Citation
Guided learning and online audio course hybridization theories to improve student perspectives and student success

Material Information

Title:
Guided learning and online audio course hybridization theories to improve student perspectives and student success
Creator:
Larson, Nicholas S. ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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1 electronic file (84 pages) : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Music and Entertainment Industry Studies, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Recording arts

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Educational technology -- Evalution -- United States ( lcsh )
Distance education -- Evaluation -- United States ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
In a subject such as studio audio production, online courses can be difficult largely due to the hands-on nature of the subject matter. The development of a hybridized online and local course utilizing the online format's strengths along with synchronous and asynchronous multimedia to replace traditional lectures is an angle that has yet to be explored. This hybridization involves a system of social and collaborative skill and knowledge development combined with the maximized, hands-on use of an institution's recording studio facilities. In order to improve the academic experience and learning outcomes of the student, the traditional responsibilities and social role of the instructor are also reassessed and developed into a new concept, that of a facilitator and director of the student's social and collaborative interactions with peers, the course content, and in-studio projects. ( , )
Review:
The course's development is based on research utilizing nearly one hundred sources from various peer-reviewed journals and publications addressing pedagogy, distance learning concepts, and audio engineering education. This includes sources on commonly utilized media, communication technologies, and online course delivery platforms. Many of these sources reveal the potential of a hybridized course design for largely hands-on subjects. Combining hands-on experience with online learning enables students to spend on-campus time in the recording studio facility, not in the classroom, and supports the development of hands-on content both individually and collaboratively. By utilizing guided online learning, and prioritizing on-campus use of recording facilities over time spent in the classroom, student perspectives of course quality and academic outcomes can be significantly improved.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic resource.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nicholas S. Larson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10198 ( NOTIS )
1019824480 ( OCLC )
on1019824480
Classification:
LD1193.A70 2017m L37 ( lcc )

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Full Text
GUIDED LEARNING AND ONLINE AUDIO COURSE HYBRIDIZATION
THEORIES TO IMPROVE STUDENT PERSPECTIVES AND STUDENT SUCCESS
By
NICHOLAS S. LARSON B.S., Expression College for Digital Arts, 2008
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Recording Arts Program
2017


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2017
Nicholas S. Larson
All Rights Reserved


Ill
This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Nicholas S. Larson has been approved for the Recording Arts program By
Leslie Gaston-Bird, Chair Lome Bregitzer Benom Plumb
May 13, 2017


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Nicholas S. Larson (M.S., Recording Arts Program)
Guided Learning And Online Audio Course Hybridization Theories To Improve Student
Perspectives And Academic Outcomes
Thesis directed by Professor Leslie Gaston-Bird
ABSTRACT
In a subject such as studio audio production, online courses can be difficult largely due to the hands-on nature of the subject matter. The development of a hybridized online and local course utilizing the online formats strengths along with synchronous and asynchronous multimedia to replace traditional lectures is an angle that has yet to be explored. This hybridization involves a system of social and collaborative skill and knowledge development combined with the maximized, hands-on use of an institutions recording studio facilities. In order to improve the academic experience and learning outcomes of the student, the traditional responsibilities and social role of the instructor are also reassessed and developed into a new concept, that of a facilitator and director of the students social and collaborative interactions with peers, the course content, and in-studio projects.
The courses development is based on research utilizing nearly one hundred sources from various peer-reviewed journals and publications addressing pedagogy, distance learning concepts, and audio engineering education. This includes sources on commonly utilized media, communication technologies, and online course delivery platforms. Many of these sources reveal the potential of a hybridized course design for largely hands-on subjects. Combining hands-on experience with online learning enables students to spend on-campus time in the recording studio facility, not in the classroom, and supports the development of hands-on content both individually and collaboratively. By utilizing


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guided online learning, and prioritizing on-campus use of recording facilities over time spent in the classroom, student perspectives of course quality and academic outcomes can be significantly improved.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Leslie Gaston-Bird


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The completion of this research project could not have been accomplished without the guidance and support of Leslie Gaston-Bird, Lome Bregitzer, Scott Burgess, and Benom Plumb.
The support of my friends and family throughout my time in graduate school has meant a lot to the process. A special thanks to Todd Larson, Cynthia Braddock, Nathan Braddock, Wyndsor Louise Larson, Sam Larson, James Larson, Tyler Anderson, Joseph Chudyk, Jon Osborne, Johnny Akers, Dan Buckley, John and June Green, Jim Larson, Drew Jostad, Stan Soocher,, Ludmila Polyakova, Nicholas Stich, and Austin Trotter.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION....................................................1
Purpose of Study............................................1
Scope of Study & Limitations................................2
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................5
Review Introduction.........................................5
Context of Works........................................... 8
Major Issues Being Addressed...............................10
Relationships of Work......................................18
Identified Gaps............................................20
Further Research Areas.....................................23
III. RESEARCH RESULTS AND COURSE DESIGN.............................25
General Distance Learning Concepts.........................25
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Multimedia....................34
Live Online Demonstrations................................ 38
Instructor Role and Collaborative Learning.................46
Audio Course Design Theories...............................48
REFERENCES.............................................................67


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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
4-Week Example.................................................57
Weekly Schedule................................................60
Assignment / Discussion Schedule...............................61
Project / Demonstration........................................62


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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study
The objective of this research is to theorize and develop an online, intermediate level audio engineering course utilizing an innovative combination of synchronous and asynchronous communication and social interaction techniques to maximize the qualitative experience of student to instructor, student to content, and student to student interactions based on research into current and theoretical online learning techniques. This will be accomplished through the investigation of current and past research on subjects surrounding online and distance learning topics such as student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological advances, instructor roles, guided learning, social learning and engagement styles, and course support systems.
The purpose of this study is to explore new ideas in the development of online courses in the audio engineering subject area, and to use this research to answer a simple question: What are the key factors or ideas, based on current and past research, that should be addressed in the design of an online audio engineering course in order to increase the quality of student experience and make an online course an effective alternative to a face-to-face course? Ideally, the increase in quality of experience would affect the overwhelming opinion of students that online courses are less effective or inadequate in some subject areas when compared to face-to-face courses. This research looks into possible ways to provide qualitative improvements and improved academic outcomes for online courses, as well as how to successfully implement online courses for a largely hands-on subject. Additionally, the project considers reassessed roles and


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responsibilities of the instructor and students in an online course, and how these roles differ in online and face-to-face courses.
Scope & Limitations
The research to support this project was conducted utilizing current scholarship in the fields of pedagogy and distance learning. As a topic, distance learning is large enough to have many scientific journal publications focused exclusively on it, as well as to have a large role in other more general education or pedagogy based publications. The Audio Engineering Societys published journal and conference papers were also used, having many topics and studies looking at education in the audio engineering subject exclusively. In the Audio Engineering Society publications the articles and papers are all recent in the last few years. The rest of the sources found in broader education themed books, journals and other publications span back to the 1960s. Distance education, although predominantly implemented through the use of the Internet nowadays, has been around long before. The Internet is now the current and foreseeable futures platform for delivering the vast majority of distance learning courses. But this doesnt mean basic concepts for delivery educational materials remotely cant apply in other platforms. A smaller portion of the research focused on publications about current technologies, software, and online media delivery methods that are used in reference to the methods of delivery of online courses. This was a necessary subject to touch on because the technology and software platforms available largely govern the way a course in its entire or in part is delivered.
This research was a look into many forward thinking concepts being addressed in the current scholarship on the subject of distance learning using the Internet as a primary


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delivery method. The concepts of focus within these ideas were ones based on the increase in the qualitative experience of student to instructor, student to content, and student to student interactions within a course design, not the quantitative, such as the effect of course design on students course grades and grade point averages. In this paper, the ideas collected from the literature review and research represent a broad or more generalized understanding, and should each be investigated more thoroughly in further studies. The project at hand is intended to open dialogues that would encourage further developments.
Currently, the ideas presented in this project do not accompany an executed test course, which presents some limitations. First, there is the limitation in not being able to currently implement a test course so no hard data can be collected. Second, the ideas explored in development of this course must be developed to utilize only instructional technologies provided by the institution, such as their usual online delivery platform. The students should also not be required to provide more than their usual computer, microphone, camera, and Internet access to participate in the online portion of the course. Third, the ideas are based on current and past studies in the subject and rely heavily on the accuracy and scholarship developed by peers in the field. Lastly, the ideas that drive the demonstration course built within this study are limited to fit the framework of a traditional 16-week semester of a state university, and more specifically, one that provides an audio engineering program and the facilities required by the subject.
This is a preemptive study to explore ideas that would improve the effectiveness and quality of student experience in a hybrid online audio engineering course, and inform the implementation of an actual test course. This projects intention is to gather current


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scholarship and ideas and develop the framework for an online engineering course; it does not include hard data or a test coursewhich are goals for a future project. Rather, the research at hand sets the groundwork to make those future projects possible
When conceptualizing this ideal audio engineering course, there are some important aspects to consider. The course should not ask a student to provide learning technologies that are unusual or unreasonable to require. For the online portion of the course, the materials needed should be similar to what other online courses in the program or institution utilize. The usual course delivery platform provided by the institution should be used so as to be consistent with the rest of the program and promote familiarity for the students.
The course design in this study utilizes a standard 16-week semester platform and an institution that provides adequate recording facilities on campus. The design of this course for an institution without recording facilities would be completely different. The course content would also vary for programs that do not follow the same semester based structure.
The project at hand is designed as an alternative to face-to-face courses that would have many sections, and therefore designed to manage an unwieldy multi-section course effectively, reduce instructor work load, and maximize the hands-on use of the institutions facilities for groups of students within the course. Further studies would need to address a situation geared towards non-local students that would have to provide their own tools and audio engineering facilities while participating in the course.


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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction
Distance learning and the form it takes in online learning has become a quickly growing and highly discussed topic over the years, resulting in a range of literature and perspectives. Online learning has become a norm in most institutions, but the outlook on its effectiveness varies in the extreme. Not only are there general papers and research studies on the subject, but there are a large number of them resting within the broad categories on more specific subjects. They range across the general subject of this papers focus, touching on student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological advances, instructor roles, guided learning, social learning and engagement styles, and course support systems. There are also many books written along the lines of traditional outlooks on teaching and course design concepts and how they may or may not apply to online courses. A research and collection of survey data has been done exploring various approaches to improving the quantitative experience of a students enrollment in an online course, presenting studies that look closely at how a students grades and grade point average are affected by enrollment in online courses when compared to similar courses taken in person. A scholar Randy Garrison states in Facilitating Cognitive Presence predominantly addresses the importance of theorizing studies that increase the qualitative outcomes of a course, and that the quantitative results will naturally follow. In the same article he states, Interaction directed to improving cognitive outcomes is characterized more by the qualitative nature of the interaction and less by quantitative measures (135). As Garrison continues there must be a qualitative dimension


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characterized by interaction that takes the form of purposeful and systematic discourse (135). Garrisons research turned out to be of great importance; his interest in the qualitative experience of online learning gives much insight into discovery and the development of ideas in relation to online course design audio engineering.
All in all there are fewer experiments or research papers with documentation on methods of addressing the qualitative side of a students experience, and almost none in regards to it and the subject of audio engineering. Creating audio engineering test courses would be a great look into the change of students perspective on the quality of their experience, and its effect on their course grade and grade point average is a key to advance these ideas. Research and development still needs to be done before a course could be held and although there are instructors and professionals each year contributing to these ideas in a number of subjects, there are not very many looking at audio engineering and how such a hands-on subjects online course experience could be addressed. Private institutions that teach audio engineering have relied heavily on automated courses that guide a students through a course and through the entirety of short certificate programs without personal interaction with other students and/or the instructor, or at most very limited contact. These are courses you take at home and are left to your own devices to find ways to exercise the concepts learned. A State institution with a full recording facility available for instruction provides an opportunity to delve into hybridized formats of online courses that, although taught largely online, would still provide the chance for hands on social and interactive learning.
A course that hybridizes the online format with synchronous online discussions and in-person group projects on campus seems to be the best way to teach a hands on


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subject such as audio engineering online. The subject of how to teach this subject in an entirely remote format would be an entirely separate subject that would have to be addressed in depth on its own. But the design of the hybridized online/in-person course would help an institution offering the course satisfy local students that are in need of the convenience and flexibility of an online course but still provide the opportunity for them to practice skills using a top notch facility. If this design would satisfy the requirements of a course that requires two or more sections a term, it would also greatly reduce the load of the courses need to use the facilities for lectures and demonstrations, freeing up classrooms for other uses and courses that would flourish best in in-person formats. Again, there are many broad or general studies and ideas on online course development, but very few that explore into these ideas with audio engineering instruction in mind.
How could you document how a students opinion and experience would change in relation to what they would be in a similar course offered entirely in person, and how, through the improvement in quality of interaction with the instructor, course material, and fellow students down the road effect their grade and grade point average? These are very important questions, in search of hopefully simple answers. But the implementation of a test course is not so simple and the questions compound upon each other. How do technologies and their implementations affect student perspectives and grades? How does different types of synchronous and asynchronous multimedia and how theyre used effect student perspectives and grades? Then the questions overlap and you have to ask how the implemented technology changes the effectiveness of the various forms of media, which then in turn effects the students perspectives and grades.
You can see how the questions multiply and developing a single test course could


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not provide answers to all the questions. Many of the broader thinking sources fail to delve into specific questions though many ask the questions as food for thought. There are several categories that the sources on these various ideas fall into that simplify the landscape and variety of thoughts and theories.
Context of Works
This paper sits in between a few subjects that are common discussions in the field of distance learning. It compiles the ideas of many research papers to create a thought out idea on implementation of the many theories in regards to the creation of an online intermediate level audio engineering course. Professors and education professionals specializing in a variety of course subjects other than audio engineering wrote the majority of the sources used. So the extraction of pertinent information was a long and arduous task. Not only did the information and ideas need to be extracted, but then put together and thought about in relation to audio engineering, which is a challenging subject to prepare as an online course for it is a very hands-on subject.
As part of designing an organized approach to reviewing the present scholarship and conversation, the broad subject of distance learning was broken down into several smaller categories and the literature was organized appropriately. The areas of focus are as follows:
1. Distance learning general topics and concepts
2. Interactive asynchronous and video-based content topics
3. Synchronous live/streamed audio and video content
4. Course design with encouragement of metacognition
While these four categories are broad umbrella topics, many of the perspectives


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within them focus on specific subjects and topics. Most perspectives fall into one of these categories and dont address the interaction or combinations of ideas of each and how they would affect each other. There are a pieces of research that intersect and combine issues, like in this projects approach, but not so many that encompass ideas of all four and how they could be implemented in a specific field. For example, Shanna Smith-Jaggars in Choosing Between Online and Face-to-Face courses addresses the topics of learning styles, including metacognition, and the convenience online courses offer to many students. The information gathered by Smith-Jaggers in this article fell under categories one, distance learning general topics and concepts, and category four, course design with encouragement of metacognition. A students impression of the convenience of a course falls under distance learning general topics and concepts and course design with an awareness of student learning styles and metacognition falls under course design with encouragement of metacognition. This project is an outlier; most of the current scholarship doesnt overlap into multiple categories. Lastly, except for a few investigations conducted by the Audio Engineering Society, very few researchers address the specific subject of audio engineering in relation to these topics. This project is to attempt to connect the broader study of distance and online learning with the subject of audio engineering.
Any actual experimentation done within these topics has largely been observation of subtle changes in a course that has been offered before and implemented in its usual format. An entirely new course design offering the opportunity to observe a class and students impressions of the course has not been widely pursued by the scholars in the
field.


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Therefore, this project focuses on general ideas within the four categories, (distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video-based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition) and how these fields of thought interact with each other when focused on the subject of audio engineering. Providing a generalist perspective on the main concepts presents the opportunity for this course design to be transferred to other subjects in addition to audio engineering.
Overall, this study will provide a course design that focuses on one large topic in each of four broad categories presented in hopes of encouraging more specific studies in the future. This includes looking into new perspectives on the instructors role, how to implement a course with a hybridization of synchronous and asynchronous instructional multimedia, how to design multimedia using guided learning and social learning styles to encourage greater metacognition and self-management skills in students, and lastly, the use of support systems to remove technical roadblocks.
The current scholarship providing implications for practical audio course design is limited. Therefore, the project at hand fills this gap by providing basic ideas of how each of these areas of focus could be implemented in a course, and specifically, how they might interact with each other when implemented in an audio course.
Major Issues Being Addressed
This Project focuses on four main categories in its literature review, distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video-based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition.


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To begin, this project rests on an understanding of distance learning. Many voices in the field consider distance learning and acknowledge the growing need for it in contemporary higher education. For more and more students, traditional college environments simply do not work, and many authors and experts in the field have explored the reasons why; for this study, the project rests on this foundation and focuses on the concepts of distance learning that potentially ensure high quality student experiences and how this would lead to better quantitative results such as higher grades and grade point average.
When discussing course design, many scholars address common issues and their effects, and how to find solutions. This literature review strayed away from general howto guides for designing courses that did not provide much depth; rather, it looked into more specific sources addressing the core points of distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video-based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition. For example, in her work Choosing Between Online and Face-to-Face Courses Smith-Jaggars talks exclusively about the social construct of courses, focusing on a students relationship with the instructor and their peers throughout an online course (31). Bambara et al, in Delicate Engagement explores the same question, stating that the online learning experience suffers because of a reduced sense of instructor and peer presence (223). Scholars Bork and Rucks-Ahidiana in Role Ambiguity in Online Courses also generally address technical problems with computers, online program/content access and difficulties handling their self-directed learning and time management (5). Bambara et al. and Bork and Rucks both pursued these issues through


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surveys and questionnaires given to online learning students (Bambara et al. 222; Bork and Rucks-Ahidiana 6). Almost all the studies that incorporated experimentation within actual courses provided a survey of student responses after the course. Each of these subjects could also easily be broken down into smaller more specific subjects and questions. For example, questions about an instructors social role could be broken down to address specific types of social interaction, technical problems could be fixed on more specific technology and tools, specific theories on encouraging self-directed learning, and new ways of surveying and assessing the results of these ideas.
In current scholarship, many authors discuss the broad concepts of what available technology is capable of and its effect on the students perception of the quality of the course content and delivery. Most of these ideas focus around the students comfort and familiarity with technology, and what types of technology an institution can realistically ask a student to have access to or acquire for a course. The scholarship also offers a focus on the technology required to deliver various forms of instructional multimedia, what forms deliver better quality, and what forms deliver multimedia at a reasonable pace. As Nathan B. Miller states, It is essential when building a course that relies on a students ability to manage and pace their own learning to afford (them) the opportunity to skip or emphasize content based on their own needs (242). Chih-Hsiung Tu and Michael Corry also contribute to the conversation, and believe that it is also essential to research the available technologies in order to find and use the ones that foster learner engagement with content, including techniques that encourage greater learner-learner and learner-teacher interaction (53). Technology is used to deliver the course, so technology must be used in an innovative way to encourage proper social relationships.


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When creating an online course for the field of audio engineering, these technological questions are of particular importance. Audio engineering is a technology-driven field, and audio technology and software is both expensive and brings with it a steep learning curve. Much of the technology needed for engineering is physical electronic gear or software that cannot be used or shared over the Internet, and must be used in-person. While most manufacturers of audio production and recording software offer student and instructor discounts upon purchase, this is not available for all products, and the discounts may not lower the price to a reasonable level for a student budget. Most electronic or analog gear is never discounted, and for the most part, any professional-level gear is expensive and can be hard to maintain. This is a subject that crosses over and blends with the idea of support structures. Since the audio-specific gear and software is very specialized and expensive, instructor guidance would be advisable if not necessary to provide students with prior knowledge before using and purchasing materials. In order to alleviate additional economic stress on the student, information about what the institution can provide for the class is necessary.
When it comes to instructional technology, institutions require students to provide the basics: a computer with Internet access, camera, and microphone would be needed. However, guidance is still needed in the use of this technology. As Ian Gibson in At the intersection of Technology and Pedagogy explains, With guidance in use of the basic instructional gear, students will (develop) to be independent and confident users of information technology, capable of collaborative and innovative practice (51). This confidence could also be encouraged with the use of audio-specific gear and software, but only the basic items are needed as part of the learning facilitation process. All together,


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these views on how technology effects pedagogy are to be combined so as the student could work on projects and course requirements with more comfort. Almost every source consulted in this literature review mentioned or devoted at least a part of their research and writing to learning and information technologies. This reveals how important the scholarly community researching online learning believes the use and effect of technology on the learning experience really is.
A students metacognition, or awareness of ones learning styles, is a topic of great discussion. As Gibson explains, Some teachers de-emphasize the teaching process in favor of the learning process (42). Involved in the conversation of metacognition are discussions of the instructors role and how it varies from online to traditional classrooms. More and more ideas of an instructor approaching an online course effectively by using guided learning techniques are surfacing. These approaches would encourage the students and their peers to absorb and discuss the information together in social learning situations with a reduction in traditional instructional techniques that come from face to face class structures. One of the main focal points of guided learning is the development of implementation techniques that encourage metacognition in students and encourage their own ability to understand a subject in regards to their strongest learning style. With so much emphasis placed on a student's self-direction, J. Gal-Ezer and D. Lupo in Integrating Internet Tools and P. Hodson et al. in Can Computer based Learning Support Adult Learners believe that the effectiveness of distance learning approaches depends more on the nature of the learners ability for self studying, ability to integrate well with (online) tutors and the overall discipline that is required of learners and tutors in the distance learning program (Gal-Ezer and Lupo 327; Hodson et al. 328).


