Image quality of the city

Material Information

Image quality of the city an approach to human experience of urban form in the western American city
Alternate title:
Approach to human experience of urban form in the western American city
Anderson, Jacquie
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iv, 119 pages : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm +


Subjects / Keywords:
City planning -- Social aspects ( lcsh )
City planning -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
City planning -- Case studies -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Sociology, Urban ( lcsh )
City planning ( fast )
City planning -- Psychological aspects ( fast )
City planning -- Social aspects ( fast )
Sociology, Urban ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Case studies. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Case studies ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (pages 117-119).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jacquie Anderson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15563960 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A77 1986 . A8764 ( lcc )

Full Text
a mTxed-use complex
An Architectural Thesis presented to
the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
William Ali Fall 19^6

The Thesis o
William Ali
Chalmers G. Long, JR., Committee Chairman
George Hoover Principal Advisor
Date Due
_ !
i j

| l
University of Colorado at Denver December 19, 1986

Introducti on Precedent Si te
The Site Hi story Context Topography Utilities Soi 1
Vegetation View and Noise Traffic Pattern Pedestrian Circulation AHEC Campus Design Guidelines Climate Zoning Codes Program
Project Background Spatial Requirements Spatial Analysis Spatial Q u a1i ty
24 24 24 24 26
28 32 45-60 81 93 93
99 105 119

Design and Analysis Appendi x

Even if architecture is the pure creation of the spirit, it is also material. It is not idea, but form, not only void, but also fullness.
It is present.
Architecture is primarily seen. Architecture however is also touched, heard, smelt ...
Hans Hollein
Architecture is the blending of art and science, cultural and technical, emotional and intellectual. The pretensions of Art and Technology are joined by those of Economy and Sociology. Architecture is the making of space: organizing and ordering space for human comfort, security, and emotional as well as spiritual satisfaction. It is the act of converting and controlling, shaping and ordering the environment into an effective, expressive and harmonious setting for human life. As an art architecture should become a visual experience, a poem in architectonic expression such as the serene Japanese architecture, the poetic Chinese architecture, and the picturesque Gothic Architecture. Architecture is a creation with conflicting demands. The creative solutions must govern the design of buildings. A building becomes architecture when function and construction are raised to an aesthetic level as I

quote Antoine de Saint-Exuperty: ... it is useful because it is beautiful ..."
Through the history of mankind, man discovers the underlying forces of life. Essentially life is comprised of two antagonistic opposites: yin and yang, positive and negative. Man is ultimately in a struggle to try to balance these forces. Life flourishes only to a degree to which the two contradictory principles governing human nature can be brought into a state of harmony. The idea of these dualities in architecture is discussed by O.M. Ungers in his book "Architecture As Theme". He said that creative individuals find connections or relationships between the two, the uncreative individuals rationalize them as opposites or unrelated extremes. My thesis project gives me an opportunity to solve the conflicting but yet interrelated relationship between man and his environment, individual and community through the acquisition of factual knowledge, experience, imagination, and judgement.
My approach to this concept of life in architecture is both creative and inclusive. I will accommodate the notion of duality in my design with a "both-and" approach rather than an "either-or" approach as I borrow the term coined by Robert Venturi in his remarkable book "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture". Life

consists of a whole spectrum of polarized antonym: large and small, change and constancy, closed and open, simple and complex, part and whole, order and chaos, individual and collective, etc. and so does my architecture. Both-and approach is like two side of the same coin, they are opposite but yet related to each other. That is rather like saying that we have no understanding of large if there is no small, order if there is no chaos. When we talk about a city as a large house and a house as a tiny city, it says about the relationships between a city and a house, not about a house versus a city. I rejected the thought that works in terms of polarities. It should always be possible for two opposing objects to function together as a duality, without relinquishing their own personal character.
My means to carry out this thesis is the design of a mixed-use complex in Auraria campus. The site offers a great opportunity to examine how the buildings fit into the Auraria campus context and the adjacent historic Tivoli. Contextualism suggests that a building's physical and cultural context should be taken into consideration in its design. A building is an object by itself but it is also part of the larger context. Architects have to look at the larger picture, not just the individual building. A building has to relate to other buildings, and buildings

have to relate to streets and streets to squares. While a building must maintain its own identity it also must reinforce the existing urban fabric. There are two ways to design a new building so that it relates well with the architectural surroundings. One way is one may literally copy architectural elements from the surroundings; the other way is using totally new vocabulary to evoke the architectural image of the context.2
The modernist dictum declared that history was irrelevant, that we live in the machine age and therefore our architecture must well reflect the new era. Modern architecture became subordinated to the machine and technology, not to man. Technological and scientific progress encouraged the worship of change. The magical appeal of technology, industrial production, systems, applied art and science, casts a long dark shadow clogging the mind. Architects courts technology and chases after progress. They are addicted to change. This attitude has been responsible for the degeneration of our cities and of architecture itself. The other conception which also contributes to the current chaos of our cities is the emphasis on originality and creativity. Every architect strive to produce a unique building, to the detriment of the visual continuity of the surrounding buildings. Because of this believe several generations of architects

have ignored accommodating their work to the older architecture around it.-*
I strive for contextualism, but my contextual ism is never literal. I abstract elements from the context and redefine them in a modern way. My intention is not to fall into the trap of copying Classicism because each place, town or city has its own character and therefore requires a specific design solution. My design stands out clearly as a building of this time, but also takes part in its surroundings without making direct analogies to the context.
With my proposal to design places for people to live, work, and shop comes the idea of "meeting place". The idea of meeting place is classic, take for example the Greek Agora, it was a place of happening. People stop and meet, talk and gossiping there. Five thousand plus years of urban history show that streets and squares are necessary as places of encounter, communication zones and centers of identity. For Louis Kahn the term "city" began where public open space and street existed as places of encounter. Today the streets are disinterested movements not belonging to the houses. The whole notion of the street as an extension of a housea kind of public living roomdisappeared. Streets are designed to serve the fast movement of vehicles and buildings are placed as an object

in an empty green space.
I reject the notion of a street as a movement corridor, a street which serves primarily the transportation system, a street which accommodates speed. I strive to create small scale urban rooms which act as public plazas and urban gardens and close-knit buildings to keep the architecture in scale. The street facade is strongly maintained in an effort to create street space. The street is the stage for the theater of the city. I want to have a central square which is extremely lively and full of activity. It reminds one strongly of an old European village. I strive to give quality humane urban environments to the people. The people's activity will become the focal point of my design. The streets and the squares become a social gathering and encounter where people engage in a greater variety of human activities.
Streets are the most vital organs of a city. Streets preserve the very life of a city. Streets serve many purposes besides carrying vehicles. The streets and the squares should become no mere public place but the living heart of the city. I propose mixed use for my thesis project because mixed use generate diversity. Consequently diversity creates a lively city. A lively city is reflected in its streets. Just like in European cities, the streets and the squares are the center or the

life of a city. They become the attraction. The street is an extension of the house: a microcosmic world in which the street activities change with the seasons and the hours. Streets would be places where there are shops, entertainments, and restaurants.^
The sense of place conception is one of the most important changes in direction in today urban planning. Modern urban planning with the conception of light, space, and greenery dominated the urban scene for thirty years. But the modern park-like city with its green-lined space between the functionalistic blocks is proved to be a failure because it lacks social content and character. It creates abstract space instead of "place". A city is regarded as a machine rather than a human environment. Today we reject that hypothesis which was seen as the appropriate solution for the mechanized society of our own age. The modernists emphasis that the social life of contemporary man is different from the past is proved to be wrong. Instead the facts show that man is and has been the same being and that his spirit remains unchanged. Man from the beginning of creation seeks protection to get a sense of security. He decides to separate himself from the limitless space. He builds up the walls to set up an enclosed finite space. Architecture implies the creation of place both outside and inside. I quote Aldo van Eyck

as saying: "Space, in the image of man, is place; time, in the image of man, is occasion."5 The predominant of man instead of machine is translated into the notion of place.
Christian Norberg-Schulz in his book "Genius Loci" defines a place as a space which has a distinct character. A place means something more than abstract location. It is a totality shaped up by material substance, shape, texture and color. Together these things determine an "environmental character". Architecture means to visualize the genius loci or "spirit of place" and the task of the architect is to create meaningful places.^ The character of a place cannot take form without taking the natural environment into consideration. The landscape and climate which generate a response and specific design solution bring about the sense of place. For example the fertile desert of the French campagne is the landscape which made Gothic architecture possible. Narrow alleys and courtyard oriented houses represent a clear response
, 7
to the challenge of the climate in the desert countries. The same challenge is true for Colorado, the snow, the mountain, and the bright sunshine of Colorado will be taken under my consideration to create a strong character of a place. My response to a place and culture will generate buildings which speak in the same language with the architecture surroundings. The notions of outside and

inside are one of the basic properties of place. The modulation from one to the other is, and always has been, one of the primary elements of the architect's art. I strive to segregate places outdoors and in, so that people could be continually aware of his location, from the unprotected outside to the sheltered, secluded, and protected inside.
Ornamentalism is part of a larger fundamental principle of the articulation of build volume. First the articulation of the urban building fabric. Second the articulation of the building block into smaller units that are humanly comprehensible. 0rnamental ism is the articulation of building into a humane, intimate, and livable place. Ornament reflects human inner feeling and one's culture. It gives a human scale to man's creation. It responds to an innate human need for elaboration and for the articulation of man's creation into meaningful objects. Culture is naturally reflected in ornament, thus it creates a character of a locality. A plain building is devoid of human expression and symbolic representation of their view toward beauty, nature, life and death. "Buildings must be inhabitable by the bodies and minds and memories of human kind", as I quote Charles Moore. To humanize a building with ornament means to distinguish it from the outside', to distinguish it as mine not yours, as

one of the basic human drives.
Functionalism is the most publicized attribute of modern architecture. Functionalism equates fitness of purpose with the elimination of ornament. Ornament was a sign of decadence. The shape of the building should be determined by what goes on inside it. Adolf Loos initiated the modern attack on ornament as he declared: "Ornament is a crime." Later Mies Vander Rohe came to the modern architectural scene with his exclusive purism, "Less is more. However, functionalist architects eventually developed their own versions of ornament structural exhibitionism and spatial expressionism, which is an ironic irresponsibility on the part of Functionalists. The articulation in the late phase of Modern architecture was unadmitted. The functionalists misunderstood the inherence of ornament and symbolism in architecture. Architects have always take building beyond its literal function to its higher role as architecture.
A sense of identity should exist at all scales of the urban fabric, whether house, street, district or town. Kevin Lynch writes: "A workable image requires first the identification of an object, which implies its distinction from other things, its recognition as a separable identity. This is called identity, not in the sense of equality with something else, but with the meaning of

individuality or oneness." The term identity arose in response to the uniformity found in modern urban planning. Uniformity should be avoided so that people can more readily identify themselves with their surroundings and feel the significance of where they are.^ The identity of a place is determined by location, general spatial configuration and characterizing articulation.^
In response to the sense of identity I follow the Auraria campus design guidelines -which avoid an oppressive sense of bulk, preserve the present fifty-five foot height limit, maintain the primary material usedpurple-red brick and continue the underlying order of a 30'x30' grid system as the organizing principle. As a response to the regular grid and rectangular shape of buildings which prevail in Auraria campus I consider using round or freely shaped buildings as meaningless. The openness and orthogonal character of Auraria campus is well reflected in the general spatial configuration of my design. The primary structural property in the campus is massive as opposed to skeletal. Among all characterizing articulation the opening is particularly important. It does not only express the spatial structure of the building, but also how it is related to light. The characteristic motifs of the openings in Auraria campus are plain and rectangular.

My fascination with the idea of a mixed-use complex comes from the facts that mixed-use developments were the single most important innovation in urban land use during the past two decades, comparable in significance to the evolution of shopping centers in the immediate post world war two period.^ The increasing cost of energy, putting live, work and entertainment within walking distance and the complexity of mixed-use design are an appeal for me to design a mixed-use building. The Auraria mixed-used complex will include housing, commercial, and office buildings. The complex will house commercial units to take advantage of the housing population and to complement the Tivoli which is a major shopping and entertainment attraction. The housing is intended for the boarding of students and faculties who wish to live near the school and within a walking distance. The scope and limit of the project is one hundred-thousand square feet approximately.

Mixing working, shopping, and living spaces in one building is an ancient idea that is getting fresh treatment today. The concept of mixed use runs far back in history, to the ancient Greek agora, the medieval market square, and the mix of residential and commercial uses found in many 19th century European cities.
In Sumer and other Mesopotamian cities, the temple was not only the center of the religious life of the community, but also the granary and the general administrative center. The earliest urban dweller would typically live and sell his products or services in the same building. In Roman cities, the taberna is a shop or workshop with openings to the street, located in part of a house.
The Middle Ages
With the collapse of the Roman empire, Western Europe returned to the village economy. The village was a self sufficient unit. People lived above and the ground floor was used for the shop or workshop. The Middle Ages also witnessed the gradual development of a separate

marketplace. The rationale for a market was as a place for farmers from the surrounding countryside to sell their produce without having to take up residence in the town. However, this separation was different from today's pattern in that the market, although separate, were located in close proximity to residential and not segregated according to type or function.
Preindustrial PeriodIndustrial Age
In the Preindustrial period we began to see the slow disappearance of the home store and workshop, and the emergence of the journey to work. Regulations of the type that allotted space for each use and compartmentalized the town or city were only possible under a system of government. Such governments were in the ascendancy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most land use controls in effect today are in some way the legacy of the Industrial Revolution. The most radical land use schemes in history and the most utopian communities were formulated during the Industrial Revolution. The factory, the place of production, was moved further away from the central district and its banks, townhouses, hotels, and shops. However, while the full socioeconomic spectrum of the nineteenth century became affected by trends toward land use separation, the lowest social strata were to a

- 15 -
great extent spared. They continued to live in urban environments of closely interlocked land uses.^
The Revival of Mixed Use in the United States
After World War II we witnessed not only unprecedented urban growth, but also a transformation of traditional land development practices. Large-scale new communities, many with a mixture of residential and commercial use, became commonplace. Mixed use development owes much to the continuing evolution of shopping center buildings. Particularly during the 1960s, added functions began to appear. Free-standing, fast-food outlets, office buildings, and movie houses were constructed around a shopping center's periphery. Often these other structures were an afterthought and little integration of uses occurred.
As the shopping center concept continued to evolve, some developers saw the chance to create an integrated, expanded shopping center. The opportunities perceived, and problems encountered, with this expanded shopping center are illustrative of the early movement toward mixed-use development. The interest in developing a compactly-configured mixed-use project owe much to multiple sources: the success of many European cities and
downtown developments such as Rockefeller Center; the

influence of far-sighted urban critics such as Jane Jacobs. The first mixed-use development to appear in this country was Penn Center in Philadelphia in 1954, followed shortly by Midtown Plaza in Rochester, New York and Charles Center in Baltimore, both started in the late 1950s.
By 1976, almost 100 mixed-use developments are either under construction, completed, or in the serious planning stage. Why has mixed use been growing? Because it brings exhilarating activity from breakfast time until nearly midnight and integrated-village feeling. Mixed-use developments intensify the richness of living, enhance people's range of experience and create easy access to a variety of activities. Mixed-use developments are designed at a human scale and represent a positive attempt to keep cities alive and making cities a viable organism. It provides a variety of life styles and breaks up the monotony of the urban environment. It reduces energy consumption, particularly if it replaces vehicle trips with walk trips. It also supports some environmental objectives, such as reducing air pollution.Mixed use is growing the way shopping centers did in the 50s, and I believe the idea will last long because it is just man's natural way of living as shown in history.

- 17 -
The Site
The size of the site is of a city block, bounded by Larimer Street to the Southeast, 9th Street to the northeast, Walnut Street to the northwest, and 8th Street to the southwest. The site is located at the Auraria campus, the area now occupied by the Lot E parking in front of the Tivoli. The land near the Tivoli and along the north edge of the campus athletic fields has the potential of mixed-use developments. Should the Auraria Higher Education Center decide to revitalize the lifeless atmosphere that now exists on the Auraria campus by introducing land use diversity, the area would become a lively commercial node that would bring the vitality and life to the campus.
As part of the original master plan the entire site was laid out on a 30 x 30' grid over which all the infrastructure was built. Buildings were designed to fit the existing fabric and utility system underneath. The planning grid has been strictly adhered to because standardization of structural building systems conserves time, money, and material. Vertical modules are of five-foot increments with an overall height limit of fifty-five feet. Due to its nature as a city colleg
e, a large

portion of the land area is dedicated to the automobile: streets and parking lots.
In January 1977, the Auraria Higher Education Center (AHEC) opened its doors to the Denver Community. Auraria became an experiment, exploring the possibilities of combining three institutions in order to provide more for students through shared services. The identity of each institution would be retained through the unique curriculum offered: University of Colorado at Denver a university level institution, emphasizing upper division, graduate and professional degrees; Metropolitan State College a multi-purpose, liberal arts facility; and the Community College of Denver an open door policy college offering general and vocational studies. The campus consists of 169 acres and is located on the west bank of Cherry Creek on the edge of downtown Denver. Entertainment facilities, cultural centers, a transit mall and commercial hubs are located directly across the creek and within walking distance.16
Auraria is where Denver began. The lure of gold brought people across the plains in the late 1850s to the junction of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. In the autumn of 1858, a small group of prospectors organized

the Auraria Town Company on the west bank of Cherry Creek included today Auraria campus area. Shortly after Auraria was begun, other settlers organized the Denver City Company and staked out a rival townsite on the Cherry Creek east bank. The two towns merged in 1860 and took the name of Denver. And Auraria was eclipsed.
Nevertheless, Auraria flourished as a complete community.^ It is because of the American invention of the sprawling suburb that Auraria was deserted, abandoned and left to die. In the late 1960's, under the pressure of urban renewal, the Auraria site was chosen by Metropolitan State College to house a new educational facility.
In 1972, voters approved a 42 million dollar bond issue which created the Auraria Higher Education Center. This resulted in the full demolition of the neighborhood except for three churches, fourteen 9th Street houses, and the Tivoli Brewery.

St. Cajetans
Originally slated for demolition, St. Cajetans was saved by the local parishioners of this Catholic Church as a landmark. Built in 1926 in a Spanish mission vernacular, the church now serves as a lecture hall/performing arts facility.
Emmanuel Gallery
Built in 1876 as an Episcopalian church, it later served as Denver's first Jewish Synagogue. It was remodeled and today serves as the campus art gallery.

St. Elizabeth's Church and St. Francis Interfaith Center
St. Elizabeth's Church still serves as a church and is not the property of the campus. However, the recent addition, the St. Francis Interfaith Center built in 1978, serves as an interdenominational student support service.

9th Street Park
It is the oldest residential area in Denver today. Originally built in the 1870s to 1890s, the houses today serve as campus office facilities. Designated on the National Historic Register, the Park serves as an urban oasis for students and faculties.19


Tivoli Brewery
The recently renovated Tivoli Brewery now houses retail shops, restaurants and cinemas. It is particularly important to this project because of its closeness and its architectural link to the past as well as its break from the ubiquitous thirty foot grid, therefore, its presence demands a fine solution to the idea of contexualism. A young German immigrant named John Good is believed to have founded the Tivoli Brewery in 1859. He named it Tivoli after the famous beer gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main complex or the Tower building was constructed during 1890-1891 and was modeled after the breweries in Europe. In 1969, after 110 years of continuous beer brewing, Tivoli closed its doors. In 1973 the Tivoli Brewery Complex was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.20

- 23 -
The entire Auraria campus site was laid out on a 30' x 30' grid to serve as the basis for development of new buildings. As a response to a tight budget the building systems were standardized to conserve time, money and material. The result is a mundane architectural vocabulary throughout the Auraria campus. The majority of buildings are massive, two-story, brick curtain-wall structures, devoid of ornament, color and details. The openings are plain and monotonous. In other words, the buildings lack humanizing details which create a warm, intimate and inviting environment. The use of purple-red brick, however, reinforces the sense of place as brick is the local building material found everywhere in Colorado.
Tivoli is a distinctive highlight to Auraria, and its architectural vocabulary is isolated from the rest of the campus. Architect F.C. Eberly designed the four-story symmetrical building with a distinctive tower in Italianate/Victorian style. The building is made of brick masonry on a coursed stone foundation. The facade is detailed with bay windows rising from the ground, pilasters and corbeled brick work. The distinctive mansard roof that crowns the tower building is sheathed in

The site has been developed and presently used as a parking lot. The slope of the land is relatively flat and uncomplicated, therefore the United States Geological Survey map is considered as unnecessary.
Underground gas, power, water, sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and communication services are located adjacent to the site.
Soi 1
The test holes indicate that up to approximately twenty feet of man made fill is underlain by loose to medium dense sands and then by claystone bedrock. Free water was found at depths of five to fourteen feet, generally at about ten feet. Soil engineers recommend further study be done to determine more exactly the extent of this free water and the levels within which it f 1 uctuates.
The best type of foundations for heavy structures will be straight-shaft piers drilled into the claystone bedrock. Such piers may be designed for maximum end pressures of approximately 30,000 to 60,000 psf with a side shear of about l/10th the maximum end pressure for

that portion of the pier in bedrock. Pressures in the lower end of the range will be applicable for lightly loaded piers drilled to shallow depths into the claystone. Pressures in the high end of the range will be applicable for heavily loaded piers penetrating more than about 10 feet into the claystone.
The best type of foundation for lighter structures will be spread footings on the natural sands and gravels below frost depth. The upper, loose sands are capable of supporting spread footings designed for maximum soil pressures of approximately 2,000 to 3,000 psf. The deeper, medium dense sands and gravels will support pressures approximately 4,000 to 6,000 psf. Higher soil pressures could be utilized for spread footings at shallow depths if the loose sands were removed to a depth equal to one footing width below foundation level and replaced with the same sands compacted to 100% density.
Man-made fill should be removed from under floor slabs and be replaced with controlled fill. The natural sands and gravels are firm enough to support normal, lightly loaded interior floor slabs. Base course compacted to high density will be required under floor slabs subjected to vehicular loads.

