeper and more complex methodology for re-imagining landscape responses including but not limited to: restoration, reclamation, and recovery. This paper suggests that in viewing PMLs through a number of physical and theoretical lenses, they operate as both mirrors of and for culture, and the reflection therein can critically reframe the relationships geographers, landscape architects, and citizens form with landscape.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture program.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Katharine Bolton.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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on10124 ( NOTIS )
1012401240 ( OCLC )
on1012401240
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LD1193.A77 2017m B65 ( lcc )

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Full Text
MAKING SENSE: EXPERIENCE AND TRANSFORMATION IN POST MINING
LANDSCAPES by KATHARINE BOLTON B.S. University of Vermont, 2011
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Program 2017


2017
KATHARINE BOLTON ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by
Katharine Bolton has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program by
Joern Langhorst, Chair Ann Komara Bob Micsak Casey Allen Lori Catalano
Date: May 16, 2017
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Bolton, Katharine (MLA, Landscape Architecture Program)
Making Sense: Experience and Transformation in Post Mining Landscapes
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Joern Langhorst
ABSTRACT
This research explores the ways in which post-mining landscapes (PMLs) are experienced and theoretically situated within the fields of cultural geography and landscape architecture. Employing multiple methods of discovery, this thesis seeks to make sense of PMLs as they are related to the past, present, and future narratives of landscape in the American West. They are ongoing sites of co-authorship between human and nonhuman forces, timefuN and palimpsestic, experientially sublime, and ruins of both nature and culture. Post-mining landscapes represent an expanding landscape typology nationally and globally, so investigations of how they can be critically read and described stand to impact a broad array of landscapes at varying scales. The fields of geography and landscape architecture offer fertile theoretical grounds in which these thick descriptions might blossom into a deeper and more complex methodology for re-imagining landscape responses including but not limited to: restoration, reclamation, and recovery. This paper suggests that in viewing PMLs through a number of physical and theoretical lenses, they operate as both mirrors of and for culture, and the reflection therein can critically reframe the relationships geographers, landscape architects, and citizens form with landscape.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Joern Langhorst
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.................................................. 1
Background:................................................... 1
Research Question:............................................ 4
Research Goals:............................................... 4
Research Hypotheses:.......................................... 4
II. METHODOLOGY & METHODS........................................ 6
Methodology:.................................................. 6
Methods:...................................................... 9
1. Field Study............................................ 9
2. Photography............................................... 10
3. Reflective Writing........................................ 12
4. Literature Review......................................... 13
III. DATA........................................................... 15
Background Information:.......................................... 15
Bachelor Historic Driving Loop- Creede, CO................... 15
Box Canon Park- Ouray, CO.................................... 19
Berkeley Pit- Butte, MT...................................... 23
Marble Mill Site Park- Marble, CO............................ 26
Literature/Theory: .......................................... 28
Landscape.................................................... 30
Binaries..................................................... 31
Civilization : Wilderness.................................... 32
Presence and Absence: Cultural Memory........................ 36
Narrative.................................................... 38
Photos: ......................................................... 40
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Bachelor Historic Driving Loop- Creede, CO.............. 41
Box Canon Park- Ouray, CO............................... 51
Berkeley Pit- Butte, MT................................. 60
Marble Mill Site Park- Marble, CO....................... 65
Reflections:............................................... 76
Bachelor Historic Driving Loop.......................... 76
Box Canon Park.......................................... 79
Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand.............................. 82
Marble Mill Site Park................................... 84
IV. FRAMEWORK.................................................. 87
PMLs are sites of Co-Authorship between
human and nonhuman forces.................................. 87
PMLs are Timefull and Palimpsestic......................... 89
PMLs are experientially Sublime............................ 92
PMLs are Ruins of both nature and culture.................. 95
V. SYNTHESIS.................................................. 98
VI. CONCLUSIONS................................................... 102
Further and New Questions:.................................... 105
Reflection on Process:........................................ 105


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Aerial view of Creede from Mammoth Mountain, 1902 .......... 17
Figure 2. Main Street Jimtown (modern day Creede), 1892............. 17
Figure 3. Commodore Mine #3, 1900 .................................... 18
Figure 4. View of the Curve Station from Weaver, 1893................. 18
Figure 5. Bridge over Uncompahgre River, 1880s........................ 21
Figure 6. Construction in Box Canyon, 1895............................ 22
Figure 7. 3D Model of topography and tunnels in Butte, MT............. 25
Figure 8. Phtographs documenting water filling the Berkeley Pit.... 25
Figure 9. View of Mill Site, mid 1900s................................ 27
Figure 10. Interior View of Marble Mill, early 1900s.................. 27
Figure 11. Ferrous Iron in Willow Creek............................... 41
Figure 12. Mill Ruins................................................. 42
Figure 13. Mill Ruins................................................. 43
Figure 14. Flow Structure, Willow Creek............................... 43
Figure 15. Looking up Willow Creek from Driving Loop Start Point... 44
Figure 16. Reflections in the Weminuche Wilderness.................... 45
Figure 17. Creede Mining Museum....................................... 46
Figure 18. Looking up valley from the Creede Mining Museum............ 46
Figure 19. Settling Ponds next to Willow Creek........................ 47
Figure 20. Skate Shack................................................ 47
Figure 21. Looking uphill from Driving Loop Start..................... 48
Figure 22. Cabins..................................................... 48
Figure 23. Landform, Ruins, Fall Color................................ 49
Figure 24. Weir structure and Willows................................. 49
Figure 25. Modern Reclamation......................................... 50
Figure 26. Channel structure into town................................ 51
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Figure 27. View towards Ouray up the Uncompahgre River.............. 52
Figure 28. Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Ferrous Iron................. 52
Figure 29. Confluence, Uncompahgre River and Canyon Creek........ 53
Figure 30. Confluence, Uncompahgre River and Canyon Creek........ 53
Figure 31. The High Bridge looking towards the tunnel............... 54
Figure 32. Looking through the High Bridge into Box Canyon.......... 54
Figure 33. Looking into the tunnel across the High Bridge........... 55
Figure 34. Looking over Canyon Creek and the Hot Springs Intake. ... 56
Figure 35. Looking up at the High Bridge from inside the canyon.. 57
Figure 36. Canyon Creek from the base of the canyon................. 58
Figure 37. Old machinery in the canyon.............................. 59
Figure 38. Entrance to the Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand............... 60
Figure 39. Berkeley Pit from the Viewing Stand...................... 61
Figure 40. Barbed wire, processing plant............................ 61
Figure 41. Clouds over the Pit...................................... 62
Figure 42. Structures............................................... 62
Figure 43. Berkeley Pit, clouds..................................... 63
Figure 44. Looking towards the entrance through the tunnel.......... 63
Figure 45. Berkeley Pit, walls...................................... 64
Figure 46. Downtown Butte, MT....................................... 64
Figure 47. Marble Mill Ruins........................................ 65
Figure 48. Blueprint House, Mill Site............................... 66
Figure 49. Construction Detail...................................... 66
Figure 50. Exploring the Mill Site Park............................. 67
Figure 51. Marble Remnants.......................................... 67
Figure 52. Foundations, wandering................................... 68
Figure 53. New growth, old places................................... 69
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69
Figure 54. Traces of walls
Figure 55. Portals..................................................... 70
Figure 56. Folly....................................................... 71
Figure 57. Aspen grove in a sunken room................................ 72
Figure 58. Path to the marble fire wall................................ 72
Figure 59. Growing through the cracks.................................. 73
Figure 60. Dappled light on an old building............................ 74
Figure 61. Marble table at the entry................................... 74
Figure 62. Crumbling marble walls...................................... 75


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background:
This research was born of a lifelong fascination with remnants and traces of otherwise invisible histories. The focus on post-mining landscapes (PMLs) in particular began in Telluride in 2012. Hikes inevitably put me in direct contact with the valleys rich mining history by way of tailing ponds and piles, rusting infrastructure, and traces of human involvement in areas one would hardly suspect it today. Coming upon these remnants both deepened and reframed my understanding and experience in modern-day Telluride. Pursuing studies in Landscape Architecture has exposed me to a new and varied set of tools with which to make sense of these unique and rich places. This thesis makes sense of my own experience of four PMLs and seeks to address some of the latent potential PMLs have to break linear spatio-temporal boundaries and connect past and future ecological and cultural activity. These places were developed as a product of dominant cultural values, but have since evolved with nonhuman processes to become sites of immense complexity worthy of attention from fields such as landscape architecture, geography, historic preservation, art, ecology, and engineering.
This thesis focuses on experience at four post-mining landscapes, techniques for recording sensory experience, and how integrating experience with landscape architectural and geographical theory can inform our understanding of PMLs moving forward.
Post mining landscapes are a subset of post industrial landscapes, sites of former industrial operations that have since ceased production. Addressing not only the environmental and public health hazards of such sites, but also re-shaping them for alternative, modern use has generated an exciting new branch of landscape study and design. From Gasworks Park in Seattle, to the Highline in New York,
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citizen groups and designers have helped change perception of industrial relics from derelict eyesore to intriguing artifact, often while addressing issues of contamination and ruination.
Post mining landscapes have received considerably less attention for their alternative use potential. Numerous factors influence this continual abandonment by those scholars and designers keen on reuse. Often, post mining sites are located in rural town and counties, responsibilities for clean up are strict and expensive, and the ways in which these sites might be repurposed are understudied and unclear. Yet, PMLs are the genesis of many industrial processes, generating and refining the raw materials for consumer goods and the machinery that creates them. Suggestions of these landscapes are omnipresent in towns and cities built from these raw materials. PMLs are an intimate part of consumer capitalism and in studying and researching their histories and qualities, I have come to believe they deserve further study and approaches for sensitive re-use that maximize their cultural impact.
The purpose of this thesis is to establish a framework to make sense of form and experience in transitional post mining landscapes that begins to suggest how a deeper understanding of these places could inform future recovery efforts with the goal of altering popular perception towards PMLs. Four landscapes will form the primary study areas of this thesis. They are:
Bachelor Loop, Creede, CO
Box Canon Park, Ouray, CO
Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT
Marble Mill Site Park, Marble, CO
Originally, I thought the study areas for this thesis would be the rough, expansive landscapes of extraction that had been abandoned post-mine activity and attended only by nonhuman forces since then. These are incredibly important
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places as they often include extreme and far reaching environmental contamination as well as an expanding landscape typology that will continue to propel construction of urban communities and directly affect the life and livelihoods of rural ones in the American West. The primary difficulty with these sites was access. I found that there are a number of reasons these landscapes are so often represented by aerial imagery: first, their scale is enormous, far beyond the frame of an average camera at eye level; second, they are very difficult to gain access to for various property ownership and environmental risk reasons; and third, they are often remote and require all terrain vehicles and knowledge of occasionally unmarked roads.
As an important part of my methods for this study involve on-the-ground, en-situ observation at a human experiential scale, I realized that the most valuable parts of my research took place within landscapes I could experience first hand. While I was denied entry to the Yule Marble Quarry, I was able to explore the Marble Mill Site Park in Marble, Colorado. While late spring snows foiled my visits to alpine mine sites in the San Juans, I wandered Box Canon Park in Ouray, Colorado. The town of Creede features the Bachelor Loop Historic Tour that can be explored at ones own pace and provides an experience that is both informed and open ended. And while I was not able to take any behind the scenes tours of the Anaconda Copper Mine, I paused at the Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand in Butte, Montana. So while the scars of abandoned and ongoing mining operations still hold a special place in my imagination, I argue it is the places we can see, smell, touch, and experience that take imaginative inputs towards actionable information. These transitional PMLs, so called because of their continued evolution beyond abandoned mining site, were accessible and interpretable, and form the backbone of experience from which this thesis stems.
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Research Question:
How can making sense of post-mining landscapes inform the practice of landscape architecture?
Research Goals:
Understand my personal field experience through the lens of landscape architectural and geographical theory.
Experiment with multiple methods of data collection and generation.
Formulate a framework through which others experiences might be interpreted.
Work towards an understanding of PMLs that could catalyze personal and collective perceptive shifts of these landscapes and their future potential.
This thesis explores qualitative methods of understanding and engaging with PMLs. They are significant landscapes in their cultural and historical significance, reminders of a way of life perceptively distant, yet physically related to the urban dweller. PMLs illustrate the forms and practices of capitalist production, as well as the nonhuman forces at work in their evolution as ruins. Through the lens of experience, this research aims to create a framework through which PMLs might be transformed in the eyes of the modern consumer population. The framework is a point of departure for the imagining of future chapters of landscape engagement.
Research Hypotheses:
Experience is key to making sense of PMLs
Having a framework for decoding experience can help shift perception of PMLs.
There is something in the nature of experience of PMLs that has significant implications for the theory and practice of landscape architecture.
These hypotheses are born of intuition and context. As a student of landscape in Colorado, I am acutely aware of how experience in the mountains shapes my world view; the landscape here provides me a comparative sense of scale, an
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appreciation for process and time. While Colorado is but a small piece of the Intermountain West, my direct experiences here inform my understanding of the region as a whole, and suggests interconnections blatant and subtle, immense and intimate. Based on concepts uncovered in landscape and geographical theory such as: presence and absence, picturesque and sublime, city and wilderness,
I felt, through my own experience, that PMLs were worthy of investigation by landscape architects and scholars. Through my research process, I hoped to better understand the connections between PMLs and their contexts within and outside of the Intermountain West, as well as their potential to alter hegemonic perceptions of landscape and culture: such as landscape as wilderness, landscape as scenery, or landscape as blank canvas, and landscape and industry: such as landscape as resource, landscape as wealth, or landscape as a problem to be solved.
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CHAPTER II
METHODOLOGY & METHODS
Methodology:
My methodology is one of making sense of experience to better understand how it influences perception and action. Research questions include: How do we make sense of landscapes and our experiences in them? And how does this understanding shape the way we view ourselves in relation to landscape? To address this I utilized the following scholarly practices: reflexivity and experiential aesthetics. Reflexivity, described by Gillian Rose as a strategy most thoroughly utilized by feminist geographers as a means of avoiding the false neutrality and universality of so much academic knowledge1 seeks a balance of looking inward towards identity and outward towards relation. It is the constant evaluation and reevaluation of oneself in relation to the object of study, an observation of how that relationship changes through study. This ties into the idea of recovery, defined as to find and identify, again2 in which we are constantly in a process of identifying places and ourselves in relation to them. We do this by a process of introspection, or inward study of our own reactions, feelings, thoughts, etc (I chose photography and writing as the vehicles for this process) and then investigating relationships occurring in that place that might contribute to those perceptions.
Kants philosophy of concepts and percepts supports these methods of making sense.3 His search for understanding of how humans come to know the
1 Rose, Gillian. Situating Knowledges: positionally, reflexivities and other tactics, Progress in Human Geography 21,3 (1997): 306.
2 Recover. Merriam Webster Online, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionarv/ recover
3 McLear, Colin. The Kantian (Non)-Conceptualism Debate, Philosophy Compass,
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world around them and through that, come to know themselves and how to act within that world, invites the exploration of world-knowing and self-knowing that requires as many varied modes as there are varied people.4 Kant attempted to frame experience and perception of landscape into categories which might serve as points of entry to more abstract conceptions, e.g. the beautiful and the sublime, which in turn influence further perception. This is the same attempt I will be making, through my findings and synthesis, regarding PMLs. As Dixon, et al. mention in their summary of Kants theory on the sublime, The sublime, then, is much more than a particular appreciation for a grand nature; it brings into play the intellectual response to such grandeur. It is an invitation to thought.5 By making sense of our perceptions and experience through abstract and categorical analysis, we are able to better understand both our surroundings and ourselves; a deep read of a place requires both abstract thought and direct experience.
Experiential Aesthetics is a topic addressed by numerous scholars; in this research I have primarily focused on the writings of Arnold Berleant and Yi-Fu Tuan. This methodology also addresses the dialectic between the experiential and the abstract, the inward and the outward, the superficial and the deep. The term thick description, first coined by philosopher Gilbert Ryle then adopted by anthropologist Clifford Geertz in his 1979 book The Interpretation of Cultures, plays an important role in this study. The term has been mostly associated with ethnography and the idea of situating the researcher within the context of the place she or he is studying.
It has since been adapted to many different fields.
(2014): 2-3.
4 Dixon, et al. Wonder-full geomorphology: Sublime aesthetics and the place of
art. Progress in Physical Geography. 37(2) 2012; 232.
5 Ibid.
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Scholars of landscape have utilized this practice and the language of thickness and depth to describe the types of knowledge they are seeking. Tuan references Geertz thick description6 directly in his discourse on surface and depth. Berleant discusses thick texture as a quality of environment generated by aesthetic experience, perception, meaning, and value. The concept of values and how they shape landscapes and human perceptions of landscapes is critical to this investigation. Value originates in experience as an inseparable part of being human.7 The values we hold as participants in landscapes shape our perceptions, and at a societal level, the landscapes themselves. The interconnectedness of environmental and cultural aesthetics is highlighted in PMLs and human engagement of post-industrial landscapes in general.
Ann Spirn seeks what she refers to as deep context in The Language of Landscape, a quality of landscape created by layers of ephemeral and permanent biological, geological and cultural strata. All these approaches speak to a multi-sensuous, and hence aesthetic, encounter with landscape, and a sustained reflection upon how this encounter is to be made sense of perceptually and cognitively.8 It is aesthetic experience that allows us to understand physical and geological layers and generate from them cultural impressions and information. It is my hope that in utilizing these theoretical frameworks and methodologies, the links between experience and data in the formation of knowledge about PMLs will be strengthened.
6 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79: 2 (1989): 233.
7 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992): 22-23.
8 Dixon, et al. 235.
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Methods:
In seeking this thick description, a marrying of theory and experience, cultural and biological, permanent and ephemeral, temporal and spatial, I employed four different methods. Each method adds a new layer to the description of place, while mixing with and influencing the layers around it. These methods focus on participant observation and study of place (both in and outside of that place) and subsequent reflection on experience to formulate a unique and insightful description. Methods used to support the thick description include: field study, photography, reflective writing, and literature review. These methods work together to investigate form and experience at the research sites, building a deep context based on both human- scale observation and information gleaned from data and literature available.
1. Field Study
As I mentioned in my hypotheses, I have always suspected that direct experience was critical to any understanding of post-mining landscapes. Field study, actually putting myself on site was, therefore, necessary to test that hypothesis. Originally I thought Id be studying the massive, raw landscapes of abandoned mining operations. One thing I learned throughout this process is that those places tend to be very difficult to get to and gain access to. Each time I tried to visit a prereclamation uranium-mining site or gain access to a quarry, I was rebuffed and instead found myself in what I now refer to as transitional post-mining landscapes. The four places I was able to investigate are:
The Bachelor Historic Driving Loop in Creede, CO
Box Canon Park in Ouray, CO
The Berkeley Pit in Butte, MT
Marble Mill Site Park in Marble, CO
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Many who study and work with landscapes appreciate the qualities tangible only via direct experience. While the etymology of the term may refer one to reproductions of a landscape scene, conveyance of the full landscape experience can be limited by representational methods; the special quality of a fragrance, taste, or touch cannot be projected onto a public stage other than through pictorial and linguistic means.9 The experience of a place as landscape is wholly interwoven with the temporal and sensory inputs generated from being physically present. We not only see our living world we move with it, we act upon and in response to it.
We grasp places not just through color, texture, and shape, but with the breath, by smell, with our skin, through our muscular action and skeletal position, in the sounds of wind, water, and traffic.10 The impression of place left on and made by visitors in PMLs is one of interactive experience, of the body moving through space and time, consciously and subconsciously constructing and reconstructing place and self in relation to each other. This being in a place formulates an impression in the mind, integrates into larger stories, and ultimately is incorporated into memory, to be revisited when that experience is called to the forefront by certain stimuli. This direct experience contributes to multiple layers of the thick description, some of sensory input in place, some integrated into personal and cultural narratives, some translated into photographs or quantitative data. In this way field study is both a method in its own right and the means for achieving other methodological goals.
2. Photography
But of course the very act of identifying (not to mention photographing) the place presupposes our presence, and along with us all the heavy cultural backpacks
9 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Place: An Experiential Perspective, The Geographical Review. 65:2 (April 1975): 152.
10 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992): 19.


that we lug with us on the trail.11 What Simon Schama so succinctly states here is that the photograph is a measure of our experience, and an expression of our self, captured simultaneously. It is a representation of place and landscape that belies human presence by its very existence. While this may seem more remarkable in landscapes where humanity is less obviously evident, it is especially poignant in those where it is blatant.
In PMLs, the photograph re-places humans in a distinctly human landscape, it urges thought and curiosity, forces the photographer to question what it is they are seeing, and why they ultimately press the shutter and capture the moment.
The photograph captures a distinct moment in time, drawing the viewers attention to the continuous reformation of place as mentioned by Robert Smithson, The photograph has the rawness of an instant out of the continuous growth and construction of the park, and indicates a break in continuity that serves to reinforce a sense of transformation, rather than any isolated formation.12 The rawness of the photograph, the product of instinct, the weight of a finger pressed, speaks to the rawness I see in PMLs. They are places cut open, used, exposed, engaged intimately, if not violently, then abandoned. Regardless of their current use and visitation, there is still a sense of solitude and loneliness in the experience there. There are visible traces of the vigor and intensity that once reverberated and now is quiet. In this too, photography is an appropriate medium. It is a solitary sport, there is only room for one eye behind the viewfinder, at once turned away from the photographer and yet an honest product of her. Yet this solitary act is full of potential. As Lucy Lippard suggests in her book, Undermined, the combination of
11 Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. (New York: Random House, 1996), 7.
12 Smithson, Robert. Frederick Law Olmsted and the Dialectical Landscape. in Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, ed. Jack Flam. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 160.


