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Factors influencing long-term clean cookstove use in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh India

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Factors influencing long-term clean cookstove use in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh India NGO and stove user case studies
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Berve, Brendan Paul ( author )
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Denver, Colo.
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Master's ( Master of arts)
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University of Colorado Denver
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Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, CU Denver
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Geography

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Stoves -- India ( lcsh )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )

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The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstove’s (GACC) mission is “to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions” (Our Mission, 2016). The GACC has stated that these goals can be met with the adoption of clean cookstoves in one hundred million households. If clean cookstoves are not used long-term then, then the progress that has been made towards these benefits will be negated. To achieve long-term use, the perspectives of local organizations must be considered. The activities of two local non-governmental organizations in India who operate clean cookstove intervention projects, and stove users within each project, were analyzed through a series of focus groups and surveys to determine how each group perceives the needs for long-term stove use. This research will shed light on what organizations and households view as a priority; their opinions are vital if clean cookstoves are going to have a long-term impact. Affordability, education, maintenance, stove user feedback, and the ability for non-governmental organizations to remain active in the sector, appear to be vital for long-term stove use.
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Thesis (M.A..)--University of Colorado Denver, 2017.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Brendan Paul Berve.

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on1029561418

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Full Text
FACTORS INFLUENCING LONG-TERM CLEAN COOKSTOVE USE
IN KARNATAKA AND ANDHRA PRADESH INDIA: NGO AND STOVE USER CASE STUDIES by
BRENDAN PAULBERVE B.A. University of Nebraska, 2009 M.A. University of Colorado Denver, 2017
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts
Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences Program
2017


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Brendan Paul Berve has been approved for the
Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences Program
by
Gregory Simon, Chair Peter Anthamatten Bryan Wee
Date July 29. 2017


Berve, Brendan Paul (M.A., Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences)
Factors Influencing Long-Term Clean Cookstove Use In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh India: NGO and Stove User Case Studies Thesis directed by Professor Gregory Simon.
ABSTRACT
The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC) mission is to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions (Our Mission, 2016). The GACC has stated that these goals can be met with the adoption of clean cookstoves in one hundred million households. If clean cookstoves are not used long-term then, then the progress that has been made towards these benefits will be negated. To achieve long-term use, the perspectives of local organizations must be considered. The activities of two local non-governmental organizations in India who operate clean cookstove intervention projects, and stove users within each project, were analyzed through a series of focus groups and surveys to determine how each group perceives the needs for long-term stove use. This research will shed light on what organizations and households view as a priority; their opinions are vital if clean cookstoves are going to have a long-term impact. Affordability, education, maintenance, stove user feedback, and the ability for non-governmental organizations to remain active in the sector, appear to be vital for long-term stove
use.


The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its
publication. Approved: Gregory Simon
IV


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks to my committee members, especially Dr. Gregory Simon, who introduced me to clean cookstoves and guided me throughout the research process. This research would not have been possible without his guidance and connections to the non-governmental organizations in India. The two organizations were instrumental in organizing the focus groups and were open to any and all questions. No amount of gratitude can be expressed for their help. Thank you to my wife, Stephanie, and all who critiqued previous versions of this document. The final draft is better because of you.
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.....................................................1
Background....................................................3
II. LITERATURE REVIEW..............................................15
Health Impacts...............................................15
Environmental Impacts........................................16
Related Non-Clean Cookstove Research.........................16
Adoption.....................................................19
III. METHODS.......................................................23
Selection of Organizations...................................23
Focus Group Interviews.......................................24
Focus Group Analysis.........................................27
Survey Development...........................................29
Survey Analysis..............................................30
Problems and Limitations.....................................30
IV. RESULTS/ANALYSIS...............................................34
Category & NGO Figures.......................................34
Selection of Quotes..........................................37
V DISCUSSION......................................................43
Assessing Demand.............................................43
Financing....................................................44
Maintenance..................................................47
VI


Maintenance: Stove Sector Impact..................................48
Usability/Education...............................................50
Affordability/Availability........................................54
Differences From Initial Adoption.................................59
VI.CONCLUSION............................................................61
Transferrable Long-Term Use Factors...............................61
Future Research...................................................64
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................67
APPENDIX.................................................................73
Appendix A: Focus Group Transcript................................73
Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire..................................80
vii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. Focus Group Reference Count ............................35
VIII


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1. Cookstove-1.......................................................9
2. Cookstove-2.......................................................9
3. NGO-1 Village....................................................10
4. NGO-1 Landscape..................................................10
5. NGO-2 Village....................................................12
6. NGO-2 Landscape..................................................12
7. NGO-2 Silver Oak and Coffee Plantations.........................13
8. Factors Influencing Long-Term Clean Cookstove Use Map..........37
IX


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
GACC Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves NGO Non-Governmental Organization GHG Greenhouse Gas
Cookstove-1 Clean cookstove distributed by NGO-1 in Karnataka, India. Cookstove-2 Clean cookstove distributed by NGO-2 in Andhra Pradesh, India. NGO-1 NGO who operates in Karnataka, India. Also used to cite staff quotes. LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas LLIN Long Lasting Insecticide Nets
x


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In some villages the leader was not willing to accept the stove at first so we had to hold meetings in order to inform everyone about the benefits of the stove. Because they had no idea about the stove, they were not aware of the benefits, and that is why they were at first not willing. But after construction people see and then they demand these stoves, demand is coming right now. We started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove.
(NGO-2 Staff Member, Male)
Since the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves formed, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become important for the success of the clean cookstove sector. Organizations that distribute clean cookstoves are communicating with target households and communities on a personal level; they communicate prior to stove implementation, during implementation, and throughout the use of the stove. Furthermore, organizations communicate with manufacturers and other actors in the sector. These organizations are an ideal actor to analyze; their viewpoint is unique. These NGOs can help answer the questions of (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use among nongovernmental organization projects and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users demands for the continued long-term use of clean cookstoves?
These research questions are important because if users are unable or unwilling to adopt future cookstoves, they will revert to traditional cookstoves.
The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC), states that adoption of clean
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cookstoves leads to individual, global, and environmental health benefits. The vast majority of current cookstove research focuses on initial distribution and adoption rather than how to get households to use the stoves on a long-term basis. It is not enough to get households to start using a first clean cookstove, there needs to be a demand and way for these households to acquire a second and third clean cookstove in the future. Long-term means that the stoves need to be used until a consistent dependable alternative comes to these communities. For some communities this might be only a couple of years, for others it may be decades. While being able to define a certain length of time would be beneficial, it is not possible because it will be different for each community. If these clean cookstoves are not used long-term until a more consistent dependable option is available, any benefits that accrued, especially the global benefits, will not continue.
This research will provide a baseline for continued research by determining if there are commonalities between the two clean cookstove implementation programs. Other organizations that are planning an implementation program will be able to see what other organizations deem important for long-term use. This knowledge will help other implementation programs operate more efficiently and effectively. Even though each implementation site has its own unique set of challenges, being able to learn from other implementation programs would be beneficial. Along with providing benefits for implementation programs, this research can serve as a baseline for further research. If commonalities are found, research can delve further into a specific factor that influences long-term
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stove use. For example, if educating users is found to be extremely important for long-term use, further research into the education process can be analyzed. Background
Background: What is the GACC?
In response to the health and environmental problems caused by traditional cookstoves, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves was established in 2010. The GACC's mission is to have one hundred million households adopt clean cookstoves by 2020. The GACC was developed with the help of Hillary Clinton, who brought legitimacy to the organization. The organization quickly became the voice of the clean cookstove sector. The GACC's mission is to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions (Our Mission, 2016). The organization pinpointed five impact areas that will be affected by replacing traditional cookstoves with clean cookstoves. The five impact areas are: environment, health, humanitarian, women and gender, and livelihoods.
The GACC has summarized key problems that have developed from the use of traditional cookstoves. Five of these problems the GACC has detailed are: (1) traditional cookstoves contribute to global warming because of deforestation and the emissions of greenhouse gases, (2) women have not been given the opportunity to improve their lives and achieve empowerment, (3) the exhaust from traditional cookstoves can cause numerous health issues and in some cases death, (4) at times traditional cookstove users need to travel long
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distances to gather fuel, which exposes them to unwarranted danger, and (5) the lack of efficient cookstoves leads to an increase in cooking time and fuel gathering instead of time that can be spent improving the family's lives (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016).
These problems correspond with the GACC's five impact areas. The following summarizes the five impact areas:
Environment. The GACC states that clean cookstoves will impact the environment by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation. The alliance states "25% percent of black carbon emission come from burning solid fuels for household energy needs" and "up to 34% of woodfuel harvested is unsustainable contributing to forest degradation, deforestation, and climate change" (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016). The GACC claims that a large portion of native forest cover was deforested for cooking and cooking related bio fuels and produces "12% of ambient air pollution globally" (Environment, 2016). These statistics are powerful and they legitimize the GACCs goal to change "the way millions of people cook (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016). Health'. Traditional cookstoves are typically poorly ventilated. Due to this, the smoke does not have any place to escape and remains in the location of the cookstove. This has caused, according to the GACC, a range of deadly chronic and acute health effects such as child pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease, as well
4


as low birth-weights in children born to mothers whose pregnancies are spent breathing toxic fumes from traditional cookstoves. Further underscoring the importance of this statement is the World Health Organizations estimate that 4.3 million premature deaths per year are caused in developing countries by cooking (Health, 2016). Woman and children comprise the majority of these deaths, as they are the ones cooking and spending time in the kitchen.
Humanitarian'. As more populations become displaced due to war, disaster, or other causes, there is a lack of clean cookstoves and at times fuel for cookstoves. The GACC states that some people have to sell part of their food rations in order to purchase fuel; yet, by selling their food rations malnutrition becomes an issue (Humanitarian, 2016).
Women and Gender: The GACC states this issue doesnt just empower women economically, it empowers them socially and it changes the lives of their families. Its a very simple thing. Its about cooking. And once we can get together to improve cooking, there is so much more that can happen. Women and children will benefit by receiving more time to work, bringing money to themselves and the family, and allowing children to remain in school (Women, 2016).
Livelihood'. The GACC states that the livelihoods of women will benefit by reducing the amount of time collecting wood. Women may use the saved time by educating their children, increasing income, and other activities (Livelihoods, 2016).
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Background: Why is the GACC influential?
Due to the influence the GACC has in the sector; many research questions, such as my research question, are framed around its rhetoric. Its influence is seen through how research questions are framed and how organizations operate. The literature review section will give numerous examples of academic research that operates within the GACCs impact area framework.
The research questions in this paper do not directly challenge the GACC's statements; however, understanding the level of influence the GACC has for establishing the discourse for the cookstove sector is imperative. Due to its influence, the research questions and justification for the research are framed around the GACCs rhetoric; if clean cookstoves are going to be impactful, they have to be used long-term.
The GACCs stated benefits, which are challenged in the research, would generally be beneficial if they are achieved. Reducing carbon emissions, black carbon, deforestation, and improving lives of women and children are all beneficial. However, the benefits cannot be for short period of time, the changes have to be more or less permanent. Without long-term stove use, the benefits will not continue and the GACCs mission will be considered a failure. This organization has to be viewed as a long-term program. Because of this, two of the most important questions for the GACC and participating actors are: (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users demands?
Background: Carbon Market
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Many stove intervention projects, including the two projects studied in this research, are financed through the carbon market. The carbon market allows companies from across the globe to purchase carbon credits to offset their organizations carbon emissions. Companies purchase carbon credits and then team up with local organizations that implement a clean cookstove program. There are two main types of carbon markets for clean cookstoves; compliance carbon markets and voluntary carbon markets. Compliance carbon markets main source of offsets is through the United Nations clean development mechanism. However, voluntary carbon markets are more desirable for clean cookstove projects. These markets are driven by companies looking to offset their own emissions and need to meet standards such as the Gold Standard (The Basics, 2017). Ensuring the stoves meet carbon offset expectations requires organizations to monitor the clean cookstoves.
Background: Traditional and Clean Cookstoves
Traditional cookstoves are stoves made from local resources and are based around using an open fire. Different communities and regions have developed different traditional cookstoves; they construct the stove with local resources such as rocks, clay, brick, or mud. The most basic traditional cookstove is a three-stone fire, which uses three similar-sized stones that are placed in a triangle formation and can balance a pot or other cooking utensil over an open fire. Other cookstoves are built using clay that hardens to form the base of the stove on which pots and pans are placed. Wood, dung, or other fuel sources are gathered from surrounding areas and burned. Since the majority of
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traditional cookstoves have no venting and are located indoors, the smoke remains in the room, which causes health issues (Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, 2016).
When visiting households in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India that use traditional stoves the smoke is obvious as soon as one walks into the home. Ones eyes begin to water, ones throat quickly becomes irritated, and the entire room is encased in soot. The majority of these homes are small and have a limited number of rooms. For many, the kitchen is part of the main room of the home. Many homes in Andhra Pradesh have small separated buildings with short roofs as their kitchens. While this makes the smoke separate from the main house, it may exacerbate the density of the smoke. Regardless of location, the stoves are often used throughout the day for activities such as boiling water or cooking.
A clean cookstove is a modern invention, created by numerous organizations with the aim of reducing carbon emissions and increasing fuel efficiency, while keeping the users cultural and societal traditions intact. Clean cookstoves are produced and designed by a variety of manufacturers, such as EnviroFit, based in Colorado, and Prakti, which is based in India. These stoves are distributed across the globe to NGOs who disseminate them to villages (Our Mission, 2016).
There are many different types of clean cookstoves. Many organizations, such as two studied in this research, design or help design their own stove. The names of the two stove types used by the participating NGOs are tied to them. In
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agreement with the organizations, neither the NGOs names nor the names of the stoves will be used in this paper. They will be referred NGO-1 and NGO-2, and as Cookstove-1 (fig. 1) and Cookstove-2 (fig. 2), respectively. These two stoves are two of many examples of clean cookstoves.
fig. 1: Cookstove-1 fig.2: Cookstove-2
Cookstove-1 is a free standing stove that has an opening at the base for fuel, typically for small wood branches, that creates a centralized flame. These stoves are built off site and have the benefit of being moveable, similar to some traditional stoves. However, as was revealed during this research, many of the users feel the stove is unstable and can pose an injury risk by tipping. Cookstove-2 differs from Cookstove-1 in that it is built into the structure of the house with a chimney. Cookstove-2 has two burners, whereas Cookstove-1 has one. Cookstove-2 is built at the house and includes a clay shell that needs
9


consistent maintenance. Due to the stove being built with clay, it has a similar look to the traditional stoves used by households in the region.
Background: Communities and Non-Government Organizations
NGO-1 mainly operates in Karnataka, India. This region is dry with sparse vegetation, such as mesquite that lines the rolling hills where the women collect fuel for the stoves (fig.4). The stove users live in small buildings constructed of concrete and wood (fig.3), and typically consist of one room. However, it appears
fig.3: NGO-1 Village fig.4: NGO-1 Landscape
that within in the communities wealth disparity exists. While, neither this research nor Professor Simons research analyzed the income of the communities, some homes were noticeably larger, consisting of multiple rooms. The homes lined both sides of the few streets that made up the communities. The vast majority of the homes did not have electricity and no plumbing was seen. Walking through the communities, it was common to be followed by a collection of children asking for pictures, along with needing to avoid livestock and wild dogs that would wonder from house to house.
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The NGO-1 staff described during conversations how the region had changed in the past few decades. They described how the vegetation changed when the government distributed mesquite by throwing seeds out of a helicopter. Multiple staff members told us that mesquite was distributed to provide biomass for cookstoves. Mesquite has become the dominant form of biomass for the users regardless whether they are using a traditional or clean cookstove.
Another recent change that the NGO-1 staff expressed was the arrival of international seed corporations that have acquired land to grow corn.
The staff also emphasized that the organization is well known throughout the region because of the variety of programs and the assistance they provide. Multiple staff members noted the work they do with disable people and people with HIV/AIDS. The organization wants to provide the locals with immediate assistance and long-term solutions, such as ways to ensure consistent crop yields.
NGO-2 mainly operates in Andhra Pradesh, India with tribal communities who populate the edge of the Eastern Ghats Mountain range. This region has an array of vegetation such as sugar cane, silver oak/coffee plantations, and rice paddies along the valleys (fig.6). The communities migrated from other regions in India due to local dam development during the past few decades. The majority of the homes were constructed from tree limbs, sheet metal, and concrete (fig.5). There are other open air village structures with what appeared to be thatch roofs.
There is not a common language between the tribal communities and some of them, especially the women, do not speak Telugu, the regions main language.
11


fig.5: NGO-2 Village fig.6: NGO-2 Landscape
Some of the villagers have learned Telugu by visiting the main town in the region. The villages visited were extremely remote. 4x4 vehicles were needed in order to travel on the extremely bumpy and at times steep roads. While the main roads were paved, every village visited consisted of narrow dirt roads. In one village we needed to hike the last quarter mile to reach the village. Not only are they distant from other people, some villages have limited access to water and other resources. Clean water is a major issue for nearly every village that was visited.
A unique aspect of this region is the assistance the government has provided. The staff noted that because the locals practiced slash and burn vegetation (cutting down vegetation and then burning it), the government has started to plant silver-oak and coffee plantations (fig.7). The coffee is planted among the floor with silver-oak trees providing the needed shade. The tribal people are able to work in the coffee plantations and use the residual branches as fuel for stoves. The staff noted, that not only does this provide some work and compensation for the locals, it has helped stop the slash and burn technique.
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NGO-2 has numerous development programs that help the local tribal communities. These programs were described in person during the research trip. Besides distributing clean cookstoves. The organization provides legal assistance when needed, natural resource management assistance, health care, water filters, youth programs, and a number of other programs. NGO-2 is very active throughout these communities. Not every community they work with participated in the clean cookstove program.
While these two communities have many differences, they share many similar problems. Access to resources, such as water and fuel, is one. But they also have limited access to other people and organizations because of their remoteness. While they have challenges, both communities welcomed Professor
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Simons research team. Many of them provided tea during the focus groups, with one village performing a tribal dance and encouraging the entire team to participate.
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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
The majority of academic research has examined the GACCs five impact areas. However, there is a lack of research into what is important for long-term use of clean cookstoves, particularly into what organizations find important for long-term use. With the importance organizations play in encouraging clean cookstoves use, their voices and opinions are vitally important, yet are surprisingly missing from academic research. There may be a few reasons for this, such as an unwillingness to participate in research due to various concerns, such as fearing it will not benefit the organization. While there is a lack of related research to this specific topic, there has been research conducted when it comes to implementing new technologies in developing countries.
This literature review will divide clean cookstove research into multiple categories: environmental impacts, health impacts, related non-clean cookstove research, and adoption. Due to these research questions dealing with long-term use, the adoption section will be more detailed. Furthermore, because many implementation programs share common challenges, a brief review of mosquito nets and water filter implementation programs will be analyzed. Mosquito nets and water filter research can help fill the void that is currently missing in the clean cookstove literature on long-term use.
Health Impacts
One of the biggest drivers of clean cookstove implementation programs is the health benefits users experience from transitioning to a clean cookstove.
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Venkataraman et al. (2010) concluded in 2005, 570,000 deaths in India were premature and 4% of the countrys greenhouse gas emissions could be eliminated if 160 million households in India replace their traditional cookstove with a clean cookstove (Venkataraman, 2010). Kishore et al. (2002) concluded that the installation of chimneys leading to smoke removal, is seen as a remarkable plus...considering that indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning stoves leads to eye and lung problems (Kishore, 2002, p.57). Building upon Kishores findings, another study concluded that traditional stoves have been found to have high correlation with respiratory illnesses (Duflo, 2008). Environmental Impacts
The GACC states that an important benefit of clean cookstoves is the impact they will have on reducing deforestation and carbon dioxide/black carbon emissions. This can be seen through how carbon finance is used to fund implementation programs. Abhishek Kar et al. (2012) determined that forced draft cookstoves are superior to natural draft clean cookstoves for reducing black carbon. A study focused on fuelwood consumption found that an annual village fuelwood use for all cookstove applications was 234 metric tons (Johnson, 2012, p.310). Continuing with fuelwood use, Mahapatra et al. (1999) conducted a study to analyze the pattern of biomass fuel use...and the supply effects on household consumption. The study concluded that socioeconomic factors influence bioenergy use, but scarcity of forests does not lower the demand for biofuels nor is it a driving force for farm level forestry (p.291).
Related Non-Clean Cookstove Research
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Proper use, maintenance, financing, and affordability are common challenges that clean cookstove intervention projects and other developmental projects encounter. Because of these shared challenges, research on mosquito nets and water filter implementation can inform cookstove initiatives.
Mosquito Nets
Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) require the target population to accept the nets and to use the nets properly. Gunasekaran et al. (2009) attempted to determine the acceptability and the willingness of people to buy the nets. The team concluded that social marketing of LLINs at a subsidized price or free supply to the deserving sections of people.. .and ensuring the availability of nets during harvesting season could encourage people to buy and use LLINs (p. 149). A similar study concluded that the shape of net could effect whether people use them, with a cone shape being favored. It was concluded that efforts to increase knowledge of LLINs using behavior change communication techniques would have more effectively contributed to achieve planned outcomes (Fernando, 2008, p. 1081). Lastly, a study attempted to find whether target users are willing to pay for the nets. The team concluded that 96.5% of the studys respondents feel that the nets should be given freely and the subsequent retreatment of the net should also be free. The team recommended that government and other development partners should seek a mechanism to make a subsidy or free of charge for the retreatment service (Biadgilign, 2015, p.1). Water Filters
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Mark Francis and his team, studying water filters, determined that the acceptance of water quality interventions is important for continued health benefits. His team concluded the need to effectively involve communities at important stages of implementation for long-term success...research on the factors influencing uptake of water quality interventions prior to implementation will ensure greater acceptance (Francis, 2015, p.1). A study investigating how an organization can design an implementation program for biosand water filters concluded the strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame (Ngai, 2014, p.320). The study demonstrates that small organizations can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing [their] operational budget (Ngai, 2014, p.320). Lastly, a study that analyzed the impact of free clean cookstoves and water filters, concluded that adoption was generally high, with most households reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove (Rosa, 2014, p.1). The team reported that there was a decrease in both mean fecal bacteria and fine particulate matter (a type of air pollution) (Rosa, 2014).
There are many takeaways from mosquito net and water filter research. Factors such as education, maintenance, financing, and stove user feedback are all transferrable to clean cookstoves. High quality education is vital for users to use the nets properly. Both cookstoves and mosquito nets need consistent maintenance. The literature consistently emphasized the importance of reducing
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the cost of the nets and water filters for successful implementation. Listening to user feedback was important for both development projects. It is also important to note that the shape of the nets influences the use. Users have a preference and meeting their preference is important. Having the community involved throughout the project appears to increase acceptance by the users. These are commonalities between two different development projects and are likely to be transferrable to clean cookstove projects.
Adoption
Stove stacking is a term used to describe a household that adopts a clean cookstove but continues to use their traditional cookstove, thus not completely transitioning to a clean cookstove. If the GACCs goals are to be met, households must remove their traditional cookstove and only use a clean cookstove. A study conducted in Himachal Pradesh, India concluded that lower caste households are more likely to remove their traditional cookstove due to the smoke leaving stains on their household items, while higher caste households are more reluctant to remove their traditional cookstove because they associate chulhas [a different clean cookstove type] with ritual purity...and their perception that food cooked on the chulha has superior taste. The study hypothesizes that due to higher caste households having more wealth and access to fuelwood, they are more likely to stove stack (Wang, 2015, p.135).
Ruiz Mercado et al. (2011) conducted a study to analyze aspects of cookstove adoption: stove stacking, the transition of removing the traditional cookstove completely from the household, and cooking practices on each fuel
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and stove type. They concluded that stove use monitoring for adoption must be part of a larger plan for improved diffusion to translate SUMs [stove user monitors] data into actual benefits for the user (p.7,564). Similarly, a recent study concluded that using multiple stoves each day is common practice...and that the two groups given at least one Gyapa [a clean cookstove type] had the largest reductions in traditional stove use relative to the control group, though use of traditional stoves remained high in all groups (Piedrahita, 2016, p.67).
Other studies have attempted to explain why adoption rates are low, finding that further research needs to be conducted in order to find other variables that would lead to better adoption rates (Lewis, 2012). Wouter Maes et al. (2012) concluded that by switching from solid fuels to fossil fuels (LPG or kerosene) and integrating fuelwood policies can increase the efficiency of current biomass use.
An article that directly relates to this research question is by Guofeng Shen et al. (2015). His team analyzed factors that influence adoption of cleaner fuels and cookstoves in China by conducting a literature review on Chinese publications. Shens team found five important factors: (1) fuel and stove technologies, (2) development of a stove market, (3) public awareness of environmental protection and fuel saving, (4) financial support, (5) policy support.
Sehjpal et al. (2014) concluded that macro-policies may provide important guidelines and the necessary framework, implementation strategies need to be designed at the local level through participatory approach making energy an integral part of the development paradigm (p.470). This research paper
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demonstrated the positive influence institutional support can have on an organizations ability to develop an efficient and effective intervention program.
For clean cookstoves to be accepted by households, they have to be sufficient for completing everyday tasks. Determining which clean cookstoves meet those daily needs is what Jetter et al. (2015) studied in their research. His team analyzed clean cookstoves and how they performed basic functional needs, such as boiling water. They concluded that laboratory testing provides a cost-effective means of evaluating cookstoves, but controlled laboratory testing cannot fully duplicate field testing but should emulate field conditions to the greatest extent possible (p.1832). The team recommends developing international standards for stove development.
My research questions, (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use among non-governmental organization projects and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users demands for the continued long-term use of clean cookstoves?, fit into a narrow subfield within the broader clean cookstove literature. My research questions do not question whether the five impact areas will be addressed, but rather seek to explore factors that influence long-term use of cookstoves. As was demonstrated during the literature review, there has been very little research into this topic. The vast majority of cookstove research analyzes the five impact areas and initial adoption. Research on clean cookstove adoption has traditionally explored which factors influence initial uptake, and not which factors contribute to long-term use. This research operates
21