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Hugues Choplin agrees in The Three Figures of Research on Distance Education stating The movement of interaction, communication, and learning or exchange of knowledge between students and the instructor is key to discover and encourage each students particular learning style (23). By stepping into the role of facilitator, an instructor can manage this movement. In their work Mediators of the Effectiveness of Online Courses Raquel Benbunan-Fich et al. explore the idea of a multidirectional communication (constructivist) process where students take an active role in the construction of their own knowledge through discussions and interaction with others (299). This approach would encourage students to take charge and engage in the way that they learn best and feel most comfortable. In this project, individual students metacognition was taken into consideration and the concept of providing information simultaneously in more than one way seems like an idea to explore. For instance, the information in a weekly subject could be delivered as a instructional video as well as in written form giving the students more than one option to absorb the material. A student could choose to utilize the way that suits them better. Looking ahead, even more varieties of subject deliverables can be devised. The real challenge with this idea is the amount of creativity and trial and error will be needed.
The importance of social engagement in learning and the lack thereof in distance learning is another pertinent issue for contemporary higher education to consider. It is so much more complicated than many of the other issues mentioned because almost all of the other issues effect or are affected by social engagement. Diane P. Janes discusses the problem with the assumption that most teaching techniques used in face-to-face learning will work with online learning, and found it leads to most common mistakes made by


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instructors when creating an online course (73).
The largest two topics that affect social engagement are the use of technologies and any particular students ability to self direct and manage their learning. As Victoria MacArthur explained, Technology enhanced distance learning has the potential to benefit the learner beyond the curriculum, by providing tools that support the individual and personalization (16). So, almost every discussion of available technology and its use mentions how the technology can improve a students sense of social engagement. Many sources that talk about self directed learning and metacognition mention how the delivery technology is of utmost importance. It's very apparent to instructors and professionals how important the social qualities of a distance course are. Gila Kurtz in Integrating a Facebook Group and a Course Website expands on the use of social networking platforms such as Facebook and how it could be used to engage students (254). The concepts all revolve around the idea that students are already familiar with the platform and could easily participate. The depth of this subject is immense and largely doesn't apply to this paper. A summation of the information leads to an educated guess that most universities and academic institutions are hesitant to use social platforms geared for personal use because Facebook and other social networking formats are unregulated or unaffiliated with the institutions and this could create liability issues. The lack of control and limited moderation capabilities of a third party platform could affect the instructors ability to guide the course. There were fewer sources addressing these ideas than expected, and even fewer that mention designing online educational platforms that are approved to incorporate features from these social networking formats. Newer and more up to date online education software platforms are incorporating workflows that mime


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more common social networking platforms, so possibly the need to use Facebook or other social media platforms is not so important.
The last major issue that is addressed in the literature collected for this project is the importance of support systems. A support system is a method of encouragement and instruction for the skills needed to effectively participate in an online course. When a student begins to participate in an online course there are any number of things that could prevent them from engaging fully or to discourage them. Most of these things don't have to do with the course subject, but with technicalities with the course delivery methods. This could include use of the online learning software platform, use of a computers microphone and camera, how to connect to any video conferencing platforms, or an outline of ground rules that encourage any social interactions during the course to remain on topic and positive. A particular subject such as audio engineering may also require the use of certain industry tools or software that need to have support materials provided.
At some point we can ask what content the instructor can provide in regards to support systems. There is an expansive position that instructors should initiate the course with a definition of an online collaborative learning community and explain its purposes and expectations to motivate learners to sustain online learning collaboration throughout the course (Tu 54). Mostly these ideas expand on the topic of ground rules and their success at eliminating confusion or deer-in-headlight mentalities that could prevent students from moving forward when self-studying. A number of scholars in the literature review discuss how a department or an institution as a whole can provide the best support systems. Also, there are many who express the value of an online learning advisor in a particular department, or in the institution as a whole. In this role, an advisor


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would be available to personally walk students through the skills needed to participate effectively in online learning environments.
Relationships of Work
Each piece of work in this body of literature relates to each other in more than one way, but the largest way being in their motives. Nearly every piece of literature had the same agenda in improving online courses in a way that allows online courses to be perceived as effective and enjoyable as face-to-face courses. Most of the issues addressed in the current scholarship deal with communication and translation, such as the question of how instructors and instructional designers can create online courses and support systems that can change students concept of online courses.
The pieces of literature that speak more generally each mentioned the importance of an instructors design of a course and their role as being more of a facilitator of the learning process as opposed to a traditional design and role. A student is usually working so independently in a distance course that an instructors interaction is most efficient in this way. The role of facilitator allows an instructor to more effectively guide the process and path that the student follows when learning on their own. Other scholarly conversations are about specific methods of social learning techniques utilizing technology and other types of media and their effectiveness, pointing at addressing the widespread impression of online courses by students that they are less effective as in person courses.
Literature on the subject of either synchronous or asynchronous social interaction speak of possible benefits of one or the other, or of how they could be combined in the same course to the greatest effect. The use of some synchronous videoconference style


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lectures or discussions by the instructor is discussed by D. Randy Garrison and Martha Cleveland-Innes in Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning as being necessary for students to feel a better connection to the instructor. Possible synchronous demonstrations of skills would be helpful as well, especially for courses with subjects that are more hands on. The instructor providing a visual guide to a skill set can help students develop a stronger connection to the instructor. Demonstrations could be asynchronous as well, but the idea of live-streamed demonstrations with comment-based inquiry and interaction is a way to accomplish the demonstration and develop the instructor and students relationships at the same time. Corners can be cut by the instructor in their design of synchronous interaction in a course, but that extra personal interaction provided by the synchronous demonstration adds some connection between the instructor and students, and every little bit adds up. The work by Garrison and Cleveland-Innes in Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning and Clark et al. in Comparing asynchronous and synchronous video vs. text based discussions led to this studys defense of including live-streamed demonstrations with real time comment based inquiry in the course design. For teaching an online course in a subject that is very hands on such as audio engineering, ideas of hybridizing in the course design with both synchronous and asynchronous media seems to be the most well-rounded and forward thinking.
Encouraging a students metacognition is probably the most difficult subject that is discussed by throughout the studies on online learning. There is no single way to encourage students to explore what type of learner they are, and no single way to encourage this in an online course. In an in-person course the teacher can adapt for students individually or in groups directly through the discussion that happens naturally


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in a classroom though questions and other interactions. Combinations of synchronous and asynchronous media, along with text based communication, used together to relay the material in an online course will cover more bases with its variety in regards to the variety of learning styles that a student body could present. The correct combination of methods can change depending on the course or the particular group of students.
One of the greatest difficulties in guiding students through an online course comes from the fact that without creating effective contact, instructors cant assume what a student is feeling, struggling with, or how theyre interpreting information. Simple text based questions via email or discussion forums work, but the same text can be interpreted in many ways and ideas can be missed or misunderstood. Some personal interaction must be incorporated to realize what adaptations need to be made on a student or group basis. Not only does hybridizing the instructors contact affect a students interpretation of course material, but the hybridized approach of students interaction with other students can keep them on track. Clark et al. discussed the social benefits of synchronous video interactions as well as providing the ability to make and view asynchronous video and text posts on a discussion forum (49). This scholars discussion centered around finding a combination of these elements that would service the students appropriately and change their impression of the effectiveness of the online course.
Identified Gaps
The largest gap that became apparent in the process of designing an innovative online audio engineering course was the lack of hard data collected from experimentation with a hybridized course. With online education becoming so prominent in the current higher education system in the United States, there is a need to improve the overall


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method of delivery for online content. Instructors teaching in an online format regularly make changes to their implementation but this only provides the results of smaller or partial changes that are implemented in an old and previously designed course. Not many instructors or professionals in the subject of audio engineering outline entire course structures and how many different innovative concepts would interact and overlap. For the most part, the many how-to pieces of literature available addressing online course design stick to tried and true concepts and dont encourage as much innovation. Experiments in course designs that are fundamentally different, are geared for change from the beginning of their design are needed. This way, online course design can incorporate much larger and rooted concepts that so many of these papers are discussing. There is no way that real moment forward can happen without instructors braving the untested and encouraging institutions to promote it.
Another gap discovered in the body of literature on distance learning is in the rarity of research papers or experiments that discuss support systems at the departmental and intuitional levels, not just support systems provided by the instructor for a specific course. At some point, hard data needs to be collected to help institutions and their specific departments update and fundamentally change their policies and course styles. The idea of an institutional or departmental support system is very important for students to be able to get the most out of a course and would create consistencies with future online courses they might enroll in. They would also enable the instructor to provide the most subject material they can by alleviating the need for them to spend part of the term providing general online course mechanics.
Convincing an institution or educational department to create new roles within


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them, roles that might cost money, is a battle that could be very difficult and take time. Documented attempts that outline decisions, compromises, things that worked, and things that didnt work in encouraging a department or institution to adapt would be very helpful for any institution looking to experiment with new techniques in online learning. Institutions generally have campus wide technology services and IT, but when it comes to the improvement of an individual students perspective of an individual course, something more close to home, such as a departmental advisor and instructor working together needs to be developed. This affords a more personal relationship to happen. The hypothetical questions surrounding this subject have been asked in several studies but little to no implementable concepts have been described to help an instructor to try something new along these lines.
In general concepts and theories on distance learning problems, the studies and information are relatively extensive but many research studies are done with a focus on specific subjects and how online learning can serve them. The importance of taking successes and failures in new ideas based in specific subjects and translating them to be used in a broader sense is presently a gap in the current scholarship. Research into online learning in relation to a specific discipline infrequently includes an outlook into how the ideas they explored reach beyond their field. This is the gap that hurts the specific subject of audio engineering. Many articles, for instance, published in Audio Engineering Society conference papers address teaching specific skills, software, acoustics, electronics, and more, but very little present general online teaching concepts that apply specifically to audio. As a very hands-on subject, audio engineering would benefit most from a hybridized online and local group project design. This approach has not been actively


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explored or presented in the teaching community.
Further Research Areas
The scholarly conversation surrounding the subject of distance learning is extensive and wide-ranging. These subjects: student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological advances, instructor roles, guided learning, social learning and engagement styles, and course support systems are being actively explored by many scholars in the field. In regards to the focus of this project and perspectives into innovative online course design, more hard data from experimentation must be collected to make further conclusions. The project at hand presents a model for a course design and considers how innovative course design concepts could come together to support the learning environment of audio engineering. This project is only a first step to implementing an innovative online audio engineering course and the documentation that should follow.
In regards to the subject of audio engineering, there is very little research existing on the most effective ways to teach the hands-on and technical skills needed to operate a recording studio in an online setting. Instructional videos on software and on recording techniques are abundant, but many students have a hard time grasping the concepts fully without actually doing the engineering work with their own hands, hearing the results, and all the while doing so within a social and collaborative environment. An institution offering a program to teach audio engineering must provide the best learning experience possible in order to have the highest quality educational experience for the students. In audio engineering, information can be gathered online, such as through YouTube videos, and it can show you how to accomplish something, but with audio concepts, the why is


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most important and elusive for beginners. The value of hands-on experience, peer-to-peer, and student to instructor interaction is so great that it can make or break a students opinion of an online course or program.


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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH RESULTS AND COURSE DESIGN General Distance Learning Concepts
Distance learning is not a new concept and has been attempted to varying degrees of success for decades, even before the invention of the Internet, which has now become the primary source of interaction. While advances in technology have pushed the methods of distance learning forward in its delivery, the concepts behind why its done, the way its done, and what aspects are deemed successful or unsuccessful are still being challenged. Course design, whether online or in person, can be a complicated task when looking to improve the experience, not only in general but also in specifics to the subject at hand. Briefly we will discuss some of the broad categories of thought in course design pertaining to online courses touching on, student perspectives, technological advances, the importance of metacognition in students, styles of guided learning and social engagement, support systems, the why of it all, and a few other more general ideas.
To start, a look at why online courses are important and becoming more important moving forward. The appeal is greatest when looking at an online course as a way to educate when traditional education techniques dont suit the situation or student. More and more students are pursuing lives or careers that dont allow or encourage the traditional attendance of college. The age differences of students are also widening and more students are choosing newer or less traditional careers that might be better and more efficiently learned in a flexible format. For working students or students with families it goes without saying that the flexibility of an online course is appealing (Smith-Jaggars 29). Flexibility is still to this day one of the biggest reasons a student would pick an


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online course over a face-to-face course. Audio engineering in particular falls into this category of non-traditional learning. The importance of having the flexibility to allow a student to be working, holding an internship, or participating in a hands-on fashion in the industry while in school cannot be played down. There are many aspiring engineers that enter the industry without going for a degree and begin with involvement directly through internships and other similar positions. Allowing students to have the flexibility to compete with these other people helps give them a leg up.
Much research has looked into what perspective students have on online courses and what they think of them compared to face-to-face courses. The researchs results tended to show that they dont take online courses because they believe it will be a better learning experience, but that there is another driving force that makes an online course necessary, such as personal time constraints, avoidance of a commute, etc. (Smith-Jaggars 29). In a 2013 survey conducted by Public Agenda, community college students, it was found that less than a third of American adults (29 percent) thought the educational value of online courses was equal to that of classroom learning (Public Agenda 3). This may play into why students tend to take only classes they perceive as easy in the online format (Smith-Jaggars 33).
There are three very common reasons why a student would have a negative opinion of online learning. Firstly, there is the widespread opinion that online education suffers from a lack of personal interaction from peers as well as the instructor. Additionally, Bork and Rucks in Role Ambiguity in Online Courses pointed to the fact that many students have difficulties handling their self-directed learning and time management (9). Richard E. West also points out that-some students perceive


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(receiving) the materials for a course in formats that are indirect from the instructor and their peers as an information overload (139). Most likely the few students who believe that an online course is the better way to learn a subject are the few whom have a handle on these issues. Looking at the specific subject of the course in question, a student may also believe that the subject area of a course would be a bad fit for online learning, or that the subject would be too difficult in the online format (Smith-Jaggars 32).
Negative reasons aside, there are also positive reasons the students perceive for why they would prefer to take a face-to-face course. These, as Hill et al. point out, include a sense of stronger connection to the campus, instructor, and peers (90). The areas that a traditional face-to-face course completely trumps online learning tend to be in these social areas.
Putting theses impressions together it seems that social interaction, technological skills, course subject compatibility, and the ability of a student to manage their own learning are big points to address when thinking about an online course. Taking all those concepts in, the appeal of an online course is still largely driven by convenience, not by an idea that it is a better format for learning. If many of these issues could be tackled or improved upon the effectiveness of an online learning format could provide the conveniences and rival a face-to-face learning format in quality. With distance learning becoming more and more important, raising this bar is also more and more important.
One of the first questions that come to mind when preparing to improve the design of an online course is one about what techniques with the technology and delivery of the course are helping or hindering these problems. What aspects of design and implementation can be changed to increase a students idea that the quality of an online


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course is comparable to a face-to-face course? It has been said that technology enhanced distance learning has the potential to benefit the learner beyond the curriculum, by providing tools that support the individual and personalization (Macarthur and Conlan 16). Acknowledging this in beginning the design of an online course, you need to take a look at the technology and methods of delivery available to you, how they would support the specific subject of the course, and how they would do as Ian W. Gibson describes to create a social presence addressing student to instructor, student to content, and student to student interactions (43). Lastly, it is important to consider how to connect it all in a way that accommodates the largest variety of learning styles and encourages the students metacognition (West 138).
As far as technology goes, most Universities have a required online teaching/learning platform such as Blackboard, Canvas, or eCompanion. There will most likely be a limit on what technologies you can require the students to provide on their own, such as a computer, microphone, camera, hard drive storage, etc. When you figure out the technological restrictions you must operate within, you can start to design the course to accommodate the subject as well as move forward on how to connect the students with the instructor, content, and fellow students. Moving forward in designing an effective online course can be near impossible without a complete knowledge of the tools at hand. The tools provide the method of delivering everything else, the methods to be used creatively.
The use to which the instructor puts the technology will then guide the social interactions throughout the course and the students ability to self-manage their learning. An online course that implements the technology in a way that maximizes social


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interaction between all involved parties creates a new level of accountability. Pressure to participate with peers on group projects and interact with the instructor in certain assignments and demonstrations creates this. But the pressure can create anxiety in some students so some level of choice must be available in these interactions as well as a sense of self-regulation or pacing (Hill 98).
By providing adequate synchronous social interactions alongside asynchronous media and text containing relevant information, more bases are covered in terms of learning styles. There is the ability for the course material to be absorbed socially, as well as independently, as well as demonstrated. This would create variety in the course and help encourage the students ability to be independent and confident users of information technology, capable of collaborative and innovative practice (Gibson 51).
Another idea, the idea of the instructors role throughout the course, must also be challenged to push the quality online courses further. Communal learning, or a constructivist view of learning seems to come to mind when looking at all of these issues regarding social interaction, learning styles, and a students metacognition. As a communication process, teaching can be conceived as a one-way transmission of concepts from instructors to students (objectivist), or as a multidirectional communication process where students take an active role in the construction of their own knowledge (constructivist) through discussions and interaction with others (Benbunan-Fich and Hiltz 299). One particular study from Richard J. Fendler shows that there is no real difference in quantitative results of a online course vs. a face-to-face course (119). Meaning, the students who have a high GPA still maintain a high GPA, and students with a low GPA still maintain a low GPA. This is one example of a study that


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addresses the idea that a focus on the quantitative results of a course is not the only important part. There is an equal importance in the qualitative experience of the class to the students. A Public Agenda survey claims Online classes may not serve all students equally well. In particular, those who are already struggling to keep up with their college work are more likely to drop out of online classes than classes taught face-to-face (2). Very few research studies have analyzed how qualitative design changes, as opposed to quantitative, effect the students experience and academic outcome. Thus Garrison stated a qualitative (and constructivist) dimension (must be) introduced where interaction is seen as communication with the intent to influence thinking in a critical and reflective manner (Facilitating Cognitive Presence 134). Then a way to survey this implementation must be devised. Interaction in such an environment goes beyond social interaction and the simple exchange of information. According to Garrison et al. in Critical Thinking a community of inquiry must include various combinations of interaction among content, teachers, and students (21). The traditional teacher-on-a-pedestal talking down to the class cannot continue when designing new online course formats. Also, the idea that student can only construct their own understanding as an individual independent from others cannot continue in online courses. Commenting on constructivist ideas in education, Lefford and Berg stated that, children dont get ideas, they make ideas. Moreover, constructionism suggest that learners are particularly likely to make new ideas when they are actively engaged in making some type of external artifact... which they can reflect upon and share with others (6). The feeling of lack in social interaction with the instructor and peers, being one of the most common complaints about online learning, holds a lot of weight in this. John Holt Merchant


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commented on this idea specifically with the subject of audio engineering education, how is fairly straightforward, the stuff of users' manuals; why, on the other hand, can be more difficult to explain and comprehend (2). He continues to explain, mixing draws on artistic and technological awareness and requires that students be reasonably accomplished at multiple aspects of production, which is why static texts about mixing are often frustratingly incomplete (2). Audio engineering leans even harder towards collaborative and constructivist education styles. Constructivist approaches [that] present learning as a social process that takes place through communication with others should be the wave of its future (Benbunan-Fich 299). To implement this idea the instructor must become more of a facilitator than a lecturer, focusing on providing and encouraging [facilitating] the students development of knowledge through their design of the social construct of the class (Benbunan-Fich 299). A creative use of the combination of synchronous and asynchronous media and text content would enable this facilitation. To sum this up it can be said that, Teachers are no longer the repositories of all knowledge the gatekeeper standing in front of a teacher-centered classroom. They are facilitators of learning, project managers, and research assistants. They work in partnerships [with students] (Gibson 51).
You can imagine that all of this would be hard to coordinate and set in place all at once, the preparation of a course that pushes boundaries in all these various ways is a daunting task that takes a lot of preparation and even some trial and error with implementation. One thing that can really help with establishing a great basis for online education in a department of an institution is its development of online learning support systems for the specific class, for the department, and the institution itself. Starting with


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the course design and instructor first, there should be both written and multimedia content providing instruction and ground rules for the methodology used in the course. Material to explain how to use the required software/hardware and the social and participatory roles and expectations of the course should be provided as simply as possible.
The department should create or adapt an advisory position or at least a knowledge base on how the courses are designed. For example, the creation of simple tutorial videos on the online delivery platform and how to access all of its functions, as well as more specific troubleshooting information could be a great help.
The institution itself, if uniform in many guidelines and technology used, could also provide resources to assist the students. Possibly the campus bookstore could have resources. Each level of support system, be it per class, or up at the institution level need to be accessible and highly personal. Students can range in experience using web-based multimedia communications and online systems for education, so the assumption must be made that there will be a need for further information on the basic tools in online education.
Adding a level of personal interaction can really help online students become excited and stay motivated. Providing an advisory contact in the department and in orientation, someone that can be contacted specifically about issues related to online coursework would very much help. This advisor would be trained to coach students in a more general fashion about online courses, and address learning styles and issues with technology (Janes 77). An advisor that personally works with students in a traditional sense helps give a student a greater sense of belonging and personal connection with the campus and department, there is no reason why the advisors communication with an


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online learner would have any different effect than communication with an on campus learner. It may seem like a lot of work to get the instructors and a department online advisor up to speed, but the familiarity of the faculty involved with the tools available is of utmost importance. Online courses in a department can only move forward in credibility and value if the faculty is willing to take charge of the technology and through them empower the students to take charge of it as well.
The last topic to address in this section of the paper is how the ideas of online learning apply to audio engineering. The subject of Audio Engineering, being a skill set that is largely hands on and the why behind technique being frequently evasive, is a subject that is of utmost importance to demonstrate the skills on top of presenting written material. The how can be much easier to grasp than the why in most cases with audio engineering. Proper demonstrations with explanations and hands-on projects are great facilitators of the why. Demonstrations can be done with proper use of video media, synchronous and asynchronous together. A combination of short instructional videos and periodic synchronous demonstrations of hands on technique with the software and equipment is completely possible. Although, depending on what online delivery platform you have available, how you would effectively implement these support materials could vary greatly.
For an online course offered to students that are on campus or local only, most likely as an alternative to a face-to-face version of the class, in-person group work can still be assigned. The students of the group, though receiving class information and interaction predominantly, coordinate times to meet and use the recording facilities on campus together for their group projects. This face-to-face time with their small group for