photography, as an art, with experience has vast potential for imagining new futures: While entangling visual art with the cold realities of our current environment, some artists are realizing that they can envision alternative futures, produce redemptive and restorative vehicles with which to open cracks into other worlds, and rehabilitate the role of the communal imagination.13 Photography is an individual reflection that contributes to a collective understanding. In the photographs of the PMLs I see myself, the ghosts of past presents, and a future which is not solitary, but the product of many thoughts, many visits, perceptions, actions, and dreams. The photographic layer of the thick description is a powerful one. It is a translation of the multi-sensory experience into a visual representation. Lacking specific definition, it reproduces that quality of place which is at once influenced by personal history and yet readily interpretable. It is a method which simultaneously contains depth of meaning and elicits it.
3. Reflective Writing
Reflective writing is another way of deciphering and decoding my own experience in such a way that layers are added to the thick description. Using language has helped me to weave together my own impressions with concepts Ive discovered through reading theory and literature as a part of my literature review.
In the words of Christopher Tilley, To understand a landscape truly it must be felt, but to convey some of this feeling to others it has to be talked about, recounted, or written and depicted.14 The written accounts of these places are a portrayal of my own experiences therein. PMLs are places rich in memory of past uses and inhabitants. I filtered my own experience through the lens of time (to varying degrees), adding a layer of memory to this landscape and its interpretation. There is
13 Lippard, Lucy. Undermined. (New York: The New Press, 2013), 8-9.
14 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape- Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994), 31.


a fundamental difference between experience in the moment and reflection on that experience looking back. Solnit discusses this phenomena through a short story:
One day a few years ago my mother took out of her cedar chest the turquoise blouse she bought for me on that trip to Bolivia, a miniature of the native womens outfits. When she unfolded the little garment and gave it to me, the living memory of wearing the garment collided shockingly with the fact that it was so tiny, with arms less than a foot long, with a tiny bodice for a small cricket cage of a ribcage that was no longer mine, and the shock was that my vivid memory included what it felt like to be inside that brocade shirt but not the fact that inside it I had been so diminutive, had been something utterly other than my adult self who remembered. The continuity of memory did not measure the abyss between a toddlers body and a womans.15
There is an abyss between our memories and the artifacts that shock us back to the reality of that space. Still, looking at the photographs of the four PMLs, I am struck by the memory of the experience and the limitations of the written word in fully describing it. There is truly nothing like being in a place, but as Berleant states, linguistic means are one of our only tools for conveying landscape experience to a larger audience. Memory is a lens through which an experience available to anyone is made unique. It is the way in which we own and understand our lives. This method takes advantage of this nearly universal tool of human communication to add yet another layer to the thick description. Language can be used to describe experience, or artifacts, such as photographs, that derive from it. Verbal description finds its way into each method and form of experiential documentation, linking them all in a chorus of voices.
4. Literature Review
Literature review has been a foundational practice for me in this process. Reading scholarly writing from the disciplines of landscape architecture, landscape studies, and cultural and humanistic geography has formed the theoretical
15
Solnit, Rebecca. A Field Guide to Getting Lost. (New York: Penguin, 2006), 37.
13


foundation for this thesis. These disciplines dovetail in support of this research as they attempt to decipher the intersection of wild and designed landscapes and the human and nonhuman processes which contribute to their ecological and cultural formation. This method calls to attention a very important point: my research is not the first to approach these landscapes, my perspective is but one of many which could influence this process. The literature review brings the depth of time and the volume of scholarly thought that I have gathered in support of these concepts, that have helped to formulate the understanding of landscape and landscape process from which my description emerges.
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CHAPTER III
DATA
Background Information:
I collected data and information on the sites I visited, their positions in the communities theyre situated within, and their uses throughout history. This helped to frame my own perceptions.16
Bachelor Historic Driving Loop- Creede, CO
The 17-mile driving loop just outside of the small town of Creede, CO, showcases the areas mining history. The mining boom began in 1890 with the discovery of a rich silver vein. Rapidly, the town swelled to 10,000 residents, as compared to Mineral Countys present day population of 850. The remnants visible today are products of the human industry that extracted millions of dollars worth of ore in the 1890s. Creede survived as a hard rock mining town for over a century. The last surviving silver mine from that era, the Homestake, closed permanently in 1985. While this appeared to be the end of mining in Creede, Hecla Mining reopened the San Juan Silver Project in December of 2011, expecting to mine the 37-million-ounce resource confirmed and modeled by Hecla from historic records with the potential to discover significant additional resources in excess of 100 million-ounces.17
The duration of extraction in Creede sets it apart from its boom and bust compatriots in the West. While still subject to fluctuating commodity prices, the
16 The site information and histories presented in this section are intentionally selective and incomplete, full accounts are beyond the scope of this thesis. I included information I found to be useful in my own investigation and as context for other methods.
17 San Juan Silver. Hecla Mining Company. (Accessed January 22, 2017) http:// www.hecla-mining.com/san-juan/.
15


cultural history of Creede is one of sustained extraction. The historic remnants left from early mining days are, therefore, tied more closely to modern culture and issues in the now sparsely populated town. Today, the largest events in Creede are a result of the renowned repertory theater, whose productions swell the population from 700 to almost 4000 in the summer months.18 Creede exemplifies a modern day mining town striving to diversify its culture while maintaining strong ties to its origins in extraction. The Bachelor Historic Driving Loop is an important part of this effort.
18 Population, Economy & Lifestyle, Creede and Mineral County Colorado. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.creede.com/discover-creede/population-economy-lifestyle.html
16


Figure 1. Aerial view of Creede from Mammoth Mountain, 1902 Creede Historical Society
Figure 2. Main Street Jimtown (modern day Creede), 1892
Creede Historical Society
17


Figure 3. Commodore Mine #3, 1900
Creede Historical Society
Figure 4. View of the Curve Station from Weaver, 1893
Creede Historical Society
18


Box Canon Park- Ourav. CO
Box Canon Park is located just above the confluence of Canyon Creek and the Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Colorado. Its main features is a 285 foot waterfall that descends into a narrow, quartzite canyon. This quartzite is the oldest type of rock found in the Ouray area and is roughly 1500 million years old. The neighboring slopes are sandstone, a youthful 270 million years old.19 Visitors can view the falls from a number of different vista points. Downstream from the falls, visitors can see a concrete holding pen where 150 degree water rises out of the ground and is piped further into town to the municipal hot springs pool, opened in 1927 and still operational today.20
Box Canon Park has a long and varied history, interwoven with both recreation and industry. Many of the roads surrounding the park are still in their original locations, indicating the paths miners took to the alpine mines. The canyon walls were blasted around 1885 to accommodate the construction of pipelines carrying water to the electric light plant. Ore-processing mills surrounded the park site and a dam stood above Oak Street Bridge, channeling water to the power plant. Some of the first tourists journeyed to Ouray for soaking in and taking of the hot spring waters like the ones on the park site, which were utilized throughout town to attract visitors as well as to heat buildings. The High Bridge was constructed in 1898 to convey water from the Oak Creek Reservoir to the town. Walking across the High Bridge and through the rough blasted tunnel at the other end up to the reservoir was another popular recreation activity until the tunnel was closed off for safety and the Oak Creek Reservoir was abandoned in 1950. The parks most impressive
19 Larson, Pam. City of Arrays Box Canyon Falls Visitor Guide via Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls & Park (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984)
20 Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls & Park. (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984): 6.


adornment is its lighted sign, mounted on the hill above the High Bridge, whose 5 by 6 foot letters were illuminated with electric light bulbs in 1909. The Ouray Herald is quoted: There is certainly no doubt of the fact that Box Canon is sufficiently wonderful among the great pranks of nature to warrant some distinguishing mark that will enable anyone who visits Ouray to locate it without difficulty.21 The sign remains today, but is unlit.
The Colorado Geological Survey includes the following passage regarding the impressive and well-visited geologic formation at Box Canon Park:
A spectacular example of an angular unconformity in Box Canyon near Ouray is so striking that it often appears in geology texts. The steeply dipping Precambrian strata were originally deposited as horizontal layers and then buried. Later, the layers tilted and folded to a vertical position during a mountain building event and were eventually eroded and truncated. When the vertical Precambrian strata subsided below sea level, the Devonian marine sandstone was deposited on top of them.22 In 2001, Box Canon Park was designated an important bird watching area by the National Audubon Society hosting a flock of black swifts, a protected species that prefers living in canyon walls near waterfalls. The park is one of the largest dwelling places for black swifts in the state.23 The park attracts geologists, bird watchers, history buffs, and landscape enthusiasts alike, and is a common recreation area for local families.
21 The Ouray Herald, 1909. via Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls and Park. (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984) 34.
22 Unconformities. Colorado Geological Survey, June 20, 2013. (Accessed October 21, 2016). http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org/colorado-geology/structures/ unconformities/.
23 Ourays Slot Canyon: Rare Birds and Billions of Years of Geology. Ouray, Colorado. (Accessed October 21, 2016). http://www.ouraycolorado.com/things-to-do/ box-canon-falls
20


Bridge over Uncompahgre River in 1880s leading up Canyon Creek. Identical location as bridge today leading also to entrance to Box Canyon Park.
Figure 5. Bridge over Uncompahgre River, 1880s William H. Jackson, State Historical Society of Missouri
21


Probably construction for laying pipeline into Lhe canyon hy Ouray Electric Light and Power Company. Photo dated 1895.
Figure 6. Construction in Box Canyon, 1895
Colorado Historical Society
22


Berkeley Pit- Butte. MT
The Berkeley Pit is a former open copper pit mine in Butte, Montana. Known colloquially as the richest hill on earth, the roughly 320 million tonnes of ore and 700 million tonnes of waste rock mined out of the Pit produced enough metal to pave a copper road 4 inches thick from Butte to 30 miles south of Salt Lake City,
UT. The social and cultural history of Butte, which accompanied its long history of extraction which extends through the present, is fascinating and while I will not cover it exhaustively here, further resources are available.24
Underground copper mining ceased in Butte in 1975 when economic factors led the ARCO (Atlantic-Richfield Corporation) to cease operations. In 1982, the pumps keeping groundwater from accumulating in the underground tunnels stopped and the Pit began to fill with water.25 As of November 4, 2016, the water level was 5335.73 feet above sea level, a staggering 1780 feet deep and 43 billion gallons in volume. The water is highly acidic and contaminated with numerous minerals and heavy metals including but not limited to: calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, manganese, aluminum, cadmium, copper, zinc, chloride, fluoride, and sulfate. The pH of the water varies between 2.5 and 3.0. A phenomena called a chemocline occurs between 400 and 435 feet below the surface of the water, separating water with different densities of metal content and pH. According to water samples taken in
24 oitwatch.org is a resource I used for history as well as ongoing research updates. It is a local organization that focuses on public education regarding the Pit whose pamphlet I picked up while I was visiting. There are also a number of scholarly articles that cover all manner of related topics from extremophile bacteria thriving in Pit water to controversy over Buttes long history of prostitution.
25 1982-2013: 31 Years since Pumps Stopped. PitWatch, July 31,2013. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.pitwatch.org/31-years-since-pumps-stopped/.


2008, the water below the chemocline contains significantly higher concentrations of copper and iron than that above and has a lower pH.26
There are a number of local myths regarding the early 20th century discovery of copper content in wastewater, many of which agree that the discoverer acquired rights to the water for one year before the value was discovered by the mining company and made off with approximately $90,000 in that year alone. The practice of re-mining the Pit water continues today. Montana Resources uses an iron-based precipitation process that cycles water through a plant, pulling copper out of the water to the order of 400,000 pounds per month. The effluent waterfall of this process is visible from the Viewing Stand.
26 Whats in the Berkeley Pit Water? PitWatch, July 6, 2013. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.pitwatch.org/whats-in-the-berkeley-pit-water/.
24


Figure 7. 3D Model of topography and tunnels in Butte, MT Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology
Figure 8. Phtographs documenting water filling the Berkeley Pit
Pit Watch
25


Marble Mill Site Park- Marble. CO
Marble is a unique Colorado mining town in that its product was not metal ore but the rock itself. Home to the some of the finest white marble outside of Italy, the Colorado-Yule Marble Company was founded in 1905 to quarry this resource which would make its way to many historic sites around the country, including the Byron R. White United States Courthouse in Denver and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC. The quarry is 3.9 miles away from the Mill Site, where large marble blocks were transported to be carved and then shipped. The Marble Mill was the largest stone mill in United States History. The present day park covers 25 acres and is an ongoing project owned and maintained by the Town of Marble and is made possible thanks to support of local community organizations and residents.27
The Park is comprised of numerous buildings and ruins, all which supported the milling process of the marble from the Yule Quarry. The first one I encountered was the Vault Building, which housed blueprints for all the stone blocks and company documents and records. The main portion of the park wanders through what was once the body of the Mill Building, comprised of multiple mills and shops where the marble was processed, cut, sculpted, sanded, and polished. The site also includes an avalanche wall, constructed to protect the building from avalanches ripping through the valley, which at one point stood 61 feet tall and the remnants of an overhead crane which helped load blocks up to 25 tonnes onto the railcars that actually traversed the shop.28
For modern visitors, the site also hosts picnic tables, a basketball court, trails, and a frisbee golf course.
27 Marble Mill Site Park. Informational Pamphlet. Town of Marble and The Marble Hub.
28 Marble Mill Site Park. Informational Pamphlet. Town of Marble and The Marble Hub.
26


Figure 9. View of Mill Site, mid 1900s
Stone Quarries and Beyond
Figure 10. Interior View of Marble Mill, early 1900s Stone Quarries and Beyond
27


Literature/Theorv:
The literature review serves as the context for my findings and synthesis. It is composed of theories and discourses from landscape architecture and cultural geography. These theoretical foundations formed my understanding of the breadth and depth of the relationships nested in built and wild landscapes. It taught me to question my own perception of those relationships based on observations and discoveries by other students of landscape. In The Beholding Eye, Meinig identifies 10 ways in which the same landscape might be viewed, and declares that Identification of these different bases for the variations in interpretations of what we see is a step toward more effective communication.29 These Ten Versions of the Same Scene are:
landscape as Nature
landscape as Habitat
landscape as Artifact
landscape as System
landscape as Problem
landscape as Wealth
landscape as Ideology
landscape as History
landscape as Place
landscape as Aesthetic
PMLs could arguably be seen in any of these ways, among others. The ones most pertinent to this research are: artifact, problem, wealth, history, place, and
29 Meinig, D. W. The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. 47.
28


aesthetic. Artifact because the mark of man30 is distinctly visible at these sites, and humankind, for its own purposes, has apparently conquered Nature. Problem because from a number of perspectives, the landscape is in a condition needing correction. To the miner, the problem is the valuable material residing within the earth, which he or she needs to extract for profit. To many environmentalists, the problem is the resulting landscape post-extraction, where levels of toxicity can alter surrounding water systems and/or create public and environmental health hazards. To the scientist, the problem is how little we understand, quantitatively and systematically about these places, and/or how best to restore them. Wealth because the initial reason for pursuing extraction in the first place was its acquisition. History because each site is a complex cumulative record of the work of nature and man in this particular place. Sites of extraction may be presently considered historic, or, if presently active, have significance to future generations. Of course, the chronologies visible in such sites are biased towards those who leave lasting marks, and so these histories are often incomplete at best, fractured and misleading at worst.
Place because PMLs intrigue the senses, occasionally bombard them, and impress upon the visitor the sense that the site has many stories of its own, an individuality to communicate. And finally, PMLs can be interpreted as landscape as Aesthetic due to the composition of their spaces, which invite penetrating explorations by the artistically-minded. The search for function in relation to form, meaning in relation to materiality, the connection between formal composition of the scene and the stories, histories, and mysteries it holds, is one that I, too, fell prey to.
Clearly, there are a multitude of landscape perceptions even when the gaze is directed at the same scene; the process of this research has forced me to decipher my own perceptions and communicate them. As Stilgoe remarks in
30 Meinig, D. W. The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. 3.
29


What is Landscape? Landscape mocks scholars. Groups of people share certain general angles of vision and agree on certain rough-hewn simplicities, but landscape perception is peculiar to each inquirer.31 As outlined in Kants theory of concepts and percepts, a perception of landscape is not completely formed until it integrates with the conceptual framework one holds regarding pieces and parts of the landscape experience. The conceptual framework most Americans have for understanding the PMLs in this country do not embrace the power these particular places have to catalyze change. Broadening the conceptual framework around experience in PMLs allows participants in that experience and those communities to imagine new and different futures beyond traditional restoration and reclamation practices.
Landscape
By landscape I want instead (of mental representation and cognition) to refer to the physical and visual form of the earth as an environment and as a setting in which locales occur and in a dialectical relation to which meanings are created, reproduced and transformed... A landscape as ontological importance because it is lived in and through...replete with cultural meaning and symbolism.. 32
landscape is the work of the mind. Its scenery is built up as much from strata of memory as from layers of rock.33
As indicated by the two quotes above, landscape is a concept with multiple and conflicting definitions. Its evolution over time from the fine art world in which it described a scene represented artistically, to a post-structuralist concept of layered time, memory, and experience, landscape is an elusive and alluring concept.
It is both the physical world we inhabit and the social, emotional, metaphorical
31 Stilgoe, John. What is Landscape? (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015), 17.
32 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape- Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994), 25-26.
33 Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. (New York: Random House, 1996), 7.


constructions the mind has woven around that physicality. In his description of dwelling Heidegger emphasizes the critical interconnectedness of the fourfold: humans truly dwell when they build their worlds in awareness and relation to the other interconnected elements of earth, sky, and divine.34 The landscape is the home in which we dwell, the physical surface and materials on and with which we construct our lives. It is also the basis of our understanding of self in relation to perceived other and the foundation for our spiritual and symbolic beliefs. Landscape is the painting and the world view and everything in between. PMLs are a distinct type within the post industrial landscape typology, the places studied for this thesis are products of a capitalist world view, and also provide us with scenery that allows for visualization of cultural histories and integration of symbolism into the landscape experience.
Binaries
The opposition of humans and culture to nature is a deep seeded distinction and one that permeates nearly all aspects of landscape perception. Binaries make distinct concepts which are often, in fact, interwoven and interrelated. In The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Meyer presents the questioning of binary thought as critical to deconstructing ethical and aesthetic practices that sunder humans from their environments. Meyer makes a number of assertions regarding the improved future role of feminine landscape as a grounded and powerful object in relation to its typical binary, masculine architecture.35 The fascinating application of these concepts to PMLs is that they often transcend the distinction altogether. Due to time and the dual necessity of nonhuman features in concert with human ones to extract resources, these sites, especially post-
34 Heidegger, Martin. Building, Dwelling, Thinking. from his lecture given to Darmstadt Symposium on Man and Space, August 5, 1951.
35 Meyer, Elizabeth K. The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Ecological Design and Planning, ed. George E. Thomson and Frederick R. Steiner (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 71-72.
31


abandonment, are decidedly a grey area. Built form crumbles and warps in response to the nonhuman, becoming more landscape-like until the two are nearly indistinguishable. The forms of landscape, as adapted by human hands, reflect some of these modern principles so critiqued by Meyer to the point where they, too, could be identified as either feminine landscape (shaped so violently by (typically) male hands) or a masculine architectural form smoothed and overcome by feminine landscape features.
Another alternative presented in her article was the landscape hybrid or cyborg, what she refers to as a both-and relationship rather than the either-or of the binary pair.36 Both conclusions are beneficial: in many ways the hybrid/cyborg is an accurate representation of PMLs, yet there is something to be gained by addressing the issue of engendering the landscape one way or another. As with humans, gender can be more nuanced and subtle than segregated. Perhaps as we evolve to appreciate this within human culture we will be able to glimpse this subtlety in landscape. The world view of human: nature places the landscape as Other to humans and (in Meyers argument) architecture and man-made form. Because we are human and our experience and perception is human, we tend to view ourselves as distinct from and independent of the landscape, but it is our experience that generates perceptions of landscape as both a human construct and a system of nonhuman entities and forces.
Civilization : Wilderness
All America lies at the end of the wilderness road, and our past is not a dead past, but still lives in us. Our forefathers had civilization inside themselves, the wild outside. We live in the civilization they created, but within us the
36 Meyer, Elizabeth K. The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Ecological Design and Planning, ed. George E. Thomson and Frederick R. Steiner (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 64.
32


wilderness still lingers. What they dreamed, we live, and what they lived, we
dream37
It is common for civilization, society, and urbanism to be construed as diametrically opposed to concepts of wilderness. What PMLs force us to acknowledge is their deep interconnection. As Cronon states, Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it (wilderness) is quite profoundly a human creation.38 Cronon accurately paints a picture of urban dwellers who see their own chosen habitat as a type of contamination pressing in upon this idea of pristine nature and wilderness. Instead, argues the author, it is a product of that civilization, and could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is made.39 Eighteenth century connotation to wilderness was deserted, desolate, barren, a waste. Since the 18th century we have developed a fascination with what we perceive to be wilderness- we have created a whole new identity, for it and for ourselves. The current trajectory may be sending us into a re-definition of post-mining and post-industrial in the same way we redefined wilderness. In the 18th century, the industrial revolution was just beginning. Manufacturing and larger scale industry was changing the way society functioned. By the 19th century men made wealthy through industrialization sought the wilderness as a place where their true values resided, and, like the quote that launches us into Lonesome Dove, it became a pinnacle of wild west romanticism. Industrialization and civilization are often viewed in opposition to wilderness; that which consumes the raw goods of nature and fuels the every day life that happens apart from the wilderness. In
37 McMurtry, Larry. Lonesome Dove. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985). Epigraph.
38 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, (W.W. Norton
& Company: New York, 1996): 69.
39 Ibid
33