Vegetati on
There is no vegetation on the site. Being used as a parking lot the whole surface is covered by asphalt. The only vegetation exists is deciduous trees planted along the periphery of the site to shade the pedestrian walkway. However, environmental green spaces exist at the sites of the historical landmarks. The St. Elizabeth's Church site opens beautifully from the Speer Boul evard/Cheery Creek greenway creating magnificent vistas from the Central Business District as well as from Speer Boulevard. In order to free other portions of the site and to enhance the meaningfulness of the area around St. Elizabeth's Church, the Emmanuel Chapel building has been relocated from its present site to this new environmental space. Site Master Planning Consultants recommend that this area be treated in the nature of a European city square combining paved areas for people circulation and landscaped areas for environmental softness and warmth. Automobile parking, which is essential to the function of St. Elizabeth's Church, may again be concealed by the use of earth sculpture in the form of softly flowing landscaped mounds.
The area of the site which contains St. Catejan's Church and Rectory is also to be treated as a landscaped environmental area much in the same manner as that

occupied by St. Elizabeth's Church. In this case, however, St. Catejan's Church occupies an open green area much in the form of the mission churches of California or the old New England church.
Certain areas of the Auraria Higher Education Center site will exist as purely environmental spaces. The building zones are set back slightly from Speer Boulevard to permit the installation of landscaped green spaces. The considerable expanse of paving in parking areas should be broken by occasional landscaped spaces.
View and Noi se
As is common to Denver, the predominant view from the site is of the mountains to the west. This is a distant view, the foreground view, however, is dominated by a parking lot and the highway further away. To the
northeast is a view of the downtown skyline in the
background, the Tivoli in the immediate forefront, and
athletic fields in the foreground. To the east, St. Cajetans--a historical 1andmark--dominates the view in the foreground and behind it is the 9th Street Park.
The site is located in the quiet corner of the
Auraria campus. The only major source of traffic noise is from the Larimer Street. Currently there are several bus routes stationing at the northwest side of the site on

Walnut Street.
Traffic Pattern
Being non-residents, the Auraria students depend heavily on the automobile, bus, and bicycle for transportation to and from classes. There are in excess of 4,600 parking spaces on the campus covering about fourteen city blocks of land. Development of the Lawrence-Larimer site will eliminate 900 of those spaces on two blocks. This suggests that a multi-story parking garage will be constructed if those parking lots are to be replaced. I am assuming that structured parking will be developed in the lot north of Larimer between 12th Street and Speer. This strategy, together with the closing of traffic on Lawrence will eliminate disruptive through auto traffic. The other three sides of the site: 9th Street, Walnut Street, 8th Street, have a very light traffic throughout the day.
The bike paths along Cherry Creek and the Platte River are the major arterials connecting the campus to out-lying neighborhoods. We've heard of a study to close Lawrence Street for a pedestrian mall. Once Lawrence is vacated, a tree-lined esplanade could be constructed, provided a strong pedestrian linkage between the campus and downtown. With the building of student housing at 9th

Street this street will serve students as the pedestrian route to the rest of the campus--a major entry and exit, connecting the living place with the proposed heart of the campus--Lawrence Street pedestrian mall. This street has the potential to develop as commercial and cultural hubs, a kind of the 16th Street Mall of the Auraria campus because the potential is already there: St. Cajetans, Student Center, the Tivoli, and the proposed development of a commercial node to the North Side of the campus all are located at 9th Street.
Pedestrian Circulation
Pedestrian circulation on the Higher Education Center campus may be divided into two major categories--circulation outside the building zones and circulation inside the building zones. Principle on-site pedestrian circulation patterns deal with movement of persons entering the campus as pedestrians and those who enter the campus in automobiles and become pedestrians upon leaving their parked vehicle. A series of major pedestrian entrances to the Auraria Higher Education Center site is proposed. These entrances, which are above street level in the form of elevated bridge/plazas, connect major elements of the land surrounding the campus to the campus itself. Pedestrians from the Central Business District,

retail, financial, governmental, and other centers will reach the campus across Speer Boulevard. All major pedestrian entrances, feeds quickly into the major building spines after crossing relatively short environmental areas on the campus. Pedestrians also walk to the campus from the east and south boundary of the campus.
The pedestrian linkages from parking lots to the building zone are visualized as being paved sidewalks at grade level. The effective use of landscaping, outdoor furniture, and lighting could combine to make the sidewalk system a pleasant place indeed. Conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles along these routes are minimized in comparison with those in the Central Business District due to the substantial reduction of the number of streets on the Higher Education Center. (Lawrence are vacated.)
Pedestrian circulation patterns within the building zones are visualized as centering upon a major pedestrian spine which connects the building zones themselves as well as major areas within each building zone. This is the key element which ties the buildings of the Higher Education Center together visually and functionally. It should provide a high degree of impact offering the pedestrian an exciting trip full of satisfying visual experiences as well as a convenient route from one point to another

within the building cluster. It could be compared to the mall of a great shopping center filled with effective graphics, fountains, landscape or planting elements, seating units, banners, and many other carefully designed functional and visual elements. Important building spaces would be intimately related to the main pedestrian spine. Related to the major pedestrian spine will be secondary pedestrian ways of feeding into buildings or portions of buildings.

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
Auraria Higher Education Center Campus Design Policies and Objectives
Within the basic framework of meeting the program needs of the constituent institutions and consistent with the Center's transportation policies and objectives adopted January 14, 1980, the Auraria Higher Education
Center will pursue the following physical design policies and objectives. These policies and objectives are intended to provide an attractive environment conducive to the teaching and learning activity.
Bui 1di ngs
A. Siting
1. Insofar as it is consistent with functional requirements new facilities in the campus core area should be sited to increase the number and variety of subspaces. Siting of new buildings should avoid reinforcing a sense of the campus as a uniform grid of former city streets defining a uniform set of blocks each filled
with a single bulky structure. This policy should be carried out by:


- 33 -
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
a. Locating new buildings or additions to existing buildings in a manner that creates spatial closures within the core area on 8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, Champa, and Lawrence Streets.
b. Identifying specific areas where such closures are feasible and planning future utility and landscaping investments to protect and enhance these areas of opportunity.
c. Pursuing this objective in a fashion consistent with the view policy set forth in the section of this statement on grounds.
2. In planning new buildings within the campus core area consideration should be given to locations on the west side of the campus core area in order to:
a. Center activities in the campus core area around Auraria Square as well as such high usage facilities as the Library and Student Center.

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
b. Encourage more balanced use of campus parking by increasing the number of activities accessible to west campus parking lots.
c. Strengthen the relationship between the campus core area and possible light rail development west of the campus.
d. Utilize the hillside near 8th Street to provide physical definition to the western edge of the core area.
When new buildings are constructed in the vicinity of 12th and Lawrence they should be sited to provide a northern closure to the large open area along Speer Boulevard bounded by St. Elizabeth's Church on the west and the DCPA on the east.
New buildings constructed outside the campus core area.
a. Maintenance and service support uses should adjoin the existing facilities along 7th Street.
b. In the location of ancillary educational

- 35 -
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
and research facilities preference should be given to the area northeast of Larimer and 12th Streets so as to facilitate interaction between the downtown and the campus core.
B. Design
1. Massing. Design of new structures should encourage sufficient variety and dimensionality to avoid an oppressive sense of bulk.
2. Height. The practice of constructing low profile buildings should be continued in order to:
a. Avoid the need for complex elevator systems.
b. Preserve the pedestrian scale of the campus.
c. Allow sunlight into the campus malls, walks, courtyards, and plazas.
d. Retain the prominence of historic steeples and towers within the campus.
e. Keep the scale of the campus compatible with that of the Lincoln Park neighborhood.

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
f. Provide a contrasting foreground for the downtown that dramatizes the downtown skyline.
g. Preserve the mountain views from the downtown, the DCPA, and the Civic Center.
h. Reinforce the sense of a valley along the Platte River between the bluffs of west Denver and the downtown high rises.
Buildings in excess of the present fifty-five foot (maximum height of recently constructed new facilities) limit will be designed only after the Board has considered the foregoing criteria and formally determined that program requirements or special circumstances of location and topography justify an exception. Facing materials. The primary material for campus building surfaces should continue to be the distinctive Auraria purple-red brick. Other exterior materials should be harmonious with these bricks. Framing, doorways, window trim and the like, should maintain the dark bronze

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
finish used in original construction.
4. Roofs. The practice of using uniform roof finishes throughout the campus should be continued. The combination of brown surfacing and minimal exposed mechanical equipment provides an attractive, uncluttered view from nearby high rises.
5. Historic structures. The original character of the exteriors of landmark buildings on the campus should be preserved.
C. Energy Conservation
Buildings and utility systems should be designed to meet or exceed all applicable standards relating to energy conservation.
A. Vegetation
1. Campus core area.
a. Landscaping investment should be concentrated in the campus core area. Plantings should be designed to enhance campus buildings, walkways, and spaces with

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
careful attention to color, pattern, depth and scale.
b. Deciduous plantings should be used to meet the need in many locations for shade in the summer and light in the winter.
c. Pursuant to the view policy adopted by the
Auraria Board on September 10, 1979,
landscaping should be designed to emphasize the following views:
1. The reciprocal vistas between the D & F Tower and St. Elizabeth's Church along the general alignment of Arapahoe Street.
2. The reciprocal vistas between the grand staircase of the DCPA Galleria and St. Elizabeth's Church along the approximate alignment of vacated Curtis Street.
3. The vista of the Tivoli Brewery from Auraria Square as well as the vista of the recessed cubes forming the north corner of the Fine Arts Building as

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
seen from Auraria Mall between Lawrence and Larimer.
4. The view of the State Capital from the green in front of St. Elizabeth's,
d. Plaint materials should be selected with the objective of minimizing maintenance costs and water consumption.
2. Playing fields. Landscaping should be designed to meet the requirements of the physical education program and to minimize maintenance costs.
3. Parking lots. Landscaping should be planned to screen parking lots and to minimize maintenance costs.
B. Walkways
1. Campus core area.
a. Central pedestrian axes designated in the Auraria Transportation Objectives and Policies. As funding permits the asphalt and curbing of the former streets along Arapahoe Walk and Auraria Mall should be

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
replaced. These two axes should be reconstructed using coded patterns or materials to permit easy recognition, b. Secondary walkways. As funding permits the asphalt and curbing of former streets along non-primary pedestrian corridors should be replaced. In general, narrower walkways and more extensive landscaping used than along the central pedestrian axes.
2. Areas outside the campus core. Outside the campus core standard sidewalks separated from roadways by landscaped strips should be used.
C. Primary Pedestrian Spaces
Because of high convergence of pedestrian traffic or unique physical or functional characteristics the following four pedestrian spaces are those in which the greatest investment will be concentrated.
1. Auraria Square
a. This is the area defined by action of the Board on September 7, 1978 and identified by the Auraria Transportation Policies and Objectives as the pedestrian hub of the

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
b. Because of the large size of the Square in relation to the adjoining low profile buildings and because of the varying activity mix within the Square, development of the Square should accentuate four subspaces.
1. The area between the Emmanuel Gallery and the Library along the Auraria Mall. This is the primary pedestrian convergence point and traffic center of the overall Square. As such, it should be designed to provide a strong sense of location.
2. The area of vacated 9th Street directly in front of the St. Cajetan's Center. This is the secondary convergence point within the Square and should also be planned to emphasize a sense of place.
3. The existing cafeteria-level terrace of the Student Center. This terrace

- 42 -
Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
should continue to be a more passive area suitable for meeting people, reading, eating lunch, and observing small outdoor performances.
4. The area between the Student Center terrace and the Fine Arts Building roughly centered on the grove of cottonwood trees. This area should be heavily landscaped in order to effectively separate and differentiate the other three subspaces. Functionally, it should be one of relatively low activity.
2. Entrance Plaza. This plaza is at the intersection of Arapahoe Walk with the downtown Arapahoe Street-Skyline Park corridor and the old Curtis Street bridge connecting to the DCPA Galleria network. The function of this plaza is as a pedestrian crossroads and primary gateway to the campus from the downtown.
3. 9th Street Park. This park consists of the
vacated block of 9th Street between vacated

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
Champa and Curtis Streets including adjacent historical buildings. It is designed to preserve a typical late nineteenth century residential streetscape. Distinctive historical site furniture, lighting, walkways, and landscaping should continue to be used on this block.
4. Courtyard of the Community College
Administration Building. This courtyard is surrounded on three sides by the CCD Building and on the fourth by the Technology Building. Because of its self-contained nature it should be developed for use as an outdoor display area for changing exhibitions of sculpture and other visual arts.
D. Site furniture, signage, and lighting except for 9th
Street Park
1. Site furnishings: Planters, benches, kiosks, drinking fountains, and trash receptacles and the like should reflect a consistent design idiom.
2. Signage: print style and sign composition should

Attachment to
Agenda Item 5(b)
June 9, 1980
be clear, uniform, and tasteful.
3. Lighting:
a. Campus core walkways: Illumination levels should be differentiated between central pedestrian axes and secondary pedestrian corridors.
b. Parking lots: Illumination should be designed to minimize crime in parking areas.
c. Streets: Lighting should comply with applicable city, state, and federal standards.
d. Antennas, transmitters, and/or other roof-mounted technological equipment required to support academic programs shall be placed as far as possible from roof edges, so as to minimize their visual impact from grade level.

Climate Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that characterizes much of the central Rocky Mountain region. Denver experiences low relative humidity, light precipitation, and light to moderate winds. Extremely hot or cold weather is rare and usually of short duration. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures, while in the summer, clouds and afternoon showers moderate otherwise high temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inches but persistent snow cover is usual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation averages about 15.5 inches per year. Little precipitation falls during the winter. More than 50 percent of the annual precipitation occurs from April through July. There are four air masses that affect Denver area's climate, they are the polar air from Canada and the Northwest, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, warm, dry air from Mexico and the Southwest, and masses of air from the Pacific.
Autumn is the best season in Denver. It has an abundance of sunshine and little precipitation. Thundershowers decline in frequency; cold weather appears gradually. Precipitation amounts to about 19 percent of

the annual total. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest of the four seasons in Denver. Periods of mild, sunny weather are mixed with periods of storms. The
severe storms are usually the result of northeasterly
winds. Precipitation amounts to about 39 percent of the annual total. Winter has only 11 percent of the annual precipitation which most of it is snowfall. The relative humidity is higher and there are more clouds in the winter months. Storms can be severe but last only in a brief
period. Summer in the Denver area has its precipitation
from thundershowers during afternoon and evening hours. Precipitation amounts to about 31 percent of the annual total. Clouds appear in the late afternoon accompanied by cool showers. Mornings are usually clear and sunny.
Climate and Planning With Emphasis on Denver
What is Climate?
The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation, and cloud cover.

The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver, the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
Denver area temperature typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. The mean and extreme temperature summary is recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.

Month Dally MaxImum Hal lv M1nlmun Month 1v Mean Record llir.h Record Low Noma] Depree Days Base 65F .'ear .\':-6,.r of D v/s Te^npraturns
90F and above 32F and below
(Meat lnr.) (Coo 1 lnr,)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1038 n . 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 901 n 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.6 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
Hav 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 ft 2
Jun 80. 1 51.9 66.0 JO*, 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 ]OL 4 3 n 74.6 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 20R 9 0
Sen 77.7 47.8 62.8 7 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 n 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - fl 768 0 n 25
Oec 46.2 18.9 32.6 u -18 100i 0 0 29
Annua J 64.0 36.2 50. 1 104- -30 6016 625 32 162
* Less than one hajf.
Source: Department of Commerce, 1977
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From

November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Denver's precipitation characteristics are shown on page 50.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to
0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour' snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 i nches ,_:respecti vely.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown on page 51. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet

above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly over-used and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is functioning
Month Total Precipitation Mean Nunber a of Davs with Precipitation >,.01 inch Snow Mean Nunber of Days with Snov 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maxinun Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Month! Mean y Maxinun Monthly
Jan .hi 1.66 0.01 1.02 6 8.6 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 F 12.6 29.2 L
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.A 28.3 3
May 2.66 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 i 3.6 b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 TC 0.3 n
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 n
A up. 1.29 4.67 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 n
Sep 1.13 4.67 T* 2.66 6 1 .9 21.3 ft *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 i
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.33 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 Tc 3.55 88 59-9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. b*Denotes less than one-half.
CTnnotes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Coimerce, 1977

- 51 -
Monti 1 Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direc t ion Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direc t ion Associated with Maximum
Jan Csl o> S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 s 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 SW
Jun 9.2 s 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
; Aug 8.2 s 42 SW
, Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct CD / *ro s 45 NW
: NOV 8.7 s 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
The Heat Island
Of the typical climate changes within the city, the heat island may be one of the most notable. The warmest part of the city is not in the central area where the tallest buildings are, but in the area of greatest density of low, flat-topped buildings interspersed with numerous

parking lots. In Denver this occurs on the fringe of the Central Business District (CBD).
Because of less vegetation in densely urbanized settings, such as the Denver CBD, the energy consumed by evaporation is reduced in the city. This results in additional heat storage in the urban area and increases in the transfer of heat to the air. The heat transfer is also intensified by increased convection due to the greater surface roughness (buildings). In comparison with rural settings Denver possesses a higher heat capacity due to the reflectivity and materials common to the urban fabric. As a result the city is able to store large amounts of incoming solar radiation and artificial heat used to warm the buildings. These city characteristics result in the urban heat island effect.
The central core of Denver is believed to experience the heat island phenomena under certain conditions. As elsewhere, the Denver urban heat island is probably most pronounced at night when winds are low. The effect of high wind velocities and/or cloud cover is to reduce or eliminate the heat island effect. Sustained winds in excess of 13 mph reduce the heat island to insignificant proportions.
The heat dome that forms over a city can act as a barrier to prevailing winds, depriving the city interior

of needed ventilation and forming a lid of heat in which air pollutants are trapped.
Air Pollution
Every city is unique in the chemistry of its urban atmosphere, a response to air pollution emission forms and amounts, and unique topographical and meteorological conditions affecting dispersion. These principle parameters have complex temporal and spatial patterns in cities. No two cities are alike in either their economic structure and urban morphology or in the local pattern of winds, inversions and other meteorological parameters relevant to both emissions and diffusion efficiencies.
In an approximate way, pollutants and other atmospheric substances may be categorized as reactants and products. Reactants are those gases or particles emitted directly into the atmosphere as a result of urban combustion processes, other industrial activities and biosphere processes.
Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, metallic and other particles (i.e., lead), are examples of reactants produced from urban activities. Methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrous oxide and ammonia are examples of reactants emitted as a result of biosphere

Nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidant (ozone), peroxyacyl nitrates, particulate nitrates, aldehydes, ketones and sulfate are examples of atmospheric products. A number of these substances can be associated with both groupings to some extent.
In many cities, notably London, Pittsburgh and those of the Ruhr, atmospheric conditions grew steadily worse over many decades before official action was taken to control emissions. Then, as control regulations were enforced, skies above these cities cleared.
Urban Winds
In streets and between buildings the speed and direction of wind changes considerably. It is difficult to determine the exact laws governing these changes since they depend on the structural features of the buildings and the city. However, far above the built-up areas of towns the wind speed profile assumes the same features as in open country. The effect of cities on wind is mainly due to the effect of the increased roughness of the underlying surface.
Knowledge of surface roughness and the resultant wind modifications enables an approximate calculation to be made of the dispersion of air pollutants in a city without taking into account the details of the urban structure but

- 55 -
merely making some adjustments to the mean values for the parameters of atmospheric diffusion.
Micro-Scale Effects
Solar Radiation
Out in the country, only a small fraction of the solar radiation is absorbed and the heat exchange is low. In the city a large part of the incident radiation is absorbed by the facades of buildings which then radiate back heat and rise the temperature within the climatological sheath. The solar energy striking the roof of a typical house is said to be ten times as great as its annual heat demand.
Landscaping Effects
Landscaping and/or vegetation can have a positive or negative effect upon energy conservation depending on where the vegetation or site slopes are in relation to the structure. Trees along the east and west sides of a house will not usually create shading problems. Fortunately, three-fourths of the housing in Denver face streets which run north-south and therefore have front and back yards on the east and west sides of the houses. This situation
favors the maximum free planing with still adequate solar

access to the house. At least one basic problem in Denver exists, that of generally unfavorable roof and house orientation for solar retrofit devices on much of the existing housing. This problem, however, is not apparent everywhere and is not insurmountable.
Trees should be spaced so as not to interfere with solar collectors when they are needed. This usually means that deciduous trees are best placed on the west side to offer protection from late afternoon summer sun. Wise planting of trees and landscaping can provide much needed solar control without excessive blocking of solar collectors.
Our communities need both trees and solar access so some compromises may be necessary. The major point is consideration of others and awareness of the need for conservation.
Buildings and Wind Pressure Effects
Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of buildings can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs on windward side, minimum on lee side. Reduced pressure occurs as moving air accelerates over the top of the building. Vortices are formed on lee sides of buildings, in which air pollutants are trapped at street level.

Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number ofa Clear Days Number of3 Partly Cloudy Days Humber ofa Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January - 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
Septembe r 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Sunshine Duration and Cloud Cover
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the

year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover).
Solar Radiation
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about ~:half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atmosphere.

- 59 -
Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) £ ummer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth A1 titude Azimuth
A:00 a. m. 0. -121.3
5:00 a. m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a. m. 0. 0 -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a. m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a. m 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a. m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a. m. 20.7e -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a. m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2" -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4 0.0
Solar Time Level Ground , 52 S* Slope 52 N Slope 52 W Slope 52 E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2 .8 2.5
Solst ic e 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4 . 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 .2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1 . 2 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0 .9 0.8
Solstic e 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1 .4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2 . 3- 1.9

How to Plan With Climate and Solar Energy in Denver
The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For construction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air temperature will be a necessity. Refer to page 48, 57, and page 59 for relevant Denver data.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost. In some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.
The Auraria site falls under the jurisdiction of the Denver zoning regulations. The entire Auraria campus has a zoning classification of R-5. As the state-owned land, the Auraria site is not subject to city zoning provisions. However I assume that the site will be developed in

compliance with the zoning regulations of the City and County of Denver. The principal use of the Auraria site as a higher education complex with the necessary accessory and supporting facilities fits within the parameters of the R-5 District of the zoning ordinance of the City and County of Denver. The following information has been extracted from the zoning ordinance of the revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver: Article 612District Regulations, Section 2g, R-5 District.
External Effects
All use established or placed into operation after the effective date of this ordinance shall comply forthwith with the following limitations on external effects.
Enclosure of UsesEvery use, unless expressly exempted by this ordinance, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure.
Sound, Vibration, Heat, Glare, Radiation, and FumesEvery use shall be so operated that the sound generated; the vibration generated; and the heat, glare, radiation and fumes emitted do not exceed the limits specified in this ordinance.
Outdoor Storage and Waste DisposalNo highly flammable or explosive liquids, solids, or gases shall be stored in

bulk above ground. All outdoor storage facilities for fuel, raw materials, and products shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such facilities from adjacent property.
Permitted Uses
No land shall be used or occupied and no structures shall be designed, erected, altered, used, or occupied except for either one or more of the following uses by right provided, however, that a use by right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses.
Uses By Right The following uses may be operated as uses by right:
a) Art Museum, Public
b) Church
c) Community Center
d) Community Recreation Facility
e) Fire Station
f) Governmental Offices, excluding Maintenance Shops
g) Institutions
h) Library, Public
i) Public park and/or Playground; need not be enclosed
j) Parking of vehicles for Art Museum, Church, Governmental Offices, Institutes, Libraries, Schools and Universities, or Colleges

k) Police Station
l) Residence for Clergy, including Monastery, Convent or Seminar
m) School: (1) Elementary and/or Secondary School meeting all requirements of the compulsory education laws of the State of Colorado and not providing residential accommodations; exempted from limitations on external effects of uses relating to volume of sound generated; (2) any School not permitting the use of machinery, other than office machines and mechanical or machinery parts of the household appliances used for instruction of or practice by the student. Repair as a service or the sale of repaired appliances prohibited. Repair as a service or the sale of repaired appliances prohibited. Classes or other school activities not permitted after 11:00 PM.
n) University or College, including residential accommodations for students and faculty.
o) Railway right-of-way: Any railway right-of-way existing on the date this ordinance became effective, but not including railway yards, maintenance, or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed.
p) Landing or take-off area for police rotorcraft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities; need not be enclosed.

- 64 -
Accessory Uses
a) All Uses by Right -- Incidental only to a use by right; any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an accessory use and need not be enclosed:
a-1) Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the use by right;
a-2) Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same zone lot as the use by right;
a-3) Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the use by right; a-4) Does not include residential occupancy except by domestic employees employed on the premises and the immediate families of such employees; a-5) If operated partially or entirely in detached structures, the gross floor area of such detached structures shall not exceed ten percent of the area of the zone lot; provided, however, that this limitation shall not apply to detached garages or detached carports used exclusively by occupants of structures containing the use by
right or by persons employed in such structures;

a-6) If operated partially or entirely within the structure containing the use by right, the gross floor area within such structure utilized by accessory uses (except garages and dining rooms for the exclusive use of occupants or persons employed in the structure) shall not be greater than 300 square feet or ten percent of the gross floor area of a structure containing any use by right.
Permitted Structures
Zone Lot for Structures A separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use by right. Each zone lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by that structure containing a use by right and a subordinate structure or structures containing only accessory uses. The zone lot for each structure shall be not less than 100 feet wide at the front setback line for structures and shall contain not less than 12,500 square feet. Upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, the boundaries and area of a designated zone lot may be amended if full compliance with all requirements of this ordinance can be maintained.

Location of Structures Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, the space resulting from the following setbacks shall be open and unobstructed.
a) Front Setback -- All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from each front line of the zone lot; provided, however, that on the two shorter dimensions of any block oblong in shape, the front setback may be reduced to ten feet for structures which face on either longer dimension; and provided, further, that detached accessory structures, except those detached accessory structures used as garages or for recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas fired incinerators, shall be set in a sufficient distance from each front line of the zone lot so that such structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior zone lots and on corner zone lots are located only on the rear part of the zone lot which is adjacent to and corresponding with the rear one-fourth of abutting interior zone lots and no closer to the side street right-of-way than thirty feet or one-half the dimension of the corner zone lot, measured perpendicularly from the side street right-of-way, whichever distance is greater;

b) Rear Setback If no alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than five feet and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from each rear line of the zone lot. If an alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, detached garages and carports opening directly on the alley shall be set in a distance of not less than five feet from the alley line; detached accessory structures (including garages and carports which do not open directly on the alley) and fixtures for the disposal of trash and garbage may be located on the alley line and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from the centerline of the abutting alley;
c) Side Setback--All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than seven feet and six inches from each side line of the zone lot;
d) Permitted Encroachments on Setback Space--Belt courses, sills, lintels, and pilasters may project 18 inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. Cornices, eaves, and gutters may project three feet into front setback space, five feet into rear setback space and 365 inches into side setback space; provided, however, that, if the side setback space is

less than five feet in width, then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space.
Outside stairways may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
Unwalled porches, terraces and balconies may extend five feet into front and rear setback spaces;
Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space.
Any structure or part thereof which is below the grade of any setback space may project any distance into such setback space.
e) Fences/Walls and Retaining WallsFences, walls and retaining walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected to a height not to exceed 72 inches; provided, however, (1) Retaining walls abutting public rights-of-way may be built to any height; (2) Schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the zone lot and (3) on a corner zone lot, fences and walls not exceeding 72 inches in height may be built on the rear line of the zone lot and on the front
line of the zone lot from the rear line forward to

the rear of any structure containing the use by right.
Bulk of Structures -- No part of any structure (except church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes extending up over the zone lot at an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of one foot additional rise for each foot additional setback) and which planes start (1) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the zone lot and pass through points ten feet above the mid-point of each such side line or lines, and (2) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points ten feet above the mid-point of such centerlines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended, and (3) at, if no alley abuts the zone lot, a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the zone lot and passes through a point ten feet above the mid-point of such rear line of the zone lot; and if the rear line or lines of the zone lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the centerlines of such abutting alley or

alleys and pass through points ten feet above the midpoint of such centerlines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended.
Maximum Zone Lot Coverage The sum total of the ground area covered by all structures, on a zone lot, shall not exceed 60 percent of the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located.
Outside Area of Window Exposure--Each legally required window shall have not less than the following amount of outside exposure determined in the following manner: From a reference point located at the bottom center of the window, extend outward, at a right angle to the window plane, a horizontal sector of 140 degrees, centered on the window with a radius of ten feet. Within this sector the minimum required outside area of exposure for the window shall be any open sector or combination of sectors totaling 70 degrees. Applied in the direction of adjoining zone lots, the area which may be credited as outside area of window exposure, extends to required setback lines, regardless of the actual location of

- 71 -
The provisions of Article 613 permitted signs, shall be in full force and effect in this district.
The provisions of Article 614, off-street parking requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district. University and colleges are uses by right which are placed in parking class two. Parking class two requirements state that there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each 600 square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right; provided, however, that for each habitable unit in a motel there need be provided not more than one off-street parking space.
The provisions of Article 615, off-street loading requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
Planned Building Groups
The provisions of Article 616, special zone lot plan for planned building groups shall be in full force and
effect in this district. Under the standard provisions of

this ordinance a separate ground area, referred to in the ordinance as the zone lot, must be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right. Pursuant to the procedure hereinafter set forth, two or more of such structures may be erected and maintained on the same zone lot. Also, several zone lots may be combined into one special plan covering a planned building group. The procedure is intended to permit diversification in the location of structures and to improve circulation facilities and other site qualities while insuring adequate standards relating to public health, safety, welfare, and convenience in the use and occupancy of buildings and facilities in planned building groups.
As to Scope -- The procedure hereinafter set forth shall not be construed to waive nor shall there be waived thereby any regulation for any district except the regulation that a separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right.
As to DistrictsThe procedure set forth shall apply only in the R-l, R-2, R-3, R-3-X, R-4, R-5, B-l, B-A-l, B-

2, B-A-2, B-3, B-A-3, B-4, B-A-4, B-6, 1-P and 0-1
Districts, provided, however, that in the 0-1 District the procedure shall apply only to buildings open to the public.
Applications for Approval. How Made and Contents All applications for approval of a special plan hereunder shall be filed with the Department of Zoning Administration by the owner or owners of the entire land area to be included within the special plan, the owner or owners of all structures then existing on said land area and all incumbrances of said land area and structures; shall contain sufficient evidence to establish that the applicants are the owners and all the incumbrances of the designated land and structures; shall contain such information and representations required by this ordinance or deemed necessary by the department and shall include plats and plans showing at least the following details drawn to scale:
a) The land area which would be included within the special plan, the present zoning classification of the designated area, the land area of all abutting districts and the present zoning classification thereof, all public and private rights-of-way and

easements bounding and intersecting the designated area and the abutting districts which are proposed to be continued, created, relocated and/or abandoned;
b) The proposed finished grade of the designated area, shown in contour intervals not to exceed two feet;
c) A description of the proposed zone lot or zone lots and the boundaries thereof;
d) The location of each existing and each proposed structure in the designated area, the use or uses to be contained therein, the number of stories, gross floor area and approximate location of entrances and loading points thereof;
e) The location of all outside facilities for waste disposal;
f) All curb cuts, driving lanes, parking areas, loading areas, public transportation points and illumination facilities for the same;
g) All pedestrian walks, malls, and open areas for use by tenants or members of the public;
h) The location and height of all walls, fences and screen planting;
i) The location, size, height, and orientation of all signs other than signs flat on building facades;
j) The types of surfacing, such as paving, turfing or gravel, to be used at the various locations;

k) The location of fire hydrants.
Review of Applications for Approval. Standards
All applications hereunder shall be reviewed for completeness by the Department of Zoning Administration and, if found to be complete, shall be transmitted to the planning office and to any other agency, either public or private, which might be affected by approvals of such applications. All applications hereunder shall be reviewed by the planning office and approved or disapproved. Any approval hereunder may establish necessary conditions and limitations.
Standard Provisions of Ordinance
No application hereunder shall be approved unless the application and the accompanying plats and plans comply with all regulations established for the district or districts in which are located the land area and structures designated in such application, except the regulation that a separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a use or uses by right.

Site Facilities
All special plans hereunder shall make due provision
a) Adequate design of grades, paving gutters, drainage and treatment of turf to handle storm waters, prevent erosion and formation of dust;
b) Adequate, safe and convenient arrangement of pedestrian circulation facilities, roadways, driveways, off-street parking and loading space, facilities for waste disposal and illumination;
c) Adequate amount and proper location of pedestrian walks, malls, and landscaped spaces to prevent pedestrian use of vehicular ways and parking spaces and to separate pedestrian walks, malls and public transportation loading places from general vehicular circulation facilities;
d) Arrangement of buildings and vehicular circulation open spaces so that pedestrians moving between buildings are not unnecessarily exposed to vehicular traffic;
e) Proper arrangement of signs and lighting devices with respect to traffic control devices and adjacent residential districts;
f) In business building groups near or abutting residential districts, fences, walls or year-round

screen planting when necessary to shield adjacent residential districts from parking lot illumination, headlights, fumes, heat, blowing papers and dust and to reduce the visual encroachment of commercial architecture, signs and activity on residential privacy and residential neighborhood character.
Minimum spacing between buildings, orientation of main window exposures and entrances in R-3, R-4, and R-5 Districts. The following required spacing between buildings shall be measured perpendicularly from any exterior building wall; it does not apply in corner-to-corner placement of buildings where perpendicular wall exposures do not overlap:
a) In buildings containing multiple dwelling units, walls containing main window exposures or main entrances shall be oriented as to insure adequate light and air exposure; shall be so arranged as to avoid undue exposure to nearby through traffic ways or undue exposure and menace to concentrated loading or parking facilities; shall be so oriented as to preserve visual and audible privacy as between adjacent buildings;
b) A building wall shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to one-half the height

of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 25 feet;
c) Any open court area which otherwise complies with standard of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 25 percent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles;
d) A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles.
Approved Special Plans Registered and Recorded After completing its review of an application hereunder, the planning office shall return such application and all pertinent data, together with a notice of recommendation, to the Department of Zoning Administration. The department shall give due notice of disapproval to the applicants. Upon receipt of an approved application from the planning office, the department shall register a copy of the approved special plan among its records and shall record a copy thereof, or such other record thereof as deemed proper by the department, in the office of the clerk and recorder.

- 79 -
Effect of Registered and Recorded Special Plans All plans registered and recorded hereunder shall be binding upon the applicants therefore, their successors and assigns, shall limit and control the issuance and validity of all zoning permits and zoning certificates and shall restrict and limit the construction, location, use and operation of all land and structures included within such plans to all conditions and limitations set forth in such plans; provided, however, that upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, based only upon a showing of engineering necessity therefore, minor changes in the location of structures may be permitted if such minor changes will not cause any of the following circumstances to occur:
a) A change in the character of the development;
b) An increase in the ratio of the gross floor area in structures to the area of any zone lot;
c) An increase in the intensity of use;
d) A reduction in the originally approved separations between buildings;
e) An increase of the problems of circulation, safety and utilities;
A reduction in the originally approved setbacks from property lines;

An increase in ground coverage by structures;
A reduction in the ratio of off-street parking and loading space to gross floor area in structures;
A change in the subject, size, lighting, flashing, animation or orientation of originally approved signs.

Applicable Code Name: Building Code of The City and County of Denver
Item Section
Fire Zone: III 1604
Occupancy Classification: mixed occupancy
Principal Occupancy: H-2 apartments Others (specify): F-2 Office buildings
Stores for retail sales F-l Drinking and dining
Occupancy Separations required Table No. 5-B
H-2 to F-2 = 1 hours H-2 to F-l = hours F-2 to F-l = 1 hours
Construction Type: Type I Sec. 1801
Maximum allowable floor are: Table No. 5-C
Maximum allowable height: Table No. 5-D
Feet: unlimited
Stories: unlimited

Fire resistance of exterior wall (Sec. 1803
(see occupancy type and construction type):
In groups F and H occupancies of type I construction, exterior bearing walls may be of 2 hours fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
Openings in exterior walls
(see occupancy type and construction
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior
walls located less than five feet set back
distances from an adjacent property line or the
center line of a street or alley for buildings
housing groups F and H occupancies. All
openings in exterior walls shall be protected by
a fire assembly having 3/4 hour fire-resistive
rating where the walls are located less than
twenty feet set back distances from an adjacent
property line or the center line of a street or
alley for F-l occupancy and type I construction in fire
zone III.
Windows required in rooms:
F-l, F-2: All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or

artificial light.
H-2: the same as above. However, required windows shall open on a court, yard, or street, either directly or through a porch at least 7 feet high and not more than 7 feet deep, with at least 2 sides 50 percent open.
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms:
H-2: a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet over at least 50 percent of its area, and no portion of the remaining ceiling shall be less than 5 feet
ir i height.
Fire resistive requirements: Table No. 17-A
Exterior bearing walls 4 hours See also No. 7
Interior bearing walls 3 hours
Exterior non-bearing walls 4 hours See also 1803(a)
Structural frame 3 hours
Permanent partitions 1 hours
Vertical openings 2 hours
Floors 2 hours
Roofs 2 hours See also 1806
Exterior doors lh hours
Inner court walls 3 hours
Mezzanine floors (area
allowed) 1 hours
Roof coverings 2 hours


Boiler room enclosure
1 hours
Occupancy load-basis (square feet/ occupant)
Occupancy Type Basis
F-l 15
F-2 retail, ground floor 30
F-2 office buildings 100
H-2 200
Number of exits required For all occupancy types: 2 exits or more
Minimum width of exits:
The total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50:
F-2 retail F-2 office H-2
667/50 = 13 ft. 333/50 = 7 ft. 200/50 = 4 ft. 300/50 = 6 ft.
Table No. 33-A
Actual Load 667 333 200 300
Table No. 33-A 3302
The width of exits shall be divided

approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story, plus percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. 50% of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. 25% of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
Exit separation arrangement: 3302(k)
Minimum travel distance between
exit doors = 25 feet. The exits shall
be remote from each other. Means of
egress shall be arranged so that, from
any room door, exits will be accessible

in at least 2 different directions. Maximum allowable travel distance to exit
F-l, F-2: from any point in building = 150ft.
With sprinklers = 200ft.
Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an individual living unit shall not exceed 50 ft. or traverse more than one flight of stairs.
H-2: The entrance door to any unit = 100 ft.
With sprinklers = 150 ft.
Allowable exit sequence:
For F-l occupancy, at least h of the required exits shall be located to be reached without going through checkout stands. Exit doors: must swing in direction of travel when serving occupancy load of 30 or more. Exit doors shall be operable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
Minimum width: 3 feet and at least

6 feet 8 inches in height.
Maximum leaf width: 4 feet.
Width required for every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10.
Exit corridors: 3304
Minimum allowable width: 44 inches
and 7 feet of a clear height required
to have exit at each end of corridor
more than one exit is required
depending on length of corridor and type
of occupancy.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes.
Maximum length: 20 feet.
Wall fire resistance required: 1 hour fire-resistive construction.
Doors and frames fire resistance required:
F-l, F-2: 3/4 hour fire resistance
H-2: 3/4 hour fire resistance
Stairs: 3305
Minimum width: 44 inches
occ. load of more than 50
36 inches
occ. load of more than 50 or less
30 inches

occ. load of less than 10 Maximum riser allowed: lh inches Minimum tread allowed: 10 inches Are winders allowed? Allowed in private stairways of group H occupancies Landings:
Minimum size: equal to the width of the stairway
Maximum size required: 5 feet Maximum vertical distance between landings: 12 feet 6 inches Minimum vertical distance between landings: N.A.
Required height of rails not less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches above the nosing of the threads.
Hand rails shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways, at least one handrail shall extend at least six inches beyond the top and bottom risers, with the ends returned or terminating in posts or safety terminals. Intermediate rails required at stairs: more than 88 inches in width.
Maximum width between int. rails: 88 inches

Exceptions applicable: stairways 44 inches or less in width serving one individual dwelling unit in group H occupancy may have one handrail, except that stairways open on both sides shall have handrails provided on the open sides. Stairways serving one individual dwelling units in group H occupancy having less than four risers need not have handrails.
Height above nosing not less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches.
Intermediate rail required: yes Handrails return to wall at ends: no Handrails extend beyond stair: yes (see handrails) Stair to roof required? Building of 4 or more stories in height, one interior stairway required unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. Stair to basement restrictions when a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, a barrier shall be provided.
Stair access to roof required: see above Access to roof required: see above Stair enclosure required: interior stairways for individual units of group H occupancy stairs are not required to be enclosed. Enclosure is


required for one hour fire-resistive construction Horizontal exit requirements: All horizontal exits in a wall shall be protected by a fire assembly having one hour fire-resistive construction. The fire assembly shall be self-closing. A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having a capacity for an occupant load of at least the occupant load served by this exit.
Ramps: 3306
Maximum slope: one vertical to 12 horizontal Handrails required: at least on one side; shall extend one foot beyond the top and bottom of the ramp.
Height required: minimum of 32 inches Balusters or intermediate rails required: not required
Toilet room requirements (code utilized) Fixture Count Requirements: 509 Table No Table No
Men Retail Restaurant Office
Lavatories 3 11 5
Water closets 3 12 7
Urinals 2 22 3

- 91 -
Lavatories 2 11
Water closets 4 22
Drinking fountain requirements 1 1
Showers required none
Handicapped requirements:
Public facilities, 1 water closet and 1 lavatory for each sex accessible to handicapped must be provided.
Use of property Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? yes Restriction on marquees, canopies, etc.
All marquees shall be permitted
but at least 4 feet above the public
Other projections:
No projection is permitted less than 8 feet clearance above the public way. Projection does not exceed a distance of 4 feet.
All permitted projections shall provide
4502 4504
a horizontal clearance of at least 2 feet

inside the curb line.
No part of any structure or any appendage shall project into an alley unless a 14 feet clearance above the alley grade is maintained.
Ventilation outlets fronting onto public way shall provide a minimum height of at least 7 feet from the sidewalls or alley floor.