under the assumption that clean cookstoves have important benefits, regardless of the degree of use, and that long-term use is critical for gaining those benefits.
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CHAPTER III
METHODS
Two qualitative case studies were conducted using a series of focus group interviews and a brief survey of staff at one NGO who were not able to attend the focus group. A qualitative study was chosen because the goal of the research is to understand how organizations view factors that influence long-term clean cookstove use. The results reveal trends or commonalities that could inform successful long-term clean cookstove use. The following sections will describe why a case study, focus groups, and a survey are appropriate methods for addressing these questions.
Selection of Organizations
Two NGOs participated in this research. This research is in conjunction with a National Science Foundation Grant (Award Number: 1539746) directed by Professor Gregory Simon. The NGOs were already participating with Professor Gregory Simon and I along with a number of other students were hired as research assistants. Due to the established relationship with Professor Simon and my work with him, the NGOs were an obvious organization to work with.
Both of these organizations are based in India and operate clean cookstove intervention projects, along with other development projects, in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Each NGO works with a different community type that requires different intervention plans and stoves types. Per agreement with the participating NGOs, neither the organizations names nor the names of their cookstoves will be mentioned. The NGOs will be referred to as NGO-1
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(Karnataka based) and NGO-2 (Andhra Pradesh based). Similarly, the stoves will be referred to as Cookstove-1, distributed by NGO-1, and Cookstove-2, distributed by NGO-2. These organizations provide distinctive opinions because they work with different types of communities and operate in vastly different environments.
Focus Group Interviews
Professor Simon's research team conducted multiple focus groups in January 2017 about clean cookstove use. Most of the questions asked in the focus groups are not relevant for this research. However, two to four of the questions were reserved for this research. The majority of the quotes used in this research originated from the reserved questions. However, some answers in response to other questions were relevant to this research and were used with permission from Professor Simon.
The focus groups were conducted with NGO staff and cookstove users in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four focus groups were conducted in Karnataka, with three being stove users and one being with the NGO staff. Five focus groups were conducted in Andhra Pradesh, with three being with stove users, one being with a monitoring team, and a series with NGO staff (which is considered as one focus group). There was also a combined focus group with a small number from both NGOs done together.
NGO-1 operates a number of clean cookstove intervention projects in Karnataka, India and distributes Cookstove-1 to rural villages. NGO-2 also operates a number of intervention projects, but is primarily located in the Eastern
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Ghats Mountain Range in Andhra Pradesh, India. These are tribal communities, living on the hillsides. The user focus groups were all conducted in these two regions, but each NGO has other stove users who did not participate. While these focus groups represent a small portion of the user population, their opinion may not represent the views of users who did not participate in the focus groups. However, the majority of NGO staff members who work with the cookstove communities was present for the staff focus groups, and therefore provide a representative opinion of the organization.
The stove user interviews consisted of a large collection of women, some men, and periodically children from the village. We initially intended to recruit roughly five to ten women for the groups; however, it was extremely difficult to limit the number of participating women and men. Each focus group was larger than initially intended. The focus groups were organized by the NGOs and, although the research team stressed limiting the number of participants, it was difficult to do so because the majority of the village users wanted to participate. The majority of the focus groups consisted of roughly twenty people with some reaching thirty-five village members and lasting between fifty to eighty minutes. Questions were asked by the entire research team and covered a number of topics. Due to a language barrier, all the questions and answers were translated by an NGO staff member to English. NGO-1 stove users spoke Kannada and NGO-2 stove users either spoke their native language or Telugu. Because of the questions and answers being translated, quotes presented here should not be considered verbatim, but rather summaries of answers. The stove user interviews
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were conducted in the villagers homes and were recorded and transcribed at the time of the focus group.
NGO staff focus groups were conducted over the course of multiple sessions. Along with each focus group for the staff of each NGO, a combined staff focus group with staff members from both NGOs was conducted at the end of the research trip. This allowed staff from both NGOs to share ideas and respond to each others answers, creating an in-depth and lengthy discussion.
As stated previously, there were a limited number of questions reserved for this particular research question, since the focus groups were primarily designed for Professor Simon's research. There were typically two to four questions asked in each stove user focus group and a similar number for the NGO focus groups. The stove user questions asked were:
Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future?
Would you be willing to purchase your next clean cookstove?
The NGO staff focus group questions asked were:
In your opinion, what are the most significant challenges or difficulties in implementing an effective clean cookstove project?
What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove use?
NGO-2 arranged for a focus group containing villagers who monitor and help maintain the clean cookstoves. These individuals, all men, are both stove users and provide stove maintenance. They have a unique role for NGO-2s
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operation and their insight was extremely valuable. The questions that were asked to them were:
What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove
use?
Do you find that people want to continue to use this stove in the future?
In your opinion, what factors lead to long-term stove use?
Due to the limited number of questions and the language barriers, these questions were open-ended to enable the interviewees to give their honest opinion, without being led by the question. The NGOs are experts in clean cookstove implementation and have a wide range of opinions on this research topic, and their answers did not need to be guided by the question. I believe this goal was met as the discussions lasted ten to twenty minutes and covered a variety of topics.
Focus Group Analysis
The focus groups responses were transcribed during the interviews, and all the user focus groups were recorded. The focus groups with NGO staff members were not recorded, but they were transcribed as the discussion occurred. The user focus groups were recorded due to the language barrier and the need to verify any missed translations. This was not needed during the NGO staff focus groups, because the vast majority of the staff spoke English, and if something needed to be repeated or clarified, it was easily restated.
The process for analyzing the quotes consisted of four main steps. The first step was to organize all the quotes by question. Each focus group was given a
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distinct color and each response was appropriately assigned the coordinating color. A text document was created for this process.
The second step was transcribing the quotes to index cards. The index cards were placed on a large table and grouped together by the focus group, such as NGO-1 staff focus group or NGO-1 first user focus group. Quotes were then grouped together based on the subject of the quote, such as education or finance. This allowed categories to form based on what the staff and stove users mentioned and not by the researchers own perceptions of the topic. This method resulted in four main categories: Finance, Maintenance, Usability/Education, and Affordability/Availability.
The third step was to organize the quotes in a word processing document based on the categorization of the notecards. The number of quotes in each category were counted and placed into a spreadsheet. This spreadsheet table contained the number of times each NGO staff or stove user referenced a particular category. Each quote was organized into one category. There were, at times, quotes that could fit into multiple categories. In those cases, the quote was broken into multiple quotes, if possible, which were then placed into the appropriate category. Both NGO-1 Staff and NGO-2 Staff quotes were compiled, whether they occurred in one focus group sitting or in multiple sittings. The stove user focus groups were combined into a single group. While this represented a small amount of qualitative data, it may show trends of what the users find important and what the NGO staff find important for long-term stove use.
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The fourth and final step is further analysis, such as comparing NGO staff quotes to stove user quotes and comparing NGO-1 quotes to NGO-2 quotes. Survey Development
When designing the survey, the willingness of the organizations to take the survey was instrumental in how the survey was constructed. Furthermore, due to the survey being in English, the questions had to be worded so that someone whose native language is not English would be able to clearly understand the meaning of the questions.
The four categories (education, stove user input and feedback, institutional support, and financing) of the survey were decided through review of existing literature and discussions with other researchers in the field. Each of the categories represent important considerations in efforts to encourage long-term use.
The survey is organized into three main sections: 1) Background, 2) Categories, and 3) Open Ended Questions. The bulk of the survey is in the second section, Categories. This section is the foundation of the survey and is made up by the four categories; education, stove user input and feedback, institutional support, and financing. Each category consists of three questions, with the first asking the organization to rate the category on importance. The following two questions are unique per category and they attempt to clarify a specific detail, such as what will be the biggest financial investment for household adopters. Each category includes a short description of the meaning
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of certain terms. Hopefully this helped clarify any confusing terms that may exist for the survey takers. The descriptions of each category are given below:
Education refers to how your organization educates target households about the benefits, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information.
Feedback and stove user input refers to the information collected from target and current households about clean cookstoves.
Institutional support refers to support given from any outside actor.
Support could be in the form of implementation plans, financial contributors, and any other support.
Financing refers to how target and current clean cookstoves households are able to afford a clean cookstove. This could be in the form of subsidized cookstoves.
The last section consisted of open ended questions. This section allows the stove taker to include any additional thoughts and potential categories that were not included in the survey.
Survey Analysis
The survey and data were collected through Qualtrics, an online survey developer and data manager. The data was examined for trends or commonalities. The open ended questions will allow other factors that were not mentioned in survey to be discussed by the respondents.
Problems and Limitations
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This research project encountered numerous problems throughout the entire process. The original intent of the project was to survey ten to twenty NGOs and a collection of each NGOs employees who distribute clean cookstoves in India. However, due to a number of problems that arose with this, including the main problem of getting the NGOs to take the survey, the project slightly shifted in methods to focus group interviews. This is the challenge of researching and surveying international organizations. If I was able to develop stronger relationships with these organizations it may have allowed them to feel comfortable taking my survey. However, by shifting the methods, it allowed the NGOs to dictate the factors that influence long-term use of cookstoves, rather than a researcher. This allowed for other factors that influence long-term stove use to arise, such as maintenance. However, surveying a large number of NGOs and their employees is still a worthwhile research opportunity. With the foundation this research provides, a future survey would be better organized due to the knowledge that was gained by these focus groups.
When developing the survey, I wanted to keep the survey short enough to not take too much of the NGOs staff time. Their time is valuable and the desire to respect their time is always important. Being able to ask more in-depth questions would have provided the opportunity to include more detailed statistical analysis. However, there has to be balance, and while more questions would lead to more analysis, the survey along with the focus groups have enough questions to answer the research question.
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The focus groups were organized for Professor Simon's research questions. Professor Simon allowed two to four of the questions to be reserved for my specific research question. These two to four questions were a small percentage of the total number of questions asked. If the focus groups were solely dedicated to long-term stove use, further questions could have been asked.
By relying on the NGO to organize the focus groups, the team had little control over the number and who actually showed up to the focus group. Ideally five to seven stove users would have participated in each focus group, but in reality the majority of the village wanted to participate. It is difficult to know whether smaller focus groups would have elicited more conversation between the users; a few women dominated some focus groups. However, the large number may have allowed some users to feel more comfortable with a group of westerners which gave them confidence to voice their opinion.
The language barrier was a problem for both the survey and the focus groups. It may have allowed shorter responses than would otherwise be given in their native language for the survey. Requiring a translator meant that we were not able to understand the users from their voice. This caused at times to possibly miss some comments. Often users would speak as the translator was speaking to the research team. It was difficult to get the users to refrain from speaking when the translator spoke; meaning some comments may not have been translated. The translator often started the translation with she is basically
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saying..While having a translator was a necessity, some of the recorded
responses are probably not verbatim.
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CHAPTER IV
RESULTS/ANALYSIS
The following section will present the categorized data based on the process described in the methods section. Along with a table that demonstrates the variety of responses that was received, a short collection of focus group excerpts will be given as examples for each category that developed from analyzing the data.
Category & NGO Figures
Table 1 shows the number of quotes offered by different groups in the study, categorized by the subject of the quote. The table is organized by who referenced the categories of Finance, Maintenance, Usability/Education, Affordability/AvaWabWWy. For example, if an NGO-1 staff member gave a quote about Education that would constitute as one reference. The stove user references for each NGO are combined into one section. Each quote was filed into a single category.
Each Total represents the total number of quotes by combining the NGO staff quotes and the NGO stove users (including the monitoring team for NGO-2). NGO Staff Total is the total number of quotes that an NGO staff member made regardless of the whether the quote came from and NGO-1 staff or NGO-2 staff. The Stove Users Total follows the same logic as NGO Staff Total. Combined Total references the total number of quotes for a category.
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Finance Maintenance Usability/ Education Affordability/ Avai lability
NGO-1 Staff 0 0 9 5
NGO-1 Stove Users 0 0 5 7
Total: 0 0 14 12
NGO-2 Staff 4 9 12 1
NGO-2 Monitoring Team 0 5 5 3
NGO-2 Stove Users 0 0 2 2
Total: 4 14 19 6