todays post-modern context, we have an abundance of residual landscapes from the consumption of wilderness. This new breed of wilderness elicits much the same response as natural wilderness did in the 18th century, mainly fear, repulsion, and awe. As we watch the cultural perceptions towards post- mining and post-industrial landscapes move in a similar direction as wilderness, Cronons interpretation of the wilderness concept through the lenses of the sublime and the frontier perhaps foreshadow and may inform the way post industrial landscapes are received as they evolve.
Cronon states that in order to gain influence, the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to become sacred.40 But as Cronon and many others identify, humans see wilderness as Other.41 So if wilderness is deemed sacred, then we most certainly are not. Thus, wilderness gains divine status and in interacting with it we hope to happen upon a reflection of our higher selves within it. But what about the post-industrial? In it we see the abandoned ruins of a previous culture- a culture that has expired, gone extinct, moved on to greener pastures. We can see a dark smudge of failure but we can also see ourselves in it. We are inescapably a part of the picture. By this argument, if the post-industrial landscape becomes sublime, becomes, like wilderness, celebrated in its essential nature, if it becomes sacred, then so do we. The revitalization of these places holds not only the opportunity to rewrite history but the potential to redeem humanity in its own eyes.
Christopher Salter took on this dichotomous relationship in his piece, The Cowboy and the City, in which he deconstructs the cowboy myth through the
40 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, (W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 1996): 73.
41 See also: Elizabeth Meyer, Edward Casey,
34


symbolism used in Marlboro cigarette advertisements. He claims that if we would only embrace the choice we have made in living in cities we would see more clearly the poetry, intent, and modest success42 we have achieved in dense, urban settlement. Key to his argument are the elements of wilderness portrayed in the advertisements to which the city dweller is drawn ideologically but not realistically. They are isolation, lack of technology, and animal husbandry. These are all aspects of rural living that millions of Americans abandoned in their move to cities. In Salters words, We covet the image. We avoid the reality.43 PMLs are a part of the reality of both rural and urban living. In the former, mining is a way of life, a means to a living, and an environmental reality. In the latter, it is a rather distasteful means to the ends we desire in our daily lives. PMLs have been created in response to a capitalistic value system but have varying effects of the lives of rural and urban communities and depending on ones context, there will be a wide spectrum of responses to them. Salter notes that Activities that had been viewed as essential modifications for societys short-term needs were now seen as misuse of landscape that was wasteful, distasteful, and, certainly, unesthetic.44 The separation of urban and rural is typified by their responses to concepts such as wilderness and mining. As Lucy Lippard discusses in Undermined, Like archaeology, which is time read backwards, gravel mines are metaphorically cities turned upside down, though urban culture is unaware of its origins and rural birthplaces.45 Her book poignantly and holistically
42 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27:3 (1983), 47.
43 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27:3 (1983), 45.
44 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27, 3(1983): 46.
45 Lippard, Lucy. Undermined. (New York: The New Press, 2013), 11.
35


addresses both of these issues, the spatial and temporal relationships of cities and sites of extraction, as well as the conflicts inherent in the cultural differences between urban and rural, native peoples and industry.
Presence and Absence: Cultural Memory
PMLs are landscapes of simultaneous presence and absence. They are defined by what has been removed as well as what remains and the potential (or harm) therein. They are what John Wiley refers to as paradoxical incorporations. Inspired by the memorial benches at Mullion Cove in Cornwall, UK he writes: Landscape and recollection and perception, none of them fusing or coinciding with each other, nor singly present and replete in themselves, but all held tense and tangled nonetheless.46 It is the tension and tangle that are experientially accessible to participants in PMLs. Their participation is necessary for the continual construction of the place as a cultural landscape.
As Mitch Rose argues in his article, Gathering dreams of presence: a project for the cultural landscape, cultural landscapes are unique in that they are, as dreams of presence, intimate collections of material sensations, where other dreams of presence (dreams of who we are, of where we belong, and of how we get on with life) are consigned.47 This argument sheds light on the idea that it not only the presence of historic remnants that makes these landscapes significant, but also the ongoing presence of the contemporary visitor/participant who redefines their own being in the world based upon the experience in the landscape. What is sensed in post-mining landscapes is often, paradoxically, the presence of absence.
It is true for PMLs as it was for Wiley at Mullion Cove: The shreds and patches of
46 Wiley, John. Landscape, absence, and the geographies of love. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34(2009): 277.
47 Rose, Mitch. Gathering dreams of presence: a project for the cultural landscape. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 24(2006): 539.
36


things, whether treasured possessions or soiled ephemera handled, venerated, or discarded all the traces of presence of those now absent are worked in such a way so as to show, synchronously, the absence of presence, the presence of absence.48 Transitional PMLs are such a distinct experience because they allow for the ongoing presence of modern people while maintaining that sense of the presence of absence. They allow visitors to engage with landscape and history and culture actively and utilize that experience to re-form their understanding of their own place in landscape, history and culture.
History is sensed and understood in multiple ways. There are histories that are recorded and taught, which are inevitably selected by someone, and biased by some power. These are the histories in textbooks, on interpretive signage, dispensed by tour guides. There may be nothing wrong with them, yet there is something missing. What the visitor senses in post-mining landscapes is the presence of multiple narratives, and the absence of these from the selected histories offered.
The stories of the Marble Mill are not only those of the proprietor, but those of the workers and their families, the sculptors, travelers, the Native tribes. There are human narratives documenting nonhuman forces of volcanism, erosion, ancient seas and calcification, narratives of enormous scales and also of the microscopic. These places are memories made manifest, what Wiley refers to as the very materiality of memory its presence, tangibility and there-ness that remains a touchstone, even if the matter in question is tarnished, disordered, forgotten, hidden or irreversibly decaying.49 This brings in the concept of restoration: what if, in restoring these places, the memory embedded in the materials upon which nonhuman forces have been contributing is lost? Potentially, in efforts of preserving
48 Wiley, John. Landscape, absence, and the geographies of love. Transactions
of the Institute of British Geographers 34(2009): 279.
49 Ibid.
37


history, we actually erase some of its power to communicate those tangled narratives and the actions of time. Human memories are not the only ones present in such places. In his article entitled Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes, Gary Brierley refers to three types of landscape memory: geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic. Each influence asserts itself on the landscape at various temporal and spatial scales, often operating simultaneously and collectively. Even in regards to hard science and measurements of sediment flows, Each systems is unique, with its own set of memories.50 And when one is looking at ways of experiencing, making sense, and potentially acting upon these places, it is important to remember that all landscapes have a partial or selective memory of past events and processes. Determination of preservation potential is not always a predictable process.51 He concludes by reminding us that we tend to have an incomplete picture of how a landscape came to be what it is today. The best we can do is to acknowledge our own roles in building partial histories of place.
Narrative
It is not just a question of connecting the grand narratives of historical-geographical transition to local happenings, but of taking account of the histories, allegories, homilies and legends which gather in and around places, of telling stories about stories52
One of the most important features of landscape experience is that it is one constructed in space and time. Experience of a landscape belies an action,
50 Brierley, Gary John. Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes Area. 42(2010): 80.
51 Brierley, Gary John. Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes Area. 42(2010): 81.
52 Daniels, Stephen. Place and the Geographical Imagination, Geographical Association, 77(1992): 319.
38


a physical presence and movement through which perceptions are constantly reframed. Movement through space constructs spatial stories, forms of narrative understanding. This involves a continuous presenting of previous experiences in present contexts.53 The construction of landscape involves our personal memories (our unique frameworks which inform our being in the world), the landscape memory (what processes have formed the physical world we experience around us), and the passing of time in which our collective memories are woven into timelines and storylines. In Restoring Layered Landscapes, editors Marion Hourdequin and David Havlick argue that narrative is one of humanitys best tools for understanding and engaging complex, layered landscapes such as PMLs. They and their contributors suggest approaches that respond to this narrative quality, approaches that relax restrictive ideas of authenticity and... reconceptualize landscapes as complex and evolving socioecological systems that carry multiple forms of meaning, value, and significance.54 If one looks at the varied memories present in a certain landscape and traces the stories of each, the resulting tangle is one that has hope of being teased out as a narrative work. It allows for overlap, interaction, complexity, transition, and evolution, and it invites the expression of those processes through many different voices.
In discussing his Narrative-Descriptive Approach, Yi-Fu Tuan proposes that both the metaphorical and sociolinguistic powers of language be harnessed to capture and express a human experience. He insists that Words have the general power to bring to light experiences that lie in the shadow or have receded into it, and
53 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997): 28, referencing DeCerteau (1984: Part III)
54 Hourdequin, Marion and Havlick, David G. Introduction: Ecological Restoration and Layered Landscapes. Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 3.
39


the specific power to call places into being.55 Tuan explores the variety of language used in and around a place, as it is determined by ones relationship to it. This language has the ability to communicate power, meaning, and imagination and has ethical and moral considerations as a non-neutral contributor to place. One gets the sense, through Tuans writing, that he intrinsically meshes the narrative capacity of humans regarding the landscape with the narrative qualities of the landscape itself. Any while written narrative is one way of capturing this unique quality of landscape experience, our language, like our paper, often lacks immediate capacity to communicate a sense of dimensional complexity.56 And for this reason, we turn to other modes of representation to more fully express the layered and complex nature of landscapes and the relationships that form them.
Photos:
it can also be used as a window, equilaterally divided by the horizon, that begins with a finite section of the earth and sky and restores them in the imagination to the vastness that now exists only as an idea: the landscape that is contained within the perfect symmetry of the square implies infinity.57
All of the photographs in this section of the thesis are my own from site visits.
They are mostly shot on 35 mm film, developed and scanned to digital format. I have
found that shooting film helps me to curate photographs, the awareness of a limited
number increases my attention to detail and composition and therefore provides me
with a more critical reflection of my own experience. Some photographs are digital,
however, they were shot alongside the film with the same attention to detail and
composition.
55 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Language and the Making of Place: A Narrative-Descriptive Approach. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81:4 (1991) 686
56 Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information. (Cheshire: Graphics Press, 1990): 17.
57 Joe Deal via Lippard, Lucy. Undermined. 18.
40


Bachelor Historic Driving Loop- Creede. CO
Figure 11. Ferrous Iron in Willow Creek
Katharine Bolton, 2015
41


Figure 12. Mill Ruins
Katharine Bolton, 2015
42


Figure 13. Mill Ruins Katharine Bolton, 2015
Figure 14. Flow Structure, Willow Creek
Katharine Bolton, 2015
43


Figure 15. Looking up Willow Creek from Driving Loop Start Point
Katharine Bolton, 2015
44


Figure 16. Reflections in the Weminuche Wilderness
Katharine Bolton, 2015
45


Figure 17. Creede Mining Museum Katharine Bolton, 2015
Figure 18. Looking up valley from the Creede Mining Museum
Katharine Bolton, 2015
46


Figure 19. Settling Ponds next to Willow Creek Katharine Bolton, 2015
Figure 20. Skate Shack
Katharine Bolton, 2015
47


Figure 21. Looking uphill from Driving Loop Start Katharine Bolton, 2015
Figure 22. Cabins
Katharine Bolton, 2015
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Figure 23. Landform, Ruins, Fall Color Katharine Bolton, 2015
Figure 24. Weir structure and Willows
Katharine Bolton, 2015
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Figure 25. Modern Reclamation
Katharine Bolton, 2015
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Box Canon Park- Ourav. CO
Figure 26. Channel structure into town
Katharine Bolton, 2016


Figure 27. View towards Ouray up the Uncompahgre River Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 28. Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Ferrous Iron
Katharine Bolton, 2016


Figure 29. Confluence, Uncompahgre River and Canyon Creek
Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 30. Confluence, Uncompahgre River and Canyon Creek
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 31. The High Bridge looking towards the tunnel Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 32. Looking through the High Bridge into Box Canyon
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 33. Looking into the tunnel across the High Bridge
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 34. Looking over Canyon Creek and the Hot Springs Intake
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 35. Looking up at the High Bridge from inside the canyon
Katharine Bolton, 2016


Figure 36. Canyon Creek from the base of the canyon
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 37. Old machinery in the canyon Katharine Bolton, 2016


Berkeley Pit- Butte. MT
Figure 38. Entrance to the Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 39. Berkeley Pit from the Viewing Stand Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 40. Barbed wire, processing plant
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 41. Clouds over the Pit Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 42. Structures
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 43. Berkeley Pit, clouds Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 44. Looking towards the entrance through the tunnel
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 45. Berkeley Pit, walls Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 46. Downtown Butte, MT
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Marble Mill Site Park- Marble. CO
Figure 47. Marble Mill Ruins
Katharine Bolton, 2016


Figure 48. Blueprint House, Mill Site Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 49. Construction Detail
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 50. Exploring the Mill Site Park Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 51. Marble Remnants
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Figure 52. Foundations, wandering
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Figure 53. New growth, old places Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 54. Traces of walls
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Figure 55. Portals
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Figure 56. Folly
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Figure 57. Aspen grove in a sunken room Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 58. Path to the marble fire wall
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 59. Growing through the cracks
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 60. Dappled light on an old building Katharine Bolton, 2016
Figure 61. Marble table at the entry
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Figure 62. Crumbling marble walls
Katharine Bolton, 2016
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Reflections:
Many of the sensations and impressions of being in these landscapes were, for me, quite personal and quite specific. Where photograph allows some level of experience to communicate itself, to remain open to interpretation by the viewer, it seemed important to this study that I relate my specific experience in words as well. Another dichotomy in post mining landscapes is that between the superficial and the deep: what is available to us through surface observation as compared to what is revealed through deeper investigation. It is, as Lippard suggested, a somewhat archaeological process. In his article, Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience, Yi-Fu Tuan considers the origins of this dichotomy in scientific research and expounds upon the benefits of knowing not only where things and places are, but also how it feels to be in a place.58 Reflective writing allowed me to capture the other elements of my experiences and have my own language to connect to that of the literature Ive read.
Bachelor Historic Driving Loop
The journey in was long, we drove from Denver into the early October sunset, driving roads familiar and unfamiliar, marveling at mountains, the typical Colorado scenery that never gets old. As we wound our way North from South Fork the sun dipped below the mountains and we saw silvery undersides of leaves indicating the namesake of Cottonwood Grove and other such enclaves that held but a few ageless cabins and pastures. The occasional RV or modern car indicated the decade and century we had almost left behind on Highway 285. As soon as you pass through Saguache, time becomes debatable, suddenly not so sure of itself as it was in Denver. We entered the town of Creede in nearly full dark, taking the hard left once wed crossed the flume to continue on the highway out to our undetermined
58 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79(2); 1989. 233.
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campsite. This is one of my favorite travel phenomena, especially in places of such sublime scenery as one can find without too much trouble in this state. We arrived at our remote campsite, sharing the area with one other car of campers, set up the tents with shivering fingers and snuggled up to await the arrival of the sun and the visual realization of where we had planted ourselves. We woke up in the morning to sunlight striking golden aspen leaves, the rush of the stream behind our tents creating the perfect accompaniment to the cool morning mountain air. It was a moment in memory formed by all 5 senses at once, the mental image composed of a full sensory imprint, impressions taken in by sight, smell, sound, and touch overlapping in that pleasant synesthesia where the scent is indistinguishable from sound and sight from touch, etc. After a wander into the valley in search of golden vistas and the sounds of water we headed back towards town, sleepy, as always we understood, with the exception of summers filled with players and actors who come to build worlds inside worlds. We drove down Main Street, the quintessential mining town turned artist retreat and quiet community, where an outsider cant help but question how livings are made by the general populace. At one time temporary home to nomadic tribes and Utes, the area known today as Mineral County appears quiet and sparsely populated, but traces of the mining boom remain. In a quick drive up the canyon from modern downtown this history is clearly legible, inscribed in broad strokes on the canyon walls. There is such a poetry of beauty and function in this history, the work of hands and rudimentary machinery defying the forces of time to tell fragmented stories in the slanting light of an October afternoon. They tell us stories of habitation, of survival, of manipulation, of earth moving and the impact capitalist markets and humans hands can have. I have always found myself drawn to these remnants of past histories where the wind feels like whispers and makes the hairs on your arms stand straight. I have been told this puts me at risk of being considered a ruin porn fanatic, and be that as it may, these places have appeal.


They have mystery and pull and I attribute this draw to the overwhelming sense of non-linear time that impresses itself upon the visitor through all senses and intuition. They are places where history is felt as well as seen.
Throughout the afternoon we covered the 17-mile historic driving loop, stopping for photographs and to back down extreme slopes to put my car in first gear and try again. I found myself often in a silent, reflective eddy of reverie, swept from my daily concerns and immersed in layered time. We stopped to admire the tenacity of structures still clinging to some semblance of their original form and those that had adopted new roles and identities in the passing of time. These in particular hold interest to the landscape scholar as they indicate a fourth nature or a moment of distinct hybridity between humans and the landscape. As we turned the car back towards town for the return portion of the loop we came upon a mine reclamation project. After miles of ruins and stops for exploration we paused in mild curiosity as to what was going on. The only visual interest at the site was the presence of large machinery moving earth and stone into unremarkable approximations of natural geomorphologic forms. The question of what values are lost in reclamation was fresh amidst the stark contrast of history and modernity. Further along the loop we paused at the Last Chance Mine, listening to stories of the two men bringing it back to life as living history and interpretation. The family who owned the mine sold it to him for $2500; rather than make a profit selling to a second home owner, they chose the route of slow, hand labor opening the land up to the inquiring eye. We wandered through old buildings, uncertain of their structural stability yet somehow confident that if they had not succumbed to gravity yet, they most likely would hold for the rest of our visit. I purchased a rock with a small amethyst crystal clinging to its ridges, a memento of this place famous not only for its precious metals but also its precious stones. Amethyst being my birthstone it felt somehow personal. You could sign a waiver and take away pieces of mine tailings, a rather less- attractive option in my
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opinion, and supposedly in a year or so you will be able to enter a mine shaft and see the workings of this industrial underworld, the mountains we perceive as so solid and unmovable revealed as stony anthills, networks of tunnels reaching over a thousand feet into the ground.
Box Canon Park
For me, Box Canon Park was transformative. A friend dropped me off on the side of Red Mountain Pass Road just outside of Ouray, CO. He had an errand to run and could also sense that I needed the experience. I was feeling frustrated by extenuating circumstances, some of them personal, others related to research and the relative inaccessibility of places I was interested in at that time in early spring in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. So I hopped out of the truck armed with my 35 mm film camera and a not so rosy attitude and followed the footpath in the snow he had pointed out to me. Go down that path and youll find it, meet me at the confluence in a half hour or so. That was the plan. I wandered down the path, trying not to slip. Despite my enormous snow boots, the path was icy and the grade just-steep enough to keep me on edge. As I focused on my footsteps on the path I could feel the frustration dissipate just the slightest bit. Ouray is quiet in early spring. The famed ice-climbing season is winding down, there are no skiers left on the little hill in town (literally, theres a rope tow on a hilly lot in town that is open to town residents free of charge all season long), and residents go about their daily business, waiting for a spring that always seems to take its time. I navigated only a few other hikers in this park whose boundaries I had yet to comprehend. We snuck around each other on the small track, winding around a switchback and I entered a small gazebo in the now denser fir and pine forest. My prospect of Ouray had vanished and I was entirely submerged in forest. After a brief pause I continued down the path, my worries fading in the face of this adventure I had found myself in. Funny how the unknown can send us spiraling into either fright or thrill. There
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was something about that place that instilled in me a greater sense of thrill than terror, at least in that moment. Finally I reached the bottom of the sloping path and found myself perched on a cliff, staring across a chasm at the Great Unconformity, a geological formation known to enthusiasts the world over I could hear the water now, but I couldnt see it. Tentatively I stepped out onto a simple bridge spanning the gorge. It was made of metal grating and so the experience of stepping out onto the abyss was acute. Every step brought an awareness of the growing distance between my feet and the source of the water sounds reaching my ears. I may have opted out of the bridge crossing were it not for the tunnel carved out of the cliff on the other side. Cautious I may be, but my curiosity about the history of mining and infrastructure in this region generally wins out. I made it to the tunnel, peeked into the darkness and saw the path continue on the other side. Intuition took me back across the bridge, where I could see the path I had descended and a small footpath continuing back down the slope on that side of the gorge. It was this path I elected to take in continuation of my journey. It was well trodden, and therefore even icier than the previous one. Shortly the trail emptied out at a metal fence (strategically located so the sliding winter park-goer wont continue right off the cliff into the canyon). Left would take me into the canyon, under the bridge I had so recently peered down through and right would take me towards the confluence of this, Canyon Creek, with the Uncompaghre River, the established meeting point. Now fully in the spirit of adventure, I turned left, hiked over/through a four foot snow drift (how I thought I would reach mine sites at 13,000 feet at this time of the season was utterly embarrassing to me now) and joyfully took in the sight of the red metal grating I recognized from the bridge forming a path precariously attached to the side of the canyon wall and disappearing into the dark chasm I had so recently stood above. I walked along the grating, occasionally altering my posture to accommodate bulging rock walls and tunnels. The critical moment of the whole journey took place
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on this path. As I came around a curve, ducking around the imposing rock wall, I was hit with the physical impact of water sound. It was thunderous. All of a sudden I could feel the mist of water forced into the surrounding air by the sheer velocity of its cascading mass. I looked up and saw the bridge I had stood on and understood viscerally how it was that I could manage to hear this water almost 300 feet above its physical presence. Water invaded my senses. I was in its place. My steps shortened and slowed, I was keenly aware of my existence as human in this world of water. Finally I could see the source of this sensory explosion. A waterfall (although it seemed to me less of a water-fall than a water-gush) pulsed through a narrow rock fissure, its curves supple and riverine as formed by this element which, even in its most brutal expressions and even on the hardest of canvasses, creates such striking works of elegance and softness. I descended the metal staircase to finally reach the floor of the canyon and found it a sheet of ice. Ice formations bloomed in response to splashing water, misting water, flowing water, I was submerged in water in all its forms, liquid, gaseous, and solid. I could feel it on my face and fingers, it overtook my ears and nose and eyes. Here at the base of a small canyon I found sublime sensory immersion. I was stripped of everything that wasnt immediate.
After an imperceptible amount of time I ascended the stairs, navigating a cluster of local kids sliding on the ice with the terrifying and inspiring abandon known only to children ages 5-10. As I walked back along the suspended path, the sound of the waterfall receding, I began to notice the changes in my physical body, the pounding heart, the humming eardrums, the electric sparkle I could feel in my eyes. I stopped to admire the remnants of mining equipment still parked in the base of the canyon, black against the white snow still strikingly pillowed in this cool, dark, water shrine. It seemed to have taken up residence there and looked as in place as a large spider, fully surrounded by a web of water, content to watch it change form to form around it. I arrived at last at the small visitors center and took in the selection of maps and