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projects would add a lot to their learning experience and create familiarity with the group members that they would be communicating with in online interactions. They would have met their group members in person and can connect the person to the online collaborative work more strongly. Were going to focus on this type of hybridized online course, one for local students as an alternative to a face-to-face course.
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Multimedia The ideas behind synchronous or asynchronous interaction and use of media in online courses are still being explored. The use of either is touted as a good thing, but there are many ways each can become cumbersome, boring, or ineffective. Each piece of material presented in one of these formats must convince students of its weight and importance. They require discipline in students to watch or listen through the content extensively, or in the case of synchronous interaction, make the time to participate.
First and foremost, the use of non-synchronous media is the norm. Most commonly, various instructional videos, recorded podcasts, documents or other files containing visual and written examples and instruction are used. Asynchronous forms of communication are also the norm, such as email, bulletin board posts, text discussions, etc. With audio engineering in particular, you might think that audio examples or cues would be very important, and they are, but when designing an online course that teaches largely hands on skill sets, such as microphone technique and the use of audio processing and recording software, video content can deliver the best results.
Many scholars have investigated the positive effects of video content as a course content delivery method. Patricia Baggett in Role of Temporal Overlap did a study to present research on the use of dynamic instructional video containing both audio and


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visual content and found that learners not only prefer video, but gain a deeper understanding of the material (414). The encouragement of use has driven video to become a predominant delivery format for learning. As Kristen Purcell notes, in 2009, video became the 3rd largest format for learning, reaching 38% of adult Internet users (2).
The design of instructional video for audio engineering courses would benefit from some of the common ideas in content creation but also from the use of ideas such as segmentation and the use of visual cues or signals to highlight the important concepts contained. Ibrahim et al. state that Long videos or videos that contain complex topics while providing no assistance to students in understanding the content can be problematic (161).
In Optimizing Instructional Video for Preservice Teachers in an Online Technology Integration Course Ibrahim et al. divided the surveyed students into three groups, one with shorter segmented videos, and videos containing cues or indicators of the important concepts, and then another with longer videos containing no cues (163). In this experiment all students were also encouraged to follow a self-paced engagement of the material. The results supported the researchers theory; the scores of the students with the segmented and cued videos were much higher than the students with longer videos and no cues.
The nature of segmented, shorter videos also encourages the learners ability to self-pace their learning. The shorter videos give the learner pauses between each and the time can either be used to reflect or rest, reducing mental stress that would be there if they were watching a longer video providing a larger cognitive load. Whether a student


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has a short to long attention span, this method is adaptable.
Segmentation can also allow the instructor to use shorter videos as supplementary material to any coursework. Supplementary material can be accessed as needed by the student, as opposed to only when the material is first presented. They can find the particular short video with the material they need at the moment.
To investigate the importance of supplemental multimedia in an online course,
Nathan B. Miller aimed to analyze the correlation between student access of supplemental multimedia and final grades and to investigate the mean difference of final grades at different levels of supplemental multimedia access, showed supportive results (242). There were four categories of supplemental video content: instructor created, publisher created, other sources (Youtube, streaming, etc.), and overall access of all three. After collecting the data from his study involving each of these types of multimedia and how a students success was affected by each in a course, Miller stated If a student accessed at least 25% of the course supplemental multimedia, he/she will likely have a higher final grade than a student that does not (249).
The different learning styles students may have present other challenges, and as effective as educational use of video is, it is still advisable to present the material in varied formats, easiest being written and diagramed explanation. The differences in students learning styles is one of the larger issues when delivering online coursework because so much of the success of the student is based on their ability to self-motivate and self-direct their own learning. As mentioned before, the students with a highly developed sense of metacognition will always do better in a self-directed course.
Another accompaniment to segmented and cued instructional video is the


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encouragement or requirement of comment based reflection or discussion on the content in the video. Gila Kurtz claims that the idea of social knowledge, knowledge learned through actions or interactions and collaboration with people should be included alongside asynchronous media in online learning (254). The lack of face-to-face learning needs to be addressed in the best way possible in an online course to create a social learning environment, and the best way is to create multiple ways that students must engage with each other, the content, and the instructor. Some may seem redundant but the variety provides the best chances that students will participate adequately.
Theorizing how exactly to engage asynchronous media in the practice of collaborative and social learning in an online course is the next step. Social reflection is one way to do this, and the most effective way is to do it with smaller groups. After the creation of student groups, they would be required to reflect as a group in some way upon the topic(s). There would be an agenda created by the instructor for each meeting the groups would have. This would be important to keep students on track. One example of an assignment could be for them to develop a first draft to distribute or discuss with the group, and after receiving feedback, produce a final draft. As Tu and Corry explain, This collaboration involves students in three rich learning processes: preparing a first draft, providing constructive feedback, and preparing a final revision, utilizing the comments of peers (55). This technique is by no means a new one, but experimentation still needs to be done on the frequency this type of assignment throughout a course. Going through this process is a longer time commitment and would need to be fitted practically into a course design. Combining this process with asynchronous video content could possibly have greater results. To produce the best potential results, one could take the study by Ibrahim


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et al. showing the results of shorter segmented and cued videos, and the positive correlation of supplemental multimedia content on students grades found by Miller, and combine them with these ideas of social learning. This is the technique that is implemented in the online audio engineering course designed in this paper.
With audio engineering in particular there are many critical listening aspects. Social reflection on listening experiences and characteristics would benefit greatly through the use of multimedia and social knowledge concepts. The first draft, discussion/reflection, final draft method would work amazingly well when presenting asynchronous media content to guide groups in preparation for practical group or individual projects in the creation of recordings or mixes of recordings. The media could be absorbed, each student theorizes the way forward in the project, they reflect as a group on their ideas, and then the final decisions would be made to move forward.
Live Online Demonstrations
The use of live media content is coined as synchronous instruction or interaction. There have been many instances where research has been done on the effectiveness of synchronous content in online courses and the effectiveness of asynchronous (not live) online content, and even some into a hybridization of the two. D. Randy Garrison and Martha Cleveland Innes stated that there are three very important types of interaction in an online course are learner-instructor, learner-content, and learner-learner (Facilitating Cognitive Presence 134). A fully asynchronous online course provides all three of these interactions through pre-made and prepared lectures, content, and organized non-real-time communications (email, discussion boards, etc.). A fully synchronized class would deliver the bulk of these interactions through live-feed


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RSS audio podcasts, large and small group videoconferences, and video lectures. For the most part, only supplementary materials are provided in asynchronous written, audio, or video formats. A combination of the two could be any of the characteristics of each combined in the way the course designer or instructor would like them. Hybridization provides the most flexibility for students and allows the instructor to tailor the course design more specifically to fit the requirements of the course delivery tools and course subject. There are many examples and benefits of how a combination synchronous/asynchronous online course can be put together.
Throughout the advent of purely online learning, there have been a number of issues that have come up over and over again, and solutions are found through experience and flexibility. The number of research studies that have been conducted on interactivity and its value in online courses shows that education practitioners and researchers have always been concerned with how much interactivity a distance course could or should provide for students, since interaction can be considered a necessary ingredient for a successful learning experience.
First and foremost, Benjamin Kehrwald explains that the ideas behind adding synchronous content to an online course stem from the idea that asynchronous technology can create social and psychological distance between parties and exacerbate the feeling of a lacking social presence (90). M. Collins and K.L Murphy note that the definition of social presence in an online course is debatable, but key aspects include a sense of individuals abilities to perceive others through their mediated interactions (3).
Likewise, P.L. McLeod et al. and Rourke et al. focus on the degree of tangibility and proximity of others within a communicative situation and their ability to project


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themselves both socially and emotionally in a community (708).
Secondly, there are ideas of the importance of collaborative learning. T. Panitz defines collaborative learning, clarifying that In all situations where people come together in groups, it suggests a way of dealing with people, which respects and highlights individual group members abilities and contributions. There is a sharing of authority and acceptance of responsibility among group members for the groups actions (1). As K.B. Gerdy adds, Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated; sharing ones ideas and responding to others (ideas) improves thinking and deepens understanding (10). In collaborative learning there can also be a situation where instructors shift their authority to the learners (Tu and Corey 52). An instructor becomes more of a guiding force than a traditional standing on a pedestal lecturer, guiding the groups through the milestones of the course content but allowing their interactions and sharing of ideas to drive the subject home. The instructor should push to create advancement in regards to this includes an enabling of students to think a bit more outside the box to problem solve, collaborate, and think a bit more think abstractly along with others and to seek creative solutions. With the rise of the Internet, information is accessible all the time, and given the speed at which pertinent information may be retrieved, for some learners it is difficult to comprehend that several reliable sources and possibly multiple viewpoints are required to masterfully understand complex problems; and furthermore, that understanding is something that develops over time with reflection (Lefford 2). These complex problems and concepts that require a great deal of visualization, such as audio signal flow, benefit from collaborative reflection. To really acquire the broad perspective mastery that a subject or skillset needs, one must engage


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with peers, from beginners to masters. Audio has many aspects that benefit the most in this way.
Adding onto the idea that a fundamental change in the role of an instructor, an instructors role must be redefined by looking at what instructor interactions and teaching presence are in an online course. As A.G. Picciano explains, Interaction by itself does not presume that one is engaged in a process of inquiry and (that a) cognitive presence exists, whereas teaching presence is important for the creation and sustainability of a community of inquiry focused on the exploration, integration, and testing of concepts and solutions (33). New technology and advancements into synchronous presentations have allowed many of these fundamental changes in a instructors role to happen, an instructor can more easily encourage and mediate the collaborative and creative discussions and projects without being face-to-face.
The changes in social presence, collaborative learning, and an instructors role in an online course stem from, and lead right back to, the subject of communication tools. Synchronous communication tools are becoming much better at engaging students. One study found that courses that included instructor video casting, compared to courses that did not use video casting, students were able to overcome the sense of being at a distance from the instructor (H. Han 254). The use of video casting helped this studys participants to engage in meaningful interactions with the instructor and peers to minimize what was discussed as transactional distance. Video conferencing is becoming the foremost way to employ synchronous interaction in the form of a video lecture or large and small group conferences. Online course delivery software, such as Blackboard or Canvas, now have built in capabilities for video conferencing as well as all of the usual asynchronous


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interaction capabilities. Other than these there are many different pieces of software such as Skype, Adobe Connect, Google Hangouts, and others that offer easy to use video conferencing. Audio podcasting has had, and still has, a presence but, as Alan Cann points out in his study specifically on the benefits of audio podcasts, Audio podcasting and the RSS subscription model in particular is severely limited in its acceptability and hence its utility to many student consumers, whereas short YouTube style videos have very broad acceptance and offer a much richer format for instruction (5). This is most likely because of the popularity and familiarity of YouTube style videos in every aspect of peoples lives, not just learning environments.
The effectiveness of the technology in synchronously engaging students pivots upon the instructors creative use for a particular course. A small class where you can have smaller groups online at a time would benefit more from a discussion type videoconference. Whereas, a larger class may be better off with a live video lecture and a creative way for the instructor to answer real time questions by calling on students that indicate they have a question. Many types of videoconferencing software have a function for this. The most efficient group size for promoting task-oriented interactions during synchronous discussions is between two and three members as the smaller size allows members to participate equally (Tu and Mclssac 145). Mediating a discussion with 10+ people with microphones and cameras could easily get out of hand and become unmanageable. Groups can have their own break-out videoconferences as well, and the instructor can drop in to mediate and keep everyone on task and answer questions. Exploration on how to incorporate synchronous interaction is still happening and there is no single type of use, but it must be tailored to the specific course and educational tools


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provided to students and instructors within an institution.
Success in implementing an online course that utilizes all of these varieties of engagement and interaction in part or in whole, very much depends on the instructor and students ability to use the technologies effectively. This list of simple questions was devised by Ian Gibson in At the Intersection of Technology and Pedagogy: Considering Styles of Learning and Teaching to help an instructor prepare for a course that will utilize a variety of software and technologies:
1. How will students react to technology?
2. How will technology affect our concept of knowledge?
3. How will technology change the location for teaching and learning?
4. What type of new skills will students need to learn?
5. How will the technology change my classroom and my relationship with my
students?
6. How will technology impact upon the accountability for achievement in my
classroom?
7. How does this technology work?
8. How much time is needed to get ready to use the technology in the classroom?
9. How will the technology change my teaching style?
10. What kind of classroom management problems may occur if I use
technology? (39)
You can see that this list is comprehensive and the questions would answer most of the needed topics for you to develop your course. Like designing any face-to-face course, online courses take much time and focus to develop correctly. Coming up with the best methods of using technology to engage the students effectively might actually add a deal more preparation. So the preproduction for the course is a tad more, but once the course is in progress it would most likely take less time per week of the instructors time. A properly design course following many of the guidelines previously mentioned would allow the instructor to facilitate the students social and collaborative experience as opposed to many hours of lecture style presentations. The proper and creative uses of the


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technologies that are available are what enable this approach.
The many ideas about the effects and experiences of synchronous, asynchronous, and hybridized online courses lean towards a hybridized approach being the most well rounded route. Synchronous demonstrations of skills would contribute to the courses adaptability to students varied learning styles, and also provide a more full spectrum of social interaction for a student, the best of both worlds, with the instructor and peers. One major hiccup that could arise is unfamiliarity with the tools of interaction by the instructor or the students. As Arbaugh addressed the subject around the fact that for many students who attend asynchronous online programs the developmental process involved in understanding and becoming a participatory learner is a completely new experience (171). This could be said about any format of online learning because distance-learning courses in any format are fundamentally different than face-to-face courses. This could be technological. A hybridization study by Linda C. Yamagata-Lynch found that (one) reason why students were apprehensive about the synchronous meetings stemmed from difficulties they had or they heard about from colleagues in other courses related to synchronous meeting technologies (198). An institution could provide workshops to teach the basic use of the technology. The instructor could also create or use official tutorial content that could be provided along with course materials online. To give a student who is new to online courses a firmer grasp and feeling of solidarity, the instructor should set up ground rules and a class-centered support system of tutorials outlining the intended use of the tools. The questions compiled by Ian Gibson mentioned before lead you along preparing solutions to most of these issues (39).
One of the students that participated in Yamagata-Lynchs study about the flexibility


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of a hybridized course in addressing various learning styles provided some insight, he saw how some of the other students prefer asynchronous communications, unlike him, and while working to comprehensively participate in class (he) discovered that for him to get to know other course participants he needed to listen to them through both synchronous and asynchronous communications (201). Different students will prefer one method of communication to another, but ultimately it would be guided by the projects and how the instructor decides to set the course structure up.
To design an online audio engineering course that creates a highly social and collaborative environment, and that allows the instructor to mediate and guide the process of collaboration and development of ideas is the ultimate goal of this paper and potentially will work well. The flexibility of a hybridized design allows for different courses requiring different amounts of hands-on learning, projects, and traditional memorization to function according to their needs. For the instructional material and communications with the instructor and fellow students, a computer, microphone, and basic camera like the ones built into most laptops now are all that are required and should be required for everything but the group projects. In audio engineering, there is a large amount of hands-on material in learning the use of equipment and software, so there is very little you can do to avoid needed recording equipment and software for the projects. The course outlined in this paper is designed as an alternative to a course offered on campus and meant for students that are local. The use of the facilities of the institution and the degree program should be enough to provide what is needed for the projects. So, in this online course, synchronous methods and demonstrations could be utilized to prepare students to break out and try the techniques individually or in groups on campus.


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Many learners would benefit from the visuals and explanations more than written direction, and feel more comfortable once they were in a school studio or recording/mixing space. The synchronous video content could also be recorded and watched again if needed. Remember, with such a variety of material in audio courses adaptation and social interaction are the keys to providing the best distance learning experience. There is very little you can do without stressing this to students in order to provide the best course.
Instructor Role and Cooperative Learning
A focus on collaborative learning seems to be the theme that is intriguing about designing an online course in the field of audio engineering. With the lack of traditional lectures and classroom situations, online courses are wide open for experimentation with various forms of collaboration between the students and instructor. Presenting assignments and activities that shift the focus from learner-teacher interactions to learner-learner interactions, that are mediated by the instructor and the design of the content, would cultivate a much more intimate and connected learning experience. The combined use of synchronous and asynchronous media content and the use of creative mediated projects would engage the students in a variety of ways, and hopefully would appeal to various learning styles.
These ideas present a challenge when thinking about them in regards to an online audio engineering course because most skills required are hands-on or in-person collaborative works. A subject such as this needs to be analyzed not by quantitative means, such as grades and statistical information of student activity gained from online education softwares data, but by qualitative means. In regards to instituting a mediated


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learner-learner approach, A qualitative dimension is introduced where interaction is seen as communication with the intent to influence thinking in a critical and reflective manner (Garrison 134). This qualitative value becomes more obvious and visible to the students, and when the quality of the social aspect of content in an online course goes up, the quantitative, such as grades, will follow.
In the publication, Teaching Statistics: A Comparison of Traditional Classroom and Programmed Instruction/Distance Learning Approaches Donna Harrington writes that that students who did well academically, as measured by their grade point average, did well with the online course. However, those who did not do well on their grade point average did not do well with online instruction (348). Such studies into the direct differences of quantitative information, such as grades or grade point averages, in a traditional classroom and an online course have been done, but there has been very little insight into how the qualitative aspects affect a students success.
Designing or redesigning online courses in an audio engineering program to increase student success, lends to a focus on qualitative ideas, largely because of the nature of the hands on studio and software experience needed, but also because face-to-face courses provide so much of their education with interactive social and hands on experience. An online course would have to compete with that and provide social and hands on interaction that holds up. This online hybridized course would still require the meeting of groups in person for projects or direct synchronous interaction online. The benefit being no standard class meeting times, just meetings that can be coordinated by the students when convenient, and the ability of most projects to be done collaboratively or scheduled online. On top of that, the instructor acting more as a facilitator with a


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hybridized synchronous/asynchronous course format would create the needed social and collaborative substance that an online section of a course would need to be able to compete with the face-to-face section.
Audio Course Design Theories
The course design will follow the traditional 16-week semester structure. It will have two quizzes, a midterm and final exam, 3 group projects, and a proficiency test on Pro Tools. There will also be four online group discussions, and a synchronous video demonstration by the instructor for each project. The subject material used in this demonstration of course design will be used to give a rough idea of an intermediate audio engineering course. All specific course subject material and specifics are interchangeable; were focusing mostly on the structure, implementation, and interaction that could apply to any subject matter in the area of audio engineering. The material will be presented in a highly peer to peer interactive way pointing toward an outcome of student dispositions including the organizational skills required to complete and document a recording project, as well as the ability to critique the audio production of professional audio recordings, and those of their own and fellow students that was pointed out by Lome Bregitzers (2). First, There are a couple broad issues that need to be addressed with designing of an audio engineering online course.
One difficulty is that audio engineering students enter into the programs with varied levels of experience, knowledge, and different backgrounds. This presented a significant challenge for the (instmetors) as the curriculum had to engage both experienced and non-experienced students and provide them all with the necessary tools and understanding to successfully progress into the higher levels of the course


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(Thompson 2). Moving forward with the structure of the course materials and subject matter has to take this into account. The projects and discussions must reflect and accommodate, at least a little, the needs of a variety of student backgrounds. This is mostly addressed in the preparation of the path through the coursework that the students must walk, making sure there is no assumption made that could create gaps or jumps from one subject to another that would make the course difficult for students.
Another difficulty is working with the limited amount of time students have to work in the campus recording studio facilities. Audio engineering is a subject that requires skill and comfort with the tools, software, and recording environment. Studio production courses that dont provide adequate hands on time when teaching the process of recording dont effectively build the skill sets and confidence of students. Like many areas of study, audio engineering education requires a balance between learning and understanding so that students acquire both the knowledge base and skill sets to succeed (Merchant 2). A very thought out idea of specific skill sets that are meant to be learned needs to be created. With the limited time and resources it can be very easy to attempt too much and leave students with half learned or incomplete ideas and skillsets. A hybridized online course for students that are attending a local campus has the potential to prioritize time in the studio over classroom time allowing general course work and content can be done collaboratively online in small groups. Then projects would be designed for the groups to schedule time and meet in the recording facilities on campus. With rationed weekly time that the studio can be booked in lieu of lecture time, group interaction, and online support materials presented by the instructor a students time on campus for the course could be spent entirely in the studio. In this design, each group project to be done


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in the studio will also be preceded by a synchronous video demonstration with Q&A. The demonstration will provide the general use of the studio for the projects and be re-watchable as supplemental material at ones convenience.
This demonstration courses use of an intermediate level studio production subject is a placeholder for the design concepts. This subject holds both hands-on experience and software experience highly, and provides adequate examples to use for the sake of explanation. On the software side, the course will cover Pro Tools, including session setup and organization, digital I/O, record modes and technique, basic keyboard shortcuts, cue I/O, audio plugin type and use, hardware inserts, basic editing functions, and an assortment of smaller concepts. On the studio recording side subjects like basic studio signal flow, tape machine or DAW I/O, patch bays, monitoring and cues, basic microphone technique, stereo microphone technique, line vs. mic levels, tracking session preproduction and organization, patching inserts, and basic drum, guitar, bass, piano, and vocal recording techniques. These ideas will be laid out through the 16-week course in a fashion that the quizzes, exams, and projects will follow.
The first week of the term will be an orientation to the course, as well as provide the explanations of expectations in participation and the ground rules and guidelines to get the students acclimated to the course and know what to expect. A study stated, In an online learning environment, without the familiar constraints of classroom walls, ground rules are not as easily assumed... Having online ground rules explicitly stated and always available helps to ensure a healthy, safe, and respectable learning environment (Yamagata- Lynch 199). Ground rules and clear expectations help create a successful learning community in an online course defined as, A successful online collaborative


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learning community is an organization where community members engage intellectually, mentally, socio-culturally, and interactively in various structured and unstructured activities to achieve their common learning goals via electronic communication technologies (Tu and Corry 53). So, an effective definition of the type of communications that will build the online learning community, explaining its purpose and all expectations, will help sustain the structure of the collaborative environment throughout the term. These ground rules and the focus of the instructor as a facilitator of the social system engaged by the course would be the backbone of the learning experience. The instructor will not only provide the learning material but, "also provide the foundation and learning structures to guide learners through various learning experiences involving active social interaction by applying modem technology (Tu and Corry 52). Ground mles regarding the use of technology implemented are a very important part of this guided process and provide an important feeling of structure to students despite being distance learners.
Ground rules and expectations of participation could be effectively outlined in short videos as well as outlined in a reference text prominently placed in the online course shell. Information about the educational platform (software) used and any other communication software or equipment could also be provided in the form of short videos with text support material, and placed in the course shell. Video explanations supported by short and clear lists or ideas would work best. Next, there will be an introduction segment where the instructor and students can meet and greet online. The instructor should create a short video introduction to put a face to the name online, and written audio/visual explanations or motivations for the course and how its stmctured (Janes


