Citation
Auraria Square

Material Information

Title:
Auraria Square a mixed-use complex
Creator:
Ali, William
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
124, [50] leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Planned unit developments -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Planned unit developments ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 121-123).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
William Ali.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15535127 ( OCLC )
ocm15535127
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .A845 ( lcc )

Full Text
AURARIA SQUARE
a mTxed-use complex
An Architectural Thesis presented to
the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
ENVIRONMENTAL design AURARIA LIBRAR'i
William Ali Fall 19^6
A+P
LD
1190
A72
1986
A845


The Thesis o
approved.
William Ali
Chalmers G. Long, JR., Committee Chairman
George Hoover Principal Advisor
Date Due
_ !
i j

J
| l
University of Colorado at Denver December 19, 1986


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introducti on Precedent Si te
The Site Hi story Context Topography Utilities Soi 1
Vegetation View and Noise Traffic Pattern Pedestrian Circulation AHEC Campus Design Guidelines Climate Zoning Codes Program
Project Background Spatial Requirements Spatial Analysis Spatial Q u a1i ty
Notes
Page
1
13
17
17
18
23
24 24 24 24 26
27
28 32 45-60 81 93 93
98
99 105 119


Bibliography
121
Design and Analysis Appendi x
124


1
INTRODUCTION
Even if architecture is the pure creation of the spirit, it is also material. It is not idea, but form, not only void, but also fullness.
It is present.
Architecture is primarily seen. Architecture however is also touched, heard, smelt ...
Hans Hollein
Architecture is the blending of art and science, cultural and technical, emotional and intellectual. The pretensions of Art and Technology are joined by those of Economy and Sociology. Architecture is the making of space: organizing and ordering space for human comfort, security, and emotional as well as spiritual satisfaction. It is the act of converting and controlling, shaping and ordering the environment into an effective, expressive and harmonious setting for human life. As an art architecture should become a visual experience, a poem in architectonic expression such as the serene Japanese architecture, the poetic Chinese architecture, and the picturesque Gothic Architecture. Architecture is a creation with conflicting demands. The creative solutions must govern the design of buildings. A building becomes architecture when function and construction are raised to an aesthetic level as I


2
quote Antoine de Saint-Exuperty: ... it is useful because it is beautiful ..."
Through the history of mankind, man discovers the underlying forces of life. Essentially life is comprised of two antagonistic opposites: yin and yang, positive and negative. Man is ultimately in a struggle to try to balance these forces. Life flourishes only to a degree to which the two contradictory principles governing human nature can be brought into a state of harmony. The idea of these dualities in architecture is discussed by O.M. Ungers in his book "Architecture As Theme". He said that creative individuals find connections or relationships between the two, the uncreative individuals rationalize them as opposites or unrelated extremes. My thesis project gives me an opportunity to solve the conflicting but yet interrelated relationship between man and his environment, individual and community through the acquisition of factual knowledge, experience, imagination, and judgement.
My approach to this concept of life in architecture is both creative and inclusive. I will accommodate the notion of duality in my design with a "both-and" approach rather than an "either-or" approach as I borrow the term coined by Robert Venturi in his remarkable book "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture". Life


3
consists of a whole spectrum of polarized antonym: large and small, change and constancy, closed and open, simple and complex, part and whole, order and chaos, individual and collective, etc. and so does my architecture. Both-and approach is like two side of the same coin, they are opposite but yet related to each other. That is rather like saying that we have no understanding of large if there is no small, order if there is no chaos. When we talk about a city as a large house and a house as a tiny city, it says about the relationships between a city and a house, not about a house versus a city. I rejected the thought that works in terms of polarities. It should always be possible for two opposing objects to function together as a duality, without relinquishing their own personal character.
My means to carry out this thesis is the design of a mixed-use complex in Auraria campus. The site offers a great opportunity to examine how the buildings fit into the Auraria campus context and the adjacent historic Tivoli. Contextualism suggests that a building's physical and cultural context should be taken into consideration in its design. A building is an object by itself but it is also part of the larger context. Architects have to look at the larger picture, not just the individual building. A building has to relate to other buildings, and buildings


4
have to relate to streets and streets to squares. While a building must maintain its own identity it also must reinforce the existing urban fabric. There are two ways to design a new building so that it relates well with the architectural surroundings. One way is one may literally copy architectural elements from the surroundings; the other way is using totally new vocabulary to evoke the architectural image of the context.2
The modernist dictum declared that history was irrelevant, that we live in the machine age and therefore our architecture must well reflect the new era. Modern architecture became subordinated to the machine and technology, not to man. Technological and scientific progress encouraged the worship of change. The magical appeal of technology, industrial production, systems, applied art and science, casts a long dark shadow clogging the mind. Architects courts technology and chases after progress. They are addicted to change. This attitude has been responsible for the degeneration of our cities and of architecture itself. The other conception which also contributes to the current chaos of our cities is the emphasis on originality and creativity. Every architect strive to produce a unique building, to the detriment of the visual continuity of the surrounding buildings. Because of this believe several generations of architects


5
have ignored accommodating their work to the older architecture around it.-*
I strive for contextualism, but my contextual ism is never literal. I abstract elements from the context and redefine them in a modern way. My intention is not to fall into the trap of copying Classicism because each place, town or city has its own character and therefore requires a specific design solution. My design stands out clearly as a building of this time, but also takes part in its surroundings without making direct analogies to the context.
With my proposal to design places for people to live, work, and shop comes the idea of "meeting place". The idea of meeting place is classic, take for example the Greek Agora, it was a place of happening. People stop and meet, talk and gossiping there. Five thousand plus years of urban history show that streets and squares are necessary as places of encounter, communication zones and centers of identity. For Louis Kahn the term "city" began where public open space and street existed as places of encounter. Today the streets are disinterested movements not belonging to the houses. The whole notion of the street as an extension of a housea kind of public living roomdisappeared. Streets are designed to serve the fast movement of vehicles and buildings are placed as an object


6
in an empty green space.
I reject the notion of a street as a movement corridor, a street which serves primarily the transportation system, a street which accommodates speed. I strive to create small scale urban rooms which act as public plazas and urban gardens and close-knit buildings to keep the architecture in scale. The street facade is strongly maintained in an effort to create street space. The street is the stage for the theater of the city. I want to have a central square which is extremely lively and full of activity. It reminds one strongly of an old European village. I strive to give quality humane urban environments to the people. The people's activity will become the focal point of my design. The streets and the squares become a social gathering and encounter where people engage in a greater variety of human activities.
Streets are the most vital organs of a city. Streets preserve the very life of a city. Streets serve many purposes besides carrying vehicles. The streets and the squares should become no mere public place but the living heart of the city. I propose mixed use for my thesis project because mixed use generate diversity. Consequently diversity creates a lively city. A lively city is reflected in its streets. Just like in European cities, the streets and the squares are the center or the


7
life of a city. They become the attraction. The street is an extension of the house: a microcosmic world in which the street activities change with the seasons and the hours. Streets would be places where there are shops, entertainments, and restaurants.^
The sense of place conception is one of the most important changes in direction in today urban planning. Modern urban planning with the conception of light, space, and greenery dominated the urban scene for thirty years. But the modern park-like city with its green-lined space between the functionalistic blocks is proved to be a failure because it lacks social content and character. It creates abstract space instead of "place". A city is regarded as a machine rather than a human environment. Today we reject that hypothesis which was seen as the appropriate solution for the mechanized society of our own age. The modernists emphasis that the social life of contemporary man is different from the past is proved to be wrong. Instead the facts show that man is and has been the same being and that his spirit remains unchanged. Man from the beginning of creation seeks protection to get a sense of security. He decides to separate himself from the limitless space. He builds up the walls to set up an enclosed finite space. Architecture implies the creation of place both outside and inside. I quote Aldo van Eyck


8
as saying: "Space, in the image of man, is place; time, in the image of man, is occasion."5 The predominant of man instead of machine is translated into the notion of place.
Christian Norberg-Schulz in his book "Genius Loci" defines a place as a space which has a distinct character. A place means something more than abstract location. It is a totality shaped up by material substance, shape, texture and color. Together these things determine an "environmental character". Architecture means to visualize the genius loci or "spirit of place" and the task of the architect is to create meaningful places.^ The character of a place cannot take form without taking the natural environment into consideration. The landscape and climate which generate a response and specific design solution bring about the sense of place. For example the fertile desert of the French campagne is the landscape which made Gothic architecture possible. Narrow alleys and courtyard oriented houses represent a clear response
, 7
to the challenge of the climate in the desert countries. The same challenge is true for Colorado, the snow, the mountain, and the bright sunshine of Colorado will be taken under my consideration to create a strong character of a place. My response to a place and culture will generate buildings which speak in the same language with the architecture surroundings. The notions of outside and


9
inside are one of the basic properties of place. The modulation from one to the other is, and always has been, one of the primary elements of the architect's art. I strive to segregate places outdoors and in, so that people could be continually aware of his location, from the unprotected outside to the sheltered, secluded, and protected inside.
Ornamentalism is part of a larger fundamental principle of the articulation of build volume. First the articulation of the urban building fabric. Second the articulation of the building block into smaller units that are humanly comprehensible. 0rnamental ism is the articulation of building into a humane, intimate, and livable place. Ornament reflects human inner feeling and one's culture. It gives a human scale to man's creation. It responds to an innate human need for elaboration and for the articulation of man's creation into meaningful objects. Culture is naturally reflected in ornament, thus it creates a character of a locality. A plain building is devoid of human expression and symbolic representation of their view toward beauty, nature, life and death. "Buildings must be inhabitable by the bodies and minds and memories of human kind", as I quote Charles Moore. To humanize a building with ornament means to distinguish it from the outside', to distinguish it as mine not yours, as


10
one of the basic human drives.
Functionalism is the most publicized attribute of modern architecture. Functionalism equates fitness of purpose with the elimination of ornament. Ornament was a sign of decadence. The shape of the building should be determined by what goes on inside it. Adolf Loos initiated the modern attack on ornament as he declared: "Ornament is a crime." Later Mies Vander Rohe came to the modern architectural scene with his exclusive purism, "Less is more. However, functionalist architects eventually developed their own versions of ornament structural exhibitionism and spatial expressionism, which is an ironic irresponsibility on the part of Functionalists. The articulation in the late phase of Modern architecture was unadmitted. The functionalists misunderstood the inherence of ornament and symbolism in architecture. Architects have always take building beyond its literal function to its higher role as architecture.
A sense of identity should exist at all scales of the urban fabric, whether house, street, district or town. Kevin Lynch writes: "A workable image requires first the identification of an object, which implies its distinction from other things, its recognition as a separable identity. This is called identity, not in the sense of equality with something else, but with the meaning of


11
individuality or oneness." The term identity arose in response to the uniformity found in modern urban planning. Uniformity should be avoided so that people can more readily identify themselves with their surroundings and feel the significance of where they are.^ The identity of a place is determined by location, general spatial configuration and characterizing articulation.^
In response to the sense of identity I follow the Auraria campus design guidelines -which avoid an oppressive sense of bulk, preserve the present fifty-five foot height limit, maintain the primary material usedpurple-red brick and continue the underlying order of a 30'x30' grid system as the organizing principle. As a response to the regular grid and rectangular shape of buildings which prevail in Auraria campus I consider using round or freely shaped buildings as meaningless. The openness and orthogonal character of Auraria campus is well reflected in the general spatial configuration of my design. The primary structural property in the campus is massive as opposed to skeletal. Among all characterizing articulation the opening is particularly important. It does not only express the spatial structure of the building, but also how it is related to light. The characteristic motifs of the openings in Auraria campus are plain and rectangular.


12
My fascination with the idea of a mixed-use complex comes from the facts that mixed-use developments were the single most important innovation in urban land use during the past two decades, comparable in significance to the evolution of shopping centers in the immediate post world war two period.^ The increasing cost of energy, putting live, work and entertainment within walking distance and the complexity of mixed-use design are an appeal for me to design a mixed-use building. The Auraria mixed-used complex will include housing, commercial, and office buildings. The complex will house commercial units to take advantage of the housing population and to complement the Tivoli which is a major shopping and entertainment attraction. The housing is intended for the boarding of students and faculties who wish to live near the school and within a walking distance. The scope and limit of the project is one hundred-thousand square feet approximately.


13
ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF THE MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT AS TYPE
Mixing working, shopping, and living spaces in one building is an ancient idea that is getting fresh treatment today. The concept of mixed use runs far back in history, to the ancient Greek agora, the medieval market square, and the mix of residential and commercial uses found in many 19th century European cities.
Antiquity
In Sumer and other Mesopotamian cities, the temple was not only the center of the religious life of the community, but also the granary and the general administrative center. The earliest urban dweller would typically live and sell his products or services in the same building. In Roman cities, the taberna is a shop or workshop with openings to the street, located in part of a house.
The Middle Ages
With the collapse of the Roman empire, Western Europe returned to the village economy. The village was a self sufficient unit. People lived above and the ground floor was used for the shop or workshop. The Middle Ages also witnessed the gradual development of a separate


14
marketplace. The rationale for a market was as a place for farmers from the surrounding countryside to sell their produce without having to take up residence in the town. However, this separation was different from today's pattern in that the market, although separate, were located in close proximity to residential and not segregated according to type or function.
Preindustrial PeriodIndustrial Age
In the Preindustrial period we began to see the slow disappearance of the home store and workshop, and the emergence of the journey to work. Regulations of the type that allotted space for each use and compartmentalized the town or city were only possible under a system of government. Such governments were in the ascendancy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most land use controls in effect today are in some way the legacy of the Industrial Revolution. The most radical land use schemes in history and the most utopian communities were formulated during the Industrial Revolution. The factory, the place of production, was moved further away from the central district and its banks, townhouses, hotels, and shops. However, while the full socioeconomic spectrum of the nineteenth century became affected by trends toward land use separation, the lowest social strata were to a


- 15 -
great extent spared. They continued to live in urban environments of closely interlocked land uses.^
The Revival of Mixed Use in the United States
After World War II we witnessed not only unprecedented urban growth, but also a transformation of traditional land development practices. Large-scale new communities, many with a mixture of residential and commercial use, became commonplace. Mixed use development owes much to the continuing evolution of shopping center buildings. Particularly during the 1960s, added functions began to appear. Free-standing, fast-food outlets, office buildings, and movie houses were constructed around a shopping center's periphery. Often these other structures were an afterthought and little integration of uses occurred.
As the shopping center concept continued to evolve, some developers saw the chance to create an integrated, expanded shopping center. The opportunities perceived, and problems encountered, with this expanded shopping center are illustrative of the early movement toward mixed-use development. The interest in developing a compactly-configured mixed-use project owe much to multiple sources: the success of many European cities and
downtown developments such as Rockefeller Center; the


16
influence of far-sighted urban critics such as Jane Jacobs. The first mixed-use development to appear in this country was Penn Center in Philadelphia in 1954, followed shortly by Midtown Plaza in Rochester, New York and Charles Center in Baltimore, both started in the late 1950s.
By 1976, almost 100 mixed-use developments are either under construction, completed, or in the serious planning stage. Why has mixed use been growing? Because it brings exhilarating activity from breakfast time until nearly midnight and integrated-village feeling. Mixed-use developments intensify the richness of living, enhance people's range of experience and create easy access to a variety of activities. Mixed-use developments are designed at a human scale and represent a positive attempt to keep cities alive and making cities a viable organism. It provides a variety of life styles and breaks up the monotony of the urban environment. It reduces energy consumption, particularly if it replaces vehicle trips with walk trips. It also supports some environmental objectives, such as reducing air pollution.Mixed use is growing the way shopping centers did in the 50s, and I believe the idea will last long because it is just man's natural way of living as shown in history.


- 17 -
SITE
The Site
The size of the site is of a city block, bounded by Larimer Street to the Southeast, 9th Street to the northeast, Walnut Street to the northwest, and 8th Street to the southwest. The site is located at the Auraria campus, the area now occupied by the Lot E parking in front of the Tivoli. The land near the Tivoli and along the north edge of the campus athletic fields has the potential of mixed-use developments. Should the Auraria Higher Education Center decide to revitalize the lifeless atmosphere that now exists on the Auraria campus by introducing land use diversity, the area would become a lively commercial node that would bring the vitality and life to the campus.
As part of the original master plan the entire site was laid out on a 30 x 30' grid over which all the infrastructure was built. Buildings were designed to fit the existing fabric and utility system underneath. The planning grid has been strictly adhered to because standardization of structural building systems conserves time, money, and material. Vertical modules are of five-foot increments with an overall height limit of fifty-five feet. Due to its nature as a city colleg
e, a large


18
portion of the land area is dedicated to the automobile: streets and parking lots.
In January 1977, the Auraria Higher Education Center (AHEC) opened its doors to the Denver Community. Auraria became an experiment, exploring the possibilities of combining three institutions in order to provide more for students through shared services. The identity of each institution would be retained through the unique curriculum offered: University of Colorado at Denver a university level institution, emphasizing upper division, graduate and professional degrees; Metropolitan State College a multi-purpose, liberal arts facility; and the Community College of Denver an open door policy college offering general and vocational studies. The campus consists of 169 acres and is located on the west bank of Cherry Creek on the edge of downtown Denver. Entertainment facilities, cultural centers, a transit mall and commercial hubs are located directly across the creek and within walking distance.16
History
Auraria is where Denver began. The lure of gold brought people across the plains in the late 1850s to the junction of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. In the autumn of 1858, a small group of prospectors organized


19
the Auraria Town Company on the west bank of Cherry Creek included today Auraria campus area. Shortly after Auraria was begun, other settlers organized the Denver City Company and staked out a rival townsite on the Cherry Creek east bank. The two towns merged in 1860 and took the name of Denver. And Auraria was eclipsed.
Nevertheless, Auraria flourished as a complete community.^ It is because of the American invention of the sprawling suburb that Auraria was deserted, abandoned and left to die. In the late 1960's, under the pressure of urban renewal, the Auraria site was chosen by Metropolitan State College to house a new educational facility.
In 1972, voters approved a 42 million dollar bond issue which created the Auraria Higher Education Center. This resulted in the full demolition of the neighborhood except for three churches, fourteen 9th Street houses, and the Tivoli Brewery.


20
St. Cajetans
Originally slated for demolition, St. Cajetans was saved by the local parishioners of this Catholic Church as a landmark. Built in 1926 in a Spanish mission vernacular, the church now serves as a lecture hall/performing arts facility.
Emmanuel Gallery
Built in 1876 as an Episcopalian church, it later served as Denver's first Jewish Synagogue. It was remodeled and today serves as the campus art gallery.



21
St. Elizabeth's Church and St. Francis Interfaith Center
St. Elizabeth's Church still serves as a church and is not the property of the campus. However, the recent addition, the St. Francis Interfaith Center built in 1978, serves as an interdenominational student support service.

9th Street Park
It is the oldest residential area in Denver today. Originally built in the 1870s to 1890s, the houses today serve as campus office facilities. Designated on the National Historic Register, the Park serves as an urban oasis for students and faculties.19


22

Tivoli Brewery
The recently renovated Tivoli Brewery now houses retail shops, restaurants and cinemas. It is particularly important to this project because of its closeness and its architectural link to the past as well as its break from the ubiquitous thirty foot grid, therefore, its presence demands a fine solution to the idea of contexualism. A young German immigrant named John Good is believed to have founded the Tivoli Brewery in 1859. He named it Tivoli after the famous beer gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main complex or the Tower building was constructed during 1890-1891 and was modeled after the breweries in Europe. In 1969, after 110 years of continuous beer brewing, Tivoli closed its doors. In 1973 the Tivoli Brewery Complex was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.20


- 23 -
Context
The entire Auraria campus site was laid out on a 30' x 30' grid to serve as the basis for development of new buildings. As a response to a tight budget the building systems were standardized to conserve time, money and material. The result is a mundane architectural vocabulary throughout the Auraria campus. The majority of buildings are massive, two-story, brick curtain-wall structures, devoid of ornament, color and details. The openings are plain and monotonous. In other words, the buildings lack humanizing details which create a warm, intimate and inviting environment. The use of purple-red brick, however, reinforces the sense of place as brick is the local building material found everywhere in Colorado.
Tivoli is a distinctive highlight to Auraria, and its architectural vocabulary is isolated from the rest of the campus. Architect F.C. Eberly designed the four-story symmetrical building with a distinctive tower in Italianate/Victorian style. The building is made of brick masonry on a coursed stone foundation. The facade is detailed with bay windows rising from the ground, pilasters and corbeled brick work. The distinctive mansard roof that crowns the tower building is sheathed in
metal.


24
Topography
The site has been developed and presently used as a parking lot. The slope of the land is relatively flat and uncomplicated, therefore the United States Geological Survey map is considered as unnecessary.
Utilities
Underground gas, power, water, sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and communication services are located adjacent to the site.
Soi 1
The test holes indicate that up to approximately twenty feet of man made fill is underlain by loose to medium dense sands and then by claystone bedrock. Free water was found at depths of five to fourteen feet, generally at about ten feet. Soil engineers recommend further study be done to determine more exactly the extent of this free water and the levels within which it f 1 uctuates.
The best type of foundations for heavy structures will be straight-shaft piers drilled into the claystone bedrock. Such piers may be designed for maximum end pressures of approximately 30,000 to 60,000 psf with a side shear of about l/10th the maximum end pressure for


25
that portion of the pier in bedrock. Pressures in the lower end of the range will be applicable for lightly loaded piers drilled to shallow depths into the claystone. Pressures in the high end of the range will be applicable for heavily loaded piers penetrating more than about 10 feet into the claystone.
The best type of foundation for lighter structures will be spread footings on the natural sands and gravels below frost depth. The upper, loose sands are capable of supporting spread footings designed for maximum soil pressures of approximately 2,000 to 3,000 psf. The deeper, medium dense sands and gravels will support pressures approximately 4,000 to 6,000 psf. Higher soil pressures could be utilized for spread footings at shallow depths if the loose sands were removed to a depth equal to one footing width below foundation level and replaced with the same sands compacted to 100% density.
Man-made fill should be removed from under floor slabs and be replaced with controlled fill. The natural sands and gravels are firm enough to support normal, lightly loaded interior floor slabs. Base course compacted to high density will be required under floor slabs subjected to vehicular loads.


26
Vegetati on
There is no vegetation on the site. Being used as a parking lot the whole surface is covered by asphalt. The only vegetation exists is deciduous trees planted along the periphery of the site to shade the pedestrian walkway. However, environmental green spaces exist at the sites of the historical landmarks. The St. Elizabeth's Church site opens beautifully from the Speer Boul evard/Cheery Creek greenway creating magnificent vistas from the Central Business District as well as from Speer Boulevard. In order to free other portions of the site and to enhance the meaningfulness of the area around St. Elizabeth's Church, the Emmanuel Chapel building has been relocated from its present site to this new environmental space. Site Master Planning Consultants recommend that this area be treated in the nature of a European city square combining paved areas for people circulation and landscaped areas for environmental softness and warmth. Automobile parking, which is essential to the function of St. Elizabeth's Church, may again be concealed by the use of earth sculpture in the form of softly flowing landscaped mounds.
The area of the site which contains St. Catejan's Church and Rectory is also to be treated as a landscaped environmental area much in the same manner as that


27
occupied by St. Elizabeth's Church. In this case, however, St. Catejan's Church occupies an open green area much in the form of the mission churches of California or the old New England church.
Certain areas of the Auraria Higher Education Center site will exist as purely environmental spaces. The building zones are set back slightly from Speer Boulevard to permit the installation of landscaped green spaces. The considerable expanse of paving in parking areas should be broken by occasional landscaped spaces.
View and Noi se
As is common to Denver, the predominant view from the site is of the mountains to the west. This is a distant view, the foreground view, however, is dominated by a parking lot and the highway further away. To the
northeast is a view of the downtown skyline in the
background, the Tivoli in the immediate forefront, and
athletic fields in the foreground. To the east, St. Cajetans--a historical 1andmark--dominates the view in the foreground and behind it is the 9th Street Park.
The site is located in the quiet corner of the
Auraria campus. The only major source of traffic noise is from the Larimer Street. Currently there are several bus routes stationing at the northwest side of the site on


28
Walnut Street.
Traffic Pattern
Being non-residents, the Auraria students depend heavily on the automobile, bus, and bicycle for transportation to and from classes. There are in excess of 4,600 parking spaces on the campus covering about fourteen city blocks of land. Development of the Lawrence-Larimer site will eliminate 900 of those spaces on two blocks. This suggests that a multi-story parking garage will be constructed if those parking lots are to be replaced. I am assuming that structured parking will be developed in the lot north of Larimer between 12th Street and Speer. This strategy, together with the closing of traffic on Lawrence will eliminate disruptive through auto traffic. The other three sides of the site: 9th Street, Walnut Street, 8th Street, have a very light traffic throughout the day.
The bike paths along Cherry Creek and the Platte River are the major arterials connecting the campus to out-lying neighborhoods. We've heard of a study to close Lawrence Street for a pedestrian mall. Once Lawrence is vacated, a tree-lined esplanade could be constructed, provided a strong pedestrian linkage between the campus and downtown. With the building of student housing at 9th


29
Street this street will serve students as the pedestrian route to the rest of the campus--a major entry and exit, connecting the living place with the proposed heart of the campus--Lawrence Street pedestrian mall. This street has the potential to develop as commercial and cultural hubs, a kind of the 16th Street Mall of the Auraria campus because the potential is already there: St. Cajetans, Student Center, the Tivoli, and the proposed development of a commercial node to the North Side of the campus all are located at 9th Street.
Pedestrian Circulation
Pedestrian circulation on the Higher Education Center campus may be divided into two major categories--circulation outside the building zones and circulation inside the building zones. Principle on-site pedestrian circulation patterns deal with movement of persons entering the campus as pedestrians and those who enter the campus in automobiles and become pedestrians upon leaving their parked vehicle. A series of major pedestrian entrances to the Auraria Higher Education Center site is proposed. These entrances, which are above street level in the form of elevated bridge/plazas, connect major elements of the land surrounding the campus to the campus itself. Pedestrians from the Central Business District,


30
retail, financial, governmental, and other centers will reach the campus across Speer Boulevard. All major pedestrian entrances, feeds quickly into the major building spines after crossing relatively short environmental areas on the campus. Pedestrians also walk to the campus from the east and south boundary of the campus.
The pedestrian linkages from parking lots to the building zone are visualized as being paved sidewalks at grade level. The effective use of landscaping, outdoor furniture, and lighting could combine to make the sidewalk system a pleasant place indeed. Conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles along these routes are minimized in comparison with those in the Central Business District due to the substantial reduction of the number of streets on the Higher Education Center. (Lawrence are vacated.)
Pedestrian circulation patterns within the building zones are visualized as centering upon a major pedestrian spine which connects the building zones themselves as well as major areas within each building zone. This is the key element which ties the buildings of the Higher Education Center together visually and functionally. It should provide a high degree of impact offering the pedestrian an exciting trip full of satisfying visual experiences as well as a convenient route from one point to another


31
within the building cluster. It could be compared to the mall of a great shopping center filled with effective graphics, fountains, landscape or planting elements, seating units, banners, and many other carefully designed functional and visual elements. Important building spaces would be intimately related to the main pedestrian spine. Related to the major pedestrian spine will be secondary pedestrian ways of feeding into buildings or portions of buildings.