historic photographs showing tourists at this hidden masterpiece from the early twentieth century on. Still thrumming with the sensory overload I walked down the road to the confluence transformed. Water is truly cleansing. To be fully immersed in it is as deep and cathartic as any meditation. It is how I imagine surfers feel when they have ridden the perfect wave. They have entered the realm of water and engaged with it there, on its terms. Surrounded by the flow, pulse, spray, and, in my experience, solid form of water I had shed something of my previous self and been reborn. I met my friend at the bridge where you can watch the almost black Canyon Creek mix into the ruddy red Uncompahgre and he knew before I said a word that I was fundamentally changed.
Here the different levels and moments allude to different experiences, time periods, and evolutionary processes that created the space. The water moving through the park is the fulcrum of the sensory experience. It is the storyteller, the inanimate animate. It is creating and has created the space and still moves through it, building the fullness of the moment and connecting the visitor directly, in a very tactile way, to the continuity of time and process from which this space came. Our awareness of the starting and stopping of human activity is called into question by the undeniable omnipresence of natural and wild process. Each footstep can be viewed as part of the continuing human process in place.
Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand
We drove into Butte from Bozeman on a rainy May morning. I quickly learned that May in Montana does not embody the visions of spring flowers and warming days that blossom in more southern states. The days still have a chill, the nights are frosty and the rains and mist move through the landscape in drifting veils. I have always been drawn to this kind of weather. In such a vast landscape the effects of clouds and mist are dramatic, concealing and revealing topography from one minute to the next as you head down the interstate. We came into the Butte valley
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and immediately my eyes registered the moonscape surrounding the Berkeley Pit. The first sensation was confusion, even though I was expecting this landmark, there is no way of preparing oneself for the impression of scale it makes upon you. My brain struggled with the sense of distance, feeling that I must be closer than I was for it to appear so large and looming. We drove straight on, almost past it before we hit the exit that would take us into town. Butte is a fascinating place: you find yourself questioning each building for habitation or neglect. Sometimes the realities were a strange hybrid of the two. We circled through the main streets, inspired by the early 20th century brick construction and haunted by the feeling that we were still in some form of ghost town. We pulled up to a coffee shop with a mystical bend to it, the Venus Rising Espresso House. While my travel companion slept on an acid green chenille Victorian couch, I mulled over local publications informing the public about the Pit, sipped mediocre drip coffee, and let my eyes wander around the cast of mannequins draped in historic finery who inhabited the otherwise empty establishment. A trip to the restroom informed me of the towns multitudinous ghost stories in news headlines papering the walls. The owner was a round and jolly woman who looked at my sleeping companion with mothers eyes and told me what great business she gets from young Mormons who come to enjoy music and atmosphere without alcohol. From there we drove to the viewing stand, riding alongside the 2-story berm delineating the outside of the pit and parking in front of the small log cabin that serves as the visitor center and gift shop. We paid our $2 entry fee, appreciated the kitschy copper souvenirs, and wandered towards the entrance. Through a wood plank door I could see the shiny white interior of the tunnel. The Viewing Stand was on the other side of the berm, so the entrance experience was one of compression. Here there were no rough hewn rock walls, no romanticization of historic mine aesthetic; only the cool and sanitary, fluorescent-lit tunnel with a single exit point. It was a counter-intuitive tunnel experience. Instead
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of emerging from the dark into the light, you walk through the bright and shiny tunnel towards the point of stormy grey darkness indicating the outer/mner world of the Berkeley Pit. I reentered the outside world, inside the Pit, and it was certainly a different world. The experience of moving through compression to this vast expanse lingers. The only moving thing was the clouds, stark white and clutching the surrounding mountains. The stillness was palpable. Having dutifully read my copy of Pit Watch, I knew I was calmly observing a lake of acid mine drainage approximately 1100 deep. Ive heard that in the sunlight the water appears distinctly purple, but in the dim light of a drizzly May day it was dull purple grey against the sandy orange tailings and overburden that form its banks. This was not a place where the work of human hands is felt acutely, it seems somehow superhuman. This cavernous hole in the ground, which has swallowed entire neighborhoods and massacred entire flocks of geese, sits quietly and ominously. Nothing about it seems human-scale and yet it is undeniably a product of human industry and desire. I stood on the small viewing stand, surrounded by barbed wire fencing, feeling the multitude of days that etched this landscape over decades. Its always amazed me that the days that created our landscapes are just like the present one. The winds blow with the same wet pressure, the sun bleaches with the same power, the immensity of time is shocking when you consider its layers are no thicker than the moments we experience.
Marble Mill Site Park
There are a multitude of landscapes produced by mining that are removed in varying degrees from the sites of extraction themselves. Some are closer, more directly linked to material, place, and resource, while others share but a wisp of a common memory, a deja vu moment that brings them to the same mountainside for a dreamy moment. Marble, Colorado is one such place where stories stack one on top of the other in a murky and intriguing dialogue. Some voices are expected, the laborers, stonemasons, mill owners, their families. Others are indirect but still
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tied forcefully to the place. The Lincoln Memorial among other architectural icons finds its material beginnings in Marble, the birthplace of the finest North American marble stone. Photographers come to bask in romantic ruins of the Crystal Mill; outdoorsmen and women come to tackle challenging climbs and hikes; off-roading enthusiasts sputter and lurch along roads constructed before their steel chariots were anyones wildest dream. These stories rub elbows softly in the echo-y canyon and the aspen trees look on unperturbed, slowly slipping from chartreuse to emerald to gold to bare. But it is these ghosts, this sense of non-linear time colliding in a place that stops your heart for a moment, that truly gives you pause to wonder why your feet stopped moving and your brain ceased its ceaseless trudge for the untouchable future. To me, this is what magic feels like. It feels like a deep and confusing sense of time swirling out of order. Its exhilarating and dizzying and terrifying. It is sublime. Historic texts on this particular subject take us to European vistas, Grand Tour experiences by privileged tourists, and ultimately to America on the backs of our National Park System and its forefathers. We have even come so far, in the field of landscape architecture, to apply such a sentiment to the products of our own creative and technological endeavors (eg: the technological sublime). But to many, the sight of a hard rock mine does not fill one with awe but with revulsion. It fills us not with a sense of our own insignificance in the face of natural process but with the horrifying epiphany that we can play ball with the big boys. We have carved away mountains, made toxic hills and valleys, exposed stone older than our oldest religious traditions. In these places we are faced with a brutally honest reflection of our own human power and it terrifies us. It may bring tears to your eyes, it may bring you low, but I urge you to keep looking. Look and see not a wasteland, not an impending environmental catastrophe, but just look. Look and see. In time, this landscape appears as what it fundamentally is. Not that a landscape is by any means a trivial or simple entity. In that word is embedded thousands of years of


linguistics, cultural construction, and personal experience (not to mention art, music, film, dance, architecture, etc). A landscape is not a simple thing, bad nor good, but a collection of things, moments, people, places, ghosts, whispers, and clouds that converge out of time to touch a person right under their breastbone. A landscape is a living entity, and its touch can be just as harsh or intimate. And its looks can be just as deceiving.
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CHAPTER IV
FRAMEWORK
My experiences and documentation of them suggest that these landscapes are synthetic, complex, and layered places that confound any singular method of study. I have been able to categorize my experiences and my ways of making sense of them into the following categories:
PMLs are sites of Co-Authorship between human and nonhuman forces.
much of what we usually count as natural is really the old scars of earlier desecrations, with the further implication that maybe it was always desecration, all the way down. Maybe the sacred landscape is the landscape that has learned to live with ritual pollutions and cleanse itself with them59
In PMLs is the discourse between the human:nature binary, for they are
undeniably both. The geologic, hydrologic, and organic features of the landscape
were formed by climatic and physical nonhuman forces over long periods of
time. Human interaction with these nonhuman features, which tended to be
much less invasive before European settlement, were extreme, rapid, and violent
during periods of extraction. Miners made quick and enduring changes to the
nonhuman landscape. Martin Drenthen notes that at a certain point in time,
human changes started to become disturbances, that human influence increased
not just quantitatively but also qualitatively.60 This point in time, he suggests, is
often determined to be around the beginning of the 20th century, when mining
and industrial production was peaking in the US and abroad. In its ecological
59 Turner, Frederick. The Post Technological Landscape, Reclaiming the American West, Ed: Alan Berger. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002): 12-13.
60 Drenthen, Martin. Layered Landscapes, Conflicting Narratives, & Environmental Art. Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. Marion Hourdequin and David G. Havlick, ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 247.


connotation, a disturbance is an event or force, of nonbiological or biological origin, that brings about mortality to organisms and changes in their spatial patterning in the ecosystems they inhabit. Disturbance plays a significant role in shaping the structure of individual populations and the character of whole ecosystems.61 Humans have done, then, what many nonhuman forces have done before; the primary difference tends to be the scale and time period at which these changes occur. The resulting ecosystems are novel, the product of nonhuman change and human change.
PMLs have another level of disturbance, one that inhabits the emotional realm .
The impacts of human intervention and the characteristics of the ecosystems as produced by this collaboration are ones that register as emotionally disturbing to many visitors. This collaborative aspect of PMLs is not intended to absolve humans of their role in the creation of the landscapes, but rather to acknowledge the complexity of human/nonhuman relationships therein. Nature is not just posited as the antagonist of human civilization, involved in the destruction of human systems of order and production, but a dynamic force to be continuously engaged and incorporated in any human endeavor.62 And likewise, humanity is not to be simplistically viewed as a scourge upon a pure Nature, but an impactful contributor to the ongoing landscape discourse. PMLs then are socio-ecological assemblages that respond to and render visible the presence, entanglement and co-authorship of both human and non-human process, preferencing neither.63 The critical piece of this co-authorship is that it places the human and the nonhuman together in the role
61 Ecological Disturbance | Ecology | Britannica.com. Accessed February 1, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/science/ecological-disturbance.
62 Langhorst, Joern and Bolton, Katharine. Re-Framing the Post-Industrial:
Landscapes of Extraction Between Reclamation and Reinvention Change Over Time. (Philidelphia: University of Pennyslvania, forthcoming)
63 Ibid.
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of creative director; the next chapter in the layered landscape will be written by as well as home to both.
PMLs are Timefull and Palimpsestic
But the communal past is not truly ones own past unless history extends without break into personal memories; and neither is vividly present unless objectified in things that can be seen and touched, that is, directly experienced64
Antithetic to places unknown are places saturated with meaning. Densely imagined through overlapping histories and intersecting current events, they resist being turned into cleared sites, that is, sites received as unoccupied, lacking any prior construction and lacking content. A multitude of stories compete for attention, and do so with conflicting interpretations and story lines. These are anthropological places whose inhabitants live in history, whose identity has not been formalized, and whose intellectual status is ambiguous. The options for planners and designers to impose their singular vision are severely curtailed. At the same time, the richness of narratives constitutes a wellspring of creative possibilities.65
PMLs are thick and deep places, palimpsests composed of multiple
layers created by human and non-human forces. They are landscapes built of
complexity and interaction over time, places where the space becomes complete
on its own, achieving a sense of timelessness (or perhaps timefullness) in which
all sense of time is collapsed into a particular time-frame.66 That time-frame is
the present moment, and the sense of multiple times collapsing into it is palpable.
64 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Place: An Experiential Perspective. Geographical Review 65:2 (1975): 164.
65 Beauregard, Robert A. From Place to Site: Negotiating Narrative Complexity, Site Matters, (London: Routledge, 2005): 39-40 quoting Carol J. Burns, On Site: Architectural Preoccupations, in Andrea Kahn, ed., Drawing, Building, Text: Essays in Architectural Theory. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991).
66 Shackley, Myra. Space, Sanctity and Service; the English Cathedral as
heterotopia." International Journal of Tourism Reserach. 4(2002): 350. ^


PMLs represent, like few other places, Jacksons concept of landscape as a place to deliberately speed up or slow down the processes of nature67. In times of resource extraction, humans have accelerated nonhuman processes of erosion, scouring, flooding, draining, collapsing, and weathering. In reclamation of PMLs humans attempt to reverse time (while inevitably continuing forward in it) by rebuilding contours, realigning waterways, revegetating barren slopes. In those PMLs abandoned post-extraction, time appears to have almost stood still, while the nonhuman forces continue on at their often imperceptible pace, imparting the same processes in their own time.
As Tilley states in A Phenomenology of Landscape, All locales and landscapes are therefore embedded in the social and individual times of memory. Their pasts as much as their spaces are crucially constitutive of their presents.68 What makes PMLs unique in their depth of time and their particular palimpsestic nature is the clarity of it. These are landscapes of exposure, where erasure and absence speak louder than what has been added. Few places are defined so much by what has been taken from the site, in both physical and metaphorical ways. For example, one of the most important things taken from PMLs are the perceptions of visitors and how they choose to act upon them. To quote Tilley again, While places and movement between them are intimately related to the formation of personal biographies, places themselves may be said to acquire a history, sedimented layers of meaning by virtue of the actions and events that take place in them. Personal biographies, social identities and a biography of place are intimately connected.69
67 Eliade, in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984): 8.
68 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997); 27.
69 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and
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As timefull and palimpsestic places, PMLs require not only a survey of the surface conditions but a probing look into the depth of time contained there.
This is what Ann Spirn refers to as deep context, a place which is particular, a tapestry of woven contexts: enduring and ephemeral, local and global, related and unrelated, now and then, past and future. Landscape context is a fabric whose strands are narratives of landscape elements and features, both the persistent and the fleeting.70 These are places where depth is spatial and temporal. Berleant posits that Grasped from an aesthetic standpoint, it (environment) has sensory richness, directness, and immediacy, together with the cultural patterns and meanings that perception carries, and thesis give environment its thick texture.71 The landscape we see is a compilation of these narratives, though some are deeper, more hidden, and better obscured than others. To look at place with an eye for time and deep context requires one remember that time does not function in staccato acts but in rather in flows and frequencies, cycles and meanders. Looking at time is like looking at a stream, there may be clues as to past events, patterns, and narratives, but to call them into being demands an act of forensic imagination, a Goethean reconstruction of past to present based on the material realities before us. When this is attempted, what is revealed is the intricate intertwining of dynamic human- industrial and
Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997); 27.
70 Spirn, Ann Whiston. The Language of Landscape. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998): 160.
71 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992) 20.


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MAKING SENSE: EXPERIENCE AND TRANSFORMATION IN POST MINING LANDSCAPES by KATHARINE BOLTON B.S. University of Vermont, 2011 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Program 2017

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ii 2017 KATHARINE BOLTON ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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iii This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Katharine Bolton has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program by Joern Langhorst, Chair Ann Komara Bob Micsak Casey Allen Lori Catalano Date: May 16, 2017

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iv Bolton, Katharine (MLA, Landscape Architecture Program) Making Sense: Experience and Transformation in Post Mining Landscapes Thesis directed by Associate Professor Joern Langhorst ABSTRACT This research explores the ways in which post-mining landscapes (PMLs) and landscape architecture. Employing multiple methods of discovery, this thesis seeks to make sense of PMLs as they are related to the past, present, and future narratives of landscape in the American West. They are ongoing sites of co-authorship between human and nonhuman forces, timefull and palimpsestic, experientially sublime, and ruins of both nature and culture. Post-mining landscapes represent an expanding landscape typology nationally and globally, so investigations of how they can be critically read and described stand to impact a broad array of offer fertile theoretical grounds in which these thick descriptions might blossom into a deeper and more complex methodology for re-imagining landscape responses including but not limited to: restoration, reclamation, and recovery. This paper suggests that in viewing PMLs through a number of physical and theoretical lenses, critically reframe the relationships geographers, landscape architects, and citizens form with landscape. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Joern Langhorst

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 Background: ............................................ 1 Research Question: ...................................... 4 Research Goals: ........................................ 4 Research Hypotheses: .................................... 4 II. METHODOLOGY & METHODS ............................. 6 Methodology: . . . . . . . . . . 6 Methods: .............................................. 9 1. Field Study ........................................ 9 2. Photography ....................................... 10 ................................... 12 4. Literature Review ................................... 13 III. DATA .................................................. 15 Background Information: .................................. 15 Bachelor Historic Driving LoopCreede, CO ................ 15 Box Caon ParkOuray, CO ............................ 19 Berkeley PitButte, MT ................................. 23 Marble Mill Site ParkMarble, CO ........................ 26 Literature/Theory: .................................... 28 Landscape .......................................... 30 Binaries ............................................. 31 Civilization : Wilderness ................................ 32 Presence and Absence: Cultural Memory .................. 36 Narrative ............................................ 38 Photos: ............................................... 40

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vi Bachelor Historic Driving LoopCreede, CO ................ 41 Box Canon ParkOuray, CO ............................ 51 Berkeley PitButte, MT ................................. 60 Marble Mill Site ParkMarble, CO ........................ 65 ............................................ 76 Bachelor Historic Driving Loop ........................... 76 Box Caon Park ...................................... 79 Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand .............................. 82 Marble Mill Site Park ................................... 84 IV. FRAMEWORK .......................................... 87 PMLs are sites of Co-Authorship between human and nonhuman forces. ............................. 87 PMLs are Timefull and Palimpsestic ......................... 89 PMLs are experientially Sublime ............................ 92 PMLs are Ruins of both nature and culture. ................... 95 V. SYNTHESIS ............................................ 98 VI. CONCLUSIONS ......................................... 102 Further and New Questions: ............................... 105 .................................... 105

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Aerial view of Creede from Mammoth Mountain, 1902 ...... 17 Figure 2. Main Street Jimtown (modern day Creede), 1892 ......... 17 Figure 3. Commodore Mine #3, 1900 ........................... 18 Figure 4. View of the Curve Station from Weaver, 1893 ............. 18 Figure 5. Bridge over Uncompahgre River, 1880s ................. 21 Figure 6. Construction in Box Canyon, 1895 ...................... 22 Figure 7. 3D Model of topography and tunnels in Butte, MT .......... 25 ...... 25 Figure 9. View of Mill Site, mid 1900s ........................... 27 Figure 10. Interior View of Marble Mill, early 1900s ................ 27 Figure 11. Ferrous Iron in Willow Creek ......................... 41 Figure 12. Mill Ruins ........................................ 42 Figure 13. Mill Ruins ........................................ 43 Figure 14. Flow Structure, Willow Creek ......................... 43 Figure 15. Looking up Willow Creek from Driving Loop Start Point . 44 ............... 45 Figure 17. Creede Mining Museum ............................. 46 Figure 18. Looking up valley from the Creede Mining Museum ....... 46 Figure 19. Settling Ponds next to Willow Creek ................... 47 Figure 20. Skate Shack ...................................... 47 Figure 21. Looking uphill from Driving Loop Start .................. 48 Figure 22. Cabins .......................................... 48 Figure 23. Landform, Ruins, Fall Color .......................... 49 Figure 24. Weir structure and Willows ........................... 49 Figure 25. Modern Reclamation ............................... 50 Figure 26. Channel structure into town .......................... 51

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viii Figure 27. View towards Ouray up the Uncompahgre River .......... 52 Figure 28. Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Ferrous Iron .............. 52 ...... 53 ...... 53 Figure 31. The High Bridge looking towards the tunnel .............. 54 Figure 32. Looking through the High Bridge into Box Canyon ........ 54 Figure 33. Looking into the tunnel across the High Bridge ........... 55 Figure 34. Looking over Canyon Creek and the Hot Springs Intake .... 56 Figure 35. Looking up at the HIgh Bridge from inside the canyon ..... 57 Figure 36. Canyon Creek from the base of the canyon .............. 58 Figure 37. Old machinery in the canyon ......................... 59 Figure 38. Entrance to the Berkeley PIt Viewing Stand .............. 60 Figure 39. Berkeley Pit from the Viewing Stand ................... 61 Figure 40. Barbed wire, processing plant ........................ 61 Figure 41. Clouds over the Pit ................................. 62 Figure 42. Structures ........................................ 62 Figure 43. Berkeley Pit, clouds ................................ 63 Figure 44. Looking towards the entrance through the tunnel ......... 63 Figure 45. Berkeley Pit, walls ................................. 64 Figure 46. Downtown Butte, MT ............................... 64 Figure 47. Marble Mill Ruins .................................. 65 Figure 48. Blueprint House, Mill Site ............................ 66 Figure 49. Construction Detail ................................. 66 Figure 50. Exploring the Mill Site Park .......................... 67 Figure 51. Marble Remnants .................................. 67 Figure 52. Foundations, wandering ............................. 68 Figure 53. New growth, old places ............................. 69

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ix Figure 54. Traces of walls .................................... 69 Figure 55. Portals .......................................... 70 Figure 56. Folly ............................................ 71 Figure 57. Aspen grove in a sunken room ........................ 72 ........................... 72 Figure 59. Growing through the cracks .......................... 73 Figure 60. Dappled light on an old building ....................... 74 Figure 61. Marble table at the entry . . . . . . . 74 Figure 62. Crumbling marble walls ............................. 75