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74). Optional exercises to test each students equipment could be utilized. Requiring them to create a short introduction video or something similar using their computer, camera, and microphone, and/or text introductions could be made. Here is a list of basic ground rules created by Yamagata-Lynch in her paper Blending Online Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning that could be used or expanded upon for use in a collaborative learning focused course:
1. Be prepared for synchronous sessions by having access to and properly set up computer equipment and USB headphones/microphone for each session.
2. Be proactive about seeking help from the instructor regarding course issues and OIT for technical troubleshooting.
3. Be open-minded and share my own ideas as well as listen to ideas that others share about themselves and my work even when at times they may be difficult advice.
4. Be able to take the time to think before responding to others.
5. Be responsive and communicative to other participants through email,
asynchronous discussion, and synchronous discussions.
6. Be open to comments from other participants, and do not assume that they are
negative, instead assume that they are positive and supportive.
7. Be self-disciplined and take charge of managing my own learning by making the
time to read, participate, and reflect on course activities.
8. Be honest, respectful, and open while interacting with other participants.
9. Remember that discussion posts for this course are due 7pm on the due date, and formal assignments are due 11:59pm of the due date.
10. Side discussions during synchronous sessions are welcomed in this course as
long as they do not disrupt anyone's work. When participants of the side discussions determine that their conversation would benefit the entire class one of the participants need to raise their hand to make others aware of the side discussion content. (199)
One point was left out that was specific to her course. You can see that there are several themes that the points address, be prepared with technology and other required materials, make awareness of support systems, guidelines of proper social interaction in the course, respect of others involved in the course, acknowledge your own responsibility for your work and success, and specifics about project/assignment due dates. Each rule


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needs to be short and to the point, give a student clear direction, and still leave room for flexibility to adapt to specific situations throughout the course.
The subjects of preparedness with required technology, use of support systems, and specifics about course due dates are all fairly straight forward but do need follow up information, such as what equipment to acquire, where and how to use the support systems, and a course calendar for the due dates.
Next, the ones that receive the most attention in the ground rules are focused on the need to mediate social interaction. It is almost over emphasized in this example of ground rules and this is a very common subject for instructor to focus on. It has been found that up to 42% of online comments and interactions (in your average online course) are relationship oriented as opposed to task oriented. Making sure then, that students are respectful and productive in their comments and interactions is extremely important (West 139). Encouragement of more task-oriented conversation in some way in these guidelines would help with this as well.
Another few ground rules focus on a students responsibility for their own success. This is an important subject to address; a students success in an online course is for the most part on his or her own shoulders. Online Learning is heavily effected by a students ability to self-direct and self-manage their time and interaction on peer-to-peer and peer-to-instructor platforms (West 136). This subject is also good to address early on in the course so that student complaints later on can be deflected if they are because they are not meeting expectations with their participation in the course and trying to deflect any responsibility for problems they may be having. This also encourages the students to accept any help from the instructor or peers without negative implications when they


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need to work on their participation.
In regards to audio engineering, these are all very important subjects to include in your ground rules for the course. The social interaction and courtesy ground rules are universal and apply in any online course where students will communicate or collaborate with others. An outline of course due dates and how they work is also universal. Support systems would be useful in the same way as most courses. They would be even more useful if they were implemented within the course and specific audio engineering program. This way there is a consistent departmental face to receiving help. There could be a degree of audio specifics in the support systems implemented focus on help with gear setup and use and software installation. This leads into ground rules about technology. Not only are technology based support systems emphasizing the tools used for interaction in the course needed, but they will also be needed to outline what audio specific tools and software will be needed and provide information on where to acquire or how to access them. There is almost no way to teach a hands-on audio engineering course without the use of many of the audio recording and processing tools. The support systems for an audio course would have to have a bit more focus on this.
Ground rules to address students about their responsibilities in the course would have many common themes as most courses, but there would be several specific ones. Acquisition or finding access to the tools and software needed would be something that they would be held accountable for. If the institution could provide these, the student would be responsible to go through the proper channels to utilize them. Depending on the course subject, competencies that a student should have in use of the software and tools from prerequisite classes is on their shoulders. But, a reference to support systems if they


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need extra help could be provided.
The following weeks in example will be laid out roughly the same but will be beginning the course subject matter. The focus on creating this collaborative and social learning environment will be utilized. Audio Engineering is an art and field that requires social interaction between fellow engineers and clientele, such as artists and producers of audio or visual media. An emphasis on accomplishing collaborative goals is very important. These skills also reach out into the professional world where a student will eventually work. Lefford and Berg stated it another way in their work From Practice to Research and Back Again: Research Skills in Audio Engineering Education, claim that to be effective in an audio engineering context requires the ability to make oneself understood and to understand others. Professionals know how to interact in the studios social environment professionally (4). They also mentioned the importance of taking feedback well and giving constructive feedback (4). An audio engineering online course needs to include a social system that grows the student in their skills with collaboration and with giving and receiving feedback in a constructive way. As much as its important to succeed as a student, its important in the professional world. The ground rules are a huge part of this in guiding and giving examples of how to collaborate and acknowledge your peers.
Each week a set of short segmented asynchronous videos, listening examples, and supporting documentation will be provided for the students to peruse and learn. These will provide all of the information on the weeks subject matter to be perused and absorbed leading up to the quizzes and tests. A firm hand at guidance through the correct supplied material is always helpful with audio engineering subjects. Course subjects can


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be investigated over the Internet and the Internet is awash with information such as gear use, audio processing techniques, and technical information, but just like many other subjects the informations accuracy and use varies. First [audio] principles are rarely glamorous or entertaining, and their study requires a significant time commitment and focus. These students also have access via the Internet to a glut of [digital] information of variable quality that may be easily confused for factual, peer-reviewed findings (Lefford and Berg From Practice 2).
Every other week there will be a short assignment exploring some of the content from the precious week(s) that will be done by each student. That work will be submitted in an online discussion forum that their group can access. Then, twice before the midterm and twice after, each group will schedule a meeting using videoconferencing or other synchronous communication software to meet and discuss what they found out on their own and read in each others submissions. A dialog based on the recent subject matter and assignments would be provided to keep the groups on track. This discussion can also be used for students to ask each other questions about other content from the previous weeks they need assistance in understanding. A good example could be seen in a 4-week picture
(see table 1).


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Table 1
4-Week Example Week 2
Pro Tools Record a track
Import / Export / Saving Session Organization Recording Basic Signal Flow
DAW & Tape Machine I/O
Assignment # 1 Discuss the differences and similarities of signal flow when recording into a DAW vs. tape.
Week 3________________________________________________________________________
Pro Tools I/O & Playback Management
Disk Allocation and Preferences Record Modes Recording Patchbay Discussion # 1 Discuss assignment #1
What characteristics of an instrument or microphone pair seem to be most important to consider when using a stereo microphone technique?
Week 4__________________________________________________________________
Pro Tools Command Focus & Hotkeys Printing / Bouncing Cues in Pro Tools Recording Monitoring and Cues
Assignment # 2 What hotkeys or other characteristics of Pro Tools have you discovered or assume will be most useful? Share them.
Week 5________________________________________
Pro Tools Click
Pre/Post Roll Scrolling Modes Window Views
Recording Basic Microphone Technique
Stereo Microphone Technique Concepts
Quiz 1


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Each week has a few simple Pro Tools or software based subjects and a few simple and general recording subjects that are covered. Assignments to submit for discussion only occur every other week to give some time for absorption of the material. Roughly each 4-week section would have a discussion over the previous assignments from those weeks where students discuss their and their peers submissions as well as a broader new question or two. This would be repeated with exception of weeks with quizzes or exams. In a 16-week semester it would amount to four synchronous discussions, spacing them out around the quizzes and tests. The assignment and discussion are not meant to cover everything presented each week, they are more important as a social task for the students to engage with each other, and create a collaborative learning environment where the students could also have the opportunity to discuss other topics of their choice that they are struggling with. The design and use of a course calendar that would allow the groups to schedule their meetings as well as the instructor to schedule the synchronous demonstrations would need to be devised. Most online course delivery platforms have calendar functions, so it would be up to the instructor to discover how to implement the particular way to do this effectively.
This format to encourage collaborative learning could be relatively flexible. The frequency of assignments and discussions could vary depending on the topics, group sizes, or any other factor that is important to the instructor, students, or course subject. Most likely the number of assignments and discussions would have to be gauged through trial and error and adjust either on the fly or in the following term making sure not to overload or under-load the students. For instance, requiring a synchronous meeting of groups every other week might be a bit too often and create increased stress levels in the


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students. The meetings might have to be less in quantity and/or frequency.
The quizzes, midterm, and final exams would be geared to cover a variety of the other topics not covered in the assignments and discussions from the past few weeks since the last quiz or exam. They will be implemented along side the assignments and discussions in a balanced fashion to consider and reinforce some of the topics that dont require as much discussion or reflection. Some topics are served better through a discussion then others, and some topics would not provide much productive activity for discussion.
In the previous four-week example, signal flow, the patch bay, hotkeys, and stereo microphone concepts are discussed. The quiz following those four weeks would then discuss some or all of the remaining topics covered from the asynchronous videos and other materials. This way each quiz or exam would only cover the previous four weeks.
A non-cumulative approach would lessen the cognitive and stress load on the students as they focus on the material and keeping up with discussions and group projects. Here are charts for the whole term of the weekly topic schedule (see table 2), assignment/discussion schedule (see table 3), and project and demonstration schedule
(see table 4).


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Table 2
Weekly Schedule
Week 1 Tutorial Tools and Course Materials, Ground Rules and Expectations, Advice, Tips, How-tos
Week 2 Pro Tools Record a Track, Import/Export/Saving, Session Organization Recording Basic Signal Flow, DAW & Tape Machine I/O
Week 3 Pro Tools I/O & Playback, Disk Allocation, Preferences, Record Modes Recording Patchbay
Week 4 Pro Tools Command Focus & Hotkeys, Printing/Bouncing, Cues in Pro Tools Recording Monitoring and Cues
Week 5 Pro Tools Click, Pre/Post Roll, Scrolling, Window Views Recording Basic Microphone Technique & Stereo Microphone Technique Quiz 1
Week 6 Pro Tools Pro Tools Monitoring, Input Only, Solo Modes Recording Line vs. Mic Level
Week 7 Pro Tools Beat Detective/Identify Beat/Quantization, Elastic Audio, Timeline Functions Recording Tracking Preproduction, Tracking
Week 8 Pro Tools Fades, Clip Gain Recording Overdub Preproduction/Setup, Line/DI Instrument connections and re-recording
Week 9 Midterm
Week 10 Pro Tools Clip Menu, Editing and Adjustment basics, Midi Recording/Editing Recording Analog Patching, Hardware Inserts in a DAW
Week 11 Pro Tools Plugins Inserts vs. Audiosuite, Plugin Organization, Inserts Recording Drum Recording
Week 12 Pro Tools Groups Mix/Edit, Acoustic Guitar Techniques Recording Acoustic Guitar Recording
Week 13 Pro Tools Automation Types/Methods of Control/Writing Recording Acoustic Piano Recording Quiz 2
Week 14 Pro Tools Mixing, Panning/Level/E.Q. Recording Vocal Recording
Week 15 Pro Tools Mixing, Dynamics, Parallel Processing Recording Bass & Line Level Recording
Week 16 Final


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Table 3
Assignment / Discussion Schedule
Week 1 - No Assignment or Discussion
Week 2 Assignment #1 Outline the differences and similarities of signal flow when recording into a DAW vs. tape.
Week 3 Discussion #1 Discuss Assignment #1; How does a patch bay make the I/O of a studio easier or more versatile?
Week 4 Assignment # 2 What hotkeys or other characteristics of Pro Tools have you discovered or assume are or will be most useful? Post and discuss on the group discussion thread.
Week 5 - No Assignment or Discussion
Week 6 Assignment #3 Explain why matching Mic and line levels at inputs and outputs is important. What are some ways you can adjust a signal at either level to match the other?
Week 7 Discussion # 2 Discuss Assignment #3; Discuss some key differences and uses for Beat Detective, Identify Beat, and Elastic Audio.
Week 8 Assignment # 4 Explain the importance of preproduction for a tracking or overdub session in a professional studios workflow. Post and discuss on the group discussion thread.
Week 9 - No Assignment or Discussion
Week 10 Assignment # 5 What are some common editing techniques that apply to both audio and midi? What are some techniques used only in one or the other?
Week 11 Discussion # 3 Discuss Assignment # 5; Explain some of the basic problems that come from having multiple microphones recording in a room active, such as when recording a drum set.
Week 12 Assignment # 6 What are some uses for grouping tracks when mixing? What are some uses when editing? Post and discuss on the group discussion thread.
Week 13 - No Assignment or Discussion
Week 14 Assignment # 7 Come up with a couple creative ways to automate Panning, level, and E.Q. Settings to create moment in a mix.
Week 15 Discussion # 4 Discuss Assignment #7; What are some benefits of parallel compression over inline compression?
Week 16 - No Assignment or Discussion


Table 4
Project / Demonstration Schedule
Week 1 - No Project
Week 2 Project 1 Assigned 8 Track Mix
Week 3 - No Project
Week 4 Project 1 Due Project 2 Assigned Stereo Recording
Week 5 Project 2 Instructor Demonstration
Week 6 - No Project
Week 7 - No Project
Week 8 Project 2 Due Project 3 Assigned Multi-track Recording
Week 9 Project 3 Instructor Demonstration
Week 10 - No Project
Week 11 - No Project
Week 12 - No Project
Week 13 - No Project
Week 14 - No Project
Week 15 - No Project
Week 16 Project 3 Due


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In this example, week one is used for guidance and expectations for the course. There are four synchronous discussions each evenly between the quizzes and exams. Quizzes happen week 5 and 13, exams weeks 9 and 16. The first project is individual and has a two-week deadline, the second group project, the first that requires coordination of groups of students to meet in person to use the facilities on campus has a four-week deadline. For the last project, the entire second half of the term is given to allow time for groups to have the time to schedule more than one session of studio facility use. Part of the ground rules would need to address a method of organization the students could use to coordinate these projects facilitation, as well as imply the students responsibility for their and their groups success. How the students could be guided to using the calendar would help facilitate their coordination.
The assignments and discussion are flexible in subject matter and could be adjusted as the course progresses. Then the quizzes and tests would cover the topics not covered in the assignments and discussions. The difficulty of the projects is unknown until they are attempted and they might have to be adjusted. Maybe only one project that requires the groups to meet on campus should be done if two is too much to ask. But convert one project to be peer reviewed to still engage students in synchronous discussions. The subject and goals of projects could also change.
The quizzes and exams would be relatively straightforward and similar to any course, but you can see that coordination and guidance for the students on the discussions, video demonstrations, and projects could amount to be a daunting task. This is something that would require trial and error. The daunting part of this is not the subject matter that would be taught or discussed, it would be in coordinating the social processes,


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the technology, and making sure each student knows how to use the tools to participate.
If the course material and learning media (videos and text) are presented in a coherent and efficient way, the instructors role becomes more focused on facilitating the social and collaborative progress of the course. It could even become entirely a test of facilitation, aside from the few specific questions or inquiries from students made throughout the course.
Since traditional lectures made through streaming technologies are overlong and dont encourage students with short attention spans to participate, the creativity of the instructor in creating the media and implementation of the media containing the course material is very important. This creation and facilitation then is where the instructors effort will most efficiently be focused.The development of an online intermediate level audio engineering course utilizing an innovative combination of synchronous and asynchronous communication and social interaction techniques is no small task. There are many aspects to an online course that interact and affect the effectiveness of each; it is important to take care that each element supports the other. The most likely way to balance and check the balance of using these methods is through trial and error, holding courses and attempting different combinations and practices along these lines.
As an alternative to a traditional face-to-face course, a hybridized online/in-facility course for local students can provide all the necessary elements that would satisfy the students and create a qualitatively superior course to a common online course format. As qualitative results improve, the quantitative, such as grades, will also improve.
Overall, student perspectives and qualitative experience can be improved by utilizing current technology and institutional or departmental support systems to allow an


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instructor to adapt to the role of a facilitator, guiding students through the course material and projects by encouraging social learning and engagement learning styles. Technology will also be utilized to implement course material in a variety of ways allowing for students metacognition to develop. Provided will be a mixture of teaching and learning elements that more adequately satisfy common learning styles.
With audio engineering being a subject that is built of technical and hands-on skills that are governed by cognitive reasoning and listening skills, and also social and collaborative skills, it makes for difficult subject to visualize thriving as an online course. The how of most audio engineering techniques is important, but the why of utilization of technique is elusive. To be taught most effectively this requires constructive learning in a social environment. Social learning develops reasoning effectively and the variety of input from many people help students of various learning styles understand and adapt.
The structure of a course to be tested is based on several key elements and how they fit together. The key elements are adequate support systems, weekly short segmented and signaled videos and their support material, weekly individual assignments, varied group discussions on assignment topics fit around quizzes and tests, and group projects in campus recording facilities with a preemptive synchronous online instructor demonstration for each.
To find the best way to piece these many techniques requires experimentation. It requires instructors to take risks in facilitation roles, to leave behind the traditional role of a sage-on-a-stage style of instruction. Providing the tools and thought out path for students to walk together through a course on their own with little nudges here or there to keep them on track is a risky but potentially rewarding venture. This perspective must be


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engaged purely by looking at the nature of distance learning and the opportunities and limitations that govern it.
Putting in place a guided system of online learning within a department can also alleviate facilities use and scheduling issues and allow for fewer instructors to manage more classes. Student perspectives will also shift because of a focus on hands-on group projects and use of the campus recording facilities instead of classroom lecture time. The maximization of recording studio use in their on campus time would have a huge effect.
The ideas and concepts to develop an innovative online audio engineering course are out there, although scattered. A compilation and synthesis of these concepts through experimentation is the way to move forward and improve course and student outcomes. Online learning is becoming predominant in many institutions and there are ample opportunities to implement and gather results on how these concepts work. The variety of ways that innovative distance learning techniques can be put together leaves a lot of wiggle room but this should not be looked at as a problem, its this open ended characteristic that allows experimentation and ideas to be explored.


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Full Text

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! GUIDED LEARNING AND ONLINE AUDIO COURSE HYBRIDIZATION THEORIES TO IMPROVE STUDENT PERSPECTIVES AND STUDENT SUCCESS By NICHOLAS S. LARSON B.S., Expression College for Digital Arts, 2008 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment o f the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Recording Arts Program 20 17

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! ii 2017 Nicholas S. Larson All Rights Reserved

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! iii This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Nicholas S. Larson h as been approved for the Recording Arts program By Leslie Gaston Bird, Chair Lorne Bregitzer Benom Plumb May 13, 2017

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! iv Nicholas S. Larson (M.S., Recording Arts Program ) Guided Learni ng And Online Audio Course Hybridization Theories To Improve Student Perspectives And Academic Outcomes Thesis directed by Professor Leslie Gaston Bird ABSTRACT In a subject such as studio audio production, online courses can be difficult largely due to the hands on nature of the subject matter The development of a hybridized online and local course utilizing the online format's strengths along with synchronous and asynchronous multimedia to replace traditional lectures is an angle that has yet to be exp lored. This hybridization involves a system of social and collaborative s kill and knowledge development combined with the maximized hands on use of an institution's recording studio facilities. In order to improve the academic experience and learning outc omes of the student, the traditional responsibilities and social role of the instructor are also reassessed and developed into a new concept, that of a facilitator and director of the student's social and c ollaborative interactions with peers, the course c ontent, and in studio projects. The course's development is based on research utilizing nearly one hundred sources from various peer reviewed journals and publications addressing pedagogy, distance learning concepts, and audio engineering education. This includes sources on commonly utilized media communication technologies and online course delivery platforms. Many of these sources reveal the potential of a hybridized course design for largely hands on subjects. Combining hands on experience with online learning enables students to spend on campus time in the recording studio facility, not in the classroom, and supports the development of hands on content both individually and collaboratively. By utilizing

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! v guided online learning, and prioritizing on camp us use of recording facilities over time spent in the classroom, student perspectives of course quality and academic outcomes can be significantly improved. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Leslie Gaston Bird

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! vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of this research project could not have been accomplished without the guidance and support of Leslie Gaston Bird, Lorne Bregitzer, Scott Burgess, and Benom Plumb. The support of my friends and family throughout my time in graduate school has meant a lot to the process. A special thanks to Todd Larson, Cynthia Braddock, Nathan Braddock, Wyndsor Louise Larson, Sam Larson, James Larson, Tyler Anderson, Joseph Chudyk, J on Osborne, Johnny Akers, Dan Buckley, John and June Green, Jim Larson, Drew Jostad, Stan Soocher,, Ludmila Polyakova, Nicholas Stich, and Austin Trotter.