32
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
Auraria Higher Education Center Campus Design Policies and Objectives
Within the basic framework of meeting the program needs of the constituent institutions and consistent with the Center's transportation policies and objectives adopted January 14, 1980, the Auraria Higher Education
Center will pursue the following physical design policies and objectives. These policies and objectives are intended to provide an attractive environment conducive to the teaching and learning activity.
Bui 1di ngs
A. Siting
1. Insofar as it is consistent with functional requirements new facilities in the campus core area should be sited to increase the number and variety of subspaces. Siting of new buildings should avoid reinforcing a sense of the campus as a uniform grid of former city streets defining a uniform set of blocks each filled
'
with a single bulky structure. This policy should be carried out by:


I

- 33 -
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
a. Locating new buildings or additions to existing buildings in a manner that creates spatial closures within the core area on 8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, Champa, and Lawrence Streets.
b. Identifying specific areas where such closures are feasible and planning future utility and landscaping investments to protect and enhance these areas of opportunity.
c. Pursuing this objective in a fashion consistent with the view policy set forth in the section of this statement on grounds.
2. In planning new buildings within the campus core area consideration should be given to locations on the west side of the campus core area in order to:
a. Center activities in the campus core area around Auraria Square as well as such high usage facilities as the Library and Student Center.


Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
b. Encourage more balanced use of campus parking by increasing the number of activities accessible to west campus parking lots.
c. Strengthen the relationship between the campus core area and possible light rail development west of the campus.
d. Utilize the hillside near 8th Street to provide physical definition to the western edge of the core area.
When new buildings are constructed in the vicinity of 12th and Lawrence they should be sited to provide a northern closure to the large open area along Speer Boulevard bounded by St. Elizabeth's Church on the west and the DCPA on the east.
New buildings constructed outside the campus core area.
a. Maintenance and service support uses should adjoin the existing facilities along 7th Street.
b. In the location of ancillary educational


I
- 35 -
i
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
and research facilities preference should be given to the area northeast of Larimer and 12th Streets so as to facilitate interaction between the downtown and the campus core.
B. Design
1. Massing. Design of new structures should encourage sufficient variety and dimensionality to avoid an oppressive sense of bulk.
2. Height. The practice of constructing low profile buildings should be continued in order to:
a. Avoid the need for complex elevator systems.
b. Preserve the pedestrian scale of the campus.
c. Allow sunlight into the campus malls, walks, courtyards, and plazas.
d. Retain the prominence of historic steeples and towers within the campus.
e. Keep the scale of the campus compatible with that of the Lincoln Park neighborhood.


Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
f. Provide a contrasting foreground for the downtown that dramatizes the downtown skyline.
g. Preserve the mountain views from the downtown, the DCPA, and the Civic Center.
h. Reinforce the sense of a valley along the Platte River between the bluffs of west Denver and the downtown high rises.
Buildings in excess of the present fifty-five foot (maximum height of recently constructed new facilities) limit will be designed only after the Board has considered the foregoing criteria and formally determined that program requirements or special circumstances of location and topography justify an exception. Facing materials. The primary material for campus building surfaces should continue to be the distinctive Auraria purple-red brick. Other exterior materials should be harmonious with these bricks. Framing, doorways, window trim and the like, should maintain the dark bronze


37
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
finish used in original construction.
4. Roofs. The practice of using uniform roof finishes throughout the campus should be continued. The combination of brown surfacing and minimal exposed mechanical equipment provides an attractive, uncluttered view from nearby high rises.
5. Historic structures. The original character of the exteriors of landmark buildings on the campus should be preserved.
C. Energy Conservation
Buildings and utility systems should be designed to meet or exceed all applicable standards relating to energy conservation.
Grounds
A. Vegetation
1. Campus core area.
a. Landscaping investment should be concentrated in the campus core area. Plantings should be designed to enhance campus buildings, walkways, and spaces with


38
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
careful attention to color, pattern, depth and scale.
b. Deciduous plantings should be used to meet the need in many locations for shade in the summer and light in the winter.
c. Pursuant to the view policy adopted by the
Auraria Board on September 10, 1979,
landscaping should be designed to emphasize the following views:
1. The reciprocal vistas between the D & F Tower and St. Elizabeth's Church along the general alignment of Arapahoe Street.
2. The reciprocal vistas between the grand staircase of the DCPA Galleria and St. Elizabeth's Church along the approximate alignment of vacated Curtis Street.
3. The vista of the Tivoli Brewery from Auraria Square as well as the vista of the recessed cubes forming the north corner of the Fine Arts Building as


39
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
seen from Auraria Mall between Lawrence and Larimer.
4. The view of the State Capital from the green in front of St. Elizabeth's,
d. Plaint materials should be selected with the objective of minimizing maintenance costs and water consumption.
2. Playing fields. Landscaping should be designed to meet the requirements of the physical education program and to minimize maintenance costs.
3. Parking lots. Landscaping should be planned to screen parking lots and to minimize maintenance costs.
B. Walkways
1. Campus core area.
a. Central pedestrian axes designated in the Auraria Transportation Objectives and Policies. As funding permits the asphalt and curbing of the former streets along Arapahoe Walk and Auraria Mall should be


40
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
replaced. These two axes should be reconstructed using coded patterns or materials to permit easy recognition, b. Secondary walkways. As funding permits the asphalt and curbing of former streets along non-primary pedestrian corridors should be replaced. In general, narrower walkways and more extensive landscaping used than along the central pedestrian axes.
2. Areas outside the campus core. Outside the campus core standard sidewalks separated from roadways by landscaped strips should be used.
C. Primary Pedestrian Spaces
Because of high convergence of pedestrian traffic or unique physical or functional characteristics the following four pedestrian spaces are those in which the greatest investment will be concentrated.
1. Auraria Square
a. This is the area defined by action of the Board on September 7, 1978 and identified by the Auraria Transportation Policies and Objectives as the pedestrian hub of the


41
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
campus.
b. Because of the large size of the Square in relation to the adjoining low profile buildings and because of the varying activity mix within the Square, development of the Square should accentuate four subspaces.
1. The area between the Emmanuel Gallery and the Library along the Auraria Mall. This is the primary pedestrian convergence point and traffic center of the overall Square. As such, it should be designed to provide a strong sense of location.
2. The area of vacated 9th Street directly in front of the St. Cajetan's Center. This is the secondary convergence point within the Square and should also be planned to emphasize a sense of place.
3. The existing cafeteria-level terrace of the Student Center. This terrace


- 42 -
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
should continue to be a more passive area suitable for meeting people, reading, eating lunch, and observing small outdoor performances.
4. The area between the Student Center terrace and the Fine Arts Building roughly centered on the grove of cottonwood trees. This area should be heavily landscaped in order to effectively separate and differentiate the other three subspaces. Functionally, it should be one of relatively low activity.
2. Entrance Plaza. This plaza is at the intersection of Arapahoe Walk with the downtown Arapahoe Street-Skyline Park corridor and the old Curtis Street bridge connecting to the DCPA Galleria network. The function of this plaza is as a pedestrian crossroads and primary gateway to the campus from the downtown.
3. 9th Street Park. This park consists of the
vacated block of 9th Street between vacated


43
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
Champa and Curtis Streets including adjacent historical buildings. It is designed to preserve a typical late nineteenth century residential streetscape. Distinctive historical site furniture, lighting, walkways, and landscaping should continue to be used on this block.
4. Courtyard of the Community College
Administration Building. This courtyard is surrounded on three sides by the CCD Building and on the fourth by the Technology Building. Because of its self-contained nature it should be developed for use as an outdoor display area for changing exhibitions of sculpture and other visual arts.
D. Site furniture, signage, and lighting except for 9th
Street Park
1. Site furnishings: Planters, benches, kiosks, drinking fountains, and trash receptacles and the like should reflect a consistent design idiom.
2. Signage: print style and sign composition should


44
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
be clear, uniform, and tasteful.
3. Lighting:
a. Campus core walkways: Illumination levels should be differentiated between central pedestrian axes and secondary pedestrian corridors.
b. Parking lots: Illumination should be designed to minimize crime in parking areas.
c. Streets: Lighting should comply with applicable city, state, and federal standards.
d. Antennas, transmitters, and/or other roof-mounted technological equipment required to support academic programs shall be placed as far as possible from roof edges, so as to minimize their visual impact from grade level.


45
CLIMATE
Climate Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that characterizes much of the central Rocky Mountain region. Denver experiences low relative humidity, light precipitation, and light to moderate winds. Extremely hot or cold weather is rare and usually of short duration. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures, while in the summer, clouds and afternoon showers moderate otherwise high temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inches but persistent snow cover is usual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation averages about 15.5 inches per year. Little precipitation falls during the winter. More than 50 percent of the annual precipitation occurs from April through July. There are four air masses that affect Denver area's climate, they are the polar air from Canada and the Northwest, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, warm, dry air from Mexico and the Southwest, and masses of air from the Pacific.
Autumn is the best season in Denver. It has an abundance of sunshine and little precipitation. Thundershowers decline in frequency; cold weather appears gradually. Precipitation amounts to about 19 percent of


46
the annual total. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest of the four seasons in Denver. Periods of mild, sunny weather are mixed with periods of storms. The
severe storms are usually the result of northeasterly
winds. Precipitation amounts to about 39 percent of the annual total. Winter has only 11 percent of the annual precipitation which most of it is snowfall. The relative humidity is higher and there are more clouds in the winter months. Storms can be severe but last only in a brief
period. Summer in the Denver area has its precipitation
from thundershowers during afternoon and evening hours. Precipitation amounts to about 31 percent of the annual total. Clouds appear in the late afternoon accompanied by cool showers. Mornings are usually clear and sunny.
Climate and Planning With Emphasis on Denver
What is Climate?
The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation, and cloud cover.


47
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver, the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
Temperature
Denver area temperature typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. The mean and extreme temperature summary is recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.


MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY (F) DENVER, COLO
Month Dally MaxImum Hal lv M1nlmun Month 1v Mean Record llir.h Record Low Noma] Depree Days Base 65F .'ear .\':-6,.r of D v/s Te^npraturns
90F and above 32F and below
(Meat lnr.) (Coo 1 lnr,)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1038 n . 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 901 n 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.6 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
Hav 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 ft 2
Jun 80. 1 51.9 66.0 JO*, 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 ]OL 4 3 n 74.6 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 20R 9 0
Sen 77.7 47.8 62.8 7 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 n 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - fl 768 0 n 25
Oec 46.2 18.9 32.6 u -18 100i 0 0 29
Annua J 64.0 36.2 50. 1 104- -30 6016 625 32 162
* Less than one hajf.
Source: Department of Commerce, 1977
I
Precipitation
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From


49
November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Denver's precipitation characteristics are shown on page 50.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to
0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour' snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 i nches ,_:respecti vely.
Wind
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown on page 51. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet


50
above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly over-used and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is functioning
DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA (INCHES) DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Precipitation Mean Nunber a of Davs with Precipitation >,.01 inch Snow Mean Nunber of Days with Snov 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maxinun Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Month! Mean y Maxinun Monthly
Jan .hi 1.66 0.01 1.02 6 8.6 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 F 12.6 29.2 L
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.A 28.3 3
May 2.66 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 i 3.6 b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 TC 0.3 n
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 n
A up. 1.29 4.67 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 n
Sep 1.13 4.67 T* 2.66 6 1 .9 21.3 ft *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 i
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.33 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 Tc 3.55 88 59-9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. b*Denotes less than one-half.
CTnnotes a trace of precipitation
i
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Coimerce, 1977


- 51 -
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO
Monti 1 Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direc t ion Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direc t ion Associated with Maximum
Jan Csl o> S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 s 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 SW
Jun 9.2 s 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
; Aug 8.2 s 42 SW
, Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct CD / *ro s 45 NW
: NOV 8.7 s 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
The Heat Island
Of the typical climate changes within the city, the heat island may be one of the most notable. The warmest part of the city is not in the central area where the tallest buildings are, but in the area of greatest density of low, flat-topped buildings interspersed with numerous


52
parking lots. In Denver this occurs on the fringe of the Central Business District (CBD).
Because of less vegetation in densely urbanized settings, such as the Denver CBD, the energy consumed by evaporation is reduced in the city. This results in additional heat storage in the urban area and increases in the transfer of heat to the air. The heat transfer is also intensified by increased convection due to the greater surface roughness (buildings). In comparison with rural settings Denver possesses a higher heat capacity due to the reflectivity and materials common to the urban fabric. As a result the city is able to store large amounts of incoming solar radiation and artificial heat used to warm the buildings. These city characteristics result in the urban heat island effect.
The central core of Denver is believed to experience the heat island phenomena under certain conditions. As elsewhere, the Denver urban heat island is probably most pronounced at night when winds are low. The effect of high wind velocities and/or cloud cover is to reduce or eliminate the heat island effect. Sustained winds in excess of 13 mph reduce the heat island to insignificant proportions.
The heat dome that forms over a city can act as a barrier to prevailing winds, depriving the city interior


53
of needed ventilation and forming a lid of heat in which air pollutants are trapped.
Air Pollution
Every city is unique in the chemistry of its urban atmosphere, a response to air pollution emission forms and amounts, and unique topographical and meteorological conditions affecting dispersion. These principle parameters have complex temporal and spatial patterns in cities. No two cities are alike in either their economic structure and urban morphology or in the local pattern of winds, inversions and other meteorological parameters relevant to both emissions and diffusion efficiencies.
In an approximate way, pollutants and other atmospheric substances may be categorized as reactants and products. Reactants are those gases or particles emitted directly into the atmosphere as a result of urban combustion processes, other industrial activities and biosphere processes.
Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, metallic and other particles (i.e., lead), are examples of reactants produced from urban activities. Methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrous oxide and ammonia are examples of reactants emitted as a result of biosphere
processes.


54
Nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidant (ozone), peroxyacyl nitrates, particulate nitrates, aldehydes, ketones and sulfate are examples of atmospheric products. A number of these substances can be associated with both groupings to some extent.
In many cities, notably London, Pittsburgh and those of the Ruhr, atmospheric conditions grew steadily worse over many decades before official action was taken to control emissions. Then, as control regulations were enforced, skies above these cities cleared.
Urban Winds
In streets and between buildings the speed and direction of wind changes considerably. It is difficult to determine the exact laws governing these changes since they depend on the structural features of the buildings and the city. However, far above the built-up areas of towns the wind speed profile assumes the same features as in open country. The effect of cities on wind is mainly due to the effect of the increased roughness of the underlying surface.
Knowledge of surface roughness and the resultant wind modifications enables an approximate calculation to be made of the dispersion of air pollutants in a city without taking into account the details of the urban structure but


- 55 -
merely making some adjustments to the mean values for the parameters of atmospheric diffusion.
Micro-Scale Effects
Solar Radiation
Out in the country, only a small fraction of the solar radiation is absorbed and the heat exchange is low. In the city a large part of the incident radiation is absorbed by the facades of buildings which then radiate back heat and rise the temperature within the climatological sheath. The solar energy striking the roof of a typical house is said to be ten times as great as its annual heat demand.
Landscaping Effects
Landscaping and/or vegetation can have a positive or negative effect upon energy conservation depending on where the vegetation or site slopes are in relation to the structure. Trees along the east and west sides of a house will not usually create shading problems. Fortunately, three-fourths of the housing in Denver face streets which run north-south and therefore have front and back yards on the east and west sides of the houses. This situation
favors the maximum free planing with still adequate solar


56
I
access to the house. At least one basic problem in Denver exists, that of generally unfavorable roof and house orientation for solar retrofit devices on much of the existing housing. This problem, however, is not apparent everywhere and is not insurmountable.
Trees should be spaced so as not to interfere with solar collectors when they are needed. This usually means that deciduous trees are best placed on the west side to offer protection from late afternoon summer sun. Wise planting of trees and landscaping can provide much needed solar control without excessive blocking of solar collectors.
Our communities need both trees and solar access so some compromises may be necessary. The major point is consideration of others and awareness of the need for conservation.
Buildings and Wind Pressure Effects
Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of buildings can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs on windward side, minimum on lee side. Reduced pressure occurs as moving air accelerates over the top of the building. Vortices are formed on lee sides of buildings, in which air pollutants are trapped at street level.


MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA DENVER, COLORADO
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number ofa Clear Days Number of3 Partly Cloudy Days Humber ofa Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January - 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
Septembe r 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Sunshine Duration and Cloud Cover
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the


58
year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover).
Solar Radiation
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about ~:half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atmosphere.


- 59 -
EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40N LATITUDE
Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) £ ummer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth A1 titude Azimuth
A:00 a. m. 0. -121.3
5:00 a. m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a. m. 0. 0 -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a. m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a. m 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a. m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a. m. 20.7e -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a. m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2" -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4 0.0
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES (IN FEET PER ONE FOOT OF OBSTRUCTION)
40N LATITUDE
Solar Time Level Ground , 52 S* Slope 52 N Slope 52 W Slope 52 E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2 .8 2.5
Solst ic e 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4 . 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 .2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1 . 2 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0 .9 0.8
Solstic e 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1 .4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2 . 3- 1.9


60
How to Plan With Climate and Solar Energy in Denver
The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For construction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air temperature will be a necessity. Refer to page 48, 57, and page 59 for relevant Denver data.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost. In some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.
ZONING
The Auraria site falls under the jurisdiction of the Denver zoning regulations. The entire Auraria campus has a zoning classification of R-5. As the state-owned land, the Auraria site is not subject to city zoning provisions. However I assume that the site will be developed in


61
compliance with the zoning regulations of the City and County of Denver. The principal use of the Auraria site as a higher education complex with the necessary accessory and supporting facilities fits within the parameters of the R-5 District of the zoning ordinance of the City and County of Denver. The following information has been extracted from the zoning ordinance of the revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver: Article 612District Regulations, Section 2g, R-5 District.
External Effects
All use established or placed into operation after the effective date of this ordinance shall comply forthwith with the following limitations on external effects.
Enclosure of UsesEvery use, unless expressly exempted by this ordinance, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure.
Sound, Vibration, Heat, Glare, Radiation, and FumesEvery use shall be so operated that the sound generated; the vibration generated; and the heat, glare, radiation and fumes emitted do not exceed the limits specified in this ordinance.
Outdoor Storage and Waste DisposalNo highly flammable or explosive liquids, solids, or gases shall be stored in


62
bulk above ground. All outdoor storage facilities for fuel, raw materials, and products shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such facilities from adjacent property.
Permitted Uses
No land shall be used or occupied and no structures shall be designed, erected, altered, used, or occupied except for either one or more of the following uses by right provided, however, that a use by right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses.
Uses By Right The following uses may be operated as uses by right:
a) Art Museum, Public
b) Church
c) Community Center
d) Community Recreation Facility
e) Fire Station
f) Governmental Offices, excluding Maintenance Shops
g) Institutions
h) Library, Public
i) Public park and/or Playground; need not be enclosed
j) Parking of vehicles for Art Museum, Church, Governmental Offices, Institutes, Libraries, Schools and Universities, or Colleges


63
k) Police Station
l) Residence for Clergy, including Monastery, Convent or Seminar
m) School: (1) Elementary and/or Secondary School meeting all requirements of the compulsory education laws of the State of Colorado and not providing residential accommodations; exempted from limitations on external effects of uses relating to volume of sound generated; (2) any School not permitting the use of machinery, other than office machines and mechanical or machinery parts of the household appliances used for instruction of or practice by the student. Repair as a service or the sale of repaired appliances prohibited. Repair as a service or the sale of repaired appliances prohibited. Classes or other school activities not permitted after 11:00 PM.
n) University or College, including residential accommodations for students and faculty.
o) Railway right-of-way: Any railway right-of-way existing on the date this ordinance became effective, but not including railway yards, maintenance, or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed.
p) Landing or take-off area for police rotorcraft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities; need not be enclosed.


- 64 -
Accessory Uses
a) All Uses by Right -- Incidental only to a use by right; any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an accessory use and need not be enclosed:
a-1) Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the use by right;
a-2) Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same zone lot as the use by right;
a-3) Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the use by right; a-4) Does not include residential occupancy except by domestic employees employed on the premises and the immediate families of such employees; a-5) If operated partially or entirely in detached structures, the gross floor area of such detached structures shall not exceed ten percent of the area of the zone lot; provided, however, that this limitation shall not apply to detached garages or detached carports used exclusively by occupants of structures containing the use by
right or by persons employed in such structures;


65
a-6) If operated partially or entirely within the structure containing the use by right, the gross floor area within such structure utilized by accessory uses (except garages and dining rooms for the exclusive use of occupants or persons employed in the structure) shall not be greater than 300 square feet or ten percent of the gross floor area of a structure containing any use by right.
Permitted Structures
Zone Lot for Structures A separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use by right. Each zone lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by that structure containing a use by right and a subordinate structure or structures containing only accessory uses. The zone lot for each structure shall be not less than 100 feet wide at the front setback line for structures and shall contain not less than 12,500 square feet. Upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, the boundaries and area of a designated zone lot may be amended if full compliance with all requirements of this ordinance can be maintained.


66
Location of Structures Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, the space resulting from the following setbacks shall be open and unobstructed.
a) Front Setback -- All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from each front line of the zone lot; provided, however, that on the two shorter dimensions of any block oblong in shape, the front setback may be reduced to ten feet for structures which face on either longer dimension; and provided, further, that detached accessory structures, except those detached accessory structures used as garages or for recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas fired incinerators, shall be set in a sufficient distance from each front line of the zone lot so that such structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior zone lots and on corner zone lots are located only on the rear part of the zone lot which is adjacent to and corresponding with the rear one-fourth of abutting interior zone lots and no closer to the side street right-of-way than thirty feet or one-half the dimension of the corner zone lot, measured perpendicularly from the side street right-of-way, whichever distance is greater;


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b) Rear Setback If no alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than five feet and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from each rear line of the zone lot. If an alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, detached garages and carports opening directly on the alley shall be set in a distance of not less than five feet from the alley line; detached accessory structures (including garages and carports which do not open directly on the alley) and fixtures for the disposal of trash and garbage may be located on the alley line and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from the centerline of the abutting alley;
c) Side Setback--All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than seven feet and six inches from each side line of the zone lot;
d) Permitted Encroachments on Setback Space--Belt courses, sills, lintels, and pilasters may project 18 inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. Cornices, eaves, and gutters may project three feet into front setback space, five feet into rear setback space and 365 inches into side setback space; provided, however, that, if the side setback space is


68
less than five feet in width, then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space.
Outside stairways may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
Unwalled porches, terraces and balconies may extend five feet into front and rear setback spaces;
Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space.
Any structure or part thereof which is below the grade of any setback space may project any distance into such setback space.
e) Fences/Walls and Retaining WallsFences, walls and retaining walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected to a height not to exceed 72 inches; provided, however, (1) Retaining walls abutting public rights-of-way may be built to any height; (2) Schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the zone lot and (3) on a corner zone lot, fences and walls not exceeding 72 inches in height may be built on the rear line of the zone lot and on the front
line of the zone lot from the rear line forward to


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the rear of any structure containing the use by right.
Bulk of Structures -- No part of any structure (except church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes extending up over the zone lot at an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of one foot additional rise for each foot additional setback) and which planes start (1) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the zone lot and pass through points ten feet above the mid-point of each such side line or lines, and (2) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points ten feet above the mid-point of such centerlines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended, and (3) at, if no alley abuts the zone lot, a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the zone lot and passes through a point ten feet above the mid-point of such rear line of the zone lot; and if the rear line or lines of the zone lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the centerlines of such abutting alley or


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alleys and pass through points ten feet above the midpoint of such centerlines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended.
Maximum Zone Lot Coverage The sum total of the ground area covered by all structures, on a zone lot, shall not exceed 60 percent of the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located.
Outside Area of Window Exposure--Each legally required window shall have not less than the following amount of outside exposure determined in the following manner: From a reference point located at the bottom center of the window, extend outward, at a right angle to the window plane, a horizontal sector of 140 degrees, centered on the window with a radius of ten feet. Within this sector the minimum required outside area of exposure for the window shall be any open sector or combination of sectors totaling 70 degrees. Applied in the direction of adjoining zone lots, the area which may be credited as outside area of window exposure, extends to required setback lines, regardless of the actual location of
structures.