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background: This research was born of a lifelong fascination with remnants and traces of otherwise invisible histories. The focus on post-mining landscapes (PMLs) in particular began in Telluride in 2012. Hikes inevitably put me in direct contact with the valleys rich mining history by way of tailing ponds and piles, rusting infrastructure, and traces of human involvement in areas one would hardly suspect it today. Coming upon these remnants both deepened and reframed my understanding and experience in modern-day Telluride. Pursuing studies in Landscape Architecture has exposed me to a new and varied set of tools with which to make sense of these unique and rich places. This thesis makes sense of my own experience of four PMLs and seeks to address some of the latent potential PMLs have to break linear spatiotemporal boundaries and connect past and future ecological and cultural activity. These places were developed as a product of dominant cultural values, but have since evolved with nonhuman processes to become sites of immense complexity preservation, art, ecology, and engineering. This thesis focuses on experience at four post-mining landscapes, techniques for recording sensory experience, and how integrating experience with landscape architectural and geographical theory can inform our understanding of PMLs moving forward. Post mining landscapes are a subset of post industrial landscapes, sites of former industrial operations that have since ceased production. Addressing not only the environmental and public health hazards of such sites, but also re-shaping them for alternative, modern use has generated an exciting new branch of landscape study and design. From Gasworks Park in Seattle, to the Highline in New York,

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2 citizen groups and designers have helped change perception of industrial relics from derelict eyesore to intriguing artifact, often while addressing issues of contamination and ruination. Post mining landscapes have received considerably less attention for their those scholars and designers keen on reuse. Often, post mining sites are located in rural town and counties, responsibilities for clean up are strict and expensive, and the ways in which these sites might be repurposed are understudied and unclear. Yet, PMLs are the genesis of many industrial processes, generating and them. Suggestions of these landscapes are omnipresent in towns and cities built from these raw materials. PMLs are an intimate part of consumer capitalism and in studying and researching their histories and qualities, I have come to believe they deserve further study and approaches for sensitive re-use that maximize their cultural impact. The purpose of this thesis is to establish a framework to make sense of form and experience in transitional post mining landscapes that begins to suggest how a deeper understanding of these places could inform future recovery efforts with the goal of altering popular perception towards PMLs. Four landscapes will form the primary study areas of this thesis. They are: Bachelor Loop, Creede, CO Box Canon Park, Ouray, CO Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT Marble Mill Site Park, Marble, CO Originally, I thought the study areas for this thesis would be the rough, expansive landscapes of extraction that had been abandoned post-mine activity and attended only by nonhuman forces since then. These are incredibly important

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3 places as they often include extreme and far reaching environmental contamination as well as an expanding landscape typology that will continue to propel construction of urban communities and directly affect the life and livelihoods of rural ones in the there are a number of reasons these landscapes are so often represented by aerial ownership and environmental risk reasons; and third, they are often remote and require all terrain vehicles and knowledge of occasionally unmarked roads. As an important part of my methods for this study involve on-the-ground, ensitu observation at a human experiential scale, I realized that the most valuable parts was denied entry to the Yule Marble Quarry, I was able to explore the Marble Mill Site Park in Marble, Colorado. While late spring snows foiled my visits to alpine mine sites in the San Juans, I wandered Box Canon Park in Ouray, Colorado. The town of Creede features the Bachelor Loop Historic Tour that can be explored at ones own pace and provides an experience that is both informed and open ended. And while I was not able to take any behind the scenes tours of the Anaconda Copper Mine, I paused at the Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand in Butte, Montana. So while the scars of abandoned and ongoing mining operations still hold a special place in my imagination, I argue it is the places we can see, smell, touch, and experience that take imaginative inputs towards actionable information. These transitional PMLs, so called because of their continued evolution beyond abandoned mining site, were accessible and interpretable, and form the backbone of experience from which this thesis stems.

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4 Research Question: How can making sense of post-mining landscapes inform the practice of landscape architecture? Research Goals: architectural and geographical theory. Experiment with multiple methods of data collection and generation. Formulate a framework through which others experiences might be interpreted. Work towards an understanding of PMLs that could catalyze personal and collective perceptive shifts of these landscapes and their future potential. This thesis explores qualitative methods of understanding and engaging with reminders of a way of life perceptively distant, yet physically related to the urban dweller. PMLs illustrate the forms and practices of capitalist production, as well as the nonhuman forces at work in their evolution as ruins. Through the lens of experience, this research aims to create a framework through which PMLs might be transformed in the eyes of the modern consumer population. The framework is a point of departure for the imagining of future chapters of landscape engagement. Research Hypotheses: Experience is key to making sense of PMLs Having a framework for decoding experience can help shift perception of PMLs. implications for the theory and practice of landscape architecture. These hypotheses are born of intuition and context. As a student of landscape in Colorado, I am acutely aware of how experience in the mountains shapes my world view; the landscape here provides me a comparative sense of scale, an

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5 appreciation for process and time. While Colorado is but a small piece of the Intermountain West, my direct experiences here inform my understanding of the region as a whole, and suggests interconnections blatant and subtle, immense and intimate. Based on concepts uncovered in landscape and geographical theory such as: presence and absence, picturesque and sublime, city and wilderness, I felt, through my own experience, that PMLs were worthy of investigation by landscape architects and scholars. Through my research process, I hoped to better understand the connections between PMLs and their contexts within and outside of the Intermountain West, as well as their potential to alter hegemonic perceptions of landscape and culture: such as landscape as wilderness, landscape as scenery, or landscape as blank canvas, and landscape and industry: such as landscape as resource, landscape as wealth, or landscape as a problem to be solved.

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6 CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY & METHODS Methodology: My methodology is one of making sense of experience to better understand we make sense of landscapes and our experiences in them? And how does this understanding shape the way we view ourselves in relation to landscape? To utilized by feminist geographers as a means of avoiding the false neutrality and universality of so much academic knowledge 1 seeks a balance of looking inward towards identity and outward towards relation. It is the constant evaluation and reevaluation of oneself in relation to the object of study, an observation of how that relationship changes through study. This ties into the idea of 2 in which we are constantly in a process of identifying places and ourselves in relation to them. We do this by a process of introspection, or inward study of our own reactions, feelings, thoughts, etc (I chose photography and writing as the vehicles for this process) and then investigating relationships occurring in that place that might contribute to those perceptions. Kants philosophy of concepts and percepts supports these methods of making sense. 3 His search for understanding of how humans come to know the Progress in Human Geography 21, 3 (1997): 306. 2 Recover. Merriam Webster Online. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ recover 3 McLear, Colin. The Kantian (Non)-Conceptualism Debate, Philosophy Compass

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7 world around them and through that, come to know themselves and how to act within that world, invites the exploration of world-knowing and self-knowing that requires as many varied modes as there are varied people. 4 Kant attempted to frame experience and perception of landscape into categories which might serve as points of entry to more abstract conceptions, e.g. the beautiful and the sublime, which in turn of Kants theory on the sublime, The sublime, then, is much more than a particular appreciation for a grand nature; it brings into play the intellectual response to such grandeur. It is an invitation to thought. 5 By making sense of our perceptions and experience through abstract and categorical analysis, we are able to better understand both our surroundings and ourselves; a deep read of a place requires both abstract thought and direct experience. Experiential Aesthetics is a topic addressed by numerous scholars; in this research I have primarily focused on the writings of Arnold Berleant and Yi-Fu Tuan. This methodology also addresses the dialectic between the experiential and the thick Clifford Geertz in his 1979 book The Interpretation of Cultures plays an important role in this study. The term has been mostly associated with ethnography and the idea of situating the researcher within the context of the place she or he is studying. (2014): 2-3. 4 Dixon, et al. Wonder-full geomorphology: Sublime aesthetics and the place of art. Progress in Physical Geography 37(2) 2012; 232. 5 Ibid.

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8 Scholars of landscape have utilized this practice and the language of thickness and depth to describe the types of knowledge they are seeking. Tuan references Geertz thick description 6 directly in his discourse on surface and depth. Berleant discusses thick texture as a quality of environment generated by aesthetic experience, perception, meaning, and value. The concept of values and how they shape landscapes and human perceptions of landscapes is critical to this investigation. Value originates in experience as an inseparable part of being human. 7 The values we hold as participants in landscapes shape our perceptions, and at a societal level, the landscapes themselves. The interconnectedness of environmental and cultural aesthetics is highlighted in PMLs and human engagement of post-industrial landscapes in general. Ann Spirn seeks what she refers to as deep context in The Language of Landscape, a quality of landscape created by layers of ephemeral and permanent biological, geological and cultural strata. All these approaches speak to a multisensuous, and hence aesthetic, encounter with landscape, and a sustained cognitively. 8 It is aesthetic experience that allows us to understand physical and geological layers and generate from them cultural impressions and information. It is my hope that in utilizing these theoretical frameworks and methodologies, the links between experience and data in the formation of knowledge about PMLs will be strengthened. 6 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79: 2 (1989): 233. 7 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992): 22-23. 8 Dixon, et al. 235.

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9 Methods: In seeking this thick description, a marrying of theory and experience, cultural and biological, permanent and ephemeral, temporal and spatial, I employed four different methods. Each method adds a new layer to the description of place, participant observation and study of place (both in and outside of that place) and form and experience at the research sites, building a deep context based on both humanscale observation and information gleaned from data and literature available. 1. Field Study As I mentioned in my hypotheses, I have always suspected that direct experience was critical to any understanding of post-mining landscapes. Field study, actually putting myself on site was, therefore, necessary to test that hypothesis. Originally I thought Id be studying the massive, raw landscapes of abandoned mining operations. One thing I learned throughout this process is that those places reclamation uranium-mining site or gain access to a quarry, I was rebuffed and instead found myself in what I now refer to as transitional post-mining landscapes. The four places I was able to investigate are: The Bachelor Historic Driving Loop in Creede, CO Box Canon Park in Ouray, CO The Berkeley Pit in Butte, MT Marble Mill Site Park in Marble, CO

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10 Many who study and work with landscapes appreciate the qualities tangible only via direct experience. While the etymology of the term may refer one to reproductions of a landscape scene, conveyance of the full landscape experience can be limited by representational methods; the special quality of a fragrance, taste, or touch cannot be projected onto a public stage other than through pictorial and linguistic means. 9 The experience of a place as landscape is wholly interwoven with the temporal and sensory inputs generated from being physically present. We not only see our living world we move with it, we act upon and in response to it. We grasp places not just through color, texture, and shape, but with the breath, by smell, with our skin, through our muscular action and skeletal position, in the sounds 10 The impression of place left on and made by visitors in PMLs is one of interactive experience, of the body moving through space and time, consciously and subconsciously constructing and reconstructing place and self in relation to each other. This being in a place formulates an impression in the mind, integrates into larger stories, and ultimately is incorporated into memory, to be revisited when that experience is called to the forefront by certain stimuli. This direct experience contributes to multiple layers of the thick description, some of sensory input in place, some integrated into personal and cultural narratives, some translated own right and the means for achieving other methodological goals. 2. Photography But of course the very act of identifying (not to mention photographing) the place presupposes our presence, and along with us all the heavy cultural backpacks 9 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Place: An Experiential Perspective, The Geographical Review. 65:2 (April 1975): 152. 10 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992): 19.

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11 that we lug with us on the trail. 11 What Simon Schama so succinctly states here is that the photograph is a measure of our experience, and an expression of our self, captured simultaneously. It is a representation of place and landscape that belies human presence by its very existence. While this may seem more remarkable in landscapes where humanity is less obviously evident, it is especially poignant in those where it is blatant. In PMLs, the photograph re-places humans in a distinctly human landscape, it urges thought and curiosity, forces the photographer to question what it is they are seeing, and why they ultimately press the shutter and capture the moment. The photograph captures a distinct moment in time, drawing the viewers attention to the continuous reformation of place as mentioned by Robert Smithson, The photograph has the rawness of an instant out of the continuous growth and construction of the park, and indicates a break in continuity that serves to reinforce a sense of transformation, rather than any isolated formation. 12 The rawness of the rawness I see in PMLs. They are places cut open, used, exposed, engaged intimately, if not violently, then abandoned. Regardless of their current use and visitation, there is still a sense of solitude and loneliness in the experience there. There are visible traces of the vigor and intensity that once reverberated and now is quiet. In this too, photography is an appropriate medium. It is a solitary sport, the photographer and yet an honest product of her. Yet this solitary act is full of potential. As Lucy Lippard suggests in her book, Undermined the combination of 11 Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. (New York: Random House, 1996), 7. 12 Smithson, Robert. Frederick Law Olmsted and the Dialectical Landscape. in Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings. ed. Jack Flam. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 160.

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12 photography, as an art, with experience has vast potential for imagining new futures: While entangling visual art with the cold realities of our current environment, some artists are realizing that they can envision alternative futures, produce redemptive and restorative vehicles with which to open cracks into other worlds, and rehabilitate the role of the communal imagination. 13 contributes to a collective understanding. In the photographs of the PMLs I see myself, the ghosts of past presents, and a future which is not solitary, but the product of many thoughts, many visits, perceptions, actions, and dreams. The photographic layer of the thick description is a powerful one. It is a translation of the multi-sensory interpretable. It is a method which simultaneously contains depth of meaning and elicits it. experience in such a way that layers are added to the thick description. Using language has helped me to weave together my own impressions with concepts Ive discovered through reading theory and literature as a part of my literature review. In the words of Christopher Tilley, To understand a landscape truly it must be felt, but to convey some of this feeling to others it has to be talked about, recounted, or written and depicted. 14 The written accounts of these places are a portrayal of my own experiences therein. PMLs are places rich in memory of past uses degrees), adding a layer of memory to this landscape and its interpretation. There is 13 Lippard, Lucy. Undermined. (New York: The New Press, 2013), 8-9. 14 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of LandscapePlaces, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994), 31.

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13 experience looking back. Solnit discusses this phenomena through a short story: One day a few years ago my mother took out of her cedar chest the turquoise blouse she bought for me on that trip to Bolivia, a miniature of the native living memory of wearing the garment collided shockingly with the fact that it was so tiny, with arms less than a foot long, with a tiny bodice for a small cricket cage of a ribcage that was no longer mine, and the shock was that my vivid memory included what it felt like to be inside that brocade shirt but not the fact that inside it I had been so diminutive, had been something utterly other than my adult self who remembered. The continuity of memory did not measure the abyss between a toddlers body and a woman s. 15 There is an abyss between our memories and the artifacts that shock us back to the reality of that space. Still, looking at the photographs of the four PMLs, I am struck by the memory of the experience and the limitations of the written word in fully describing it. There is truly nothing like being in a place, but as Berleant states, linguistic means are one of our only tools for conveying landscape experience to a larger audience. Memory is a lens through which an experience available to anyone is made unique. It is the way in which we own and understand our lives. This method takes advantage of this nearly universal tool of human communication to add yet another layer to the thick description. Language can be used to describe experience, or way into each method and form of experiential documentation, linking them all in a chorus of voices. 4. Literature Review Literature review has been a foundational practice for me in this process. Reading scholarly writing from the disciplines of landscape architecture, landscape studies, and cultural and humanistic geography has formed the theoretical 15 Solnit, Rebecca. A Field Guide to Getting Lost. (New York: Penguin, 2006), 37.

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14 foundation for this thesis. These disciplines dovetail in support of this research as they attempt to decipher the intersection of wild and designed landscapes and the human and nonhuman processes which contribute to their ecological and cultural formation. This method calls to attention a very important point: my research is not volume of scholarly thought that I have gathered in support of these concepts, that have helped to formulate the understanding of landscape and landscape process from which my description emerges.

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15 CHAPTER III DATA Background Information: I collected data and information on the sites I visited, their positions in the communities theyre situated within, and their uses throughout history. This helped to frame my own perceptions. 16 Bachelor Historic Driving LoopCreede, CO The 17-mile driving loop just outside of the small town of Creede, CO, showcases the areas mining history. The mining boom began in 1890 with the discovery of a rich silver vein. Rapidly, the town swelled to 10,000 residents, as compared to Mineral Countys present day population of 850. The remnants visible today are products of the human industry that extracted millions of dollars worth of ore in the 1890s. Creede survived as a hard rock mining town for over a century. The last surviving silver mine from that era, the Homestake, closed permanently in 1985. While this appeared to be the end of mining in Creede, Hecla Mining reopened the San Juan Silver Project in December of 2011, expecting to mine the -millionounces. 17 The duration of extraction in Creede sets it apart from its boom and bust 16 The site information and histories presented in this section are intentionally selective and incomplete, full accounts are beyond the scope of this thesis. I included information I found to be useful in my own investigation and as context for other methods. 17 San Juan Silver. Hecla Mining Company. (Accessed January 22, 2017) http:// www.hecla-mining.com/san-juan/.

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16 cultural history of Creede is one of sustained extraction. The historic remnants left from early mining days are, therefore, tied more closely to modern culture and issues in the now sparsely populated town. Today, the largest events in Creede are a result of the renowned repertory theater, whose productions swell the population from 700 to almost 4000 in the summer months. 18 mining town striving to diversify its culture while maintaining strong ties to its origins in extraction. The Bachelor Historic Driving Loop is an important part of this effort. 18 Population, Economy & Lifestyle, Creede and Mineral County Colorado. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.creede.com/discover-creede/populationeconomy-lifestyle.html

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17 Figure 1. Aerial view of Creede from Mammoth Mountain, 1902 Creede Historical Society Figure 2. Main Street Jimtown (modern day Creede), 1892 Creede Historical Society

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18 Figure 3. Commodore Mine #3, 1900 Creede Historical Society Figure 4. View of the Curve Station from Weaver, 1893 Creede Historical Society

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19 Box Caon ParkOuray, CO the Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Colorado. Its main features is a 285 foot waterfall that descends into a narrow, quartzite canyon. This quartzite is the oldest type of rock found in the Ouray area and is roughly 1500 million years old. The neighboring slopes are sandstone, a youthful 270 million years old. 19 Visitors can view the falls from a number of different vista points. Downstream from the falls, visitors can see a concrete holding pen where 150 degree water rises out of the ground and is piped further into town to the municipal hot springs pool, opened in 1927 and still operational today. 20 Box Ca on Park has a long and varied history, interwoven with both recreation and industry. Many of the roads surrounding the park are still in their original locations, indicating the paths miners took to the alpine mines. The canyon walls were blasted around 1885 to accommodate the construction of pipelines carrying water to the electric light plant. Ore-processing mills surrounded the park site and a dam stood above Oak Street Bridge, channeling water to the power plant. spring waters like the ones on the park site, which were utilized throughout town to attract visitors as well as to heat buildings. The High Bridge was constructed in 1898 to convey water from the Oak Creek Reservoir to the town. Walking across the High Bridge and through the rough blasted tunnel at the other end up to the reservoir was another popular recreation activity until the tunnel was closed off for safety and the Oak Creek Reservoir was abandoned in 1950. The parks most impressive 19 Larson, Pam. City of Arrays Box Canyon Falls Visitor Guide via Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls & Park (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984) 20 Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls & Park. (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984): 6.

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20 adornment is its lighted sign, mounted on the hill above the High Bridge, whose 5 by 6 foot letters were illuminated with electric light bulbs in 1909. The Ouray Herald wonderful among the great pranks of nature to warrant some distinguishing mark 21 The sign remains today, but is unlit. The Colorado Geological Survey includes the following passage regarding the impressive and well-visited geologic formation at Box Ca on Park: A spectacular example of an angular unconformity in Box Canyon near Ouray is so striking that it often appears in geology texts. The steeply dipping Precambrian strata were originally deposited as horizontal layers and then buried. Later, the layers tilted and folded to a vertical position during a mountain building event and were eventually eroded and truncated. When the vertical Precambrian strata subsided below sea level, the Devonian marine sandstone was deposited on top of them. 22 In 2001, Box Canon Park was designated an important bird watching area by the prefers living in canyon walls near waterfalls. The park is one of the largest dwelling places for black swifts in the state. 23 The park attracts geologists, bird watchers, history buffs, and landscape enthusiasts alike, and is a common recreation area for local families. 21 The Ouray Herald, 1909. via Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls and Park. (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984) 34. 22 Unconformities. Colorado Geological Survey, June 20, 2013. (Accessed October 21, 2016). http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org/colorado-geology/structures/ unconformities/. 23 Ourays Slot Canyon: Rare Birds and Billions of Years of Geology. Ouray, Colorado. (Accessed October 21, 2016). http://www.ouraycolorado.com/things-to-do/ box-canon-falls

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21 Figure 5. Bridge over Uncompahgre River, 1880s William H. Jackson, State Historical Society of Missouri

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22 Figure 6. Construction in Box Canyon, 1895 Colorado Historical Society

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23 Berkeley PitButte, MT The Berkeley Pit is a former open copper pit mine in Butte, Montana. Known colloquially as the richest hill on earth, the roughly 320 million tonnes of ore and 700 million tonnes of waste rock mined out of the Pit produced enough metal to pave a copper road 4 inches thick from Butte to 30 miles south of Salt Lake City, UT. The social and cultural history of Butte, which accompanied its long history of extraction which extends through the present, is fascinating and while I will not cover it exhaustively here, further resources are available. 24 Underground copper mining ceased in Butte in 1975 when economic factors pumps keeping groundwater from accumulating in the underground tunnels stopped 25 As of November 4, 2016, the water level was 5335.73 feet above sea level, a staggering 1780 feet deep and 43 billion gallons in volume. The water is highly acidic and contaminated with numerous minerals and heavy metals including but not limited to: calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, The pH of the water varies between 2.5 and 3.0. A phenomena called a chemocline occurs between 400 and 435 feet below the surface of the water, separating water with different densities of metal content and pH. According to water samples taken in 24 pitwatch.org is a resource I used for history as well as ongoing research updates. It is a local organization that focuses on public education regarding the Pit whose pamphlet I picked up while I was visiting. There are also a number of scholarly articles that cover all manner of related topics from extremophile bacteria thriving in Pit water to controversy over Buttes long history of prostitution. 25 1982-2013: 31 Years since Pumps Stopped. PitWatch, July 31, 2013. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.pitwatch.org/31-years-since-pumpsstopped/.