Project Background
The current lack of campus-life atmosphere at the Auraria Higher Education Center is partially attributed to the heavy traffic of two major roads that pass through right in the heart of the Auraria campus and partially attributed to the nonexistence on-campus student housing with the nearby activities-generating facilities such as cultural, commercial and entertainment attractions. With these in mind I propose a mixed-use project for the campus to be located at 9th Street, in front of the Tivoli. This site offers an excellent opportunity to convert the 9th Street into the center of campus life because at 9th Street we have:
the student population to generate activities, the student center which is a cultural and entertainment attraction.
the Tivoli with its retail stores and cinemas, a study proposal to develop the eastern sites near the Tivoli into housing and a commercial node, a thesis proposal to build a performing arts center on the site between Lawrence and Larimer, adjacent to the student center.
the historic St. Cajetans as a focal point which now

serves as a performing arts facility The connection with the 9th Street Park will transform the 9th Street into a center of campus life with cultural, commercial, and entertainment attractions. The closing of Lawrence Street entirely to the vehicular traffic transform it into a pedesterian mall, a major pedestrian way to campus resources and the 9th Street will become a main gateway to the heart of the campus, the connection between living places and learning resources.
For the purpose of meeting student housing needs on campus AHEC will pursue options for forming partnerships with both public and private partners. Therefore, the square-footage distribution among the housing, commercial, and office spaces will be based on the acceptable percentage of total s q u a r e f o o t a g e s devoted to the commercial establishments and offices to help cover the cost of housing. The best percentage distribution will be:
housing 60$ = 60$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 60,000 sq.ft, commercial 20$ = 20$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 20,000 sq.ft, office 20$ = 20$ x 100,000 sq.ft. = 20,000 sq.ft.
Total ...... =100,000 sq.ft.
Because of the presence of student population and the

availability of more retail spaces at the adjacent Tivoli, fifty percent of the commercial spaces would be devoted to eating and drinking establishments and the other fifty percent would be retail stores.
In order to document the housing needs of the student population a survey was conducted during November of 1984 to determine current student housing status -- the assumption being that there might be a relationship between current housing status and interest in utilizing housing proximally located to the campus or on-campus should it be available. The Auraria Student Assistance Center (ASAC) initiated the survey to explore the perceived interest of Auraria students.
The ASAC Housing Survey is a randomized, non-stratified sample of the student population at the Auraria Higher Education Center. The population utilized in the survey was that as identified by current computer listings of students at the three academic institutions as of October 30, 1984. Using these computer generated alphabetized listings a 1.2% random sample was generated. This represents 310 students (13% DACC, 47% MSC, 40% UCD). There was a 100% contact rate among the 310 respondents in the sample population. Of this number, 34 (10.9%) declined to respond after initial contact. Therefore, completed questionnaires were obtained on
276 (89%)

Of the 276 respondents, 108 (39%) owned their own
home and 168 (61%) were currently renting. Given that the objective of the survey was to obtain data on respondents potentially interested in rental housing, further data was obtained on only the 168 non-homeowners. Of these 168 respondents, 4% declined to respond. As the results of this study they conclude:
the sample was reflective of the Auraria campus student population.
a significant percentage of the sample (39%) owned a home.
61% of the campus student population would be eligible for consideration of rental housing. Of this population, only 56% were currently paying rent (i.e. 44% were living at home with parents).
Added observations regarding the findings of this study are reflected in the following statements:
A. The student population x 61% = potential renters
B. Potential renters x 56% = potential rent payers
C. Therefore .61 x .56 = .34 potential rent payers of the population
A hypothetical example gives clarity to the data as follows:
Auraria Higher Education Center = 30,000 students x .34 =

10.200 potential paying renters. This is to say that
10.200 students are actually a part of the campus rent paying market. Of the 10,200 students, 53% are currently paying greater than $100 per person per month for rental costs. Almost half (47%) per paying $100 or less per person per month.
Several limitations of the current study warrant observation. Due to the factors and pressures of time and restricted funding, a 1.2% sample population was utilized. The smaller the sample, the greater the risk of nonrepresentation of the population by that sample. Further, the degree to which respondents were able to accurately respond to the survey items is unclear. Specifically, respondents could have over-estimated their financial outlay for rental costs.
The data generated by the current study reflects the present economic status of students. Future changes in I financial aid allocations and employment status could
alter the potential rental pool of respondents and the availability of funds they could dedicate to rental housing.
Due to stated limitations of funding and time, a study of faculty interest in adjacent campus housing was not undertaken. As the ASAC/Off-Campus Housing Office has responded on an individual basis to queries from campus

faculty regarding housing proximally located to campus, a more thorough examination of this population as a potential user of adjacent campus housing might be of interest.
Spatial Requirements
Commercial Space Retail units 10 @ 1800 sq.ft, (including eating and drinking 5 units)
Circulation, mechanical @ 10% Total sq.ft, commercial
Office Space Leasable office space Circulation, mechanical @ 10% Total sq.ft, office
Apartment units Living/Dining room Bedroom/Study 2 @ 175 sq. ft. Bathroom Kitchen
= 18,000 sq. ft. establishments
= 2.000 sq. ft. = 20,000 sq. ft.
= 18,000 sq. ft.
= 2,000 sq. ft. = 20,000 sq. ft.
= 225 sq. ft. = 350 sq. ft. = 50 sq. ft. = 85 sq. ft.

= 100 sq. ft.
=____90 sq. ft...
= 900 sq. ft.
Community/Service Center Supervisor's living unit Supervisor's office Central storage Laundry room
Community Meeting/Day Care facility
Mail room
= 900 sq. ft. = 150 sq. ft. = 300 sq. ft. = 700 sq. ft. = lf150 sq. ft.
= 100 sq. ft. = 3,300 sq. ft.
Apartment units 63 @ 900 sq. ft. Community/service center Total sq. ft. housing
= 56,700 sq. ft.
= -3.1.3Q.Q_-S.q = 60,000 sq. ft.
Spatial Analysis Commercial Space
Store facade must be attractive in order to catch the pedestrian's attention. Easy service access to every store must be pursued, preferably with a clear separation

between service and customer circulation. In response to the Auraria campus grid system, the whole structure will be laid on 30' x 30' column bays. Store depth will be in the range of 50 to 75 ft. Eating and drinking establishment must front a busy path, and be open to the street. Provide outdoor seating area shaded by a canvas canopy. Restroom facilities must be provided for public and employees.
Office Space
Office space is served by a service core which includes the elevator, stair, restroom, mechanical and electrical room. It occupies the upper floors and therefore it follows the same 30 foot bays throughout.
The office space must be extremely flexible to provide leasing options for small and large areas. Suggested range of floor to floor height is 11 to 14 feet, usually about 12 feet is used. Finished ceiling height is typically 8 to 9 feet, allowing for a plenum for mechanical systems and recessed lighting above the ceiling.
Each apartment unit comprises a living/dining room, a kitchen, two study-bedrooms, a bathroom, storage, and

circulation. The total unit size should be 900 square feet approximately one in seven units and the entire community/service center must be accessible to the handicapped. Design should follow the current ANSI regulations. The handicapped units should be evenly distributed throughout the complex and should not be grouped together. Each apartment should be designed and oriented to offer the most favorable combination of quietness, sun exposure, ventilation and view. Sound separation between adjacent units should achieve a rating of Airborne Sound Transmission class 55. Repetition of one typical floor plan is acceptable, but a variety of plans is encouraged. Although dempsey dumpsters are acceptable, other alternatives for trash collecting should be explored. Approximately one collection point per 20 units should be provided for throughout the complex.
The broken up of the unit's spaces is as follows: Living/Dining Room
The living/dining room should be 225 square feet in size to accommodate the following activities; eating, dining, studying, and both formal and informal entertaining. The area near the kitchen should accommodate a dining table with seating for six. The main area should be large and allow for the arranging of a sofa, two armchairs, a low table, and bookshelves. The

- 102 -
main living area should open to a deck area at the ground level or a living balcony at the second level.
The kitchen should be 85 square feet in size and accommodate several people at a time. A minimum of eight linear feet of counter top space along with 24 linear feet of built-in adjustable upper and lower cabinet shelving and storage space should be provided. Room for a 14 cubic foot capacity refrigerator, 12 cubic foot capacity freezer, 30" minimum range/oven and a double sink should be provided in addition to the counter top space. The kitchen may be somewhat open to the dining area, but should be screened from the living room; an eating counter dividing the two is acceptable.
Each unit will have two bedrooms/study, each 175 square feet in size. The dimensions and the fixed relationships in the rooms (door, window, lamps) should be placed in a way that will allow varied furniture arrangements. The furniture which will be provided for each bedroom/study will consist of two beds (39 x 80), two desks (42" or 45"), two chests of drawers (each 34"x 18"d
42"h) and two chairs. Each bedroom/study should have

- 103 -
eight linear feet of closet with a shelf above.
The bathroom should be 50 square feet in size and designed to best serve four unrelated students. A combination shower-bath, water closet, and a wash basin to accommodate two people should be provided. A second sink/vanity should be provided outside the primary bathroom area.
General Storage
A general storage room of approximately 50 square feet in size, designed as a walk-in closet with entry from the inside of the apartment should be located in or adjacent to the apartment, such as on a porch or deck. The storage other than the general storage should be a combination of linen/coat closets outside each bedroom/study and a large utility closet in or near the kitchen.
The spaces to be provided for the community service center are as follows:
Supervisor's Living Unit
The supervisor's living unit is 900 square feet in
size and is the same as the apartment units in floor plan.

A 150 square-foot office is provided for the management of the housing. An entry into the office directly from the supervisor's living unit along with one from the center's general circulation is required. The office space should accommodate a desk, three chairs, key cabinet, bulletin board, storage cabinet, and up to six people.
Central Storage
A general storage room 300 square feet in size should be included in the community/service center.
Laundry Room
A 700 square foot laundry room should be included in the center. This room should accommodate eight washers and dryers, laundry trays, folding and sorting counters or tables, and a seating area. The design of the complex may explore breaking the laundry facilities up among unit groups. Each handicapped unit will have its own washer and dryer.
Mail Distribution Room
A room of 100 square feet in size for mail distribution is required for servicing the 63 apartment

- 105 -
Community Meeting/Day Care Facility
The 1150 square-foot space will double as a day care center and a lounging/meeting/recreation area for the complex. The space should include within it a storage area, kitchen, and toilet rooms for each sex. The entire facility must be accessible by the handicapped.
The total number of parking spaces required for the housing is based on 3.1 spaces per unit, therefore 63 apartment units require 63 x 3.1 parking spaces = 200 parking spaces. Parking should be placed at least 100 feet but not more than 200 feet from the units and placed throughout the complex. However, temporary parking for loading and unloading purposes should be provided for each unit cluster and retail stores. Parking for commercial and office uses will be provided by the adjacent parking lots.
Spatial Quality Retail Shops
Recent literature on retail structures tends to deal

with one of two types. One is the shopping mall-traditionally suburban but increasingly urban with more vertically oriented malls (e.g. Citicorp in NYC). The other mainstream at the time is the Faneuil Hall, Larimer Square, streetside, old-time pedestrian-oriented type of development. My project will be more like the latter, fitting into the fabric of the existing and historic Tivoli yet there is much to learn, especially regarding the accommodation of modern necessities, from the contemporary shopping mall.
Faneuil Hall Marketplace has been compared, both in praise and insult, to Disneyland. It does in fact recreate much of Disneyland's Main Street with a social and commercial vitality much lacking in a world of predominant suburban life. Historically the Main Street of Anywhere, U.S.A. has been an essential focus of both commerce and social life. It has provided a concentration of commodities and humanity. Post World War II saw the abandonment of these old time centers in favor of the new expansive American way of life in the suburbs.
The conscious addressing of the street is essential. The truly great and successful urban shopping spaces of the world do this and serve as valuable examples. The Galleria in Milan acts as a pedestrian street linking important areas of the city beyond either end. The Rue de


Rivoli in Paris has an arcade enclosed sidewalk parallel to the streets, shops on one side, busy traffic on the other. New York's Rockefeller Center pulls pedestrians down a retail lane perpendicular to adjacent 5th Avenue.
Christopher Alexander addresses the interface of automobile streets and shopping areas, first bringing up issues of the conflict, then offering a solution:
Shopping centers depend on access: they need locations near major traffic arteries. However, the shoppers themselves don't benefit from traffic: they need quiet, comfort, and convenience, and access from the pedestrian paths in the surrounding neighborhood.
Encourage local shopping centers to grow in the form of short pedestrian streets, at right angles to major roads and opening off these roadswith parking behind the shops, so that the cars can pull directly off the road, and yet not harm the shopping street.
Jane Thompson, in conjunction with her husband Benjamin Thompson architect for James Rouse, shopping mall developer extraordinaire (both the old-time and suburban varieties), cites three qualities she credits Faneuil Hall's success to:
1) Physical safety/security,
2) Sensory variety (both in the architecture and the goods

for sale), and
3) Social contact (an aspect of the Main Street social life) .
Nory Miller writes on consumer behavior and its current implications for store design. Impulse items should be placed near the entry; demand items should be further back. Entrances should be as open as possible, requiring little physical effort or mental decision-making to pass through. Dramatic and variable lighting is important to emphasize displays and merchandise node areas. Shop window display areas are now considered an unnecessary use of expensive square footage; instead the merchandise within the store is well lit and oriented to be viewed from the front store window. Mobile, modular interior partitions, desks and display racks make space more flexible and are less expensive in the long run that permanent installations. Small stores are more desirable, and large stores imitate this by creating specialized areas with differing merchandise.
In general, for the consumer shopping should be fun, entertaining, and stimulating in the variety available. From the retailer's point of view, the space should be efficient and flexible, offering both good service access and visibility to pedestrian, and potential customer, flow

by the store.
Traditional store depth is from 100 to 140 feet. Present trends are to less depth, along with overall smaller stores. At Writer Square, an in-town mixed-used development, store depth averages around 50 feet and the minimum store front width is 15 feet. Bay spacing is an important determinant of shop proportions. Columns at 30 feet on center offers the greatest flexibility. At Writer Square service access is provided by an internal corridor with shops backing up to it on either side. As well public restrooms are accessible off this corridor, making plumbing in every store unnecessary.
Office Buildings
In speculative office building design the main concerns are economics of construction and maintenance, and leasability of the space. Aesthetics usually, though not necessarily, are considered mainly from the eventual tenants' point of view; basically what will rent square footage. This does not have to have negative implications, but it does mean that speculative office space is rarely a building type for innovative experimentation in design. In general the building design should meet prevailing expectations for leasable office space, and any special design features should be readily

appreciated and not too costly.
Flexibility of tenant use is probably the issue of greatest importance in speculative office design. Space must be arranged so that large or small offices may be carved out and still maintain reasonable accessways from office entries to the core area with vertical circulation and restrooms. Usually this service core is located centrally within the building.
The configuration and proportions of the overall floor area on each level are the factors which allow flexibility and efficient use of space. A 25 to 30 foot depth from the corridor to outside wall in leasable office area is considered optimal. Not only is this distance within acceptable distance from exterior window wall to make it desirable, premium rental space, but also this depth is one that can be easily and efficiently subdivided (e.g. two 12 foot offices and a 4 foot internal corridor). Of course, column placement is important to flexibility of subdivision of space and column bay spacing must be selected with interior space in mind. Concerns of the users involve interaction and access versus privacy, and desire for personal control over their own environments.
Open Space
Open space is always an important consideration in

- Ill -
retail center design, whether it is just the sidewalk or pedestrian passageway connecting store entries or a larger area containing seating, landscaping and perhaps a fountain or other focus. Even within the enclosed suburban malls careful attention, and sometimes extravagant budgets, are dedicated to these areas.
These spaces are given over to the pedestrian, either one who has temporarily abandoned an automobile close by, or the neighborhood person who arrives on foot. I quote from Urban Open Space:
Pedestrian zones are the first signals and physical symbols for a new understanding of the city. This understanding views the city less as a functional structure and more as a living space for human beings.
Because pedestrian zones are the symbols of a new spirit, they are of utmost importance.
Essentially there are two types of urban open space. One is of harder surfaces with plenty of seating and some landscaping. It is oriented to surrounding business and retail structures and may have a good deal of traffic flow and activity in it. The other type of open space has more of a park-like atmosphere and may be thought of as more of a place for rest and introversion. In my project the open
space will be of the first type with definite connection

- 112 -
to retail and office areas, to the extent of potentially containing outdoor dining area for the restaurant. However, it may also be possible and desirable to build in small nooks which serve the function of the second type providing passive, quiet areas.
Rockefeller Center is perhaps the one grand historic example of successful urban open space in the United States. It draws pedestrians down the retail lane previously mentioned to where it opens out to the sunken plaza where a concentration of activity occurs: ice skating, roasted chestnut vendors and a multitude of spectators in the winter, and dining, flower sellers and casual strolling in the summer. One subtle trick in the design of the complex is that the lane slopes slightly down to the plaza level making it an easier walk and providing a more immediate view of the eventual destination.
Issues of concern in outdoor space design include security/safety versus privacy. The area needs to be and feel safe, yet have a human scale, a sense of enclosure, and the possibility for private interaction. Some of these seemingly conflicting qualities may be accommodated through the use of overlook and transparent screening (including use of landscape materials), and the
encouragement of a sense of territoriality.