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Signs
The provisions of Article 613 permitted signs, shall be in full force and effect in this district.
Parking
The provisions of Article 614, off-street parking requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district. University and colleges are uses by right which are placed in parking class two. Parking class two requirements state that there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each 600 square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right; provided, however, that for each habitable unit in a motel there need be provided not more than one off-street parking space.
Loading
The provisions of Article 615, off-street loading requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
Planned Building Groups
The provisions of Article 616, special zone lot plan for planned building groups shall be in full force and
effect in this district. Under the standard provisions of


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this ordinance a separate ground area, referred to in the ordinance as the zone lot, must be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right. Pursuant to the procedure hereinafter set forth, two or more of such structures may be erected and maintained on the same zone lot. Also, several zone lots may be combined into one special plan covering a planned building group. The procedure is intended to permit diversification in the location of structures and to improve circulation facilities and other site qualities while insuring adequate standards relating to public health, safety, welfare, and convenience in the use and occupancy of buildings and facilities in planned building groups.
Limitations
As to Scope -- The procedure hereinafter set forth shall not be construed to waive nor shall there be waived thereby any regulation for any district except the regulation that a separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right.
As to DistrictsThe procedure set forth shall apply only in the R-l, R-2, R-3, R-3-X, R-4, R-5, B-l, B-A-l, B-


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2, B-A-2, B-3, B-A-3, B-4, B-A-4, B-6, 1-P and 0-1
Districts, provided, however, that in the 0-1 District the procedure shall apply only to buildings open to the public.
Application
Applications for Approval. How Made and Contents All applications for approval of a special plan hereunder shall be filed with the Department of Zoning Administration by the owner or owners of the entire land area to be included within the special plan, the owner or owners of all structures then existing on said land area and all incumbrances of said land area and structures; shall contain sufficient evidence to establish that the applicants are the owners and all the incumbrances of the designated land and structures; shall contain such information and representations required by this ordinance or deemed necessary by the department and shall include plats and plans showing at least the following details drawn to scale:
a) The land area which would be included within the special plan, the present zoning classification of the designated area, the land area of all abutting districts and the present zoning classification thereof, all public and private rights-of-way and


74
easements bounding and intersecting the designated area and the abutting districts which are proposed to be continued, created, relocated and/or abandoned;
b) The proposed finished grade of the designated area, shown in contour intervals not to exceed two feet;
c) A description of the proposed zone lot or zone lots and the boundaries thereof;
d) The location of each existing and each proposed structure in the designated area, the use or uses to be contained therein, the number of stories, gross floor area and approximate location of entrances and loading points thereof;
e) The location of all outside facilities for waste disposal;
f) All curb cuts, driving lanes, parking areas, loading areas, public transportation points and illumination facilities for the same;
g) All pedestrian walks, malls, and open areas for use by tenants or members of the public;
h) The location and height of all walls, fences and screen planting;
i) The location, size, height, and orientation of all signs other than signs flat on building facades;
j) The types of surfacing, such as paving, turfing or gravel, to be used at the various locations;


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k) The location of fire hydrants.
Review
Review of Applications for Approval. Standards
All applications hereunder shall be reviewed for completeness by the Department of Zoning Administration and, if found to be complete, shall be transmitted to the planning office and to any other agency, either public or private, which might be affected by approvals of such applications. All applications hereunder shall be reviewed by the planning office and approved or disapproved. Any approval hereunder may establish necessary conditions and limitations.
Standard Provisions of Ordinance
No application hereunder shall be approved unless the application and the accompanying plats and plans comply with all regulations established for the district or districts in which are located the land area and structures designated in such application, except the regulation that a separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right.


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Site Facilities
All special plans hereunder shall make due provision
for:
a) Adequate design of grades, paving gutters, drainage and treatment of turf to handle storm waters, prevent erosion and formation of dust;
b) Adequate, safe and convenient arrangement of pedestrian circulation facilities, roadways, driveways, off-street parking and loading space, facilities for waste disposal and illumination;
c) Adequate amount and proper location of pedestrian walks, malls, and landscaped spaces to prevent pedestrian use of vehicular ways and parking spaces and to separate pedestrian walks, malls and public transportation loading places from general vehicular circulation facilities;
d) Arrangement of buildings and vehicular circulation open spaces so that pedestrians moving between buildings are not unnecessarily exposed to vehicular traffic;
e) Proper arrangement of signs and lighting devices with respect to traffic control devices and adjacent residential districts;
f) In business building groups near or abutting residential districts, fences, walls or year-round


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screen planting when necessary to shield adjacent residential districts from parking lot illumination, headlights, fumes, heat, blowing papers and dust and to reduce the visual encroachment of commercial architecture, signs and activity on residential privacy and residential neighborhood character.
Minimum spacing between buildings, orientation of main window exposures and entrances in R-3, R-4, and R-5 Districts. The following required spacing between buildings shall be measured perpendicularly from any exterior building wall; it does not apply in corner-to-corner placement of buildings where perpendicular wall exposures do not overlap:
a) In buildings containing multiple dwelling units, walls containing main window exposures or main entrances shall be oriented as to insure adequate light and air exposure; shall be so arranged as to avoid undue exposure to nearby through traffic ways or undue exposure and menace to concentrated loading or parking facilities; shall be so oriented as to preserve visual and audible privacy as between adjacent buildings;
b) A building wall shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to one-half the height


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of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 25 feet;
c) Any open court area which otherwise complies with standard of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 25 percent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles;
d) A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles.
Approval
Approved Special Plans Registered and Recorded After completing its review of an application hereunder, the planning office shall return such application and all pertinent data, together with a notice of recommendation, to the Department of Zoning Administration. The department shall give due notice of disapproval to the applicants. Upon receipt of an approved application from the planning office, the department shall register a copy of the approved special plan among its records and shall record a copy thereof, or such other record thereof as deemed proper by the department, in the office of the clerk and recorder.


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Restrictions
Effect of Registered and Recorded Special Plans All plans registered and recorded hereunder shall be binding upon the applicants therefore, their successors and assigns, shall limit and control the issuance and validity of all zoning permits and zoning certificates and shall restrict and limit the construction, location, use and operation of all land and structures included within such plans to all conditions and limitations set forth in such plans; provided, however, that upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, based only upon a showing of engineering necessity therefore, minor changes in the location of structures may be permitted if such minor changes will not cause any of the following circumstances to occur:
a) A change in the character of the development;
b) An increase in the ratio of the gross floor area in structures to the area of any zone lot;
c) An increase in the intensity of use;
d) A reduction in the originally approved separations between buildings;
e) An increase of the problems of circulation, safety and utilities;
A reduction in the originally approved setbacks from property lines;
g)


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h)
i)
j)
An increase in ground coverage by structures;
A reduction in the ratio of off-street parking and loading space to gross floor area in structures;
A change in the subject, size, lighting, flashing, animation or orientation of originally approved signs.
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CODES
Applicable Code Name: Building Code of The City and County of Denver
Item Section
Fire Zone: III 1604
Occupancy Classification: mixed occupancy
Principal Occupancy: H-2 apartments Others (specify): F-2 Office buildings
Stores for retail sales F-l Drinking and dining
Occupancy Separations required Table No. 5-B
Sect.1302(b)c
H-2 to F-2 = 1 hours H-2 to F-l = hours F-2 to F-l = 1 hours
Construction Type: Type I Sec. 1801
construction
Maximum allowable floor are: Table No. 5-C
unlimited
Maximum allowable height: Table No. 5-D
Feet: unlimited
Stories: unlimited


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Fire resistance of exterior wall (Sec. 1803
(see occupancy type and construction type):
In groups F and H occupancies of type I construction, exterior bearing walls may be of 2 hours fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
Openings in exterior walls
(see occupancy type and construction
type):
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior
walls located less than five feet set back
distances from an adjacent property line or the
center line of a street or alley for buildings
housing groups F and H occupancies. All
openings in exterior walls shall be protected by
a fire assembly having 3/4 hour fire-resistive
rating where the walls are located less than
twenty feet set back distances from an adjacent
property line or the center line of a street or
alley for F-l occupancy and type I construction in fire
zone III.
Windows required in rooms:
F-l, F-2: All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or


83
artificial light.
H-2: the same as above. However, required windows shall open on a court, yard, or street, either directly or through a porch at least 7 feet high and not more than 7 feet deep, with at least 2 sides 50 percent open.
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms:
H-2: a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet over at least 50 percent of its area, and no portion of the remaining ceiling shall be less than 5 feet
ir i height.
Fire resistive requirements: Table No. 17-A
Exterior bearing walls 4 hours See also No. 7
Interior bearing walls 3 hours
Exterior non-bearing walls 4 hours See also 1803(a)
Structural frame 3 hours
Permanent partitions 1 hours
Vertical openings 2 hours
Floors 2 hours
Roofs 2 hours See also 1806
Exterior doors lh hours
Inner court walls 3 hours
Mezzanine floors (area
allowed) 1 hours
Roof coverings 2 hours


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0

Boiler room enclosure
1 hours
Exits
Occupancy load-basis (square feet/ occupant)
Occupancy Type Basis
F-l 15
F-2 retail, ground floor 30
F-2 office buildings 100
H-2 200
Number of exits required For all occupancy types: 2 exits or more
Minimum width of exits:
The total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50:
F-l
F-2 retail F-2 office H-2
667/50 = 13 ft. 333/50 = 7 ft. 200/50 = 4 ft. 300/50 = 6 ft.
Table No. 33-A
Actual Load 667 333 200 300
Table No. 33-A 3302
3302(j)
The width of exits shall be divided


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approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story, plus percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. 50% of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. 25% of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
Exit separation arrangement: 3302(k)
Minimum travel distance between
exit doors = 25 feet. The exits shall
be remote from each other. Means of
egress shall be arranged so that, from
any room door, exits will be accessible


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in at least 2 different directions. Maximum allowable travel distance to exit
F-l, F-2: from any point in building = 150ft.
With sprinklers = 200ft.
Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an individual living unit shall not exceed 50 ft. or traverse more than one flight of stairs.
H-2: The entrance door to any unit = 100 ft.
With sprinklers = 150 ft.
Allowable exit sequence:
For F-l occupancy, at least h of the required exits shall be located to be reached without going through checkout stands. Exit doors: must swing in direction of travel when serving occupancy load of 30 or more. Exit doors shall be operable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
3322
3321
3320
3303
Minimum width: 3 feet and at least


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6 feet 8 inches in height.
Maximum leaf width: 4 feet.
Width required for every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10.
Exit corridors: 3304
Minimum allowable width: 44 inches
and 7 feet of a clear height required
to have exit at each end of corridor
more than one exit is required
depending on length of corridor and type
of occupancy.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes.
Maximum length: 20 feet.
Wall fire resistance required: 1 hour fire-resistive construction.
Doors and frames fire resistance required:
F-l, F-2: 3/4 hour fire resistance
H-2: 3/4 hour fire resistance
Stairs: 3305
Minimum width: 44 inches
occ. load of more than 50
36 inches
occ. load of more than 50 or less
30 inches


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occ. load of less than 10 Maximum riser allowed: lh inches Minimum tread allowed: 10 inches Are winders allowed? Allowed in private stairways of group H occupancies Landings:
Minimum size: equal to the width of the stairway
Maximum size required: 5 feet Maximum vertical distance between landings: 12 feet 6 inches Minimum vertical distance between landings: N.A.
Required height of rails not less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches above the nosing of the threads.
Hand rails shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways, at least one handrail shall extend at least six inches beyond the top and bottom risers, with the ends returned or terminating in posts or safety terminals. Intermediate rails required at stairs: more than 88 inches in width.
Maximum width between int. rails: 88 inches


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Exceptions applicable: stairways 44 inches or less in width serving one individual dwelling unit in group H occupancy may have one handrail, except that stairways open on both sides shall have handrails provided on the open sides. Stairways serving one individual dwelling units in group H occupancy having less than four risers need not have handrails.
Height above nosing not less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches.
Intermediate rail required: yes Handrails return to wall at ends: no Handrails extend beyond stair: yes (see handrails) Stair to roof required? Building of 4 or more stories in height, one interior stairway required unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. Stair to basement restrictions when a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, a barrier shall be provided.
Stair access to roof required: see above Access to roof required: see above Stair enclosure required: interior stairways for individual units of group H occupancy stairs are not required to be enclosed. Enclosure is


90

required for one hour fire-resistive construction Horizontal exit requirements: All horizontal exits in a wall shall be protected by a fire assembly having one hour fire-resistive construction. The fire assembly shall be self-closing. A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having a capacity for an occupant load of at least the occupant load served by this exit.
Ramps: 3306
Maximum slope: one vertical to 12 horizontal Handrails required: at least on one side; shall extend one foot beyond the top and bottom of the ramp.
Height required: minimum of 32 inches Balusters or intermediate rails required: not required
Toilet room requirements (code utilized) Fixture Count Requirements: 509 Table No Table No
Men Retail Restaurant Office
Lavatories 3 11 5
Water closets 3 12 7
Urinals 2 22 3
5-E
5-F


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Women
Lavatories 2 11
Water closets 4 22
Drinking fountain requirements 1 1
Showers required none
Handicapped requirements:
Public facilities, 1 water closet and 1 lavatory for each sex accessible to handicapped must be provided.
Use of property Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? yes Restriction on marquees, canopies, etc.
All marquees shall be permitted
but at least 4 feet above the public
way.
Other projections:
No projection is permitted less than 8 feet clearance above the public way. Projection does not exceed a distance of 4 feet.
All permitted projections shall provide
5
10
3
510
3301(M)
4501
4502 4504
a horizontal clearance of at least 2 feet


92
inside the curb line.
No part of any structure or any appendage shall project into an alley unless a 14 feet clearance above the alley grade is maintained.
Ventilation outlets fronting onto public way shall provide a minimum height of at least 7 feet from the sidewalls or alley floor.

ft


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I
PROGRAM
Project Background
The current lack of campus-life atmosphere at the Auraria Higher Education Center is partially attributed to the heavy traffic of two major roads that pass through right in the heart of the Auraria campus and partially attributed to the nonexistence on-campus student housing with the nearby activities-generating facilities such as cultural, commercial and entertainment attractions. With these in mind I propose a mixed-use project for the campus to be located at 9th Street, in front of the Tivoli. This site offers an excellent opportunity to convert the 9th Street into the center of campus life because at 9th Street we have:
the student population to generate activities, the student center which is a cultural and entertainment attraction.
the Tivoli with its retail stores and cinemas, a study proposal to develop the eastern sites near the Tivoli into housing and a commercial node, a thesis proposal to build a performing arts center on the site between Lawrence and Larimer, adjacent to the student center.
the historic St. Cajetans as a focal point which now


94
serves as a performing arts facility The connection with the 9th Street Park will transform the 9th Street into a center of campus life with cultural, commercial, and entertainment attractions. The closing of Lawrence Street entirely to the vehicular traffic transform it into a pedesterian mall, a major pedestrian way to campus resources and the 9th Street will become a main gateway to the heart of the campus, the connection between living places and learning resources.
For the purpose of meeting student housing needs on campus AHEC will pursue options for forming partnerships with both public and private partners. Therefore, the square-footage distribution among the housing, commercial, and office spaces will be based on the acceptable percentage of total s q u a r e f o o t a g e s devoted to the commercial establishments and offices to help cover the cost of housing. The best percentage distribution will be:
I
housing 60$ = 60$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 60,000 sq.ft, commercial 20$ = 20$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 20,000 sq.ft, office 20$ = 20$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 20,000 sq.ft.
Total ...... =100,000 sq.ft.
Because of the presence of student population and the


95
availability of more retail spaces at the adjacent Tivoli, fifty percent of the commercial spaces would be devoted to eating and drinking establishments and the other fifty percent would be retail stores.
In order to document the housing needs of the student population a survey was conducted during November of 1984 to determine current student housing status -- the assumption being that there might be a relationship between current housing status and interest in utilizing housing proximally located to the campus or on-campus should it be available. The Auraria Student Assistance Center (ASAC) initiated the survey to explore the perceived interest of Auraria students.
The ASAC Housing Survey is a randomized, non-stratified sample of the student population at the Auraria Higher Education Center. The population utilized in the survey was that as identified by current computer listings of students at the three academic institutions as of October 30, 1984. Using these computer generated alphabetized listings a 1.2% random sample was generated. This represents 310 students (13% DACC, 47% MSC, 40% UCD). There was a 100% contact rate among the 310 respondents in the sample population. Of this number, 34 (10.9%) declined to respond after initial contact. Therefore, completed questionnaires were obtained on
276 (89%)


96
respondents.
Of the 276 respondents, 108 (39%) owned their own
home and 168 (61%) were currently renting. Given that the objective of the survey was to obtain data on respondents potentially interested in rental housing, further data was obtained on only the 168 non-homeowners. Of these 168 respondents, 4% declined to respond. As the results of this study they conclude:
the sample was reflective of the Auraria campus student population.
a significant percentage of the sample (39%) owned a home.
61% of the campus student population would be eligible for consideration of rental housing. Of this population, only 56% were currently paying rent (i.e. 44% were living at home with parents).
Added observations regarding the findings of this study are reflected in the following statements:
A. The student population x 61% = potential renters
B. Potential renters x 56% = potential rent payers
C. Therefore .61 x .56 = .34 potential rent payers of the population
A hypothetical example gives clarity to the data as follows:
Auraria Higher Education Center = 30,000 students x .34 =


97
10.200 potential paying renters. This is to say that
10.200 students are actually a part of the campus rent paying market. Of the 10,200 students, 53% are currently paying greater than $100 per person per month for rental costs. Almost half (47%) per paying $100 or less per person per month.
Several limitations of the current study warrant observation. Due to the factors and pressures of time and restricted funding, a 1.2% sample population was utilized. The smaller the sample, the greater the risk of nonrepresentation of the population by that sample. Further, the degree to which respondents were able to accurately respond to the survey items is unclear. Specifically, respondents could have over-estimated their financial outlay for rental costs.
The data generated by the current study reflects the present economic status of students. Future changes in I financial aid allocations and employment status could
alter the potential rental pool of respondents and the availability of funds they could dedicate to rental housing.
Due to stated limitations of funding and time, a study of faculty interest in adjacent campus housing was not undertaken. As the ASAC/Off-Campus Housing Office has responded on an individual basis to queries from campus


98
I
faculty regarding housing proximally located to campus, a more thorough examination of this population as a potential user of adjacent campus housing might be of interest.
Spatial Requirements
Commercial Space Retail units 10 @ 1800 sq.ft, (including eating and drinking 5 units)
Circulation, mechanical @ 10% Total sq.ft, commercial
Office Space Leasable office space Circulation, mechanical @ 10% Total sq.ft, office
Housing
Apartment units Living/Dining room Bedroom/Study 2 @ 175 sq. ft. Bathroom Kitchen
= 18,000 sq. ft. establishments
= 2.000 sq. ft. = 20,000 sq. ft.
= 18,000 sq. ft.
= 2,000 sq. ft. = 20,000 sq. ft.
= 225 sq. ft. = 350 sq. ft. = 50 sq. ft. = 85 sq. ft.


99
Storage
Circulation
Total
= 100 sq. ft.
=____90 sq. ft...
= 900 sq. ft.
Community/Service Center Supervisor's living unit Supervisor's office Central storage Laundry room
Community Meeting/Day Care facility
Mail room
Total
= 900 sq. ft. = 150 sq. ft. = 300 sq. ft. = 700 sq. ft. = lf150 sq. ft.
= 100 sq. ft. = 3,300 sq. ft.
Apartment units 63 @ 900 sq. ft. Community/service center Total sq. ft. housing
= 56,700 sq. ft.
= -3.1.3Q.Q_-S.q = 60,000 sq. ft.
Spatial Analysis Commercial Space
Store facade must be attractive in order to catch the pedestrian's attention. Easy service access to every store must be pursued, preferably with a clear separation


100
between service and customer circulation. In response to the Auraria campus grid system, the whole structure will be laid on 30' x 30' column bays. Store depth will be in the range of 50 to 75 ft. Eating and drinking establishment must front a busy path, and be open to the street. Provide outdoor seating area shaded by a canvas canopy. Restroom facilities must be provided for public and employees.
Office Space
Office space is served by a service core which includes the elevator, stair, restroom, mechanical and electrical room. It occupies the upper floors and therefore it follows the same 30 foot bays throughout.
The office space must be extremely flexible to provide leasing options for small and large areas. Suggested range of floor to floor height is 11 to 14 feet, usually about 12 feet is used. Finished ceiling height is typically 8 to 9 feet, allowing for a plenum for mechanical systems and recessed lighting above the ceiling.
Housing
Each apartment unit comprises a living/dining room, a kitchen, two study-bedrooms, a bathroom, storage, and


101
circulation. The total unit size should be 900 square feet approximately one in seven units and the entire community/service center must be accessible to the handicapped. Design should follow the current ANSI regulations. The handicapped units should be evenly distributed throughout the complex and should not be grouped together. Each apartment should be designed and oriented to offer the most favorable combination of quietness, sun exposure, ventilation and view. Sound separation between adjacent units should achieve a rating of Airborne Sound Transmission class 55. Repetition of one typical floor plan is acceptable, but a variety of plans is encouraged. Although dempsey dumpsters are acceptable, other alternatives for trash collecting should be explored. Approximately one collection point per 20 units should be provided for throughout the complex.
The broken up of the unit's spaces is as follows: Living/Dining Room
The living/dining room should be 225 square feet in size to accommodate the following activities; eating, dining, studying, and both formal and informal entertaining. The area near the kitchen should accommodate a dining table with seating for six. The main area should be large and allow for the arranging of a sofa, two armchairs, a low table, and bookshelves. The


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main living area should open to a deck area at the ground level or a living balcony at the second level.
Kitchen
The kitchen should be 85 square feet in size and accommodate several people at a time. A minimum of eight linear feet of counter top space along with 24 linear feet of built-in adjustable upper and lower cabinet shelving and storage space should be provided. Room for a 14 cubic foot capacity refrigerator, 12 cubic foot capacity freezer, 30" minimum range/oven and a double sink should be provided in addition to the counter top space. The kitchen may be somewhat open to the dining area, but should be screened from the living room; an eating counter dividing the two is acceptable.
Bedrooms/Study
Each unit will have two bedrooms/study, each 175 square feet in size. The dimensions and the fixed relationships in the rooms (door, window, lamps) should be placed in a way that will allow varied furniture arrangements. The furniture which will be provided for each bedroom/study will consist of two beds (39 x 80), two desks (42" or 45"), two chests of drawers (each 34"x 18"d
x
42"h) and two chairs. Each bedroom/study should have


- 103 -
eight linear feet of closet with a shelf above.
Bathroom
The bathroom should be 50 square feet in size and designed to best serve four unrelated students. A combination shower-bath, water closet, and a wash basin to accommodate two people should be provided. A second sink/vanity should be provided outside the primary bathroom area.
General Storage
A general storage room of approximately 50 square feet in size, designed as a walk-in closet with entry from the inside of the apartment should be located in or adjacent to the apartment, such as on a porch or deck. The storage other than the general storage should be a combination of linen/coat closets outside each bedroom/study and a large utility closet in or near the kitchen.
The spaces to be provided for the community service center are as follows:
Supervisor's Living Unit
The supervisor's living unit is 900 square feet in
size and is the same as the apartment units in floor plan.