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! vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of Study . 1 Scope of Study & Limitations 2 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ... 5 Review Introduction 5 Context of Works 8 Major Issues Being Addressed ... 10 Relationships of Work ... 18 Identified Gaps .. 20 Further Research Areas 23 III. RESEARCH RESULTS AND COURSE DESIGN 25 General Distance Learning Concepts 25 Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Multimedia 34 Live Online Demonstrations 38 Instructor Role and Collaborative Learning .. 46 Audio Course Design Theories 48 REFERENCES .. 67

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! viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4 Week Example ... 57 Weekl y Schedule ... 60 Assignment / Dis cussion Schedule 61 Project / Demons tration 62

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! # CHAPTER I !"#$%&'(#!%" ) *+,-./0).1)23+45 The objective of this research is to theorize and develop an online intermediate level audio engineering course utilizing an innovative combination of synchronous and asynchronous communication and social interaction techniques to maximize the qualitative experience of student to in structor, student to content, and student to student interactions based on research into current a nd theoretical online learning techniques. This will be accomplished through the investigation of current and past research on subjects surrounding online and distance learning topics such as student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological a dvances instructor roles, guided learn ing, social learning and engagement styl es, and course support systems. The purpose of this study is to explore new ideas in the development of online courses in the audio engineering subject area and to use this re search to answer a simple question : What are the key factors or ideas, based on current and past research, that should be addressed in the design of an online audio engineering course in order to increase the quality of student experience and make an onlin e course a n effective alternative to a face to face course? Ideally, t he increase in quality of experience w ould affect the overwhelming opinion of students that online courses are less effective or inade quate in some subject areas when compared to face to face courses This research look s into possible ways to provide qualitative improvements and i mprove d academic outcomes for online courses, as well as how to successfully implement online courses for a largely hands on subject. Additionally, the project considers reassess ed roles and

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! 2 responsibilities of the instructor and students in an online course and how these roles differ in online a nd face to face course s. Scope & Limitations Th e research t o support this project was conducted utilizing current scholarship in the fields of pedagogy and distance learning. As a topic, distance learning is large enough to have many scientific journal publications focused exclusively on it, as well as to have a l arge role in other more general education or pedagogy based publications. The Audio Engineering Society's published journal and conference papers were also used, having many topics and studies looking at education in the audio engineering subject exclusive ly. In the Audio Engineering Society publications the articles and papers are all recent in the last few years. The rest of the sources found in broader education themed books, journals and other publications span back to the 1960's Distance education, al though predominantly implemented through the use of the Internet nowadays, has been around long before. The Internet is now the current and foreseeable future's platform for delivering the vast majority of distance learning courses But this doesn't mean basic concepts for delivery educational materials remotely can't apply in other platforms A smaller portion of the research focused on publications about current technologies, software, and online media delivery methods that are used in refe rence to the methods of delivery of online courses. This was a necessary subject to touch on because the technology and software platforms available largely govern the way a course in its entire or in part is delivered. This research was a look into many forward thinking concepts being addressed in the current scholarship on the subject of distance learning using the I nternet as a primary

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! 3 delivery method. The concepts of focus within these ideas were ones based on the increase in the qu alitative experience of student to instructor, student to content, and stude nt to student interactions within a course design, not the quantitative, such as the eff ect of course design on student s course grades and grade point averages. In this paper, t he ideas collected fro m the literature review and research represent a broad or more generalized understanding, and should each be investigated more thoroughly in further studies. The project at hand is intended to open dialogues that would encourage further developments. Currently, t he ideas presented in this project do not accompany an executed test course which presents some limitations. First there is the limitation in not being able to currently implement a test course so no hard data can be collected. Second, the ideas explored in development of this course must be developed to utilize only instructional technologies provided by the institution, such as their usual online delivery platform. The students should also not be required to provide more than their usual c omputer, microphone, camera and Internet access to participate in the online portion of the course. Third the ideas are based on current and past studies in the subject and re ly heavily on the accuracy and scholarship developed by peers in the field Las tly, the ideas that drive the demonstration course built within this study are limited to fit th e framework of a traditional 16 week semester of a state university, and more specifically, one that provides an audio engineering program and the facilities re quired by the subject. This is a preemptive study to explore ideas that would improve the effectiveness and quality of student experience in a hybrid online audio engineering course, and inform the implementation of an actual test course. This project's i ntention is to gather current

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! 4 scholarship and ideas and develop the framework for an online engineering course; it does not include hard data or a test course which are goals for a future project. Rather, the research at hand sets the groundwork to make th ose future projects possible When conceptualizing this ideal audio engineering course, there are some important aspects to consider. The course should not ask a student to provide learning technologies that are unusual or unreasonable to require. For the online portion of the course the materials needed should be similar to what other online courses in the program or institution utilize. The usual course delivery platform provided by the institution should be used so a s to be consistent with the rest of the program and promote familiarity for the students. The course design in this study utilizes a standard 16 week semester platform and a n institution that provides adequate recording facilities on campus. The design o f this course for an institution without recording facilities would be completely different The course content would also vary for programs that do not follow the same semester based structure. The project at hand is designed as an alternative to face t o face courses that would have many sections, and therefore designed to manage an unwieldy multi section course effectively, reduce instructor work load, and maximize the hands on use of the institution's facilities for groups of students within the course Further studies would need to address a situation geared towards non local students that would have to provide their own tools and audio engineering facilities while participating in the course.

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! 5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction Distance learning and the form it takes in on line learning has beco me a quickly growing and highly discussed topic over the years, resulting in a range of literature and perspectives. Online learning has become a norm in most institutions, but the outlook on it's effectiveness varies in the extreme. Not only are there general papers and research studies on the subject, but there are a large number of them resting within the broad categories on more specific subjects. They range across the general subject of this pa per's focus, touching on student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological advances, instructor roles, guided learning, social learning and engagement styles, and course support systems. There are also many books written along the lines of tra ditional outlooks on teaching and course design concepts and how they may or may not apply to online courses. A research and collection of survey data has been done exploring various approaches to improving the quantitative experience of a student's enroll ment in an online course, prese n ting studies that look closely at how a student s grade s and grade point average are affected by enrollment in online courses when compared to similar courses taken in person A scholar Randy Garrison states in "Facilitating Cognitive Presence" predominantly address es the importance of theorizing studies that increase the qualitative outcomes of a course, and that the quantitative results will naturally follow. In the same article he states, Interacti on directed to improving cognitive outcomes is characterized more by the qualitative nature of the interaction and less by quantitative measures (135 ) As Garrison continues t here must be a qualitative dimension

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! 6 characterized by interaction that takes th e form of purposeful and systematic discourse ( 135 ). Garrison's research turned out to be of great importance ; his interest in the qualitative experience of online learning gives much insight into d iscovery and the development of ideas in relation to online course design audio engineering All in all there are fewer experiments or research papers with documentation on methods of addressing the qualitative side of a student's experience, and almost none in regards to it and the subject of audio enginee ring. Creating audio engineering test courses would be a great look into the change of students perspective on the quality of their experience, and its effect on their course grade and grade point average is a key to advance these ideas. Research and devel opment still needs to be done before a course could be held and although there are instructors and professionals each year contributing to these ideas in a number of subjects, there are not very many looking at audio engineering and how such a hands on sub ject's online course experience could be addressed. Private institutions that teach audio engineering have relied heavily on automated courses that guide a st udent s through a course and through the entirety of short certificate programs without personal i nteraction with other students and /or the instructor or at most very limited contact. T hese are courses you take at home and are left to your own devices to find ways to exercise the concepts learned. A State institution with a full recording facility ava ilable for instruction provides an opportunity to delve into hybridized formats of online courses that, although taught largely online, would still provide the chance for hands on social and interactive learning. A course that hybridizes the online format with synchronous online discussions and in person group projects on campus seems to be the best way to teach a hands on

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! 7 subject such as audio engineering online. The subject of how to teach this subject in an entirely remote format would be an entirely se parate subject that would have to be addressed in depth on its own. But the design of the hybridized online/in person course would help an institution offering the course satisfy local students that are in need of the convenience and flexibility of an onli ne course but still provide the opportunity for them to practice skills using a top notch facility If this design would satisfy the requirements of a course that requires two or more sections a term, it would also greatly reduce the load of the course's n eed to use the facilities for lectures and demonstrations, freeing up classrooms for other uses and courses that would flourish best in in person formats. Again, there are many broad or general studies and ideas on online course development, but very few t hat explore into these ideas with audio engineering instruction in mind. How could you document how a student's opinion and experience would change in relation to what they would be in a similar course offered entirely in person, and how, through the impr ovement in quality of interaction with the instructor, course material, and fellow students down the road effect their grade and grade point average? These are very important questions, in search of hopefully simple answers. But the implementation of a tes t course is not so simple and the questions compound upon each ot her. How do technologies and their implementation s affect student perspectives and grades? How does different types of synchronous and asynchronous multimedia and how they're used effect student perspectives and grades? Then the questions overlap and you have to ask how the implemented technology changes the eff ectiveness of the various forms of media, which then in turn effects the student s perspectives and grades. You can see how the questions multiply and developing a single test course could

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! 8 not provide answers to all the questions. Many of the broader thin king sources fail to delve into specific questions though many ask the questions as food for thought. There are several categories that the sources on these various ideas fall into that simplify the landscape and variety of thoughts and theories. Context o f Works This paper sits in between a few subjects that are common discussions in the field of distance learning. It compiles the ideas of many research papers to create a thought ou t idea on implementation of the many theories in regards to the creation o f an online intermediate level audio engineering course. Professors and education professionals specializing in a variety of course subjects other than audio engineering wrote the majority of the sources used So the extraction of pertinent information was a long and arduous task. Not only did the information and ideas need to be extracted but then put together and thought about in relation to audio engineering, which is a challenging subject to prepare as an on line course for it is a very hands on subject As part of designing an organized approach to reviewing the present scholarship and conversation the broad subject of distance learning was broken down into several smaller categories and the literature was organized appropriately. The areas of focus are as follows: 1. Distance learning general topics and concepts 2. Interactive asynchronous and video based content topics 3. Synchronous live/ streamed audio and video content 4. Course design with encouragement of metacognition While t hese four categories are broad umbrella topics many of the perspectives

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! 9 within them focus on specific subjects and topics. Most perspectives fall into one of these categories and don't address the interaction or combinations of ideas of each and how they would affe ct each other. There are a pieces of research that intersect and combine issues, like in this project's approach but not so many that encompass ideas of all four and how they could be implemented in a specific field. For example, Shanna Smith Jaggars in Choosing Between Online and Face to Face courses" addresses the topics of learning sty les, including metacognition, and the convenience online courses offer to many students The information gathered by Smith Jagger s in this article fell under categories one distance learning general topics and concepts, and category four course design with encouragement of metacognition. A student s impression of the convenience of a course falls under distance learning general topics and concepts and course design with an awareness of student learning styles and metacognition falls under course design with encouragement of metacognition This project is an outlier; most of the current scholarship doesn't overlap into multiple categories. Lastly, except for a few investi gations conducted by the Audio Engineering Society, very few researchers address the specific subject of audio engineering in relation to these topics. This project is to attempt to connect the broader study of distance and online learning with the subject of audio engineering. Any actual experimentation done within these topics has largely been observation of subtle changes in a course that has been offered before and implemented in its usual format. An entirely new course design offering the opportunity to observe a class and students' impressions of the course has not been widely pursued by the scholars in the field.

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! 10 Therefore, this project focuses on general ideas within the four categories, ( distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition ) and how the se fields of thought interact with each other when focused on the subject of audio engineerin g. Providing a generalist perspective on the main concepts presents the opportunity for this course design to be transferred to other subjects in addition to audio engineering. Overall, this study will provide a course design that focuses on one large top ic in each of four broad categories presented in hopes of encouraging more specific studies in the future. This includes looking into new perspectives on the instructor's role how t o implement a course with a hybridization of synchronous and asynchronous instructional multimedia, how to design multimedia using guided learn ing and social learning styles to encourage greater metacognition and self management skills in students, and lastly the use of support systems to remove technical roadblocks. The curre nt scholarship providing implications for practical audio course design is limited. Therefore, the project at hand fills this gap by providing basic ideas of how each of these areas of focus could be implemented in a course, and specifically, how they migh t interact with each other when implemented in an audio course. Major Issues Being Addressed This Project focuses on four main categories in it's literature review, distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition.

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! 11 To begin, this project rests on an understanding of distance learning. Many voices in the field consider distance learning and ackn ow ledge the growing need for it in contemporary higher education. For more and more students, traditional college environments simply do not work, and many authors and experts in the field have explored the reasons why; for this study, the project rests on t his foundation and focuses on the concepts of distance learning that potentially ensure high quality student experiences and how this would lead to better qua ntitative results such as higher grades and grade point average. When discussing course design, m any scholars address common issues and their e ffects, and how to find solution s This literature review strayed away from general how to guides for designing courses that did not provide much depth; rather, it looked into more specific sources addressing the core points of distance learning general topics and concepts, interactive asynchronous and video based content topics, synchronous live/streamed audio and video content, and course design with encouragement of metacognition For example, in her work "C hoosing Between Online and Face to Face Courses" Smith Jagga rs talks exclusively about the social construct of courses f ocusing on a student s relationship with the instructor and their peers throughout an online course (31). Bambara et al, in "Delicate E ngagement" explore s the same question stating that the online learning experience suffers because of a reduced sense of instructor and peer presence ( 223 ). S cholars Bork and Rucks Ahidiana in "Role Ambiguity in Online Courses" also generally address technical problems with computers, online program/content access and difficulties handling their self directed learning and time managemen t (5) Bambara et al $! and Bork and Rucks both pursued these issues through

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! 12 surveys and questionnaires gi ven to online learning students (Bambara et al. 222; Bork and Rucks Ahidiana 6 ). Almost all the studies that incorporated experimentation within actual courses provided a survey of student responses after the course Each of these subjects could also easil y be broken down into smaller more specific subjects and questions For example, questions about an instructor's social role could be broken down to address specific types of social interaction, technical problems could be fixed on more specific technology and tools, specific theories on encouraging self directed learning, and new ways of surveying and assessing the results of these ideas. In current scholarship, many authors discuss the broad concepts of what available technology is capable of and its eff ect on the student's perception of the quality of the course content and delivery Most of these ideas focus around the student's comfort and familiarity with technology, and what types of technology an institution can realistically ask a student to have access to or acquire for a course. The scholarship also offers a focus on the technology required to deliver various forms of instructional multimedia, what forms deliver better quality and what forms deliver multimedia at a reasonable pace. As Nathan B. Miller states, It is essential when building a course that relies on a student's ability to manage and pace their own learning to afford (them) the opportunity to skip or emphasize content based on their own needs ( 242 ) Chih Hsiung Tu and Michael Corry also contribute t o the conversation, and believe that i t is also essential to research the available technologies in order to find and use the ones that foster learner engagement with content, including techniques that encourage greater learner learner an d learner teacher interaction (53). Technology is used to deliver the course, so technology must be used in an innovative way to encoura ge proper social relati onships.

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! 13 When creating an online course for the field of audio engineering, these technological questions are of particular importance. Audio engineering is a technology driven field, and audio technology and software is both expensive and brings with it a steep learning curve. Much of the technology needed for engineering is physical electronic gear or software that cannot be used or share d over the Internet and must be used in person. While m ost manufacturers of audio production and recording software offer student and ins tructor discounts upon purchase this is not available for all products, and the discounts may not lower the price to a reasonable level for a student budget Most electronic or analog gear is never discounted and for the most part, any professional level gear is expensive and can be hard to maintain. This is a subject that crosses over and blends with the idea of supp ort structures. Since the audio specific gear and software is very specialized and expensive, instructor guidance would be advisable if not necessary to pr ovide students with pri or knowledge before using and purchasing materials In order to alleviate additional economic stress on the student, information about what the institution can provide for the class is necessary. When it comes to instructional technology, institutions re quir e students to provide the basics : a computer with Internet access, camera, and microphone would be needed. However, guidance is still needed in the use of this technology As Ian Gibson in "At the intersection of Technology and Pedagogy" explains, With guidance in use of the basic instructional gear, students will (develop) to be independent and confident users of information technology, capable of collaborative and innovative practice (51 ). This confidence could also be e ncouraged with the use of audio specific gear and software, but only the basic items are needed as part of the learning facilitation process. All together,

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! 14 these views on how technology effects pedagogy are to be combined so as the stu dent could work on projects and course requirem ents with more comfort. Almost every source consulted in this literature review mentioned or devoted at least a part of their research and writing to learning and information technologies. This reveals how important the scholarly community researching online learning believes the use and effect of technology on the learning experience really is. A student s metacognition, or awareness of one's learning styles, is a topic of great discussion. As Gibson explains, Some teachers de emphasize the teaching process in favor of the learning process ( 42 ) Involved in the conversation of metacognition are discussions of the instructor 's role and how it varies from online to traditional classroom s. More and more ideas of an instructor approaching an online cours e effectively by using guided learning techniques are surfacing. These approaches would encourage the students and their peers to absorb and discuss the information together in social learning situations with a reduction in traditional instructional techni ques that come from face to face class structures. One of the main focal points of guided learning is the development of implementation techniques that encou rage metacognition in students and encourage their own ability to understand a subject in regards t o their strongest learning style. With so much emphasis placed on a student's self direction, J. Gal Ezer and D. Lupo in "Integrating Internet Tools" and P. Hodson et al in "Can Computer based Learning Support Adult Learners" believe that the effectiveness of distance learning approaches depend s more on the nature of the learners' ability for self studying, ability to integrate well with (online) tutors and the overall discipline that is required of learners and tutors in the distance learning program ( Gal Ezer and Lupo 327 ; Hodson et al. 328 ).

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! 15 Hugues Choplin agrees in The Three Figures of Research on Distance Education stating The movement of interaction, communication, and learning or exchange of knowledge between students and the instructor is key to discover and encourage each student s particular learning style ( 23 ) By stepping into the role of facilitator, an instructor can manage this movement. In their work "Mediators of the Effectiveness of Online Courses" Raquel Benbunan F ich et al explore the idea of a multidirectional communication (constructivist) process where students take an active role in the construction of their own knowledge through discussions and interaction with others (299 ) This approach would encourage students to take charge and engage in the way that they learn best and feel most comfortable In this project individual student's metacognition was taken into consideration and the c oncept of providing information simultaneously in more than on e way seems like an idea to explore. For instance, the information in a weekly subject could be delivered as a instructio nal video as well as in written form giving the students more than one option to absorb the material A student could choose to utilize the way that suits them better. Looking ahead, even more varieties of subject deliverables can be devised. The real challenge with this idea is the amount of creativity and trial and error will be needed The importance of social engagement in learning a nd the lack thereof in distance learning is another pertinent issue for contemporary higher education to consider It is so much more complicated than many of the other issues mentioned because almost all of the other issues effect or are affected by social engagement. Diane P. Janes discusse s the problem with the assumption that most teaching techniques used in face to face learning will work with online learning, and found it leads to most common mistakes made by

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! 16 instructors when creating an onli ne course (73 ) The largest two topics that a ffect social engagement are the use of technologies and any particular student's ability to self direct and manage their learning. As Victoria MacArthur explained Technology enhanced distance learning has the potential to benefit the learner beyond the curriculum, by providing tools that support the individual and personalization (16 ). So, almost eve ry discussion of a vailable technology and its use mentions how the technology can improve a student s sense of social engagement. Many sources that talk about self dire cted learning and metacognition mention how the delivery technology is of utmost importance. It's very apparent to instructors and professionals how important the social qualities of a dis tance course are. Gila Kurtz in "Integrating a Facebook Grou p and a Course Website" expands on the use of social networking platforms such as Facebook and how it could be used to engage students (254) The concepts all revolve around the idea that students are already familiar with the platform and could easily participate The depth of this subject is immense and largely doesn't apply to this paper. A summation of the information leads to an educated guess that most universities and academic institutions a re hesitant to use social platforms geared for personal use because Facebook and other social networking formats are unregulated or unaffiliated with the institutions and this could create liability issues The lack of control and limited moderation capabi lities of a third party platform could affect the instructor's ability to guide the course There were fewer sources addressing these ideas than expected and even fewer that mention designing online educational platforms that are approved to incorporate f eatures from these social networking formats Newer and more up to date online education software platforms are incorporating workflows that mime

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! 17 more common social networking platforms so possibly the need to use Facebook or other social media platforms is not so important The last major issue that is addressed in the literature collected for this project is the importance of support systems. A support system is a method of encouragement and instruction for the skills needed to effectively participate i n an online co urse. When a student begins to participate in an online course there are any number of things that could prevent them from engaging fully or to discourage them. Most of these things don't ha ve to do with the course subject but with technical ities with the course delivery methods. This could include use of the online learning software platform, use of a computer's microphone and camera, how to connect to any video conferencing platforms, or an outline of ground rules that encourage any social interactions during the course to remain on topic and positive. A particular subject such as audio engineering may also require the use of certain industry tools or software that need to have support materials provided. At some point we can ask what cont ent the instructor can provide in regards to support systems. There is an expansive position that instructors should initiate the course with a definition of an online collaborative learning community and explain its purposes and expectations to motivate learners to sustain online learning collaboration throughout the course (Tu 54 ) Mostly these ideas expand on the topic of ground rules and their success at eliminating confusion or deer in headlight mentalities that could prevent students from moving forward when self studying. A number of scholars in the literature review discuss ho w a department or an institution as a whole can provide the best support systems. Also, there are many who express the value of an online learning advisor in a particular department, or in the institution as a whole. In this role, an advisor

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! 18 would be avail able to personally walk students through the skills needed to participat e effectively in online learning environments. Relationships of Work Each piece of work in this body of literature relates to each other in more than one way, but the largest way bei ng in their motives. Nearly every piece of literature had the same agenda in improving online courses in a way that allows online courses to be perceived as effective and enjoyable as face to face course s. Most of the issues addressed in the c urrent scholarship deal with communication and translation, such as t he question of how instructors and instructional designers can create online courses and support systems that can change student's concept of online courses. The pieces of literature that sp eak more generally each mentioned the importance of an instructor's design of a course and their role as being more of a facilitator of the learning process as opposed to a traditional design and role. A student is usually working so independently in a distan ce course that an instructor's interaction is most efficient in this way. The role of facilitator allows an instructor to more effectively guide the process and path that the student follows when learning on their own. Other scholarly conversations are abo ut specific methods of social learning techniques utilizing technology and other types of media and their effectiveness pointing at addressing the widespread impression of online courses by students that they are less effective as in person courses. Literature on the subject of either synchronous or asynchronous social interaction speak of possible benefits of one or the other, or of how they could be combined in the same course to the greatest effect. The use of some synchronous videoconference style