Solar access is of utmost importance for usable outdoor space in this climate. The space must be largely south-facing and care must be taken that it is not excessively shaded by adjacent buildings. Yet provisions must be made for protection from the weather, and from the sun for use during the hottest days of the summer.
In a study conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia all of the following were mentioned by users as adding to the attractiveness of well used plazas:
* a changing population of people to observe
* distinctive (in form, color or texture) plant materials
* complex forms of fountains and sculptures
* color schemes and brightness in pavements and surface textures
* space articulation (nooks, corners, level changes)
The researchers conclude that qualities of small but "busy" open spaces include dense furnishing, attractive focal elements, defined edges and pedestrian circulation channels.
William Whyte in studying the large plaza spaces of New York City found that "sit-ability is the key to plaza use." He concludes that ledges, of the right height and depth, and steps are often the favored places to sit, and

that if chairs are provided they should be free and movable so that users may form their own clusters or spots of solitude. With the large plazas, street corners are favored locations for sitters as it is there the activity and variety are densest. For Whyte the connection of plaza to streets cape is essential as it is really the continuous promenade of people that is the attraction of these urban outdoor spaces.
The following is a summary of the patterns from Christopher Alexander's The Pattern Language, which apply to urban open space:
* A sense of enclosure is needed.
* People like to sit so that they are protected to their backs and they look out toward some larger opening beyond the immediate space.
* Courtyards need to have natural traffic flow through them.
* To size a public outdoor area, estimate the number of people using it at any given moment and allow 150 to 300 square feet per person.
It cannot be assumed that individuals residing in adjacent rooms will become friendly in the way the rooms are grouped. Face to face meetings will occur through

regular movements in and out of the building, through use of communal facilities, or by some chance incident or attraction. For a student, an important part of coming to college is to meet people, and so to make friends.
For living to be successful when people reside closely together, certain similarities of behavior are required. It cannot be assumed that putting together in residence a miscellaneous collection of individualseven if they have some common aimswill necessary be to their mutual benefit. For any group living to be satisfactory, proper arrangements for the carrying out of housekeeping chores such as cleaning, maintenance and control of entrances, and of other communal spaces, are essential.^
Primary groups for residence with study bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen and living/dining room are the basis of design for many student residences. Variation in the shape, pattern, and form of the buildings which increase their individuality are much appreciated. Extensive landscaping could compensate for less interesting building forms. Brick or brick and wood combinations are the most liked building materials. The outside appearance is important not only for how it affects residents themselves, but because of the status and reputation it conveys to the surrounding community about the residents. Maintenance is a crucial aspect of residents' evaluation

- 116 -
of exterior appearance regardless of specific design features. Noise should be a high priority concern in designing housing. Carpets in corridors, and single-loaded corridors would reduce noise. Private entrances and immediate access from the inside of the units to the outside is highly desirable. Design should reduce to the minimum the number of uncontrolled social contacts. Design should not restrict natural ventilation. Individual control of thermostats is very important in giving residents control over their own proximate environment.
Public Spaces
Lobbies should be visually pleasing; residents want to feel like they have walked into a home not an impersonal institution. The supervisor's office is preferably located on the lobby to keep casual surveillance of the main entry to the units.
Carpeting in corridors would reduce noise. Single loaded corridors which provide visual access from other areas may reduce some vandalism. All corridors should have high lighting levels.
Elevators should be large enough to accommodate
standard size furniture and other personal belongings of

residents. The time for ascent and descent should be held to a minimum.
For moderate levels of satisfaction one machine for approximately 15 people is reasonable. Facilities should be distributed throughout the site, not more than 300 feet from the dwelling unit, and allocated to small clusters of units. Because a central laundry facility necessitates parents leaving their dwelling unit for some time, there should be some provision for visual access between laundry areas and adjacent playgrounds for small children. There should also be outdoor seating, with provision of shade, around laundry areas which have visual access to play areas for small children. The provision of tables for the folding of clothes and chairs are important facilities which residents desire. A public telephone is desirable.
For low-rise developments the functional characteristics of the most satisfactory parking facilities included: cars visible from dwelling unit for casual surveillance; separation between swelling unit and parking lot provided by grassy front yard and pathway; low speed and volume of traffic because of cul-de-sac arrangements, and large enough lot for easy maneuvering. To this type of arrangement might be added individually assigned spaces or groups of spaces assigned to particular clusters of units. Good lighting is essential. The ideal

istance from the dwelling unit to one's car 00 and 200 feet, with the car parking and eparated from the dwelling unit by some type one such as a semi-private front yard.^2
is between circulation of buffer

- 119 -NOTES
^Arnulf Luchinger, Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning (Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag, 1981), p. 19.
2Brent C. Brolin, Architecture in Context (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980), p. 5.
^Brolin, p. 7.
4Luchinger, p. 31.
^Luchinger, p. 27.
^Christian Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci (New York: Rizzoli, 1980), pp. 5-6.
^Schulz, p. 47, p. 116.
^Charles Moore, Gerald Allen, Donlyn Lyndon, The Place of Houses (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974), p. 32.
9Brent C. Brolin, The Failure of Modern Architecture (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976), pp. 16-28.
^Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, Functionalism, Yes. But. (Architecture and Urbanism, 1981), p. 102. ''Luchinger, p. 59.
'^Schulz, pp. 170-182 .
'^Robert E. Witherspoon, John P. Abbett, Robert M.
Gladstone, Mixed-Use Developments:____New Wavs of Land Use
(Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1976), p. xi.

- 120 -
14Dimitri Procos, Mixed Land Use: From Revival to Innovation (Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1976) pp. 1-8.
^Witherspoon, pp. 3-40.
^Jane Palmer Morrison, Auraria Square: Campus Redevelopment. (Denver: College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, 1979).
17Don D. Etter, Auraria: Where Denver Began (Colorado: Colorado Associated University Press, 1972), p. vi.
i ft
^Mark Fitzwilliam, Auraria Performing Arts Center (Denver: University of Colorado, 1983), pp. 8-9.
20Michael Collins, The Adaptive Reuse of Tivoli Brewery (Denver: University of Colorado, 1980).
21William Mullins and Phyllis Allen, Student Housing (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971), pp. 26-27.
22Franklin D. Becker, Design for Living (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1975), pp. 9-21.

A-5 Denver, Inc. Master Plan for the Auraria Higher Education Center. Denver, Colorado, 1973.
Becker, Franklin D. Design for Living. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1975.
Benson, Maxine. Tivoli_____. .. Denver's Pioneer Brewery?
Denver, Colorado, 1974.
Brettel, Richard. Historic Denver 1858-1893 Denver: Historica Denver, Inc., 1973.
Brolin, Brent C. Architecture in Context. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1980.
Brolin, Brent C. The Failure of Modern Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1976.
Ching, Francis D.K. Architecture: Form. Space and Order. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
Building Code of the City and County of Denver. Denver: City and County of Denver, 1984.
Climates of the States. Second Edition. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1985.
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Design. Urban Open Space. New York: Rizzoli, 1981.
Etter, Don D. Auraria Where Denver Begins. Colorado: Colorado Associated University Press, 1972.

- 122 -
Luchinger, Arnulf. Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer, 1981.
Moore, Charles, Gerald Allen, and Donlyn Lyndon. The Place of Houses. New York: Holt, 1974.
Morrison, Jane P. Auraria Square: Campus Redevelopment. Denver: College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, 1979.
Mullins, William and Phyllis Allen. Student Housing. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.
Paul, Samuel. Apartments. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation, 1967.
Project for Public Spaces, Inc. Managing Downtown Public Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Planners Press, 1984.
Schulz, Christian Norberg. Genius Loci. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.
Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data. Sixth Edition. New York: McGraww-Hill, 1982.
Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California: International Conference of Building Officials, 1985.
Untermann, Richard K. Accommodating the Pedestrian. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1984.
Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977.
Witherspoon, Robert E., John P. Abbett, and Robert M.

- 123 -
Gladstone. Mixed-use Developments: New Ways of Land Use. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1976.
Zoning Ordinance. City and County of Denver. Tallahassee, Florida: Municipal Code Corporation, 1982.

Visitor Parking in Lots G & Q Braille Map available at Disabled Student Services Central
Speer Bivd North------*
AR...............Arts Bldg
Au...............Aurana Library
8R...............Bromley Building
BU...............Business Services (Parking-
CC...............Child Care Centen
CD...............Child Development Cente'
CN...............Central Classroom
EC...............East Classroom I
EG...............Emmanuel Gallery
MR...............Mercantile Restaurant
PE...............Physical Education
PP....-..........Physical Plant
PS................Public Safety
RO................Rectory Office
SA................St Cajetan s Center
SE................St Elizabeth s Church
SF................St Francis Center
Si....-...........Science Bunding
SO................South Classroom
ST................Student Center (Book Center)
TE................Technology Building
L*A...............UCD Administration
WC................Wes: Classroom
DC PA Parking Garage

View of Tivoli from the site

View of student center from the site
View of St. Cajetans from the site

View of Lawrence Viaduct to the southeast
View of warehouses to the northwest

: &.
<$* .,er
s /\
\y /X ^ / v
A' J&
x y /
West Col fax

i i r
~i f 1/ l

I11) ^ I1
i----------1 \-----------1
r) (i

n Broadway

learning npnounFB centbb
f\ \

< ......VEHICLE
boence moa
POO o oo raui


2 MAIN 2



r %"
: | S£.
% ' 7^>-




15 4 4_____


AT 1 of the following information is derived from the Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data. Sixth Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982). Refer to the book for more information and complete data.

By J. L. GRUZEN and J. J. KOSTER, Gruien and Partnara
At the time of thia writing, it ia anticipated that within the next 1 5 yeara in the United States it will be necessary to construct as many new housing units as have been constructed to date.
Thia need for new housing, considered against a background of continuing urbanization, clearly indicates that an increasing proportion of an expanding housing market will be devoted to multifamily types of housing or apartments. The inevitability of thia trend contains a challenge to the architect to do more than merely meet a statistical demand. He must rather address, identify, and solve the problems of multifamily building types as an attractive alternative to freestanding singlefamily buildings.
This article will deal with multifamily living in general, with some additional attention to the problems of the medium- and high-rise building type (i.e. building types which require a degree of vertical servicing).
The process of designing an apartment building may be graphically depicted in a general way as in Table 1. This article will be developed in the same sequence as Table 1. It must be borne in mind that, as with any design development, the evolution of an apartment building design is not a sequential process but a process of continuing interaction, feedback, and reevaluation, and that the number and complexity of events will vary according to the program, scope, and funding sources involved. The sequences shown are labeled as program development, site analysis, building planning, and building design.
Program development is for the most part evaluation of information over which the architect has relatively little control but which shapes the project in a basic way.
Site analysis involves evaluation of physical data which must be recognized, identified, and weighed by the architect in making basic design decisions dealing with site use, allocation, and development.
Market Analysis
A market analysis and program formulation may precede the retention of an architect; however, to an increasing degree clients solicit the aid of an architect in these areas. An investigation of the potential market should consider existing market conditions and trends with regard to
1. Type of occupancy
a. Rental
b. Cooperative
c. Condominium
2. Price (rent, maintenance, etc )
3. Amenities
4 Apartment size (area and number of rooms)
N k - ' V
( #>R00fAM DCvClOPmCnT > < BUtLCMNG planning

| PROGRAM | lBWI IctjNSi&aTGrel lvs>Ll ittPVAL r! m imasn IJEHSE1 1 W 1
Market Anolyt't Ditr i button funding Control* Standard* Sit* Charoc'*'i*tic* Utii-r.** Large Scot* Development Bu *d>ng Types Bui'dmg Or-en'otion Floor Shape ona Sue Building Height Length ond Width Wind Bracing Concrete Steel Limito'ion* Sv*t*m* £l*vo*Cr* Egret* Plumbing Ventilating Heating ond Cooling Guide'net Procedure 0** Cntetkj Spatial Requirement* Circulation Cor* Moil Room Wheeled Storage Commercial Loundry ond Community Refute O'tpotoi Boiler Room
TABLE 2 Comparative Program Elements-Market Range
Low Medium High
Living unit
Living . Minimum areas: combined living, dining and entry areas Larger room sizes: dining alcove, entry alcove Generous room sizes: separate dining room, separate entry foyer
Kitchen. . Minimum counter top and storage: Standard appliances Additional counter top and storage; snack bar. better appliances, space for dishwasher Ample workspace, counter too, and storage; built-in appliances, wall oven, dishwashet, eat-in kitchen
Bedrooms. . Minimum closets Walk-in closets Oressing rooms, storage closets, built-in accessories
Baths . Minimal bath with standard fixtures and accessories; minimum finishes Higher-quality fixtures, finishes, and accessories; extra half bath at entry or master bedroom Additional baths and halt baths with custom cabinets and fixtures; stall showers, etc. powder room; luxury finishes
Support facilities
In apartment Few extras limited to security Intercom, door signal, balconies. unit air conditioners Ooorman and telephone, large balconies, central air conditioning, service entrance, servants' quarters
In building. . Laundry facilities, minimum lobby Laundry room, commercial space, community room, central storage Attended parking, convenience shopping, service elevators, doorman, closed-circuit TV security system, valet service, meeting rooms, health club, sheltered swimming facilities
Site Open parking, drying yard Secure open or sheltered parking, outdoor play and sitting area, swimming pool Gardens, recreation areas, country club amenities, swimming pool

TYPICAL DOUBLE-LOADED FLAT Fig. 23 Typical apartment types.
Fig. 24 Typical apartment layout.
(1) It is advisable to back up similar (kitchen and kitchen, bath and bath) ducts where possible. This allows one fan and fireproof enclosure to serve two ducts but requires measures to avoid excessive sound transmission between backed up spaces. Ducts may be "buried" in closets, kitchen, etc. Kitchen exhausts are best located near the range and close to the ceiling. Bathroom exhausts should, if possible, be placed away from the door in order to pull as much bathroom air as possible. Ducts are not necessary in kitchens or baths with windows (however, baths with windows, like top-floor baths, should be heated). (2) The structure should be spaced as regularly as practicable and within economical center-to-center distances. Columns built into closets or kitchens should assume the dimensions of the closet or cabinet. Column size should be reduced at upper stories of tall buildings. Slab openings along an entire column face should be avoided. (3) Plumbing backup is recommended. Dissimilar uses may be backed up, and it is possible to back up plumbing for more than two spaces. (4) Depth of rooms is sometimes limited by building codes. In any event, room depth relative to window size and location and natural light should be considered.
and electrical lines and not unusual for ventilating ducts. If there is substantial advantage to be gained, structural columns may be picked up and carried on girders concealed by the hung ceiling.
Vertical Circulation Core
For purposes of security and convenience, elevators should be well illuminated and visible from the lobby area. At least one exit stair should empty directly to the outside (but not necessarily at the lobby level).
It should be borne in mind that the stair layout in the lobby will frequently differ from a typical floor due to a greater first-floor ceiling height
Mail Room
Mailboxes as well should be highly visible. If boxes are rear-loading, a locked room behind the boxes should be provided for the mailman's
Fig. 25 First-floor diagram.
use. Front-loading boxes require no such room. However, in either case, an additional secure area for packages and deliveries may be advised. Current federal requirements which govern matters such as maximum and minimum height of boxes and size of mail rooms should be consulted.
Wheeled Storage and/or Pram Room
Paths of travel from the main entrance to these areas should be short, direct, and without steps. Layout of the rooms for purposes of security should be such that all parts of the room are visible from the entrance. Lock rails, to which equipment may be secured, should be supplied.
Shops and service facilities at the ground floor provide many advantages in terms of activity and convenience. However, much of the advantage to the building may be diminished if
the shops face away from the lobby and provide either no access or poor back-door access from the apartment building itself. On the other hand, easy circulation between a commercial establishment and the lobby may cause security problems which must be considered.
Laundry and Community Room
Laundries and community rooms are frequently found at the first floor for convenient servicing and public access and in order to utilize the additional story height. These facilities should be on a short, direct path from elevators, with as little cross circulation with other activities as possible (See Figs 26 to 30.)
Laundries may be located either on typical floors or in a penthouse in conjunction with the community room.
Location of laundry rooms on typical floors has the advantage of convenience which, however, is offset by difficulties of multiple maintenance and problems of odor and noise.

LIVING AREAS Planning Considerations
Through traffic should be separated from activity centers.
Openings should be located so as to give enough wall space for various furniture arrangements.
Convenient access should be provided to doors, windows, electric outlets, thermostats, and supply grills.
furniture Clearances
To assure adequate space for convenient use of furniture in the living orea, not less than the following clearances should be observed.
60 in between facing seating 24 in where circulation occurs between furniture
30 in for use of desk 36 in for main traffic
60 in between television set and seating
Seating arranged around a 10-ft diameter circle (Fig. 1) makes a comfortable grouping for conversation. Figure 2 indicates clearances, circulation, and conversation areas.
To sleeping area and main entrance

piM tjUilliUHIIg - 1 1
30" to x I if
use desk
101 d i am. conversation area
To dining and kitchen a rea

Fig. 1 Plan. Source: Monual of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
Fig. 2 Minimum clearances, circulatio versation areas for living rooms.

Furniture Cltoroncti
To assure adequate space for convenient use of the dining area, not less than the following clearances from the edge of the dining table should be observed.
32 in for chairs plus access thereto 38 in for choirs plus access and passage 42 in for serving from behind chair 24 in for passage only
48 in from table to base cabinet (in dining-kitchen)
Figures 4, 5, and 6 illustrate proper clearances. Various arrangements appear on the next page.
To living room Fig. 4 Dining room for 6-person, 3-bedroom living unit/
To ki tchen
Fig. 5 Dining room for 8-person, 4-bedroom living unit.'

Fig. 6 Minimum clearances for dining areas, (a) one end of table against wall; (b) serving from one end and one side of table. Source: "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.
* From "Manual of Acceptable Proctices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.

Often several compatible living functions can be combined advantageously in a single room. Some of the benefits of such arrangements are that less space is used but it is used more intensively, its functions can be changed making it more flexible and serviceable space, it is adaptable to varied furniture arrangements, while visually it can be made more interesting and seem more gener-
ous than if the same functions were dispersed into separate rooms.
For adjacent spaces to be considered a combined room, the clear opening between them should permit common use of the spaces. This usually necessitates an opening of at least 8 ft. Figures 8 and 9 show combined living-dining
60" between facing seating
38" for access
and To tchen
36" for main traffic
To sleeping area
Fig. 8 Combined living-dining room.*
Minimum clearances and circulation for combined living-dining areas.*
* From "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.

A combination dining area-kitchen it preferred by some occupants of small houses and apartments. This arrangement minimizes housekeeping
chores and provides space which can be used as the family's day-to-day meeting place.
21" sink counter combined with 21" range counter
Fig. 10 Combined dining oreo-kitchen, 2-bedroom living unit. Source: "Monoal of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
One of the primary functions of the kitchen has been to provide a place for informal or family eating. This is different than guest or formal dining in a separate dining room or area. The informal dining generally consists of breakfast, lunch,
snacks, or just serving cofFee to a neighbor. This eating area should be clearly defined as a separate functional area.
A frequent and desirable arrangement is the combined kitchen-dining area. The following
sketches (Pig. 11) show the various possible arrangements. Another arrangement is the kitchen-family room.
f* lose ClUmlt
I GD o o 0 o
!*** idik Uil
77" Stating om,v*k.
it'Jr |
Fig. 11 Minimum clearances far dining area In kitchen. Source: Housing for the Elderly Development Process, Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.

The kitchen is not a specialized workroom, for it hos many uses. It is used for preparation of meals, food preservation, storage of food and utensils, and also, in many cases, for eating, laundering, entertaining, and child care. In it a woman uses her own labor and also makes full use of electric power, tap water, and manufactured or bottled gas; she uses refrigerators, stoves, dishwashers, mixers, toasters, and garbage-disposal units, as well as various kinds of storage compartments and work surfaces.
Since more time and effort are frequently spent in the kitchen than in any other area of the house, careful planning is especially important. This requires careful selection of appliances and storage units and convenient arrangement of the area. Some general planning guides are as follows:
It is important to keep the basic work area compact, even if the kitchen is of the large "livinp" type. Consideration should be given,J however, to the possibility of more than one person working there. The arrangement will vary according to the size and shape of space available, but we should always keep in mind relationships among functions in different areas of the kitchen.
Traffic lanes
Traffic lanes through work areas should be avoided. Arrange the service entrance and access to the basement so that traffic not essential to food preparation, service, or storage can by-pass the area.
Housing Research Center, Cornell University Storage
Kitchen design should be functional in the sense of minimizing reaching and stooping. Storage facilities should be no higher than a woman can reach with both feet flat on the floor. There should be sufficient space to store items so that they may be easily seen, reached, grasped, and taken down and put back without excessive strain. With proper planning, stored items con be located close to where they are first used, and unattractive items can be kept out of sight. Storage space should be sufficiently flexible to permit its adjustment to varying amounts, sizes, and kinds of food, supplies, and utensils. Shelving should be adjustable.
Counters and working surfaces
The height of counters and working surfaces should permit a comfortable working posture. The worker should be able to sit, if she wishes, while doing certain kitchen tasks, such as working at the sink. Continuous lines and surfaces permit ease of movement, and are easier to keep clean.
Servicing and replacement of appliances
Consideration should be given to ease of servicing and replacement of major
appliances, especially built-in units.
Materials and finishes that minimize
maintenance and cleaning should be used,
and they should be sufficiently light in color to create a pleasant work atmosphere.
Good lighting helps to prevent fatigue, as well as promoting safety and a pleasant atmosphere. Comfortable levels of light,
Fig. 1 Vertical and horizontal limits of reach.
with a minimum of shadows, should be planned throughout the kitchen. Adequate daylight or artificial lighting makes the room more agreeable and attractive than a dark or poorly lighted room.
The kitchen should be well ventilated, with an exhaust fan to remove objectionable kitchen odors.
Burns, scalds, falls, and explosions should be "designed out" of the kitchen. Sharp corners, exposed handles, and control knobs on kitchen equipment should be avoided, and there should be safety catches on doors and drawers to limit the exploratory activities of young children.
There should be easy access to front and back doors, laundry area, telephone, and bathroom.
Color, texture, and decoration should be used to create an atmosphere that is attractive, cheerful, and restful.
Nonworking areas
Nonworking areas should be segregated from working areas. Avoid interruption of work areas by breakfast nooks, general storage closets, rest areas, and other areas not essential to normal food preparation activities.
Eating facilities
Most families want to eat some meals in the kitchen. Provision should be made for this, if possible, even if a separate dining room is also provided.
Child's play
In younger families, especially, there is likely to be one or more children who want to be near their mother. Provision should be made for a play area out from underfoot, but where adequate supervision is possible. Storage space should be provided for toys and games.
Infant care
It is a well-known fact that many kitchens are used for care of infants. If provision is not made in the bathroom for infant care and related supplies, then it should be made in the kitchen.
Washing hands and some personal grooming frequently take place in the