104
Office
A 150 square-foot office is provided for the management of the housing. An entry into the office directly from the supervisor's living unit along with one from the center's general circulation is required. The office space should accommodate a desk, three chairs, key cabinet, bulletin board, storage cabinet, and up to six people.
Central Storage
A general storage room 300 square feet in size should be included in the community/service center.
Laundry Room
A 700 square foot laundry room should be included in the center. This room should accommodate eight washers and dryers, laundry trays, folding and sorting counters or tables, and a seating area. The design of the complex may explore breaking the laundry facilities up among unit groups. Each handicapped unit will have its own washer and dryer.
Mail Distribution Room
A room of 100 square feet in size for mail distribution is required for servicing the 63 apartment


- 105 -
units.
Community Meeting/Day Care Facility
The 1150 square-foot space will double as a day care center and a lounging/meeting/recreation area for the complex. The space should include within it a storage area, kitchen, and toilet rooms for each sex. The entire facility must be accessible by the handicapped.
Parking
The total number of parking spaces required for the housing is based on 3.1 spaces per unit, therefore 63 apartment units require 63 x 3.1 parking spaces = 200 parking spaces. Parking should be placed at least 100 feet but not more than 200 feet from the units and placed throughout the complex. However, temporary parking for loading and unloading purposes should be provided for each unit cluster and retail stores. Parking for commercial and office uses will be provided by the adjacent parking lots.
Spatial Quality Retail Shops
Recent literature on retail structures tends to deal


106
with one of two types. One is the shopping mall-traditionally suburban but increasingly urban with more vertically oriented malls (e.g. Citicorp in NYC). The other mainstream at the time is the Faneuil Hall, Larimer Square, streetside, old-time pedestrian-oriented type of development. My project will be more like the latter, fitting into the fabric of the existing and historic Tivoli yet there is much to learn, especially regarding the accommodation of modern necessities, from the contemporary shopping mall.
Faneuil Hall Marketplace has been compared, both in praise and insult, to Disneyland. It does in fact recreate much of Disneyland's Main Street with a social and commercial vitality much lacking in a world of predominant suburban life. Historically the Main Street of Anywhere, U.S.A. has been an essential focus of both commerce and social life. It has provided a concentration of commodities and humanity. Post World War II saw the abandonment of these old time centers in favor of the new expansive American way of life in the suburbs.
The conscious addressing of the street is essential. The truly great and successful urban shopping spaces of the world do this and serve as valuable examples. The Galleria in Milan acts as a pedestrian street linking important areas of the city beyond either end. The Rue de


107

Rivoli in Paris has an arcade enclosed sidewalk parallel to the streets, shops on one side, busy traffic on the other. New York's Rockefeller Center pulls pedestrians down a retail lane perpendicular to adjacent 5th Avenue.
Christopher Alexander addresses the interface of automobile streets and shopping areas, first bringing up issues of the conflict, then offering a solution:
Shopping centers depend on access: they need locations near major traffic arteries. However, the shoppers themselves don't benefit from traffic: they need quiet, comfort, and convenience, and access from the pedestrian paths in the surrounding neighborhood.
Encourage local shopping centers to grow in the form of short pedestrian streets, at right angles to major roads and opening off these roadswith parking behind the shops, so that the cars can pull directly off the road, and yet not harm the shopping street.
Jane Thompson, in conjunction with her husband Benjamin Thompson architect for James Rouse, shopping mall developer extraordinaire (both the old-time and suburban varieties), cites three qualities she credits Faneuil Hall's success to:
1) Physical safety/security,
2) Sensory variety (both in the architecture and the goods


108
for sale), and
3) Social contact (an aspect of the Main Street social life) .
Nory Miller writes on consumer behavior and its current implications for store design. Impulse items should be placed near the entry; demand items should be further back. Entrances should be as open as possible, requiring little physical effort or mental decision-making to pass through. Dramatic and variable lighting is important to emphasize displays and merchandise node areas. Shop window display areas are now considered an unnecessary use of expensive square footage; instead the merchandise within the store is well lit and oriented to be viewed from the front store window. Mobile, modular interior partitions, desks and display racks make space more flexible and are less expensive in the long run that permanent installations. Small stores are more desirable, and large stores imitate this by creating specialized areas with differing merchandise.
In general, for the consumer shopping should be fun, entertaining, and stimulating in the variety available. From the retailer's point of view, the space should be efficient and flexible, offering both good service access and visibility to pedestrian, and potential customer, flow


109
by the store.
Traditional store depth is from 100 to 140 feet. Present trends are to less depth, along with overall smaller stores. At Writer Square, an in-town mixed-used development, store depth averages around 50 feet and the minimum store front width is 15 feet. Bay spacing is an important determinant of shop proportions. Columns at 30 feet on center offers the greatest flexibility. At Writer Square service access is provided by an internal corridor with shops backing up to it on either side. As well public restrooms are accessible off this corridor, making plumbing in every store unnecessary.
Office Buildings
In speculative office building design the main concerns are economics of construction and maintenance, and leasability of the space. Aesthetics usually, though not necessarily, are considered mainly from the eventual tenants' point of view; basically what will rent square footage. This does not have to have negative implications, but it does mean that speculative office space is rarely a building type for innovative experimentation in design. In general the building design should meet prevailing expectations for leasable office space, and any special design features should be readily


110
appreciated and not too costly.
Flexibility of tenant use is probably the issue of greatest importance in speculative office design. Space must be arranged so that large or small offices may be carved out and still maintain reasonable accessways from office entries to the core area with vertical circulation and restrooms. Usually this service core is located centrally within the building.
The configuration and proportions of the overall floor area on each level are the factors which allow flexibility and efficient use of space. A 25 to 30 foot depth from the corridor to outside wall in leasable office area is considered optimal. Not only is this distance within acceptable distance from exterior window wall to make it desirable, premium rental space, but also this depth is one that can be easily and efficiently subdivided (e.g. two 12 foot offices and a 4 foot internal corridor). Of course, column placement is important to flexibility of subdivision of space and column bay spacing must be selected with interior space in mind. Concerns of the users involve interaction and access versus privacy, and desire for personal control over their own environments.
Open Space
Open space is always an important consideration in


- Ill -
retail center design, whether it is just the sidewalk or pedestrian passageway connecting store entries or a larger area containing seating, landscaping and perhaps a fountain or other focus. Even within the enclosed suburban malls careful attention, and sometimes extravagant budgets, are dedicated to these areas.
These spaces are given over to the pedestrian, either one who has temporarily abandoned an automobile close by, or the neighborhood person who arrives on foot. I quote from Urban Open Space:
Pedestrian zones are the first signals and physical symbols for a new understanding of the city. This understanding views the city less as a functional structure and more as a living space for human beings.
Because pedestrian zones are the symbols of a new spirit, they are of utmost importance.
Essentially there are two types of urban open space. One is of harder surfaces with plenty of seating and some landscaping. It is oriented to surrounding business and retail structures and may have a good deal of traffic flow and activity in it. The other type of open space has more of a park-like atmosphere and may be thought of as more of a place for rest and introversion. In my project the open
space will be of the first type with definite connection


- 112 -
to retail and office areas, to the extent of potentially containing outdoor dining area for the restaurant. However, it may also be possible and desirable to build in small nooks which serve the function of the second type providing passive, quiet areas.
Rockefeller Center is perhaps the one grand historic example of successful urban open space in the United States. It draws pedestrians down the retail lane previously mentioned to where it opens out to the sunken plaza where a concentration of activity occurs: ice skating, roasted chestnut vendors and a multitude of spectators in the winter, and dining, flower sellers and casual strolling in the summer. One subtle trick in the design of the complex is that the lane slopes slightly down to the plaza level making it an easier walk and providing a more immediate view of the eventual destination.
Issues of concern in outdoor space design include security/safety versus privacy. The area needs to be and feel safe, yet have a human scale, a sense of enclosure, and the possibility for private interaction. Some of these seemingly conflicting qualities may be accommodated through the use of overlook and transparent screening (including use of landscape materials), and the
encouragement of a sense of territoriality.


113
Solar access is of utmost importance for usable outdoor space in this climate. The space must be largely south-facing and care must be taken that it is not excessively shaded by adjacent buildings. Yet provisions must be made for protection from the weather, and from the sun for use during the hottest days of the summer.
In a study conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia all of the following were mentioned by users as adding to the attractiveness of well used plazas:
* a changing population of people to observe
* distinctive (in form, color or texture) plant materials
* complex forms of fountains and sculptures
* color schemes and brightness in pavements and surface textures
* space articulation (nooks, corners, level changes)
The researchers conclude that qualities of small but "busy" open spaces include dense furnishing, attractive focal elements, defined edges and pedestrian circulation channels.
William Whyte in studying the large plaza spaces of New York City found that "sit-ability is the key to plaza use." He concludes that ledges, of the right height and depth, and steps are often the favored places to sit, and


114
that if chairs are provided they should be free and movable so that users may form their own clusters or spots of solitude. With the large plazas, street corners are favored locations for sitters as it is there the activity and variety are densest. For Whyte the connection of plaza to streets cape is essential as it is really the continuous promenade of people that is the attraction of these urban outdoor spaces.
The following is a summary of the patterns from Christopher Alexander's The Pattern Language, which apply to urban open space:
* A sense of enclosure is needed.
* People like to sit so that they are protected to their backs and they look out toward some larger opening beyond the immediate space.
* Courtyards need to have natural traffic flow through them.
* To size a public outdoor area, estimate the number of people using it at any given moment and allow 150 to 300 square feet per person.
Housing
It cannot be assumed that individuals residing in adjacent rooms will become friendly in the way the rooms are grouped. Face to face meetings will occur through


115
regular movements in and out of the building, through use of communal facilities, or by some chance incident or attraction. For a student, an important part of coming to college is to meet people, and so to make friends.
For living to be successful when people reside closely together, certain similarities of behavior are required. It cannot be assumed that putting together in residence a miscellaneous collection of individualseven if they have some common aimswill necessary be to their mutual benefit. For any group living to be satisfactory, proper arrangements for the carrying out of housekeeping chores such as cleaning, maintenance and control of entrances, and of other communal spaces, are essential.^
Primary groups for residence with study bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen and living/dining room are the basis of design for many student residences. Variation in the shape, pattern, and form of the buildings which increase their individuality are much appreciated. Extensive landscaping could compensate for less interesting building forms. Brick or brick and wood combinations are the most liked building materials. The outside appearance is important not only for how it affects residents themselves, but because of the status and reputation it conveys to the surrounding community about the residents. Maintenance is a crucial aspect of residents' evaluation


- 116 -
of exterior appearance regardless of specific design features. Noise should be a high priority concern in designing housing. Carpets in corridors, and single-loaded corridors would reduce noise. Private entrances and immediate access from the inside of the units to the outside is highly desirable. Design should reduce to the minimum the number of uncontrolled social contacts. Design should not restrict natural ventilation. Individual control of thermostats is very important in giving residents control over their own proximate environment.
Public Spaces
Lobbies should be visually pleasing; residents want to feel like they have walked into a home not an impersonal institution. The supervisor's office is preferably located on the lobby to keep casual surveillance of the main entry to the units.
Carpeting in corridors would reduce noise. Single loaded corridors which provide visual access from other areas may reduce some vandalism. All corridors should have high lighting levels.
Elevators should be large enough to accommodate
standard size furniture and other personal belongings of


117
residents. The time for ascent and descent should be held to a minimum.
For moderate levels of satisfaction one machine for approximately 15 people is reasonable. Facilities should be distributed throughout the site, not more than 300 feet from the dwelling unit, and allocated to small clusters of units. Because a central laundry facility necessitates parents leaving their dwelling unit for some time, there should be some provision for visual access between laundry areas and adjacent playgrounds for small children. There should also be outdoor seating, with provision of shade, around laundry areas which have visual access to play areas for small children. The provision of tables for the folding of clothes and chairs are important facilities which residents desire. A public telephone is desirable.
For low-rise developments the functional characteristics of the most satisfactory parking facilities included: cars visible from dwelling unit for casual surveillance; separation between swelling unit and parking lot provided by grassy front yard and pathway; low speed and volume of traffic because of cul-de-sac arrangements, and large enough lot for easy maneuvering. To this type of arrangement might be added individually assigned spaces or groups of spaces assigned to particular clusters of units. Good lighting is essential. The ideal


118
d
1
s
z
istance from the dwelling unit to one's car 00 and 200 feet, with the car parking and eparated from the dwelling unit by some type one such as a semi-private front yard.^2
is between circulation of buffer


- 119 -NOTES
^Arnulf Luchinger, Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning (Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag, 1981), p. 19.
2Brent C. Brolin, Architecture in Context (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980), p. 5.
^Brolin, p. 7.
4Luchinger, p. 31.
^Luchinger, p. 27.
^Christian Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci (New York: Rizzoli, 1980), pp. 5-6.
^Schulz, p. 47, p. 116.
^Charles Moore, Gerald Allen, Donlyn Lyndon, The Place of Houses (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974), p. 32.
9Brent C. Brolin, The Failure of Modern Architecture (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976), pp. 16-28.
^Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, Functionalism, Yes. But. (Architecture and Urbanism, 1981), p. 102. ''Luchinger, p. 59.
'^Schulz, pp. 170-182 .
'^Robert E. Witherspoon, John P. Abbett, Robert M.
Gladstone, Mixed-Use Developments:____New Wavs of Land Use
(Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1976), p. xi.


- 120 -
14Dimitri Procos, Mixed Land Use: From Revival to Innovation (Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1976) pp. 1-8.
^Witherspoon, pp. 3-40.
^Jane Palmer Morrison, Auraria Square: Campus Redevelopment. (Denver: College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, 1979).
17Don D. Etter, Auraria: Where Denver Began (Colorado: Colorado Associated University Press, 1972), p. vi.
i ft
i0Morrison.
^Mark Fitzwilliam, Auraria Performing Arts Center (Denver: University of Colorado, 1983), pp. 8-9.
20Michael Collins, The Adaptive Reuse of Tivoli Brewery (Denver: University of Colorado, 1980).
21William Mullins and Phyllis Allen, Student Housing (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971), pp. 26-27.
22Franklin D. Becker, Design for Living (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1975), pp. 9-21.


- 121 -BIBLIOGRAPHY
A-5 Denver, Inc. Master Plan for the Auraria Higher Education Center. Denver, Colorado, 1973.
Becker, Franklin D. Design for Living. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1975.
Benson, Maxine. Tivoli_____. .. Denver's Pioneer Brewery?
Denver, Colorado, 1974.
Brettel, Richard. Historic Denver 1858-1893 Denver: Historica Denver, Inc., 1973.
Brolin, Brent C. Architecture in Context. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1980.
Brolin, Brent C. The Failure of Modern Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1976.
Ching, Francis D.K. Architecture: Form. Space and Order. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
Building Code of the City and County of Denver. Denver: City and County of Denver, 1984.
Climates of the States. Second Edition. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1985.
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Design. Urban Open Space. New York: Rizzoli, 1981.
Etter, Don D. Auraria Where Denver Begins. Colorado: Colorado Associated University Press, 1972.


- 122 -
Luchinger, Arnulf. Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer, 1981.
Moore, Charles, Gerald Allen, and Donlyn Lyndon. The Place of Houses. New York: Holt, 1974.
Morrison, Jane P. Auraria Square: Campus Redevelopment. Denver: College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, 1979.
Mullins, William and Phyllis Allen. Student Housing. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.
Paul, Samuel. Apartments. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation, 1967.
Project for Public Spaces, Inc. Managing Downtown Public Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Planners Press, 1984.
Schulz, Christian Norberg. Genius Loci. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.
Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data. Sixth Edition. New York: McGraww-Hill, 1982.
Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California: International Conference of Building Officials, 1985.
Untermann, Richard K. Accommodating the Pedestrian. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1984.
Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977.
Witherspoon, Robert E., John P. Abbett, and Robert M.


- 123 -
Gladstone. Mixed-use Developments: New Ways of Land Use. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1976.
Zoning Ordinance. City and County of Denver. Tallahassee, Florida: Municipal Code Corporation, 1982.


124
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Visitor Parking in Lots G & Q Braille Map available at Disabled Student Services Central
Speer Bivd North------*
AR...............Arts Bldg
Au...............Aurana Library
8R...............Bromley Building
BU...............Business Services (Parking-
CC...............Child Care Centen
CD...............Child Development Cente'
CN...............Central Classroom
DR...............Dravo
EC...............East Classroom I
EG...............Emmanuel Gallery
MR...............Mercantile Restaurant
PE...............Physical Education
PP....-..........Physical Plant
PS................Public Safety
RO................Rectory Office
SA................St Cajetan s Center
SE................St Elizabeth s Church
SF................St Francis Center
Si....-...........Science Bunding
SO................South Classroom
ST................Student Center (Book Center)
TE................Technology Building
TV................Tivoli
L*A...............UCD Administration
WC................Wes: Classroom
DC PA Parking Garage


View of Tivoli from the site


View of student center from the site
View of St. Cajetans from the site


View of Lawrence Viaduct to the southeast
View of warehouses to the northwest




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ST. PRANCIB INTERPAITH CENTER
EMMANUEL CENTER
ST. CAJETAN'B CHURCH
TIVOLI BREWFRY
PUBLIC SAFETY
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CONCEPTUAL RELATIONSHIPS OF COMPLEX'S SPACES
COMMERCIAL PLAZA ^ COMMERCIAL
OFFICE OFFICE
SPACE SPACE

2 MAIN 2
STORY ENTRANCE TO J STORY
I
HOUSING
UNITS
OPEN SPACE L__t_
------OPEN SPACE
OPEN SPACE


CONCEPTUAL RELATIONSHIPS OF HOUSING SPACES




FLOOR




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SECTION S B


STM ST ELEVATION






APPENDIX
AT 1 of the following information is derived from the Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data. Sixth Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982). Refer to the book for more information and complete data.


Residential
APARTMENTS
By J. L. GRUZEN and J. J. KOSTER, Gruien and Partnara
INTRODUCTION
At the time of thia writing, it ia anticipated that within the next 1 5 yeara in the United States it will be necessary to construct as many new housing units as have been constructed to date.
Thia need for new housing, considered against a background of continuing urbanization, clearly indicates that an increasing proportion of an expanding housing market will be devoted to multifamily types of housing or apartments. The inevitability of thia trend contains a challenge to the architect to do more than merely meet a statistical demand. He must rather address, identify, and solve the problems of multifamily building types as an attractive alternative to freestanding singlefamily buildings.
This article will deal with multifamily living in general, with some additional attention to the problems of the medium- and high-rise building type (i.e. building types which require a degree of vertical servicing).
GENERAL
The process of designing an apartment building may be graphically depicted in a general way as in Table 1. This article will be developed in the same sequence as Table 1. It must be borne in mind that, as with any design development, the evolution of an apartment building design is not a sequential process but a process of continuing interaction, feedback, and reevaluation, and that the number and complexity of events will vary according to the program, scope, and funding sources involved. The sequences shown are labeled as program development, site analysis, building planning, and building design.
Program development is for the most part evaluation of information over which the architect has relatively little control but which shapes the project in a basic way.
Site analysis involves evaluation of physical data which must be recognized, identified, and weighed by the architect in making basic design decisions dealing with site use, allocation, and development.
PROGRAM
Market Analysis
A market analysis and program formulation may precede the retention of an architect; however, to an increasing degree clients solicit the aid of an architect in these areas. An investigation of the potential market should consider existing market conditions and trends with regard to
1. Type of occupancy
a. Rental
b. Cooperative
c. Condominium
2. Price (rent, maintenance, etc )
3. Amenities
4 Apartment size (area and number of rooms)
TABLE 1
SITE. ANALYSIS S (/L ... DU'LD'NG DtSiGN >
N k - ' V
( #>R00fAM DCvClOPmCnT > < BUtLCMNG planning

| PROGRAM | lBWI IctjNSi&aTGrel lvs>Ll ittPVAL r! m imasn IJEHSE1 1 W 1
Market Anolyt't Ditr i button funding Control* Standard* Sit* Charoc'*'i*tic* Utii-r.** Large Scot* Development Bu *d>ng Types Bui'dmg Or-en'otion Floor Shape ona Sue Building Height Length ond Width Wind Bracing Concrete Steel Limito'ion* Sv*t*m* £l*vo*Cr* Egret* Plumbing Ventilating Heating ond Cooling Guide'net Procedure 0** Cntetkj Spatial Requirement* Circulation Cor* Moil Room Wheeled Storage Commercial Loundry ond Community Refute O'tpotoi Boiler Room
TABLE 2 Comparative Program Elements-Market Range
Low Medium High
Living unit
Living . Minimum areas: combined living, dining and entry areas Larger room sizes: dining alcove, entry alcove Generous room sizes: separate dining room, separate entry foyer
Kitchen. . Minimum counter top and storage: Standard appliances Additional counter top and storage; snack bar. better appliances, space for dishwasher Ample workspace, counter too, and storage; built-in appliances, wall oven, dishwashet, eat-in kitchen
Bedrooms. . Minimum closets Walk-in closets Oressing rooms, storage closets, built-in accessories
Baths . Minimal bath with standard fixtures and accessories; minimum finishes Higher-quality fixtures, finishes, and accessories; extra half bath at entry or master bedroom Additional baths and halt baths with custom cabinets and fixtures; stall showers, etc. powder room; luxury finishes
Support facilities
In apartment Few extras limited to security Intercom, door signal, balconies. unit air conditioners Ooorman and telephone, large balconies, central air conditioning, service entrance, servants' quarters
In building. . Laundry facilities, minimum lobby Laundry room, commercial space, community room, central storage Attended parking, convenience shopping, service elevators, doorman, closed-circuit TV security system, valet service, meeting rooms, health club, sheltered swimming facilities
Site Open parking, drying yard Secure open or sheltered parking, outdoor play and sitting area, swimming pool Gardens, recreation areas, country club amenities, swimming pool
70


Residential
APARTMENTS
TYPICAL DOUBLE-LOADED FLAT Fig. 23 Typical apartment types.
Fig. 24 Typical apartment layout.
(1) It is advisable to back up similar (kitchen and kitchen, bath and bath) ducts where possible. This allows one fan and fireproof enclosure to serve two ducts but requires measures to avoid excessive sound transmission between backed up spaces. Ducts may be "buried" in closets, kitchen, etc. Kitchen exhausts are best located near the range and close to the ceiling. Bathroom exhausts should, if possible, be placed away from the door in order to pull as much bathroom air as possible. Ducts are not necessary in kitchens or baths with windows (however, baths with windows, like top-floor baths, should be heated). (2) The structure should be spaced as regularly as practicable and within economical center-to-center distances. Columns built into closets or kitchens should assume the dimensions of the closet or cabinet. Column size should be reduced at upper stories of tall buildings. Slab openings along an entire column face should be avoided. (3) Plumbing backup is recommended. Dissimilar uses may be backed up, and it is possible to back up plumbing for more than two spaces. (4) Depth of rooms is sometimes limited by building codes. In any event, room depth relative to window size and location and natural light should be considered.
and electrical lines and not unusual for ventilating ducts. If there is substantial advantage to be gained, structural columns may be picked up and carried on girders concealed by the hung ceiling.
Vertical Circulation Core
For purposes of security and convenience, elevators should be well illuminated and visible from the lobby area. At least one exit stair should empty directly to the outside (but not necessarily at the lobby level).
It should be borne in mind that the stair layout in the lobby will frequently differ from a typical floor due to a greater first-floor ceiling height
Mail Room
Mailboxes as well should be highly visible. If boxes are rear-loading, a locked room behind the boxes should be provided for the mailman's
THRU FLAT
CORNER FLAT
THRU DUPLEX
Fig. 25 First-floor diagram.
use. Front-loading boxes require no such room. However, in either case, an additional secure area for packages and deliveries may be advised. Current federal requirements which govern matters such as maximum and minimum height of boxes and size of mail rooms should be consulted.
Wheeled Storage and/or Pram Room
Paths of travel from the main entrance to these areas should be short, direct, and without steps. Layout of the rooms for purposes of security should be such that all parts of the room are visible from the entrance. Lock rails, to which equipment may be secured, should be supplied.
Commercial
Shops and service facilities at the ground floor provide many advantages in terms of activity and convenience. However, much of the advantage to the building may be diminished if
the shops face away from the lobby and provide either no access or poor back-door access from the apartment building itself. On the other hand, easy circulation between a commercial establishment and the lobby may cause security problems which must be considered.
Laundry and Community Room
Laundries and community rooms are frequently found at the first floor for convenient servicing and public access and in order to utilize the additional story height. These facilities should be on a short, direct path from elevators, with as little cross circulation with other activities as possible (See Figs 26 to 30.)
Laundries may be located either on typical floors or in a penthouse in conjunction with the community room.
Location of laundry rooms on typical floors has the advantage of convenience which, however, is offset by difficulties of multiple maintenance and problems of odor and noise.
80


Residential
LIVING AREAS
LIVING AREAS Planning Considerations
Through traffic should be separated from activity centers.
Openings should be located so as to give enough wall space for various furniture arrangements.
Convenient access should be provided to doors, windows, electric outlets, thermostats, and supply grills.
furniture Clearances
To assure adequate space for convenient use of furniture in the living orea, not less than the following clearances should be observed.
60 in between facing seating 24 in where circulation occurs between furniture
30 in for use of desk 36 in for main traffic
60 in between television set and seating
Seating arranged around a 10-ft diameter circle (Fig. 1) makes a comfortable grouping for conversation. Figure 2 indicates clearances, circulation, and conversation areas.
To sleeping area and main entrance


piM tjUilliUHIIg - 1 1
30" to x I if
use desk
101 d i am. conversation area
To dining and kitchen a rea
/
|

Fig. 1 Plan. Source: Monual of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
Fig. 2 Minimum clearances, circulatio versation areas for living rooms.
5


Roiidential
Furniture Cltoroncti
To assure adequate space for convenient use of the dining area, not less than the following clearances from the edge of the dining table should be observed.
32 in for chairs plus access thereto 38 in for choirs plus access and passage 42 in for serving from behind chair 24 in for passage only
48 in from table to base cabinet (in dining-kitchen)
Figures 4, 5, and 6 illustrate proper clearances. Various arrangements appear on the next page.
To living room Fig. 4 Dining room for 6-person, 3-bedroom living unit/
To ki tchen
Fig. 5 Dining room for 8-person, 4-bedroom living unit.'