NGO Staff Total: 4 9 21 6
Stove Users Total: 0 0 7 9
Combined Total: 4 14 33 18
table 1: Focus Group Reference Count
NGO-1 Staff never referenced financing in relation to long-term stove use, whereas NGO-2 Staff mentioned it four times, which was surprising. This may indicate that the difference in funding for their projects or that they simply view financing for cookstoves differently. However, the majority of the financing discussion arose during the combined NGO staff focus group, and NGO-1 only had one staff member represented. The lack of NGO-1 references on finance may just reflect the representatives opinion.
Similarly, NGO-1 Staff did not mention maintenance as a factor. This is likely due to the type of clean cookstove each NGO distributes. Cookstove-2 (NGO-2s stove) is not a free standing stove and has a chimney installed to their home. Cookstove-1 (NGO-Ts stove) is an independent free standing stove that does not have to be installed or connected to the structure. Cookstove-1 has a
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three to five year life expectancy and can more or less be easily replaced, whereas Cookstove-2 has a ten year life expectancy, and cannot be as easily replaced because of it being made and attached to the home. This difference in life expectancy and installation may indicate that NGO-2 needs to prioritize maintenance more than NGO-1.
Usability/education and affordability/availability are clearly important regardless of the stove user or NGO. All but one category (NGO-2 Staff references on affordability/availability) has more than one reference. While these two categories have more than the other two, usability/education has far more than affordability/availability.
Financing and maintenance categories lack any reference from stove users. This is not surprising as these two categories are inherently of interest to NGOs. These categories have impact on the stove users, but the stove users have very little agency in how these categories are implemented.
The following map (fig.8) visually shows the importance of each category based on the users, staff, and location. The total number of references for each category was determined by adding the stove users, staff, and the monitoring team (for NGO-2) references together. This number was divided by the total number of references for each NGO. For example, there were four finance references made by all NGO-2 groups. There were a total forty-three references for all categories by NGO-2. Therefore, four was divided by 43 to find the percentage of importance for finance.
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Selection of Quotes
The following are a series of excerpts from ten different focus groups. Not every excerpt is given here, but merely a small selection. The transcript can be found in Appendix A. Each NGO helped organize three focus group interviews with stove users in three separate villages. Along with these six focus groups, NGO-2 organized a focus group with a team that monitors and helps maintain the
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clean cookstoves. However, the bulk of these excerpts come from a focus group conducted with NGO staff members. The combined NGO staff focus group, focus group with NGO-1 and NGO-2 staff present, is not separated in this research as an independent group; rather the quotes are organized with the corresponding NGO. In total, the excerpts come from ten focus group interviews: NGO-1 has four related interviews and NGO-2 has five related interviews.
The sections will be organized by categories with the focus group code (mentioned above) succeeding the quote. Example of quotes will be given that generally summarize repeated sentiments. Furthermore, it is important to remember that the stove user focus group responses were translated; therefore they are not the users exact wording. English is not their first language for any survey or focus group responders. Minor grammatical corrections were done post transcribing for the focus groups responses, because they were transcribed in real-time. However, the survey responders wrote their own answers; therefore, no editing was done and there are numerous grammatical errors.
Financing
NGO-2 referenced financing four times during the focus groups. The majority of the discussions surrounded how financing impacts the operations of the NGO. The following is one example:
Maintenance would not be affordable without carbon finance, this is part of the project. However, the project would be far more flexible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if
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you use it this way or that, twice a day what have you. NGO-1 for examples goes to monitor every week to see if people use the stove. This would not be necessary. (NGO-2, male)
Financing was not mentioned by either NGO-2 or any of the stove user focus groups.
Maintenance
Maintenance was mentioned fourteen times throughout the focus groups, a relatively high number. The general sentiment was that maintenance is vital in order to keep the stoves operational. The following few quotes demonstrate this sentiment:
The stove requires weekly maintenance through application of new layers of mud as cracks form on the top. So the stove requires maintenance on a regular basis. (NGO-2, male)
They used to plaster with the cow dung, but the same thing was required with the traditional stove so this was not a big problem. (NGO-2, male)
The challenge with maintenance is cleaning out the chimney, people dont know what to do in order to clean it, so NGO-2 volunteers have to visit in order to clean them. (NGO-2, male)
For the traditional stove they could use for more than 10 to 15 years if it is well maintained. This new stove will only last 10 years and then will need to be reconstructed. (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male)
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Routine maintenance with the chimney is important. And the gate can crack so we have to fix this. If they change the kitchen rooms we have to reconstruct the stoves. (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male) Usability/Education
This section had a combined total of thirty-three references, the most of any category. It was also referenced during every focus group. Many noted the challenge in educating the users on how to use the stove, such as proper cooking techniques.
Cuisine is very uniform here, but when it comes to cooking, with the improved stove many people think that this is not good for roti because the flame is very focused, for roti they think it is best if the fire is wide and across entire pan so with Cookstove-1 one part of roti will cook very quickly and if you dont move the roti [a traditional flatbread] more often it will burn because the fire focuses in the center [of the stove]. (NGO-1, male)
There is a roti making competition using Cookstove-1 to help women learn to cook roti on Cookstove-1. For all problems, whether its real or if it's their perception, we tried to take these problems on. Then with competition we get everyone to know that it is possible, so with a group they can see together and learn very quickly, whereas with it is very difficult to explain if you go to each family individually. (NGO-1, male)
A common topic from NGOs and users was the challenge in cooking for a large family.
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They think that they cant cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on Cookstove-1, but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them. (NGO-1, male)
Big families think that they cannot cook big meals for many people on this stove, they want a stove where you can feed more wood and cook for many, there are many reasons they may not want the new stove at first. (NGO-1, male)
One area people are very happy with this stoves, they are using and it is fine, but another area people say it does not maybe cook enough, this is because the households are bigger in one area. (NGO-2, male)
The number of people for whom you can cook with this stove is limited, you cannot cook for more than 7 people, so this can be a difficulty. (NGO-2, male)
If there are many people at our house, for a gathering, we cook two or three times, and maybe we establish a three stone fire to cook more. (NGO-2 Focus Group #2, female)
Affordability/A vailability
This section was also referenced often, with eighteen total references. Every focus group referenced the importance of this category. Users noted that lacking a physical market to buy a stove was a problem for them.
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After the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go purchase a new one, yes we will go. (NGO-1 Focus Group #3, female)
When people go to market, they get everything for their household, but no market sells improved cookstoves. With this program we have come and we give the stoves, they are not available at the market so they are not familiar. Over time everything becomes familiar. (NGO-1, male)
Other users noted that their ability to acquire another stove will depend on if the stove is being subsidized.
Yes, we want to use the stove as much as we can. If we were given the stove again we will use it, but if it is not given we will go back to our old stove. No we will not be able to afford the stove if we need to buy it. (NGO-2 Focus Group #3, female)
Maybe for the same amount (200[rps]) if it is something similar we will do but if it is more we may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue. (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female)
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CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
The following discussion section focuses on what data (quotes and survey responses) and categories mean for the cookstove sector when it comes to longterm cookstove use. While some NGO staff believe these cookstoves are mainly a bridge until a better option is available, such as LPG or electricity, these cookstoves still need to be used consistently until that time. At this time, there is no clear idea about when these remote and poor communities will have consistent access to LPG or electricity, due to the cost and currently poor infrastructure.
This section will be organized into five categories: Assessing Demand, Financing, Maintenance, Usability/Education, and Affordability/Availability. Four of these were developed by grouping focus group quotes and survey results, a fifth category was added to show there is stove user demand for long-term clean cookstove use. Each category will first define the related terms, subdivide those categories into specific factors, determine if there is any interplay between the NGO and stove users, and discuss the impact these topics could have on the cookstove sector at large.
Assessing Demand
The first aspect for justifying the research questions is determining whether the stove users want to use their clean cookstove into the future. This question was answered repeatedly as yes, the current stove users want to continue to use their clean cookstove. For example, NGO-2 noted that once a couple
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Cookstove-2s were constructed the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove (NGO-2, male). The NGO-2 monitoring team noted that when people come to the village for weddings they are asking about the stove. While a consensus exists throughout both NGO stove users, some users expressed some caveats for acquiring a second stove. This indicates the need for NGOs to learn about their users cookstove needs. These caveats and needs generally fall within the stated categories and will be expressed throughout the following sections.
Financing
Financing is typically thought of in terms of funding from an outside source in order to distribute a certain number of cookstoves. However, financing allows these NGOs to accomplish more than just distribution, including stove monitoring and stove design. Factors such as subsidizing the stove and how the NGO project operates appear to impact stove users views on long-term use. The maintenance of stoves is definitely influenced by financing, but it will be discussed in a following section because of the importance that the NGOs and users placed on that topic
The online survey takers noted that Financing seemed to be the most important factor for long-stove use. One responder said that financing is needed to manufacture, install, and maintainthe cookstove (Survey Response, male). Another respondent elaborated upon this response and noted the importance for financing because once the project is over and if they require a new clean energy cookstoves it would require a substantial investment as compared to their
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traditional stove in the absence of carbon funding based support" (Survey Response, male).
Financing: Monitoring
Financing allows the NGOs to impact the intervention project through a wide array of aspects. One aspect is financing allows the NGO to monitor the stove on a regular basis. For NGO-2, this mainly falls on the ability to hire the monitoring team; however, for NGO-1, it is through weekly visits to the households. There are two parts to this monitoring: maintenance, which will be discussed later; and further understanding of the needs of the stove user communities. Because financing is typically accomplished through the carbon market, both NGOs note that it has shaped how, and the frequency with which they monitor the stoves.
NGO-2 acknowledges that the project would be far more flexible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if you use it this way or that, twice a day, what have you{NGO-2, male). While this comment appears to be a negative view on the requirements carbon financing imposes on the NGOs, by forcing them to spend time and money monitoring the stove, its benefit is that it forces the NGOs to spend more time in the communities and households. For example, NGO-1 visits the households weekly, which allows it to develop a better understanding of the needs of the households. As is discussed in the Usability/Education section, making sure the households know how to
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properly use the cookstove is important. This understanding is directly related to how financing forces the NGO to regularly monitor the users stove use. Financing: Stove Design
Along with monitoring, financing allows the NGOs to listen to the users opinions about what stove design is ideal and what the users need. This desire to match the users needs is noted by NGO-2, but it also acknowledges the difficulties in meeting household requests. There is a relationship between the NGOs distributing one type of stove and the number of stoves distributed. While there is a desire to build a custom stove to meet each household, NGO-2 states if we change the model to each ones needs, I need different molds, where it becomes expensive for us, and I may not be able to repay the loan (NGO-2, male). Meaning, if they did try to meet the needs of each household, their costs would increase dramatically. With higher costs, they would not be able to distribute the same number of cookstoves, thus limiting the number households. Because financing requires a certain amount of carbon savings, it forces the NGOs to distribute a single stove type. This allows them to distribute more stoves, but by distributing one type they are not able to meet the individual needs at times.
By distributing a single stove type, the NGOs are able to consistently refine and tweak the stove. If NGOs were able to distribute multiple stove types, it may result in a couple of outcomes: (1) the NGO may be unable to tweak their stove to meet user feedback; and (2) as stated by an NGO-2 staff member, less households would have the option to adopt a clean cookstove. Through the
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demands that carbon financing put on the NGOs, it forces the NGOs to distribute a single stove type. This forces the NGO to choose or design a stove type in which they have high confidence. NGOs can now modify and refine their stove based on user feedback. An increase in financing may allow NGOs to adjust to user feedback, which would likely increase the users likelihood to use the stove long-term.
Financing: Stove Sector Impact
Financing heavily influences both of these topics. While the obvious influence of financing is the users ability to afford the stove, which is discussed later, there are more subtle ways in which financing impacts how the NGOs operate their projects. Financing, particularly through the carbon market, has forced the NGOs to monitor the stoves, which in turn, ensures the users are using and maintaining the stoves properly. These aspects are imperative for the users to want to use the stoves long-term. Financing, as discussed, forces the NGOs to distribute one type of stove, allowing them to reach more households, and refine a single stove type that will hopefully meet the needs of users. Maintenance
Maintenance refers to the ability of the NGOs to maintain the stoves, such as the monitoring team implemented by NGO-2, the importance of maintaining the stove appropriately, and how maintenance has led to further understanding of stove users by the NGOs. NGO-2 notes that the follow-up is the most critical aspect{NGO-2, male). It is not enough to simply install the stoves; they need to be maintained properly if the user is to be confident in this technology.
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Maintenance was rarely mentioned by the stove users and did not create extensive conversations as did other topics; however, the information that arose from these discussions provides an important perspective. Even though maintenance was not mentioned during the focus groups, the survey takers noted that stove users mention durability when the survey asked what type of feedback the NGOs receive from users. When asking the NGO-2 monitoring team what is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove use, multiple individuals indicated that routine maintenance is important, particularly with the chimney. While maintenance is important for NGO-1, due to the differences between how Cookstove-1 and Cookstove-2 are constructed, maintenance was discussed more with NGO-2.
Cookstove-1 is a self-standing stove that can be moved when needed. Cookstove-2 is physically connected to the house with the house needing some renovations in order to accommodate the chimney. Because of this difference, Cookstove-2 requires more initial commitment from the families. It would be more difficult for NGO-2 stove users to remove their stove than the free standing Cookstove-1 that NGO-1 users have. When properly maintained Cookstove-2 can last ten years. The monitoring team noted that because the users apply the cow dung everyday this is a form of stove maintenance (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male).
Maintenance: Stove Sector Impact
Maintenance, while not widely discussed by stove users, is imperative for the users to feel comfortable with using the stove long-term. They are not going
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to invest in a stove if the stove does not last; maintenance ensures that the stove
will last. NGO-2 realizes the importance of durability and therefore changed the material of the stove. By changing the material it's much more robust than the mud model" (NGO-2, male) and therefore fewer cracks develop. Theoretically, this change in material should reduce the amount of maintenance needed and increase the confidence by the users in the stoves durability. If the user is not confident in the stove, the likelihood they would be willing to buy or want a future cookstove would be diminished.
During a long discussion with both NGO-1 and NGO-2 present, the conversation shifted to the frequency of maintenance visits by the NGOs. NGO-1 has to visit weekly to ensure proper usage and provide consistent maintenance for the Cookstove-1. While some users expressed that the visits were too frequent, it has provided the NGOs the ability to learn about the community and build stronger relationships between the users and the NGOs. This was mirrored with NGO-2, which does not need to visit the users as often. However, as was often noted to Professor Simon's research team, by having frequent communication, it has allowed the NGOs to learn about the community needs, such as wanting the stove to be able to cook for a larger family. The monitoring team noted that this stove is only a starting point in a larger development agenda, the NGO who has given you this stove may work here in the future, and now you have membership in this community and have developed a relationship, so other projects and benefits may become available to you in the future. We will first explain the benefits of this stove like the health, first this he will explain, after
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that you may get a drinking water filter, so there are benefits they may receive in the future {NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male). By the NGO providing other resources besides a cookstove, a community may be more willing to continue to use a cookstove if they know other development benefits may come in the future. Usability/Education
Education refers to how the NGOs educate target households about the benefits, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information. Along with general information about the cookstove, it also refers to how education on how to operate the stove, the use of different cooking techniques, daily maintenance practice, and other stove use knowledge. For both the stove users and NGOs, there is a direct correlation between how the stove users use the stove and how the NGO educates the users.
Usability/Education: Comfortability
Comfortability means that the users understand and feel comfortable using the clean cookstove. Without them being comfortable using the stove, the likelihood of them wanting to use a clean cookstove long-term will be diminished. Their comfort appears to transfer to other non-stove users and communities. By their acceptance of the technology and comfort using the stove, it creates a demand from non-stove users. An NGO-2 staff member stated we started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove{NGO-2, male). As part of developing this demand, NGO-2 developed Cookstove-2 to aesthetically look similar to the
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communities traditional stove. This aesthetic appears to make it easier for stove users to be more comfortable with their new stove. As one user noted, that besides cooking practices, the use of the mud stove makes it easier for people to adapt their cooking and ritual practices to it, the similar mud stove is important (NGO-2, male).
NGO-1 noted that besides the women in the household accepting and being comfortable with the stove, the males need to be just as comfortable with the stove. Mens comfort needs appear to be slightly different from womens.
They want the food to taste the same compared to the traditional stove, which can be a challenge, due to the reduction in indoor smoke the food may taste less smoky. This does not mean that men do not see the benefits the stove provides women, but his opinion is vital if the stove is to remain in the home. NGO-1 noted if the husband will say the taste is not okay. Women will usually go back to the old stove if the man says so, he has the ability to enforce his opinion. Women have used the stove but if the husband says no then they will stop using it (NGO-1, male).
Usability/Education: Large Family Cooking
There is a unique give-and-take between education and usability. Based on numerous quotes from both NGO stove users, there is a demand for bigger stoves that can accommodate cooking for larger groups of people. While there is a demand for long-term use, as one female user stated all those small families will continue to use this stove, but not larger families, we will use it but because this is a small stove I can only put a few sticks and I can only cook a small meal
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and I want to cook a big meal(NGO-1 Focus Group #2, female). Another female stove user had a similar sentiment when it comes to needing a larger stove, but she also seems to associate a bigger stove with stability. This user stated next stove we want a bigger stove and also more stability. Sometimes our people cook rice and you are supposed to pour out the excess water which is tricky with [Cookstove-1] because the stove may tip, it is not stable enough so new stove should be more sturdy {NGO-1 Focus Group #2, female).
These comments contradict what the NGO staff states. While the stability in relation to the size of the stove was not expressed by NGO-2 stove users, both NGOs commented that by educating the users on better user habits the stoves could cook for larger families. A male NGO-1 staff member stated they think that they cant cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on [Cookstove-1], but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them(NGO-1, male).
What is unclear is whether the issue for cooking for larger groups is merely a lack in educating the users or the stove lacking the capability to cook for larger families. As is shown, the NGOs repeatedly expressed that once the users are shown how to cook for larger families, it is not a problem. More than likely, this sentiment is wishful thinking by the NGO. Based on one comment from a male NGO-2 staff member, it appears it is more than likely an issue with the stove. He commented after a female stove user expressed concern over the capability of the stove cooking for larger amounts of people by stating in this village, the
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households are quite small with only 4 or 5 people, so here there is not much of an issue cooking for the whole familyin other villages, many households are 10 or so people, making it difficult to cook for everyone at once. The stoves in this village were installed knowing that only cooking for 4 or 5 people (NGO-2, male).
Even though these comments indicate that Cookstove-2 does have limitations for large family cooking, the truth is probably in the middle. There are instances in which the NGO could do a better job of educating the users how to cook for a large family. However, it is clear that both of these stoves, Cookstove-1 and Cookstove-2, do have limitations for large family cooking. What was not answered by these quotes is the size of the family that these cookstoves can accommodate. Is ten people considered the baseline for a large household, or is it closer to seven or eight? By not having a stove that can cook for a larger family, it may limit the number of families willing to use the cookstove long-term. The ability to cook for a larger family appears to be imperative for a number of stove users.
Usability/Education: Stove Sector Impact
These stove user concerns indicate that another category is important, but it did not arise through this research, Stove User Input and Feedback. If these stoves are to be used long-term, the NGO and stove manufacturers need to listen to the needs and critiques by the stove users. Stove design, which was discussed in the Financing section, impacts the stoves Usability The stove design section deals with how financing impacts the NGOs ability to design a stove, which differs from how the stoves functionality impacts the usability. A
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good stove design will result in meeting the users needs which increases the usability of the stove. Cookstoves need to meet the needs, and expectations of the users, otherwise, NGOs risk stove users reverting back to their traditional cookstove. This was explicitly discussed when NGO-2 switched from one mold material to another. NGO-2 stated when they switched materials of the Cookstove-2 mold, it"increased the size of it [of the stove], so we have the opposite problem if the family size is too small. So there is a plate you can place over the opening to reduce the size of the stove (NGO-2, male). They have listened to the demands of the stove users; they made a switch in material that allowed them to increase the stove size, thus increasing the ability to cook for a large family.
Affordability/Availability
Affordability/Availability is grouped together because they both deal with the ability of the stove users to acquire another stove. It refers to the price of a new stove, how and where they can acquire a new stove, and if they can afford to acquire another stove.
Affordability/Availability: Stove Market
The lack of a physical location to purchase a clean cookstoves was noted multiple times by stove users. This is expressed mainly with NGO-1 stove users. When asked if she wanted to continue to use this stove in the future and if she would be willing to purchase her next clean cookstove, a woman answered after the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go to purchase a new one, yes we will go (NGO-1 Focus Group #3, female). Currently, the only way the users get
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access to a clean cookstove is through the NGO, and without the NGO, they will currently not be able to get another stove.
Another woman in response to the same question in the above paragraph answered yes, we will use it but we dont know when the stoves will be available from the facility but if they are available we would like to use the new stove" (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female). The lack of access is a problem for some users. Furthermore, if the NGO is no longer distributing clean cookstoves, their access may be limited. This dependency on the NGO and lack of a physical place to purchase a clean cookstove is a problem.
It is unclear whether this problem is driven directly by lack of a market or if the lack of the ability to choose the type of clean cookstove is the driving force for this sentiment. This lack of choice was not directly mentioned during the focus groups. However, this sentiment was prevalent through their quotes as many users expressed the benefits of having multiple types of cookstoves in their household. An NGO-1 staff member stated, "some houses have 5 stovesstove stacking is because no single fuel source is fully reliableinduction, LPG, or biomass. Cost factorwill not use LPG to boil water because gas is precious often 3-stone stove will be used because fuel is low cost or free" (NGO-1, male). They may want a market to be able to view other cookstoves and choose the one that meets their family needs. As was discussed earlier in the Affordability/ Education section, users feel the current cookstove does not allow them to cook for large families. Having a market may allow these families to find an appropriate stove model.
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Affordability/A vailability: Stability
The concept of stability refers to the type of fuel that is used for clean cookstoves. Biomass, such as wood, provides users with consistent availability to a fuel source that is typically free. However, there is a sentiment, which was expressed by a male NGO-1 staff member and by stove users, that they view clean cookstoves as bridge fuel(NGO-1, male). As stated earlier, even if clean cookstoves are a bridge until a more permanent fuel source is delivered, these cookstoves need to last until that moment. Currently, it is not clear when that moment will come.
Having a stove that gives the users consistent access to fuel provides a sense of comfort with the stove. As many hope that LPG stoves will be coming soon to their community, LPG brings new challenges for the users. One challenge is being able to provide consistent LPG to the users. A male NGO-1 staff member stated that even if LPG comes, people will continue to use traditional stoves for some cooking. So gas/electric stoves are very much not free, you have to pay for electricity and cylinders. So there is an affordability part of it, the government may subsidize these fuels in the initial stages, but how frequently they replenish the cylinders depends on how willing people are to pay (NGO-1, male). He continues and asserts that the users will not use LPG for everything because they view the LPG as precious, and they will and want to stove stack. They want to have a biomass clean cookstove, an LPG stove for certain items (such as tea), and potentially an electric stove for other uses.
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This is why the stability of the biomass fuel is so important. Biomass provides the users with free fuel. As long as people continue to get free fuel wood, they wont shift completely to LPG or electric. If wood is free, gas will not be the primary fuel (NGO-1, male). The thought that stove users will not continue to use a clean cookstove is not accurate. Clean cookstoves will need to be used long-term until the users have access to a consistent fuel source like biomass provides. These households are already on a low income, as demonstrated in the above quote, they will not completely shift away from biomass fuels because the fuel source is free. The NGO-2 monitoring team emphasized this. One member, in response to a question about whether, if the government comes with gas, that member would prefer that instead answered, yes, but the gas itself is very expensive, and even if it was cheap maybe you have to walk 150 km to locate a cylinder, and therefore it is impractical (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male).
Affordability/A vailability: Affordability
The most obvious part of this section is whether the users will be able to afford a second clean cookstove. Answers to this question varied from household to household, regardless of the user being from Karnataka or Andhra Pradesh. Some stated that for a certain price they would buy, one woman stated 200 rupees, which is what they paid for their current cookstove. However, she noted that if it was more expensive, they may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female). Others expressed that they
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would simply like to continue to use the stove, but did not mention any concerns about pricing.
There were similar responses from NGO-2 stove users. However, one female user did state that unless the second stove was given to them for free, they would revert back to their traditional stove. She states no, we will not be able afford the stove if we need to buy it (NGO-2 Focus Group #3, female).
While there appears to be a nearly universal demand from stove users in wanting to continue to use the stoves, being able to provide the stoves at a reasonable price could be a challenge. Survey takers were not unanimous on whether financing would be available for a second cookstove, two responders said maybe. It is currently unclear whether financing would be available, and if financing were not available, if the users would be able to afford a second cookstoves.
Affordability/Availability: Stove Sector Impact