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24 copper and iron than that above and has a lower pH. 26 There are a number of local myths regarding the early 20th century discovery of copper content in wastewater, many of which agree that the discoverer acquired rights to the water for one year before the value was discovered by the mining company and made off with approximately $90,000 in that year alone. The practice of re-mining the Pit water continues today. Montana Resources uses an ironbased precipitation process that cycles water through a plant, pulling copper out of process is visible from the Viewing Stand. 26 Whats in the Berkeley Pit Water? PitWatch, July 6, 2013. (Accessed January 20, 2017) http://www.pitwatch.org/whats-in-the-berkeley-pit-water/.

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25 Figure 7. 3D Model of topography and tunnels in Butte, MT Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Pit Watch

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26 Marble Mill Site ParkMarble, CO Marble is a unique Colorado mining town in that its product was not metal ore Colorado-Yule Marble Company was founded in 1905 to quarry this resource which would make its way to many historic sites around the country, including the Byron R. White United States Courthouse in Denver and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC. The quarry is 3.9 miles away from the Mill Site, where large marble blocks were transported to be carved and then shipped. The Marble Mill was the largest stone mill in United States History. The present day park covers 25 acres and is an ongoing project owned and maintained by the Town of Marble and is made possible thanks to support of local community organizations and residents. 27 The Park is comprised of numerous buildings and ruins, all which supported was the Vault Building, which housed blueprints for all the stone blocks and company documents and records. The main portion of the park wanders through what was once the body of the Mill Building, comprised of multiple mills and shops where the marble was processed, cut, sculpted, sanded, and polished. The site also includes an avalanche wall, constructed to protect the building from avalanches ripping through the valley, which at one point stood 61 feet tall and the remnants of an overhead crane which helped load blocks up to 25 tonnes onto the railcars that actually traversed the shop. 28 For modern visitors, the site also hosts picnic tables, a basketball court, trails, and a frisbee golf course. 27 Marble Mill Site Park. Informational Pamphlet. Town of Marble and The Marble Hub. 28 Marble Mill Site Park. Informational Pamphlet. Town of Marble and The Marble Hub.

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27 Figure 9. View of Mill Site, mid 1900s Stone Quarries and Beyond Figure 10. Interior View of Marble Mill, early 1900s Stone Quarries and Beyond

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28 Literature/Theory: is composed of theories and discourses from landscape architecture and cultural geography. These theoretical foundations formed my understanding of the breadth and depth of the relationships nested in built and wild landscapes. It taught me to question my own perception of those relationships based on observations and discoveries by other students of landscape. In The Beholding Eye, Meinig see is a step toward more effective communication. 29 These Ten Versions of the Same Scene are: landscape as Nature landscape as Habitat landscape as Artifact landscape as System landscape as Problem landscape as Wealth landscape as Ideology landscape as History landscape as Place landscape as Aesthetic PMLs could arguably be seen in any of these ways, among others. The ones most pertinent to this research are: artifact, problem, wealth, history, place, and 29 Meinig, D. W. The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. 47.

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29 aesthetic. Artifact because the mark of man 30 is distinctly visible at these sites, and humankind, for its own purposes, has apparently conquered Nature. Problem because from a number of perspectives, the landscape is in a condition needing correction. To the miner, the problem is the valuable material residing within the problem is the resulting landscape post-extraction, where levels of toxicity can alter surrounding water systems and/or create public and environmental health hazards. To the scientist, the problem is how little we understand, quantitatively and systematically about these places, and/or how best to restore them. Wealth because because each site is a complex cumulative record of the work of nature and man in this particular place. Sites of extraction may be presently considered historic, or, if visible in such sites are biased towards those who leave lasting marks, and so these histories are often incomplete at best, fractured and misleading at worst. Place because PMLs intrigue the senses, occasionally bombard them, and impress upon the visitor the sense that the site has many stories of its own, an individuality due to the composition of their spaces, which invite penetrating explorations by the artistically-minded. The search for function in relation to form, meaning in relation to materiality, the connection between formal composition of the scene and the stories, histories, and mysteries it holds, is one that I, too, fell prey to. Clearly, there are a multitude of landscape perceptions even when the gaze is directed at the same scene; the process of this research has forced me to decipher my own perceptions and communicate them. As Stilgoe remarks in 30 Meinig, D. W. The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. 3.

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30 What is Landscape? Landscape mocks scholars. Groups of people share certain general angles of vision and agree on certain rough-hewn simplicities, but landscape perception is peculiar to each inquirer. 31 As outlined in Kants theory of concepts and percepts, a perception of landscape is not completely formed until it integrates with the conceptual framework one holds regarding pieces and parts of the landscape experience. The conceptual framework most Americans have for understanding the PMLs in this country do not embrace the power these particular places have to catalyze change. Broadening the conceptual framework around experience in PMLs allows participants in that experience and those communities to imagine new and different futures beyond traditional restoration and reclamation practices. Landscape By landscape I want instead (of mental representation and cognition) to refer to the physical and visual form of the earth as an environment and as a setting in which locales occur and in a dialectical relation to which meanings are created, reproduced and transformed A landscape as ontological importance because it is lived in and throughreplete with cultural meaning and symbolism 32 landscape is the work of the mind. Its scenery is built up as much from strata of memory as from layers of rock. 33 As indicated by the two quotes above, landscape is a concept with multiple described a scene represented artistically, to a post-structuralist concept of layered time, memory, and experience, landscape is an elusive and alluring concept. It is both the physical world we inhabit and the social, emotional, metaphorical 31 Stilgoe, John. What is Landscape? (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015),17. 32 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of LandscapePlaces, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994), 25-26. 33 Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. (New York: Random House, 1996), 7.

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31 constructions the mind has woven around that physicality. In his description of dwelling Heidegger emphasizes the critical interconnectedness of the fourfold: humans truly dwell when they build their worlds in awareness and relation to the other interconnected elements of earth, sky, and divine. 34 The landscape is the home in which we dwell, the physical surface and materials on and with which we construct our lives. It is also the basis of our understanding of self in relation to perceived other and the foundation for our spiritual and symbolic beliefs. Landscape is the painting and the world view and everything in between. PMLs are a distinct type within the post industrial landscape typology, the places studied for this thesis are products of a capitalist world view, and also provide us with scenery that allows for visualization of cultural histories and integration of symbolism into the landscape experience. Binaries The opposition of humans and culture to nature is a deep seeded distinction and one that permeates nearly all aspects of landscape perception. Binaries make distinct concepts which are often, in fact, interwoven and interrelated. In The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Meyer presents the questioning of binary thought as critical to deconstructing ethical and aesthetic practices that sunder humans from their environments. Meyer makes a number of assertions regarding the improved future role of feminine landscape as a grounded and powerful object in relation to its typical binary, masculine architecture. 35 The fascinating application of these concepts to PMLs is that they often transcend the distinction altogether. Due to time and the dual necessity of nonhuman features in concert with human ones to extract resources, these sites, especially post34 Heidegger, Martin. Building, Dwelling, Thinking. from his lecture given to Darmstadt Symposium on Man and Space August 5, 1951. 35 Meyer, Elizabeth K. The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Ecological Design and Planning, ed. George E. Thomson and Frederick R. Steiner (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 71-72.

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32 abandonment, are decidedly a grey area. Built form crumbles and warps in response to the nonhuman, becoming more landscape-like until the two are nearly some of these modern principles so critiqued by Meyer to the point where they, too, male hands) or a masculine architectural form smoothed and overcome by feminine landscape features. Another alternative presented in her article was the landscape hybrid or cyborg, what she refers to as a both-and relationship rather than the either-or of the binary pair. 36 is an accurate representation of PMLs, yet there is something to be gained by addressing the issue of engendering the landscape one way or another. As with humans, gender can be more nuanced and subtle than segregated. Perhaps as we evolve to appreciate this within human culture we will be able to glimpse this subtlety in landscape. The world view of human: nature places the landscape as Other to humans and (in Meyers argument) architecture and man-made form. Because we are human and our experience and perception is human, we tend to view ourselves as distinct from and independent of the landscape, but it is our experience that generates perceptions of landscape as both a human construct and a system of nonhuman entities and forces. Civilization : Wilderness All America lies at the end of the wilderness road, and our past is not a dead past, but still lives in us. Our forefathers had civilization inside themselves, the wild outside. We live in the civilization they created, but within us the 36 Meyer, Elizabeth K. The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture, Ecological Design and Planning, ed. George E. Thomson and Frederick R. Steiner (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 64.

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33 wilderness still lingers. What they dreamed, we live, and what they lived, we dream. 37 It is common for civilization, society, and urbanism to be construed as diametrically opposed to concepts of wilderness. What PMLs force us to acknowledge is their deep interconnection. As Cronon states, Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it (wilderness) is quite profoundly a human creation. 38 Cronon accurately paints a picture of urban dwellers who see their own chosen habitat as a type of contamination pressing in upon this idea of pristine nature and wilderness. Instead, argues the author, it is a product of that civilization, and could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is made. 39 Eighteenth century connotation to wilderness was deserted, desolate, barren, a waste. Since the 18 th century we have developed a fascination with what we perceive to be wildernesswe have created a whole new identity, for it wilderness. In the 18 th century, the industrial revolution was just beginning. Manufacturing and larger scale industry was changing the way society functioned. By the 19 th century men made wealthy through industrialization sought the wilderness as a place where their true values resided, and, like the quote that launches us into Lonesome Dove, it became a pinnacle of wild west romanticism. Industrialization and civilization are often viewed in opposition to wilderness; that which consumes the raw goods of nature and fuels the every day life that happens apart from the wilderness. In 37 McMurtry, Larry. Lonesome Dove. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985). Epigraph. 38 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, (W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 1996) : 69. 39 Ibid

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34 todays post-modern context, we have an abundance of residual landscapes from the consumption of wilderness. This new breed of wilderness elicits much the same response as natural wilderness did in the 18 th century, mainly fear, repulsion, and awe. As we watch the cultural perceptions towards postmining and post-industrial landscapes move in a similar direction as wilderness, Cronons interpretation of the wilderness concept through the lenses of the sublime and the frontier perhaps foreshadow and may inform the way post industrial landscapes are received as they evolve. the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to become sacred. 40 But as Cronon and many others identify, humans see wilderness as Other. 41 So if wilderness is deemed sacred, then we most certainly are not. Thus, wilderness gains divine status and in interacting with the post-industrial? In it we see the abandoned ruins of a previous culturea culture that has expired, gone extinct, moved on to greener pastures. We can see a dark smudge of failure but we can also see ourselves in it. We are inescapably a part of the picture. By this argument, if the post-industrial landscape becomes sublime, becomes, like wilderness, celebrated in its essential nature, if it becomes sacred, then so do we. The revitalization of these places holds not only the opportunity to rewrite history but the potential to redeem humanity in its own eyes. Christopher Salter took on this dichotomous relationship in his piece, The Cowboy and the City, in which he deconstructs the cowboy myth through the 40 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, (W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 1996) : 73. 41 See also: Elizabeth Meyer, Edward Casey,

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35 symbolism used in Marlboro cigarette advertisements. He claims that if we would only embrace the choice we have made in living in cities we would see more clearly the poetry, intent, and modest success 42 we have achieved in dense, urban settlement. Key to his argument are the elements of wilderness portrayed in the advertisements to which the city dweller is drawn ideologically but not realistically. They are isolation, lack of technology, and animal husbandry. These are all aspects of rural living that millions of Americans abandoned in their move to cities. In Salters words, We covet the image. We avoid the reality. 43 PMLs are a part of the reality of both rural and urban living. In the former, mining is a way of life, a means to a living, and an environmental reality. In the latter, it is a rather distasteful means to the ends we desire in our daily lives. PMLs have been created in response to a capitalistic value system but have varying effects of the lives of rural and urban communities and depending on ones context, there will be a wide spectrum of responses to for societys short-term needs were now seen as misuse of landscape that was wasteful, distasteful, and, certainly, unesthetic. 44 The separation of urban and rural Lippard discusses in Undermined Like archaeology, which is time read backwards, gravel mines are metaphorically cities turned upside down, though urban culture is unaware of its origins and rural birthplaces. 45 Her book poignantly and holistically 42 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27:3 (1983), 47. 43 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27:3 (1983), 45. 44 Salter, Christopher. The Cowboy and the City: Urban Affection for Wilderness. Landscape 27, 3(1983): 46. 45 Lippard, Lucy. Undermined. (New York: The New Press, 2013), 11.

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36 addresses both of these issues, the spatial and temporal relationships of cities between urban and rural, native peoples and industry. Presence and Absence: Cultural Memory PMLs are landscapes of simultaneous presence and absence. They are harm) therein. They are what John Wiley refers to as paradoxical incorporations. Inspired by the memorial benches at Mullion Cove in Cornwall, UK he writes: Landscape and recollection and perception, none of them fusing or coinciding with each other, nor singly present and replete in themselves, but all held tense and tangled nonetheless. 46 It is the tension and tangle that are experientially accessible to participants in PMLs. Their participation is necessary for the continual construction of the place as a cultural landscape. As Mitch Rose argues in his article, Gathering dreams of presence: a project for the cultural landscape, cultural landscapes are unique in that they are, as dreams of presence, intimate collections of material sensations, where other dreams of presence (dreams of who we are, of where we belong, and of how we get on with life) are consigned. 47 This argument sheds light on the idea that it not their own being in the world based upon the experience in the landscape. What is sensed in post-mining landscapes is often, paradoxically, the presence of absence. It is true for PMLs as it was for Wiley at Mullion Cove: The shreds and patches of 46 Wiley, John. Landscape, absence, and the geographies of love. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34(2009): 277. 47 Rose, Mitch. Gathering dreams of presence: a project for the cultural landscape. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 24(2006): 539.

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37 things, whether treasured possessions or soiled ephemera handled, venerated, or discarded all the traces of presence of those now absent are worked in such a way so as to show, synchronously, the absence of presence, the presence of absence. 48 Transitional PMLs are such a distinct experience because they allow for the ongoing presence of modern people while maintaining that sense of the presence of absence. They allow visitors to engage with landscape and history and culture actively and utilize that experience to re-form their understanding of their own place in landscape, history and culture. History is sensed and understood in multiple ways. There are histories that are recorded and taught, which are inevitably selected by someone, and biased by some power. These are the histories in textbooks, on interpretive signage, dispensed by tour guides. There may be nothing wrong with them, yet there is something missing. What the visitor senses in post-mining landscapes is the presence of multiple narratives, and the absence of these from the selected histories offered. The stories of the Marble Mill are not only those of the proprietor, but those of the workers and their families, the sculptors, travelers, the Native tribes. There are human narratives documenting nonhuman forces of volcanism, erosion, ancient These places are memories made manifest, what Wiley refers to as the very materiality of memory its presence, tangibility and there-ness that remains a touchstone, even if the matter in question is tarnished, disordered, forgotten, hidden or irreversibly decaying. 49 This brings in the concept of restoration: what if, in restoring these places, the memory embedded in the materials upon which nonhuman forces have been contributing is lost? Potentially, in efforts of preserving 48 Wiley, John. Landscape, absence, and the geographies of love. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34(2009): 279. 49 Ibid.

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38 history, we actually erase some of its power to communicate those tangled narratives and the actions of time. Human memories are not the only ones present in such places. In his article entitled Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes, Gary Brierley refers to three types itself on the landscape at various temporal and spatial scales, often operating simultaneously and collectively. Even in regards to hard science and measurements 50 And when one is looking at ways of experiencing, making sense, and potentially acting upon these places, it is important to remember that all landscapes have a partial or selective memory of past events and processes. Determination of preservation potential is not always a predictable process. 51 He concludes by reminding us that we tend to have an incomplete picture of how a landscape came to be what it is today. The best we can do is to acknowledge our own roles in building partial histories of place. Narrative It is not just a question of connecting the grand narratives of historicalgeographical transition to local happenings, but of taking account of the histories, allegories, homilies and legends which gather in and around places, of telling stories about stories. 52 One of the most important features of landscape experience is that it is one constructed in space and time. Experience of a landscape belies an action, 50 Brierley, Gary John. Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes Area. 42(2010): 80. 51 Brierley, Gary John. Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes Area. 42(2010): 81. 52 Daniels, Stephen. Place and the Geographical Imagination, Geographical Association 77(1992): 319.

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39 a physical presence and movement through which perceptions are constantly reframed. Movement through space constructs spatial stories, forms of narrative understanding. This involves a continuous presenting of previous experiences in present contexts. 53 The construction of landscape involves our personal memories (our unique frameworks which inform our being in the world), the landscape memory (what processes have formed the physical world we experience around us), and the passing of time in which our collective memories are woven into timelines and storylines. In Restoring Layered Landscapes, editors Marion Hourdequin and David Havlick argue that narrative is one of humanitys best tools for understanding and engaging complex, layered landscapes such as PMLs. They and their contributors suggest approaches that respond to this narrative quality, approaches that relax restrictive ideas of authenticity and reconceptualize landscapes as complex and evolving socioecological systems that carry multiple forms of meaning, value, and 54 If one looks at the varied memories present in a certain landscape and traces the stories of each, the resulting tangle is one that has hope of being teased out as a narrative work. It allows for overlap, interaction, complexity, transition, and evolution, and it invites the expression of those processes through many different voices. In discussing his Narrative-Descriptive Approach, Yi-Fu Tuan proposes that both the metaphorical and sociolinguistic powers of language be harnessed to capture and express a human experience. He insists that Words have the general power to bring to light experiences that lie in the shadow or have receded into it, and 53 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997): 28, referencing DeCerteau (1984: Part III) 54 Hourdequin, Marion and Havlick, David G. Introduction: Ecological Restoration and Layered Landscapes. Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 3.

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40 55 Tuan explores the variety of language used in and around a place, as it is determined by ones relationship to it. This language has the ability to communicate power, meaning, and imagination and has ethical and moral considerations as a non-neutral contributor to place. One gets the sense, through Tuans writing, that he intrinsically meshes the narrative capacity of humans regarding the landscape with the narrative qualities of the landscape itself. Any while written narrative is one way of capturing this unique quality of landscape experience, our language, like our paper, often lacks immediate capacity to communicate a sense of dimensional complexity. 56 And for this reason, we turn to other modes of representation to more fully express the layered and complex nature of landscapes and the relationships that form them. Photos: it can also be used as a window, equilaterally divided by the horizon, that imagination to the vastness that now exists only as an idea: the landscape 57 All of the photographs in this section of the thesis are my own from site visits. number increases my attention to detail and composition and therefore provides me composition. 55 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Language and the Making of Place: A Narrative-Descriptive Approach. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81:4 (1991) 686 56 Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information. (Cheshire: Graphics Press, 1990): 17. 57 Joe Deal via Lippard, Lucy. Undermined 18.

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41 Bachelor Historic Driving LoopCreede, CO Figure 11. Ferrous Iron in Willow Creek Katharine Bolton, 2015

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42 Figure 12. Mill Ruins Katharine Bolton, 2015

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43 Figure 13. Mill Ruins Katharine Bolton, 2015 Figure 14. Flow Structure, Willow Creek Katharine Bolton, 2015

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44 Figure 15. Looking up Willow Creek from Driving Loop Start Point Katharine Bolton, 2015

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45 Katharine Bolton, 2015

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46 Figure 17. Creede Mining Museum Katharine Bolton, 2015 Figure 18. Looking up valley from the Creede Mining Museum Katharine Bolton, 2015

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47 Figure 19. Settling Ponds next to Willow Creek Katharine Bolton, 2015 Figure 20. Skate Shack Katharine Bolton, 2015

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48 Figure 21. Looking uphill from Driving Loop Start Katharine Bolton, 2015 Figure 22. Cabins Katharine Bolton, 2015

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49 Figure 23. Landform, Ruins, Fall Color Katharine Bolton, 2015 Figure 24. Weir structure and Willows Katharine Bolton, 2015

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50 Figure 25. Modern Reclamation Katharine Bolton, 2015

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51 Box Canon ParkOuray, CO Figure 26. Channel structure into town Katharine Bolton, 2016

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52 Figure 27. View towards Ouray up the Uncompahgre River Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 28. Uncompahgre River in Ouray, Ferrous Iron Katharine Bolton, 2016

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53 Katharine Bolton, 2016 Katharine Bolton, 2016

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54 Figure 31. The High Bridge looking towards the tunnel Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 32. Looking through the High Bridge into Box Canyon Katharine Bolton, 2016

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55 Figure 33. Looking into the tunnel across the High Bridge Katharine Bolton, 2016

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56 Figure 34. Looking over Canyon Creek and the Hot Springs Intake Katharine Bolton, 2016

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57 Figure 35. Looking up at the HIgh Bridge from inside the canyon Katharine Bolton, 2016

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58 Figure 36. Canyon Creek from the base of the canyon Katharine Bolton, 2016

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59 Figure 37. Old machinery in the canyon Katharine Bolton, 2016

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60 Berkeley PitButte, MT Figure 38. Entrance to the Berkeley PIt Viewing Stand Katharine Bolton, 2016

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61 Figure 39. Berkeley Pit from the Viewing Stand Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 40. Barbed wire, processing plant Katharine Bolton, 2016

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62 Figure 41. Clouds over the Pit Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 42. Structures Katharine Bolton, 2016

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63 Figure 43. Berkeley Pit, clouds Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 44. Looking towards the entrance through the tunnel Katharine Bolton, 2016

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64 Figure 45. Berkeley Pit, walls Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 46. Downtown Butte, MT Katharine Bolton, 2016

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65 Marble Mill Site ParkMarble, CO Figure 47. Marble Mill Ruins Katharine Bolton, 2016

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66 Figure 48. Blueprint House, Mill Site Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 49. Construction Detail Katharine Bolton, 2016

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67 Figure 50. Exploring the Mill Site Park Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 51. Marble Remnants Katharine Bolton, 2016

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68 Figure 52. Foundations, wandering Katharine Bolton, 2016

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69 Figure 53. New growth, old places Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 54. Traces of walls Katharine Bolton, 2016

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70 Figure 55. Portals Katharine Bolton, 2016

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71 Figure 56. Folly Katharine Bolton, 2016

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72 Figure 57. Aspen grove in a sunken room Katharine Bolton, 2016 Katharine Bolton, 2016

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73 Figure 59. Growing through the cracks Katharine Bolton, 2016

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74 Figure 60. Dappled light on an old building Katharine Bolton, 2016 Figure 61. Marble table at the entry Katharine Bolton, 2016

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75 Figure 62. Crumbling marble walls Katharine Bolton, 2016

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76 Many of the sensations and impressions of being in these landscapes were, experience to communicate itself, to remain open to interpretation by the viewer, and the deep: what is available to us through surface observation as compared to what is revealed through deeper investigation. It is, as Lippard suggested, a somewhat archaeological process. In his article, Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic but also how it feels to be in a place. 58 other elements of my experiences and have my own language to connect to that of the literature Ive read. Bachelor Historic Driving Loop The journey in was long, we drove from Denver into the early October sunset, driving roads familiar and unfamiliar, marveling at mountains, the typical Colorado scenery that never gets old. As we wound our way North from South Fork the sun dipped below the mountains and we saw silvery undersides of leaves indicating the namesake of Cottonwood Grove and other such enclaves that held but a few ageless cabins and pastures. The occasional RV or modern car indicated the decade and century we had almost left behind on Highway 285. As soon as you pass through Saguache, time becomes debatable, suddenly not so sure of itself as it was in Denver. We entered the town of Creede in nearly full dark, taking the hard 58 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79(2); 1989. 233.