at each of the four centers. These lists represent the storage space requirements for the averoge family, but they may be adapted to the needs of particular families. The storage space dimensions are based on the most recent information available.
The relative location of work centers should permit a continuity of kitchen activities as follows: (1) Storage (gathering materials needed for the performance of the task); (2) Cleaning and mixing (or initial preparation); (3) Cooking; (4) Serving, or storing for future use; and (5) Cleaning up. (See Fig. 5.)
In principle, any plan that interrupts this continuity with doors, or with nonworking areas or facilities, is faulty because extra steps are required every time the gap is crossed, and, consequently, convenience and working efficiency are reduced.
The actual plan may be U-shaped or L-shaped, or it may be of the corridor type.
The "U" arrangement affords the most compact work area. Frequently, however, this arrangement is impossible to achieve because of the necessity of having a door on one of the three walls. The resulting "Broken U" arrangement still permits compactness, but traffic is allowed through the area. Therefore, special consideration should be given to the arrangement of the work centers in order to minimize the effect of through traffic.
The "l" arrangement is ideally suited where space along two walls is sufficient to accommodate all of the necessary work areas. This arrangement has the advantage of concentrating the work area in one corner, thus minimizing travel, but it has the disadvantage of necessitating longer trips to the extremities of the "L."
The "Corridor" arrangement is satisfactory where doors are necessary at each end of the space. This arrangement frequently has the advantage of the parallel walls being closer together than in the typical "U," but the disadvantage of a greater distance along the corridor.
An important factor in determining the location of specific work areas within any of these over-all arrangements is frequency of use, which in Fig. 6 is expressed as the percentage of trips to and from each area.
Figures 7-9 provide floor plans illustrating some possible arrangements of the basic work centers within each of the plan types. If the space for the kitchen is already established, the number of possible satisfactory arrangements obviously will be limited. If the space is being planned,
however, greater choice of arrangements is possible. In either event, the advantage of a shorter distance between some related areas must be balanced against the resulting increase in distance between other related areas. An end-to-end alignment or a right-angle arrangement between areas of close relationship con eliminate trips and reduce the over-all travel distances. Functional relationships between key work centers are, of course, accommodated more ideally in some of the plans than others.
Total shelf area: 50 sq ft minimum; not
1From Minimum'Property Standards for One and Two Living Units, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D.C. (Revised, July 1959).
less than 20 sq ft in either wall or base cabinets.
Total countertop area: 11 sq ft minimum. Total drawer area: 11 sq ft minimum. (If a 39-in. range is provided, it may be counted as 4 sq ft of base cabinet shelf area and 2 sq ft of countertop area.)
Wall shelving: 74 in. maximum height. Countertop: 38 in. maximum height, 30 in. minimum height.
Height between wall cabinets and counter-top: 24 in. minimum over range and sink, 15 in. minimum elsewhere. (Shelving may be closer if it does not project beyond a line drawn from the front edge of the wall cabinet at an angle of 60 deg to the bottom of the cabinet.)
Depth of shelving: wall shelving4 in. minimum, 18 in. maximum; base shelving
Table 2. Equipment and food supplies stored at sink center
In addition to the items listed below, allow space for hand tools (such as can opener, small vegetable brush, paring knives, rubber plate scraper), cleaning supplies (such as soap, soap powder, cleanser, paper towels), garbage and trash containers, and possibly a stool for sitting.
Number stored Storage space per item, in.*
Item Side Front
to to
Limited Liberal side back Height
Dishpans, nested 2 2 16 Vj 18 V- 8
Dishdrainer 1 2 14 V. 18 V- 6
Double boiler 1 1 7Vl 12 ioV
Pressure saucepan 0 1 9 17 7V
Saucepan, 6-qt 0 2 10 V: 10 V- 9
Saucepan, 4-qt 1 1 9 11 7 V:
Saucepan, 3-qt 2 2 8/j 15 8
Saucepan, 2-qt 1 1 7 V.- 14 7
Saucepan, 1-qt 1 1 6V, 13 6
Colander 1 1 11 V- 13 6
Coffee pot, 6-cup 1 1 6V: 9 10
Dishtowels 8 12 12 11 5(8)
Handtowels 8 12 12 10 5(8)
Aprons 4 6 11 10 5(4)
Dishcloths 6 12 8 8 4(6)
Food supplies
Potatoes, lb 10 10 9 11 8
Onions, lb 3 3 9 7 8
Fruit, lb 3 3 9 7% 5
Lentils and peas, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3V- 5 9Vj
Dry beans, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3V- 5 8 Vj
Prunes, 1-lb pkg. 1 1 3 5 8
Canned food, No. 2 can 6 8 4 4 sVi
*Dimensions include clearance for handling.
tNumber in parentheses refers to number of items in stack for which storage space dimension is given.



Space in front of drawer
Space for one worker
Adjacent to sink


Fig. 4 Minimum clearanceshorizontal and vertical.
The work center concept, favorably supported by a great deal of research data from many sources, emphasizes the planning of the kitchen in terms of its major centers of activity. These work centers, in turn, are planned in terms of their constituent parts, their proper functions, and their ideal relationships, one to another. The actual design of the work centers will vary with the size and shape of space available in each project. Four work centers must be considered: sink, range, mix, and serve. In addition, there is the refrigerator (which functions as a closely related storage center) and the oven, if it is not an integral part of the range.
Each work center should have three components: (1) Adequate storage space for the various items used there; (2) Adequate counter space for the work to be accomplished; and (3) Necessary utilities and facilities, such as water at the sink, heat at the range, outlet and space for the mixer at the mix center, and adequate lighting at each center.
uip each work center for the storage of utensils, supplies, and dishes according to their frequency and order of use.
Tables 14 list the number of items and the space dimensions required for equipment and food supplies commonly stored
Table 1. Equipment and food su pplies stored at range center
Item Number stored Storage space per item, in.*
Limited Liberal Side to tide Front to back Height
Potato masher i 1 3'A 13 4'A
Knives, forks, spoons 3 3 3'A 13 3
Frying pan, 10^-in. 1 1 11 17 % s'A
Frying pan, 9-in. 1 2 % 16 5
Frying pan, 6-in. 0 1 6 12 5
Pot lids 2 4 io 10 Vi 1
Potholders 4 8 7 7 2t
Food supplies
Rice, 1-lb pkg. i 1 2'A 4 6'A
Spaghetti, 1-lb pkg. i 1 2 n% 6
Coffee, 1-lb can 1 1 s'A s'A 4
Oatmeal, 3-lb box i 1 6 6 ii
Macaroni, 1-lb pkg. 1 1 2 5% 9
Tea, 8-oz pkg. i 1 2 'A 4'A 7
* Dimension of the item {including lid, if any) plus clearance for handling. tProvidis for stack of potholders.


5' tO USC
dresser ^2" for dressing
To assure adequate space for convenient use of furniture in the bedroom, not less than the following clearances should be observed (Figs. 2 and
42 in at one side or foot of bed for dressing 6 in between side of bed and side of dresser or chest
36 in in front of dresser, closet, and chest of drawers
24 in for major circulation path (door to closet, etc.)
22 in on one side of bed for circulation 12 in on least used side of double bed. The least-used side of a single or twin bed con
be placed against the wall except in bedrooms for the elderly (Fig. 4).
* From "Monual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
The location of doors and windows should permit alternate furniture arrangements.
12" beside double bed
Fig. 3 (a) Single-occupancy bedroom; (b) double-occupancy bedroom.*

1 1
36" to use \ closet mg
p 36" to use dresser 3" to
b 11

Fig. 4 Single-occupancy bedroom for elderly; there it a 12-in allowance to make the bed.*
Where at least two other sleeping spaces are provided, a dormitory is sometimes preferred by larger families (Fig. 5).*
* From "Manual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.

By GLENN H. BEYER AND ALEXANDER KIRA, Housing Research Center, Cornell University
Activities commonly performed in the bathroom include washing of hands, face, and hair, bathing, elimination, and grooming, and also such activities as hand laundering and infant care. Often it is also used as a dressing room. Major problems in bathroom design include planning for optimum convenience and privacy of all bathroom functions for all members of the household, adequate provision for storage of supplies and equipment, and ease of cleaning.
Some general planning guides are as follows1 :
Facilities should be conveniently arranged, with special attention given to clearances. The room arrangement should
'Many of these suggestions are by courtesy of the American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation.
permit more than one family member to use its facilities at the same time (Fig. 8).
Lighting should be adequate for all of the activities performed. For grooming, direct sources of light are essential in order to illuminate the face from all angles. High strip windows, clerestory windows, and skylights provide excellent over-all illumination in the daytime, while still affording privacy. Luminous ceilings are also effective, particularly in interior bathrooms.
Good ventilation is essential in bathrooms, both to reduce humidity and to dispel odors. If a window is relied upon as the sole means of ventilation, care should be taken in its selection and placement to minimize drafts and to permit easy access. Exhaust fans in the wall or ceiling are often used to supplement natural ventilation. In interior bathroom spaces, a mechanical exhaust is, of course, essential.
Sound control
Lack of acoustical privacy is one of the most common complaints with regard to bathrooms. Noise can be reduced by proper placement of the bathroom in relation to other spaces, by the use of closets and storage walls as sound barriers between it and adjacent spaces, as well as by the use of soundproof partitions and tightly fitted doors. Acoustical treatment of the ceiling makes the room more comfortable to use and reduces somewhat the amount of sound transmitted through the walls. Acoustical tiles for use in the bathroom should be moisture resistant and easily cleaned.
Auxiliary heat
A heat lamp or a radiant wall panel can be used to provide quick warmth in the bathroom.
It is essential that all surface materials used in the bathroom have moisture-resistant finishes.
Fig. 1. Fixture clearances (dimensions in inches)

Adequate storoge should be provided for current and reserve supplies. Articles in current use should be located near their ploce of first use. A closet opening from the bathroom and hallway or laundry is convenient for such items os bathroom linen and cleaning supplies. Medicine cabinets should be os large os possible since increasing numbers of toiletries and medicines ore being used by American families. Hamper space is desiroble for soiled linen and clothes. Install a cabinet with a self-contained hamper, or, in two*story houses, install a chute from the second floor to the laundry. The minimum requirements for storage of bathroom linens, based on recent research, ore shown in Table 3.
Increased countertop space
Larger lavatories and increased counter-top surfaces provide excellent facilities for light laundry, hair washing, and bathing and dressing the baby.
Children's convenience
Children's height should be considered in the placement of accessory equipment. A dental lavatory can double as a child's lavatory. If a combination lavatory-dressing table is installed, a step-up retractable stool should be provided for children's use.
An atmosphere of luxury and spaciousness is created by mirrors. A full-length mirror is always desirable. Also recommended is a medicine cabinet with a three-way combination of mirrored doors on either side and a mirror in the center.
Safety features
Grab bars should be used vertically fc bathtub and shower and should be located for convenient use. They should be of adequate size and securely fostened to sturdy backing or studs. Use nonskid finishes for flooring. Install a door lock thot opens automatically from the inside, and from the outside in case of emergency. Locote light switches out of reach of the bathtub or showerpreferably just outside the bathroom. Electric or radiant heaters should be recessed or protected. Provide a lock for medicine compartments.
Drying facilities and accessories
Add extra racks for drying women's hose and other light laundry. Racks may be concealed in well-ventilated cabinets, which, if desired, may include a receptacle for a low-wattage light bulb to facilitate drying. Sufficient robe hooks, bag hooks,
Table 1. Space required at the lavatory and bathtub
See Fi(j. 1 atid 2 for illustration of dimensions.
Space required, in.
Adequate Minimum FHA minimum
Center axis to adjacent wall 22 20 15
Side edge to side of adjacent tub - 2
Front edge to opposite woll 36 34 21
If not a traffic lane 30 -
Front edge to opposite tub 30 24 21
Horizontal clearance from front edge of lavatory to 171 { - -
front edge of shelf 9-15 in. above lavatory
Height above floortop 74 69
bottom (5-ft adult) 48 54 (max.) -
(3V-ft child) - 36 (max.) -
Side of tub to opposite wall 34 30 -
Table 2. Space required at the toilet
Adapted from Bathroom Working Spaces, Monroe, Randall, and Bartlett, Report 82, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station (1959); Minimum Property Standards, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D.C. (revised, July 1959). See Fig. 1 for illustration of dimensions.
Space required, in.
Dimension i Adequate Person 2 Persons1 Minimum FHA minimum
Center axis to adjacent wall 18 22 16 15
If wall projects not more than 12 in. - - - 12
Center axis to side of lovatory 18 14 16 - 15
in. deep, or less
Lovatory over 18 in. deep 16 18 14 15
Center axis to side of tub 18 18 16 15
Center axis to end of tub 16 18 16 12
Front edge to opposite wall 30 34 21
Front edge to opposite tub 24 - - 21
Front edge to opposite lavatory 30 30 24
Sparc required for one -person to assist another at the toilet (dimensions not shown in
Fig. 1).
and toothbrush holders should also be provided.
A bathroom should generally be accessible to eoch bedroom without requiring passage through another room. A bathroom is desirable neor principal indoor living, work, and play areas, and for guest use.
Space is required not only for the use of particular fixtures but also between fixtures for cleaning purposes and for assisting another person (such os a small child or elderly adult). These last two factors are often completely overlooked. For economy of space, required clearances for each fixture may sometimes overlap (Fig. 8).

Recent reseoreh hos provided some rec ommendotions for the space required around the three bosic fixtures: lavatory, toilet, and bathtub ond shower. The bosic clearances are given in Tables 1 and 2 ond Figs. 1-3.
Miscellaneous activities
In planning the bathroom, the designer should remember that families with infants usually prefer to bathe them in the bathroom. The lock of adequate space has. in the past, caused many families to use the kitchen, which obviously is less appropriate for this activity than the bath. The minimum space needed to bathe and dress on infant is 1 ft 6^ j in. deep by 4 ft 11 in. wide by 3 ft high.
In addition, other important activities are often performed in the bathroom. Most women, at least occasionally, launder small items in the bathroom, and provision for this should be made. Many adults, and children, like to use the bathroom for dressing. Since this requires a considerable amount of space, it should be provided only when requested.
Bathrooms can be classified into four categories: (1) The conventional three-fixture bath; (2) The larger, compartmented bath; (3) The lavatory or "guest" bath; ond (4) The "utility" both.
Three-fixture bath: The conventional three-fixture bath without separate compartments has traditionally been designed for the occupancy and use of one individual at a time. This type of bath, with combination tub-shower, averages about 40 sq ft of floor space (Fig. 5).
Compartmented both. To avoid the excessive humidity common in the usual three-fixture bath, tub and shower may be located in a separate compartment, with or without an additional lavatory. This plan also affords greater privacy for use of the toilet. Separate doors, possibly with a small #ntry, are desirable. Connecting doors between compartments ore also possible but are not recommended os the only means of access (Figs. 6 and 7).
Another variation is to make the toilet a seporate compartment, offording complete privocy. In even the minimum-sized bath of this type there is generally room for an additional lavatory, and the bath proper is often enlarged into a combination bathdressing room. Dressing tobies may be a combination of lavatory ond table or individual fixtures. In the latter case, tobies should be sufficiently for from lavatories to prevent damage from splashing water.
Table 3. Minimum dimensions for storage of bathroom linens, in eluding allowance for handling
Adapted from Storage Requirements for Household Textiles, .4. Wind rich, M. M. White, and M. A. Richards, Agricultural Research Bulletin (i* J,
l .S. 1 lurtnu nt of Agriculture, Washington, lKC. (1955).
Minimum dimensions, in.
Item Number Width Depth Height
A* B i
Bath towels;
Everyday use 12 24 10 12 10
Guest use 6 12 10 12 10
Hand towels:
Everyday use 10 7 14 12 10
Guest use 8 10 14 7 5
Wash cloths:
Everyday use 12 16 8 6 4
Guest use 6 8 7 6 4
*For storage on fixed slu ices. tFor storage in drawers or on movable shelves.
Table 4. Sizes of accessories for tiling*
Dimensions, in.
12,6 9x6 6x6 3x6 3x3 8/,.x4'/4 4* 14x4]
Toilet-paper holders
Combination holders for soap, toothbrush,
and tumbler
Separate holders for soap, toothbrush, and
tumbler Bases for towel bars, shelf brackets, door stops, and hooks Grab bars and soap or sponge holders
*Somc toilet-paper holders are 6X10 in. Radiant heaters are 15 X15 in. or larger.
A still greater expansion of this plan provides a separate dressing room and connecting bath, with a compartment for the toilet. The required floor space ranges from 110 to 140 sq ft.
In all plans for baths, showers should be included, either as stalls or over tubs.
Guest bath: The lavatory, or two-fixture "guest" both, for living portions of residences may vary in size and appointments from a minimum area of about 14 sq ft to rooms of 22 to 25 sq ft or larger when a dressing table is included (Fig. 4).
Utility bath: The "utility" bath provides an area larger than the minimum size required for the three basic fixtures, for other functions, such os laundering.
Bathroom doors can be as small as 2 ft wide, except for utility bathrooms, for which doors should be not less thon 2 ft
4 in. wide to permit passage of equipment os required. In general, bathrooms should contain only one door.
Door swings should be arranged so that:
(1) The door cannot strike any person using any fixture; (2) The door will shield or conceal the toilet; and (3) The door may be left fully open for ventilation in warm weather.
Customarily, doors swing into the bathroom. If hall areas are sufficiently lorge, doors to small bathrooms can sometimes be designed to swing out. In-swinging doors should be set to clear towel-bars or radiators. Sliding doors are frequently desirable, as space sovers, between various comportments within the bathroom.
The shape ond position of bathroom windows is important from the standpoint of light, ventilation, and privocy. Gen erolly, the higher the window, the better. Preferred locations include: cleor wall space reserved for portable equipment, space

over a dressing table, and space above or on either side of the lavatory. Windows should not be placed over the bathtub unless they are of the casement or awning type opened by a crank. A window behind the toilet is seldom desirable. Skylights may be used to serve top-floor bathrooms if they are large enough to provide adequate light and ventilation. Inside bathrooms without exterior windows are sometimes used but require a dependable system of exhaust ventilation by natural or mechanical means, and greater artificial lighting in lieu of natural light.
The medicine cabinet should be related in size to the type of bathroom or toilet. For guest baths or toilets, space is needed only for dentifrices, shaving accessories, toilet preparations, and a few simple remedies. A bath serving several bedrooms may require a complete supply of medicines in addition to the items mentioned above. Every bathroom should have a storage closet for cleaning utensils and supplies and for reserve stocks of toilet paper, towels, and sundries.
Floor space should be left in every bathroom for portable accessories desired by the owner or needed on occasion for the care of infonts or invalids. Also consider allowing space for such items as scales, stool or seat, infant's bath and dressing table (portable type requires about 3 by 4 ft of floor space in wse), soiled-linen hamper, exercise devices, dressing table or vanity with bench, and ultra-violet radiation equipment.
Towel bars should be ample in number
and length to serve the needs of each member of the family regularly using the bathroom, or of guests likely to use its facilities, before supplies can be replenished. For each person regularly using the bathroom, there should be separate bar space for bath towel, face towel, and face cloth, as well as an additional rack for guest towels.
Linen storage may consist of towel cabinets recessed in the thickness of plumbing walls (either over fixtures 6r as full height cabinets) or may be expanded into complete linen closets. Dressing-room baths may include completely fitted wardrobes. (See Table 3.)
Minimum-sized bathrooms and toi'ets require special planning to ensure ade-
quate wall space for essential accessories (Table 4).