Affordability/Availability \s a wide ranging issue that encompasses many different aspects and challenges for NGOs. They all deal with access, whether it is access to a stove market, to fuel, or to purchasing a stove. Without access, stove users will find it a challenge to use a clean cookstove long-term. Stove users want a physical market to buy a stove, but if stoves are offered in a market, there is a good chance they will not be subsidized. If they are subsidized, which makes them affordable, they will not be offered in a market as long as the financing is through the carbon market, which requires a level of carbon offset monitoring.
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Because cookstoves are currently tied to the carbon market, the likelihood of a physical market for individual users to purchase a cookstove is very low. Therefore, creating a scenario for individuals to purchase an affordable cookstove seems unlikely unless it is provided by an NGO. This creates a demand for NGOs to continue to distribute cookstoves to current stove users. Whether NGOs plan to do that is unclear. This sentiment was mentioned by a survey responder, noting that it SnouIcI require a substantial investment as compared to their traditional stove in the absence of carbon funding" (Survey Response, male).
Differences From Initial Adoption
Many of these factors are important for initial adoption of clean cookstoves and long-term use. Some of the differences are subtle while others have distinct differences. The stability of biomass as fuel remains for both traditional and clean cookstoves. This is a shared factor between initial adoption and long-term use. However, factors such as the lack of a stove market is created by users wanting to use their clean cookstove long-term. The demand for a physical place to purchase a clean cookstoves would not exist without users having a clean cookstove. Maintenance is another factor that is independent from initial adoption. Without having clean cookstoves, maintaining a clean cookstove would obviously not be an issue.
A shared factor between initial adoption and long-term use is usability. For users to adopt a clean cookstove, the stove has to be usable in their eyes However, I argue the user's comfortability with the stove has to positively evolve
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throughout their experience. While, this is a shared factor, it is different for longterm use. Usability is connected to NGOs responding to stove users' feedback. For some users, the stove needs to be slightly modified for them to use it longterm, such as making it easier to cook for larger families. NGOs need to listen to feedback to meet the users' needs.
Education is another factor that is important for both initial adoption and long-term use, but the type of education is different. During discussions with both NGOs, during the initial adoption phase, the users were educated about the benefits of the stove. Once the stove users have the stove, education shifts to proper use and maintenance. The global benefits, such as fighting climate change, seem to be not as important once they have the stove. Education has to be a continuous throughout the users' experience with their stoves. It cannot be a static, short-term process.
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CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
Long-term clean cookstove use has similar factors with initial uptake of cookstoves. However, the factors discussed in this research are focused on when users already have a clean cookstove, at the mid-stage of an intervention project. While some factors have similar significance with initial uptake, their significance is different at this mid-stage point. This research has shown what factors are important for long-term stove use and what factors differ from the initial adoption.
This research has found numerous factors share commonalities between initial adoption and long-term stove use. Many of the factors need to be implemented by the NGO differently from the initial adoption phase for long-term stove use. Education needs to happen at both points, during the initial adoption and throughout the users use of the stoves. However, what is being educated is different. Availability and maintenance are new factors that are not present during the initial adoption phase. These factors are present because the households are using a clean cookstove and there is a demand for access to future clean cookstoves.
Transferable Long-Term Use Factors
What are the best practices for creating long-term clean cookstove use? The answer is still murky and complicated. There is a demand for clean cookstoves by current users. They want to continue to use a clean cookstove under certain requirements. The survey takers did not offer any other factors for
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long-term stove use than the categories mentioned in the survey. This may mean that the categories discussed in this research are the main leading factors for long-term stove use. Based on my analysis there are a number of factors that appear to be transferrable between geographic locations that are important for long-term stove use. They are:
The cookstoves have to be affordable, whether that means free or at a subsidized price. Users will not be able to afford a full priced clean cookstove and expecting users to pay full price will result in users reverting back to a traditional cookstove.
NGOs need to offer future clean cookstoves to their current users.
The current financing model relies on NGOs to distribute clean cookstoves. Without NGOs distributing the stoves, users will not have access to a future clean cookstove. Furthermore, NGOs who distribute clean cookstoves, such as those who were part of this research, are the experts in their community and within the development field. Their knowledge is invaluable in creating long-term stove use. They understand the contextual challenges that each community and household provides. Education is a necessity for any successful implementation project. Users must know the benefits the stove provides, how to properly use the stove, and how to maintain their stove. As stove users become more knowledgeable about their stove and are using the stove properly, their confidence in the stove increases. With an increase in confidence, they appear more likely to want to continue to use the stove. Furthermore,
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when the users have a high level of confidence it appears to transfer to non-stove users, creating a non-stove user demand.
Maintenance is important for the confidence of the user. The users need to be confident the stove will last years and will operate appropriately. With poor maintenance, the stove will not be durable and the user will be less likely to want to buy or acquire another stove. Furthermore, by needing consistent visits to households for maintenance, NGOs learn about the needs of the communities and households, opening the door for future development projects.
An aspect that was not its own category in this research, but is interwoven through the majority of the categories, is that stove user feedback is important. This category was on the survey, but did not clearly become evident during the focus groups; however, each survey responder noted it to be extremely important for long-term stove use. Furthermore, one responder stated feedback is extremely essential because feedback is the good tool to know the how this project really helpful to community whether it is use full or not" (Survey Response). Clean cookstoves have to meet the needs and expectations of the users. Organizations who distribute clean cookstoves need to listen to the users in order to meet future expectations. Users will use a stove that is convenient, affordable, usable, and available. By listening to the users, NGOs can meet the majority of these expectations. NGO-2 is a great example of responding to stove user feedback. By switching Cookstove-2
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mold materials, it allowed them to increase the burner-hole size which
made larger family cooking easier. Then, they provided the users with a plate to reduce the opening when needed. This is an example of meeting the users demands, which needs to be done for long-term use.
These categories appear to be transferrable; they received similar comments from each NGO. While clean cookstove implementation projects are and should remain context-driven, hopefully this research can begin the process of sharing ideas between NGOs.
Future Research
This research is merely the beginning of what could be the foundation for future research projects. Clearly, this research needs to be expanded to include more than two NGOs. By expanding to more NGOs, whether they are in India or other countries, it would provide a more complete picture of how different NGOs feel about long-term use in different environments and geographic regions. Ideally this research would develop into a practical reference guide for NGOs who are starting intervention projects. While the implementation of clean cookstoves is extremely context-dependent, with different environments and communities having different needs, I believe there are some transferrable factors between locales. This is not to say that these transferrable factors should be implemented the same way for each locale, but NGOs can and should learn from other NGOs. It was apparent in my January 2017 research trip to India that communication between NGOs can lead to the sharing of ideas. The ability for NGOs to share successful working practices and unsuccessful practices is vital.
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Hopefully, future research can help facilitate the sharing of these practices.
Along with expanding the research, these categories could be further researched. For example, it may be beneficial to explore solely how education impacts long-term stove use. Analyzing how different NGOs educate their users and seeing if there are any transferrable practices between them may be worthy research. Another potential research topic could focus on how the stoves are developed, analyzing how much impact stove user feedback actually has on the stove physical development. It is one thing for an NGO to say we listen to the users feedback, but it is another thing to actually take that feedback and implement it in future stoves.
Clean cookstove intervention projects are inherently personal and intimate. These projects impact the heart of the home, the kitchen, and for some, a spiritual place. If clean cookstoves are to be used long-term, the users opinions need to be heard and attempted to be met. This research has found what factors influence long-term stove use for the users and the NGOs that operate the intervention projects. The workers of the NGOs appear to be altruistic; the staff wants to help the households because they believe in the work. I hope this research will help the NGOs provide a quality intervention program for stove users. I would like to end with a quote that caused everyone, the researchers, the NGOs, and all the stove users to break out laughing during one of the focus groups. In response to this question: do you want to continue to use your clean cookstove in the future?, a woman responded:
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Yes, we would like to continue to use this stove in the future, everyone agrees we would like to continue to use the stove (NGO-2 Focus Group #1).
A male NGO-2 staff jokingly responded:
I can take your chimney may I have it?
The female user quipped back:
No you may not have it! You have offered this to me and you can never take it! (NGO-2 Focus Group #1)
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APPENDIX
Appendix A: Focus Group Transcript
NGO-1 Staff
In your opinion, what are the most significant challenges or difficulties in
implementing an effective clean cookstove project?
They think that they cant cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on [Cookstove-1], but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them.
Another challenge is that the improved stove the removal of ash is critical to ensure the free flow of air, so that the wood will burn properly, whereas with traditional stoves they dont continually take out they ash, they traditionally leave embers burning with the stove warm so it will light easily later, with the improved stove we advise them to remove ash and light anew each time. So there are new habits/skills required, the new stoves expect a certain way of using and people are not ready or willing to learn, but the stove requires changes in such practices.
Cuisine is very uniform here, but when it comes to cooking, with the improved stove many people think that this is not good for roti because the flame is very focused, for roti they think it is best if the fire is wide and across entire pan so with [Cookstove-1] one part of roti will cook very quickly and if you dont move the roti more often it will burn because the fire focuses in the center [of the stove].
While one roti is cooking they begin to prepare the next roti, with the traditional stove this is no problem, but with [Cookstove-1] you have to monitor the roti on the stove so that it doesnt burn.
Others however have adapted and learned to cook roti and all other things on [Cookstove-1], I have learned that I have to keep watching this roti then okay thats also fine. Some people were used to not watching the roti and so this is causing problems for them. Women have to learn to get enough speed to do both, whereas before one could do it more leisurely. You know like each of us we have different patience levels.
There is a roti making competition using [Cookstove-1] to help women learn to cook roti on [Cookstove-1]. For all problems, whether its real or if it's their perception, we tried to take these problems on. Then with competition we get everyone to know that it is possible, so with a group they can see together and learn very quickly, whereas with it is very difficult to explain if you go to each family individually.
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Big families think that they cannot cook big meals for many people on this stove, they want a stove where you can feed more wood and cook for many, there are many reasons they may not want the new stove at first.
Some families cook food for the cattle and animals also hence they want a bigger stove, [Cookstove-1] is too small of a stove.
Husband will say the taste is not okay. Women will usually go back to the old stove if the man says so, he has the ability to enforce his opinion. Women have used the stove but if the husband says no then they will stop using it. So cookstoves can cause conflict within families when men disagree.
Some houses have 5 stovesstove stacking is because no single fuel source is fully reliableinduction, LPG, or biomass. Cost factorwill not use LPG to boil water because gas is preciousoften 3-stone stove will be used because fuel is low cost or free.
With some villages they are now going to provide 24 hour power supply to city. Because of this improvement, more number of families are buying electric stoves, so people are changing to this stove as well.
Clean cookstoves as bridge fuel.
What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? Trends are changing a little, now peoples interest is moving towards LPG, it looks like after 5 years or so a lot of people move on to LPG stoves.
When people go to market, they get everything for their household, but no market sells improved cookstoves. With this program we have come and we give the stoves, they are not available at the market so they are not familiar. Over time everything becomes familiar.
Yes, people will move towards these new stoves, but it's not a complete 100% shift, for example some families have two or three types of stove.
So even if LPG comes, people will continue to use traditional stoves for some cooking. So gas/electric stoves are very much not free, you have to pay for electricity and cylinders. So there is an affordability part of it, the government may subsidize these fuels in the initial stages, but how frequently they replenish the cylinders depends on how willing people are to pay, so they use LPG only purely for coffee and tea and they continue to use the biomass stoves. There are not as many families who already use LPG for all their cooking.
This also down the line, it's not immediate, its takes a number of years to implement.
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As long as people continue to get free fuel wood, they wont shift completely to LPG or electric. If wood is free, gas will not be the primary fuel.
With some villages they are now going to provide 24 hour power supply to city. Because of this improvement, more number of families are buying electric stoves, so people are changing to this stove as well.
If the cost of new stoves is more like traditional stove people will be willing to use it, but if it is more expensive like current market prices they will not be willing.
NGO-1 Users
Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future? Would you be willing to purchase your next clean cookstove?
Yes, we will use it but we dont know when the stoves will be available from the facility but if they are available we would like to use the new stove.
Maybe for the same amount [200 rupees] if it is something similar we will do but if it is more we may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue.
Yes, it has become a habit so now we want the same one.
Actually, all those small families will continue to use this stove, but not larger families, we will use it but because this is a small stove I can only put a few sticks and I can only cook a small meal and I want to cook a big meal.
Also, the LPG scheme is coming so should I not wait for this gas stove?
Next stove we want a bigger stove and also more stability. Sometimes our people cook rice and you are supposed to pour out the excess water which is tricky with [Cookstove-1] because the stove may tip, it is not stable enough so new stove should be more sturdy.
We own a village restaurant and Cookstove-1 cannot cook for big meals every day
NGO-1 Staff: Yes, but [Cookstove-1] is not designed for a restaurant, for a small family it is sufficient says NGO-1.
We would like to continue using this stove.
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After the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go to purchase a new one, yes we will go.
If we really want it and we have to buy it, well see what the price will be.
Is there anything you dont like about your new stove?
Lighting can be tricky but once you light it the fire will be there and so it is easier to cook. Once you light it you dont need to keep on lighting etc
New stoves, once we get used to them they look nice, but old stoves also they have been used for many years and also they look nice, biggest difference is traditional stoves are fixed and stable, whereas portable stove is less sturdy.
The [Cookstove-1] is good for small households, not for big families.
It requires adaptation, not everyone finds it easy to light this stove, it requires a different skill, they must small pieces of wood and.
NGO-2 Staff
In your opinion, what are the most significant challenges or difficulties in implementing an effective clean cookstove project?
The first thing the technology is new and very different from their old stove, they have used it for many years so they have a relationship with their old stove and suddenly we give this new stove, they havent seen any of our types of stoves so they have many question like the cooking is different or will the house be damaged.
In some villages the leader was not willing to accept the stove at first so we had to hold meetings in order to inform everyone about the benefits of the stove. Because they had no idea about the stove, they were not aware of the benefits, and that is why they were at first not willing. But after construction people see and then they demand these stoves, demand is coming right now. We started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove.
One area people are very happy with this stoves, they are using and it is fine, but another area people say it does not maybe cook enough, this is because the households are bigger in one area.
Maintenance would not be affordable without carbon finance, this is part of the project. However, the project would be far more flexible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if
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you use it this way or that, twice a day what have you. NGO-1 for examples goes to monitor every week to see if people use the stove. This would not be necessary.
[Cookstove-2] would be designed differently if carbon was not necessary.
If I was not tied in by my carbon obligations, because every rupee I put in is tied to my returns. Otherwise every stove would be tailor made for each households needs. But if we do this I am not sure I can recuperate my costs, these are expensive. If the funding was different we would not be accountable to carbon in the same way, but then the funding would be less stable in a way, less consistent, so this is the catch 22.
No challenges with explaining the new stove. They didnt find any discomfort. This is a reason why the new stove looks very similar to old stove.
NGO-2 staff: The use of the mud stove makes it easier for people to adapt their cooking and ritual practices to it, the similar mud stove is important.
The number of people for whom you can cook with this stove is limited, you cannot cook for more than 7 people, so this can be a difficulty.
Also the material things, the chimney is prepared with asbestos so they have to be handled carefully or it may break. The roads are very bumpy and so maybe it can break on the way. Also the placing of the chimney is very important, otherwise it can be broken and it will not work properly. So it is a really expensive thing to replace and maintain chimneys which are broken not working properly.
The challenge with maintenance is cleaning out the chimney, people dont know what to do in order to clean it, so NGO-2 volunteers have to visit in order to clean them.
Also some families will change their kitchen rooms and construct them again, so they have to be careful with the chimney or it may break again.
NGO-1 invests more than we do, they check in every week. If there isnt an issue of revenue from that stove, not plus minus investment, Im trying to ensure that every stove is tailor made to the needs of every household. Every rupee I put in is tied to my returns, but with a project my whole mind frame would be different. We are saying if we change the model to each ones needs, I need different molds, where it becomes expensive for us, and I may not be able to repay the loan.
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The stove requires weekly maintenance through application of new layers of mud as cracks form on the top. So the stove requires maintenance on a regular basis.
They used to plaster with the cow dung, but the same thing was required with the traditional stove so this was not a big problem.
Some communities have very big families with two wives and 5 or 6 children so if there is a very big family it does not work for them. These families expect gas stoves.
Places which are near the road there is a problem they may use gas because they have access to cylinders more easily so they will not always use our stove.
What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? It's not enough to pay for the technology itself, its important to consider the maintenance, that there is a consistent holding of that particular technology, especially something youve never seen before, the regular maintenance, as in contact with the user is extremely necessary. Very unlikely anybody would be willing to pay for 10 years of this technology.
The follow-up is the most critical aspect.
We have shifted to another material of stove, so we are using basically ash and cement (for the main unit), again its put in the mold and it's much more robust than the mud model. Fewer cracks develop. It has a different feel and look. They are made in the workshop and transported, so we have increased the size of it, so we have the opposite problem if the family size is too small. So there is a plate you can place over the opening to reduct the size of the stove. These have been made since last year.
There is always this thing with looking good, once they got this one, nobody wanted the old one. Its much more durable. Cement and granite ash and lots of water. We innovated the design. The people who designed the stove, one of the main stove builders.
Design depends on how often they cook, the size of the vessels, and we do try to construct the stove in the way the family wants it. The molds are pretty good at meeting the average family needs. Large families beyond ten people require a different mold.
We switched to a cement [cement and granite ash] in part because it can be installed more quickly, so the timing can be very important because of the credits. Also people prefer this one to the mud one, everyone wanted this new one, it looks much nicer. Probably this one will last longer, the material is much more durable.
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NGO-2 Monitoring Team
What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? Routine maintenance with the chimney is important. And the gate can crack so we have to fix this. If they change the kitchen rooms we have to reconstruct the stoves.
Because they apply the cow dung everyday this is a form of stove maintenance.
For the traditional stove they could use for more than 10 to 15 years if it is well maintained. This new stove will only last 10 years and then will need to be reconstructed.
Total cost is 800, user only pays 50 rupees. Some seasons they have more cash like after the harvest. We have this same experience with the solar lanterns.
Do you find that people want to continue to use this stove in the future? In your opinion, what factors lead to long term stove use?
Less wood means less labor and therefore people would like to use the stove. The forest has degraded and it has become more and more difficult to find fuel, so the efficiency of the stove is a major benefit and is very important to people. Some of kitchens are outside and are very closed with little insulation, so people with this type of kitchen are very much inclined to continue to use this stove which decreases indoor air pollution.
Supposing the government comes tomorrow with gas, wouldnt you prefer that? Yes, but the gas itself is very expensive, and even if it was cheap maybe you have to walk 150 km to locate a cylinder, and therefore it is impractical.
If the community sees utility in the stove then they will use it, but its up to us to continue to raise awareness by reinforcing the benefits which are already there. Also, you can tell the users that this stove is only a starting point in a larger development agenda, the NGO who has given you this stove may work here in the future, and now you have membership in this community and have developed a relationship, so other projects and benefits may become available to you in the future. We will first explain the benefits of this stove like the health, first this he will explain, after that you may get a drinking water filter, so there are benefits they may receive in the future. So this is a strategy to convince people.
There are other families who they do not work with on a regular basis, other people who visit or come for marriages, etc. They are also asking me for this stove, so there is demand there.
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Users are so used to it now, that they dont want to go back to the other, so the stove has established itself somehow.
NGO-2 Users
Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future?
If there are many people at our house, for a gathering, we cook two or three times, and maybe we establish a three stone fire to cook more.
NGO-2 male staff: In this village, the households are quite small with only 4 or 5 people, so here there is not much of an issue cooking for the whole familyin other villages, many households are 10 or so people, making it difficult to cook for everyone at once. The stoves in this village were installed knowing that only cooking for 4 or 5 people.
Yes, we would like to continue to use this stove in the future. [Everyone agrees we would like to continue to use the stove]
NGO-2 male staff: / can take your chimney, may I have it?
No, you may not have it! You have offered this to me and you can never take it! [Laughter]
Yes we would like to use it into the future. (Raju asks may I have your cookstove and take it back, they say no of course not!) If the stove breaks, again you have to give another one to me.
Yes, we want to use the stove as much as we can. If we were given the stove again we will use it, but if it is not given we will go back to our old stove. No, we will not be able afford the stove if we need to buy it.
Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire
Study Title: An Assessment of Factors that Influence Sustained Use of Clean Cookstoves in India
Principal Investigator: Gregory L Simon, University of Colorado Denver; Co-Investigator: Brendan P Berve, University of Colorado Denver Organization Background
1: Name of Organization:
2: Your Position in the Organization:
3: Name of Distributor Organization:
4: Name of Cookstove Manufacturer:
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5: State(s) and District(s) of Implementation Site(s):
6: Current Number of Implementation Sites:
7: Previous (no longer implementing cookstoves) Number of Implementation Sites:
8: Have any current clean cookstove households replaced their first improved cookstove with another (new replacement) improved cookstove? O Yes O No
9: What type(s) (name(s)) of clean cookstove(s) does your organization distribute?
O Stove 1_________________________
O Stove 2_________________________
O Stove 3_________________________
O Stove 4_________________________
10: What type of fuel source(s) does the cookstove(s) use? (Select all the apply)
Wood
Charcoal
LPG
Dung
Solar
Other________________________
Education
Education refers to how your organization educates target households; including but not limited to the benefits, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information.
11: How important is the education of target households for the future adoption of clean cookstoves?
O Extremely important O Very important O Moderately important O Slightly important O Not at all important
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12: What topics does your organization educate target households about? (Select all that apply)
O Health Benefits O Taste of Food O Ease of Use O Time Savings O Climate Change O Women's Empowerment O Reduce Deforestation O Dont Educate Users O Other:_________________________
13: What is the most important topic for educating target households about the adoption of clean cookstoves?
O Health Benefits O Taste of Food O Ease of Use O Time Savings O Climate Change O Women's Empowerment O Reduce Deforestation O Dont Educate Users O Other:_________________________
Feedback/Stove User Input
Feedback and stove user input refers to the information collected from target and current households about clean cookstoves.
14: How important is the feedback of clean cookstove adopter's input for the continued future adopters of clean cookstoves?
O Extremely important O Very important O Moderately important O Slightly important O Not at all important
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15: What is the feedback from household adopters? (Select all that apply)
Durability Issues
Too Expensive
Wrong Fuel Type
Fuel Source Difficult to Find
Installation Issues
Was Not Reducing Smoke Emissions Sufficiently
Food Tastes Different
Not Hot Enough
Have to Use Different Cooking Methods
Breaks Easily
Don't Know How to Cook Certain Meals
Traditional Cookstove is Easier to Use
Need to Have More than One Stove (Burner)
Other:___________________________
16: What feedback from household adopters has been the most useful at improving stove adoption and use? (Select only one answer)
O Durability Issues O Too Expensive O Wrong Fuel Type O Fuel Source Difficult to Find O Installation Issues
O Was Not Reducing Smoke Emissions Sufficiently O Food Tastes Different O Not Hot Enough
O Have to Use Different Cooking Methods O Breaks Easily
O Don't Know How to Cook Certain Meals O Traditional Cookstove is Easier to Use O Need to Have More than One Stove (Burner)
O Other:____________________________
Institutional Support
Institutional support refers to support given from any outside actor. Support could be in the form of implementation plans, financial contributors, and any other support.
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17: How important is the institutional support for the future adoption of clean cookstoves?
O Extremely important O Very important O Moderately important O Slightly important O Not at all important
18: Who gives institutional support to your organization for the adoption of clean cookstoves and what type of support is given? (Select all that apply)
Local State Actors_________________________
National (Federal) Government_________________________
Local Private Actors_______________________
Local Non-Profit Actors_______________________
State International Actors______________________
International Non-Governmental Actors_________________________
19: Which of these sources (types of support) are most helpful for promoting clean cookstove uptake and sustained cookstove use? (Please give a brief reason why this type is the most important)
Financing
Financing refers to how target and current clean cookstove households are able to afford a clean cookstove. This could be in the form a subsidized cookstoves.
20: How important is the subsidizing of clean cookstoves for target household to receive a cookstove?
O Extremely important O Very important O Moderately important O Slightly important O Not at all important
21: Will financing be available for households for a second clean cookstove once their first cookstove no longer works or needs to be replaced?
O Yes
O Maybe____________________________
O No, why?___________________________
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22: What will be the biggest financial investment for household adopters? O Adoption of the household's first clean cookstove.
O Maintenance for clean cookstove.
O Adoption got the household's second clean cookstove.
O Other:__________________________
Concluding Questions
23: Please rank the categories of Education, Feedback/Stove User Input, Institutional Support, and Financing from the most important to least important on a scale of 1 4. (1 = Least Important, 4 = Most Important)
_______Education
_______Feedback/Stove User Input
_______Institutional Support
_______Financing
24: Why did you rank the category as the most important in Q22? What makes this category more important than the other sections?
25: What other information, that was not discussed in this survey, is important to the continued long term use of clean cookstoves by current households? Please provide a brief statement.
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Full Text