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! 19 lectures or discussions by the instructor is discussed by D. Randy Garrison and Martha Cleveland Innes in "Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning" as being necessary for students to feel a better connection to the instructor. Possible synchron ous demonstrations of skills would be helpful as well, especially for courses with subjects that are more hands on. The instructor p roviding a visual guide to a skill set can help student s develop a stronger connection to the instructor. Demonstrations could be asynchronous as well, but the idea of live streamed demonstr ations with comment based inquiry and interaction i s a way to accomplish the demonstration and develop the instructor and students relationships at the same time Corners c an be cut by the instructor in their design of synchronous interaction in a course but that extra personal interaction provided by the synchronous demonstration adds some connection between the instructor and students and every little bit adds up. The wo rk by Garrison and Cleveland Innes in "Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning" and Clark et al in "Comparing asynchronous and synchronous video vs. text based discussions" led to th is study's defense of including live streamed demonstrations with real time comment based inquiry in the course design. For teaching an online course in a subject that is very hands on such as audio engineering, ideas of hybridizing in the course design with both synchronous an d asynchronous media seems to be the mo st well rounded and forward thinking. Encouraging a student's metacognition is probably the most difficult subject that is discussed by throughout the studies on online learning. There is no single way to encourage student s to explore what typ e of learner they are and no single way to encourage thi s in an online course. In an in person course the teacher can adapt for students individually or in groups directly through the discussion that happens naturally

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! 20 in a classroom though questions and o ther interactions. Combinations of synchronous and asynchronous media along with text based communication, used together to relay the material in an online course will cover more bases with it's variety in regards to the variety of learnin g styles that a student body could present. The correct combination of methods can change dependi ng on the course or the particular group of students One of the greatest difficulties in guiding students through an online course comes from the fact that without creating effective contact, instructors can't assume what a student is feeling, struggling with, or how they're interpreting information Simple text based questions via email or discussion forums work, but the same text can be interpreted in many ways and ideas c an be missed or misunderstood Some personal interaction must be incorporated to realize what adaptations need to be made on a student or group basis. Not only does hybridizing the instructor's contact a ffect a student s interpretation of course material, but the hybridized approach of student's interaction with other students can keep them on track. Clark et al discussed the social benefits of synchronous video interactions as well as providing the ability to make and view asynchronous video and text posts on a discussion forum (49 ). This scholar's discussion centered around finding a combination of these elements that would service the students appropriate ly and change their impression of the effectiveness of the online course. Identified Gaps The largest gap that became apparent in the process of designing an innovative online audio engineering co urse was the lack of hard data collected from experimentati on with a hybridized course. With online education becoming so prominent in the current higher education system in the United States, there is a need to improve the overall

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! 21 method of delivery for online content Instructors teaching in an online format reg ularly make changes to their implementation but this only provide s the results of smaller or partial changes that are implemented in an old and prev iously designed course Not many instructors or professionals in the subject of audio engineering outline entire course structures and how many different innovative concepts would interact and overlap. For the most part, the many how to pieces of literature available addressing online course design stick to "tried and true" concepts and don't encourag e as much innovation Experiments in course designs that ar e fundamentally different, are geared for change from the beginning of their design are needed. This way online course design can incorporate much larger and rooted concepts that so many of these papers are discussing. There is no way that real moment forward can happen without instructors braving the untested and encouraging institutions to promote it. Another gap discovered in the body of literature on distance learning is in the rarity of resea rch paper s or experiment s that discuss support syste ms at the departmental and intuitional levels, not just support systems provided by the instructor for a specific course. At some point, hard data needs to be collected to help institutions and their spec ific departments update and fundamentally change their policies and course styles. The idea of a n institutional or departmental support system is very important for students to be able to get the most out of a course and would create consistencies with fut ure online courses they might enroll in They would also enable the instructor to provide the most subject material they can by alleviating the need for them to spend part of the term providing general online course mechanics. Convincing a n institution o r educational department to create new roles within

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! 22 them, roles that might cost money, is a battle that could be very difficult and take time Documented attempts that outline decisions, compromises, things that worked, and things that didn't work in encou raging a department or institution to adapt would be very helpful for any institution looking to experiment with new techniques in online learning Institutions generally have campus wide technology services and IT, but when it comes to the improvement of an indivi dual student's perspective of an individual course, something more close to home, such as a departmental advisor a nd instructor working together needs to be developed. This affords a more personal relationship to happen The hypoth etical questions surrounding this subject have been asked in several studies but little to no implementable concepts have been described to help an instructor to try something new along these lines. In general concepts and theories on distance learning pr oblems, the studies and information are relatively extensive but m any research studies are done with a focus on specific subjects and how online learning can serve them The importance of taking successes and failures in new ideas based in specific subject s and translating them to be used in a broader sense is presently a gap in the current scholarship. Research into online lea rning in relation to a specific discipline infrequently include s an outlook into how the ideas they explored reach beyond their fiel d This is the gap that hurts the specific subject of audio engineering. Many articles for instance, published in Au dio Engineering Society conference papers address teaching specific skills, software, acoustics, electronics, and more but very little present general online teaching concepts that apply specifi cally to audio. As a very hands on subject, audio engineering would benefit most from a hybridized online and local group project design This approach h as not been actively

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! 23 explored or presented i n the teaching community. Further Research Areas The scholarly conversation surrounding the s ubject of distance learning is extensive and wide ranging. These subjects: student perspectives, metacognition in students, technological advances, instructor r oles, guided learning, social learning and engagement styles, and course su pport systems are being actively explored by many scholars in the field In regards to the focus of this p roject and perspectives into innovative online course design, more hard data from experimentation must be collected to make further conclusions. The project at hand present s a model for a course design and considers how innovative course design concepts could come together to su pport the learning environment of audio engineering. This project is only a first step to implement ing an innovative online audio enginee ring course and the document ation that should follow. In regards to the subject of audio engineering there is very l ittle research existing on the most ef fective ways to teach the hands on and technical skills needed to operate a recording studio in an online setting Instructional videos on software and on recording techniques are abundant but many students have a har d time grasping the concepts fully without actually doing the engineering work with their own hands, hearing the results, and all the while doing so within a social and collaborative environment. An institution offering a program to teach audio engineering must provide the best learning experience possible in order to have the highest quality education al experience for the students. In audio engineering, inf ormation can be gathered online, such as through YouTube video s, and it can show you how to accomplis h something but with audio concepts the why is

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! 24 most important and elusive for beginners. The value of hands on experience peer to peer, and student to instructor interaction is so great that it can make or break a student's opinion of an online course or program.

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! 25 CHAPTER III RESEARCH RESULTS AND COURSE DESIGN General Distance Learning Concepts Distance learning is not a new concept and has been attempted to varying degrees of success for decades, even before the invention of the Internet, which has now become the primary source of interaction. While advances in technology have pushed the methods of distance learning forward in its delivery, the concepts behin d why it's done, the way it's done, and what aspects are deemed successful or unsucce ssful are still being challenged. Course design, whether online or in person, can be a complicated task when looking to improve the experience, not only in general but also in specifics to the subject at hand. Briefly we will discuss some of the broad categories of thought in course design pertaining to online courses touching on, student perspectives, technological advances, the importance of metacognition in students, styles of guided learning and social engagement, support systems, the why of it all, and a few other more general ideas. To start, a look at why online courses are important and becoming more important moving forward. The appeal is greatest when looking a t an online course as a way to educate when traditional education techniques don't suit the situation or student. More and more students are pursuing lives or careers that don't allow or encourage the traditional attendance of college. The age differences of students are also widening and more students are choosing newer or less traditional careers that might be better and more efficiently learned in a flexible format. For working students or students with families it goes without saying that the flexibilit y of an online course is appealing (Smith Jaggars 29 ). Flexibility is still to this day one of the biggest reasons a student would pick an

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! 26 online course over a face to face course Audio engineering in particular falls into this category of non traditional learning. The importance of having the flexibility to allow a st udent to be working, holding an internship, or participating in a hands on fashion in the industry while in school cannot be played down. There are many aspiring engineers that enter the in du stry without going for a degree and begin with involvement directly through internships and other similar positions. Allowing students to have the flexibility to compete with these other people helps give them a leg up. Much research has looked into what perspective students have on online courses and what they think of the m compared to face to face courses. The research's results tend ed to show that they don't take online courses because they believe it will be a better learning experience, but that there is another driving force that makes an online course necessary, such as personal time constrain ts, avoidance of a commute, etc (Smith Jaggars 29 ) In a 2013 survey conducted by Public Agenda, community college students, it was found that less than a thi rd of American adults (29 percent) thought the educational value of online courses was equal to that of classroom learning" (Public Agenda 3 ) This may play into why students tend to take only classes they perceive as "easy" in the online format (Smith Jaggars 33 ). There are three very common reasons why a student would have a negat ive opinion of online learning. Firstly, there is the widespread opinion that online education suffers from a lack of personal interaction from peers as well as the instruct or. Additionally, Bork and Rucks in "Role Ambiguity in Online Courses" point ed to the fact that many students have difficulties handling their self directed learning and time management (9). Richard E. West also points out that s ome students perceive

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! 27 "( receiving ) the materials for a course in formats that are indirect from the instructor and their peers as an information overload ( 139 ) Most likely the few students who believe that an online course is the better way to learn a subject are the few whom h ave a handle on these issues. Looking at the specific subject of the course in question, a student may also believe that the subject area of a course would be a bad fit for online learning, or that the subject would be too difficult in the on line format (S mith Jaggars 32 ) Negative reasons aside, there are also positive reasons the students perceive for why they would prefer to take a face to face course These as Hill et al. point out, include a sense of stronger connection to the campus, i nstructor, and peers ( 90 ). The areas that a traditional face to face course completely trumps online learning tend to be in these social areas. Putting theses impressions together it seems that social interaction, technological skills, course subject compatibility, and the ability of a student to manage their own learning are big points to address when thinking about an online course. Taking all those concepts in, the appeal of an online course is still largely driven by convenience, not by an idea that it is a better f ormat for learning. If many of these issues could be tackled or improved upon the effectiveness of an online lea rning format could provide the conveniences and rival a face to face learning format in quality With distance learning becoming more and more important, ra ising this bar is also more and more important. One of the first questions that come to mind when preparing to improve the design of an online course is one about what techniques with the technology and delivery of the course are helping or h indering these problems. What aspects of design and implementation can be changed to increase a student's idea that the quality of an online

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! 28 course is comparable to a face to face course? It has been said that t echnology enhanced distance learning has the potential to benefit the learner beyond the curriculum, by providing tools that support the individual and personalization ( %&'&()*+(!&,-!./,0&, 16 ). Acknowledging this in beginning the design of an online course you need to take a look at the technolog y and methods of delivery available to you, how they would support the specific subject of the course and how they would do as Ian W. Gibson describes to create a soc ial presence addressing student to instructor, student to content, and student to st udent interactions" (43 ). Lastly, it is important to consider how to connect it all in a way that a ccommodates the largest variety of learning styles and encourages the student's metacognition (West 138 ). As far as technology goes, most Universities have a required online teaching/learning platform such as Blackboard, Canvas, or eCompanion. There will most likely be a limit on what technologies you can require the students to provide on their own, such as a computer, microphone, camera, hard drive storage, etc. When you figure out the technological res trictions you must operate within yo u can start to design the course to accommodate the subject as well as move forward on how to connect the students with the instructor, content, and fellow students. Moving forward in designing an effective online course can be near impossible without a complete knowledge of the tools at hand. The tools provide the method of delivering everything else, the methods to be used creatively. The use to which the instructor puts the technology will then guide the social interaction s throughout the course and the student s ability to self manage their learning. An online course that implements the technology in a way that maximizes social

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! 29 interaction between all involved parties c reates a new level of accountability. Press ure to participate with peers on group projects and interact with the instructor in certain assignments and demonstrations creates this. But the pressure can create anxiety in some students so some level of choice must be available in these interactions as well as a sense of self regulation or pacing (Hill 98 ). By providing adequate synchronous social interactions alongside asynchronous media and text containing relevant information, more bases are covered in ter ms of learning styles. There is the ability for the course material to be absorbed socially, as well as independently, as well as demonstrated. This would create variety in the course and help encourage the student s ability to be independent and confident users of information technology, capable of collaborative and innovative practice (Gibson 51 ). Another idea, t he idea of the instructor s role throughout the course, must also be challenged to push the quality online courses further. Communal learning, or a constructivist view of learning seems to come to mind when looking at all of these issues regarding social interaction, learning styles, and a students metacognition. As a communication process, teaching can be conceived as a one way transm ission of concepts from instructors to students (objectivist), or as a multidirectional communication process where students take an active role in the construction of their own knowledge (constructivist) through discussion s and interaction with others ( B enbunan Fich and Hiltz 299 ) One particular study from Richard J. Fendler show s that t here is no real difference in quantitative results of a online course vs. a face to face course (119) Meaning, the students who have a high GPA still maintain a high GPA, and students with a low GPA still maintain a low GPA This is one example of a study that

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! 30 addresses the idea that a focus on the quantitative results of a course is not the only important part. There is an equal importance in the qualitative experienc e of the class to the students A Public Agenda survey claims Online classes may not serve all students equally well. In particular, those who are already struggling to keep up with their college work are more likely to drop out of online classes t han classes taught face to fac e" ( 2 ) Very few research studies have analyzed how qualitative design changes, as opposed to quantitative, effect the student's experience and academic outcome Thus Garrison stated a qualitative (and constructivist) dimension ( must be) introduced where interaction is seen as communication with the intent to influence thinking in a critical and r eflective manner ("Facilitating Cognitive Presence" 134 ) Then a way to survey this implementation must be devised. Interaction in such an environment goes beyond social interaction and the simple exchange of information. According to Garrison et al in "Critical Thinking" a community of inquiry must include various combinations of intera ction among content, teachers, and stud ents ( 21 ). The traditional teacher on a pedestal talking down to the class cannot continue when designing new online course formats. Also, the idea that student can only construct their own understanding as an individ ual independent from others cannot continue in online courses. Commenting on constructivist ideas in education Lefford and Berg stated that, children don't get ideas, they make ideas. Moreover, constructionism suggest that learners are particularly likel y to make new ideas when they are actively engaged in making some type of external artifact which they can ref lect upon and share with others ( 6 ) The feeling of lack in social interaction with the instructor and peers being one of the most common complaints about online learning holds a lot of weight in this John Holt Merchant

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! 31 commented on this idea specifically with the subject of audio engineering education, "how is fairly straightforward the stuff of users' manuals; wh y, on the other hand, can be more difficult to explain and comprehend (2 ) He continues to explain, m ixing draws on artistic and technological awareness and requires that students be reasonably accomplished at multiple aspects of production, which is why static texts about mixing are often frustratingly incomplete ( 2 ) Audio engineering leans even harder towards collaborative and constructivist education styles. Constructivist approaches [ that ] present learning as a social process that takes place throug h communication with others should be the wave of its future ( Benbunan Fich 299 ) To implement this idea the instructor must become more of a facilitator than a lecturer, focusing on providing and encouraging [ facilitating ] the students development of knowledge through their design of the social construct of the class ( Benbunan Fich 299 ) A creative use of the combination of synchronous and asynchronous media and text content would enable this facilitation. To sum this up i t can be said that, Teachers are no longer the repositories of all knowledge the gatekeeper standing in front of a teacher centered classroom. They are facilitators of learning, project managers, and research assistants. They work in partnerships [ wit h students ] (Gibson 51 ) You can imagine that all of this would be hard to coordinate and set in place all at once, the preparation of a course that pushes boundaries in all these various ways is a daunting task that takes a lot of preparation and even s ome trial and error with implementation. One thing that can really help with establishing a great basis for online education in a department of an institution is it s development of online learning support systems for the specific class, for the department, and the instituti on itself. Starting with

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! 32 the cou rse design and instructor first, there should be both written and multimedia content providing instruction and ground rules for the metho dology used in the cou rse. Material to explain how to use the require d software/hardware and the social and participatory roles and expectations of the course should be provided as simply as possible. The department should create or adapt an advisory position or at least a knowledge base on how the cou rses are designed. For example, the creation of simple tutorial videos on the online delivery platform and how to access all of it's functions, as well as more specific troubleshooting information could be a great help. The institution itself, if uniform in many guidelines and technology used, could also provide resources to assist the students. Possibly the campus bookstore could have resources. Each level of support system be it per class or up at the institution level need to be accessible and highly personal Students can range in experience using web based multimedia communications and online systems for education, so the assumption must be made that there will be a need for f urther information on the basic tools in online education. Adding a level of personal intera ction can really help online students become excited and stay motivated. Providing an advisory contact in the department and in orientation, someone that can be contacted specifically about issues related to online coursework would very much help. This adv isor would be trained to coach students in a more general fashion about online courses, and address learning styles and iss ues with technology (Janes 77 ). An advisor that personally works with students in a traditional sense helps give a student a greater sense of belonging and personal connection with the campus and department, there is no reason why the advisor's communication with an

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! 33 online learner would have any different effect than communication with an on campus learner It may seem like a lot of wor k to get the instructors and a department online advisor up to speed, but the familiarity of the faculty involved with the tools available is of utmost importance. Online courses in a department can only move forward in credibility and value if the faculty is willing to take charge of the technology and through them empower the students to take charge of it as well. The last topic to address in this section of the paper is how the ideas of online learning apply to audio engineering. The subject of Audio En gineering, being a skill set that is largely hands on and the why behind technique being frequently evasive is a subject that is of utmost importance to demonstrate the skills on top of presenting written material. The "how" can be much easier to grasp th an the "why" in most cases with audio engineering. Proper demonstrations with explanations and hands on projects are great facilitators of the "why." Demonstrations can be done with proper use of video media, synchronous and asynchronous together. A combin ation of short instructional videos and periodic synchronous demonstrations of hands on technique with the software and equipment is completely possible Although, d epending on what online delivery platform you have available, how you would effectively imp lement these support materials could vary greatly. For an online course offered to students that are o n campus or local only, most likely as an alternative to a face to face version of the class, in person group work can still be assigned The students of the group though receiving class information and interaction predominantly, coordinate times to meet and use the recording facilities on campus together for their group projects. This face to fa ce time with their small group for

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! 34 projects woul d add a lot to their learning experience and create familiarity with the group members that they would be communicating with in online interactions. They would have met their group members in person and can connect the person to the online collaborative wo rk more strongly. We're going to focus on this type of hybridized online course, one for local students as an alternative to a face to face course. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Multimedia The ideas behind synchronous or asynchronous interaction and use of media in online courses are still being explored. The use of either is touted as a good thing, but there are many w ays each can become cumbersome, boring, or ineffective. Each piece of material presented in one of these formats must convince studen ts of its weight and importance. They require discipline in students to watch or listen through the content extensively, or in the case of synchronous interaction, make the time to participate. First and foremost, the use of non synchronou s media is the norm. Most commonly, various instructional videos, recorded podcasts, documents or other files containing visual and written examples and instruction are used. Asynchronous forms of communication are also the norm, such as email, bulletin bo ard posts, text discussions, etc. With audio engineering in particular, you might think that audio examples or cues would be very important, and they are but when designing an online course that teaches largely hands on skill sets, such as microphone tech nique and the use of audio pr ocessing and recording software video content can deliver the best results. Many scholars have investigated the positive effects of video content as a course content delivery method. P atricia Baggett in "Role of Temporal Over lap" did a study to present r esearch on the use of dynamic instructional video containing both audio and

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! 35 visual content and found that learners not only prefer video, but gain a deeper underst anding of the mate rial ( 414). The encouragement of use has driven video to become a predominant delivery format for learning. As Kristen Purcell notes, i n 2009, video became the 3 rd largest format for learning, reaching 38% o f adult Internet users ( 2 ) The design of instructional vi deo for audio engineering courses would benefit from some of the common ideas in content creation but also from the use of ideas such as segmentation and the use of visual cues or signals to highlight the important concepts contained. Ibrahim et al. state that Long videos or videos that contain complex topics while providing no assistance to students in understanding the content can be problematic ( 161 ). In "Optimizing Instructional Video for Preservice Teachers in an Online Technology Integration Course Ibrahim et al. divided the surveyed students into three groups, one with shorter segmented videos, and videos containing cues or indicators of the important concepts, and then another with longer videos containing no cues (163 ) In this experiment all students were also encourage d to follow a self paced engagement of the material. The results supported the researcher s theory; the scores of the students with the segmented and cued videos were much higher than the students with longer videos a nd no cues. The nature of segmented, shorter videos also encourages the learner's ability to self pace their learning. The shorter videos give the learner pauses between each and the time can either be used to reflect or rest, reducing mental stress that would be th ere if they were watching a longer video providing a larger cognitive load. Whether a student

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! 36 has a short to long attention span, this method is adaptable. Segmentation can also allow the instructor to use shorter videos as supplementary material to any c oursework. Supplementa ry material can be accessed as needed by the student, as opposed to only when the material is first presented. They can find the particular short video with the material they need at the moment. To investigate the importance of supple mental multimedia in an online course, Nathan B. Miller aimed t o "analyze the correlation between student access of supplemental multimedia and final grades and to investigate the mean difference of final grades at different levels of supplemental multimed ia access," showed supportive results (242 ) There were four categories of supplemental video content: instructor created, publisher created, other sources (Youtube, streaming, etc.), and overall access of all three. After collecting the data from his stud y involving each of these types of multimedia and how a student's success was a ffected by each in a course, Miller stated If a student accessed at least 25% of the course supplemental multimedia, he/she will likely have a higher final grade than a student that does not ( 249 ). The diffe rent learning styles students may have present other challenge s and as effective as educational use of video is, it is still advisable to present the material in varied formats, easiest being written and diagramed explana tion. The differences in student's learning styles is one of the larger issues when delivering online coursework because so much of the success of the student is based on their ability to self motivate and self direct their own learning. As mentioned before, the students with a highly developed sense of metacognition will always do better in a self directed course. Another accompaniment to segmented and cued instructional video is the

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! 37 encouragement or requirement of comment ba sed reflection or discussion on the cont ent in the video. Gila Kurtz claims that t he idea of social knowledge, knowledge learned through actions or interactions and collaboration with people should be included alongside asynchronous media in online learn ing ( 254 ). The lack of face to face learning needs to be addressed in the best way possible in an online course to create a social learning environment, and the best way is to create multiple ways that students must engage with each other, the content, and the instructor. Some may seem redundant but the variety provides the best chances that students will participate adequately. Theorizing how exactly to engage asynchronous media in the practice of collaborative and social learning in an online course is t he next step. Social reflection is one way to do this, and the most effective way is to do it with smaller groups. After the creation of student groups, they would be required to reflect as a group in some way upon the topic(s). There would be an agenda cr eated by the instructor for each meeting the groups would have. This would be important to keep students on track. One example of an assignment could be for them to develop a first draft to distribute or discuss with the group, and after receiving feedback produce a final draft. As Tu and Corry explain This collaboration involves students in three rich learning processes: preparing a first draft, providing constructive feedback, and preparing a final revision, utilizing the comments of peers ( 55 ). This technique is by no means a new one, but experimentation still needs to be done on the frequency this type of assignment throughout a course. Going through this process is a longer time commitment and would need to be fitted practically into a course design Combining this process with asynchronous video content could possibly have greater results. To produce the best potential results one could take the study by Ibrahim