Fig. 6 Minimum clearances for dining areas, (a) one end of table against wall; (b) serving from one end and one side of table. Source: "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.
DINING AREAS
* From "Manual of Acceptable Proctices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
17


Residential
COMBINED LIVING-DINING SPACES
COMBINED SPACES
Often several compatible living functions can be combined advantageously in a single room. Some of the benefits of such arrangements are that less space is used but it is used more intensively, its functions can be changed making it more flexible and serviceable space, it is adaptable to varied furniture arrangements, while visually it can be made more interesting and seem more gener-
ous than if the same functions were dispersed into separate rooms.
For adjacent spaces to be considered a combined room, the clear opening between them should permit common use of the spaces. This usually necessitates an opening of at least 8 ft. Figures 8 and 9 show combined living-dining
60" between facing seating
38" for access
and To tchen
passage
36" for main traffic
mm
To sleeping area
Fig. 8 Combined living-dining room.*
Minimum clearances and circulation for combined living-dining areas.*
* From "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.
20


Residential
COMBINED DINING AREA-KITCHEN
A combination dining area-kitchen it preferred by some occupants of small houses and apartments. This arrangement minimizes housekeeping
chores and provides space which can be used as the family's day-to-day meeting place.
21" sink counter combined with 21" range counter
Fig. 10 Combined dining oreo-kitchen, 2-bedroom living unit. Source: "Monoal of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
One of the primary functions of the kitchen has been to provide a place for informal or family eating. This is different than guest or formal dining in a separate dining room or area. The informal dining generally consists of breakfast, lunch,
snacks, or just serving cofFee to a neighbor. This eating area should be clearly defined as a separate functional area.
A frequent and desirable arrangement is the combined kitchen-dining area. The following
sketches (Pig. 11) show the various possible arrangements. Another arrangement is the kitchen-family room.
f* lose ClUmlt
..
I GD o o 0 o
!*** idik Uil
\CiAcLim.
77" Stating om,v*k.
it'Jr |
eUs
h-
Fig. 11 Minimum clearances far dining area In kitchen. Source: Housing for the Elderly Development Process, Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.
21


Residential
By GLENN H. BEYER AND ALEXANDER KIRA,
KITCHENS
The kitchen is not a specialized workroom, for it hos many uses. It is used for preparation of meals, food preservation, storage of food and utensils, and also, in many cases, for eating, laundering, entertaining, and child care. In it a woman uses her own labor and also makes full use of electric power, tap water, and manufactured or bottled gas; she uses refrigerators, stoves, dishwashers, mixers, toasters, and garbage-disposal units, as well as various kinds of storage compartments and work surfaces.
Since more time and effort are frequently spent in the kitchen than in any other area of the house, careful planning is especially important. This requires careful selection of appliances and storage units and convenient arrangement of the area. Some general planning guides are as follows:
FOOD PREPARATION
Arrangement
It is important to keep the basic work area compact, even if the kitchen is of the large "livinp" type. Consideration should be given,J however, to the possibility of more than one person working there. The arrangement will vary according to the size and shape of space available, but we should always keep in mind relationships among functions in different areas of the kitchen.
Traffic lanes
Traffic lanes through work areas should be avoided. Arrange the service entrance and access to the basement so that traffic not essential to food preparation, service, or storage can by-pass the area.
Housing Research Center, Cornell University Storage
Kitchen design should be functional in the sense of minimizing reaching and stooping. Storage facilities should be no higher than a woman can reach with both feet flat on the floor. There should be sufficient space to store items so that they may be easily seen, reached, grasped, and taken down and put back without excessive strain. With proper planning, stored items con be located close to where they are first used, and unattractive items can be kept out of sight. Storage space should be sufficiently flexible to permit its adjustment to varying amounts, sizes, and kinds of food, supplies, and utensils. Shelving should be adjustable.
Counters and working surfaces
The height of counters and working surfaces should permit a comfortable working posture. The worker should be able to sit, if she wishes, while doing certain kitchen tasks, such as working at the sink. Continuous lines and surfaces permit ease of movement, and are easier to keep clean.
Servicing and replacement of appliances
Consideration should be given to ease of servicing and replacement of major
appliances, especially built-in units.
Materials
Materials and finishes that minimize
maintenance and cleaning should be used,
and they should be sufficiently light in color to create a pleasant work atmosphere.
Lighting
Good lighting helps to prevent fatigue, as well as promoting safety and a pleasant atmosphere. Comfortable levels of light,
Fig. 1 Vertical and horizontal limits of reach.
KITCHENS
with a minimum of shadows, should be planned throughout the kitchen. Adequate daylight or artificial lighting makes the room more agreeable and attractive than a dark or poorly lighted room.
Ventilation
The kitchen should be well ventilated, with an exhaust fan to remove objectionable kitchen odors.
Safety
Burns, scalds, falls, and explosions should be "designed out" of the kitchen. Sharp corners, exposed handles, and control knobs on kitchen equipment should be avoided, and there should be safety catches on doors and drawers to limit the exploratory activities of young children.
Accessibility
There should be easy access to front and back doors, laundry area, telephone, and bathroom.
Decoration
Color, texture, and decoration should be used to create an atmosphere that is attractive, cheerful, and restful.
OTHER KITCHEN ACTIVITIES
Nonworking areas
Nonworking areas should be segregated from working areas. Avoid interruption of work areas by breakfast nooks, general storage closets, rest areas, and other areas not essential to normal food preparation activities.
Eating facilities
Most families want to eat some meals in the kitchen. Provision should be made for this, if possible, even if a separate dining room is also provided.
Child's play
In younger families, especially, there is likely to be one or more children who want to be near their mother. Provision should be made for a play area out from underfoot, but where adequate supervision is possible. Storage space should be provided for toys and games.
Infant care
It is a well-known fact that many kitchens are used for care of infants. If provision is not made in the bathroom for infant care and related supplies, then it should be made in the kitchen.
Grooming
Washing hands and some personal grooming frequently take place in the
29


Residential
KITCHENS
at each of the four centers. These lists represent the storage space requirements for the averoge family, but they may be adapted to the needs of particular families. The storage space dimensions are based on the most recent information available.
KITCHEN ARRANGEMENT
The relative location of work centers should permit a continuity of kitchen activities as follows: (1) Storage (gathering materials needed for the performance of the task); (2) Cleaning and mixing (or initial preparation); (3) Cooking; (4) Serving, or storing for future use; and (5) Cleaning up. (See Fig. 5.)
In principle, any plan that interrupts this continuity with doors, or with nonworking areas or facilities, is faulty because extra steps are required every time the gap is crossed, and, consequently, convenience and working efficiency are reduced.
The actual plan may be U-shaped or L-shaped, or it may be of the corridor type.
The "U" arrangement affords the most compact work area. Frequently, however, this arrangement is impossible to achieve because of the necessity of having a door on one of the three walls. The resulting "Broken U" arrangement still permits compactness, but traffic is allowed through the area. Therefore, special consideration should be given to the arrangement of the work centers in order to minimize the effect of through traffic.
The "l" arrangement is ideally suited where space along two walls is sufficient to accommodate all of the necessary work areas. This arrangement has the advantage of concentrating the work area in one corner, thus minimizing travel, but it has the disadvantage of necessitating longer trips to the extremities of the "L."
The "Corridor" arrangement is satisfactory where doors are necessary at each end of the space. This arrangement frequently has the advantage of the parallel walls being closer together than in the typical "U," but the disadvantage of a greater distance along the corridor.
An important factor in determining the location of specific work areas within any of these over-all arrangements is frequency of use, which in Fig. 6 is expressed as the percentage of trips to and from each area.
Figures 7-9 provide floor plans illustrating some possible arrangements of the basic work centers within each of the plan types. If the space for the kitchen is already established, the number of possible satisfactory arrangements obviously will be limited. If the space is being planned,
however, greater choice of arrangements is possible. In either event, the advantage of a shorter distance between some related areas must be balanced against the resulting increase in distance between other related areas. An end-to-end alignment or a right-angle arrangement between areas of close relationship con eliminate trips and reduce the over-all travel distances. Functional relationships between key work centers are, of course, accommodated more ideally in some of the plans than others.
FHA REQUIREMENTS FOR KITCHEN
STORAGE 1
Total shelf area: 50 sq ft minimum; not
1From Minimum'Property Standards for One and Two Living Units, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D.C. (Revised, July 1959).
less than 20 sq ft in either wall or base cabinets.
Total countertop area: 11 sq ft minimum. Total drawer area: 11 sq ft minimum. (If a 39-in. range is provided, it may be counted as 4 sq ft of base cabinet shelf area and 2 sq ft of countertop area.)
Wall shelving: 74 in. maximum height. Countertop: 38 in. maximum height, 30 in. minimum height.
Height between wall cabinets and counter-top: 24 in. minimum over range and sink, 15 in. minimum elsewhere. (Shelving may be closer if it does not project beyond a line drawn from the front edge of the wall cabinet at an angle of 60 deg to the bottom of the cabinet.)
Depth of shelving: wall shelving4 in. minimum, 18 in. maximum; base shelving
Table 2. Equipment and food supplies stored at sink center
In addition to the items listed below, allow space for hand tools (such as can opener, small vegetable brush, paring knives, rubber plate scraper), cleaning supplies (such as soap, soap powder, cleanser, paper towels), garbage and trash containers, and possibly a stool for sitting.
Number stored Storage space per item, in.*
Item Side Front
to to
Limited Liberal side back Height
Equipment
Dishpans, nested 2 2 16 Vj 18 V- 8
Dishdrainer 1 2 14 V. 18 V- 6
Double boiler 1 1 7Vl 12 ioV
Pressure saucepan 0 1 9 17 7V
Saucepan, 6-qt 0 2 10 V: 10 V- 9
Saucepan, 4-qt 1 1 9 11 7 V:
Saucepan, 3-qt 2 2 8/j 15 8
Saucepan, 2-qt 1 1 7 V.- 14 7
Saucepan, 1-qt 1 1 6V, 13 6
Colander 1 1 11 V- 13 6
Coffee pot, 6-cup 1 1 6V: 9 10
Dishtowels 8 12 12 11 5(8)
Handtowels 8 12 12 10 5(8)
Aprons 4 6 11 10 5(4)
Dishcloths 6 12 8 8 4(6)
Food supplies
Potatoes, lb 10 10 9 11 8
Onions, lb 3 3 9 7 8
Fruit, lb 3 3 9 7% 5
Lentils and peas, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3V- 5 9Vj
Dry beans, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3V- 5 8 Vj
Prunes, 1-lb pkg. 1 1 3 5 8
Canned food, No. 2 can 6 8 4 4 sVi
*Dimensions include clearance for handling.
tNumber in parentheses refers to number of items in stack for which storage space dimension is given.


Residential
KITCHENS
COUNTER

30

Space in front of drawer
Space for one worker
COUNTER
18"
SINK
Adjacent to sink
COUNTER

MINIMUM CLEARANCE WHEREVER TWO PEOPLE MAY BE WORKING AT SAME TIME
>. COUNTER

<3Ta
Fig. 4 Minimum clearanceshorizontal and vertical.
BASIC WORK AREAS
The work center concept, favorably supported by a great deal of research data from many sources, emphasizes the planning of the kitchen in terms of its major centers of activity. These work centers, in turn, are planned in terms of their constituent parts, their proper functions, and their ideal relationships, one to another. The actual design of the work centers will vary with the size and shape of space available in each project. Four work centers must be considered: sink, range, mix, and serve. In addition, there is the refrigerator (which functions as a closely related storage center) and the oven, if it is not an integral part of the range.
Each work center should have three components: (1) Adequate storage space for the various items used there; (2) Adequate counter space for the work to be accomplished; and (3) Necessary utilities and facilities, such as water at the sink, heat at the range, outlet and space for the mixer at the mix center, and adequate lighting at each center.
uip each work center for the storage of utensils, supplies, and dishes according to their frequency and order of use.
Tables 14 list the number of items and the space dimensions required for equipment and food supplies commonly stored
Table 1. Equipment and food su pplies stored at range center
Item Number stored Storage space per item, in.*
Limited Liberal Side to tide Front to back Height
Equipment
Potato masher i 1 3'A 13 4'A
Knives, forks, spoons 3 3 3'A 13 3
Frying pan, 10^-in. 1 1 11 17 % s'A
Frying pan, 9-in. 1 2 % 16 5
Frying pan, 6-in. 0 1 6 12 5
Pot lids 2 4 io 10 Vi 1
Potholders 4 8 7 7 2t
Food supplies
Rice, 1-lb pkg. i 1 2'A 4 6'A
Spaghetti, 1-lb pkg. i 1 2 n% 6
Coffee, 1-lb can 1 1 s'A s'A 4
Oatmeal, 3-lb box i 1 6 6 ii
Macaroni, 1-lb pkg. 1 1 2 5% 9
Tea, 8-oz pkg. i 1 2 'A 4'A 7
* Dimension of the item {including lid, if any) plus clearance for handling. tProvidis for stack of potholders.
31


Residential
BEDROOMS

5' tO USC
dresser ^2" for dressing
22"
on
one
side
of
bed
(c)
FURNITURE CLEARANCES
To assure adequate space for convenient use of furniture in the bedroom, not less than the following clearances should be observed (Figs. 2 and
3).
42 in at one side or foot of bed for dressing 6 in between side of bed and side of dresser or chest
36 in in front of dresser, closet, and chest of drawers
24 in for major circulation path (door to closet, etc.)
22 in on one side of bed for circulation 12 in on least used side of double bed. The least-used side of a single or twin bed con
be placed against the wall except in bedrooms for the elderly (Fig. 4).
* From "Monual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
FURNITURE ARRANGEMENTS
The location of doors and windows should permit alternate furniture arrangements.
(a)
12" beside double bed
(b)
Fig. 3 (a) Single-occupancy bedroom; (b) double-occupancy bedroom.*
24


Residential
BEDROOMS
11
1 1
36" to use \ closet mg
p 36" to use dresser 3" to
/h1
b 11

Fig. 4 Single-occupancy bedroom for elderly; there it a 12-in allowance to make the bed.*
Where at least two other sleeping spaces are provided, a dormitory is sometimes preferred by larger families (Fig. 5).*
* From "Manual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
25


BATHROOMS
By GLENN H. BEYER AND ALEXANDER KIRA, Housing Research Center, Cornell University
BATHROOMS
Activities commonly performed in the bathroom include washing of hands, face, and hair, bathing, elimination, and grooming, and also such activities as hand laundering and infant care. Often it is also used as a dressing room. Major problems in bathroom design include planning for optimum convenience and privacy of all bathroom functions for all members of the household, adequate provision for storage of supplies and equipment, and ease of cleaning.
Some general planning guides are as follows1 :
Arrangement
Facilities should be conveniently arranged, with special attention given to clearances. The room arrangement should
'Many of these suggestions are by courtesy of the American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation.
permit more than one family member to use its facilities at the same time (Fig. 8).
Illumination
Lighting should be adequate for all of the activities performed. For grooming, direct sources of light are essential in order to illuminate the face from all angles. High strip windows, clerestory windows, and skylights provide excellent over-all illumination in the daytime, while still affording privacy. Luminous ceilings are also effective, particularly in interior bathrooms.
Ventilation
Good ventilation is essential in bathrooms, both to reduce humidity and to dispel odors. If a window is relied upon as the sole means of ventilation, care should be taken in its selection and placement to minimize drafts and to permit easy access. Exhaust fans in the wall or ceiling are often used to supplement natural ventilation. In interior bathroom spaces, a mechanical exhaust is, of course, essential.
Sound control
Lack of acoustical privacy is one of the most common complaints with regard to bathrooms. Noise can be reduced by proper placement of the bathroom in relation to other spaces, by the use of closets and storage walls as sound barriers between it and adjacent spaces, as well as by the use of soundproof partitions and tightly fitted doors. Acoustical treatment of the ceiling makes the room more comfortable to use and reduces somewhat the amount of sound transmitted through the walls. Acoustical tiles for use in the bathroom should be moisture resistant and easily cleaned.
Auxiliary heat
A heat lamp or a radiant wall panel can be used to provide quick warmth in the bathroom.
Materials
It is essential that all surface materials used in the bathroom have moisture-resistant finishes.
Fig. 1. Fixture clearances (dimensions in inches)
48


Residential
BATHROOMS
Storage
Adequate storoge should be provided for current and reserve supplies. Articles in current use should be located near their ploce of first use. A closet opening from the bathroom and hallway or laundry is convenient for such items os bathroom linen and cleaning supplies. Medicine cabinets should be os large os possible since increasing numbers of toiletries and medicines ore being used by American families. Hamper space is desiroble for soiled linen and clothes. Install a cabinet with a self-contained hamper, or, in two*story houses, install a chute from the second floor to the laundry. The minimum requirements for storage of bathroom linens, based on recent research, ore shown in Table 3.
Increased countertop space
Larger lavatories and increased counter-top surfaces provide excellent facilities for light laundry, hair washing, and bathing and dressing the baby.
Children's convenience
Children's height should be considered in the placement of accessory equipment. A dental lavatory can double as a child's lavatory. If a combination lavatory-dressing table is installed, a step-up retractable stool should be provided for children's use.
Mirrors
An atmosphere of luxury and spaciousness is created by mirrors. A full-length mirror is always desirable. Also recommended is a medicine cabinet with a three-way combination of mirrored doors on either side and a mirror in the center.
Safety features
Grab bars should be used vertically fc bathtub and shower and should be located for convenient use. They should be of adequate size and securely fostened to sturdy backing or studs. Use nonskid finishes for flooring. Install a door lock thot opens automatically from the inside, and from the outside in case of emergency. Locote light switches out of reach of the bathtub or showerpreferably just outside the bathroom. Electric or radiant heaters should be recessed or protected. Provide a lock for medicine compartments.
Drying facilities and accessories
Add extra racks for drying women's hose and other light laundry. Racks may be concealed in well-ventilated cabinets, which, if desired, may include a receptacle for a low-wattage light bulb to facilitate drying. Sufficient robe hooks, bag hooks,
Table 1. Space required at the lavatory and bathtub
See Fi(j. 1 atid 2 for illustration of dimensions.
Dimension
Space required, in.
Adequate Minimum FHA minimum
Lavatory
Width:
Center axis to adjacent wall 22 20 15
Side edge to side of adjacent tub - 2
Depth:
Front edge to opposite woll 36 34 21
If not a traffic lane 30 -
Front edge to opposite tub 30 24 21
Horizontal clearance from front edge of lavatory to 171 { - -
front edge of shelf 9-15 in. above lavatory
Mirror:
Height above floortop 74 69
bottom (5-ft adult) 48 54 (max.) -
(3V-ft child) - 36 (max.) -
Bathtub
Side of tub to opposite wall 34 30 -
Table 2. Space required at the toilet
Adapted from Bathroom Working Spaces, Monroe, Randall, and Bartlett, Report 82, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station (1959); Minimum Property Standards, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D.C. (revised, July 1959). See Fig. 1 for illustration of dimensions.
Space required, in.
Dimension i Adequate Person 2 Persons1 Minimum FHA minimum
Width:
Center axis to adjacent wall 18 22 16 15
If wall projects not more than 12 in. - - - 12
Center axis to side of lovatory 18 14 16 - 15
in. deep, or less
Lovatory over 18 in. deep 16 18 14 15
Center axis to side of tub 18 18 16 15
Center axis to end of tub 16 18 16 12
Depth:
Front edge to opposite wall 30 34 21
Front edge to opposite tub 24 - - 21
Front edge to opposite lavatory 30 30 24
Sparc required for one -person to assist another at the toilet (dimensions not shown in
Fig. 1).
and toothbrush holders should also be provided.
Accessibility
A bathroom should generally be accessible to eoch bedroom without requiring passage through another room. A bathroom is desirable neor principal indoor living, work, and play areas, and for guest use.
BASIC DIMENSIONS
Space is required not only for the use of particular fixtures but also between fixtures for cleaning purposes and for assisting another person (such os a small child or elderly adult). These last two factors are often completely overlooked. For economy of space, required clearances for each fixture may sometimes overlap (Fig. 8).
49


Residential
BATHROOMS
Recent reseoreh hos provided some rec ommendotions for the space required around the three bosic fixtures: lavatory, toilet, and bathtub ond shower. The bosic clearances are given in Tables 1 and 2 ond Figs. 1-3.
Miscellaneous activities
In planning the bathroom, the designer should remember that families with infants usually prefer to bathe them in the bathroom. The lock of adequate space has. in the past, caused many families to use the kitchen, which obviously is less appropriate for this activity than the bath. The minimum space needed to bathe and dress on infant is 1 ft 6^ j in. deep by 4 ft 11 in. wide by 3 ft high.
In addition, other important activities are often performed in the bathroom. Most women, at least occasionally, launder small items in the bathroom, and provision for this should be made. Many adults, and children, like to use the bathroom for dressing. Since this requires a considerable amount of space, it should be provided only when requested.
ARRANGEMENT
Bathrooms can be classified into four categories: (1) The conventional three-fixture bath; (2) The larger, compartmented bath; (3) The lavatory or "guest" bath; ond (4) The "utility" both.
Three-fixture bath: The conventional three-fixture bath without separate compartments has traditionally been designed for the occupancy and use of one individual at a time. This type of bath, with combination tub-shower, averages about 40 sq ft of floor space (Fig. 5).
Compartmented both. To avoid the excessive humidity common in the usual three-fixture bath, tub and shower may be located in a separate compartment, with or without an additional lavatory. This plan also affords greater privacy for use of the toilet. Separate doors, possibly with a small #ntry, are desirable. Connecting doors between compartments ore also possible but are not recommended os the only means of access (Figs. 6 and 7).
Another variation is to make the toilet a seporate compartment, offording complete privocy. In even the minimum-sized bath of this type there is generally room for an additional lavatory, and the bath proper is often enlarged into a combination bathdressing room. Dressing tobies may be a combination of lavatory ond table or individual fixtures. In the latter case, tobies should be sufficiently for from lavatories to prevent damage from splashing water.
Table 3. Minimum dimensions for storage of bathroom linens, in eluding allowance for handling
Adapted from Storage Requirements for Household Textiles, .4. Wind rich, M. M. White, and M. A. Richards, Agricultural Research Bulletin (i* J,
l .S. 1 lurtnu nt of Agriculture, Washington, lKC. (1955).
Minimum dimensions, in.
Item Number Width Depth Height
A* B i
Bath towels;
Everyday use 12 24 10 12 10
Guest use 6 12 10 12 10
Hand towels:
Everyday use 10 7 14 12 10
Guest use 8 10 14 7 5
Wash cloths:
Everyday use 12 16 8 6 4
Guest use 6 8 7 6 4
*For storage on fixed slu ices. tFor storage in drawers or on movable shelves.
Table 4. Sizes of accessories for tiling*
Item
Dimensions, in.
12,6 9x6 6x6 3x6 3x3 8/,.x4'/4 4* 14x4]
Toilet-paper holders
Combination holders for soap, toothbrush,
and tumbler
Separate holders for soap, toothbrush, and
tumbler Bases for towel bars, shelf brackets, door stops, and hooks Grab bars and soap or sponge holders
*Somc toilet-paper holders are 6X10 in. Radiant heaters are 15 X15 in. or larger.
A still greater expansion of this plan provides a separate dressing room and connecting bath, with a compartment for the toilet. The required floor space ranges from 110 to 140 sq ft.
In all plans for baths, showers should be included, either as stalls or over tubs.
Guest bath: The lavatory, or two-fixture "guest" both, for living portions of residences may vary in size and appointments from a minimum area of about 14 sq ft to rooms of 22 to 25 sq ft or larger when a dressing table is included (Fig. 4).
Utility bath: The "utility" bath provides an area larger than the minimum size required for the three basic fixtures, for other functions, such os laundering.
DOORS AND WINDOWS
Bathroom doors can be as small as 2 ft wide, except for utility bathrooms, for which doors should be not less thon 2 ft
4 in. wide to permit passage of equipment os required. In general, bathrooms should contain only one door.
Door swings should be arranged so that:
(1) The door cannot strike any person using any fixture; (2) The door will shield or conceal the toilet; and (3) The door may be left fully open for ventilation in warm weather.
Customarily, doors swing into the bathroom. If hall areas are sufficiently lorge, doors to small bathrooms can sometimes be designed to swing out. In-swinging doors should be set to clear towel-bars or radiators. Sliding doors are frequently desirable, as space sovers, between various comportments within the bathroom.
The shape ond position of bathroom windows is important from the standpoint of light, ventilation, and privocy. Gen erolly, the higher the window, the better. Preferred locations include: cleor wall space reserved for portable equipment, space
50