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FACTORS INFLUENCING LONG-TERM CLEAN COOKSTOVE USE IN KARNATAKA AND ANDHRA PRADESH INDIA: NGO AND STOVE USER CASE STUDIES by BRENDAN PAUL BERVE B.A. University of Nebraska, 2009 M.A. University of Colorado Denver, 2017 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulllment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences Program 2017

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Brendan Paul Berve has been approved for the Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences Program by Gregory Simon, Chair Peter Anthamatten Bryan Wee Date July 29, 2017 ii

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Berve, Brendan Paul (M.A., Geography and Applied Geospatial Sciences) Factors Inuencing Long-Term Clean Cookstove Use In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh India: NGO and Stove User Case Studies Thesis directed by Professor Gregory Simon. ABSTRACT The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstove's (GACC) mission is "to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efcient household cooking solutions" (Our Mission, 2016). The GACC has stated that these goals can be met with the adoption of clean cookstoves in one hundred million households. If clean cookstoves are not used long-term then, then the progress that has been made towards these benets will be negated. To achieve long-term use, the perspectives of local organizations must be considered. The activities of two local non-governmental organizations in India who operate clean cookstove intervention projects, and stove users within each project, were analyzed through a series of focus groups and surveys to determine how each group perceives the needs for long-term stove use. This research will shed light on what organizations and households view as a priority; their opinions are vital if clean cookstoves are going to have a long-term impact. Affordability, education, maintenance, stove user feedback, and the ability for non-governmental organizations to remain active in the sector, appear to be vital for long-term stove use. iii

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The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Gregory Simon iv

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks to my committee members, especially Dr. Gregory Simon, who introduced me to clean cookstoves and guided me throughout the research process. This research would not have been possible without his guidance and connections to the non-governmental organizations in India. The two organizations were instrumental in organizing the focus groups and were open to any and all questions. No amount of gratitude can be expressed for their help. Thank you to my wife, Stephanie, and all who critiqued previous versions of this document. The nal draft is better because of you. v

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TABLE OF CONTENT S CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION1 ................................................................................................ Background3 ................................................................................................. II. LITERATURE REVIEW15 .................................................................................... Health Impacts15 .......................................................................................... Environmental Impacts16 .............................................................................. Related Non-Clean Cookstove Research16 ................................................. Adoption19 .................................................................................................... III. METHODS23 ....................................................................................................... Selection of Organizations23 ........................................................................ Focus Group Interviews24 ............................................................................ Focus Group Analysis27 ............................................................................... Survey Development29 ................................................................................. Survey Analysis30 ......................................................................................... Problems and Limitations 30 ......................................................................... IV. RESULTS/ANALYSIS34 ...................................................................................... Category & NGO Figures34 .......................................................................... Selection of Quotes37 ................................................................................... V. DISCUSSION43 ................................................................................................... Assessing Demand43 ................................................................................... Financing44 ................................................................................................... Maintenance47 .............................................................................................. vi

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Maintenance: Stove Sector Impact48 ........................................................... Usability/Education50 .................................................................................... Affordability/Availability54 .............................................................................. Differences From Initial Adoption59 .............................................................. VI. CONCLUSION61 ................................................................................................. Transferrable Long-Term Use Factors61 ...................................................... Future Research64 ....................................................................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY67 .................................................................................................. APPENDIX73 ........................................................................................................... Appendix A: Focus Group Transcript73 ........................................................ Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire80 ........................................................... vii

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Focus Group Reference Count 35 ............................................................. viii

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Cookstove-1 9 ............................................................................................. 2. Cookstove-2 9 ............................................................................................. 3. NGO-1 Village 10 ........................................................................................ 4. NGO-1 Landscape 10 ................................................................................. 5. NGO-2 Village 12 ........................................................................................ 6. NGO-2 Landscape 12 ................................................................................. 7. NGO-2 Silver Oak and Coffee Plantations 13 ............................................. 8. Factors Inuencing Long-Term Clean Cookstove Use Map 37 ................... ix

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS GACC Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves NGO Non-Governmental Organization GHG Greenhouse Gas Cookstove-1 Clean cookstove distributed by NGO-1 in Karnataka, India. Cookstove-2 Clean cookstove distributed by NGO-2 in Andhra Pradesh, India. NGO-1 NGO who operates in Karnataka, India. Also used to cite staff quotes. LPG Liquid Petroleum G as LLIN Long Lasting Insecticide N ets x

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In some villages the leader was not willing to accept the stove at rst so we had to hold meetings in order to inform everyone about the benets of the stove. Because they had no idea about the stove, they were not aware of the benets, and that is why they were at rst not willing. But after construction people see and then they demand these stoves, demand is coming right now. We started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove. (NGO-2 Staff Member, Male) Since the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves formed, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become important for the success of the clean cookstove sector. Organizations that distribute clean cookstoves are communicating with target households and communities on a personal level; they communicate prior to stove implementation, during implementation, and throughout the use of the stove. Furthermore, organizations communicate with manufacturers and other actors in the sector. These organizations' are an ideal actor to analyze; their viewpoint is unique. These NGOs can help answer the questions of (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use among nongovernmental organization projects and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users' demands for the continued long-term use of clean cookstoves? These research questions are important because if users are unable or unwilling to adopt future cookstoves, they will revert to traditional cookstoves. The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC), states that adoption of clean 1

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cookstoves leads to individual, global, and environmental health benets. The vast majority of current cookstove research focuses on initial distribution and adoption rather than how to get households to use the stoves on a long-term basis. It is not enough to get households to start using a rst clean cookstove, there needs to be a demand and way for these households to acquire a second and third clean cookstove in the future. Long-term means that the stoves need to be used until a consistent dependable alternative comes to these communities. For some communities this might be only a couple of years, for others it may be decades. While being able to dene a certain length of time would be benecial, it is not possible because it will be different for each community. If these clean cookstoves are not used long-term until a more consistent dependable option is available, any benets that accrued, especially the global benets, will not continue This research will provide a baseline for continued research by determining if there are commonalities between the two clean cookstove implementation programs. Other organizations that are planning an implementation program will be able to see what other organizations deem important for long-term use. This knowledge will help other implementation programs operate more efciently and effectively. Even though each implementation site has its own unique set of challenges, being able to learn from other implementation programs would be benecial. Along with providing benets for implementation programs, this research can serve as a baseline for further research. If commonalities are found, research can delve further into a specic factor that inuences long-term 2

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stove use. For example, if educating users is found to be extremely important for long-term use, further research into the education process can be analyzed. Background Background: What is the GACC? In response to the health and environmental problems caused by traditional cookstoves, the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves was established in 2010. The GACC's mission is to have one hundred million households adopt clean cookstoves by 2020. The GACC was developed with the help of Hillary Clinton, who brought legitimacy to the organization. The organization quickly became the voice of the clean cookstove sector. The GACC's mission is "to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efcient household cooking solutions" (Our Mission, 2016). The organization pinpointed ve impact areas that will be affected by replacing traditional cookstoves with clean cookstoves. The ve impact areas are: environment, health, humanitarian, women and gender, and livelihoods The GACC has summarized key problems that have developed from the use of traditional cookstoves. Five of these problems the GACC has detailed are: (1) traditional cookstoves contribute to global warming because of deforestation and the emissions of greenhouse gases, (2) women have not been given the opportunity to improve their lives and achieve empowerment, (3) the exhaust from traditional cookstoves can cause numerous health issues and in some cases death, (4) at times traditional cookstove users need to travel long 3

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distances to gather fuel, which exposes them to unwarranted danger, and (5) the lack of efcient cookstoves leads to an increase in cooking time and fuel gathering instead of time that can be spent improving the family's lives (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016 ). These problems correspond with the GACC's ve impact areas. The following summarizes the ve impact areas: Environment : The GACC states that clean cookstoves will impact the environment by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation. The alliance states "25% percent of black carbon emission come from burning solid fuels for household energy needs" and "up to 34% of woodfuel harvested is unsustainable contributing to forest degradation, deforestation, and climate change" (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016). The GACC claims that a large portion of native forest cover was deforested for cooking and cooking related bio fuels and produces "12% of ambient air pollution globally" (Environment, 2016). These statistics are powerful and they legitimize the GACC's goal to change "the way millions of people cook" (Clean Cooking is Critical to Addressing Climate Change, 2016). Health : Traditional cookstoves are typically poorly ventilated. Due to this, the smoke does not have any place to escape and remains in the location of the cookstove. This has caused, according to the GACC, "a range of deadly chronic and acute health effects such as child pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease, as well 4

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as low birth-weights in children born to mothers whose pregnancies are spent breathing toxic fumes from traditional cookstoves." Further underscoring the importance of this statement is the World Health Organization's estimate that 4.3 million premature deaths per year are caused in developing countries by cooking (Health, 2016). Woman and children comprise the majority of these deaths, as they are the ones cooking and spending time in the kitchen. Humanitarian : As more populations become displaced due to war, disaster, or other causes, there is a lack of clean cookstoves and at times fuel for cookstoves. The GACC states that some people have to sell part of their food rations in order to purchase fuel; yet by selling their food rations malnutrition becomes an issue (Humanitarian, 2016). Women and Gender : The GACC states "this issue doesn't just empower women economically, it empowers them socially and it changes the lives of their families. It's a very simple thing. It's about cooking. And once we can get together to improve cooking, there is so much more that can happen". Women and children will benet by receiving more time to work, bringing money to themselves and the family, and allowing children to remain in school (Women, 2016). Livelihood : The GACC states that the livelihoods of women will benet by reducing the amount of time collecting wood. Women may use the saved time by educating their children, increasing income, and other activities (Livelihoods, 2016). 5

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Background: Why is the GACC inuential? Due to the inuence the GACC has in the sector; many research questions, such as my research question, are framed around its rhetoric. Its inuence is seen through how research questions are framed and how organizations operate. The literature review section will give numerous examples of academic research that operates within the GACC's impact area framework. The research questions in this paper do not directly challenge the GACC's statements; however, understanding the level of inuence the GACC has for establishing the discourse for the cookstove sector is imperative. Due to its inuence, the research questions and justication for the research are framed around the GACC's rhetoric; if clean cookstoves are going to be impactful, they have to be used long-term. The GACC's stated benets, which are challenged in the research, would generally be benecial if they are achieved. Reducing carbon emissions, black carbon, deforestation, and improving lives of women and children are all benecial. However, the benets cannot be for short period of time, the changes have to be more or less permanent. Without long-term stove use, the benets will not continue and the GACCs mission will be considered a failure. This organization has to be viewed as a long-term program. Because of this, two of the most important questions for the GACC and participating actors are : (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users' demands? Background: Carbon Market 6

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Many stove intervention projects, including the two projects studied in this research, are nanced through the carbon market. The carbon market allows companies from across the globe to purchase carbon credits to offset their organization's carbon emissions. Companies purchase carbon credits and then team up with local organizations that implement a clean cookstove program. There are two main types of carbon markets for clean cookstoves; compliance carbon markets and voluntary carbon markets. Compliance carbon markets' main source of offsets is through the United Nation's clean development mechanism. However, voluntary carbon markets are more desirable for clean cookstove projects. These markets are driven by companies looking to offset their own emissions and need to meet standards such as the Gold Standard (The Basics, 2017). Ensuring the stoves meet carbon offset expectations requires organizations to monitor the clean cookstoves. Background: Traditional and Clean Cookstoves Traditional cookstoves are stoves made from local resources and are based around using an open re. Different communities and regions have developed different traditional cookstoves; they construct the stove with local resources such as rocks, clay, brick, or mud. The most basic traditional cookstove is a three-stone re, which uses three similar-sized stones that are placed in a triangle formation and can balance a pot or other cooking utensil over an open re. Other cookstoves are built using clay that hardens to form the base of the stove on which pots and pans are placed. Wood, dung, or other fuel sources are gathered from surrounding areas and burned. Since the majority of 7

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traditional cookstoves have no venting and are located indoors, the smoke remains in the room, which causes health issues (Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, 2016). When visiting households in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India that use traditional stoves the smoke is obvious as soon as one walks into the home. One's eyes begin to water, one's throat quickly becomes irritated, and the entire room is encased in soot. The majority of these homes are small and have a limited number of rooms. For many, the kitchen is part of the main room of the home. Many homes in Andhra Pradesh have small separated buildings with short roofs as their kitchens. While this makes the smoke separate from the main house, it may exacerbate the density of the smoke. Regardless of location, the stoves are often used throughout the day for activities such as boiling water or cooking. A clean cookstove is a modern invention, created by numerous organizations with the aim of reducing carbon emissions and increasing fuel efciency, while keeping the user's cultural and societal traditions intact. Clean cookstoves are produced and designed by a variety of manufacturers, such as EnviroFit, based in Colorado, and Prakti, which is based in India. These stoves are distributed across the globe to NGOs who disseminate them to villages (Our Mission, 2016) There are many different types of clean cookstoves. Many organizations, such as two studied in this research, design or help design their own stove. The names of the two stove types used by the participating NGOs are tied to them. In 8

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agreement with the organizations, neither the NGO's names nor the names of the stoves will be used in this paper. They will be referred NGO-1 and NGO-2, and as Cookstove-1 (g.1) and Cookstove-2 (g. 2), respectively. These two stoves are two of many examples of clean cookstoves. Cookstove-1 is a free standing stove that has an opening at the base for fuel, typically for small wood branches, that creates a centralized ame. These stoves are built off site and have the benet of being moveable, similar to some traditional stoves. However, as was revealed during this research, many of the users feel the stove is unstable and can pose an injury risk by tipping. Cookstove-2 differs from Cookstove-1 in that it is built into the structure of the house with a chimney. Cookstove-2 has two burners, whereas Cookstove-1 has one. Cookstove-2 is built at the house and includes a clay shell that needs 9 g.1 : Cookstove-1 g.2 : Cookstove-2

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consistent maintenance. Due to the stove being built with clay, it has a similar look to the traditional stoves used by households in the region. Background: Communities and Non-Government Organizations NGO-1 mainly operates in Karnataka, India. This region is dry with sparse vegetation, such as mesquite that lines the rolling hills where the women collect fuel for the stoves (g.4). The stove users live in small buildings constructed of concrete and wood (g.3), and typically consist of one room. However, it appears that within in the communities' wealth disparity exists. While, neither this research nor Professor Simon's research analyzed the income of the communities, some homes were noticeably larger, consisting of multiple rooms. The homes lined both sides of the few streets that made up the communities. The vast majority of the homes did not have electricity and no plumbing was seen. Walking through the communities, it was common to be followed by a collection of children asking for pictures, along with needing to avoid livestock and wild dogs that would wonder from house to house. 10 g. 3: NGO-1 Village g. 4: NGO-1 Landscape

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The NGO-1 staff described during conversations how the region had changed in the past few decades. They described how the vegetation changed when the government distributed mesquite by throwing seeds out of a helicopter. Multiple staff members told us that mesquite was distributed to provide biomass for cookstoves. Mesquite has become the dominant form of biomass for the user's regardless whether they are using a traditional or clean cookstove. Another recent change that the NGO-1 staff expressed was the arrival of international seed corporations that have acquired land to grow corn. The staff also emphasized that the organization is well known throughout the region because of the variety of programs and the assistance they provide. Multiple staff members noted the work they do with disable people and people with HIV/AIDS. The organization wants to provide the locals with immediate assistance and long-term solutions, such as ways to ensure consistent crop yields. NGO-2 mainly operates in Andhra Pradesh, India with tribal communities who populate the edge of the Eastern Ghats Mountain range. This region has an array of vegetation such as sugar cane, silver oak/coffee plantations, and rice paddies along the valleys (g.6). The communities migrated from other regions in India due to local dam development during the past few decades. The majority of the homes were constructed from tree limbs, sheet metal, and concrete (g.5). There are other open air village structures with what appeared to be thatch roofs. There is not a common language between the tribal communities and some of them, especially the women, do not speak Telugu, the region's main language. 11

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Some of the villagers have learned Telugu by visiting the main town in the region. The villages visited were extremely remote. 4x4 vehicles were needed in order to travel on the extremely bumpy and at times steep roads. While the main roads were paved, every village visited consisted of narrow dirt roads. In one village we needed to hike the last quarter mile to reach the village. Not only are they distant from other people, some villages have limited access to water and other resources. Clean water is a major issue for nearly every village that was visited. A unique aspect of this region is the assistance the government has provided. The staff noted that because the locals practiced slash and burn vegetation (cutting down vegetation and then burning it), the government has started to plant silver-oak and coffee plantations (g.7). The coffee is planted among the oor with silver-oak trees providing the needed shade. The tribal people are able to work in the coffee plantations and use the residual branches as fuel for stoves. The staff noted, that not only does this provide some work and compensation for the locals, it has helped stop the slash and burn technique. 12 g. 6: NGO-2 Landscape g. 5: NGO-2 Village

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NGO-2 has numerous development programs that help the local tribal communities. These programs were described in person during the research trip. Besides distributing clean cookstoves. The organization provides legal assistance when needed, natural resource management assistance, health care, water lters, youth programs, and a number of other programs. NGO-2 is very active throughout these communities. Not every community they work with participated in the clean cookstove program. While these two communities have many differences, they share many similar problems. Access to resources, such as water and fuel, is one. But they also have limited access to other people and organizations because of their remoteness. While they have challenges, both communities welcomed Professor 13 g. 7: NGO-2 Silver Oak and Coffee Plantations

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Simon's research team. Many of them provided tea during the focus groups, with one village performing a tribal dance and encouraging the entire team to participate. 14

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The majority of academic research has examined the GACC's ve impact areas. However, there is a lack of research into what is important for long-term use of clean cookstoves, particularly into what organizations nd important for long-term use. With the importance organizations play in encouraging clean cookstoves use, their voices and opinions are vitally important, yet are surprisingly missing from academic research. There may be a few reasons for this, such as an unwillingness to participate in research due to various concerns, such as fearing it will not benet the organization. While there is a lack of related research to this specic topic there has been research conducted when it comes to implementing new technologies in developing countries. This literature review will divide clean cookstove research into multiple categories: environmental impacts, health impacts, related non-clean cookstove research, and adoption. Due to these research questions dealing with long-term use, the adoption section will be more detailed. Furthermore, because many implementation programs share common challenges, a brief review of mosquito nets and water lter implementation programs will be analyzed. Mosquito nets and water lter research can help ll the void that is currently missing in the clean cookstove literature on long-term use Health Impacts One of the biggest drivers of clean cookstove implementation programs is the health benets users experience from transitioning to a clean cookstove. 15

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Venkataraman et al. (2010) concluded in 2005, 570,000 deaths in India were premature and 4% of the country's greenhouse gas emissions could be eliminated if 160 million households in India replace their traditional cookstove with a clean cookstove (Venkataraman, 2010). Kishore et al. (2002) concluded that the "installation of chimneys leading to smoke removal, is seen as a remarkable plusconsidering that indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning stoves leads to eye and lung problems" (Kishore, 2002, p.57). Building upon Kishore's ndings, another study concluded that traditional stoves have been found to have high correlation with respiratory illnesses (Duo, 2008). Environmental Impacts The GACC states that an important benet of clean cookstoves is the impact they will have on reducing deforestation and carbon dioxide/black carbon emissions. This can be seen through how carbon nance is used to fund implementation programs. Abhishek Kar et al. (2012) determined that forced draft cookstoves are superior to natural draft clean cookstoves for reducing black carbon. A study focused on fuelwood consumption found that an "annual village fuelwood use for all cookstove applications was 234 metric tons" (Johnson, 2012, p.310). Continuing with fuelwood use, Mahapatra et al. (1999) conducted a study to analyze "the pattern of biomass fuel useand the supply effects on household consumption." The study concluded that "socioeconomic factors inuence bioenergy use, but scarcity of forests does not lower the demand for biofuels nor is it a driving force for farm level forestry" (p.291 ). Related Non-Clean Cookstove Research 16

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Proper use, maintenance, nancing, and affordability are common challenges that clean cookstove intervention projects and other developmental projects encounter. Because of these shared challenges, research on mosquito nets and water lter implementation can inform cookstove initiatives. Mosquito Nets Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) require the target population to accept the nets and to use the nets properly. Gunasekaran et al. (2009) attempted to determine the acceptability and the willingness of people to buy the nets. The team concluded that "social marketing of LLINs at a subsidized price or free supply to the deserving sections of peopleand ensuring the availability of nets during harvesting season could encourage people to buy and use LLINs" (p. 149). A similar study concluded that the shape of net could effect whether people use them, with a cone shape being favored. It was concluded that "efforts to increase knowledge of LLINs using behavior change communication techniques would have more effectively contributed to achieve planned outcomes" (Fernando, 2008, p.1081). Lastly, a study attempted to nd whether target users are willing to pay for the nets. The team concluded that 96.5% of the study's respondents feel that the nets should be given freely and the subsequent retreatment of the net should also be free. The team recommended that "government and other development partners should seek a mechanism to make a subsidy or free of charge for the retreatment service" (Biadgilign, 2015, p.1). Water Filters 17

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Mark Francis and his team, studying water lters, determined that the acceptance of water quality interventions is important for continued health benets. His team concluded "the need to effectively involve communities at important stages of implementation for long-term successresearch on the factors inuencing uptake of water quality interventions prior to implementation will ensure greater acceptance" (Francis, 2015, p.1). A study investigating how an organization can design an implementation program for biosand water lters concluded the "strategy is inuenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame" (Ngai, 2014, p.320). The study demonstrates that "small organizations can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing [their] operational budget" (Ngai, 2014, p.320). Lastly, a study that analyzed the impact of free clean cookstoves and water lters, concluded that "adoption was generally high, with most households reporting the lters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove" (Rosa, 2014, p.1). The team reported that there was a decrease in both mean fecal bacteria and ne particulate matter (a type of air pollution) (Rosa, 2014). There are many takeaways from mosquito net and water lter research. Factors such as education, maintenance, nancing, and stove user feedback are all transferrable to clean cookstoves. High quality education is vital for users to use the nets properly. Both cookstoves and mosquito nets need consistent maintenance. The literature consistently emphasized the importance of reducing 18