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! 38 et al. s howing the results of shorte r segmented and cued videos, and the positive correlation of supplemental multimedia content on student s grades found by Miller and combine them with these ideas of social learning. This is the technique that is implemented in the online audio engineering course designed in this paper. With audio engineering in particular there are many critical listening aspects. Social reflection on listening experiences and characteristics would benefit greatly through the use of multimedia and social knowledge concepts. The first draft, discussion/reflection, f inal draft method would work amazingly well when presenting asynchronous media content to guide groups in preparation for practical group or individual projects in the creation of recordings or mixes of recordings. The media could be absorbed, each student theorizes the way forward in the project, they reflect as a group on their ideas, and then the final decisions would be made to move forward. Live Online Demonstrations The use of "live" media content is coined as synchronous instruction or interaction. There have been many instances where research has been done on the effectiveness of synchronous content in online courses and the effectiveness of asynchronous (not live) online content, and even some into a hybridization of the two D. Randy Garrison and Martha Cleveland Innes stated that there are t hree very important types of interaction in an online course are learner instructor, learner content, and learner learner ( "Facilitating Cognitive Presence" 134 ). A fully asynchronous online course provides all three of these interactions through pre made and prepared lectures, content, and organized non real time communications (email, discussion boards, etc.). A fully synchronized class would deliver the bulk of these interactions through live feed

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! 39 RSS audi o podcasts, large and small group videoconferences, and video lectures. For the most part, only supplementary materials are provided in asynchronous written, audio, or video formats. A combination of the two could be any of the characteristics of each comb ined in the way the course designer or instructor would like them. Hybridization provides the most flexibility for students and allows the instructor to tailor the course design more specifically to fit the requirements of the course delivery tools and cou rse subject. There are many examples and benefits of how a combination synchronous/asynchronous online course can be put together. Throughout the advent of purely online learning, there have been a number of issues that have come up over and over again, and solutions are found through experience and flexibility. The number of research studies that have been conducted on interactivity and it's value in online courses shows that education practitioners and researchers have always been concerned with how much interactivity a distance course could or should provide for students, since interaction can be considered a necessary ingredient fo r a successful learning experie nce First and foremost, Benjamin Kehrwald explains that the ideas behind adding synchronous content to an online course stem from the idea that asynchronous technology can create social and psychological distance between p arties and exacerbate the feeling of a lacking social presence (90 ) M. Collins and K.L Murphy note that t he definition of social presence in an online course is debatable, but key aspects include a sense of individuals' abilities to perceive others through their mediated interactions ( 3 ). Likewise, P.L. McLeod et al. and Rourke et al. focus on the degree of "tangibility and proximity" of others within a communicative situation and their ability to project

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! 40 themselves both socially and emotionally in a community (708 ). Secondly, there are ideas of the importance of collaborative lea rning. T. Panitz defines c ollaborative learning clarifying that In all situations where people come together in groups, it suggests a way of dealing with people, which respects and highlights individual group members' abilities and contributions. There is a sharing of authority and acceptance of responsibility among gr oup members for the group's actions (1 ). As K.B. Gerdy adds "Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated; sharing one's ideas and responding to others' (ideas) improves thinking and deepens un derstanding" ( 10 ) In collaborative learning there can also be a situation where "instructors shift their authority t o the learners" (Tu and Corey 52 ). An instructor becomes more of a guiding force than a traditional "standing on a pedestal" lecturer, guiding the groups th rough the milestones of the course content but allowing their interactions and sharing of ideas to drive the subject home. The instructor should push to create advancement in regards to this includes an enabling of students to think a bit more outside the box to problem solve, collaborate, and think a bit more think abstractly along with others and to seek creative solutions. With the rise of the Internet information is accessible all the time and g iven the speed at which pertinent information may be retrieved, for some learners it is difficult to comprehend that several reliable sources and possibly multiple viewpoints are required to masterfully understand complex problems; and furthermore, that understanding is something that develops over ti me with reflection" (Lefford 2 ). These complex problems and concepts that require a great deal of visualization, such as audio signal flow, benefit from collaborative reflection. To really acquire the broad perspectiv e mastery that a subject or skill set needs, on e must engage

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! 41 with peers, from beginners to masters. Audio has many aspects that benefit the most in this way. Adding onto the idea that a fundamental change in the role of an instructor, an instructor's role must be redefined by looking at what instructo r interactions and teaching presence are in an online course. As A.G. Picciano explains, Interaction by itself does not presume that one is engaged in a process of inquiry and (th at a) cognitive presence exists, w hereas teaching presence is important for the creation and sustainability of a community of inquiry focused on the exploratio n, integration, and testing of c oncepts and solutions ( 33 ). New technology and advancements into synchronous presentations have allowed many of these fundamental changes in a instructor's role to happen, an instructor can more easily encourage and mediate the collaborative and creative discussions and projects without being face to face The changes in social presence, collaborative learning, and an instructor's role in an o nline course stem from, and lead right back to, the subject of communication tools. Synchronous communication tools are becoming much better at engaging students. One study found that courses that included instructor video casting, compared to courses that did not use video casting, students were able to overcome the sense of being at a distance from the instructor ( H. Han 254 ). The use of video casting helped this study's participants to engage in meaningful interactions with the instructor and peers to minimize what was discu ssed as transactional distance. Video conferencing is becoming the foremost way to e mploy synchronous interaction i n the form of a video lecture or l arge and small group conferences. Online course delivery software, such as Blackboard or Canvas, now have built in capabilities for video conferencing as well as all of the usual asynchronous

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! 42 interaction capabilities. Other than these there are many differ ent pieces of software such as Skype, Adobe Connect, Google Hangouts, and others that offer easy to use video conferencing. Audio podcasting has had and still has a presence but as Alan Cann points out in his study specifically on the benefits of audio podcasts Audio podcasting and the RSS subscription model in particular is severely limited in its acceptability and hence its utility to many student consumers, whereas short YouTube style videos have very broad acceptance and offer a muc h richer format for instruction ( 5 ). This is most likely because of the popul arity and familiarity of YouTube style videos in every aspect of people s lives, not just learning environments. The effectiveness of the technology in synchronously engaging students pivots upon the instructor s creative use for a particular course. A small class where you can have smaller groups online at a time would benefit more from a discussion type videoconference Whereas, a larger class may be better off with a live video lecture and a creative way for the instructor to answer real time questions by "calling on" students that indicate they have a question. Many types of videoconferencing software have a function for this. The most efficient group size for promoting task oriented inte ractions during synchronous discussions is between two and three members as the smaller size allows members to participate equally (Tu and McIssac 145 ). Mediating a discussion with 10+ people with microphones and cameras could easily get out of hand and b ecome unmanageable. Groups can have their own "break out" videoconferences as well and the instructor can drop in to mediate and keep everyone on task and answer questions. Exploration on how to incorporate synchronous interaction is still happening and t here is no single type of use, but it must be tailored to the specific course and educational tools

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! 43 provided to students and instructors within an institution. Success in implementing an online course that utilizes all of these varieties of engagement and interaction in part or in whole, very much depends on the instructor and student's ability to use the technologies effectively. This list of simple questions wa s devised by Ian Gibson in At the Intersection of T echno logy and Pedagogy: Considering Styles of L earning and T eaching to help an instructor prepare for a course that wil l utilize a variety of software and technologies: 1. How will students react to technology? 2. How will technology affect our concept of knowledge? 3. How will technology change the location for teaching and learning? 4. What type of new skills will students need to learn? 5. How will the technology change my classroom and my relationship with my students? 6. How will technology impact upon the accou ntability for achievement i n my classroom? 7. How does this technology work? 8. How much time is needed to get ready to use the technology in the classroom? 9. How will the technology change my teaching style? 10. What kind of classroom management problems may occur if I use tec hnology? (39) You can see that this list is comprehensive and the questions would answer most of the needed topics for you to develop your course Like designing any face to face course online courses take much time and focus to develop correctly. Coming up with the best methods of using technology to engage the students effectively might actually add a deal more preparation. So the preproduction for the course is a tad more, but once t he course is in progress it would most likely take less time per week of the instructor's time. A properly design course following many of the guidelines previously mentioned would allow the instructor to facilitate the students social and collaborative ex perience as opposed to many hours of lecture style presentations. The proper and creative uses of the

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! 44 technologies that are available are what enable this approach. The many ideas about the effects and experiences of synchronous, asynchronous, and hybridi zed online courses lean towards a hybridized approach being the most well rounded route. Synchronous demonstrations of skills would contribute to the courses ad aptability to students varied learning styles, and also provide a more full spectrum of social i nteraction for a student the best of both worlds, with the instructor and peers. One major hiccup that could arise is unfamiliarity with the tools of interaction by the instructor or the students. As Arbaugh addressed the subject around the fact that for many students who attend asynchronous online programs the developmental process involved in understanding and becoming a participatory learner is a completely new experience ( 171 ). This could be said about any format of online learning because distance lea rning courses in any format are fundamentally different than face to face courses. This could be tech nological. A hybridization study by Linda C. Yamagata Lynch found that (one) reason why students were apprehensive about the synchronous meetings stemmed from difficulties they had or they heard about from colleagues in other courses related to s ynchronous meeting technologies" ( 198 ). An institution could provide workshops to teach the basic use of the technology. The instructor could also create or use off icial tutorial content that could be provided along with course materials online. To give a student who is new to online courses a firmer grasp and feeling of solidarity, the instructor should set up ground rules and a class centered support system of tuto rials outlining the intended use of th e tools. The questions compiled by Ian Gibson mentioned before lead you along preparing so lutions to most of these issues (39 ). One of the students that participated in Yamagata Lynch 's study about the flexibility

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! 45 of a hybridized course in addressing various learning styles provided some insight "he saw how some of the other students prefer asynchronous communications, unlike him, and while working to comprehensively participate in cl ass (he) discovered that for him to get to know other course participants he needed to listen to them through both synchronous and asynchronous commun ications" ( 201) Different students will prefer one method of communication to another, but ultimately it would be guided by the projects and how the instructor decides to set the course structure up. To design an online audio engineering course that creates a highly social and collaborative environment, and that allows the instructor to mediate and guide the process of collaboration and development of ideas is the ultimate goal of this paper and potentially will work well. The flexibility of a hybridized design allows for different courses requiring different amounts of hands on learning, projects, and traditi onal memorization to function according to their needs. For the instructional material and communications with the instructor and fellow students, a computer, microphone, and basic camera like the ones built into most laptops now are all that are required and should be required for everything but the group projects. In audio engineering, there is a large amount of hands on material in learning the use of equipment and software, so there is very little you can do to avoid needed recording equipment and softw are for the projects. The course outlined in this paper is designed as an alternative to a course offered on campus and meant for students that are local. The use of the facilities of the institution and the degree program should be enough to provide what is needed for the projects. So, in this online course, synchronous methods and demonstrations could be utilized to prepare students to break out and try the techniques individually or in groups on campus.

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! 46 Many learners would benefit from the visuals and ex planations more than written direction, and feel more comfortable once they were in a school studio or recording/mixing space. The synchronous video content could also be recorded and watched again if needed. Remember, with such a variety of material in au dio courses adaptation and social interaction are the keys to providing the best distance learning experience. There is very little you can do without stressing this to students in order to provide the be st course Instructor Role and Cooperative Learning A focus on collaborative learning seems to be the theme that is intriguing about designing an online course in the field of audio engineering. With the lack of traditional lectures and classroom situations, online courses are wide open for experimentation with various forms of collaboration between the students and instructor. Presenting assignments and activities that shift the focus from learner teacher interactions to learner learner interactions, that are mediated by the instructor and the design of th e content, would cultivate a much more intimate and connected learning experience. The combined use of synchronous and asynchronous media content and the use of creative mediated projects would engage the students in a variety of ways, and hopefully would appeal to various learning styles. These ideas present a challenge when thinking about them in regards to an online audio engineering course because most skills required are hands on or in person collaborative works. A subject such as this needs to be analyzed not by quantitative means, suc h as grades and statistical information of student activity gained from online education software's data, but by qualitative means. In regards to instituting a mediat ed

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! 47 learner learner approach "A qualitative dimension is introduced where interaction is s een as communication with the intent to influence thinking in a critical and reflective manner (Garrison 134 ). This qualitative value becomes more obvious and visible to the students, and when the quality of the social aspect of content in an online cours e goes up, the quantitative, such as grades, will follow. In the publication, Teaching Statistics: A Comparison of Traditional Classroom and Programmed Instruction/Distance Learning Approaches Donna Harrington writes that that students who did well ac ademically, as measured by their grade point average, did well with the online course However, those who did not do well on their grade point average did not do well with online instruction ( 348 ). Such stu dies into the direct differences of quantitative information such as grades or grade point averages, in a traditional classroom and an online course have been done but there has been very little insight into how the qualitative aspects affect a student's success. Designing or redesigning online courses in an audio engineering program to increase student success, lends to a focus on qualitative ideas, largely because of the nature of the hands on studio and software experience needed, but also because face to face c ourses provide so much of their education with interactive social and hands on experience An online course would have to compete with that and provide social and han ds on interaction that holds up This online hybridized course would still require the mee ting of groups in person for projects or direct synchronous interaction online. The benefit being no standard class meeting times, just meetings that can be coordinated by the students when convenient, and the ability of most projects to be done collaborat ively or scheduled online. On top of that, t he instructor acting more as a facilitator with a

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! 48 hybridized synchronous/asynchronous course format would create the needed social and collaborative substance that an online section of a course would need to be a ble to compete with the face to face section. Audio Course Design Theories The course design will follow the traditional 16 week semester structure. It will have two quizzes, a midterm and final exam, 3 group projects, and a proficiency test on Pro Tools. There will also be four online group discussions, and a synchronous video demonstration by the instructor for each project. The subject material used in this demonstration of course design will be used to give a rough idea of an intermediate audio enginee ring cours e All specific course subject material and specifics are interchangeable; we're focusing mostly on the structure, implementation, and interaction that could apply to any subject matter in the area of audio engineering. The material will be prese nted in a highly peer to peer interactive way pointing toward an outcome of student dispositions including the organizational skills required to complete and document a recording project, as well as the ability to critique the audio production of professional audio recordings, and those of their own and fellow students that was pointed out by Lorne Bregitzer's ( 2 ). First, There are a couple broad issues that need to be addressed with des igning of an audio engineering o nline course. One difficult y is that audio engineering students enter into the programs with varied levels of experience, knowledge, and different backgrounds. This presented a significant challenge for the (instructors) as the curriculum had to engage both experienced and non expe rienced students and provide them all with the necessary tools and understanding to successfully progress into the higher levels of the course

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! 49 (Thompson 2 ). Moving forward with the structure of the course materials and subject matter has to take this into account. The projects and discussions must reflect and accommodate, at least a little, the needs of a variety of student backgrounds. This is mostly addressed in the preparation of the path through the coursework that the students m ust walk, making sure t here is no assumption made that could create gaps or jumps from one subject to another that would make the course difficult for students. Another difficulty is working with the limited amount of time students have to work in the campus' recording studio f acilities. Audio engineering is a subject that r equires skill and comfort with the tools, software, and recording environment. Studio production courses that don't provide adequate hands on time when teaching the process of recording don't effectively buil d the skill sets and confidence of students. Like many areas of study, audio engineering education requires a balance between learning and understanding so that students acquire both the knowledge base and skill sets to succeed (Merchant 2 ). A very thoug ht out idea of specific skill sets that are meant to be learned needs to be created. With the limited time and resources it can be very easy to attempt too much and leave students with half learned or incomplete ideas and skillsets. A hybridized online cou rse for students that are attending a local campus has the potential to prioritize time in the studio over classroom time allowing general course work and content can be done collaboratively online in small groups. Then projects would be designed for the g roups to schedule time and meet in the recording facilities on campus. With rationed weekly time that the studio can be booked in lieu of lecture time group interaction, and online support materia ls presented by the instructor a student's time on campus f or the course could be spent entirely in the studio. In this design, each group project to be done

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! 50 in the studio will also be preceded by a synchronous video demonstration with Q&A. The demonstration will provide the general use of the studio for the proj e cts and be re watchable as supplemental material at ones convenience. This demonstration course's use of an intermediate level studio production subject is a placeholder for the design concepts. This subject holds both hands on experience and software experience highly, and provides adequate examples to use for the sake of e xplanation. On the software side, the course will cover Pro Tools, including session setup and organization, digital I/O, record modes and technique, basic keyboard shortcuts, cue I/O, audio plugin type and use, hardware inserts, basic editing functions, a nd an assortment of smaller concepts. On the studio recording side subjects like basic studio signal flow, tape machine or DAW I/O, patch bays, monitoring and cues, basic microphone technique, stereo microphone technique, line vs. mic levels, tracking sess ion preproduction and organization, patching inserts, and basic drum, guitar, bass, piano, and vocal recording techniques. These ideas will be laid out through the 16 week course in a fashion that the quizzes, exams, and projects will follow. The first w eek of the term will be an orientation to the course, as well as provide the explanations of expectations in participation and the ground rules and guidelines to get the students acclimated to the course and know what to expect. A study stated, "I n an onl ine learning environment, without the familiar constraints of classroom walls, ground rules are not as easily assumed... Having online ground rules explicitly stated and always available helps to ensure a healthy, safe, and r espectable learning environment (Yamagata Lynch 199 ). Ground rules and clear expectations help create a successful learning community in an online course defined as, "A successful online collaborative

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! 51 learning community is an organization where community members engage intellectually, mentally, socio culturally, and interactively in various structured and unstructured activities to achieve their common learning goals via electr onic communication technologies (Tu and Corry 53 ). So, an effective definition of the type of communications that will build the online learning community, explaining it's purpose and all expectations, will help sustain the structure of the collaborative environment throughout the term. These ground rules and the focus of the instructor as a facilitator of the s ocial system engaged by the course would be the backbone of the learning experience. T he instructor will not only prov ide the learning material but, also provide the foundation and learning structures to guide learners through various learning experiences involving active social interactio n by applying modern technology (Tu and Corry 52 ). Ground rules regarding the use of technology implemented are a very important part of this guided process and provide a n important feeling of structure to students despi te being distance learners. Ground rules and expectations of participation could be effectively outlined in short videos as well as outlined in a reference text prominently placed in the online course shell. Information about the educational platform (s oftware) used and any other communication software or equipment could also be provided in the form of short videos with text support material, and placed in the course shell. Video explanations supported by short and clear lists or ideas would work best. Next, there will be an introduction segment where the instructor and students can meet and greet online. The instructor should create a short video introduction to put a face to the name online, and written audio/visual explanations or motivations for the course and how it's structured (Janes

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! 52 74 ). Optional exercises to test each student's equipment could be utilized. Requiring them to create a short introduction video or something similar using their computer, camera, and microphone, and/or text introductio ns could be made. Here is a list of basic ground rules created by Yamagata Lynch in her paper Blending Online Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning that could be used or expanded upon for use in a collaborative learning focused course: #$ Be prepared for sync hronous sessions by having access to and properly set up computer equipment and USB headphones/microphone for each session. 1$ Be proactive about seeking help from the instructor regarding course issues and OIT for technical troubleshooting. 2$ Be open minde d and share my own ideas as well as listen to ideas that others share about themselves and my work even when at times they may be difficult advice. 3$ Be able to take the time to think before responding to others. 4$ Be responsive and communicative to other participants through email, asynchronous discussion, and synchronous discussions. 5$ Be open to comments from other participants, and do not assume that they are negative, instead assume that they are positive and supportive. 6$ Be self disciplined and tak e charge of managing my own learning by making the time to read, participate, and reflect on course activities. 7$ Be honest, respectful, and open while interacting with other participants. 8$ Remember that discussion posts for this course are due 7pm on the due date, and formal assignments ar e due 11:59pm of the due date. #9$ Side discussions during synchronous sessions are welcomed in this course as long as they do not disrupt anyone's work. When participants of the side discussions determine that their conversation would benefit the entire class one of the participants need to raise their hand to make others aware of the side discussion content. (199 ) One point was left out that was specific to her course. You can see that there are several themes that the points address, be prepared with technology and other required materials, make awareness of support systems, guidelines of proper social interact ion in the course, respect of others involved in the course, acknowledge your own responsibility for your work and success, and specifics about project/assignment due dates. Each rule

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! 53 needs to be short and to the point, give a student clear direction, and still leave room for flexibility to adapt to specific situations throughout the course. The subjects of preparedness with required technology, use of support systems, and specifics about course due dates are all fairly straight forward but do need follow up information, s uch as what equipment to acquire, where and how to use the support systems, and a course calendar for the due dates. Next, the ones that receive the most attention in the ground rules are focused on the need to mediate social interaction It is almost over emphasized in this example of ground rules and this is a very common subject for instructor to focus on. It has been found that up to 42% of online comments and interactions (in your average online course) are relationship oriented as opposed to task oriented. Making sure then, that students are respectful and productive in their comments and interactions is extremely important (West 139 ). Encouragement of more task orien ted conversation in some way in these guidelines would help with this as well. Another few ground rules focus on a student's responsibility for their own success. This is an important subject to address; a student's success in an online course is for the most part on his or her own shoulders. Online Learning is heavily effected by a students ability to self direct and self manage their time and interaction on peer to peer and peer to instructor platforms (West 136 ). This subject is also good to address early on in the course so that student complaints later on can be de flected if they are because they are not meeting expectations with their participation in the course and trying to deflect any responsibility for problems they may be having. This also encourages the students to accept any help from the instructor or peers without negative implications when they

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! 54 need to work on their participation. In regards to audio engineering, these are all very important subjects to include in your ground rules for the course. The social interaction and courtesy ground rules are unive rsal and apply in any online course where students will communicate or collaborate with others. An outline of course due dates and how they work is also universal. Support systems would be useful in the same way as most courses. They would be even more use ful if they were implemented within the course and specific audio engineering program. This way there is a consistent departmental face to receiving help. There could be a degree of audio specifics in the support systems implemented focus on help with gear setup and use and software installation. This leads into ground rules about technology. Not only are technology based support systems emphasizing the tools used for interaction in the course needed, but they will also be needed to outline what audio speci fic tools and software will be needed and provide information on where to acquire or how to access them. There is almost no way to teach a hands on audio engineering course without the use of many of the audio recording and processing tools. The support sy stems for an audio course would have to have a bit more focus on this. Ground rules to address students about their responsibilities in the course would have many common themes as most courses, but there would be several specific ones. Acquisition or fin ding access to the tools and software needed would be something that they would be held accountable for. If the institution could provide these, the student would be responsible to go through the proper channels to utilize them. Depending on the course sub ject, competencies that a student should have in use of the software and tools from prerequisite classes is on their shoulders. But, a reference to support systems if they

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! 55 need extra help could be provided The following weeks in example will be laid out roughly the same but will be beginning the course subject matter. The focus on creating this collaborative and social learning environment will be utilized. Audio Engineering is an art and field that requires social interaction between fellow engineers an d clientele, such as artists and producers of audio or visual media. An emphasis on accomplishing collaborative goals is very important. These skills also reach out into the professional world where a stud ent will eventually work. Lefford and Berg stated i t another way in their work From Practice to Research and Back Again: Research Skills in Audio Engineering Education claim that to be effective in an audio engineering context requires the ability to make oneself understood and to understand others. Professionals know how to interact in the studio's so cial environment professionally (4) They also mentioned the importance of taking feedback well and giving constructive feedback (4) An audio engineering online course needs to include a social system that grows the student in their skills with collaboration and with giving and receiving feedback in a constructive way. As much as it's important to succeed as a student, i t's important in the profession al world. The ground rules are a huge part of this in guiding and giving examples of how to collaborate and acknowledge your peers. Each week a set of short segmented asynchronous videos listening examples, and supporting documentation will be provided for the students to peruse and learn. These will provide all of the information on the week's subject matter to be perused and absorbed leading up to the quizzes and tests. A firm hand at guidance through the correct supplied material is always helpful with audio engineering subjects. Course s ubjects can

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! 56 be investigated over the Internet and the Internet is awash with information such as gear use, audio processing techniques, and technical information, but just like many other subjects the information's accuracy and use varies. First [ audio ] p rinciples are rarely glamorous or entertaining, and their study requires a significant time commitment and focus. These students also have access via the Internet to a glut of [ digital ] information of variable quality that may be easily confused for factu al, peer reviewed findings (Lefford and Berg "From Practice" 2 ). Every other week there will be a short assignment exploring some of the content from the precious week(s) that will be done by each student. That work will be submitted in an online discus sion forum that their group can access. Then, twice before the midterm and twice after, each group will schedule a meeting using videoconferencing or other synchronous communication software to meet and discuss what they found out on their own and read in each others submissions. A dialog based on the recent subject matter and assignments would be provided to keep the groups on track. This discussion can also be used for students to ask each other questions about other content from the previous weeks they n eed assistance in understanding. A good example could be seen in a 4 week picture (see table 1).