Residential
BATHROOMS
>
over a dressing table, and space above or on either side of the lavatory. Windows should not be placed over the bathtub unless they are of the casement or awning type opened by a crank. A window behind the toilet is seldom desirable. Skylights may be used to serve top-floor bathrooms if they are large enough to provide adequate light and ventilation. Inside bathrooms without exterior windows are sometimes used but require a dependable system of exhaust ventilation by natural or mechanical means, and greater artificial lighting in lieu of natural light.
ACCESSORIES
The medicine cabinet should be related in size to the type of bathroom or toilet. For guest baths or toilets, space is needed only for dentifrices, shaving accessories, toilet preparations, and a few simple remedies. A bath serving several bedrooms may require a complete supply of medicines in addition to the items mentioned above. Every bathroom should have a storage closet for cleaning utensils and supplies and for reserve stocks of toilet paper, towels, and sundries.
Floor space should be left in every bathroom for portable accessories desired by the owner or needed on occasion for the care of infonts or invalids. Also consider allowing space for such items as scales, stool or seat, infant's bath and dressing table (portable type requires about 3 by 4 ft of floor space in wse), soiled-linen hamper, exercise devices, dressing table or vanity with bench, and ultra-violet radiation equipment.
Towel bars should be ample in number
and length to serve the needs of each member of the family regularly using the bathroom, or of guests likely to use its facilities, before supplies can be replenished. For each person regularly using the bathroom, there should be separate bar space for bath towel, face towel, and face cloth, as well as an additional rack for guest towels.
Linen storage may consist of towel cabinets recessed in the thickness of plumbing walls (either over fixtures 6r as full height cabinets) or may be expanded into complete linen closets. Dressing-room baths may include completely fitted wardrobes. (See Table 3.)
Minimum-sized bathrooms and toi'ets require special planning to ensure ade-
quate wall space for essential accessories (Table 4).
56
BEDROOM


Commercial
RETAIL SHOPS
By MURRAY S. COHEN, AIA, Architect
GENERAL
People love to look, window-shop, and buy. Shopping as an experience should provide fun, which in turn provides profits. A successful store or shopj is one that is designed to merchandise in addition to looking good. A store can be divided into two principal parts: the exterior, which gives identification, encompasses the storefront, show windows, and displays. and the interior, where the promise of the storefront display is delivered. Briefly stated, the storefront initiates the sale, and the interior consummates it.
The storefront and the design of the facade must be attractive in order to catch the shoppers' attention and to draw the customers in from the street or from the mall in shopping centers. Graphic identification, with bold color, lighting, lettering, and logos, and attractive display of merchandise are the initial steps
In enclosed malls, the glass-enclosed show windows are often eliminated or minimized. The "show window" displays are set up in a large vestibule, perhaps elevated or on portable platforms, and become part of the interior. Hence the demarcation between the exterior and the interior is not physical, rather the two are integrated, and it is difficult to define where one ends and the other begins. This is particularly true in enclosed shopping malls The open or no front generally promotes more impulse buying; department stores will often make their entrances an extension of the mall so that the shopper will be easily enticed into the store. When doors are used, either on the street or on the mall, they should be well marked and easy to find. Entrance to the interior should be easy, related to interior traffic flow and layout, and should be accessible to vertical transportation, if any.
PRINCIPLES OF RETAIL SHOP DESIGN
In order to design satisfactory shops, the first requirement is an understanding of those portions of current merchandising theories which affect the design problem. Briefly, "merchandising psychology" consists of, first, arousing interest, second, satisfying it.
With staple goods the first phase is almost automatic. When nonstaples, accessories, or specialties other than demand goods are to be sold, methods of arousing interest may become more complex.
The second phase the actual sale involves factors of convenience which are desirable in order to make buying easy, to satisfy customers completely, and to achieve economy of space and time for the store management.
Both phases affect the design of retail shops, and are closely interrelated In some cases the planning problems involved cannot be segregated. A more detailed listing of steps in the merchandising process, as they affect shop design, follows.
Attracting Customers
This can be accomplished by means of advertising. prices, show-window displays, or new
or remodeled quarters, which occupies much of a merchant s efforts. Of these, storefronts and display windows are important to the store designer.
Inducing Entrance
Show windows, in addition to attracting passersby, should induce them to enter the store. Show windows may be opened up to display the shop's interior; or closed in, to give privacy to customers within. Door locations require study in relation to pedestrian traffic flow, grades of sidewalks and store floors, and interior layout of the shop. In colder climates drafts and outdoor temperature changes can be controlled at the door.
Organizing Store Spaces
Organizing store spaces, and consequently the merchandise to be sold, into departments, enables customers to find objects easily, and permits storekeepers to keep close check on profits or losses from various types of goods. Store lighting and "dressing" are simplified. Even small shops benefit from a measure of departmentalization; in large shops, the practice becomes essential as methods of training salespeople, of handling, controlling, and wrapping stock become more complex.
Interior Displays
Interior displays require particular attention in specialty shops. Types range from displays of staple goods which assist customers in selection, to displays of accessories which the sale of staples may suggest to the customer. Problems of arrangement with regard to merchandise, departments, and routes of customers' approach are involved.
Relief from the repeated impact of merchandise sales efforts and displays is necessary in most shops. Experienced salespeople can tell at a glance the customer who is satiated with shopping and too bewildered to buy After
he has been refreshed by a brief rest, the customer s interest can be recaptured quickly. Such relaxation may be mental or physical, or both.
Conveniences
Conveniences intended primarily for the customers benefit, while not strictly allied to the problems of attracting trade or selling goods, are necessary to some types of shops A florist, for instance, provides a card-writing desk or counter in his shop. In other shop types, particularly those whose prices are above the average, such extra provisions are often highly desirable. Conveniences of this kind include: telephone booths, drinking fountains, lavatories or powder rooms, desks for writing cards or checks, stools or chairs at counters or in special sales rooms, and vanity tables or triplicate mirrors for certain types of apparel fitting rooms
In regard to finishes and equipment, the idea may be extended to include: floor surfacing for comfort; acoustic treatment of ceilings and possibly walls; illumination of pleasant, sometimes special, quality, and air conditioning. All these have been found profitable investments in various cases. Their necessity or desirability depends to an extent on the type of shop, its location, or the climate of the locality.
INTERIORS
The successful retail shop is an efficient selling machine or sales factory. In addition to servicing the customers, the employees have to be considered so they can give better service to the customer.
Merchandise and space must be organized to help the customer in making a selection and to help the sales person in selling. Easy circulation and exposing the customer to the maximum amount of merchandise are part of good design. Avoid monotony in circulation and dis-
LEGEND.
Drmand or Convenience Impulse, or
staple goods items luxury, goods
czzzi rzzz: urn
Fig. 1 Principles of shop design. Merchandise is located according to classification: staple goods are unobtrusively yet accessibly placed; luxury items are spotted where the prospective customer cannot help but be attracted to them. White counter areas are allocated to services: cashier, wrapper, information, otc.
730


Commercial
RETAIL SHOPS
play of meichhndiM* Where possible, do not hesitate to be bold or even shochnrj This stimulates the ruKtomp end hie urge to buy
The locetion end design of the cashier and wrapping unit are important and provide for several persons to be Serviced Often this acts os a control center.
Flexibility so that fixtures and departments can be moved or modified is part of present-day merchandising Fixtures should be minimized and merchandise emphasized. Design and use fixtures so that full attention is thrown on the merchandise. Surveys must be made for each particular type of store, its merchandise, operation, and personnel to determine actual sizes and requirements Do not design fixtures so that a salesperson hfrs to reach merchandise on too high a shelf or stoop too low
Determine what customer accessories ore required: seating in general, counters, tables, mirrors, telephones, drinking fountains, rest rooms, special lighting, and floor coverings. Accessories will vary, depending on the store s location and the type of customer, as well as the nature of the merchandise.
Location of stock rooms, or of reserves, must be carefully considered so that the salesperson does not have to leave a customer for too long a period
Fitting and dressing rooms should be located conveniently near the item being sold.
Selling Areas
Departmentalization Benefits to be derived from segregation of merchandise by types have been touched upon previously. All these are factors in decreasing the average time per sale, an important figure jn large-store accounting and in small stores with rush periods (Fig 1).
Within each department, and as a guide when relating departments to each other and to the path of the typical customer through the store, merchandise and services can be analyzed by classification. Most objects can be placed in one of the following classes, relating them to the needs of customers:
Impulse, or luxury, goods are high-profit articles, usually (but not necessarily) high in price.
Convenience items are stocked for the passerby who happens in, but who may return for other purchases if properly impressed. Often these are not in themselves strictly profitable merchandise
Demand goods are also staples, like conveniences, but are articles which the customer starts out with a definite idea of purchasing. These attract him to the store and he buys them other goods must be sold to him.
These classifications necessarily overlap; but, in a shop whose type of customer can be forecast, divisions along some such lines are possible. Signs are not always necessary; each department may be designated by display of typical articles as a kind of poster.
Customer Flow The accompanying diagrams based upon analyses of traffic indicate the possibility of organizing departments in relation to the flow of customers through the store.
Interest in articles on display was found to be inversely proportional to the number displayed after a low limit had been reached. A central location in a group seemed to lead to increased interest in a picture. One important conclusion is that what a customer sees is more influenced by the arrangement of the space and the walking habits of customers, than by the intrinsic quality of the objects exhibited. Tendencies to turn to the right, to be attracted by doorways, to choose the wider of
two aisles, and to be fatigued by too much material on display ate all of utmost importance 1o the store planner.
Store services must also be analyzed in relation to customer flow.
SeH Service Operators of large stores have found that self-service speeds up selling. For that reason their stock is easily accessible to the shopper Often, too, customers insist upon handling merchandise, and are more easily sold when they can get these first-hand impressions. As a result, many stores have abandoned the selling-over-the-counter plan, which decreases free sales space, and rely upon open wall fixtures, wall displays, and display tables whenever possible
In direct contrast to thi6 type is the exclusive shop which keeps its stock in closed fixtures or in the stockroom, permitting selection of merchandise only by sample displays. Some specialty shops work entirely on this basis-
Shop Sizes These are far from standardized. However, as determined by real estate values, and merchandising, structural, fixture, and aisle space requirements, shops with one customer's aisle only are usually 1 2 to 1 5 ft wide by 50 to 60 ft long in large cities; and 15 to 18 ft. wide by 60 to 80 ft long in smaller cities. These dimensions apply particularly to shops in 100 percent retail districts.
Heights are more easily determined. Basements 8 to 9 ft high, in the clear, permit economical stock storage. Ground floors are preferably approximately 1 2 ft high if no mezzanine is included; mezzanines at least 7 ft 6 in. above floor level will accommodate most fixture heights. Height from mezzanine floor to ceiling may be as low as 6 ft 6 in. if used for service space only; 7 ft is the preferred minimum for public use.
Typical Counter and Case Layouts
Center Island Type illustrated. L = 13 ft avg. min.; IV = 9 ft 6 in. to 13 ft. Islands composed of showcases only. L = 10 ft min.; W = 5 ft 10 in. to 6 ft 3 in. For floor tables. L 4 to 7 ft; W 2 ft 6 in. to 3 ft.
Aisle Widths For clerks, min. = 1 ft 8 in.; desirable, 2 ft to 2 ft 3 in. For main public aisles, min. 4 ft 6 in.; avg., 5 ft 6 in. to 7 ft, usual max., 1 1 ft. Secondary public aisles, 3 ft to 3 ft
6 in.
See Figs. 2 and 3.
Displays
The segregation of displays in areas specifically designed for the purpose, and in locations selected with respect to entrances and customer traffic flow, is easily accomplished in departmentalized store planning (Fig. 4).
Display Surfaces Locating display surfaces perpendicular to the line of entrance may result in angular plans, or in the use of screens or freestanding display cases, as indicated in the diagram. Locations for display niches, alcoves, etc., may depend on space requirements of the various shop departments and upon the relationship to customer flow lines.
In a shop, "architecture" is preferably secondary in importance to the merchandise displayed This does not mean that every inch of space must be crowded with goods "on display," because such practice causes loss of customer interest.
Scale An important factor in display is the relation between the possible viewing distance
and the scale of the merchandise. Thus a stairway side wall or narrow passage is suited for small scale display only. Vistas, on the other hand, and displays opposite doorways, have more carrying power and consequently can be bolder. Vistas, or a sense of perspective, can also be created by lighting emphasis When a lighted display is placed at the rear wall under a mezzanine space which is slightly darker than the store proper, a spatial relationship is set up which depends more upon the relative intensities of light than upon actual distance It is possible to dramatize objects on display, to make them stand apart from their neighbors and in this way suggest that they ere more desirable. On the other hand, it is not always best to separate costly and inexpensive objects. Low-priced merchandise may often be sold by contrast with high-priced objects, and vice versa. Choice of method depends to an extent on the problem under consideration.
Accessible zones, rather than low or high displays, are particularly valuable in self-service portions of the shop. Just as show-window bulkheads are rising and glass heights decreasing, so the fixtures inside the store are bringing merchandise within reach and concentrating it for emphasis.
Show Windows These are designed primarily with the effect upon potential customers in mind; ease in changing displays is also important. Windows must be "dressed quickly; if they are hard to work with, they will not be changed as often as merchandising policies indicate to be necessary. Variety and timeliness of displays are considered essential.
The diagrams in Fig 5 illustrate one set of principles whose use increases the value of displays. The same principles may be applied to horizontal planning; the 1 shadow-box' type of window, with limited display space, is considered most effective by display designers. In conjunction with these, it should be noted that bulkhead heights tend to increase as the size of objects displayed decreases, to permit more minute examination of merchandise.
Glazing of types which do not interfere with vision will materially increase the show window's value. Patented systems, which eliminate reflections, are available; 60 are types of glass suited to special conditions, such as heat-resisting glass
Window backs may be closed or open, depending on the type of shop and the degree of customer privacy desired. When backs are open, confusion of display and &hop interior may be avoided by using temporary or permanent screens or panels as backgrounds.
Window dressing may be done in full public view in certain types of shops, as jewelry or gift shops. In other cases, Venetian blinds or other types of glass curtains may be required. Apparent size of glass area may be changed to accommodate varying displays by using variable valances and side-pieces.
Storage space is required for display accessories, forms, blocks, platforms, panel backgrounds, and seasonal changes of floor pads or carpets.
Ease of window dressing may be aided in several ways. Access panels should be large enough for easy passage for men and materials. Access passages, segregated from the shop's interior, may be provided Dummy windows may be provided, sometimes on rolling platforms.
Show Window Lighting In many stores other than specialty shops, light intensities have been increased far above requirements for ordinary vision, in an effort to overcome reflections.
731


Commerciol
RETAIL SHOPS
Show Windows
l OtiV! HI 0 UGHllNG IV T tlRC S. MAI PROJI CT INTO VII WING ANGLE
MN PH Af T 1C At Cl I AR A NC I I OR CONC.f At l l> L IOH 1 INu
WAX PRAl. IlCAl Ml AC l OC-A I I ON X

MiN PRACTICAL HI Al' l OCATIONt
CONClAl E D LIGHTING ..**
OPTIMUM V i F WING PLANES TOR LOCATING OBJECT DISPLAY OVERALL DEPTH
EYE l E VEL ^ .-f y>' 01 EFFECTIVE DISPLAY
s' j" frum 'o'' I 1 AREA DEPENDS ON SIZE
SIDE WALK OF OBJECTS AND TYPE OF
u, , jj. BACKGROUND
r" i? i: h - V \
Sidewalk line
4
FIN 1st FLOOR
t A
*1-*
I I i -
IF

T
FIN. 1st FL CEILING
OPTIMUM^
VIEWING PLANE c'v.\-
i/1T
finish
mezzanine
FLOOR
Fig. 5 Determining optimum show-window depths. Within a 60 cone, the overoge human eye sees comfortably, without appreciable physical effort. Optimum viewing planes are those in which objects on display con be seen in their entirety without causing the eye to oncompass ores greater thon 60 Diagram 1 illustrates a graphic method of determining optimum viewing planes for given bulkhead heights. Diagram 2 shows the application of these principles to second-floor windows; sight lines are limited by practicable window dimensions. Diagram 3 extends basic principles to include both basement and first-floor levels, seen through one window.
735


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
By LENDAL H KOTSCHEVAR and MARGARET E. TERRELL
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Adequacy of space will influence building and operating costs and efficiency. When space is too small, labor time and effort are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costs are excessive.
Decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and available space. Ample space is sometimes provided by means of low-cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life. In other instances, space is restricted to a point where it prohibits profitable volume or the best utilization of labor. Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of (1) proposed permanence of the facility. (2) acuteness of need for the specific operation. (3) essentials for operating efficiency. (4) desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation, and good quality of production and service, and (5) immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance.
Facts peculiar to the particular establishment should be used as the basis for determining space needs Requirements will vary for facilities of a given type and volume. Location; type of operation; clientele, frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the completeness of processing to be done will cause variation in production and storage requirements. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information, such as numbers to be served, turnover, arrival rate, and type of service, will be helpful in deciding dining area needs
Study is required to clarify immediate and future needs in food production. Choices should be made between meat cutting or portion-ready meats, a baking section or use of commercially baked products, and the use of unprocessed versus processed foods. If enlargement is probable, studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost, will be helpful.
It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of: (1) volume and type of service, (2) amount and size of equipment to be used, (3) number of workers required, (4) space for needed supplies, and (S) suitable traffic area. The dining area location and space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections as required to these. Planners should be careful in accepting general space recommendations. There are many variations
Food Sorvico Panning. John Wiley & Sons, N.-w York. 1907
Dining Area
Space for dining areas i6 usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.
Space Requirements The patron's size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 sq ft for a type of service in which an adult would need 12 sq ft for comfort A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10 sq ft per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant as much as 20 sq ft. The amount of serving equipment in the dining area and lineup space will influence needs Lost space must be considered.
The diner s comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people. It is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters than by adults. It is more acceptable in low-cost, quick-service units than in those featuring leisurely dining. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room and enough 6pace so that dishes of food and beverage are not crowded. Place settings for adults usually allow 24 in. and for children 18 to 20 in. (Table 1).
TABLE 1 Square Feet per Seat Used for Various Types of Food Operations
Type of operation Square feet per seat
Cafeteria, commercial..................... 16-18
Cafeteria, college and
industrial.............................. 12-15
Cafeteria, school lunchroom. . 9-12
College residence,
table service........................... 12-15
Counter service........................... 18-20
Table service, hotel.
club restaurant......................... 15-18.
Table service,
minimum eating.......................... 11-14
Banquet, minimum.......................... 10-11______
All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting areas, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will, however, increase needs. Structural features of the room should be considered. Width and length of the room, table and chair sizes, and seating arrangements affect capacity.
Service stations mBy be estimated in the proportion of one small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50 to 60 places. The advisability of having a central serving station will be influenced by the distance of the dining area from the serving area. It is of special value when production and dining are on different floors. Plumbing and wiring and whether supplies are delivered mechanically will influence location of the stations Small substations for silver, dishes, napery, bever-
ages, ice, butter, and condiments may measure 20 to 24 in. square and 36 to 38 in. high. The size of central stations varies from that for a small enclosed room to that of a screened section measuring approximately 8 to 10 ft long by 27 to 30 in. wide by 6 to 7 ft high.
Tabla size will influence patron comfort and efficient utilization of space. In a cafeteria, for example, where patrons may dine on their trays, it i6 important that the table be of adequate size to accommodate the number of trays likely to be there. Four trays 14 by 18 in. fit better on a table 48 in. square than on a table 36 or 42 in. square. Small tables, such as 24 or 30 in. square, are economical for seating but are uncomfortable for large people. They are only suitable in crowded areas for fast turnover and light meals Tables having common width and height allowing them to be fitted together will give flexibility in seating arrangements. These are particularly good for banquette or cocktail-type bench seating along a wall. Tables for booths are difficult for waitresses to serve if they are longer than 4 ft. The width of booths including seats and table is commonly 5/4 ft. A lunch counter will have a minimum width of 16 in. and a maximum width of 24 to 30 in. The linear feet are calculated on the basis of 20 to 24 in. per seat. The maximum area best served by one waitress is generally 16 ft of counter. This will give eight to ten seats. U-shaped counters make maximum use of space and reduce travel. Space in depth of 8/4 to 11 ft will be required for every linear foot of counter. This will provide 3 to 4 ft of public aisle, 2'/, ft for aisle space for employees. A width of 4/4 ft is-desirable where employees must pass.
Calculate aisle space between tables and chairs to include passage area and that occupied by the person seated at the table. A minimum passage area is 18 in. between chairs and, including chair ares, tables should be spaced 4 to 5 ft apart. Aisles on which bus carts or other mobile equipment is to be moved should be sized according to the width of such equipment.
The best utilization of space can often be arrived at through the use of templates or scaled models Diagonal arrangement of square tables utilizes space better than square arrangement and yields a more trouble-free traffic lane. Lanes that pass between backs of chairs are likely to be blocked when guests arise or are being seated.
Table heights in schools should be chosen for the comfort of children. In units patronized by many grades a compromise height will be needed between the 30 in. normally used for adults and the 24 in. suitable for children, or two sizes may be used in different sections of the room. A table length to seat four, six, or eight is preferable to longer ones.
Number of Persons Allowance The number of persons to be seated at one time is the second point of information needed for calculation of the dining room size. The total number of seats required at one time, multiplied by the space required for each seat, will give the total number of square feet needed in the
755