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the cost of the nets and water lters for successful implementation. Listening to user feedback was important for both development projects. It is also important to note that the shape of the nets inuences the use. Users have a preference and meeting their preference is important. Having the community involved throughout the project appears to increase acceptance by the users. These are commonalities between two different development projects and are likely to be transferrable to clean cookstove projects. Adoption Stove stacking is a term used to describe a household that adopts a clean cookstove but continues to use their traditional cookstove, thus not completely transitioning to a clean cookstove. If the GACC's goals are to be met, households must remove their traditional cookstove and only use a clean cookstove. A study conducted in Himachal Pradesh, India concluded that lower caste households are more likely to remove their traditional cookstove due to the smoke leaving stains on their household items, while higher caste households are more reluctant to remove their traditional cookstove because they "associate chulhas [a different clean cookstove type] with ritual purityand their perception that food cooked on the chulha has superior taste." The study hypothesizes that due to higher caste households having more wealth and access to fuelwood, they are more likely to stove stack (Wang, 2015, p.135 ). Ruiz Mercado et al. (2011) conducted a study to analyze aspects of cookstove adoption: stove stacking, the transition of removing the traditional cookstove completely from the household, and cooking practices on each fuel 19

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and stove type. They concluded that "stove use monitoring for adoption must be part of a larger plan for improved diffusion to translate SUMs [stove user monitors] data into actual benets for the user" (p.7,564). Similarly, a recent study concluded that "using multiple stoves each day is common practiceand that the two groups given at least one Gyapa [a clean cookstove type] had the largest reductions in traditional stove use relative to the control group, though use of traditional stoves remained high in all groups" (Piedrahita, 2016, p.67). Other studies have attempted to explain why adoption rates are low, nding that further research needs to be conducted in order to nd other variables that would lead to better adoption rates (Lewis, 2012). Wouter Maes et al. (2012) concluded that by switching from solid fuels to fossil fuels (LPG or kerosene) and integrating fuelwood policies can increase the efciency of current biomass use. An article that directly relates to this research question is by Guofeng Shen et al. (2015). His team analyzed factors that inuence adoption of cleaner fuels and cookstoves in China by conducting a literature review on Chinese publications. Shen's team found ve important factors: (1) fuel and stove technologies, (2) development of a stove market, (3) public awareness of environmental protection and fuel saving, (4) nancial support, (5) policy support. Sehjpal et al. (2014) concluded that "macro-policies may provide important guidelines and the necessary framework, implementation strategies need to be designed at the local level through participatory approach making energy an integral part of the development paradigm" (p.470). This research paper 20

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demonstrated the positive inuence institutional support can have on an organization's ability to develop an efcient and effective intervention program. For clean cookstoves to be accepted by households, they have to be sufcient for completing everyday tasks. Determining which clean cookstoves meet those daily needs is what Jetter et al. (2015) studied in their research. His team analyzed clean cookstoves and how they performed basic functional needs, such as boiling water. They concluded that "laboratory testing provides a costeffective means of evaluating cookstoves," but "controlled laboratory testing cannot fully duplicate eld testing but should emulate eld conditions to the greatest extent possible" (p.1832). The team recommends developing international standards for stove development. My research questions, (a) what factors contribute to long-term stove use among non-governmental organization projects and (b) how do these factors compare to stove users' demands for the continued long-term use of clean cookstoves?, t into a narrow subeld within the broader clean cookstove literature. My research questions do not question whether the ve impact areas will be addressed, but rather seek to explore factors that inuence long-term use of cookstoves. As was demonstrated during the literature review, there has been very little research into this topic. The vast majority of cookstove research analyzes the ve impact areas and initial adoption. Research on clean cookstove adoption has traditionally explored which factors inuence initial uptake, and not which factors contribute to long-term use. This research operates 21

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under the assumption that clean cookstoves have important benets, regardless of the degree of use, and that long-term use is critical for gaining those benets. 22

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CHAPTER III METHODS Two qualitative case studies were conducted using a series of focus group interviews and a brief survey of staff at one NGO who were not able to attend the focus group. A qualitative study was chosen because the goal of the research is to understand how organizations view factors that inuence long-term clean cookstove use. The results reveal trends or commonalities that could inform successful long-term clean cookstove use. The following sections will describe why a case study, focus groups, and a survey are appropriate methods for addressing these questions Selection of Organizations Two NGOs participated in this research. This research is in conjunction with a National Science Foundation Grant (Award Number: 1539746) directed by Professor Gregory Simon. The NGOs were already participating with Professor Gregory Simon and I along with a number of other students were hired as research assistants. Due to the established relationship with Professor Simon and my work with him, the NGOs were an obvious organization to work with. B oth of these organizations are based in India and operate clean cookstove intervention projects, along with other development projects, in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Each NGO works with a different community type that requires different intervention plans and stoves types. Per agreement with the participating NGOs, neither the organizations' names nor the names of their cookstoves will be mentioned. The NGOs will be referred to as NGO-1 23

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(Karnataka based) and NGO-2 (Andhra Pradesh based). Similarly, the stoves will be referred to as Cookstove-1, distributed by NGO-1, and Cookstove-2, distributed by NGO-2. These organizations provide distinctive opinions because they work with different types of communities and operate in vastly different environments. Focus Group Interviews Professor Simon's research team conducted multiple focus groups in January 2017 about clean cookstove use. Most of the questions asked in the focus groups are not relevant for this research. However, two to four of the questions were reserved for this research. The majority of the quotes used in this research originated from the reserved questions. However, some answers in response to other questions were relevant to this research and were used with permission from Professor Simon. The focus groups were conducted with NGO staff and cookstove users in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four focus groups were conducted in Karnataka, with three being stove users and one being with the NGO staff. Five focus groups were conducted in Andhra Pradesh, with three being with stove users, one being with a monitoring team, and a series with NGO staff (which is considered as one focus group). There was also a combined focus group with a small number from both NGOs done together. NGO-1 operates a number of clean cookstove intervention projects in Karnataka, India and distributes Cookstove-1 to rural villages. NGO-2 also operates a number of intervention projects, but is primarily located in the Eastern 24

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Ghats Mountain Range in Andhra Pradesh, India. These are tribal communities, living on the hillsides. The user focus groups were all conducted in these two regions, but each NGO has other stove users who did not participate. While these focus groups represent a small portion of the user population, their opinion may not represent the views of users who did not participate in the focus groups. However, the majority of NGO staff members who work with the cookstove communities was present for the staff focus groups, and therefore provide a representative opinion of the organization. The stove user interviews consisted of a large collection of women, some men, and periodically children from the village. We initially intended to recruit roughly ve to ten women for the groups; however, it was extremely difcult to limit the number of participating women and men. Each focus group was larger than initially intended. The focus groups were organized by the NGOs and, although the research team stressed limiting the number of participants, it was difcult to do so because the majority of the village users wanted to participate. The majority of the focus groups consisted of roughly twenty people with some reaching thirty-ve village members and lasting between fty to eighty minutes. Questions were asked by the entire research team and covered a number of topics. Due to a language barrier, all the questions and answers were translated by an NGO staff member to English. NGO-1 stove users spoke Kannada and NGO-2 stove users either spoke their native language or Telugu. Because of the questions and answers being translated, quotes presented here should not be considered verbatim, but rather summaries of answers. The stove user interviews 25

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were conducted in the villager's homes and were recorded and transcribed at the time of the focus group. NGO staff focus groups were conducted over the course of multiple sessions. Along with each focus group for the staff of each NGO, a combined staff focus group with staff members from both NGOs was conducted at the end of the research trip. This allowed staff from both NGOs to share ideas and respond to each other's answers, creating an in-depth and lengthy discussion. As stated previously, there were a limited number of questions reserved for this particular research question, since the focus groups were primarily designed for Professor Simon's research. There were typically two to four questions asked in each stove user focus group and a similar number for the NGO focus groups. The stove user questions asked were: Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future? Would you be willing to purchase your next clean cookstove? The NGO staff focus group questions asked were: In your opinion, what are the most signicant challenges or difculties in implementing an effective clean cookstove project? What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove use? NGO-2 arranged for a focus group containing villagers who monitor and help maintain the clean cookstoves. These individuals, all men, are both stove users and provide stove maintenance. They have a unique role for NGO-2's 26

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operation and their insight was extremely valuable. The questions that were asked to them were: What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove use? Do you nd that people want to continue to use this stove in the future? In your opinion, what factors lead to long-term stove use? Due to the limited number of questions and the language barriers, these questions were open-ended to enable the interviewees to give their honest opinion, without being led by the question. The NGOs are experts in clean cookstove implementation and have a wide range of opinions on this research topic, and their answers did not need to be guided by the question. I believe this goal was met as the discussions lasted ten to twenty minutes and covered a variety of topics. Focus Group Analysis The focus groups' responses were transcribed during the interviews, and all the user focus groups were recorded. The focus groups with NGO staff members were not recorded, but they were transcribed as the discussion occurred. The user focus groups were recorded due to the language barrier and the need to verify any missed translations. This was not needed during the NGO staff focus groups, because the vast majority of the staff spoke English, and if something needed to be repeated or claried, it was easily restated. The process for analyzing the quotes consisted of four main steps. The rst step was to organize all the quotes by question. Each focus group was given a 27

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distinct color and each response was appropriately assigned the coordinating color. A text document was created for this process. The second step was transcribing the quotes to index cards. The index cards were placed on a large table and grouped together by the focus group, such as NGO-1 staff focus group or NGO-1 rst user focus group. Quotes were then grouped together based on the subject of the quote, such as education or nance. This allowed categories to form based on what the staff and stove users mentioned and not by the researcher's own perceptions of the topic. This method resulted in four main categories: Finance, Maintenance, Usability/Education, and Affordability/Availability. The third step was to organize the quotes in a word processing document based on the categorization of the notecards. The number of quotes in each category were counted and placed into a spreadsheet. This spreadsheet table contained the number of times each NGO staff or stove user referenced a particular category. Each quote was organized into one category. There were, at times, quotes that could t into multiple categories. In those cases, the quote was broken into multiple quotes, if possible, which were then placed into the appropriate category. Both NGO-1 Staff and NGO-2 Staff quotes were compiled, whether they occurred in one focus group sitting or in multiple sittings. The stove user focus groups were combined into a single group. While this represented a small amount of qualitative data, it may show trends of what the users nd important and what the NGO staff nd important for long-term stove use. 28

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The fourth and nal step is further analysis, such as comparing NGO staff quotes to stove user quotes and comparing NGO-1 quotes to NGO-2 quotes. Survey Development When designing the survey, the willingness of the organizations to take the survey was instrumental in how the survey was constructed. Furthermore, due to the survey being in English, the questions had to be worded so that someone whose native language is not English would be able to clearly understand the meaning of the questions. The four categories (education, stove user input and feedback, institutional support, and nancing) of the survey were decided through review of existing literature and discussions with other researchers in the eld. Each of the categories represent important considerations in efforts to encourage long-term use. The survey is organized into three main sections: 1) Background, 2) Categories, and 3) Open Ended Questions. The bulk of the survey is in the second section, Categories. This section is the foundation of the survey and is made up by the four categories; education, stove user input and feedback, institutional support, and nancing. Each category consists of three questions, with the rst asking the organization to rate the category on importance. The following two questions are unique per category and they attempt to clarify a specic detail, such as what will be the biggest nancial investment for household adopters. Each category includes a short description of the meaning 29

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of certain terms. Hopefully this helped clarify any confusing terms that may exist for the survey takers. The descriptions of each category are given below: Education refers to how your organization educates target households about the benets, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information. Feedback and stove user input refers to the information collected from target and current households about clean cookstoves. Institutional support refers to support given from any outside actor. Support could be in the form of implementation plans, nancial contributors, and any other support. Financing refers to how target and current clean cookstoves households are able to afford a clean cookstove. This could be in the form of subsidized cookstoves. The last section consisted of open ended questions. This section allows the stove taker to include any additional thoughts and potential categories that were not included in the survey. Survey Analysis The survey and data were collected through Qualtrics, an online survey developer and data manager. The data was examined for trends or commonalities. The open ended questions will allow other factors that were not mentioned in survey to be discussed by the respondents. Problems and Limitations 30

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This research project encountered numerous problems throughout the entire process. The original intent of the project was to survey ten to twenty NGOs and a collection of each NGO's employees who distribute clean cookstoves in India. However, due to a number of problems that arose with this, including the main problem of getting the NGOs to take the survey, the project slightly shifted in methods to focus group interviews. This is the challenge of researching and surveying international organizations. If I was able to develop stronger relationships with these organizations it may have allowed them to feel comfortable taking my survey. However, by shifting the methods, it allowed the NGOs to dictate the factors that inuence long-term use of cookstoves, rather than a researcher. This allowed for other factors that inuence long-term stove use to arise, such as maintenance However, surveying a large number of NGOs and their employees is still a worthwhile research opportunity. With the foundation this research provides, a future survey would be better organized due to the knowledge that was gained by these focus groups. When developing the survey, I wanted to keep the survey short enough to not take too much of the NGOs' staff time. Their time is valuable and the desire to respect their time is always important. Being able to ask more in-depth questions would have provided the opportunity to include more detailed statistical analysis. However, there has to be balance, and while more questions would lead to more analysis, the survey along with the focus groups have enough questions to answer the research question. 31

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The focus groups were organized for Professor Simon's research questions. Professor Simon allowed two to four of the questions to be reserved for my specic research question. These two to four questions were a small percentage of the total number of questions asked. If the focus groups were solely dedicated to long-term stove use, further questions could have been asked. By relying on the NGO to organize the focus groups, the team had little control over the number and who actually showed up to the focus group. Ideally ve to seven stove users would have participated in each focus group, but in reality the majority of the village wanted to participate. It is difcult to know whether smaller focus groups would have elicited more conversation between the users; a few women dominated some focus groups. However, the large number may have allowed some users to feel more comfortable with a group of westerners which gave them condence to voice their opinion. The language barrier was a problem for both the survey and the focus groups. It may have allowed shorter responses than would otherwise be given in their native language for the survey. Requiring a translator meant that we were not able to understand the users from their voice. This caused at times to possibly miss some comments. Often users would speak as the translator was speaking to the research team. It was difcult to get the users to refrain from speaking when the translator spoke; meaning some comments may not have been translated. The translator often started the translation with "she is basically 32

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saying" While having a translator was a necessity, some of the recorded responses are probably not verbatim. 33

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS/ANALYSIS The following section will present the categorized data based on the process described in the methods section. Along with a table that demonstrates the variety of responses that was received, a short collection of focus group excerpts will be given as examples for each category that developed from analyzing the data. Category & NGO Figures Table 1 shows the number of quotes offered by different groups in the study, categorized by the subject of the quote. The table is organized by who referenced the categories of Finance, Maintenance, Usability/Education, Affordability/ Availability. For example, if an NGO-1 staff member gave a quote about Education that would constitute as one reference. The stove user references for each NGO are combined into one section. Each quote was led into a single category. Each "Total" represents the total number of quotes by combining the NGO staff quotes and the NGO stove users (including the monitoring team for NGO-2). "NGO Staff Total" is the total number of quotes that an NGO staff member made regardless of the whether the quote came from and NGO-1 staff or NGO-2 staff. The "Stove Users Total" follows the same logic as "NGO Staff Total." "Combined Total" references the total number of quotes for a category. 34

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NGO-1 Staff never referenced nancing in relation to long-term stove use, whereas NGO-2 Staff mentioned it four times, which was surprising. This may indicate that the difference in funding for their projects or that they simply view nancing for cookstoves differently. However, the majority of the nancing discussion arose during the combined NGO staff focus group, and NGO-1 only had one staff member represented. The lack of NGO-1 references on nance may just reect the representatives' opinion. Similarly, NGO-1 Staff did not mention maintenance as a factor. This is likely due to the type of clean cookstove each NGO distributes. Cookstove-2 (NGO-2's stove) is not a free standing stove and has a chimney installed to their home. Cookstove-1 (NGO-1's stove) is an independent free standing stove that does not have to be installed or connected to the structure. Cookstove-1 has a 35 Finance Maintenance Usability/ Education Affordability/ Availability NGO-1 Staff 0 0 9 5 NGO-1 Stove Users 0 0 5 7 Total: 0 0 14 12 NGO-2 Staff 4 9 12 1 NGO-2 Monitoring Team 0 5 5 3 NG0-2 Stove Users 0 0 2 2 Total: 4 14 19 6 NGO Staff Total: 4 9 21 6 Stove Users Total: 0 0 7 9 Combined Total: 4 14 33 18 table 1: Focus Group Reference Count

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three to ve year life expectancy and can more or less be easily replaced, whereas Cookstove-2 has a ten year life expectancy, and cannot be as easily replaced because of it being made and attached to the home. This difference in life expectancy and installation may indicate that NGO-2 needs to prioritize maintenance more than NGO-1. U sability/education and affordability/availability are clearly important regardless of the stove user or NGO. All but one category (NGO-2 Staff references on affordability/availability ) has more than one reference. While these two categories have more than the other two, usability/education has far more than affordability/availability Financing and maintenance categories lack any reference from stove users. This is not surprising as these two categories are inherently of interest to NGOs. These categories have impact on the stove users, but the stove users have very little agency in how these categories are implemented. The following map (g.8) visually shows the importance of each category based on the users, staff, and location. The total number of references for each category was determined by adding the stove users, staff, and the monitoring team (for NGO-2) references together. This number was divided by the total number of references for each NGO. For example, there were four nance references made by all NGO-2 groups. There were a total forty-three references for all categories by NGO-2. Therefore, four was divided by 43 to nd the percentage of importance for nance. 36

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Selection of Quotes The following are a series of excerpts from ten different focus groups. Not every excerpt is given here, but merely a small selection. The transcript can be found in Appendix A. Each NGO helped organize three focus group interviews with stove users in three separate villages. Along with these six focus groups, NGO-2 organized a focus group with a team that monitors and helps maintain the 37 g 8: Factors Inuencing Long-Term Clean Cookstove Use Map

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clean cookstoves. However, the bulk of these excerpts come from a focus group conducted with NGO staff members. The combined NGO staff focus group, focus group with NGO-1 and NGO-2 staff present, is not separated in this research as an independent group; rather the quotes are organized with the corresponding NGO. In total, the excerpts come from ten focus group interviews: NGO-1 has four related interviews and NGO-2 has ve related interviews. The sections will be organized by categories with the focus group code (mentioned above) succeeding the quote. Example of quotes will be given that generally summarize repeated sentiments. Furthermore, it is important to remember that the stove user focus group responses were translated; therefore they are not the user's exact wording. English is not their rst language for any survey or focus group responders. Minor grammatical corrections were done post transcribing for the focus groups responses, because they were transcribed in real-time. However, the survey responders wrote their own answers; therefore, no editing was done and there are numerous grammatical errors. Financing NGO-2 referenced nancing four times during the focus groups. The majority of the discussions surrounded how nancing impacts the operations of the NGO. The following is one example: Maintenance would not be affordable without carbon nance, this is part of the project. However, the project would be far more exible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if 38

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you use it this way or that, twice a day, what have you. NGO-1 for examples goes to monitor every week to see if people use the stove. This would not be necessary. (NGO-2, male ) Financing was not mentioned by either NGO-2 or any of the stove user focus groups. Maintenance Maintenance was mentioned fourteen times throughout the focus groups, a relatively high number. The general sentiment was that maintenance is vital in order to keep the stoves operational. The following few quotes demonstrate this sentiment: The stove requires weekly maintenance through application of new layers of mud as cracks form on the top. So the stove requires maintenance on a regular basis. (NGO-2, male ) They used to plaster with the cow dung, but the same thing was required with the traditional stove so this was not a big problem. (NGO-2, male ) The challenge with maintenance is cleaning out the chimney, people don't know what to do in order to clean it, so NGO-2 volunteers have to visit in order to clean them. (NGO-2, male ) For the traditional stove they could use for more than 10 to 15 years if it is well maintained. This new stove will only last 10 years and then will need to be reconstructed. (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male ) 39

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Routine maintenance with the chimney is important. And the gate can crack so we have to x this. If they change the kitchen rooms we have to reconstruct the stoves. (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male ) Usability/Education This section had a combined total of thirty-three references, the most of any category. It was also referenced during every focus group. Many noted the challenge in educating the users on how to use the stove, such as proper cooking techniques. Cuisine is very uniform here, but when it comes to cooking, with the improved stove many people think that this is not good for roti because the ame is very focused, for roti they think it is best if the re is wide and across entire pan so with Cookstove-1 one part of roti will cook very quickly and if you don't move the roti [a traditional atbread] more often it will burn because the re focuses in the center [of the stove]. (NGO-1, male ) There is a roti making competition using Cookstove-1 to help women learn to cook roti on Cookstove-1. For all problems, whether its real or if it's their perception, we tried to take these problems on. Then with competition we get everyone to know that it is possible, so with a group they can see together and learn very quickly, whereas with it is very difcult to explain if you go to each family individually. (NGO-1, male ) A common topic from NGOs and users was the challenge in cooking for a large family. 40

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They think that they can't cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on Cookstove-1, but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them. (NGO-1, male ) Big families think that they cannot cook big meals for many people on this stove, they want a stove where you can feed more wood and cook for many, there are many reasons they may not want the new stove at rst. (NGO-1, male ) One area people are very happy with this stoves, they are using and it is ne, but another area people say it does not maybe cook enough, this is because the households are bigger in one area. (NGO-2, male ) The number of people for whom you can cook with this stove is limited, you cannot cook for more than 7 people, so this can be a difculty. (NGO-2, male ) If there are many people at our house, for a gathering, we cook two or three times, and maybe we establish a three stone re to cook more. (NGO-2 Focus Group #2, female ) Affordability/Availability This section was also referenced often, with eighteen total references. Every focus group referenced the importance of this category. Users noted that lacking a physical market to buy a stove was a problem for them 41

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After the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go purchase a new one, yes we will go. (NGO-1 Focus Group #3, female ) When people go to market, they get everything for their household, but no market sells improved cookstoves. With this program we have come and we give the stoves, they are not available at the market so they are not familiar. Over time everything becomes familiar. (NGO-1, male ) Other users noted that their ability to acquire another stove will depend on if the stove is being subsidized. Yes, we want to use the stove as much as we can. If we were given the stove again we will use it, but if it is not given we will go back to our old stove. No we will not be able to afford the stove if we need to buy it. (NGO-2 Focus Group #3, female) Maybe for the same amount (200[rps]) if it is something similar we will do but if it is more we may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue. (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female) 42