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77 campsite. This is one of my favorite travel phenomena, especially in places of such at our remote campsite, sharing the area with one other car of campers, set up the visual realization of where we had planted ourselves. We woke up in the morning to sunlight striking golden aspen leaves, the rush of the stream behind our tents creating the perfect accompaniment to the cool morning mountain air. It was a moment in memory formed by all 5 senses at once, the mental image composed of a full sensory imprint, impressions taken in by sight, smell, sound, and touch overlapping in that pleasant synesthesia where the scent is indistinguishable from sound and sight from touch, etc. After a wander into the valley in search of golden vistas and the sounds of water we headed back towards town, sleepy, as always come to build worlds inside worlds. We drove down Main Street, the quintessential mining town turned artist retreat and quiet community, where an outsider cant help but question how livings are made by the general populace. At one time temporary home to nomadic tribes and Utes, the area known today as Mineral County appears quiet and sparsely populated, but traces of the mining boom remain. In a quick drive up the canyon from modern downtown this history is clearly legible, inscribed in broad strokes on the canyon walls. There is such a poetry of beauty and function in this history, the work of hands and rudimentary machinery defying the forces of time to tell fragmented stories in the slanting light of an October afternoon. They tell us stories of habitation, of survival, of manipulation, of earth moving and the impact capitalist markets and humans hands can have. I have always found myself drawn to these remnants of past histories where the wind feels like whispers and makes the hairs on your arms stand straight. I have been told this puts me at risk of being considered a ruin porn fanatic, and be that as it may, these places have appeal.

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78 They have mystery and pull and I attribute this draw to the overwhelming sense of non-linear time that impresses itself upon the visitor through all senses and intuition. They are places where history is felt as well as seen. Throughout the afternoon we covered the 17-mile historic driving loop, from my daily concerns and immersed in layered time. We stopped to admire the tenacity of structures still clinging to some semblance of their original form and those that had adopted new roles and identities in the passing of time. These in particular hold interest to the landscape scholar as they indicate a fourth nature or a moment of distinct hybridity between humans and the landscape. As we turned the car back towards town for the return portion of the loop we came upon a mine reclamation project. After miles of ruins and stops for exploration we paused in mild curiosity as to what was going on. The only visual interest at the site was the presence of large machinery moving earth and stone into unremarkable approximations of natural geomorpholog ic forms. The question of what values are lost in reclamation was fresh amidst the stark contrast of history and modernity. Further along the loop we paused at the Last Chance Mine, listening to stories of the two men bringing it back to life as living history and interpretation. The family who owned the mine sold it to the route of slow, hand labor opening the land up to the inquiring eye. We wandered that if they had not succumbed to gravity yet, they most likely would hold for the rest of our visit. I purchased a rock with a small amethyst crystal clinging to its ridges, a memento of this place famous not only for its precious metals but also its precious stones. Amethyst being my birthstone it felt somehow personal. You could sign a waiver and take away pieces of mine tailings, a rather lessattractive option in my

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79 opinion, and supposedly in a year or so you will be able to enter a mine shaft and see the workings of this industrial underworld, the mountains we perceive as so solid and unmovable revealed as stony anthills, networks of tunnels reaching over a thousand feet into the ground. Box Caon Park For me, Box Canon Park was transformative. A friend dropped me off on the side of Red Mountain Pass Road just outside of Ouray, CO. He had an errand to run and could also sense that I needed the experience. I was feeling frustrated by extenuating circumstances, some of them personal, others related to research and the relative inaccessibility of places I was interested in at that time in early spring in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. So I hopped out of the truck the path, trying not to slip. Despite my enormous snow boots, the path was icy and the grade just-steep enough to keep me on edge. As I focused on my footsteps on the path I could feel the frustration dissipate just the slightest bit. Ouray is quiet in early spring. The famed ice-climbing season is winding down, there are no skiers left on the little hill in town (literally, theres a rope tow on a hilly lot in town that is open to town residents free of charge all season long), and residents go about their daily business, waiting for a spring that always seems to take its time. I navigated only a few other hikers in this park whose boundaries I had yet to comprehend. We snuck around each other on the small track, winding around a switchback and I had vanished and I was entirely submerged in forest. After a brief pause I continued down the path, my worries fading in the face of this adventure I had found myself in. Funny how the unknown can send us spiraling into either fright or thrill. There

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80 was something about that place that instilled in me a greater sense of thrill than terror, at least in that moment. Finally I reached the bottom of the sloping path and found myself perched on a cliff, staring across a chasm at the Great Unconformity, a geological formation known to enthusiasts the world over. I could hear the water now, but I couldnt see it. Tentatively I stepped out onto a simple bridge spanning the gorge. It was made of metal grating and so the experience of stepping out onto the abyss was acute. Every step brought an awareness of the growing distance between my feet and the source of the water sounds reaching my ears. I may have opted out of the bridge crossing were it not for the tunnel carved out of the cliff on the other side. Cautious I may be, but my curiosity about the history of mining and infrastructure in this region generally wins out. I made it to the tunnel, peeked into the darkness and saw the path continue on the other side. Intuition took me back across the bridge, where I could see the path I had descended and a small footpath continuing back down the slope on that side of the gorge. It was this path I elected to take in continuation of my journey. It was well trodden, and therefore even icier than the previous one. Shortly the trail emptied out at a metal fence (strategically located so the sliding winter park-goer wont continue right off the cliff into the canyon). Left would take me into the canyon, under the bridge I had so recently Canyon Creek, with the Uncompaghre River, the established meeting point. Now fully in the spirit of adventure, I turned left, hiked over/through a four foot snow drift (how I thought I would reach mine sites at 13,000 feet at this time of the season was utterly embarrassing to me now) and joyfully took in the sight of the red metal grating I recognized from the bridge forming a path precariously attached to the side of the canyon wall and disappearing into the dark chasm I had so recently stood above. I walked along the grating, occasionally altering my posture to accommodate bulging rock walls and tunnels. The critical moment of the whole journey took place

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81 on this path. As I came around a curve, ducking around the imposing rock wall, I was hit with the physical impact of water sound. It was thunderous. All of a sudden I could feel the mist of water forced into the surrounding air by the sheer velocity of its cascading mass. I looked up and saw the bridge I had stood on and understood viscerally how it was that I could manage to hear this water almost 300 feet above its physical presence. Water invaded my senses. I was in its place. My steps shortened and slowed, I was keenly aware of my existence as human in this world of water. Finally I could see the source of this sensory explosion. A waterfall (although it seemed to me less of a water-fall than a water-gush) pulsed through a narrow in its most brutal expressions and even on the hardest of canvasses, creates such overtook my ears and nose and eyes. Here at the base of a small canyon I found sublime sensory immersion. I was stripped of everything that wasnt immediate. After an imperceptible amount of time I ascended the stairs, navigating a cluster of local kids sliding on the ice with the terrifying and inspiring abandon known only to children ages 5-10. As I walked back along the suspended path, the sound of the waterfall receding, I began to notice the changes in my physical body, the pounding heart, the humming eardrums, the electric sparkle I could feel in my eyes. I stopped to admire the remnants of mining equipment still parked in the base of the canyon, black against the white snow still strikingly pillowed in this cool, dark, water shrine. It seemed to have taken up residence there and looked as in place as a large spider, fully surrounded by a web of water, content to watch it change form to form around it. I arrived at last at the small visitors center and took in the selection of maps and

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82 historic photographs showing tourists at this hidden masterpiece from the early twentieth century on. Still thrumming with the sensory overload I walked down the in it is as deep and cathartic as any meditation. It is how I imagine surfers feel when they have ridden the perfect wave. They have entered the realm of water and experience, solid form of water I had shed something of my previous self and been reborn. I met my friend at the bridge where you can watch the almost black Canyon Creek mix into the ruddy red Uncompahgre and he knew before I said a word that I was fundamentally changed. Here the different levels and moments allude to different experiences, time periods, and evolutionary processes that created the space. The water moving through the park is the fulcrum of the sensory experience. It is the storyteller, the inanimate animate. It is creating and has created the space and still moves through it, building the fullness of the moment and connecting the visitor directly, in a very tactile way, to the continuity of time and process from which this space came. Our awareness of the starting and stopping of human activity is called into question by the undeniable omnipresence of natural and wild process. Each footstep can be viewed as part of the continuing human process in place. Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand We drove into Butte from Bozeman on a rainy May morning. I quickly learned days that blossom in more southern states. The days still have a chill, the nights are frosty and the rains and mist move through the landscape in drifting veils. I have always been drawn to this kind of weather. In such a vast landscape the effects of clouds and mist are dramatic, concealing and revealing topography from one minute to the next as you head down the interstate. We came into the Butte valley

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83 and immediately my eyes registered the moonscape surrounding the Berkeley Pit. there is no way of preparing oneself for the impression of scale it makes upon you. My brain struggled with the sense of distance, feeling that I must be closer than I was for it to appear so large and looming. We drove straight on, almost past it before we hit the exit that would take us into town. Butte is a fascinating place: the realities were a strange hybrid of the two. We circled through the main streets, inspired by the early 20th century brick construction and haunted by the feeling that we were still in some form of ghost town. We pulled up to a coffee shop with a mystical bend to it, the Venus Rising Espresso House. While my travel companion slept on an acid green chenille Victorian couch, I mulled over local publications informing the public about the Pit, sipped mediocre drip coffee, and let my eyes otherwise empty establishment. A trip to the restroom informed me of the towns multitudinous ghost stories in news headlines papering the walls. The owner was a round and jolly woman who looked at my sleeping companion with mothers eyes and told me what great business she gets from young Mormons who come to enjoy music and atmosphere without alcohol. From there we drove to the viewing stand, riding alongside the 2-story berm delineating the outside of the pit and parking in front of the small log cabin that serves as the visitor center and gift shop. We paid our $2 entry fee, appreciated the kitschy copper souvenirs, and wandered towards the entrance. Through a wood plank door I could see the shiny white interior of the tunnel. The Viewing Stand was on the other side of the berm, so the entrance experience was one of compression. Here there were no rough hewn rock walls, no tunnel with a single exit point. It was a counter-intuitive tunnel experience. Instead

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84 of emerging from the dark into the light, you walk through the bright and shiny tunnel towards the point of stormy grey darkness indicating the outer/inner world of the Berkeley Pit. I reentered the outside world, inside the Pit, and it was certainly a different world. The experience of moving through compression to this vast expanse lingers. The only moving thing was the clouds, stark white and clutching the surrounding mountains. The stillness was palpable. Having dutifully read my copy of Pit Watch, I knew I was calmly observing a lake of acid mine drainage approximately 1100 deep. Ive heard that in the sunlight the water appears distinctly purple, but in the dim light of a drizzly May day it was dull purple grey against the sandy orange tailings and overburden that form its banks. This was not a place where the work of human hands is felt acutely, it seems somehow superhuman. This cavernous hole in of geese, sits quietly and ominously. Nothing about it seems human-scale and yet it is undeniably a product of human industry and desire. I stood on the small viewing stand, surrounded by barbed wire fencing, feeling the multitude of days that etched this landscape over decades. Its always amazed me that the days that created our landscapes are just like the present one. The winds blow with the same wet pressure, the sun bleaches with the same power, the immensity of time is shocking when you consider its layers are no thicker than the moments we experience. Marble Mill Site Park There are a multitude of landscapes produced by mining that are removed in varying degrees from the sites of extraction themselves. Some are closer, more directly linked to material, place, and resource, while others share but a wisp of a common memory, a d j vu moment that brings them to the same mountainside for a dreamy moment. Marble, Colorado is one such place where stories stack one on top of the other in a murky and intriguing dialogue. Some voices are expected, the laborers, stonemasons, mill owners, their families. Others are indirect but still

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85 tied forcefully to the place. The Lincoln Memorial among other architectural icons marble stone. Photographers come to bask in romantic ruins of the Crystal Mill; outdoorsmen and women come to tackle challenging climbs and hikes; off-roading enthusiasts sputter and lurch along roads constructed before their steel chariots were anyones wildest dream. These stories rub elbows softly in the echo-y canyon and the aspen trees look on unperturbed, slowly slipping from chartreuse to emerald to gold to bare. But it is these ghosts, this sense of non-linear time colliding in a place that stops your heart for a moment, that truly gives you pause to wonder why your feet stopped moving and your brain ceased its ceaseless trudge for the untouchable future. To me, this is what magic feels like. It feels like a deep and confusing sense of time swirling out of order. Its exhilarating and dizzying and terrifying. It is sublime. Historic texts on this particular subject take us to European vistas, Grand Tour experiences by privileged tourists, and ultimately to America on the backs of our National Park System and its forefathers. We have even come so of our own creative and technological endeavors (eg: the technological sublime). process but with the horrifying epiphany that we can play ball with the big boys. We have carved away mountains, made toxic hills and valleys, exposed stone older than our oldest religious traditions. In these places we are faced with a brutally honest it may bring you low, but I urge you to keep looking. Look and see not a wasteland, not an impending environmental catastrophe, but just look. Look and see. In time, this landscape appears as what it fundamentally is. Not that a landscape is by any means a trivial or simple entity. In that word is embedded thousands of years of

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86 linguistics, cultural construction, and personal experience (not to mention art, music, a collection of things, moments, people, places, ghosts, whispers, and clouds that converge out of time to touch a person right under their breastbone. A landscape is a living entity, and its touch can be just as harsh or intimate. And its looks can be just as deceiving.

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87 CHAPTER IV FRAMEWORK My experiences and documentation of them suggest that these landscapes are synthetic, complex, and layered places that confound any singular method of study. I have been able to categorize my experiences and my ways of making sense of them into the following categories: PMLs are sites of Co-Authorship between human and nonhuman forces. much of what we usually count as natural is really the old scars of earlier desecrations, with the further implication that maybe it was always desecration, all the way down. Maybe the sacred landscape is the landscape that has learned to live with ritual pollutions and cleanse itself with them. 59 In PMLs is the discourse between the human:nature binary, for they are undeniably both. The geologic, hydrologic, and organic features of the landscape were formed by climatic and physical nonhuman forces over long periods of time. Human interaction with these nonhuman features, which tended to be much less invasive before European settlement, were extreme, rapid, and violent during periods of extraction. Miners made quick and enduring changes to the nonhuman landscape. Martin Drenthen notes that at a certain point in time, not just quantitatively but also qualitatively. 60 This point in time, he suggests, is often determined to be around the beginning of the 20th century, when mining and industrial production was peaking in the US and abroad. In its ecological 59 Turner, Frederick. The Post Technological Landscape, Reclaiming the American West, Ed: Alan Berger. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002): 12-13. Art. Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. Marion Hourdequin and David G. Havlick, ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 247.

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88 connotation, a disturbance is an event or force, of nonbiological or biological origin, that brings about mortality to organisms and changes in their spatial patterning in the of individual populations and the character of whole ecosystems. 61 Humans have done, then, what many nonhuman forces have done before; the primary difference tends to be the scale and time period at which these changes occur. The resulting ecosystems are novel, the product of nonhuman change and human change. PMLs have another level of disturbance, one that inhabits the emotional realm The impacts of human intervention and the characteristics of the ecosystems as produced by this collaboration are ones that register as emotionally disturbing to many visitors. This collaborative aspect of PMLs is not intended to absolve humans of their role in the creation of the landscapes, but rather to acknowledge the complexity of human/nonhuman relationships therein. Nature is not just posited as the antagonist of human civilization, involved in the destruction of human systems of order and production, but a dynamic force to be continuously engaged and incorporated in any human endeavor. 62 And likewise, humanity is not to be simplistically viewed as a scourge upon a pure Nature, but an impactful contributor to the ongoing landscape discourse. PMLs then are socio-ecological assemblages that respond to and render visible the presence, entanglement and co-authorship of both human and non-human process, preferencing neither. 63 The critical piece of this co-authorship is that it places the human and the nonhuman together in the role 61 Ecological Disturbance | Ecology | Britannica.com. Accessed February 1, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/science/ecological-disturbance. 62 Langhorst, Joern and Bolton, Katharine. Re-Framing the Post-Industrial: Landscapes of Extraction Between Reclamation and Reinvention Change Over Time. (Philidelphia: University of Pennyslvania, forthcoming) 63 Ibid.

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89 of creative director; the next chapter in the layered landscape will be written by as well as home to both. PMLs are Timefull and Palimpsestic But the communal past is not truly ones own past unless history extends without break into personal memories; and neither is vividly present experienced. 64 Antithetic to places unknown are places saturated with meaning. Densely imagined through overlapping histories and intersecting current events, they resist being turned into cleared sites, that is, sites received as unoccupied, lacking any prior construction and lacking content. A multitude of stories lines. These are anthropological places whose inhabitants live in history, whose identity has not been formalized, and whose intellectual status is ambiguous. The options for planners and designers to impose their singular vision are severely curtailed. At the same time, the richness of narratives constitutes a wellspring of creative possibilities. 65 PMLs are thick and deep places, palimpsests composed of multiple layers created by human and non-human forces. They are landscapes built of complexity and interaction over time, places where the space becomes complete on its own, achieving a sense of timelessness (or perhaps timefullness) in which all sense of time is collapsed into a particular time-frame. 66 That time-frame is the present moment, and the sense of multiple times collapsing into it is palpable. 64 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Place: An Experiential Perspective. Geographical Review 65:2 (1975): 164. 65 Beauregard, Robert A. From Place to Site: Negotiating Narrative Complexity, Site Matters (London: Routledge, 2005): 39-40 quoting Carol J. Burns, On Site: Architectural Preoccupations, in Andrea Kahn, ed., Drawing, Building, Text: Essays in Architectural Theory. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991). 66 Shackley, Myra. Space, Sanctity and Service; the English Cathedral as heterotopia. International Journal of Tourism Reserach. 4(2002): 350.

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90 PMLs represent, like few other places, Jacksons concept of landscape as a place to deliberately speed up or slow down the processes of nature 67 In times of resource extraction, humans have accelerated nonhuman processes of erosion, humans attempt to reverse time (while inevitably continuing forward in it) by rebuilding contours, realigning waterways, revegetating barren slopes. In those PMLs abandoned post-extraction, time appears to have almost stood still, while the nonhuman forces continue on at their often imperceptible pace, imparting the same processes in their own time. As Tilley states in A Phenomenology of Landscape, All locales and landscapes are therefore embedded in the social and individual times of memory. Their pasts as much as their spaces are crucially constitutive of their presents. 68 What makes PMLs unique in their depth of time and their particular palimpsestic nature is the clarity of it. These are landscapes of exposure, where erasure and by what has been taken from the site, in both physical and metaphorical ways. For example, one of the most important things taken from PMLs are the perceptions of visitors and how they choose to act upon them. To quote Tilley again, While places and movement between them are intimately related to the formation of personal biographies, places themselves may be said to acquire a history, sedimented layers of meaning by virtue of the actions and events that take place in them. Personal biographies, social identities and a biography of place are intimately connected. 69 67 Eliade, in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984): 8. 68 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997); 27. 69 Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and

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91 As timefull and palimpsestic places, PMLs require not only a survey of the surface conditions but a probing look into the depth of time contained there. This is what Ann Spirn refers to as deep context, a place which is particular, a tapestry of woven contexts: enduring and ephemeral, local and global, related and unrelated, now and then, past and future. Landscape context is a fabric whose strands are narratives of landscape elements and features, both the persistent and 70 These are places where depth is spatial and temporal. Berleant posits that Grasped from an aesthetic standpoint, it (environment) has sensory richness, directness, and immediacy, together with the cultural patterns and meanings that perception carries, and thesis give environment its thick texture. 71 The landscape we see is a compilation of these narratives, though some are deeper, more hidden, and better obscured than others. To look at place with an eye for time and deep context requires one remember that time does not function in staccato acts but in rather in stream, there may be clues as to past events, patterns, and narratives, but to call them into being demands an act of forensic imagination, a Goethean reconstruction of past to present based on the material realities before us. When this is attempted, what is revealed is the intricate intertwining of dynamic humanindustrial and Monuments. (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 1997); 27. 70 Spirn, Ann Whiston. The Language of Landscape (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998): 160. 71 Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992) 20.