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! 57 Table 1 4 Week Example Week 2 Pro Tools Record a track Import / Export / Saving Session Organization Recording Basic Signal Flow DAW & Tape Machine I/O Assignment # 1 Discuss the differences and similarities of signal flow when recording into a DAW vs. tape. Week 3 Pro Tools I/O & Playback Management Disk Allocation and Preferences Record Modes Recording Patchbay Discussion # 1 Discuss assignment #1 What characteristics of an instrument or microphone pair seem to be most important to consider when using a stereo microphone technique? Week 4 Pro Tools Command Focus & Hotkeys Printing / Bouncing Cues in Pro Tools Recording Monitoring and Cues Assignment # 2 What hotkeys or other characteristics of Pro Tools have you di scovered or assume will be most useful? Share them. Week 5 Pro Tools Click Pre/Post Roll Scrolling Modes Window Views Recording Basic Microphone Technique Stereo Microphone Technique Concepts Quiz 1

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! 58 Each week has a few simple Pro Tools or software based subjects and a few simple and general recording subjects that are covered. Assignments to submit for discussion only occur every other week to give some time for absorption of the material. Roughly each 4 week section would have a discussion over the previou s assignments from those weeks where students discuss their and their peers submissions as well as a broader new question or tw o. This would be repeated with exception of weeks with quizzes or exams. In a 16 week semester it would amount to four synchronous discussions, spacing them out around the quizzes and tests. The assignment and discussion are not meant to cover everything p resented each week, they are more important as a social task for the students to engage with each other, and create a collaborative learning environment where the students could also have the opportunity to discuss other topics of their choice that they ar e struggling with. The design and use of a course calendar that would allow the groups to schedule their meetings as well as the instructor to schedule the synchronous demonstrations would need to be devised. Most online course delivery platforms have cale ndar functions, so it would be up to the instructor to discover how to implement the particular way to do this effectively. This format to encourage collaborative learning could be relatively flexible. The frequency of assignments and discussions could va ry depending on the topics, group sizes, or any other factor that is important to the instructor, students, or course subject. Most likely the number of assignments and discussions would have to be gauged through trial and error and adjust either on the fl y or in the following term making sure not to overload or under load the students. For instance, requiring a synchronous meeting of groups every other week might be a bit too often and create increased stress levels in the

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! 59 students. The meetings might have to be less in quantity and/or frequency. The quizzes, midterm, and final exams would be geared to cover a variety of the other topics not covered in the assignments and discussions from the past few weeks since the last quiz or exam. They will be implem ented along side the assignments and discussions in a balanced fashion to consider and reinforce some of the topics that don't require as much discussion or reflection. Some topics are served better through a discussion then others, and some topics would n ot provide much productive activity for discussion. In the previous four week example, signal flow, the patch bay, hotkeys, and stereo microphone concepts are discussed. The quiz following those four weeks would then discuss some or all of the remaining t opics covered from the asynchronous videos and other materials. This way each quiz or exam would only cover the previous four weeks. A non cumulative approach would lessen the cognitive and stress load on the students as they focus on the material and keep ing up with discussions and group projects. Here are charts for the whole term of the weekly topic schedule (see table 2), assignment/discussion schedule (see table 3) and pro ject and demonstration schedule (see table 4).

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! 60 Table 2 Weekly Schedule Week 1 Tutorial Tools and Course Materials, Ground Rules and Expectations, Advice, Tips, How to's Week 2 Pro Tools Record a Track, Import/Export/Saving, Session Organization Recording Basic Signal Flow, DAW & Tape Machine I/O Week 3 Pro Tools I/O & Playback, Disk Allocation, Preferences, Record Modes Recording Patchbay Week 4 Pro Tools Command Focus & Hotkeys, Printing/Bouncing, Cues in Pro Tools Recording Monitoring and Cues Week 5 Pro Tools Click, Pre/Post Roll, Scrolling, Window Views Recording Basic Microphone Technique & Stereo Microphone Technique Quiz 1 Week 6 Pro Tools Pro Tools Monitoring, Input Only, Solo Modes Recording Line vs. Mic Level Week 7 Pro Tools Beat Detective/Identify Beat/Quantization, Elastic Audio, Timeline Functions Recording Tracking Preproduction, Tracking Week 8 Pro Tools Fades, Clip Gain Recording Overdub Preproduction/Setup, Line/DI Instrument connections and re recording Week 9 Midterm Week 10 Pro Tools Clip Menu, Editing and Adjustment basics, Midi Recording/Editing Recording Analog Patching, Hardware Inserts in a DAW Week 11 Pro Tools Plugins Inserts vs. Audio suite, Plugin Organization, Inserts Recording Drum Recording Week 12 Pro Tools Groups Mix/Edit, Acoustic Guitar Techniques Recording Acoustic Guitar Recording Week 13 Pro Tools Automation Types/Methods of Control/Writing Recording Acoustic Piano Recording Quiz 2 Week 14 Pro Tools Mixing, Panning/Level/E.Q. Recording Vocal Recording Week 15 Pro Tools Mixing, Dynamics, Parallel Processing Recording Bass & Line Level Recording Week 16 Final

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! 61 Table 3 Assignment / Discussion Schedule Week 1 No Assignment or Discussion Week 2 Assignment #1 Outline the differences and similarities of signal flow when recording into a DAW vs. tape. Week 3 Discussion #1 Discuss Assignment #1; How does a patch bay make the I/O of a studio easier or more versatile? Week 4 Assignment # 2 What hotkeys or other characteristics of Pro Tools have you discovered or assume are or will be most useful? Post and discuss on the group discussion thread. Week 5 No Assignment or Discussion Week 6 Assignment #3 Explain why matching Mic and line levels at inputs and outputs is important. What are some ways you can adjust a signal at either level to match the other? Week 7 Discussion # 2 Discuss Assignment #3; Discuss some key differences and uses for Beat Detective, Identify Beat, and Elastic Audio. Week 8 Assignment # 4 Explain the importance of preproduction for a tracking or overdub session in a professional studio's workflow. Po st and discuss on the group discussion thread. Week 9 No Assignment or Discussion Week 10 Assignment # 5 What are some common editing techniques that apply to both audio and midi? What are some techniques used only in one or the other? Week 11 Discussion # 3 Discuss Assignment # 5; Explain some of the basic problems that come from having multiple microphones recording in a room active, such as when recording a drum set. Week 12 Assignment # 6 What are some uses for grouping tracks when mixi ng? What are some uses when editing? Post and discuss on the group discussion thread. Week 13 No Assignment or Discussion Week 14 Assignment # 7 Come up with a couple creative ways to automate Panning, level, and E.Q. Settings to create moment in a mix. Week 15 Discussion # 4 Discuss Assignment # 7; What are some benefits of parallel compression over inline compression? Week 16 No Assignment or Discussion

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! 62 Table 4 Project / Demonstration Schedule Week 1 No Project Week 2 Project 1 Assigned 8 Track Mix Week 3 No Project Week 4 Project 1 Due Project 2 Assigned Stereo Recording Week 5 Project 2 Instructor Demonstration Week 6 No Project Week 7 No Project Week 8 Project 2 Due Project 3 Assigned Multi track Recording Week 9 Project 3 Instructor Demonstration Week 10 No Project Week 11 No Project Week 12 No Project Week 13 No Project Week 14 No Project Week 15 No Project Week 16 Project 3 Due

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! 63 In this example, week one is used for guidance and expectations for the course. There are four synchronous discussions each evenly between the quizzes and exams. Quizzes happen week 5 and 13, exams weeks 9 and 16. The first proj ect is individual and has a two week deadline, the second group project the first that require s coordination of groups of students to meet in person to use the facilities on campus has a four week deadline. Fo r the last project, the entire second half of the term is given to allow time for groups to have the time to schedule more than one session of studio facility use. Part of the ground rules would need to address a method of organization the students could u se to coordinate these projects facilitation, as well as imply the students responsibility for their and their group's success. How the students could be guided to using the calendar would help facilitate their coordination. The assignments and discussion are flexible in subject matter and could be adjusted as the course progresses. Then the quizzes and tests would cover the topics not covered in the assignments and discussions. The difficulty of the projects is unknown until they are attempted and they mi ght have to be adjusted. Maybe only one project that requires the groups to meet on campus should be done if two is too much to ask. But convert one project to be peer reviewed to still engage students in synchronous discussions. The subject and goals of projects could also change. The quizzes and exams would be relatively straightforward and similar to any course, but you can see that coordination and guidance for the students on the discussions, video demonstrations, and projec ts could amount to be a daunting task. This is something that would require trial and error. The daunting part of this is not the subject matter that would be taught or discussed, it would be in coordinating the social processes,

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! 64 the technology, and making sure each student knows how to use the tools to participate If the course material and learning media (videos and text) are presented in a coherent and efficient way, t he instructor s role becomes more focused on facilitating the social and collaborative progress of the course. It could even become entirely a test of facilitation, aside from the few specific questions or inquiries from students made throughout the course. Since traditional lectures made through streaming technologies are overlong and do n't encourage students with short attention spans to participate, the creativity of the instructor in creating the media and implementation of the media containing the course material is very important. This creation and facilitation then is where the inst ructor's effort will most efficiently be focused. The d evelopment of an online intermediate level audio engineering course utilizing an innovative combination of synchronous and asynchronous communication and social interaction techniques is no small task. There are many aspects to an online course that interact and affect the effectiveness of each; it is important to take care that each element supports the other The most likely way to balance and check the balance of using these methods is through trial a nd error, holding courses and attempting different combinations and practices along these lines. As an alternative to a traditional face to face course, a hybridized online/in facility course for local students can provide all the necessary elements that would satisfy the students and create a qualitatively superior course to a common online course fo rmat. As qualitative results improve, the quantitative, such as grades, will also improve. Overall, student perspectives and qualitative experience can be improved by utilizing current technology and institutional or departmental support systems to allo w an

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! 65 instructor to adapt to the role of a facilitator, guiding students through the course material and projects by encouraging social learning and engagement learning styles. Technology will also be utilized to implement course material in a variety of wa ys allowing for students' metacognition to develop. Provided will be a mixture of teaching and learning elements that more adequately satisfy common learning styles. With audio engineering being a subject that is built of technical and hands on skills tha t are governed by cognitive reasoning and listening skills, and also social and collaborative skills, it makes for difficult subject to visualize thriving as an online course. The how of most audio engineering techniques is important, but the why of utiliz ation of technique is elusive. To be taught most effectively this requires constructive learning in a social environment. Social learning develops reasoning effectively and the variety of input from many people help students of various learning styles unde rstand and adapt. The structure of a course to be tested is based on several key elements and how they fit together. The key elements are adequate support systems, weekly short segmented and signaled videos and their support material, weekly individual a ssignments, varied group discussion s on assignment topics fit around quizzes and tests and group projects in campus recording facilities with a preemptive synchronous online instructor demonstration for each. To find the best way to piece these many techniques requires experimentation. It requires instructors to take risks in facilitation roles, to leave behind the traditional role of a sage on a stage style of instruction. Providing the tools and thought out p ath for students to walk together through a course on their own with little nudges here or there to keep them on track is a risky but potentially rewarding venture. This perspective must be

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! 66 engaged purely by looking at the nature of distance learning and t he opportunities and limitations that govern it. Putting in place a guided system of online learning within a department can also alleviate facilities use and scheduling issues and allow for fewer instructors to manage more classes. Student perspectives will also shift because of a focus on hands on group projects and use of the campus recording facilities instead of classroom lecture time. The maximization of recording studio use in their on campus time would have a huge effect The ideas and concepts to develop an innovative online audio engineering course are out there, although scattered. A compilation and synthesis of these concepts through experimentation is the way to move forward and improve course and student outcomes. Online learning is becomin g predominant in many institutions and there are ample opportunities to implement and gather results on how these concepts work. The variety of ways that innovative distance learning techniques can be put together leaves a lot of wiggle room but this shoul d not be looked at as a problem, it's this open ended characteristic that allows experimentation and ideas to be explored.

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! 67 REFERENCES Anderson, Ian. "Approaches to Signal Flow Pedagogy: A B lack Box Model and Sca la ble, Interactive Studio Modeling Using Prezi Presentation Software." AES 50th International Conference, 25 July 2013 Murfreesbro, TN Arbaugh, J.B. "Learning to Learn Online: A Study of Perceptual Changes Between Multiple Online Course Experiences ." The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 7, no. 3, 2004, pp. 169 182. Argyle, M ichael ., and Janet Dean. "Eye C ontact, D istance and A ffiliation." Sociometry, vol. 28, no. 3, 1965, pp. 289 304. Baggett, P atricia "Role of T emporal O verlap of V isual and A udi tory M aterial in F orming D ual M edia A ssociations." Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 76, no. 3, 1984, pp. 408 417. Bambara, C ynthia S Clifford P. Harbour, Timothy Grey Davies, and Susan Athey "Delicate E ngagement: The L ived E xperience of C ommunity C ollege S tudents E nroll ed in H igh R isk O nline C ourses." Community College Review, vol. 36, no. 3, 2009, pp. 219 238. Bates, Tony. "Changing Cultures in Higher Education: Moving Ahead to Future Learning ." Distance Education, vol. 32, no. 1, 2011, pp. 143 148. Battalio, John. "Success in Distance Education: Do Learning Styles and Multiple Formats Matter?" The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 23, 2009, pp. 71 87. Beldarrain, Yoany. "Distance Education Trends: Integrating New Technologies to Foster Student Interaction and Collaboration ." Distance Education, vol. 27, no. 2, 2006, pp. 139 153. Benbunan Fich, Raquel, and Roxanne Starr Hiltz. Mediators of the Effectiveness of Online Courses." IEEE Transactions on Professional Com munication, vol 46, no. 4. 2003. Benshoff, James, and Melinda Gibbons. "Bringing Life to e Learning: Incorporating a

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! 68 Synchronous Approach to Online Teaching in Counselor Education." The Professional Counselor, vol. 1, no. 1, 2011, pp. 21 28. Bergitzer Lorne. "Capturing Artifacts to Track the Knowledge, Skills & Dispositions of Recording Arts Students." AES 50th International Conference, 25 July 2013. Bork, R achel H are and Z &:&-" Rucks Ahidiana. Role Ambiguity in Online Courses: An Analysis of Stude nt and Instructor Expectations. Community College Research Center, Teachers College, New York: Columbia University, 2013. Bower, Matt. "Synchronous Collaboration Competencies in Web ) Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 430.0851 528.9184 cm BT 50 0 0 50 0 0 Tm /TT41 Tf [ (Conferencing Environments Their Impact on the Learning Process ." Distance Education, vol. 32, no. 1, 2011, pp. 63 83. Cann, Alan. "Podcasting is Dead. Long Live Video!" Bioscience Education, vol. 10, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1 4. Champness, Brian G. "Attitudes Towards Person Person Communications Media ." Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, vol. 15, no. 5, 1973. Charbonneau Gowdy, P., and I. Cechova. Moving From Analogue to High Definition e Tools to Support Empowering Social Learning Approaches." Electronic Journal of e Learning, vol. 7, no. 3, 2009, pp. 225 238. Choplin, Hugues. "The Three Figures of Research on Distance Education: Movement, Relation, Substance." The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 26, 2012, pp. 21 33. Christophel, Diane. "The Relationships Among Teacher Immediacy Behaviors, Student Motivation and Learning ." Communication Education, vol. 39, no. 4, 1990, pp. 323 340. Cifuentes, Lauren. The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching Anymir Orel lana, Terry L. Hudgins, and Michael Simonson, Eds." The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 24, 2010, pp. 171 173.

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! 69 Clark, Cynthia, Neal Strudler, and Karen Grove. "Comparing Asynchronous and Synchronous Video vs. Text Based Discussions in an Onli ne Teacher Education Course ." Online Learning Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, 2015, pp. 48. Cloke, Chris, and Sabariah Sharif. Why Use Information and Communications Technology? Some Theoretical and Practical Issues." Journal of Information Technology and Teach er Education, vol. 10, 2006, pp. 7 18. Collins, M., and K.L. Murphy. "Development of Communications Conventions in Instructional Electronic Chats." Journal of Distance Education, vol. 12, no. 1 2, 1997, pp. 177 200. Cross, Ted, and Kelly Palese "Increasing Learning: Classroom Assessment Techniques in the Online Classroom." The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 29, 2015, pp. 98 108. El Mansour, B., and D. M. Mupinga. "Students' Positive and Negative Experiences in Hybrid and Online Classes." College Student Journal, vol. 41, no. 1, 2007, pp. 242 248. Ellington, Dee Ann, and Matthew Notbohm. "Synchronous Distance Education: Using Web Conferencing In An MBA Accounting Course." American Journal of Business Education, vol. 5, no. 5, 20 05, pp. 555 562. Fend l er, Richard J, Craig Ruff, and Milind Shrikhande. "Evaluating Characteristics of Top and Bottom Performance: Online Versus In Class." American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 30, no. 2, 2016, pp. 109 120. Fruin, Christine. "Stru ggles and Solutions for Streaming Video in the Online Classroom." The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 26, 2012, pp. 249 259. Gal Ezer, Judith and David Lupo. "Integrating I nternet Tools into Traditional CS Distance Education: Students' Attitudes. Computers and Education, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 319 329. Garrison D. Randy. "Critical Inquiry in a Text Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 2,

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! 70 no. 2, 1999, pp. 87 105. Garrison, D. Randy, and Martha Cleveland Innes. "Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning: Interaction Is Not Enough." American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 19, 2010, pp. 33 148. Garrison, D. Randy, Terry Anderson, and Walter Archer. Critical Thinking, Cognitive Presence, and Computer Conferencing in Distance Education. The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 15, 2009, pp. 7 23. Gerdy, Kristi n B If Socrates Only Knew: Expanding Law Class Discourse CALI Conference on Law School Computing, Chicago, Illinois, July 1998. Gibson, Ian W. "At the Intersection of Technology and Pedagogy: Considering Styles of Learning and Teaching ," Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, vol. 10, 2006. Graf, S., Kinshuk. "Technologies Linking Learning, Cognition, and Instruction." Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. Springer Verlag : New York, 2008. Guzman, Sandra, Benjamen Kanters, and Pantelis N. Vassilakis. "Utilizing E ffective Media, Demonstrations and Exercises on the Perception of Sound." AES 50th International Conference, 25 July 2013. Han, H. "Do Nonverbal Emotional Cues Matter? Effects of Video Casting in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms." American Journal of Distan ce Education vol. 27, no. 4, 2013, pp. 253 264. Harrington, Donna. "Teaching Statistics: A Comparison of Traditional Classroom and Programmed Instruction/Distance Learning Approaches." Journal of Social Work Education, vol. 35, no. 3, 1999, pp. 343 352. Harris, Debra M. PhD, and Danielle E. Parrish PhD. "The Art of Online Teaching: Online Instruction V ersus In Class Instruction." Journal of Technology in Human Services, vol. 24, 2008, pp. 105 117.

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