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
dining area The number of times a seat is occupied during a given period is commonly referred to as 'turnover." The turnover per hour, times the number of seats available, gives the total number of patrons who can be served in an hour. If peak loads, or number to be served at one time, are known, the number of seats required can be estimated.
Turnover rates tend to vary, for they are influenced by such factors as the amount of food eaten, the elaborateness of the service, and the diner's time allowance. A breakfast meal of few foods may be eaten more quickly than dinner, and a simple fare faster than a many-course meal. Turnover is quickest in dining rooms where food has been prepared in advance for fast service and where patrons serve themselves and bus their soiled dishes. The turnover time is speeded up 10 percent by patrons removing their soiled dishes so that tables are quickly available for other guests. Deluxe service for leisure dining, involving removal and placement of several courses, takes the longest time. Although specific turnover may vary from 10 minutes to 2 hours, actuai eating time is normally 10 to 15 minutes for breakfast, 1 5 to 20 minutes for lunch, and 30 to 40 minutes for dinner.
The calculation of occupancy of seats in a dining room must take into consideration a certain percentage of vacancy, except where a given number are seated at one time according to assignment. In table-service dining rooms this has been estimated as 20 percent of total capacity, in cafeterias from 12 to 18 percent, and for counter operations 10 to 12 percent. Many factors influence this percentage, such as patrons arriving at different times, irregular rate of turnover, and reluctance to share a table with strangers.
The table sizes used in the dining room will affect occupancy. It is often desirable to provide for groups varying from two to eight, with a predominance in most dining rooms of those for two people. The deuces" may be of a size and shape that can be put together to form tables for larger groups. In metropolitan areas where many tend to dine alone, wall bench-type seating and tables for two with a center ridge or line denoting space for one have been used successfully. Chairs with a "tablet-arm" that will hold a tray have been used for fast turnover in crowded areas.
The utilization of seating capacity tends to be greater for cafeterias than for table service. The patron may spend 25 to 50 percent of the time while seated at the table waiting for service. The cafeteria diner may begin eating as soon as he is seated. One cafeteria line can serve four to eight patrons per minute depending on (1) the speed of the servers, (2) the elaborateness of food selection, (3) convenience of the layout, and (4) the type of patrons At these rates, 240 to 480 patrons will need to be seated within an hour. If the turnover rate is two per hour, then from 120 to 240 seats will be used. However, if 15 percent of the total capacity at the peak period remains unfilled, then between 140 and 280 seats will be required An additional 14 to 28 seats or 10 percent would be needed if the patrons do not bus their soiled dishes.
Patronage estimates for facilities of different types may be guided by the number of persons in residence, enrollments in a school, an industry's payroll, the membership of a club, or the amount of traffic in an office or shopping area. In each case a certain percentage may normally be expected to dine in the facility provided. The percentage will be influenced by such factors as its location in relation to other facilities, the patron's buying power,
the price plan (on the basis of subsidy or profit), patron a mealtime allowance, and convenience of the location.
The patronage estimate for a college cafeteria should take into consideration the number of students who live at home, are members of a live-in group, such as an organized house, and the number of other dining facilities available on or near the campus. A college residence providing table service may have to allow a seating capacity that is 1 10 percent of occupancy if a policy exists for having "special guest" occasions and seating all at one time.
An industrial lunchroom may serve as few as 25 percent and as many as 90 percent of the payroll. Clues to probable patronage may be drawn from such factors as nearness to other eating facilities, wage rates, type of work, prices to be charged, convenience, quality, and attractiveness. The attitude of management toward the lunchroom may affect patronage also. Pride in providing a good service for the industrial family as opposed to a take-it-or-leave-it attitude tends to win favorable response.
The size of a dining room in a hospital should be determined as to whether it is to be used for employees, patients, or guests, or any combination of these. The type of hospital and the number of ambulatory patients should also be considered. The type of hospital will also influence the number of personnel employed. The ratio of personnel to patients will vary from 1 to 3, depending on how much special care is required or how much teaching and research are done. Good food and reasonable prices will attract a high percentage of those eligible to eat in the facility.
School lunch participation varies 25 to 75 percent and a good percentage for planning is 60 to 75 percent of enrollment. Where prices are low, the food good, meal selections appealing, and the food service carefully integrated with the educational program, the percentage will be high.
Banquet seating requires planning because maximum seating potential means maximum profits. Folding tables 30 in. wide are popular. These are obtained in varying lengths, but 72 and 96 in. are commonly used. The spacing for the legs should be such as to allow for comfortable seating when the tables are joined end to end and place settings are laid on 24-in. centers.
Restaurant operators should consider space in relation to patronage volume essential for a profitable business. Labor, food, and operating costs must be met and a profit realized that covers risk-bearing effort expended and return on investment. Essential income is weighed in the light of probable patronage and probable average check The number of seats provided in planning must cover this need.
Flexibility in seating capacity is often desirable. People do not like to be crowded nor do they enjoy the lonely experience of being seated in a huge area occupied by only a few. Sparse patronage creates an impression of poor popularity. Separate rooms. folding doors, screens, or other attractive devices can be used to reduce size of an area during slack periods. Sections left open should be those easiest to serve. Balconies, back rooms, or other less desirable space can often be used for overflow numbers that occasionally require service.
A common experience in many dining room operations is the need for more seating at one meal than at others This may be due either to increased numbers or different turnover rates A residence cafeteria serving
600 men has an overflow room seating 100, which it uses only at dinner. The night meal is not only larger but the men dine in a more leisurely fashion. The room is available for serving other groups at breakfast and lunch
Commercial restaurants located in shopping or office areas often have a heavier demand at noon than at the dinner hour. Rooms used for general patronage at noon may be closed at night or provide space for private dinner parties. Entrances to these rooms should not require passage through the main dining room. Convenience for special service is important
Production Areas
A frequently used rule for allotting space for the kitchen is that it should be one-third to one-half the area of the dining room. It has been found unsatisfactory, however, to go by a set space allowance for this area. Detailed study of space allocations leads to the conclusion that percentages in relation to the dining area are "completely unrealistic and unreliable." An analysis of specific needs is required. Many factors influence space requirements, such as:
1. Type of preparation and service
2. Amount of the total production done in the unit
3. Volume in terms of the number of meals served
4. Variety of foods offered in the menu
5. Elaborateness of preparation and service
6. Amount of individual service given, as in a hospital tray service
7. Seating and service plan, whether on one floor or many
The cost of providing space, equipment, and labor is sufficient to merit careful calculation of the best type of operation before planning. New products on the market, new cooking methods, and new equipment available should be evaluated. The use of preprocessed products in many metropolitan areas has made a pronounced change in the amount of space allotted for bake shop, meat cutting, and vegetable preparation areas. Where portion-cut meats are readily available, it is questionable whether even a large establishment can afford to equip and provide skilled labor for a butcher shop. The use of large quantities of frozen foods affects storage needs. The cost and quality of market products, their availability, and the frequency of deliveries are all to be considered.
Variety in menu selection and elaboration of foods tend to increase space needs in work areas and storage. Small amounts of numerous items do not permit stacking and bulk packaging. Elaboration of food often involves individual portion treatment, with individual casseroles, for example, as compared to bulk steam table pans. A hospital food service requiring many special diets serves as a common example of menu variety and individual portion treatment imposing special space requirements.
The equipment provided will affect the space needs. Garbage and refuse, for example, may require a sizable area for storage awaiting pickup. Disposal units for food garbage, incinerator for burnable refuse, and a crusher for tin cans will greatly reduce the amount to be held Frequency of garbage collection will minimize the space needs.
Structural features of the building may influence the utilization of space. The shape of the kitchen, location of ventilation and elevator shafts, support columns and partitions should be considered in relation to an efficient layout for work The location of entrances and
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exits tor a pood flow of traffic, window place ment. suitable space, and relationship of sec tions need consideration Eliminate partitions whenever possible, this will reduce space needs and also permit easiei supervision of production areas
Kitchens serving a smaller number require a larger square footacp- pei meal than those serving a largei number. The following data used for industrial cafeterias show the rate at which space needs per meal tend to decrease as the number served increases (Table 2).
TABLE 2 Variation in Space Needs in Relation to Numbers Served
Meal load Squaie feet per meal Variation in SQuare feet
100-200 5 00 500-1.000
200-400 4 00 800-1.600
400-600 3 50 1.400-2.800
800-1.300 3 00 2.400-3.900
1,300-2.000 2 50 3.250-5.000
2,000-3,000 2 00 4,000-6.000
3.000-5,000 1.86 6,500-9.250
Planners are often asked to make estimates of space needs before having an opportunity to make policies or detailed plans for operations. Figures that will be found useful in making such estimates are given in Table 3. These figures pertain to average kitchen areas found in different types of food facilities Their use i6 to be regarded as tentative and to be measured carefully in terms of specific needs The square footage given is to be multiplied by the maximum number of meals estimated per hour of service, in order to find the total space requirement-
After production policies have been established, work areas may be blocked out in terms of the equipment needs and the number of workers required to do the work in a section Linear space, depths, and heights for work centers should be controlled in terms of average human measurements. This will include the reach to and grasp of material or equipment used in working. The length and width of the work table is adjusted in terms of the amount and size of equipment that will rest on it during the progress of work. The linear measurement will vary in terms of the number of workers using it at one time
The width of the table may be 24 to 30 in. unless dishes or food containers are to rest at the back of the table Tables 36 in. wide are preferable when the back of the area is used for such storage Where two workers work opposite each other, a table 42 in. wide may be used A work area of 4 to 6 lin ft will be within convenient reach of the average person. Tables 8 to 10 ft long are used if two people are working
side by sub- A height of 34 in., commonly used he a working height, should be evaluated in teims of specific woik done and equipment used
Aisle space should permit free, easy movement of essential traffic The minimum width for a lane between equipment where one person works alone is 36 and 42 in. where more than one is employed and where workers must pass each other in the progress of work. Where mobile equipment is used, 48 to 54 in. are recommended. At least 60 in. are needed for main traffic lanes where workers regularly pass each othei witli mobile equipment. If workers or equipment must stand in the lane while working, appropriate space should be allowed for this. Thought should be given to space for doors opening into an ai6le and for handling large pieces of equipment, such as roasting pans, baking sheets, and stock pots.
Main thoroughfares should not pass through work centers. Compactness i6 essential for 6tep-saving. It is well for the work centers to be in close proximity to main traffic lanes, with easy access to them. It is important both to avoid distraction from outsiders passing through work centers end to conserve space. Work centers at right angles to traffic lanes are efficient (Fig. 1).
The percentage of floor area covered by equipment varies according to production needs and the type of equipment used A satisfactory layout may claim less than 30 percent of total space for equipment while work areas, traffic lanes, and space around equipment for easy operation and cleaning may require 70 percent or more.
For hospital production and service areas, 20 to 30 sq ft per bed is suggested The need is reduced as the number of beds increases approximately 30 sq ft per bed for a 50-bed, and 20 sq ft per bed for a 200-bed hospital. Thi6 allowance does not include major storage areas, dining rooms, employee facilities, or floor serving pantries.
Serving Areas
Space allowance of serving areas should be adapted to the needs of the specific facility. The menu, organization of work, and number served will influence size. The type of service will also be influential in dictating space needed.
In cafeterias the counter length should be regulated by the variety and volume. Excess space partially filled is unattractive, but crowding is also undesirable An estimate that may be used for allotting width i6 14 ft. This allows for 4 ft as patron lane space, 1 ft tray slide, 2 ft counter width, 4ft for workers, and Z'/j ft for back bar. The size of the tray should dictate the width of the tray slide. The average length of counters in college residence halls and hospitals is found to be 30 to 32 ft, while those
in school lunchrooms average around 15 to 20 fi Some commercial cafeteria counters may be 70 to 8(> ft long, but counters over 50 ft long are frequently considered inefficient. Twenty feet is usually thought of as a minimum but, under special conditions and where a limited menu is served, 6 to 8 ft may be sufficient-The trend is toward shorter counters with mobile serving units or dish holders 6et at right angles to the counter. Smoother service and greater 6peed are achieved Counter height may be set at comfortable levels for workers and patrons. Schools may have lower counters so that children may see the food and push their trays along a slide as they are served. For little folk. 28 to 30 in is desirable, with counters narrow so that servers may reach over to assist a child. A solid tray slide tends to result in fewer accidents than those made of bars or tubing Plastic trays measuring 9 by 12 in., compartmented, and of pastel colors are popular. Slides for these may be on the servers side of the counter for ease of service and to eliminate spillage or accidents The child picks up the completed service at the end of the line.
Some planners use. as a rough guide, one counter or line for every 250 to 300 patrons served, but arrival rate, speed of service, and turnover are more reliable factors to consider in establishing the number of lines required.
Hospital service space will depend upon whether central or floor service i6 used, trays are set up in serving pantries, and modified diets are set up in line or in a diet kitchen. Space must be allowed for bulk food trucks, tray trucks, small tray carts, or special dispensing units used.
Short-order units where food moves directly from production to the consumer require the least service space. The need for an intermediate station is eliminated Step-saving compactness 68ves space. The units requiring the most space Bre those furnishing elaborate or highly individualized service.
Receiving and Storage Areas
Space allocation for receiving and storage must be based on specific needs. The volume and type of items received and stored should be considered Although the average operation may find a dock 8 ft deep and 1 2 ft long sufficient for receiving items, this would not be sufficient for a large one. The space requirement in square feet for food storage for 30 days has been calculated by some as approximately one half the total served or, if 1,000 are served, 500 sq ft may be used as a tentative figure for total food storage needs. Cases of 6/10s stacked 6 cases high on flat trucks will have a bearing weight of approximately 250 to 300 lb per sq ft Skid sizes should be 3 by 2'/ ft by 8 to 12 in. high. Where heavy items, such as 10-gal cans of milk, are stored, bearing weights may be increased One case of 6/10 s, 24/2/£'s. or 24/2 6 weighs approximately 50 lb end occupies 1 cu ft.
Common Storage The volume of canned food needed to serve 100 persons three meals daily for one month is estimated at approximately 45 cases of 6/10 s or equivalent. The maximum stack height will be 8 or 9 cases or approximately 72 in. Accessibility of items that differ, as well as volume, will govern the number of stacks needed A total of 3 cu ft per stack is estimated to include floor apace covered by a case of canned food, plus a share of aiale apace. One thousand cases piled sight high in 125 stacks will require 375 sq ft or a storage area approximately 20 by 20 ft- Storeroom aisles may be as narrow as 36 in., but 42 or 48
TABLE 3 Square Feel of Kitchen Space per Meal for Food Facilities of Different Type and Site
Estimated maximum meals per hour
Type of facility 200 or less 200-400 400-800 800-1,300 1,300-7,500
Cafeterias................... 7.5-5 0 5 0-4.0 4.0-3 5 3 5-3.0 3.0-1 8
Hospitals.................... 18.0-4 5 12.0-4.5 11.0-4 5 10.0-4.0 8.0-4 0
Hotels ...................... 18.0-4.0 7 5-3.0 6 0-3 0 4.0-3.0 4 0-3 0
Industrial lunchrooms........ 7.5-5 0 4 0-3.2 3.5-2.0 3.0-2 0 2.5-1.7
lunch counters............... 7.5-2.0 2.0-1.5
Railroad dining car.......... 1.6
Restaurants (service)........ 7.0-4 0 5 0-3 6 5.0-3 6 5 0-3 0 5 0-3 0
School lunchrooms 4 0-3 3 3 3-2 2 3 0-2 0 2 5-1 6 2 0-1 6
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RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
in. are preferred. Wider aisles may be required if trucks are used. A 3-ft skid on a hydraulic jack needs maneuvering room. If rolling bine or garbage cans on dollies are used for storage, plan location for these. If cans or bins are under shelves, adjust height of bottom shelf to clear and allow for work space for removing food from these containers. Fixed shelving will be best when planned to suit the sizes of items stored. Consider both interspace and depth suitable. Condiment bottles, cereal packages, and canned goods differ in package sizes and in stacking quality The depth of a shelf should accommodate either the width or length of the case, and the interspace should be adequate for the number to be stacked one on top of another. Allow 1 % to 2 in. as free space for ease of positioning. Add thickness of shelving to interspace when stating measurements between centers.
Position heavy items to reduce lifting and facilitate dispensing. Drums of oil and vinegar should have spigots and be equipped with pumps or located on cradles. Table surface and scales should be located for convenient issuing of dry stores Plan to have all products at least 6 in. above the floor or movable to facilitate cleaning of storage area. Limit height of top shelf for easy reach without aid of stool or stepladder. The average vertical reach of
men is 84% in. and of women 81 in. Use of the top shelf for light, bulky packages, such as cereal, is recommended.
Refrigerated and Low-Temperature Storage There are many factors affecting space needs for refrigerated and low-temperature foods. Across-the-board figures generally should be used only in preliminary estimates. The quantity stored at one time will dictate the storage needs. Variation in the type of storage also will be indicated by the types of items to be stored. Allocation in preliminary planning may be as follows: 20 to 35 percent for meat (portion-ready meats require % to '/, less space than carcass or wholesale cuts); 30 to 35 percent for fruits and vegetables; 20 to 25 percent for dairy products, including those in serving areas; 10 to 25 percent for frozen foods; and 5 to 10 percent for carry-over foods, salads, sandwich material, and bakery products. A requirement of 1 5 to 20 cu ft of refrigeration per 100 complete meals has also been used by some planners. Others state 1 to 1% cu ft of usable refrigerator space should be provided for every three meals served. Analysis of a number of award-winning installations indicated that approximately 0.25 to 0.50 cu ft of refrigerated walk-in space was provided per meal served, and frozen walk-in space approxi-
mated 0.1 to 0.3 cu ft per meal served. Additional low-temperature or refrigerated space in terms of reach-ms was not calculated. In some climates, refrigerated space must be provided for dried fruits, nuts, cereals, and other foods to prevent weevil and insect infestation.
A walk-in becomes feasible for an operation serving 300 to 400 meals per day, and refrigerated pass-throughs can be added when from 400 to 500 meals are served per day. A walk-in 5 to 6 ft wide does not permit storage on both sides with adequate aisle space. Storage space of 1 % to 2 ft should be allowed on either side of the aisle. If crates or cases are stored, this may have to be increased. Aisles of 30 in. are usually too narrow; 42 in. are desirable. If mobile equipment is moved in and out, aisles may have to be wider. Walk-ins that are 8 to 9 ft wide and about 10 ft long are minimum size. This allows for two storage areas 30 in. wide with a 3 to 4 ft aisle. If added width is desired for storage space in the center, allowance for storage areas of about 3 ft wide and 42 in. minimum aisles should be provided. Large walk-ins may be designed for lift truck operation, with doors opening from the receiving dock on one side and into the kitchen opposite. If this is done and lift trucks are used, space must be provided in storage aisles for their working and turning around. Doors should be a minimum of 42 in. wide to admit large crates and containers or be sized to suit mobile equipment. Doors to low-temperature areas are most often planned to open into a refrigerated area. If this is not done a heating device may have to be installed on a door opening into a warm area to prevent its freezing tight from condensation. About 12 to 15 sq ft must be kept free for every door opening. About 45 lb of frozen food, if stacked in cases, can be stored per cubic foot. About 30 to 35 lb of refrigerated food can be stored per cubic foot.
Sanitation Areas
Dishwashing Area The space required for the dishwashing operation depends on the methods and equipment used. In all instances there must be adequate room to receive the volume of soiled dishes likely to arrive at any one time, plus space for scraping, stacking, and placing in baskets on a conveyor of a machine or into a prerinsing operation. The dimensions may be only 30 to 36 in. for a single tank machine, 60 to 72 in. for sinks, or 7 to over 30 ft for a conveyor-type machine. The requirements in the clean dish area will vary. It is important that there be enough space for dishes to be exposed to air for sufficient time to air-dry before stacking. For a basket-type machine, it is well to allow space equal to that required for three baskets, a stack of trays, and three or four stacks of dishes. For basket machines, it is usually recommended that the clean dish area occupy 66 percent of the total table space and the soiled dish area, 40 percent.
Methods used for transporting and storing dishes will influence space needs. Where mobile storage equipment is used, more space is needed for the several units than where one cart is used for transporting and is repeatedly loaded and unloaded. A table surface is desirable for sorting, treating, or inspecting silver and other tableware. The installation of a domestic washer and drier in the dishroom may require space.
Pot and Pan Section Provide a soiled utensil collection area adequate for the largest volume that normally arrives in the section at one time. The busiest periods are likely to occur when preparation containers are emptied for service
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uuiiiiimiuiai
OFFICES, GENERAL
By FRANK MEMOLI
CORE LOCATION Central (Interior)
This location has a number of advantages. It allows all window space to be utilized as rentable office space and depending upon the configuration of the building plan will permit offices of varying depths to receive natural light. The central location is also extremely convenient in terms of access and in some cases may be equidistant for all sides. This simplifies area division and provides good flexibility of tenant distribution in the same way. Horizontal utility runs may also be relatively equidistant from the core. Combined with a square building plan, bearing exterior, and core walls this location permits a floor plan free of columns and thus totally flexible for office layout.
While this core location has definite advantages, it also has some drawbacks. One disadvantage is that the central interior location limits the depth of offices in the midzone of each floor, thus affecting the element of flexibility in office layout. Another floor-area-consuming characteristic of this core is that it requires an access corridor around its perimeter.
Off-Center (Interior)
Like the central-interior core, the off-center interior core permits all window or building perimeter space to be used for offices. However, it presents somewhat more flexibility in maximum depth and arrangement of spaces. This can be particularly desirable where large open spaces such as secretarial or clerical pools are required. It also affords the opportunity of developing small secluded spaces in the relatively narrow portion of the floor plan where the core is closest to the exterior walls.
This core location may present some problems of access. Because it is off-center, it is somewhat remote and thus less convenient to the far sides and corners of the building. If there is multiple-tenant occupancy on any given floor, a long access corridor will be required as will be a perimeter corridor around the core itself. The off-center location may also lessen flexibility of tenant distribution.
Split (Interior)
The principal advantage of a split core is that it virtually eliminates the need for a peripheral corridor on the core. Access to this core is from the area between its split elements and not from the area around its edges This permits more flexibility of floor-area division, leaving even the area immediately adjacent to the core available for office space. Depending on the width of the access space in the center of the core, this space may be put to different uses on different floors. At the ground, or entry, level this area can become a lobby, while on floors where elevators do not stop this space can be used for additional office space
Exterior
Unlike the three interior core locations discussed. the primary advantage of an exterior core arrangement is that it leaves the entire floor area of the building available for tenant use. In addition, the core does not complicate the floor plan either functionally or structurally. With this type of arrangement, maximum flexibility is achieved with respect to tenant distribution, office depth, and layout. Since the core creates a dead wall or portion thereof, it may be used as a buffer between the building and an adjoining property which may have objectionable characteristics. Location on the outside of the building also permits the core to act as a point of transition between one building and another of possibly different scale.
Some problems are also created by placing the core on the outside of a building. The primary drawback is that, in the case of multitenant occupancy, the core requires a long access corridor lessening flexibility of tenant distribution. In addition, the core occupies desirable window space so that the offices immediately adjacent to the core may not receive any natural light.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES Work Flow
The relationship of individuals, as determined by operating procedures, must be the governing factor in any layout. The development of a layout which conforms to and complements the predominant work flow requirements of an office is perhaps the most important phase of space planning. By the systematic study of the operations, processes, and procedures involved in individual (or group) tasks, the planner can assist management by providing work station patterns which ensure a smooth, straight-line flow of work. It should be understood that space planning does not conflict with or overlap the field of methods and systems analysis. The role of the space planner is to gain a knowledge of the functions, as developed. and to translate them into the best space layout possible within the limitations imposed by building characteristics, fiscal allotments, etc
Straight-Line Principle In a well-planned office, paper goes from one desk to another with the least amount of handling, traveling, and delay. Work should progress in a series of straight lines with a general forward movement, avoiding criss-cross motion and backward flow. When the layout is being developed, the flow pattern can be traced from desk to desk. Caution must be exercised, however, since the straight-line work principle cannot be adapted to all activities, particularly those headquarter or departmental offices whose staff activities do not lend themselves to assembly-line processing.
GtiuJu for S/);n:n Pl.tnmncj A L.tyout, Conor.il Sorviros Administration Putiln: Buildings Sor vii o Washington O C
Work Stations
All work stations, whether in a private office or in open space, are reduced to units of furniture and equipment See Fig 1 for the work stations most frequently used. The basic unit of work stations are desks and there*ore require the most consideration. The following general rules are applicable in positioning desks:
1. Desks should face the same direction unless there is a compelling functional reason to do otherwise. The use of this technique provides for straight work flow patterns, facilitates communications, and creates a neat and attractive appearance.
2. In open area, consideration should be given to placing desks in rows of two. This method will permit the use of bank-type partitions as a divider for those activities which require visual privacy while still obtaining maximum utilization.
3. Desks should be spaced at a distance of 6 ft from the front of a desk to the desk behind it. This distance should be increased to 7 ft when desks are in rows of two, ingress and egress is confined to one side of the aisle, or in instances where more than two desks side by side cannot be avoided.
4 In private offices the desk should be positioned to afford the occupant a view of the door.
5. In open work areas the supervisor should be located adjacent to the receptionist or secretary. Access to supervisory work stations should not be through the work area.
6. Desks of employees having considerable visitor contact should be located near the office entrance. Conversely, desks of employees doing classified work should be away from entrances.
"Executive Core" Concept
Most new building designs produce a block-type structure which is well lighted and air conditioned, and which is divided by a few access corridors radiating from a central service core. This type of construction permits development of space plans based on the "Executive Core" concept. This concept, or technique, places all or a majority of the private offices in the core area and allocates space along the building perimeter for others. It has proved very satisfactory in many cases where it has been used and has potential in most new buildings in which large, or relatively large, groups of lower echelon" employees will be housed.
This concept arises from the premise that employees performing routine tasks which keep them at their desks almost the entire work day require the psychological advantages of window space. On the other hand, supervisors and executives are frequently called upon to leave their offices for meetings, supervisory tours, etc and interior offices, if properly designed and decorated, are completely acceptable for them. Also, the occupants of private offices generally receive the greatest number of visitors; in fact, the need to receive many visitors is perhaps the justification most fre-qutmtly given for private offices The location
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Commercial
OFFICES, GENERAL
of prrviite ofth s m the ( mi' fm ilitutes the halt <11 ii () f visiloi s it ltd kei'ps them Imiit t lit* gen-fial woik areas
Other Planning Considerations
The application of tht- following coitMcIcutlions will assist the space! planner to attain functional effectiveness in the final layout:
1 Employees performing close work should be in the best-lighted areas Glaring surfaces which affect vision should be identified and cor reefed
2. Clothes lockers in an office layout are out of date and wasteful. Large rooms or open areas should be provided with hanging space for coats and shelves for hats, packages, and other material. Space not suitable for work stations should be used whenever possible.
3. Heavy equipment generally should be placed against walls or columns in order to avoid floor overloading.
4 Be safety conscious. Do not obstruct exits, corridors, or stairways. Comply with fire safety codes governing aisles, exits, etc.
5. Where frequent interviews with the general public are required as in personnel offices, the use of interview cubicles should be considered Such cubicles need only be large enough for the interviewer, the applicant, and a small desk or table.
6. In operations which require employees to work away from their office, with only infrequent visits there to file reports, etc., consideration should be given to assigning two or more employees to each desk. Other considerations include the provision of 45*in. desks and the use of common work tables, with the assignment of file (tabinet drawers to each employee in which to keep papers, etc.
Private Offices
The private office i4 the most controversial problem facing the space planner. The assignment of private offiqes and the type of partitioning to be used are issues to be settled by top management acting on the advice and recommendations of the space planner. Private offices should be assigned primarily for functional reasons, i.e., nature of work, visitor traffic, or for security reasons. When private offices are provided, they should be only large enough for the occupant to conduct his normal business with a reasonable degree of dignity (Fig 2). The following are some of the factors requiring consideration prior to making the assignment:
Classification Grade The necessity for a private office cannot be directly related to the classification grade of the employee.
Supervisors in Open Space Supervisors who are working with their employees, rather than planning for them, should generally be in the same room or open space with them. The supervisor may be separated from the balance of his section by a distance of several feet which permits a degree of privacy.
Prestige A frequent justification for a private office is to impress visiting representatives of industry, and the general public, with the importance or dignity of the official being contacted. Recent studies of office planning in private industry tend to refute such a position. They show many highly paid employees housed in attractive open space. Moderately sized private offices are provided only for upper-echelon officials The offices of many top executives of large, nationally known companies ere less than 250 sq ft each The provision of a private office, or too large a private office, for a Gov
eminent official limy give tin- tnx|myeis an atlvei se impression
Security Requirements The space planner hems many reasons why people in Government need places where confidential discussions can be field and a variety of suggestions as to how this should be accomplished. The private office is the most popular, if not always the most practical, solution. The Federal establishment undoubtedly has a greater problem in this respect than many branches of business
In addition to the security requirements, the Government is faced with privacy situations involving investigative agencies and other activities which have occasion to inquire into ttie most confidential aspects of individuals' personal lives and the operations of business concerns There is no question as to these persons entitlement to reasonable privacy regardless of whether they are summoned to the office, appear voluntarily to render assistance, or avail themselves of services offered by the agency. There are alternatives, however, in determining the methods to be used to satisfy the various requirements.
Sizes of Private Offices It is desirable that private offices be a minimum of 100 sq ft and a maximum of 300 sq ft each in size, depending upon the requirements of the occupant. See sketches of most widely used private offices. Only in cases where it is necessary for the occupant to meet with delegations of 10 or more people at least once a day should the size approach 300 sq ft. For the average Government function, the private office should not exceed 200 sq ft.
Semiprivate OHices
The semiprivate office is a room, ranging in size from 150 to 400 sq ft. occupied by two or more individuals. These offices can be enclosed by ceiling-high, three-quarter-hinh. or bank-type partitions. Examples of semiprivate offices are shown Because of the loss of flexibility introduced by the use of the partitions required to enclose these offices, the same rigid review given private offices should be employed Generally, the need to house members of a work team or other groups of employees assigned to a common task is an acceptable justification for semiprivate accommodations.
General or Open Space
The following paragraphs describe some of the factors affecting good office layout in general or open space:
General "General office space" refers to an open area occupied by a number of employees, supervisors, furnishings, equipment, and circulation area. Large open areas permit flexibility and effective utilization, aid office communications, provide better light and ventilation, reduce space requirements, make possible better flow of work, simplify supervision. end eliminate partition costs. In many cases, however, open-space housing for more than 50 persons should be subdivided either by use of file cabinets, shelving, railing, or low bank-type partitions.
Open-Area Work Stations The space allocated to these work stations is based on the furniture and equipment necessary to perform the work assigned as well a& on circulation area The space assigned to any specific work station may be increased due to special furniture and equipment requirements associated with the particular position.
Circulation
This is tin- area required to conveniently permit ingress and egress to work stations. The size of an aisle should be governed by the amount of traffic it bears The following standards with regard to internal circulation will be applied in space planning surveys:
1. Aisles leading to main exits from areas which carry substantial traffic (main aisles) should be 60 in. wide.
2. Aisles which carry h moderate amount of traffic (intermediate aisles) should be 48 in wide.
3. Aisles between rows of desks (secondary aisles) should be approximately 36 in. wide.
Conference Requirements
Conferences, meetings, and assemblies are an important part of Government operations. Since there is no established standard suggesting the number of conference rooms based on the number of people, tire needs will vary widely among agencies or agency components, depending largely on the nature of their work. Whenever possible, the establishment of conference rooms should be based on need established from past records and experience, rather than on anticipated needs. Unnecessary conference space is often allowed because planning is not based on such records of demonstrated need. The space planner should always evaluate the utilization of existing conference rooms before recommending others (Fig 3).
Conference Space in Private Offices vs. the Conference Room Conferences are best conducted in space designed for that purpose. Conference space should not be provided in private offices In lieu of large offices, it is desirable to provide a conference room adjoining the office of a top official who holds a large number of conferences and nearby conference rooms for officials with more limited requirements Separate conference rooms permit maximum utilization through scheduling at an appropriate level of management. Where feasible, training and conference requirements should be pooled and conference space used as auxiliary office area for visitors.
Location of Conference Rooms The conference room should be centrally located to the users. Interior space, which is not the most desirable for office purposes, is well suited for conference use. This location eliminates outside distraction and the need for window coverings during visual presentations. Access to conference rooms should be through corridors or through reception areas.
Sizes of Conference Rooms Conference rooms should be designed to accommodate average but not maximum attendance. Extra chairs can be used to achieve additional seating See illustrations of preferred layout of conference rooms of various sizes.
Reception Areas and Visitor Control
Visitors receive their first impression of an organization from the decor and layout of the reception area, it should be attractive, neat, businesslike, and above all. adequate to accommodate normal visitor traffic. An allowance of 10 sq ft for each visitor to be served may be used for space allocation. For example, if space is required for a total of five visitors at any given time, a total of 50 sq ft should be used in planning the space. Size, decor, and equipment will depend largely on the type arid volume of visitor traffic; thus special
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Space
1. Convenience to the Public Those departments
having the greatest number of visitors should be located so that the visitors have a short, direct, and convenient route from the main entrance to the department sought. The sales, purchasing, and employment or personnel departments usually have the most visitors Convenient access is not only enjoyed by the visitors but it offers the least disturbance to the work of employees.
2. Flow of Work Departments having the closest working connections should be placed closest together. When this is done, the work flows with a minimum waste of time between operations Sales and advertising departments normally work together; so do the sales and credit departments, cost and payroll departments. When they are too far apart, unnecessary walking time is increased or the telephone switchboard or intercoms are overworked.
3. Equipment Used Some departmental operations require the use of special equipment requiring extensive wiring, plumbing, or ventilation equipment. Moving departments of this type requires expensive alterations. Obviously, two such departments should not be located together because of the difficulty of later expansion.
Some sections of a department may use noisy equipment. They may use teletypes, tabulating equipment, reproduction equipment, and similar specialized equipment. Typing and stenographic sections, because of their concentration, will produce a higher noise level than a similar number of machines scattered throughout the area. To minimize disturbance to the rest of the employees, these sections are commonly segregated into sound-treated rooms.
4. Centralized Functions Sections and facilities that serve the entire office should be centrally located and easily accessible to all who use them. Correspondence and stenographic pools, central files, cost accounting, and tabulating areexamples. Of course, rest rooms, water fountains. and supply cabinets should be provided in sufficient numbers and conveniently located.
5. Confidential Areas Certain functions of a business may be of a confidential nature that requires them to be isolated from others in the office and from the general public. Central files, the paymaster, the controller, and legal offices are examples.
6. Conference Rooms Conference and training rooms should be reasonably near those departments that use them the most If the office is air conditioned, the room can be in the interior of the space to eliminate the distraction of windows and to provide more wall display area.
7. Freight Elevators Departments receiving and delivering large quantities of materials should be located near the freight area for ease of handling, less time and labor, and less distraction of other workers Mail, stockroom, and machine departments are in this category.
8. Shipping Dock Shipping and receiving activities and mail rooms should obviously be near the point of entrance and exit of material.
9. Service Facilities Eating, medical, and lounge facilities are generally on the lower floors to reduce elevator traffic. The number and type of employees in a particular department might be considered in locating it near these facilities.
10. Passenger Elevators When an office occupies more than one floor, elevator service will be more effective when the departments with large clerical forces are on the lower floors.
The fundamental unit (module) for office space planning is the individual worker, seated at his or her desk or work station. The space allowance assigned to each worker can be either liberal or economical depending upon space limitations or the kind of atmosphere desired in the office
In larger offices where there are many routine jobs, space standards tend to be economical. Where the work is specialized, where there are many visitors, or where high morale is promoted, space assignment is apt to be more generous. Larger firms tend to be more economical than smaller ones, for the extra space means extra rental costs or more buildings. Smaller firms have fewer routing operations and tend to have more generous space allowances.
In the general office area, allotment of 100 sq ft per clerical worker is generally considered a liberal standard; 65 sq ft is an economical standard. Eighty square feet would be a reasonable average.
FIVE GUIDES FOR SPACE ALLOWANCES
Good space utilization does not necessarily mean allocating the least possible working space per person. On the contrary, too little working space may reduce the worker's efficiency and waste many times the savings made by any reduction in the square-foot rental costs. Good space utilization, in its broad meaning, allots more space to those positions whose activity justifies it, and reduces the space where there is a surplus
There is no accurate scale of space allowances which will make layout planning automatic. We can give you here, however, some guidelines which have been established from a large number of surveys made of offices, both commercial and governmental. These suggestions will help you make a broad estimate of your space requirements or will serve as a check against your own utilization of space.
We can break down the types of space required in the typical office into five categories as follows:
1. Office space
2. File space
3. Special equipment
4. Storage space
5. Special rooms
Let s discuss these five space categories separately.
Office Space Allowance
The following typical allowances include space for departmental aisles, space to move about, space for occasional visitors and consultation, rest rooms, fountains, special files, general office equipment, bookcases, and coat racks. It does not include main aisles, corridors, or the space covered by the other four space categories.
Square feet
Top executive . 400-600
Junior executives 100-200
Supervisors 80-100
Operator at 60 in desk 55
Operator at 55 in desk 50
Operator at 50 in desk 45
Operators are assumed to be at desks side by side, two in a row Add space for file and side chair if needed
The use of L-shaped furniture for work stations will give more surface room than the standard desks, but the floor spaca will be roughly equivalent when the width is the same as desks above.
File Space Allowance
The actual space taken up by a file cabinet and its open drawer is easily measured. It is difficult to estimate how much should be added to these measurements for working area until decisions are made on arrangement of the filing area
In general, each open file cabinet will require the following space allowance without consideration of any working area in front of the open drawer:
Square feet
Standard letter file....................... 6
Standard legal file........................ 7
Side opening letter file........................ 6y,
Side-opening legal file........................ 7'/,
Special Equipment Allowance
Certain special types of office machines require more space than normally allowed in an estimate based on the average clerk or typist position. Any space taken up by the following equipment and their operators should be added to that considered for the regular office space.
1. Tabulating equipment
2. Duplicating equipment
3. Telephone switchboard
4. Teletype equipment
5. Time clock space
6. Other special equipment
Storage Space Allowance
Storage requirements depend on the nature of the firm's work, its age, and the inclination of the administration to retain records. Here are some storage space requirements which should be considered:
1. Vaults
2. Stockrooms
3. Transfer files
4. Shelving
5. Janitor supplies and equipment
6. Stock rooms
7. Coat rooms
Special Rooms Allowance
Depending on the type of business, offices will require rooms of a size matched to their use. These will include:
1 Reception room 2. Waiting room
3 Interviewing room
4 Examination room
5. Conference room
6. Exhibit room
7. Medical room
8. Lunchroom
9 Employee lounge 10. Rest room 1 1. Mail room
The more common rooms will have the following typical space allotments, based on their use by I 5 people.
Square feet
Rpception room 400
Waiting or interviewing mom 200
Conference room 500
Add appr oximately 10 h| ft for each additional person to be provided for
797