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92 non-human-ecological processes over time. 72 and the transcendent pathways connecting the opposing and harmonious forces of human and nonhuman. PMLs are experientially Sublime into an emotion better described as sublime when I see in the folded beds not just an attractive pattern but the yawning of geologic time and the violence of tectonic violence, though long dead in fact, is vividly alive as image. 73 which one cannot remain neutral. Elements of the landscape, whether spatial or temporal, go beyond comprehendible scales and elicit an emotional reaction from the visitor; typically awe, horror, revulsion, amazement, and curiosity. Historically, the sublime was an integral part of the romantic picturesque, where landscapes function was primarily scenic reinforcing the human separation from landscape while also embracing the desire that comes from distance. Solnit addresses the entanglement of distance and nearness in interpersonal relations thusly, when you step forward to embrace them your arms are wrapped around mystery, around the unknowable, around that which cannot be possessed. The far seeps into the nearest. After all we hardly know our own depths. 74 What is the sublime but the recognition of the expanse not only surrounding us, but within ourselves? The distance, physically and philosophically, between humans and landscapes of extraction which support 72 Langhorst, Joern and Bolton, Katharine. Re-Framing the Post-Industrial: Landscapes of Extraction Between Reclamation and Reinvention Change Over Time. (Philidelphia: University of Pennyslvania, forthcoming) 73 Tuan, Yi-Fu. Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79(2); 1989. 233. 74 Solnit, Rebecca. A Field Guide to Getting Lost. (New York: Penguin, 2005), 31.

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93 their lifestyles, is the root of the accountability issue. We dont see the physical them. By imagining that our true home is in the wilderness, we forgive ourselves the homes we actually inhabit. 75 PMLs have the ability to bridge this distance, bringing us into awareness of the birthplace of consumption and taking advantage of the lack of previous knowledge. In PMLs is a divide between the intelligible and the unknown, the latter viscerally experienced as the sublime and prompting a sense of awe and wonder that, importantly, prompts thought. 76 This shift is incredibly important, the viewer responds to the sublime experience, a response to a lack of knowledge and scale of the landscape, and while it still induces a feeling of alienation of the viewer from the landscape, it also subverts the romantic scenography, shifting the human subject from passive viewer to active participant, thus emphasizing landscape as an iterative and exploratory process that is actively created by the viewer through visual and sensory experience and perception. 77 The term toxic beauty 78 conveys the paradoxical fascination with a place that is considered inherently dangerous and disorienting. In her contribution to Large Parks Meyer references Elaine Scarrys statement that a beauty that recenters, destabilizes, and moves us to care about the other the beauty that has agency 75 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996), 81. 76 Dixon, et al. Wonder-full geomorphology: Sublime aesthetics and the place of art. Progress in Physical Geography 37(2) 2012; 229. 77 Langhorst, Joern and Bolton, Katharine. Re-Framing the Post-Industrial: Landscapes of Extraction Between Reclamation and Reinvention Change Over Time. (Philidelphia: University of Pennyslvania, forthcoming) 78 Bargmann, Julie. Toxic Beauty: A Field Guide to Derelict Terrain. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008).

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94 is not generic or familiar. 79 The disconcerting nature of PMLs is precisely the quality we might learn to see as beautiful. When I looked at my photographs of the four study sites, thats primarily what I saw, beauty. Through background research I saw monumental environmental hazards and abandoned industries, but when I qualities of PMLs involve both the traditional sublime and the technological sublime, 80 folding the work of humans into an aesthetic perception of landscape. Aesthetically and functionally, these sites are shaped as much by what is present (remains / added) as by what is absent (removed) The emotional response to these sublime sites is not always a pleasant one. We struggle to incorporate the operates beyond our comprehension. There is a lingering feeling that the true history of the site is not easily legible, not so easily incorporated into our present world view. This discomfort in the face of the unknowable, the too-large and too-complex, too-contaminated and too-historical actually incites ideas, sensations, memories. It is this process of reconciliation in response to the sublime that can unlock the individual unconscious and potentially alter the collective consciousness surrounding these landscapes. 79 Meyer, Elizabeth K. Uncertain Parks: Disturbed Sites, Citizens, and Risk Society in Large Parks ed. Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007), 82. 80 For more on this concept, see William Cronon or Elizabeth Meyer.

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95 PMLs are Ruins of both nature and culture. every piece is driven to extinction by the collective behavior of the system as a whole. 81 reality and reliability of the human world rests primarily on the fact that we are surrounded by things more permanent than the activity by which they are produced 82 What is a ruin, after all? It is a human construction abandoned to nature, and one of the allures of ruins in the city is that of wilderness: a place full of the promise of the unknown with all its epiphanies and dangers. Cities are built by men (and to a lesser extent, women), but they decay by nature, from earthquakes and hurricanes to the incremental processes of rot, erosion, rust, the microbial breakdown of concrete, stone, wood, and brick, the return of plants and animals making their own complex order that further dismantles the simple order of men. This nature is allowed to take over when, for economic or political reasons, maintenance is withdrawn. 83 and the nonhuman. Typical of an anthropocentric world view, we see our own, of industry and extraction is often impressive in its scale and form, it appears to be a ruin of nature. And yet the abandonment and decay of those human elements begs an investigation of the state of human enterprise at these sites. One sees the crumbling facade of an old stone wall, the rusted cable whose metal car no longer holds even the breeze. Culture, too, is in ruin here. Ruins in general are a poignant and uncomfortable reminder of personal and societal mortality. In the Picturesque tradition, ruins were a romantic allusion 81 John Holland via Berrizbeitia, Anita. Scales of Undecidability Case: Downsview Park, Toronto. Ed: Czerniak, Julia. New York: Prestel, 2001. 125. 82 Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1958): 195-96 83 Solnit, Rebecca. A Field Guide to Getting Lost. (New York: Penguin, 2005), 8889.

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96 to idealized past realities. Industrial and extractive ruins reveal the nonlinear, boom and bust cycle of industry and represent the exoskeletons shed by the molting of economic growth. In their decomposition, industrial ruins unmask the idea and ideal of history and civilization as a progressive, linear sequence. Ruins are the visible reminders of the abrupt endings and failures of industry, but can also be seen as sites of latent transformation, where fresh ideas and resurrecting narratives can bloom in the ashes of yesterdays stories. PMLs challenge this dichotomy and can be framed as simultaneous ruins of nature and culture perpetually in process human-environment and human-human relationships over time The ruination of pristine Nature is one that occurs on physical and metaphorical levels. The physical alterations that occur during active extraction and once those practices have subsided are clearly legible. These are the human impacts of accelerating ecological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. In the wake of this activity are the ruins and remains of an intact ecosystem. A single tree stands alongside what used to be a structure, traces of the streams historical pathways are visible amidst tailings and overburden. In the creation of a cultural landscape, one is left with a fragmented ecological picture, connected only by the processes uniting the creation of both. Metaphorically, humans have interrupted a thing they have come to cherish, a pristine Nature or wilderness. These concepts, which originally formed the basis of the Sublime in their vastness, their terrifying, unknowable wildness, were, for a time, addressed as problems to be solved, landscapes which required human control and order. Presently, instead of seeing in PMLs the order of humanity controlling the untamed wild, culture often sees a fearful image of itself, a desecration of the idea that human action will always be an improvement upon nature, and the introduction of a disturbing quandary that perhaps, if culture is capable of ruining nature, the opposite is also true. These are the environmental

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97 health issues dealt with at PMLs, the ongoing dialogue of nature and culture, at varying stages of growth and decay.

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98 CHAPTER V SYNTHESIS If we are part of the landscape, and it is a part of us, if we cannot change the landscape without ourselves being changed, then understanding our relationship with it is vital. 84 As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for us, we too easily imagine that unexamined longings and desires. For this reason, we mistake ourselves when we suppose that wilderness can be the solution to our cultures problematic relationship with the nonhuman world, for wilderness is itself no small part of the problem. 85 The purpose of this thesis is to take a broad look, through a number of methods, at how humans might make sense of post-mining landscapes, utilizing my architects and geographers might make sense of these place as opportunities may form a framework through which I was able to interpret PMLs. Deconstructing my detail, what about these four landscapes made them experientially powerful and what about them needs to be preserved, in my opinion, in order for that power to remain. For me, this process has raise d questions about the nature of design and what it can trigger via experience. It also raises a valuable issue of whether or not design of the landscape itself is always a necessary action when striving for legibility of natural and cultural history. In Meyers tribute to Richard Haag she describes the 84 Kennedy, Sell, and Zube. Landscape Aesthetics and Geography. Environmental Review 12:3, 1988, 51. 85 Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996): 70.

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99 simultaneous vastness and closeness, the elusiveness and tangibility of the natural world Haag did not do much. Therein lies the brilliance of his work. 86 I believe this is the response designers need to take when approaching PMLs. They are already co-authored, they are timefull, sublime, thoughtful ruins. The power in the experience power in PMLs is that they are mirrors of and for culture. As mirrors of culture they display past and present value systems and their impacts on the landscape. As mirrors for culture they act as devices for inciting personal and cultural awareness and change. This capacity is one that is ongoing, so long as the qualities that drive this experience remain in some form. Looking into the mirror of PMLs is like looking into a mirror and seeing yourself at every stage of life between newborn and now. It is all there in the present iteration, every event and process inscribed on it like the stories of our lives that are written in our skin and eyes. We can change clothes but our deep context remains, our thickness persists. This is what PMLs can do for us, If nature and landscape are both a mirror of and for culture, then PMLs are particularly revealing: They are evidence of the culture that produced them, but also force that very culture to take a look at itselfand at the ways it has conceived of and socially constructed ideas of landscape, nature and collective self. 87 These mirror qualities operate in concert, and are the reason why a framework for making sense 86 Meyer, Elizabeth K. Seized by Sublime Sentiments. Richard Haag: Blooded Reserve and Gas Works Park. ed William S. Saunders and Elizabeth K. Meyer (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998): 10. 87 Langhorst, Joern and Bolton, Katharine. Re-Framing the Post-Industrial: Landscapes of Extraction Between Reclamation and Reinvention Change Over Time. (Philidelphia: University of Pennyslvania, forthcoming)

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100 that humans have co-written and co-authored these places is distinct and the mirror forces a re-evaluation of personal contributions to a society which constructed, in part, this landscape. The heightened awareness of time as a nonlinear, layered, and cyclical entity nudges the visitor towards an inquisition of cultural determinations use. The personal, emotional response to the landscape sublime begs further investigation into the roots of our repulsion to these sites as well as their alluring and complex beauty. And, when faced with the inevitability of our own imminent narratives, we question not only what marks we personally will leave on this planet, but what collective marks we have contributed to and how. Ultimately, my research is derived from and built upon my own personal experience. To really explore the full potential of this framework, many more viewpoints would need to be included. Through such an exercise, so many nuances of value might be unearthed in relation to PMLs. If my process in making sense is any indication of what might be expected from others, it would prove a rich, confronting, and challenging experience with the potential to inform personal understanding as well as cultural and societal insight. PMLs highlight the interconnectedness of destruction and creation: of ideas, of landscapes, of economies, of communities and identities. As we create, past iterations are retired to the past, but they do not disappear. They are the ghosts in the mirror, reminding us of how we arrived at the present. The shift induced by are forced to grapple with our own interconnectedness, and the realization that small acts of humanity (as well as those of the nonhuman) over time are constantly

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101 facilitating the death and birth of new perceptions and conceptions of landscape, addresses PMLs into the future. This is not a simple or comfortable process. At PMLs, one comes face to face with the often toxic and violent consequences of extractive industries. By engaging these landscapes, which reside at the center of our culture and at the periphery of our cultural vision, we are forced to reconcile the distances between us and them, past and present, human and nonhuman, city and wilderness, sacred and profane, for each is tied up in the other in the mirror of these

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102 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS When we come upon beautiful things they act like small tears in the are standing in a different relationship to the world than we were a moment before. It is not that we cease to stand at the center of the world, for we never stood there. It is that we cease to stand even at the center of our own world. We willingly cede our ground to the thing that stands before us. 88 That is, reclaiming landscapes requires one to abandon the idea of designing designing with open-ended ecological processes. The designer, in a sense, how its ecologies may operate and evolve. 89 Thus, recovering landscape is less a matter of appearances and aesthetic categories than an issue of strategic instrumentality. 90 landscape is a repository of ideas, an uncertain territory that holds the promise of unknown possibilities for the future. 91 Based on my research, I do not believe we should resolve these landscapes. It is far more important to focus on the experience of post mining landscapes as they express so many concepts with the potential to change how we understand experiments in co-authorship, exhibitions of what nonhuman forces do with extreme 88 Scarry, Elaine in Meyer, Elizabeth. Uncertain Parks: Disturbed Sites, Citizens, and Risk Society in Large Parks ed. Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007), 74. 89 Turner, Frederick. Reclaiming the American West, Alan Berger, ed., (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002), 13. 90 Corner, James. Introduction. Recovering Landscape. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999): 4. 91 Berrizbeitia, Anita. Scales of Undecidability. Case: Downsview Park, Toronto. (New York: Prestel, 2001). 125.

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103 human alteration of landscape. They are not time-less but time-full, places where the temporal thickness can be sensed and seen. They are sublime, and elicit emotional responses from visitors. And they are ruins, of both nature and culture, showcasing the simultaneity of creative and destructive forces. In summary and synthesis, the landscape as it is and is becoming. Rather than fully redesigning the landscape and conception of nature and culture change within and around them. As Wiley discovered at Mullion Cove, the scenes are set by the invitations to pause and look. The power of PMLs resides in this invitation, the opportunity to stop and question what it is youre really seeing, and the history and processes that brought both you and the place to that moment. There is an open-endedness in these places that is not loosely ambiguous but fertilely indeterminate. Preserving and enhancing this experience in post mining landscapes is the most valuable part of these places. Through experiencing them as they have come to be (and are becoming) we have the potential to learn more about them and make informed and meaningful interventions in the future. This occurs at individual, societal, and disciplinary levels and direct, aesthetic experience is a critical component in catalyzing perceptual change at each level. Most likely, the future imaginings of PMLs will be born of subjective experience as informed by a burgeoning and evolving conceptual framework. This work will require the decomposition of disciplinary boundaries and perceived barriers between human and nonhuman. It will be work that looks instead to how these revolve within a

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104 shared history characterized as much by negotiation, mutual learning, and symbiosis as by the search for fundamental difference. 92 Yet, as much as PMLs are worthy places of study, experience, and potential cultural awakening, they pose very controversial and immediate quandaries to surrounding communities and environments. This thesis is not intended as a fundamental rejection of reclamation or attempts at environmental restoration. It simply brings other important qualities of PMLs into the discussion. It argues for a reevaluation of these places as sites of not only environmental degradation but also of cultural history, of multilayered narratives, of ongoing discourse and discovery. PMLs are tangled into the ways of life carried out in the US in so many ways, there are so many voices and values to consider in their engagement. This research aims to make sense of one of those perspectives, to use the landscape and geographical theories that have formed my understanding of place and landscape relationships reclamation practices at a high level. Landscape architecture has evolved as a practice which prides itself on its impacts, and to respond with sensitivity to these elements. If landscape architecture can truly transition its approach from landscape as a product of culture to landscape as an agent producing and enriching culture. 93 then it could become a leading voice in framing how PMLs might be addressed more appropriately in the future. While a comprehensive analysis of current mine reclamation practices lies outside the scope 92 Dixon, et al. Wonder-full geomorphology: Sublime aesthetics and the place of art. Progress in Physical Geography 37:2 (2012): 242. 93 Corner, James. Introduction. Recovering Landscape. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999): 4.

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105 of this thesis, there is much room for improvement in the outdated approaches that appease limited values and erase much of the power nested in these landscapes. In Americas industrial past is our shared cultural history, and in an age where the rift between urban and rural is only widening, any work that can be done to bridge collective future visioning will only do good. Further and New Questions: 1. How can PMLs be studied in a way that responds to their depth and thickness? (Acknowledging the practical constraints that often accompany projects such as deadlines, budgets, limited exposure and time, etc.) 3. What potential does landscape architecture have to address these sites? 4. How could landscape architects and geographers work with traditional reclamation practices to include alternative future planning? Undertaking this thesis was an unexpected journey. Going in, I had so many assumptions of what I planned to study, in what ways, and in what places. These and ideas, and many more unforeseen variables. The process was stressful, frightening, and so educational. I was challenged not only to synthesize what Id read and approachable way. These concepts of relevance and approachability ultimately were critical to how I formulated my argument and where I see the research possibly continuing in the future.

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106 There were many avenues this research could have traveled that would have taken me farther from landscape architecture and the body of theory that supports it. Mining is such a feat of engineering, and so many of the complex issues it leaves behind are addressed appropriately by hard science. What I discovered through my lost in the status quo of mining and mine reclamation. There is a role for landscape ephemeral. There are tools that we have as landscape architects which allow us to amalgamate seemingly opposing and disparate forces, and to dream and imagine ways in which those might be functionally joined in new ways. In the future I would but provided, I hope, a framework of applied theory and experience that can inform that process. I had no intention of creating a framework that might be followed verbatim. I openly acknowledge that my experience is a product of my individuality, and I fully expect that anyone elses would be the uniquely theirs. In a world of prescribed responses, one thing missing is certainly the room and encouragement of multiple responses in addressing the collective entities which are post mining landscapes. This brings me to the topic of approachability. Turning the unseen into a digestible vision of potential futures is part of the landscape architects tool kit. It is a skill that can too often be intellectualized to the point of being inaccessible to the methods of photography and storytelling are ones that are almost universally accessible. These inclusive methods can be utilized by visitors and stakeholders to

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107 When compiled meaningfully and investigated rigorously, these artifacts can help to tell the stories of post-mining landscapes, their pasts, presents, and potential futures. 94 These methods reveal some of the values held by those who produced them, they are a personal expression of experience, interest, and personal history. Once these expressions are explicitly understood as such, they have incredible this research continuing is through further and broader exploration of methods of photography and storytelling, a deeper dive into what people think, observe, and dream in response to PMLs. The addition of each description would add to the thickness and richness of the whole, improving the network of understanding we, as a culture, have regarding PMLs. I have learned so many important lessons. Lessons in writing, in thinking, in prioritizing, in following through. In the words of Ann Lamott: Just get it all down on paper, because there may be something great in those six crazy pages that you would never have gotten to by more rational, grown-up means. There may be something in the very last line of the very last paragraph on page six that you just love, that is so beautiful or wild that you now know what youre supposed to be writing about, more or less, or in 95 This wisdom could not have been more true for my experience. Over the course of this process, I have created more than 30 Word documents and countless 94 Carl Steinitz Framework for Theory is a good example of how these artifacts and narratives might be incorporated into potential future action. See A Framework for Theory Applicable to the Education of Landscape Architects (and Other Environmental Design Professionals), Landscape Journal, 9:2 (1990): 136-143. 95 Lamott, Ann. Shitty First Drafts. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. (New York: Random House, 1994): 23.

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108 papers covered in diagrams and thoughts. I was always surprised by what was useful from those exercises. Every time I lost patience or broke down I would push just a little further, and in that moment there was always something, even the tiniest something, that was beautiful and wild and true to me. I am still grappling with my inability to push water into the foreground of this thesis. I tried throughout the process to incorporate it, to follow the instinct that water is critical to how these places operate. I still believe that water has a distinct and powerful role in how PMLs will be engaged in the future, both from an experiential perspective and an ecological and public health perspective. Its absence from the framework above is not due to oversight, but is rather a product of how the project purpose evolved. This thesis is not about how to change and reimagine reclamation, it is about making sense of post-mining landscapes in transition, a sense and understanding that can be collectively applied towards other goals in the future. In this endeavor, I know water will have a central role. If I continue this research I plan on pursuing that as a central tenet to progressive recovery and reclamation processes. I presented a paper to the American Association of Geographers that focused on water as a lens for PMLs. 96 Utilizing my research and my own sense of these powerful places, I aimed to bring water to the table, to bring its voice into the cacophony of characters that describe and form PMLs. Water is a determining factor for how mining landscapes are constructed, and is similarly fundamental in their reclamation. As such, its importance in the engagement of PMLs going forward cannot be understated. 96 Bolton, Kate. Water as a Transformative Lens for Post Mining Landscapes. American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting 2017. Boston, MA.

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109 Eventually, all things merge into one, and a river runs through it. The river was On some of the rocks are timeless raindrops. Under the rocks are the words, and some of the words are theirs. I am haunted by waters. 97 This thesis was an attempt to capture timeless raindrops, to catch a glimpse of those words hidden from the glance but visible to the long look. Many of the words have been written by other hands and other forces, in other times. These and to question the ways in which their lives impact the landscapes they inhabit. 97 MacLean, Norman. A River Runs Through It. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989).

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111 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arendt H annah The Human Condition (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1958) Beauregard, Robert A. From Place to Site: Negotiating Narrative Complexity, Site Matters (London: Routledge, 2005) Berleant, Arnold. The Aesthetics of Environment. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992) Berrizbeitia, Anita. Scales of Undecidability. Case: Downsview Park, Toronto. (New York: Prestel, 2001) Brierley, Gary John. Landscape memory: the imprint of the past on contemporary landscape forms and processes Area. 42(2010) Corner, James. Recovering Landscape. (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999) Cronon, William. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. Uncommon Ground. ed. William Cronon (London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996) Art. from Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture. Ed: Hourdequin, Marion and Havlick, David G. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016) Dixon, et al. Wonder-full geomorphology: Sublime aesthetics and the place of art. Progress in Physical Geography 37:2 (2012) Gregory, Doris H. Ourays Box Canyon Falls and Park. (Long Beach: Cascade Publications, 1984) Heidegger, Martin. Building, Dwelling, Thinking. from his lecture given to Darmstadt Symposium on Man and Space August 5, 1951. Jackson, John Brinkerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984) Kennedy, Christina B., Sell, James L., and Zube, Ervin H. Landscape Aesthetics and Geography. Environmental Review. Fall (1988) Lamott, Ann. Shitty First Drafts. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. (New York: Random House, 1994)

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