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The following discussion section focuses on what data (quotes and survey responses) and categories mean for the cookstove sector when it comes to longterm cookstove use. While some NGO staff believe these cookstoves are mainly a bridge until a better option is available, such as LPG or electricity, these cookstoves still need to be used consistently until that time. At this time, there is no clear idea about when these remote and poor communities will have consistent access to LPG or electricity, due to the cost and currently poor infrastructure This section will be organized into ve categories: Assessing Demand Financing, Maintenance, Usability/Education, and Affordability/Availability. Four of these were developed by grouping focus group quotes and survey results, a fth category was added to show there is stove user demand for long-term clean cookstove use. Each category will rst dene the related terms, subdivide those categories into specic factors, determine if there is any interplay between the NGO and stove users, and discuss the impact these topics could have on the cookstove sector at large. Assessing Demand The rst aspect for justifying the research questions is determining whether the stove users want to use their clean cookstove into the future. This question was answered repeatedly as yes, the current stove users want to continue to use their clean cookstove. For example, NGO-2 noted that once a couple 43

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Cookstove-2s were constructed "the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove" (NGO-2, male). The NGO-2 monitoring team noted that when people come to the village for weddings they are asking about the stove. While a consensus exists throughout both NGO stove users, some users expressed some caveats for acquiring a second stove. This indicates the need for NGOs to learn about their users' cookstove needs. These caveats and needs generally fall within the stated categories and will be expressed throughout the following sections. Financing Financing is typically thought of in terms of funding from an outside source in order to distribute a certain number of cookstoves. However, nancing allows these NGOs to accomplish more than just distribution, including stove monitoring and stove design. Factors such as subsidizing the stove and how the NGO project operates appear to impact stove user's views on long-term use The maintenance of stoves is denitely inuenced by nancing, but it will be discussed in a following section because of the importance that the NGOs and users placed on that topic The online survey takers noted that Financing seemed to be the most important factor for long-stove use. One responder said that nancing is "needed to manufacture, install, and maintain" the cookstove (Survey Response, male). Another respondent elaborated upon this response and noted the importance for nancing because "once the project is over and if they require a new clean energy cookstoves it would require a substantial investment as compared to their 44

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traditional stove in the absence of carbon funding based support" (Survey Response, male) Financing: Monitoring Financing allows the NGOs to impact the intervention project through a wide array of aspects. One aspect is nancing allows the NGO to monitor the stove on a regular basis. For NGO-2, this mainly falls on the ability to hire the monitoring team; however, for NGO-1, it is through weekly visits to the households. There are two parts to this monitoring: maintenance, which will be discussed later; and further understanding of the needs of the stove user communities. Because nancing is typically accomplished through the carbon market, both NGOs note that it has shaped how, and the frequency with which they monitor the stoves. NGO-2 acknowledges that "the project would be far more exible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if you use it this way or that, twice a day, what have you" (NGO-2, male). While this comment appears to be a negative view on the requirements carbon nancing imposes on the NGOs, by forcing them to spend time and money monitoring the stove, its benet is that it forces the NGOs to spend more time in the communities and households. For example, NGO-1 visits the households weekly, which allows it to develop a better understanding of the needs of the households. As is discussed in the Usability/Education section, making sure the households know how to 45

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properly use the cookstove is important. This understanding is directly related to how nancing forces the NGO to regularly monitor the users' stove use. Financing: Stove Design Along with monitoring, nancing allows the NGOs to listen to the users' opinions about what stove design is ideal and what the users need. This desire to match the users' needs is noted by NGO-2, but it also acknowledges the difculties in meeting household requests. There is a relationship between the NGOs distributing one type of stove and the number of stoves distributed. While there is a desire to build a custom stove to meet each household, NGO-2 states "if we change the model to each ones needs, I need different molds, where it becomes expensive for us, and I may not be able to repay the loan" (NGO-2, male). Meaning, if they did try to meet the needs of each household, their costs would increase dramatically. With higher costs, they would not be able to distribute the same number of cookstoves, thus limiting the number households Because nancing requires a certain amount of carbon savings, it forces the NGOs to distribute a single stove type. This allows them to distribute more stoves, but by distributing one type they are not able to meet the individual needs at times. By distributing a single stove type, the NGOs are able to consistently rene and tweak the stove. If NGOs were able to distribute multiple stove types, it may result in a couple of outcomes: (1) the NGO may be unable to tweak their stove to meet user feedback; and (2) as stated by an NGO-2 staff member, less households would have the option to adopt a clean cookstove. Through the 46

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demands that carbon nancing put on the NGOs, it forces the NGOs to distribute a single stove type. This forces the NGO to choose or design a stove type in which they have high condence. NGOs can now modify and rene their stove based on user feedback. An increase in nancing may allow NGOs to adjust to user feedback, which would likely increase the user's likelihood to use the stove long-term. Financing: Stove Sector Impact Financing heavily inuences both of these topics. While the obvious inuence of nancing is the users' ability to afford the stove, which is discussed later, there are more subtle ways in which nancing impacts how the NGOs operate their projects. Financing, particularly through the carbon market, has forced the NGOs to monitor the stoves, which in turn, ensures the users are using and maintaining the stoves properly. These aspects are imperative for the users to want to use the stoves long-term. Financing, as discussed, forces the NGOs to distribute one type of stove, allowing them to reach more households, and rene a single stove type that will hopefully meet the needs of users. Maintenance Maintenance refers to the ability of the NGOs to maintain the stoves, such as the monitoring team implemented by NGO-2, the importance of maintaining the stove appropriately, and how maintenance has led to further understanding of stove users by the NGOs. NGO-2 notes that the follow-up is the most critical aspect" (NGO-2, male). It is not enough to simply install the stoves; they need to be maintained properly if the user is to be condent in this technology. 47

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Maintenance was rarely mentioned by the stove users and did not create extensive conversations as did other topics; however, the information that arose from these discussions provides an important perspective. Even though maintenance was not mentioned during the focus groups, the survey takers noted that stove users mention durability when the survey asked what type of feedback the NGOs receive from users. When asking the NGO-2 monitoring team what is the most important factor in stove uptake and long-term stove use, multiple individuals indicated that routine maintenance is important, particularly with the chimney. While maintenance is important for NGO-1, due to the differences between how Cookstove-1 and Cookstove-2 are constructed maintenance was discussed more with NGO-2. Cookstove-1 is a self-standing stove that can be moved when needed. Cookstove-2 is physically connected to the house with the house needing some renovations in order to accommodate the chimney. Because of this difference, Cookstove-2 requires more initial commitment from the families. It would be more difcult for NGO-2 stove users to remove their stove than the free standing Cookstove-1 that NGO-1 users have. When properly maintained Cookstove-2 can last ten years. The monitoring team noted that because the users "apply the cow dung everyday this is a form of stove maintenance" (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male ). Maintenance: Stove Sector Impact Maintenance, while not widely discussed by stove users, is imperative for the users to feel comfortable with using the stove long-term. They are not going 48

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to invest in a stove if the stove does not last; maintenance ensures that the stove will last. NGO-2 realizes the importance of durability and therefore changed the material of the stove. By changing the material "it's much more robust than the mud model" (NGO-2, male) and therefore fewer cracks develop. Theoretically, t his change in material should reduce the amount of maintenance needed and increase the condence by the users in the stove's durability. If the user is not condent in the stove, the likelihood they would be willing to buy or want a future cookstove would be diminished. During a long discussion with both NGO-1 and NGO-2 present, the conversation shifted to the frequency of maintenance visits by the NGOs. NGO-1 has to visit weekly to ensure proper usage and provide consistent maintenance for the Cookstove-1. While some users expressed that the visits were too frequent, it has provided the NGOs the ability to learn about the community and build stronger relationships between the users and the NGOs. This was mirrored with NGO-2, which does not need to visit the users as often. However, as was often noted to Professor Simon's research team, by having frequent communication, it has allowed the NGOs to learn about the community needs, such as wanting the stove to be able to cook for a larger family. The monitoring team noted that "this stove is only a starting point in a larger development agenda, the NGO who has given you this stove may work here in the future, and now you have membership in this community and have developed a relationship, so other projects and benets may become available to you in the future. We will rst explain the benets of this stove like the health, rst this he will explain, after 49

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that you may get a drinking water lter, so there are benets they may receive in the future" (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male) By the NGO providing other resources besides a cookstove, a community may be more willing to continue to use a cookstove if they know other development benets may come in the future. Usability/Education Education refers to how the NGOs educate target households about the benets, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information. Along with general information about the cookstove, it also refers to how education on how to operate the stove, the use of different cooking techniques, daily maintenance practice, and other stove use knowledge. For both the stove users and NGOs, there is a direct correlation between how the stove users use the stove and how the NGO educates the users. Usability/Education: Comfortability Comfortability means that the users understand and feel comfortable using the clean cookstove. Without them being comfortable using the stove, the likelihood of them wanting to use a clean cookstove long-term will be diminished. Their comfort appears to transfer to other non-stove users and communities. By their acceptance of the technology and comfort using the stove, it creates a demand from non-stove users. An NGO-2 staff member stated "we started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove" (NGO-2, male). As part of developing this demand, NGO-2 developed Cookstove-2 to aesthetically look similar to the 50

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communities' traditional stove. This aesthetic appears to make it easier for stove users to be more comfortable with their new stove. As one user noted, that besides cooking practices, "the use of the mud stove makes it easier for people to adapt their cooking and ritual practices to it, the similar mud stove is important" (NGO-2, male). NGO-1 noted that besides the women in the household accepting and being comfortable with the stove, the males need to be just as comfortable with the stove. Men's comfort needs appear to be slightly different from women's. They want the food to taste the same compared to the traditional stove, which can be a challenge, due to the reduction in indoor smoke the food may taste less smoky. This does not mean that men do not see the benets the stove provides women, but his opinion is vital if the stove is to remain in the home. NGO-1 noted if the "husband will say the taste is not okay. Women will usually go back to the old stove if the man says so, he has the ability to enforce his opinion. Women have used the stove but if the husband says no then they will stop using it" (NGO-1, male). Usability/Education: Large Family Cooking There is a unique give-and-take between education and usability. Based on numerous quotes from both NGO stove users, there is a demand for bigger stoves that can accommodate cooking for larger groups of people. While there is a demand for long-term use, as one female user stated "all those small families will continue to use this stove, but not larger families, we will use it but because this is a small stove I can only put a few sticks and I can only cook a small meal 51

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and I want to cook a big meal" (NGO-1 Focus Group #2, female). Another female stove user had a similar sentiment when it comes to needing a larger stove, but she also seems to associate a bigger stove with stability. This user stated "next stove we want a bigger stove and also more stability. Sometimes our people cook rice and you are supposed to pour out the excess water which is tricky with [Cookstove-1] because the stove may tip, it is not stable enough so new stove should be more sturdy" (NGO-1 Focus Group #2, female ). These comments contradict what the NGO staff states. While the stability in relation to the size of the stove was not expressed by NGO-2 stove users, both NGOs commented that by educating the users on better user habits the stoves could cook for larger families. A male NGO-1 staff member stated "they think that they can't cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on [Cookstove-1], but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them" (NGO-1, male ). What is unclear is whether the issue for cooking for larger groups is merely a lack in educating the users or the stove lacking the capability to cook for larger families. As is shown, the NGOs repeatedly expressed that once the users are shown how to cook for larger families, it is not a problem. More than likely, this sentiment is wishful thinking by the NGO. Based on one comment from a male NGO-2 staff member, it appears it is more than likely an issue with the stove. He commented after a female stove user expressed concern over the capability of the stove cooking for larger amounts of people by stating "in this village, the 52

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households are quite small with only 4 or 5 people, so here there is not much of an issue cooking for the whole familyin other villages, many households are 10 or so people, making it difcult to cook for everyone at once. The stoves in this village were installed knowing that only cooking for 4 or 5 people" (NGO-2, male ). Even though these comments indicate that Cookstove-2 does have limitations for large family cooking, the truth is probably in the middle. There are instances in which the NGO could do a better job of educating the users how to cook for a large family. However, it is clear that both of these stoves, Cookstove-1 and Cookstove-2, do have limitations for large family cooking. What was not answered by these quotes is the size of the family that these cookstoves can accommodate. Is ten people considered the baseline for a large household, or is it closer to seven or eight? By not having a stove that can cook for a larger family, it may limit the number of families willing to use the cookstove long-term. The ability to cook for a larger family appears to be imperative for a number of stove users. Usability/Education: Stove Sector Impact These stove user concerns indicate that another category is important, but it did not arise through this research, Stove User Input and Feedback If these stoves are to be used long-term, the NGO and stove manufacturers need to listen to the needs and critiques by the stove users. Stove design, which was discussed in the Financing section, impacts the stove's Usability The stove design section deals with how nancing impacts the NGOs ability to design a stove, which differs from how the stove's functionality impacts the usability. A 53

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good stove design will result in meeting the user's needs which increases the usability of the stove. Cookstoves need to meet the needs, and expectations of the users, otherwise, NGOs risk stove users reverting back to their traditional cookstove. This was explicitly discussed when NGO-2 switched from one mold material to another. NGO-2 stated when they switched materials of the Cookstove-2 mold, it increased the size of it [of the stove], so we have the opposite problem if the family size is too small. So there is a plate you can place over the opening to reduce the size of the stove" (NGO-2, male ). They have listened to the demands of the stove users; they made a switch in material that allowed them to increase the stove size, thus increasing the ability to cook for a large family. Affordability/Availability Affordability/Availability is grouped together because they both deal with the ability of the stove users to acquire another stove. It refers to the price of a new stove, how and where they can acquire a new stove, and if they can afford to acquire another stove. Affordability/Availability: Stove Market The lack of a physical location to purchase a clean cookstoves was noted multiple times by stove users. This is expressed mainly with NGO-1 stove users. When asked if she wanted to continue to use this stove in the future and if she would be willing to purchase her next clean cookstove, a woman answered "after the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go to purchase a new one, yes we will go" (NGO-1 Focus Group #3, female). Currently, the only way the users get 54

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access to a clean cookstove is through the NGO, and without the NGO, they will currently not be able to get another stove. Another woman in response to the same question in the above paragraph answered "yes, we will use it but we don't know when the stoves will be available from the facility but if they are available we would like to use the new stove" (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female). The lack of access is a problem for some users. Furthermore, if the NGO is no longer distributing clean cookstoves, their access may be limited. This dependency on the NGO and lack of a physical place to purchase a clean cookstove is a problem. It is unclear whether this problem is driven directly by lack of a market or if the lack of the ability to choose the type of clean cookstove is the driving force for this sentiment. This lack of choice was not directly mentioned during the focus groups. However, this sentiment was prevalent through their quotes as many users expressed the benets of having multiple types of cookstoves in their household. An NGO-1 staff member stated, "some houses have 5 stovesstove stacking is because no single fuel source is fully reliableinduction, LPG, or biomass. Cost factorwill not use LPG to boil water because gas is precious often 3-stone stove will be used because fuel is low cost or free" (NGO-1, male). They may want a market to be able to view other cookstoves and choose the one that meets their family needs. As was discussed earlier in the Affordability/ Education section, users feel the current cookstove does not allow them to cook for large families. Having a market may allow these families to nd an appropriate stove model. 55

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Affordability/Availability: Stability The concept of stability refers to the type of fuel that is used for clean cookstoves. Biomass, such as wood, provides users with consistent availability to a fuel source that is typically free. However, there is a sentiment, which was expressed by a male NGO-1 staff member and by stove users, that they view "clean cookstoves as bridge fuel" (NGO-1, male). As stated earlier, even if clean cookstoves are a bridge until a more permanent fuel source is delivered, these cookstoves need to last until that moment. Currently, it is not clear when that moment will come. Having a stove that gives the users consistent access to fuel provides a sense of comfort with the stove. As many hope that LPG stoves will be coming soon to their community, LPG brings new challenges for the users. One challenge is being able to provide consistent LPG to the users. A male NGO-1 staff member stated that "even if LPG comes, people will continue to use traditional stoves for some cooking. So gas/electric stoves are very much not free, you have to pay for electricity and cylinders. So there is an affordability part of it, the government may subsidize these fuels in the initial stages, but how frequently they replenish the cylinders depends on how willing people are to pay" (NGO-1, male). He continues and asserts that the users will not use LPG for everything because they view the LPG as precious, and they will and want to stove stack. They want to have a biomass clean cookstove, an LPG stove for certain items (such as tea), and potentially an electric stove for other uses. 56

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This is why the stability of the biomass fuel is so important. Biomass provides the users with free fuel. "As long as people continue to get free fuel wood, they won't shift completely to LPG or electric. If wood is free, gas will not be the primary fuel" (NGO-1, male). The thought that stove users will not continue to use a clean cookstove is not accurate. Clean cookstoves will need to be used long-term until the users have access to a consistent fuel source like biomass provides. These households are already on a low income, as demonstrated in the above quote, they will not completely shift away from biomass fuels because the fuel source is free. The NGO-2 monitoring team emphasized this. One member, in response to a question about whether, if the government comes with gas, that member would prefer that instead answered, "yes, but the gas itself is very expensive, and even if it was cheap maybe you have to walk 150 km to locate a cylinder, and therefore it is impractical" (NGO-2 Monitoring Team, male ). Affordability/Availability: Affordability The most obvious part of this section is whether the users will be able to afford a second clean cookstove. Answers to this question varied from household to household, regardless of the user being from Karnataka or Andhra Pradesh. Some stated that for a certain price they would buy, one woman stated 200 rupees, which is what they paid for their current cookstove. However, she noted that if it was more expensive, they "may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue" (NGO-1 Focus Group #1, female ). Others expressed that they 57

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would simply like to continue to use the stove, but did not mention any concerns about pricing. There were similar responses from NGO-2 stove users. However, one female user did state that unless the second stove was given to them for free, they would revert back to their traditional stove. She states "no, we will not be able afford the stove if we need to buy it" (NGO-2 Focus Group #3, female). While there appears to be a nearly universal demand from stove users in wanting to continue to use the stoves, being able to provide the stoves at a reasonable price could be a challenge. Survey takers were not unanimous on whether nancing would be available for a second cookstove, two responders said maybe. It is currently unclear whether nancing would be available, and if nancing were not available, if the users would be able to afford a second cookstoves. Affordability/Availability: Stove Sector Impact Affordability/Availability is a wide ranging issue that encompasses many different aspects and challenges for NGOs. They all deal with access, whether it is access to a stove market, to fuel, or to purchasing a stove. Without access, stove users will nd it a challenge to use a clean cookstove long-term. Stove users want a physical market to buy a stove, but if stoves are offered in a market, there is a good chance they will not be subsidized. If they are subsidized, which makes them affordable, they will not be offered in a market as long as the nancing is through the carbon market, which requires a level of carbon offset monitoring 58

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Because cookstoves are currently tied to the carbon market, the likelihood of a physical market for individual users to purchase a cookstove is very low. Therefore, creating a scenario for individuals to purchase an affordable cookstove seems unlikely unless it is provided by an NGO. This creates a demand for NGOs to continue to distribute cookstoves to current stove users. Whether NGOs plan to do that is unclear. This sentiment was mentioned by a survey responder, noting that it w ould require a substantial investment as compared to their traditional stove in the absence of carbon funding" (Survey Response, male) Differences From Initial Adoption Many of these factors are important for initial adoption of clean cookstoves and long-term use. Some of the differences are subtle while others have distinct differences. The stability of biomass as fuel remains for both traditional and clean cookstoves. This is a shared factor between initial adoption and long-term use. However, factors such as the lack of a stove market is created by users wanting to use their clean cookstove long-term. The demand for a physical place to purchase a clean cookstoves would not exist without users having a clean cookstove. Maintenance is another factor that is independent from initial adoption. Without having clean cookstoves, maintaining a clean cookstove would obviously not be an issue. A shared factor between initial adoption and long-term use is usability. For users to adopt a clean cookstove, the stove has to be usable in their eyes However, I argue the user's comfortability with the stove has to positively evolve 59

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throughout their experience. While, this is a shared factor, it is different for longterm use. Usability is connected to NGOs responding to stove users' feedback. For some users, the stove needs to be slightly modied for them to use it longterm, such as making it easier to cook for larger families. NGOs need to listen to feedback to meet the users' needs. Education is another factor that is important for both initial adoption and long-term use, but the type of education is different. During discussions with both NGOs, during the initial adoption phase, the users were educated about the benets of the stove. Once the stove users have the stove, education shifts to proper use and maintenance. The global benets, such as ghting climate change, seem to be not as important once they have the stove. Education has to be a continuous throughout the users' experience with their stoves. It cannot be a static, short-term process. 60

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CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Long-term clean cookstove use has similar factors with initial uptake of cookstoves. However, the factors discussed in this research are focused on when users already have a clean cookstove, at the mid-stage of an intervention project. While some factors have similar signicance with initial uptake, their signicance is different at this mid-stage point. This research has shown what factors are important for long-term stove use and what factors differ from the initial adoption. This research has found numerous factors share commonalities between initial adoption and long-term stove use. Many of the factors need to be implemented by the NGO differently from the initial adoption phase for long-term stove use. Education needs to happen at both points, during the initial adoption and throughout the users' use of the stoves. However, what is being educated is different. Availability and maintenance are new factors that are not present during the initial adoption phase. These factors are present because the households are using a clean cookstove and there is a demand for access to future clean cookstoves. Transferrable Long-Term Use Factors What are the best practices for creating long-term clean cookstove use? The answer is still murky and complicated. There is a demand for clean cookstoves by current users. They want to continue to use a clean cookstove under certain requirements. The survey takers did not offer any other factors for 61