By MURRAY S. COHEN, AIA, Architect
People love to look, window-shop, and buy. Shopping as an experience should provide fun, which in turn provides profits. A successful store or shopj is one that is designed to merchandise in addition to looking good. A store can be divided into two principal parts: the exterior, which gives identification, encompasses the storefront, show windows, and displays. and the interior, where the promise of the storefront display is delivered. Briefly stated, the storefront initiates the sale, and the interior consummates it.
The storefront and the design of the facade must be attractive in order to catch the shoppers' attention and to draw the customers in from the street or from the mall in shopping centers. Graphic identification, with bold color, lighting, lettering, and logos, and attractive display of merchandise are the initial steps
In enclosed malls, the glass-enclosed show windows are often eliminated or minimized. The "show window" displays are set up in a large vestibule, perhaps elevated or on portable platforms, and become part of the interior. Hence the demarcation between the exterior and the interior is not physical, rather the two are integrated, and it is difficult to define where one ends and the other begins. This is particularly true in enclosed shopping malls The open or no front generally promotes more impulse buying; department stores will often make their entrances an extension of the mall so that the shopper will be easily enticed into the store. When doors are used, either on the street or on the mall, they should be well marked and easy to find. Entrance to the interior should be easy, related to interior traffic flow and layout, and should be accessible to vertical transportation, if any.
In order to design satisfactory shops, the first requirement is an understanding of those portions of current merchandising theories which affect the design problem. Briefly, "merchandising psychology" consists of, first, arousing interest, second, satisfying it.
With staple goods the first phase is almost automatic. When nonstaples, accessories, or specialties other than demand goods are to be sold, methods of arousing interest may become more complex.
The second phase the actual sale involves factors of convenience which are desirable in order to make buying easy, to satisfy customers completely, and to achieve economy of space and time for the store management.
Both phases affect the design of retail shops, and are closely interrelated In some cases the planning problems involved cannot be segregated. A more detailed listing of steps in the merchandising process, as they affect shop design, follows.
Attracting Customers
This can be accomplished by means of advertising. prices, show-window displays, or new
or remodeled quarters, which occupies much of a merchant s efforts. Of these, storefronts and display windows are important to the store designer.
Inducing Entrance
Show windows, in addition to attracting passersby, should induce them to enter the store. Show windows may be opened up to display the shop's interior; or closed in, to give privacy to customers within. Door locations require study in relation to pedestrian traffic flow, grades of sidewalks and store floors, and interior layout of the shop. In colder climates drafts and outdoor temperature changes can be controlled at the door.
Organizing Store Spaces
Organizing store spaces, and consequently the merchandise to be sold, into departments, enables customers to find objects easily, and permits storekeepers to keep close check on profits or losses from various types of goods. Store lighting and "dressing" are simplified. Even small shops benefit from a measure of departmentalization; in large shops, the practice becomes essential as methods of training salespeople, of handling, controlling, and wrapping stock become more complex.
Interior Displays
Interior displays require particular attention in specialty shops. Types range from displays of staple goods which assist customers in selection, to displays of accessories which the sale of staples may suggest to the customer. Problems of arrangement with regard to merchandise, departments, and routes of customers' approach are involved.
Relief from the repeated impact of merchandise sales efforts and displays is necessary in most shops. Experienced salespeople can tell at a glance the customer who is satiated with shopping and too bewildered to buy After
he has been refreshed by a brief rest, the customer s interest can be recaptured quickly. Such relaxation may be mental or physical, or both.
Conveniences intended primarily for the customers benefit, while not strictly allied to the problems of attracting trade or selling goods, are necessary to some types of shops A florist, for instance, provides a card-writing desk or counter in his shop. In other shop types, particularly those whose prices are above the average, such extra provisions are often highly desirable. Conveniences of this kind include: telephone booths, drinking fountains, lavatories or powder rooms, desks for writing cards or checks, stools or chairs at counters or in special sales rooms, and vanity tables or triplicate mirrors for certain types of apparel fitting rooms
In regard to finishes and equipment, the idea may be extended to include: floor surfacing for comfort; acoustic treatment of ceilings and possibly walls; illumination of pleasant, sometimes special, quality, and air conditioning. All these have been found profitable investments in various cases. Their necessity or desirability depends to an extent on the type of shop, its location, or the climate of the locality.
The successful retail shop is an efficient selling machine or sales factory. In addition to servicing the customers, the employees have to be considered so they can give better service to the customer.
Merchandise and space must be organized to help the customer in making a selection and to help the sales person in selling. Easy circulation and exposing the customer to the maximum amount of merchandise are part of good design. Avoid monotony in circulation and dis-
Drmand or Convenience Impulse, or
staple goods items luxury, goods
czzzi rzzz: urn
Fig. 1 Principles of shop design. Merchandise is located according to classification: staple goods are unobtrusively yet accessibly placed; luxury items are spotted where the prospective customer cannot help but be attracted to them. White counter areas are allocated to services: cashier, wrapper, information, otc.

play of meichhndiM* Where possible, do not hesitate to be bold or even shochnrj This stimulates the ruKtomp end hie urge to buy
The locetion end design of the cashier and wrapping unit are important and provide for several persons to be Serviced Often this acts os a control center.
Flexibility so that fixtures and departments can be moved or modified is part of present-day merchandising Fixtures should be minimized and merchandise emphasized. Design and use fixtures so that full attention is thrown on the merchandise. Surveys must be made for each particular type of store, its merchandise, operation, and personnel to determine actual sizes and requirements Do not design fixtures so that a salesperson hfrs to reach merchandise on too high a shelf or stoop too low
Determine what customer accessories ore required: seating in general, counters, tables, mirrors, telephones, drinking fountains, rest rooms, special lighting, and floor coverings. Accessories will vary, depending on the store s location and the type of customer, as well as the nature of the merchandise.
Location of stock rooms, or of reserves, must be carefully considered so that the salesperson does not have to leave a customer for too long a period
Fitting and dressing rooms should be located conveniently near the item being sold.
Selling Areas
Departmentalization Benefits to be derived from segregation of merchandise by types have been touched upon previously. All these are factors in decreasing the average time per sale, an important figure jn large-store accounting and in small stores with rush periods (Fig 1).
Within each department, and as a guide when relating departments to each other and to the path of the typical customer through the store, merchandise and services can be analyzed by classification. Most objects can be placed in one of the following classes, relating them to the needs of customers:
Impulse, or luxury, goods are high-profit articles, usually (but not necessarily) high in price.
Convenience items are stocked for the passerby who happens in, but who may return for other purchases if properly impressed. Often these are not in themselves strictly profitable merchandise
Demand goods are also staples, like conveniences, but are articles which the customer starts out with a definite idea of purchasing. These attract him to the store and he buys them other goods must be sold to him.
These classifications necessarily overlap; but, in a shop whose type of customer can be forecast, divisions along some such lines are possible. Signs are not always necessary; each department may be designated by display of typical articles as a kind of poster.
Customer Flow The accompanying diagrams based upon analyses of traffic indicate the possibility of organizing departments in relation to the flow of customers through the store.
Interest in articles on display was found to be inversely proportional to the number displayed after a low limit had been reached. A central location in a group seemed to lead to increased interest in a picture. One important conclusion is that what a customer sees is more influenced by the arrangement of the space and the walking habits of customers, than by the intrinsic quality of the objects exhibited. Tendencies to turn to the right, to be attracted by doorways, to choose the wider of
two aisles, and to be fatigued by too much material on display ate all of utmost importance 1o the store planner.
Store services must also be analyzed in relation to customer flow.
SeH Service Operators of large stores have found that self-service speeds up selling. For that reason their stock is easily accessible to the shopper Often, too, customers insist upon handling merchandise, and are more easily sold when they can get these first-hand impressions. As a result, many stores have abandoned the selling-over-the-counter plan, which decreases free sales space, and rely upon open wall fixtures, wall displays, and display tables whenever possible
In direct contrast to thi6 type is the exclusive shop which keeps its stock in closed fixtures or in the stockroom, permitting selection of merchandise only by sample displays. Some specialty shops work entirely on this basis-
Shop Sizes These are far from standardized. However, as determined by real estate values, and merchandising, structural, fixture, and aisle space requirements, shops with one customer's aisle only are usually 1 2 to 1 5 ft wide by 50 to 60 ft long in large cities; and 15 to 18 ft. wide by 60 to 80 ft long in smaller cities. These dimensions apply particularly to shops in 100 percent retail districts.
Heights are more easily determined. Basements 8 to 9 ft high, in the clear, permit economical stock storage. Ground floors are preferably approximately 1 2 ft high if no mezzanine is included; mezzanines at least 7 ft 6 in. above floor level will accommodate most fixture heights. Height from mezzanine floor to ceiling may be as low as 6 ft 6 in. if used for service space only; 7 ft is the preferred minimum for public use.
Typical Counter and Case Layouts
Center Island Type illustrated. L = 13 ft avg. min.; IV = 9 ft 6 in. to 13 ft. Islands composed of showcases only. L = 10 ft min.; W = 5 ft 10 in. to 6 ft 3 in. For floor tables. L 4 to 7 ft; W 2 ft 6 in. to 3 ft.
Aisle Widths For clerks, min. = 1 ft 8 in.; desirable, 2 ft to 2 ft 3 in. For main public aisles, min. 4 ft 6 in.; avg., 5 ft 6 in. to 7 ft, usual max., 1 1 ft. Secondary public aisles, 3 ft to 3 ft
6 in.
See Figs. 2 and 3.
The segregation of displays in areas specifically designed for the purpose, and in locations selected with respect to entrances and customer traffic flow, is easily accomplished in departmentalized store planning (Fig. 4).
Display Surfaces Locating display surfaces perpendicular to the line of entrance may result in angular plans, or in the use of screens or freestanding display cases, as indicated in the diagram. Locations for display niches, alcoves, etc., may depend on space requirements of the various shop departments and upon the relationship to customer flow lines.
In a shop, "architecture" is preferably secondary in importance to the merchandise displayed This does not mean that every inch of space must be crowded with goods "on display," because such practice causes loss of customer interest.
Scale An important factor in display is the relation between the possible viewing distance
and the scale of the merchandise. Thus a stairway side wall or narrow passage is suited for small scale display only. Vistas, on the other hand, and displays opposite doorways, have more carrying power and consequently can be bolder. Vistas, or a sense of perspective, can also be created by lighting emphasis When a lighted display is placed at the rear wall under a mezzanine space which is slightly darker than the store proper, a spatial relationship is set up which depends more upon the relative intensities of light than upon actual distance It is possible to dramatize objects on display, to make them stand apart from their neighbors and in this way suggest that they ere more desirable. On the other hand, it is not always best to separate costly and inexpensive objects. Low-priced merchandise may often be sold by contrast with high-priced objects, and vice versa. Choice of method depends to an extent on the problem under consideration.
Accessible zones, rather than low or high displays, are particularly valuable in self-service portions of the shop. Just as show-window bulkheads are rising and glass heights decreasing, so the fixtures inside the store are bringing merchandise within reach and concentrating it for emphasis.
Show Windows These are designed primarily with the effect upon potential customers in mind; ease in changing displays is also important. Windows must be "dressed quickly; if they are hard to work with, they will not be changed as often as merchandising policies indicate to be necessary. Variety and timeliness of displays are considered essential.
The diagrams in Fig 5 illustrate one set of principles whose use increases the value of displays. The same principles may be applied to horizontal planning; the 1 shadow-box' type of window, with limited display space, is considered most effective by display designers. In conjunction with these, it should be noted that bulkhead heights tend to increase as the size of objects displayed decreases, to permit more minute examination of merchandise.
Glazing of types which do not interfere with vision will materially increase the show window's value. Patented systems, which eliminate reflections, are available; 60 are types of glass suited to special conditions, such as heat-resisting glass
Window backs may be closed or open, depending on the type of shop and the degree of customer privacy desired. When backs are open, confusion of display and &hop interior may be avoided by using temporary or permanent screens or panels as backgrounds.
Window dressing may be done in full public view in certain types of shops, as jewelry or gift shops. In other cases, Venetian blinds or other types of glass curtains may be required. Apparent size of glass area may be changed to accommodate varying displays by using variable valances and side-pieces.
Storage space is required for display accessories, forms, blocks, platforms, panel backgrounds, and seasonal changes of floor pads or carpets.
Ease of window dressing may be aided in several ways. Access panels should be large enough for easy passage for men and materials. Access passages, segregated from the shop's interior, may be provided Dummy windows may be provided, sometimes on rolling platforms.
Show Window Lighting In many stores other than specialty shops, light intensities have been increased far above requirements for ordinary vision, in an effort to overcome reflections.

Show Windows
MN PH Af T 1C At Cl I AR A NC I I OR CONC.f At l l> L IOH 1 INu

s' j" frum 'o'' I 1 AREA DEPENDS ON SIZE
r" i? i: h - V \
Sidewalk line
t A
I I i -

Fig. 5 Determining optimum show-window depths. Within a 60 cone, the overoge human eye sees comfortably, without appreciable physical effort. Optimum viewing planes are those in which objects on display con be seen in their entirety without causing the eye to oncompass ores greater thon 60 Diagram 1 illustrates a graphic method of determining optimum viewing planes for given bulkhead heights. Diagram 2 shows the application of these principles to second-floor windows; sight lines are limited by practicable window dimensions. Diagram 3 extends basic principles to include both basement and first-floor levels, seen through one window.

Adequacy of space will influence building and operating costs and efficiency. When space is too small, labor time and effort are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costs are excessive.
Decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and available space. Ample space is sometimes provided by means of low-cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life. In other instances, space is restricted to a point where it prohibits profitable volume or the best utilization of labor. Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of (1) proposed permanence of the facility. (2) acuteness of need for the specific operation. (3) essentials for operating efficiency. (4) desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation, and good quality of production and service, and (5) immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance.
Facts peculiar to the particular establishment should be used as the basis for determining space needs Requirements will vary for facilities of a given type and volume. Location; type of operation; clientele, frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the completeness of processing to be done will cause variation in production and storage requirements. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information, such as numbers to be served, turnover, arrival rate, and type of service, will be helpful in deciding dining area needs
Study is required to clarify immediate and future needs in food production. Choices should be made between meat cutting or portion-ready meats, a baking section or use of commercially baked products, and the use of unprocessed versus processed foods. If enlargement is probable, studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost, will be helpful.
It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of: (1) volume and type of service, (2) amount and size of equipment to be used, (3) number of workers required, (4) space for needed supplies, and (S) suitable traffic area. The dining area location and space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections as required to these. Planners should be careful in accepting general space recommendations. There are many variations
Food Sorvico Panning. John Wiley & Sons, N.-w York. 1907
Dining Area
Space for dining areas i6 usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.
Space Requirements The patron's size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 sq ft for a type of service in which an adult would need 12 sq ft for comfort A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10 sq ft per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant as much as 20 sq ft. The amount of serving equipment in the dining area and lineup space will influence needs Lost space must be considered.
The diner s comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people. It is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters than by adults. It is more acceptable in low-cost, quick-service units than in those featuring leisurely dining. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room and enough 6pace so that dishes of food and beverage are not crowded. Place settings for adults usually allow 24 in. and for children 18 to 20 in. (Table 1).
TABLE 1 Square Feet per Seat Used for Various Types of Food Operations
Type of operation Square feet per seat
Cafeteria, commercial..................... 16-18
Cafeteria, college and
industrial.............................. 12-15
Cafeteria, school lunchroom. . 9-12
College residence,
table service........................... 12-15
Counter service........................... 18-20
Table service, hotel.
club restaurant......................... 15-18.
Table service,
minimum eating.......................... 11-14
Banquet, minimum.......................... 10-11______
All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting areas, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will, however, increase needs. Structural features of the room should be considered. Width and length of the room, table and chair sizes, and seating arrangements affect capacity.
Service stations mBy be estimated in the proportion of one small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50 to 60 places. The advisability of having a central serving station will be influenced by the distance of the dining area from the serving area. It is of special value when production and dining are on different floors. Plumbing and wiring and whether supplies are delivered mechanically will influence location of the stations Small substations for silver, dishes, napery, bever-
ages, ice, butter, and condiments may measure 20 to 24 in. square and 36 to 38 in. high. The size of central stations varies from that for a small enclosed room to that of a screened section measuring approximately 8 to 10 ft long by 27 to 30 in. wide by 6 to 7 ft high.
Tabla size will influence patron comfort and efficient utilization of space. In a cafeteria, for example, where patrons may dine on their trays, it i6 important that the table be of adequate size to accommodate the number of trays likely to be there. Four trays 14 by 18 in. fit better on a table 48 in. square than on a table 36 or 42 in. square. Small tables, such as 24 or 30 in. square, are economical for seating but are uncomfortable for large people. They are only suitable in crowded areas for fast turnover and light meals Tables having common width and height allowing them to be fitted together will give flexibility in seating arrangements. These are particularly good for banquette or cocktail-type bench seating along a wall. Tables for booths are difficult for waitresses to serve if they are longer than 4 ft. The width of booths including seats and table is commonly 5/4 ft. A lunch counter will have a minimum width of 16 in. and a maximum width of 24 to 30 in. The linear feet are calculated on the basis of 20 to 24 in. per seat. The maximum area best served by one waitress is generally 16 ft of counter. This will give eight to ten seats. U-shaped counters make maximum use of space and reduce travel. Space in depth of 8/4 to 11 ft will be required for every linear foot of counter. This will provide 3 to 4 ft of public aisle, 2'/, ft for aisle space for employees. A width of 4/4 ft is-desirable where employees must pass.
Calculate aisle space between tables and chairs to include passage area and that occupied by the person seated at the table. A minimum passage area is 18 in. between chairs and, including chair ares, tables should be spaced 4 to 5 ft apart. Aisles on which bus carts or other mobile equipment is to be moved should be sized according to the width of such equipment.
The best utilization of space can often be arrived at through the use of templates or scaled models Diagonal arrangement of square tables utilizes space better than square arrangement and yields a more trouble-free traffic lane. Lanes that pass between backs of chairs are likely to be blocked when guests arise or are being seated.
Table heights in schools should be chosen for the comfort of children. In units patronized by many grades a compromise height will be needed between the 30 in. normally used for adults and the 24 in. suitable for children, or two sizes may be used in different sections of the room. A table length to seat four, six, or eight is preferable to longer ones.
Number of Persons Allowance The number of persons to be seated at one time is the second point of information needed for calculation of the dining room size. The total number of seats required at one time, multiplied by the space required for each seat, will give the total number of square feet needed in the

dining area The number of times a seat is occupied during a given period is commonly referred to as 'turnover." The turnover per hour, times the number of seats available, gives the total number of patrons who can be served in an hour. If peak loads, or number to be served at one time, are known, the number of seats required can be estimated.
Turnover rates tend to vary, for they are influenced by such factors as the amount of food eaten, the elaborateness of the service, and the diner's time allowance. A breakfast meal of few foods may be eaten more quickly than dinner, and a simple fare faster than a many-course meal. Turnover is quickest in dining rooms where food has been prepared in advance for fast service and where patrons serve themselves and bus their soiled dishes. The turnover time is speeded up 10 percent by patrons removing their soiled dishes so that tables are quickly available for other guests. Deluxe service for leisure dining, involving removal and placement of several courses, takes the longest time. Although specific turnover may vary from 10 minutes to 2 hours, actuai eating time is normally 10 to 15 minutes for breakfast, 1 5 to 20 minutes for lunch, and 30 to 40 minutes for dinner.
The calculation of occupancy of seats in a dining room must take into consideration a certain percentage of vacancy, except where a given number are seated at one time according to assignment. In table-service dining rooms this has been estimated as 20 percent of total capacity, in cafeterias from 12 to 18 percent, and for counter operations 10 to 12 percent. Many factors influence this percentage, such as patrons arriving at different times, irregular rate of turnover, and reluctance to share a table with strangers.
The table sizes used in the dining room will affect occupancy. It is often desirable to provide for groups varying from two to eight, with a predominance in most dining rooms of those for two people. The deuces" may be of a size and shape that can be put together to form tables for larger groups. In metropolitan areas where many tend to dine alone, wall bench-type seating and tables for two with a center ridge or line denoting space for one have been used successfully. Chairs with a "tablet-arm" that will hold a tray have been used for fast turnover in crowded areas.
The utilization of seating capacity tends to be greater for cafeterias than for table service. The patron may spend 25 to 50 percent of the time while seated at the table waiting for service. The cafeteria diner may begin eating as soon as he is seated. One cafeteria line can serve four to eight patrons per minute depending on (1) the speed of the servers, (2) the elaborateness of food selection, (3) convenience of the layout, and (4) the type of patrons At these rates, 240 to 480 patrons will need to be seated within an hour. If the turnover rate is two per hour, then from 120 to 240 seats will be used. However, if 15 percent of the total capacity at the peak period remains unfilled, then between 140 and 280 seats will be required An additional 14 to 28 seats or 10 percent would be needed if the patrons do not bus their soiled dishes.
Patronage estimates for facilities of different types may be guided by the number of persons in residence, enrollments in a school, an industry's payroll, the membership of a club, or the amount of traffic in an office or shopping area. In each case a certain percentage may normally be expected to dine in the facility provided. The percentage will be influenced by such factors as its location in relation to other facilities, the patron's buying power,
the price plan (on the basis of subsidy or profit), patron a mealtime allowance, and convenience of the location.
The patronage estimate for a college cafeteria should take into consideration the number of students who live at home, are members of a live-in group, such as an organized house, and the number of other dining facilities available on or near the campus. A college residence providing table service may have to allow a seating capacity that is 1 10 percent of occupancy if a policy exists for having "special guest" occasions and seating all at one time.
An industrial lunchroom may serve as few as 25 percent and as many as 90 percent of the payroll. Clues to probable patronage may be drawn from such factors as nearness to other eating facilities, wage rates, type of work, prices to be charged, convenience, quality, and attractiveness. The attitude of management toward the lunchroom may affect patronage also. Pride in providing a good service for the industrial family as opposed to a take-it-or-leave-it attitude tends to win favorable response.
The size of a dining room in a hospital should be determined as to whether it is to be used for employees, patients, or guests, or any combination of these. The type of hospital and the number of ambulatory patients should also be considered. The type of hospital will also influence the number of personnel employed. The ratio of personnel to patients will vary from 1 to 3, depending on how much special care is required or how much teaching and research are done. Good food and reasonable prices will attract a high percentage of those eligible to eat in the facility.
School lunch participation varies 25 to 75 percent and a good percentage for planning is 60 to 75 percent of enrollment. Where prices are low, the food good, meal selections appealing, and the food service carefully integrated with the educational program, the percentage will be high.
Banquet seating requires planning because maximum seating potential means maximum profits. Folding tables 30 in. wide are popular. These are obtained in varying lengths, but 72 and 96 in. are commonly used. The spacing for the legs should be such as to allow for comfortable seating when the tables are joined end to end and place settings are laid on 24-in. centers.
Restaurant operators should consider space in relation to patronage volume essential for a profitable business. Labor, food, and operating costs must be met and a profit realized that covers risk-bearing effort expended and return on investment. Essential income is weighed in the light of probable patronage and probable average check The number of seats provided in planning must cover this need.
Flexibility in seating capacity is often desirable. People do not like to be crowded nor do they enjoy the lonely experience of being seated in a huge area occupied by only a few. Sparse patronage creates an impression of poor popularity. Separate rooms. folding doors, screens, or other attractive devices can be used to reduce size of an area during slack periods. Sections left open should be those easiest to serve. Balconies, back rooms, or other less desirable space can often be used for overflow numbers that occasionally require service.
A common experience in many dining room operations is the need for more seating at one meal than at others This may be due either to increased numbers or different turnover rates A residence cafeteria serving
600 men has an overflow room seating 100, which it uses only at dinner. The night meal is not only larger but the men dine in a more leisurely fashion. The room is available for serving other groups at breakfast and lunch
Commercial restaurants located in shopping or office areas often have a heavier demand at noon than at the dinner hour. Rooms used for general patronage at noon may be closed at night or provide space for private dinner parties. Entrances to these rooms should not require passage through the main dining room. Convenience for special service is important
Production Areas
A frequently used rule for allotting space for the kitchen is that it should be one-third to one-half the area of the dining room. It has been found unsatisfactory, however, to go by a set space allowance for this area. Detailed study of space allocations leads to the conclusion that percentages in relation to the dining area are "completely unrealistic and unreliable." An analysis of specific needs is required. Many factors influence space requirements, such as:
1. Type of preparation and service
2. Amount of the total production done in the unit
3. Volume in terms of the number of meals served
4. Variety of foods offered in the menu
5. Elaborateness of preparation and service
6. Amount of individual service given, as in a hospital tray service
7. Seating and service plan, whether on one floor or many
The cost of providing space, equipment, and labor is sufficient to merit careful calculation of the best type of operation before planning. New products on the market, new cooking methods, and new equipment available should be evaluated. The use of preprocessed products in many metropolitan areas has made a pronounced change in the amount of space allotted for bake shop, meat cutting, and vegetable preparation areas. Where portion-cut meats are readily available, it is questionable whether even a large establishment can afford to equip and provide skilled labor for a butcher shop. The use of large quantities of frozen foods affects storage needs. The cost and quality of market products, their availability, and the frequency of deliveries are all to be considered.
Variety in menu selection and elaboration of foods tend to increase space needs in work areas and storage. Small amounts of numerous items do not permit stacking and bulk packaging. Elaboration of food often involves individual portion treatment, with individual casseroles, for example, as compared to bulk steam table pans. A hospital food service requiring many special diets serves as a common example of menu variety and individual portion treatment imposing special space requirements.
The equipment provided will affect the space needs. Garbage and refuse, for example, may require a sizable area for storage awaiting pickup. Disposal units for food garbage, incinerator for burnable refuse, and a crusher for tin cans will greatly reduce the amount to be held Frequency of garbage collection will minimize the space needs.
Structural features of the building may influence the utilization of space. The shape of the kitchen, location of ventilation and elevator shafts, support columns and partitions should be considered in relation to an efficient layout for work The location of entrances and