Commercial
By JOSEPH KLEIMAN, Aichitert. Freidin, Kleimjtit, Kellehtti, New York, N Y.
DESK P-VENSiONS
D[ SKS
DOUBLE
pedestal
SlNGL e
PEDESTAL
RETURNS
FOR EXECUTIVE DESK RE TURNS ARE AVAILABLE A SAME HEIGHT AS DESK
^ ;STANOARC| RANGE STANDARD RANGE STANDARD RANGE
D; 2 -6 |2-0"- 3-3 2-0'-3-3 i 3 t-e-'
H H 2-K" |2-42-6" 2-5' 2-4 :-t" 2 2 2-1-2-3
l! 5-0 '4-6"- 7-0" 5'-O 3 -9 7-C 3-0" 0-0- S'-O"
DESKS-SINGLE OR DOUBLE PEDESTAL WORK TABLES ARE or SIMILAR DIMENSIONS FOR EXECUTIVE DESKS WITH RETURNS. RETURNS ARE AVAILABLE AT THE SAME HEIGHT AS THE DESK SURFACE A MINIMUM CLEAR WIDTH OF 22" SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR KNEE ROOM, 24' IS NORMAL
OFFICES, GENERAL
Planning
1 BOX
1 File
TRAY BOx
6 TRAY
3 BOX
VARIOUS drawer arramgements for pedesta.s
a
ARTIST ANO DRAFTING desks or tables
pedestals for secretarial RETURNS WILL BE REDUCED IN height THE EQUIVALENT OF ONE PENCIL DRAWER
STANDARD SIZE ENGINEERING OR ARCHITECTURAL.
DRAFTING TABLES ARE
37 Vz" x 4 3'/! D 60'- 72"- 84" W x 37" H.
Fig. 4 Office planning: desks sires
Lw4 i- d-4
secretarial chair
3-
00
i- W4 i D -i-
SWIVEL armchair
RIGID ARMCHAIR


a
i....
i..........i
LOUNGE CHAIR
L-w4
fal
- d-4
STACK CHAIR
-U4
4-d4
DRAFTING STOOL
4-0-4
SIDE CHAIR
- W
SOFA
CHAIR DIMENSIONS
SECRETARIAL SWIVEL ARMCHAIR RIGID ARMCHAIR STACK CHAIR RIGID AND ADJUSTABLE DRAFTING STOOL SIDE CHAIR
STD. RANGE STD RANGE STD RANGE STD RANGE STD RANGE STD RANGE
1-5" l-4" -1'- 8" 2'-4" 1- 8-2'-6" 1-10' l'-6"-2'-3" t'-9" 1-6"-1-11" 1' -6 1- 5-2-O' l'-8" 1- 4"-2 0*
v-rW 1-6- 2'-0" 2'-3" 1-8-2-6" 1-10 l'-7-2-8" l'-9" V-7'-l'-1Cf l'-8" l'-6"-2'-Cf I'-ICf i'-6-2'-e"
2' 6" 2-5V-10" 2'-9" 2-6" 3-0" 2-6" 2-4,;-2-10' 2'-6" 2-4-2-9' 3-0 2-11-3-6'' 2-6" 2-4-2-10"
l'-5" 1-4- 1-8' 1-5" 1-4-1- 10" 1-6 l'-4-l'-7" 1-5' 1-5-1-6" 2'- 4" 1-5-2-10" 1*-6" 1-5-1'- 7"
LOUNGE CHAIR AND SOFA DIMENSIONS
LOUNGE CHAIR
STD RANGE
2-6" 2'-6"-3'-4'
2-7" 2'-2"-3'-4"
2-6' 2-1-J-4"
l'-3" 1-0-1- 6'
SOFA
D, H AND H, SIMILAR
2SEATS-5-0-6-7 3SE ATS-6- 0-7 -6" 4 SEATS-7-8-9'-0"
Fig 6 Office planning: Mating met


Commercial
OFFICES, GENERAL
Planning
typical vertical file and
OVERT ILE STORAGE DIMENSIONS
typical lateral file and
OVERFILE STORAGE DIMENSIONS
TURERS WILt VARY SLIGHTLY
FILES
STORAGE
UNITS
N LIEU OF OVERFILE
FILES
CABINET DIMENSIONS
depth T-6", t'-IO", 2-0"
WIDTH l'-6", 2'-0",3'-0'
HEIGHT 2-6", 3-6 5-6" 6-6"
0 0

SHELVING DIMENSIONS
DEPTH 6",9",l'-0",l'-3",1'-6" l-9",2' 0",2'-6",3'-6"
width 2-0", 2-6", 3'-0", 3'-6", 4 -0"
HEIGHTS AS DESIRED
STORAGE 4ND WARDROBE CABINETS
STORAGE AND LIBRARY SHELVING
FILES AND OVERFILE STORAGE
NOTE : SIMILAR AISLE CLEARANCES SHOULD BE APPLIED TO STORAGE OR BOOK SHELVING
Fig. 6 Office planning: files and storage sizes.
I
CENTER AlSl F
NOTES:
DIMENSIONS SHOWN ARE BASED ON 2'-6"<5'-0" DESKS
FOR PLANNING PURPOSES SECRETARIAL AND CLERICAL AREAS REQUIRE 45 TO 60 SO. FT. PER PERSON INCLUDING AISLES, ADD 10 TO 15 SQ FT FOR SIDE CHAIRS "BACK TO BACK" AND FACE TO FACE" PLACEMENT OF OESKS CAN SAVE SPACE BUT SHOULD BE AVOIDED IF POSSIBLE MULTIPLE-PERSON OFFICES ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THIS PAGE CAN APPLY TO MULTIPLE PERSON OFFICES
Fig. 7 Office planning: clearances for secretarial areas and general clerical offices.
20'-0" AVG
794
i


3_PERJL
GARMENT
oo o ro lorded O0
I 65"-72" 1 "J in
39 -48-60" 52"-60'
CLOSET
PfiNTRY
UNIT
PRIVATE PRIVATE
TOILET TOILET
Fig 8 Office planning: layouts for private offices.
Office layout is often based upon a module derived from standard furniture and equipment and the necessary clearances- For large general offices, the planning unit or module is based upon one desk and chair and is thus about 5 by 6 ft. Since this dimension is also satisfactory for aisles between rows of desks the module can be used to form a regular grid for the planning of large office areas (Fig.
9) .
In the layout of private offices the controlling factors are the minimum practical office layout with the wall and window design. A planning module of 4 to 5 ft works reasonably well for this purpose. With this module the smallest office (2 modules) would be 8 to 10 ft wide, and a convenient range of office sizes is provided in increments of one module (Fig
10) . If the exterior wall consists of continuous windows, one module in width, then the office widths are limited to even modules. If windows alternate with solid walls, then office widths do not have to be in even modules but may vary widely (Fig 11). This type of wall
design permits greater flexibility in office layout at the expense of less natural light in the offices
The planning module and the exterior wall module must be reconciled with the structural module or column bay If all these modules coincide, then the wall or window units adjacent to the column must be smaller than the intermediate units (Fig. 12a). If the wall units are kept uniform in size, then the planning module is interrupted by the column width (Fig. 12h). If the columns are set inside the walls, they do not interfere with the wall module but they create a serious limitation on the layout of private offices (Fig. 12c). If the columns are set outside the walls, then the planning module and the wall module are not affected by them (Fig 12d).
Column spacing most frequently used in multistory steel-framed office buildings is around 25 ft, center to center. Recent trend is toward larger spacing; 30 to 35 ft is not uncommon Flexibility of interior space is so important in office building design that the extra cost of clear span framing with the elimination of all interior columns is sometimes considered worthwhile; clear spans of 60 to 70 ft have been used
Commercial
OFFICES, GENERAL
Planning
Fig 9 Planning module for layout of general office space.
5 WINDOWS 20 25'
A WINDOWS IS* 20' r
3 WINDOWS 12-15'
2 WINDOWS 1
.-.c 1
-----0-------o-------o-------0-------o-------o-----
Fig. 10 Private office widths using a module of 4 to 5 ft with continuous windows.
MAXIMUM 12 15
M INI MUM
8'
(o) One-window office
MAXIMUM 20*25
MINIMUM I2"I5
(b) Two-window office Fig. 11 Private office widths using a module of 4 to 5
I M MM M M
(o) T
1 r D ^ X ^ *iS M A 1 X 1 M M M X 1
1 1 D M J. M J_ M __ M
<*>
J M M M M
T T
(d)
TT ~TT~
Note: all plans drawn with outside at bottom
Fig. 12 Relation of planning module and wall module to column spacing and location.
795


commercial
OFFICES, GENERAL
Planning; Landscaping
Efficiency of an office building design is measured by the ratio of rentable space to total space. Average efficiency is about 70 percent; maximum possible is about 85 percent. The non-rentable space consists of the elevators, stairs, and toilets and their associated lobbies, corridors, pipe and duct shafts, and janitors closets. These facilities are usually planned in a compact unit called the service core. For preliminary assumptions, the number of elevators required may be estimated on the basis of one elevator per 25,000 sq ft of rentable area. Elevator lobbies should be 6 to 9 ft wide if elevators are on one side only; 10 to 12 ft if elevators are on both sides. Corridors are usually 5 to 6 ft wide (Fig. 13), wider if very long, narrower if very short.
Fig. 13 Corridoi width based on requirements of human figures.
Since the floor space within 25 to 30 ft from the exterior wall brings premium rentals, office buildings (site or zoning consideration aside) tend to assume a slablike shape, 60 to 70 ft wide by 150 ft or more long, with the service core in the center (Fig. 14). For greater flexibility in the
Fig. 14 Typical slab plan with service core at center.
j______lI i Li_______i------1------1------1-----
I-------1-------1-----I t--------1-------1-------r--------1----i
Fig. 15 Maximum flexibility of rental area achieved by use of clear-span framing and separate service tower.
rental space, the service core may be moved completely outside the office space. When this scheme is combined with clear span framing, the ultimate in flexibility is achieved (Fig. 15).
Floor to-floor heights are usually about 12 ft, ranging from 11 to 1 4 ft. Finished ceiling heights are generally about 8 to 8Vi ft. The space above the ceiling is required for ducts and recessed lighting. In order to avoid excessive depths in this utility space, girders are sometimes designed with openings in the web to permit the passage of ducts.
OFFICE LANDSCAPING*
A number of large U.S. corporations have been experimenting with an open planning system known in the space-planning and design profession as office landscaping. This concept of planning originated in West Germany and has been used extensively in European office operations. It is intended to create an open, flexible layout by grouping personnel and their work stations in accordance with group communications and with interdepartmental work flow and relationships.
The proponents of the landscaping concept maintain that office planning should not be based upon the traditional organization chart of command structure, but rather on the grouping of personnel in open space along the lines of interpersonal relationships and group communications. When this concept is applied in its most literal form, it means the elimination of private offices, with no distinction made between management"
* Maurice Mogulescu, Profit Through Design, American Management Association, New York, 1970.
personnel and "general office" personnel. The offices are designed with no Fixed walls or partitions. The entire floor space is treated as open space with movable screens, plants, and furniture arrangements utilized to create functional work groups. With the elimination of fixed walls or partitions, a maximum degree of long-term flexibility can be achieved. It should be recognized, however, that in a totally open floor space without walls or partitions, provision for telephone and electrical outlets must be made either through a complex underfloor electrical duct system or through a system that affords the opportunity to drop telephone and electric lines from the ceiling to the work stations below. It should also be recognized that in this type of open operation, factors such as lighting, noise control, and air conditioning will present technical problems that must be dealt with and solved in order to insure a physical environment conducive to a satisfactory work situation.
While presenting technical problems to the office planner, these problems can be solved with careful study and engineering know-how within the existing technology. It is the opinion of the author that although the office landscaping concept offers many advantages, it may also create many new problems unless it is applied after a very thorough study of all factors related to overall office environment.
1 MODULI z 2S P

a D D
4 MODULI! =10 0 9
c
* MODULES = 1 S 0
t; ~T^
c §-
Fig. 1 Typical modular office plans.
796


Commercial
OFFICES, GENERAL
Planning
797


ZONING
CHART 1
OFF-STREET PARKING
LARGE CARS
a b c d e f f
curb c nter to een r a idtr.
park, 'l*: ta'.i -tail .lido length f tAoroA bin a ith
angb* A :dth t* curb a id.h per rar lcress road ~yf t a ee n
19 long *ta curb tit curb overlap cc
1 l" i 17 0 73 0 2t 0
u t 0" 0 i: o 23 0 30 0 -
on* 14' 14 t n a 17 0 44 1 37 4
JU t'O" 17 J i; o l| 0 4 S 4 37 1
14" It 4 13 S 12 0 32 3 44 3
t'O" It 1 13 0 17 7 S2 4 / 44 7
a n 14" 20 7 11 1 t 1 It t VS 4
ou t'O" 21 0 11 0 10 4 40 0 SS S
on9 4 4 It 0 23 0* 1 1 ll 0
7 U to" It 0 73 0 t 0 41 0 -
Two wav t.rcuia'.ion
rnunArT
c A r ^
a b c d e f1 r
curb enter-to-ce -ter a- cth
parking Sta i -ta-! .orgth 'won * om a ;:h
ang e a dm it cure a idth pt:r car access road betAeen
15 long sea curb-to-curb overlap rc
O' 7.5 7.5 11.0 w. a 26 0 26.0
30' 7.5 14 0 110 15 0 39.0 3 2.5
45' 7.5 15.9 11 0 10 6 42 8 37.9
60' 7.5 15.7 14 0 8 7 47 5 40.4
90' 7.5 15 O 18 o 7 5 4 8 0 40.0
EXAMPLE
ii
JL
> *> circulation
Supp. No. 5
4353