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long-term stove use than the categories mentioned in the survey. This may mean that the categories discussed in this research are the main leading factors for long-term stove use. Based on my analysis t here are a number of factors that appear to be transferrable between geographic locations that are important for long-term stove use. They are: The cookstoves have to be affordable whether that means free or at a subsidized price. Users will not be able to afford a full priced clean cookstove and expecting users to pay full price will result in users reverting back to a traditional cookstove. NGOs need to offer future clean cookstoves to their current users The current nancing model relies on NGOs to distribute clean cookstoves. Without NGOs distributing the stoves, users will not have access to a future clean cookstove. Furthermore, N GOs who distribute clean cookstoves, such as those who were part of this research, are the experts in their community and within the development eld. Their knowledge is invaluable in creating long-term stove use. They understand the contextual challenges that each community and household provides. Education is a necessity for any successful implementation project. Users must know the benets the stove provides, how to properly use the stove, and how to maintain their stove. As stove users become more knowledgeable about their stove and are using the stove properly, their condence in the stove increases. With an increase in condence, they appear more likely to want to continue to use the stove. Furthermore, 62

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when the users have a high level of condence it appears to transfer to non-stove users, creating a non-stove user demand. Maintenance is important for the condence of the user The users need to be condent the stove will last years and will operate appropriately. With poor maintenance, the stove will not be durable and the user will be less likely to want to buy or acquire another stove. Furthermore, by needing consistent visits to households for maintenance, NGOs learn about the needs of the communities and households, opening the door for future development projects. An aspect that was not its own category in this research, but is interwoven through the majority of the categories, is that stove user feedback is important This category was on the survey, but did not clearly become evident during the focus groups; however, each survey responder noted it to be extremely important for long-term stove use. Furthermore, one responder stated "feedback is extremely essential because feedback is the good tool to know the how this project really helpful to community whether it is use full or not" (Survey Response) Clean cookstoves have to meet the needs and expectations of the users. Organizations who distribute clean cookstoves need to listen to the users in order to meet future expectations. Users will use a stove that is convenient, affordable, usable, and available. By listening to the users, NGOs can meet the majority of these expectations. NGO-2 is a great example of responding to stove user feedback. By switching Cookstove-2 63

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mold materials, it allowed them to increase the burner-hole size which made larger family cooking easier. Then, they provided the users with a plate to reduce the opening when needed. This is an example of meeting the users' demands, which needs to be done for long-term use. These categories appear to be transferrable; they received similar comments from each NGO. While clean cookstove implementation projects are and should remain context-driven, hopefully this research can begin the process of sharing ideas between NGOs. Future Research This research is merely the beginning of what could be the foundation for future research projects. Clearly, this research needs to be expanded to include more than two NGOs. By expanding to more NGOs, whether they are in India or other countries, it would provide a more complete picture of how different NGOs feel about long-term use in different environments and geographic regions. Ideally this research would develop into a practical reference guide for NGOs who are starting intervention projects. While the implementation of clean cookstoves is extremely context-dependent, with different environments and communities having different needs, I believe there are some transferrable factors between locales. This is not to say that these transferrable factors should be implemented the same way for each locale, but NGOs can and should learn from other NGOs. It was apparent in my January 2017 research trip to India that communication between NGOs can lead to the sharing of ideas. The ability for NGOs to share successful working practices and unsuccessful practices is vital. 64

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Hopefully, future research can help facilitate the sharing of these practices. Along with expanding the research, these categories could be further researched. For example, it may be benecial to explore solely how education impacts long-term stove use. Analyzing how different NGOs educate their users and seeing if there are any transferrable practices between them may be worthy research. Another potential research topic could focus on how the stoves are developed, analyzing how much impact stove user feedback actually has on the stove physical development. It is one thing for an NGO to say we listen to the users' feedback, but it is another thing to actually take that feedback and implement it in future stoves. Clean cookstove intervention projects are inherently personal and intimate. These projects impact the heart of the home, the kitchen, and for some, a spiritual place. If clean cookstoves are to be used long-term, the users' opinions need to be heard and attempted to be met. This research has found what factors inuence long-term stove use for the users and the NGOs that operate the intervention projects. The workers of the NGOs appear to be altruistic; the staff wants to help the households because they believe in the work. I hope this research will help the NGOs provide a quality intervention program for stove users. I would like to end with a quote that caused everyone, the researchers, the NGOs, and all the stove users to break out laughing during one of the focus groups. In response to this question: "do you want to continue to use your clean cookstove in the future?" a woman responded: 65

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"Yes, we would like to continue to use this stove in the future, everyone agrees we would like to continue to use the stove" (NGO-2 Focus Group #1). A male NGO-2 staff jokingly responded: "I can take your chimney, may I have it?" The female user quipped back: "No you may not have it! You have offered this to me and you can never take it!" (NGO-2 Focus Group #1) 66

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Venkataraman, C., Sagar, A. D., Habib, G., Lam, N., & Smith, K. R. (2010). The Indian National Initiative for Advanced Biomass Cookstoves: The benets of clean combustion. Energy for Sustainable Development, 14(2), 6372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2010.04.005 Wang, Y., & Bailis, R. (2015). The revolution from the kitchen: Social processes of the removal of traditional cookstoves in Himachal Pradesh, India. Energy for Sustainable Development, 27, 127136. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.esd.2015.05.001 72

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APPENDIX Appendix A : Focus Group Transcript NGO-1 Staff In your opinion, what are the most signicant challenges or difculties in implementing an effective clean cookstove project? They think that they can't cook more food on this so we have to demonstrate that yes you can cook for more people on [Cookstove-1], but people have to go through that experience, if you just talk they will not believe you, so you have to show them through experience to convince them. Another challenge is that the improved stove the removal of ash is critical to ensure the free ow of air, so that the wood will burn properly, whereas with traditional stoves they don't continually take out they ash, they traditionally leave embers burning with the stove warm so it will light easily later, with the improved stove we advise them to remove ash and light anew each time. So there are new habits/skills required, the new stoves expect a certain way of using and people are not ready or willing to learn, but the stove requires changes in such practices. Cuisine is very uniform here, but when it comes to cooking, with the improved stove many people think that this is not good for roti because the ame is very focused, for roti they think it is best if the re is wide and across entire pan so with [Cookstove-1] one part of roti will cook very quickly and if you don't move the roti more often it will burn because the re focuses in the center [of the stove]. While one roti is cooking they begin to prepare the next roti, with the traditional stove this is no problem, but with [Cookstove-1] you have to monitor the roti on the stove so that it doesn't burn. Others however have adapted and learned to cook roti and all other things on [Cookstove-1], I have learned that I have to keep watching this roti then okay that's also ne. Some people were used to not watching the roti and so this is causing problems for them. Women have to learn to get enough speed to do both, whereas before one could do it more leisurely. You know like each of us we have different patience levels. There is a roti making competition using [Cookstove-1] to help women learn to cook roti on [Cookstove-1]. For all problems, whether its real or if it's their perception, we tried to take these problems on. Then with competition we get everyone to know that it is possible, so with a group they can see together and learn very quickly, whereas with it is very difcult to explain if you go to each family individually. 73

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Big families think that they cannot cook big meals for many people on this stove, they want a stove where you can feed more wood and cook for many, there are many reasons they may not want the new stove at rst. Some families cook food for the cattle and animals also hence they want a bigger stove, [Cookstove-1] is too small of a stove. Husband will say the taste is not okay. Women will usually go back to the old stove if the man says so, he has the ability to enforce his opinion. Women have used the stove but if the husband says no then they will stop using it. So cookstoves can cause conict within families when men disagree. Some houses have 5 stovesstove stacking is because no single fuel source is fully reliableinduction, LPG, or biomass. Cost factorwill not use LPG to boil water because gas is preciousoften 3-stone stove will be used because fuel is low cost or free. With some villages they are now going to provide 24 hour power supply to city. Because of this improvement, more number of families are buying electric stoves, so people are changing to this stove as well. Clean cookstoves as bridge fuel. What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? Trends are changing a little, now people's interest is moving towards LPG, it looks like after 5 years or so a lot of people move on to LPG stoves. When people go to market, they get everything for their household, but no market sells improved cookstoves. With this program we have come and we give the stoves, they are not available at the market so they are not familiar. Over time everything becomes familiar. Yes, people will move towards these new stoves, but it's not a complete 100% shift, for example some families have two or three types of stove. So even if LPG comes, people will continue to use traditional stoves for some cooking. So gas/electric stoves are very much not free, you have to pay for electricity and cylinders. So there is an affordability part of it, the government may subsidize these fuels in the initial stages, but how frequently they replenish the cylinders depends on how willing people are to pay, so they use LPG only purely for coffee and tea and they continue to use the biomass stoves. There are not as many families who already use LPG for all their cooking. This also down the line, it's not immediate, its takes a number of years to implement. 74

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As long as people continue to get free fuel wood, they won't shift completely to LPG or electric. If wood is free, gas will not be the primary fuel. With some villages they are now going to provide 24 hour power supply to city. Because of this improvement, more number of families are buying electric stoves, so people are changing to this stove as well. If the cost of new stoves is more like traditional stove people will be willing to use it, but if it is more expensive like current market prices they will not be willing. NGO-1 Users Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future? Would you be willing to purchase your next clean cookstove? Yes, we will use it but we don't know when the stoves will be available from the facility but if they are available we would like to use the new stove. Maybe for the same amount [200 rupees] if it is something similar we will do but if it is more we may have to think, if it is too expensive many will not continue. Yes, it has become a habit so now we want the same one. Actually, all those small families will continue to use this stove, but not larger families, we will use it but because this is a small stove I can only put a few sticks and I can only cook a small meal and I want to cook a big meal. Also, the LPG scheme is coming so should I not wait for this gas stove? Next stove we want a bigger stove and also more stability. Sometimes our people cook rice and you are supposed to pour out the excess water which is tricky with [Cookstove-1] because the stove may tip, it is not stable enough so new stove should be more sturdy. We own a village restaurant and Cookstove-1 cannot cook for big meals every day NGO-1 Staff: Yes, but [Cookstove-1] is not designed for a restaurant, for a small family it is sufcient says NGO-1. We would like to continue using this stove. 75

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After the 5 years of this stove, if we know where to go to purchase a new one, yes we will go. If we really want it and we have to buy it, we'll see what the price will be. Is there anything you don't like about your new stove? Lighting can be tricky but once you light it the re will be there and so it is easier to cook. Once you light it you don't need to keep on lighting etc New stoves, once we get used to them they look nice, but old stoves also they have been used for many years and also they look nice, biggest difference is traditional stoves are xed and stable, whereas portable stove is less sturdy. The [Cookstove-1] is good for small households, not for big families. It requires adaptation, not everyone nds it easy to light this stove, it requires a different skill, they must small pieces of wood and. NGO-2 Staff In your opinion, what are the most signicant challenges or difculties in implementing an effective clean cookstove project? The rst thing the technology is new and very different from their old stove, they have used it for many years so they have a relationship with their old stove and suddenly we give this new stove, they haven't seen any of our types of stoves so they have many question like the cooking is different or will the house be damaged. In some villages the leader was not willing to accept the stove at rst so we had to hold meetings in order to inform everyone about the benets of the stove. Because they had no idea about the stove, they were not aware of the benets, and that is why they were at rst not willing. But after construction people see and then they demand these stoves, demand is coming right now. We started with the pilot project in one Panchayat and in each village we constructed two or three stoves and the rest of the village is watching and noticing this stove, and after that the others are ready to use the stove. One area people are very happy with this stoves, they are using and it is ne, but another area people say it does not maybe cook enough, this is because the households are bigger in one area. Maintenance would not be affordable without carbon nance, this is part of the project. However, the project would be far more exible if we did not have to monitor and account for the amount of emissions. The kind of monitoring would be of a different nature, we would not need to know if 76

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you use it this way or that, twice a day, what have you. NGO-1 for examples goes to monitor every week to see if people use the stove. This would not be necessary. [Cookstove-2] would be designed differently if carbon was not necessary. If I was not tied in by my carbon obligations, because every rupee I put in is tied to my returns. Otherwise every stove would be tailor made for each households needs. But if we do this I am not sure I can recuperate my costs, these are expensive. If the funding was different we would not be accountable to carbon in the same way, but then the funding would be less stable in a way, less consistent, so this is the catch 22. No challenges with explaining the new stove. They didn't nd any discomfort. This is a reason why the new stove looks very similar to old stove. NGO-2 staff: The use of the mud stove makes it easier for people to adapt their cooking and ritual practices to it, the similar mud stove is important. The number of people for whom you can cook with this stove is limited, you cannot cook for more than 7 people, so this can be a difculty. Also the material things, the chimney is prepared with asbestos so they have to be handled carefully or it may break. The roads are very bumpy and so maybe it can break on the way. Also the placing of the chimney is very important, otherwise it can be broken and it will not work properly. So it is a really expensive thing to replace and maintain chimneys which are broken not working properly. The challenge with maintenance is cleaning out the chimney, people don't know what to do in order to clean it, so NGO-2 volunteers have to visit in order to clean them. Also some families will change their kitchen rooms and construct them again, so they have to be careful with the chimney or it may break again. NGO-1 invests more than we do, they check in every week. If there isn't an issue of revenue from that stove, not plus minus investment, I'm trying to ensure that every stove is tailor made to the needs of every household. Every rupee I put in is tied to my returns, but with a project my whole mind frame would be different. We are saying if we change the model to each ones needs, I need different molds, where it becomes expensive for us, and I may not be able to repay the loan. 77

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The stove requires weekly maintenance through application of new layers of mud as cracks form on the top. So the stove requires maintenance on a regular basis. They used to plaster with the cow dung, but the same thing was required with the traditional stove so this was not a big problem. Some communities have very big families with two wives and 5 or 6 children so if there is a very big family it does not work for them. These families expect gas stoves. Places which are near the road there is a problem they may use gas because they have access to cylinders more easily so they will not always use our stove. What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? It's not enough to pay for the technology itself, its important to consider the maintenance, that there is a consistent holding of that particular technology, especially something you've never seen before, the regular maintenance, as in contact with the user is extremely necessary. Very unlikely anybody would be willing to pay for 10 years of this technology. The follow-up is the most critical aspect. We have shifted to another material of stove, so we are using basically ash and cement (for the main unit), again its put in the mold and it's much more robust than the mud model. Fewer cracks develop. It has a different feel and look. They are made in the workshop and transported, so we have increased the size of it, so we have the opposite problem if the family size is too small. So there is a plate you can place over the opening to reduct the size of the stove. These have been made since last year. There is always this thing with looking good, once they got this one, nobody wanted the old one. It's much more durable. Cement and granite ash and lots of water. We innovated the design. The people who designed the stove, one of the main stove builders. Design depends on how often they cook, the size of the vessels, and we do try to construct the stove in the way the family wants it. The molds are pretty good at meeting the average family needs. Large families beyond ten people require a different mold. We switched to a cement [cement and granite ash] in part because it can be installed more quickly, so the timing can be very important because of the credits. Also people prefer this one to the mud one, everyone wanted this new one, it looks much nicer. Probably this one will last longer, the material is much more durable. 78

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NGO-2 Monitoring Team What is the most important factor in stove uptake and long term stove use? Routine maintenance with the chimney is important. And the gate can crack so we have to x this. If they change the kitchen rooms we have to reconstruct the stoves. Because they apply the cow dung everyday this is a form of stove maintenance. For the traditional stove they could use for more than 10 to 15 years if it is well maintained. This new stove will only last 10 years and then will need to be reconstructed. Total cost is 800, user only pays 50 rupees. Some seasons they have more cash like after the harvest. We have this same experience with the solar lanterns. Do you nd that people want to continue to use this stove in the future? In your opinion, what factors lead to long term stove use? Less wood means less labor and therefore people would like to use the stove. The forest has degraded and it has become more and more difcult to nd fuel, so the efciency of the stove is a major benet and is very important to people. Some of kitchens are outside and are very closed with little insulation, so people with this type of kitchen are very much inclined to continue to use this stove which decreases indoor air pollution. Supposing the government comes tomorrow with gas, wouldn't you prefer that? Yes, but the gas itself is very expensive, and even if it was cheap maybe you have to walk 150 km to locate a cylinder, and therefore it is impractical. If the community sees utility in the stove then they will use it, but its up to us to continue to raise awareness by reinforcing the benets which are already there. Also, you can tell the users that this stove is only a starting point in a larger development agenda, the NGO who has given you this stove may work here in the future, and now you have membership in this community and have developed a relationship, so other projects and benets may become available to you in the future. We will rst explain the benets of this stove like the health, rst this he will explain, after that you may get a drinking water lter, so there are benets they may receive in the future. So this is a strategy to convince people. There are other families who they do not work with on a regular basis, other people who visit or come for marriages, etc. They are also asking me for this stove, so there is demand there. 79

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Users are so used to it now, that they don't want to go back to the other, so the stove has established itself somehow. NGO-2 Users Do you want to continue to use this stove in the future? If there are many people at our house, for a gathering, we cook two or three times, and maybe we establish a three stone re to cook more. NGO-2 male staff: In this village, the households are quite small with only 4 or 5 people, so here there is not much of an issue cooking for the whole familyin other villages, many households are 10 or so people, making it difcult to cook for everyone at once. The stoves in this village were installed knowing that only cooking for 4 or 5 people. Yes, we would like to continue to use this stove in the future. [Everyone agrees we would like to continue to use the stove] NGO-2 male staff: I can take your chimney, may I have it? No, you may not have it! You have offered this to me and you can never take it! [Laughter] Yes we would like to use it into the future. (Raju asks may I have your cookstove and take it back, they say no of course not!) If the stove breaks, again you have to give another one to me. Yes, we want to use the stove as much as we can. If we were given the stove again we will use it, but if it is not given we will go back to our old stove. No, we will not be able afford the stove if we need to buy it. Appendix B : Survey Questionnaire Study Title: An Assessment of Factors that Inuence Sustained Use of Clean Cookstoves in India Principal Investigator: Gregory L Simon, University of Colorado Denver; CoInvestigator: Brendan P Berve, University of Colorado Denver Organization Background 1: Name of Organization: 2: # Your Position in the Organization: 3: Name of Distributor Organization: 4: # Name of Cookstove Manufacturer: 80

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5: State(s) and District(s) of Implementation Site(s): 6: # Current Number of Implementation Sites: 7: # Previous (no longer implementing cookstoves) Number of Implementation Sites: 8: # Have any current clean cookstove households replaced their rst improved cookstove with another (new replacement) improved cookstove? # Yes No 9: # What type(s) (name(s)) of clean cookstove(s) does your organization distribute? Stove 1 ____________________ Stove 2 ____________________ Stove 3 ____________________ Stove 4 ____________________ 10: What type of fuel source(s) does the cookstove(s) use? (Select all the apply) Wood Charcoal LPG Dung Solar Other ____________________ Education Education refers to how your organization educates target households; including but not limited to the benets, potential negatives, and other general clean cookstove information. 11: How important is the education of target households for the future adoption of clean cookstoves? Extremely important Very important Moderately important Slightly important Not at all important 81

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12: What topics does your organization educate target households about? # (Select all that apply) Health Benets Taste of Food Ease of Use Time Savings Climate Change Women's Empowerment Reduce Deforestation Don't Educate Users Other: ____________________ 13: # What is the most important topic for educating target households about the adoption of clean cookstoves? Health Benets Taste of Food Ease of Use Time Savings Climate Change Women's Empowerment Reduce Deforestation Don't Educate Users Other: ____________________ Feedback/Stove User Input Feedback and stove user input refers to the information collected from target and current households about clean cookstoves. 14: # How important is the feedback of clean cookstove adopter's input for the continued future adopters of clean cookstoves? Extremely important Very important Moderately important Slightly important Not at all important 82

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15: What is the feedback from household adopters? (Select all that apply) Durability Issues Too Expensive Wrong Fuel Type Fuel Source Difcult to Find Installation Issues Was Not Reducing Smoke Emissions Sufciently Food Tastes Different Not Hot Enough Have to Use Different Cooking Methods Breaks Easily Don't Know How to Cook Certain Meals Traditional Cookstove is Easier to Use Need to Have More than One Stove (Burner) Other: ____________________ 16: # What feedback from household adopters has been the most useful at improving stove adoption and use? (Select only one answer) Durability Issues Too Expensive Wrong Fuel Type Fuel Source Difcult to Find Installation Issues Was Not Reducing Smoke Emissions Sufciently Food Tastes Different Not Hot Enough Have to Use Different Cooking Methods Breaks Easily Don't Know How to Cook Certain Meals Traditional Cookstove is Easier to Use Need to Have More than One Stove (Burner) Other: ____________________ Institutional Support Institutional support refers to support given from any outside actor. # Support could be in the form of implementation plans, nancial contributors, and any other support. 83

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17: # How important is the institutional support for the future adoption of clean cookstoves? Extremely important Very important Moderately important Slightly important Not at all important 18: # Who gives institutional support to your organization for the adoption of clean cookstoves and what type of support is given? (Select all that apply) # Local State Actors ____________________ National (Federal) Government ____________________ Local Private Actors ____________________ Local Non-Prot Actors ____________________ State International Actors ____________________ International Non-Governmental Actors ____________________ 19: Which of these sources (types of support) are most helpful for promoting clean cookstove uptake and sustained cookstove use? (Please give a brief reason why this type is the most important) Financing Financing refers to how target and current clean cookstove households are able to afford a clean cookstove. # This could be in the form a subsidized cookstoves. # 20: # How important is the subsidizing of clean cookstoves for target household to receive a cookstove? Extremely important Very important Moderately important Slightly important Not at all important 21: Will nancing be available for households for a second clean cookstove once their rst cookstove no longer works or needs to be replaced? Yes Maybe ____________________ No, why? ____________________ 84

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22: # What will be the biggest nancial investment for household adopters? Adoption of the household's rst clean cookstove. Maintenance for clean cookstove. Adoption got the household's second clean cookstove. Other: ____________________ Concluding Questions 23: # Please rank the categories of Education, Feedback/Stove User Input, Institutional Support, and Financing from the most important to least important on a scale of 1 4. (1 = Least Important, 4 = Most Important) ______ Education ______ Feedback/Stove User Input ______ Institutional Support ______ Financing 24: # Why did you rank the category as the most important in Q22? # What makes this category more important than the other sections? 25: # What other information, that was not discussed in this survey, is important to the continued long term use of clean cookstoves by current households? # Please provide a brief statement. 85