exits tor a pood flow of traffic, window place ment. suitable space, and relationship of sec tions need consideration Eliminate partitions whenever possible, this will reduce space needs and also permit easiei supervision of production areas
Kitchens serving a smaller number require a larger square footacp- pei meal than those serving a largei number. The following data used for industrial cafeterias show the rate at which space needs per meal tend to decrease as the number served increases (Table 2).
TABLE 2 Variation in Space Needs in Relation to Numbers Served
Meal load Squaie feet per meal Variation in SQuare feet
100-200 5 00 500-1.000
200-400 4 00 800-1.600
400-600 3 50 1.400-2.800
800-1.300 3 00 2.400-3.900
1,300-2.000 2 50 3.250-5.000
2,000-3,000 2 00 4,000-6.000
3.000-5,000 1.86 6,500-9.250
Planners are often asked to make estimates of space needs before having an opportunity to make policies or detailed plans for operations. Figures that will be found useful in making such estimates are given in Table 3. These figures pertain to average kitchen areas found in different types of food facilities Their use i6 to be regarded as tentative and to be measured carefully in terms of specific needs The square footage given is to be multiplied by the maximum number of meals estimated per hour of service, in order to find the total space requirement-
After production policies have been established, work areas may be blocked out in terms of the equipment needs and the number of workers required to do the work in a section Linear space, depths, and heights for work centers should be controlled in terms of average human measurements. This will include the reach to and grasp of material or equipment used in working. The length and width of the work table is adjusted in terms of the amount and size of equipment that will rest on it during the progress of work. The linear measurement will vary in terms of the number of workers using it at one time
The width of the table may be 24 to 30 in. unless dishes or food containers are to rest at the back of the table Tables 36 in. wide are preferable when the back of the area is used for such storage Where two workers work opposite each other, a table 42 in. wide may be used A work area of 4 to 6 lin ft will be within convenient reach of the average person. Tables 8 to 10 ft long are used if two people are working
side by sub- A height of 34 in., commonly used he a working height, should be evaluated in teims of specific woik done and equipment used
Aisle space should permit free, easy movement of essential traffic The minimum width for a lane between equipment where one person works alone is 36 and 42 in. where more than one is employed and where workers must pass each other in the progress of work. Where mobile equipment is used, 48 to 54 in. are recommended. At least 60 in. are needed for main traffic lanes where workers regularly pass each othei witli mobile equipment. If workers or equipment must stand in the lane while working, appropriate space should be allowed for this. Thought should be given to space for doors opening into an ai6le and for handling large pieces of equipment, such as roasting pans, baking sheets, and stock pots.
Main thoroughfares should not pass through work centers. Compactness i6 essential for 6tep-saving. It is well for the work centers to be in close proximity to main traffic lanes, with easy access to them. It is important both to avoid distraction from outsiders passing through work centers end to conserve space. Work centers at right angles to traffic lanes are efficient (Fig. 1).
The percentage of floor area covered by equipment varies according to production needs and the type of equipment used A satisfactory layout may claim less than 30 percent of total space for equipment while work areas, traffic lanes, and space around equipment for easy operation and cleaning may require 70 percent or more.
For hospital production and service areas, 20 to 30 sq ft per bed is suggested The need is reduced as the number of beds increases approximately 30 sq ft per bed for a 50-bed, and 20 sq ft per bed for a 200-bed hospital. Thi6 allowance does not include major storage areas, dining rooms, employee facilities, or floor serving pantries.
Serving Areas
Space allowance of serving areas should be adapted to the needs of the specific facility. The menu, organization of work, and number served will influence size. The type of service will also be influential in dictating space needed.
In cafeterias the counter length should be regulated by the variety and volume. Excess space partially filled is unattractive, but crowding is also undesirable An estimate that may be used for allotting width i6 14 ft. This allows for 4 ft as patron lane space, 1 ft tray slide, 2 ft counter width, 4ft for workers, and Z'/j ft for back bar. The size of the tray should dictate the width of the tray slide. The average length of counters in college residence halls and hospitals is found to be 30 to 32 ft, while those
in school lunchrooms average around 15 to 20 fi Some commercial cafeteria counters may be 70 to 8(> ft long, but counters over 50 ft long are frequently considered inefficient. Twenty feet is usually thought of as a minimum but, under special conditions and where a limited menu is served, 6 to 8 ft may be sufficient-The trend is toward shorter counters with mobile serving units or dish holders 6et at right angles to the counter. Smoother service and greater 6peed are achieved Counter height may be set at comfortable levels for workers and patrons. Schools may have lower counters so that children may see the food and push their trays along a slide as they are served. For little folk. 28 to 30 in is desirable, with counters narrow so that servers may reach over to assist a child. A solid tray slide tends to result in fewer accidents than those made of bars or tubing Plastic trays measuring 9 by 12 in., compartmented, and of pastel colors are popular. Slides for these may be on the servers side of the counter for ease of service and to eliminate spillage or accidents The child picks up the completed service at the end of the line.
Some planners use. as a rough guide, one counter or line for every 250 to 300 patrons served, but arrival rate, speed of service, and turnover are more reliable factors to consider in establishing the number of lines required.
Hospital service space will depend upon whether central or floor service i6 used, trays are set up in serving pantries, and modified diets are set up in line or in a diet kitchen. Space must be allowed for bulk food trucks, tray trucks, small tray carts, or special dispensing units used.
Short-order units where food moves directly from production to the consumer require the least service space. The need for an intermediate station is eliminated Step-saving compactness 68ves space. The units requiring the most space Bre those furnishing elaborate or highly individualized service.
Receiving and Storage Areas
Space allocation for receiving and storage must be based on specific needs. The volume and type of items received and stored should be considered Although the average operation may find a dock 8 ft deep and 1 2 ft long sufficient for receiving items, this would not be sufficient for a large one. The space requirement in square feet for food storage for 30 days has been calculated by some as approximately one half the total served or, if 1,000 are served, 500 sq ft may be used as a tentative figure for total food storage needs. Cases of 6/10s stacked 6 cases high on flat trucks will have a bearing weight of approximately 250 to 300 lb per sq ft Skid sizes should be 3 by 2'/ ft by 8 to 12 in. high. Where heavy items, such as 10-gal cans of milk, are stored, bearing weights may be increased One case of 6/10 s, 24/2/£'s. or 24/2 6 weighs approximately 50 lb end occupies 1 cu ft.
Common Storage The volume of canned food needed to serve 100 persons three meals daily for one month is estimated at approximately 45 cases of 6/10 s or equivalent. The maximum stack height will be 8 or 9 cases or approximately 72 in. Accessibility of items that differ, as well as volume, will govern the number of stacks needed A total of 3 cu ft per stack is estimated to include floor apace covered by a case of canned food, plus a share of aiale apace. One thousand cases piled sight high in 125 stacks will require 375 sq ft or a storage area approximately 20 by 20 ft- Storeroom aisles may be as narrow as 36 in., but 42 or 48
TABLE 3 Square Feel of Kitchen Space per Meal for Food Facilities of Different Type and Site
Estimated maximum meals per hour
Type of facility 200 or less 200-400 400-800 800-1,300 1,300-7,500
Cafeterias................... 7.5-5 0 5 0-4.0 4.0-3 5 3 5-3.0 3.0-1 8
Hospitals.................... 18.0-4 5 12.0-4.5 11.0-4 5 10.0-4.0 8.0-4 0
Hotels ...................... 18.0-4.0 7 5-3.0 6 0-3 0 4.0-3.0 4 0-3 0
Industrial lunchrooms........ 7.5-5 0 4 0-3.2 3.5-2.0 3.0-2 0 2.5-1.7
lunch counters............... 7.5-2.0 2.0-1.5
Railroad dining car.......... 1.6
Restaurants (service)........ 7.0-4 0 5 0-3 6 5.0-3 6 5 0-3 0 5 0-3 0
School lunchrooms 4 0-3 3 3 3-2 2 3 0-2 0 2 5-1 6 2 0-1 6
7 57

in. are preferred. Wider aisles may be required if trucks are used. A 3-ft skid on a hydraulic jack needs maneuvering room. If rolling bine or garbage cans on dollies are used for storage, plan location for these. If cans or bins are under shelves, adjust height of bottom shelf to clear and allow for work space for removing food from these containers. Fixed shelving will be best when planned to suit the sizes of items stored. Consider both interspace and depth suitable. Condiment bottles, cereal packages, and canned goods differ in package sizes and in stacking quality The depth of a shelf should accommodate either the width or length of the case, and the interspace should be adequate for the number to be stacked one on top of another. Allow 1 % to 2 in. as free space for ease of positioning. Add thickness of shelving to interspace when stating measurements between centers.
Position heavy items to reduce lifting and facilitate dispensing. Drums of oil and vinegar should have spigots and be equipped with pumps or located on cradles. Table surface and scales should be located for convenient issuing of dry stores Plan to have all products at least 6 in. above the floor or movable to facilitate cleaning of storage area. Limit height of top shelf for easy reach without aid of stool or stepladder. The average vertical reach of
men is 84% in. and of women 81 in. Use of the top shelf for light, bulky packages, such as cereal, is recommended.
Refrigerated and Low-Temperature Storage There are many factors affecting space needs for refrigerated and low-temperature foods. Across-the-board figures generally should be used only in preliminary estimates. The quantity stored at one time will dictate the storage needs. Variation in the type of storage also will be indicated by the types of items to be stored. Allocation in preliminary planning may be as follows: 20 to 35 percent for meat (portion-ready meats require % to '/, less space than carcass or wholesale cuts); 30 to 35 percent for fruits and vegetables; 20 to 25 percent for dairy products, including those in serving areas; 10 to 25 percent for frozen foods; and 5 to 10 percent for carry-over foods, salads, sandwich material, and bakery products. A requirement of 1 5 to 20 cu ft of refrigeration per 100 complete meals has also been used by some planners. Others state 1 to 1% cu ft of usable refrigerator space should be provided for every three meals served. Analysis of a number of award-winning installations indicated that approximately 0.25 to 0.50 cu ft of refrigerated walk-in space was provided per meal served, and frozen walk-in space approxi-
mated 0.1 to 0.3 cu ft per meal served. Additional low-temperature or refrigerated space in terms of reach-ms was not calculated. In some climates, refrigerated space must be provided for dried fruits, nuts, cereals, and other foods to prevent weevil and insect infestation.
A walk-in becomes feasible for an operation serving 300 to 400 meals per day, and refrigerated pass-throughs can be added when from 400 to 500 meals are served per day. A walk-in 5 to 6 ft wide does not permit storage on both sides with adequate aisle space. Storage space of 1 % to 2 ft should be allowed on either side of the aisle. If crates or cases are stored, this may have to be increased. Aisles of 30 in. are usually too narrow; 42 in. are desirable. If mobile equipment is moved in and out, aisles may have to be wider. Walk-ins that are 8 to 9 ft wide and about 10 ft long are minimum size. This allows for two storage areas 30 in. wide with a 3 to 4 ft aisle. If added width is desired for storage space in the center, allowance for storage areas of about 3 ft wide and 42 in. minimum aisles should be provided. Large walk-ins may be designed for lift truck operation, with doors opening from the receiving dock on one side and into the kitchen opposite. If this is done and lift trucks are used, space must be provided in storage aisles for their working and turning around. Doors should be a minimum of 42 in. wide to admit large crates and containers or be sized to suit mobile equipment. Doors to low-temperature areas are most often planned to open into a refrigerated area. If this is not done a heating device may have to be installed on a door opening into a warm area to prevent its freezing tight from condensation. About 12 to 15 sq ft must be kept free for every door opening. About 45 lb of frozen food, if stacked in cases, can be stored per cubic foot. About 30 to 35 lb of refrigerated food can be stored per cubic foot.
Sanitation Areas
Dishwashing Area The space required for the dishwashing operation depends on the methods and equipment used. In all instances there must be adequate room to receive the volume of soiled dishes likely to arrive at any one time, plus space for scraping, stacking, and placing in baskets on a conveyor of a machine or into a prerinsing operation. The dimensions may be only 30 to 36 in. for a single tank machine, 60 to 72 in. for sinks, or 7 to over 30 ft for a conveyor-type machine. The requirements in the clean dish area will vary. It is important that there be enough space for dishes to be exposed to air for sufficient time to air-dry before stacking. For a basket-type machine, it is well to allow space equal to that required for three baskets, a stack of trays, and three or four stacks of dishes. For basket machines, it is usually recommended that the clean dish area occupy 66 percent of the total table space and the soiled dish area, 40 percent.
Methods used for transporting and storing dishes will influence space needs. Where mobile storage equipment is used, more space is needed for the several units than where one cart is used for transporting and is repeatedly loaded and unloaded. A table surface is desirable for sorting, treating, or inspecting silver and other tableware. The installation of a domestic washer and drier in the dishroom may require space.
Pot and Pan Section Provide a soiled utensil collection area adequate for the largest volume that normally arrives in the section at one time. The busiest periods are likely to occur when preparation containers are emptied for service

CORE LOCATION Central (Interior)
This location has a number of advantages. It allows all window space to be utilized as rentable office space and depending upon the configuration of the building plan will permit offices of varying depths to receive natural light. The central location is also extremely convenient in terms of access and in some cases may be equidistant for all sides. This simplifies area division and provides good flexibility of tenant distribution in the same way. Horizontal utility runs may also be relatively equidistant from the core. Combined with a square building plan, bearing exterior, and core walls this location permits a floor plan free of columns and thus totally flexible for office layout.
While this core location has definite advantages, it also has some drawbacks. One disadvantage is that the central interior location limits the depth of offices in the midzone of each floor, thus affecting the element of flexibility in office layout. Another floor-area-consuming characteristic of this core is that it requires an access corridor around its perimeter.
Off-Center (Interior)
Like the central-interior core, the off-center interior core permits all window or building perimeter space to be used for offices. However, it presents somewhat more flexibility in maximum depth and arrangement of spaces. This can be particularly desirable where large open spaces such as secretarial or clerical pools are required. It also affords the opportunity of developing small secluded spaces in the relatively narrow portion of the floor plan where the core is closest to the exterior walls.
This core location may present some problems of access. Because it is off-center, it is somewhat remote and thus less convenient to the far sides and corners of the building. If there is multiple-tenant occupancy on any given floor, a long access corridor will be required as will be a perimeter corridor around the core itself. The off-center location may also lessen flexibility of tenant distribution.
Split (Interior)
The principal advantage of a split core is that it virtually eliminates the need for a peripheral corridor on the core. Access to this core is from the area between its split elements and not from the area around its edges This permits more flexibility of floor-area division, leaving even the area immediately adjacent to the core available for office space. Depending on the width of the access space in the center of the core, this space may be put to different uses on different floors. At the ground, or entry, level this area can become a lobby, while on floors where elevators do not stop this space can be used for additional office space
Unlike the three interior core locations discussed. the primary advantage of an exterior core arrangement is that it leaves the entire floor area of the building available for tenant use. In addition, the core does not complicate the floor plan either functionally or structurally. With this type of arrangement, maximum flexibility is achieved with respect to tenant distribution, office depth, and layout. Since the core creates a dead wall or portion thereof, it may be used as a buffer between the building and an adjoining property which may have objectionable characteristics. Location on the outside of the building also permits the core to act as a point of transition between one building and another of possibly different scale.
Some problems are also created by placing the core on the outside of a building. The primary drawback is that, in the case of multitenant occupancy, the core requires a long access corridor lessening flexibility of tenant distribution. In addition, the core occupies desirable window space so that the offices immediately adjacent to the core may not receive any natural light.
The relationship of individuals, as determined by operating procedures, must be the governing factor in any layout. The development of a layout which conforms to and complements the predominant work flow requirements of an office is perhaps the most important phase of space planning. By the systematic study of the operations, processes, and procedures involved in individual (or group) tasks, the planner can assist management by providing work station patterns which ensure a smooth, straight-line flow of work. It should be understood that space planning does not conflict with or overlap the field of methods and systems analysis. The role of the space planner is to gain a knowledge of the functions, as developed. and to translate them into the best space layout possible within the limitations imposed by building characteristics, fiscal allotments, etc
Straight-Line Principle In a well-planned office, paper goes from one desk to another with the least amount of handling, traveling, and delay. Work should progress in a series of straight lines with a general forward movement, avoiding criss-cross motion and backward flow. When the layout is being developed, the flow pattern can be traced from desk to desk. Caution must be exercised, however, since the straight-line work principle cannot be adapted to all activities, particularly those headquarter or departmental offices whose staff activities do not lend themselves to assembly-line processing.
GtiuJu for S/);n:n Pl.tnmncj A L.tyout, Sorviros Administration Putiln: Buildings Sor vii o Washington O C
Work Stations
All work stations, whether in a private office or in open space, are reduced to units of furniture and equipment See Fig 1 for the work stations most frequently used. The basic unit of work stations are desks and there*ore require the most consideration. The following general rules are applicable in positioning desks:
1. Desks should face the same direction unless there is a compelling functional reason to do otherwise. The use of this technique provides for straight work flow patterns, facilitates communications, and creates a neat and attractive appearance.
2. In open area, consideration should be given to placing desks in rows of two. This method will permit the use of bank-type partitions as a divider for those activities which require visual privacy while still obtaining maximum utilization.
3. Desks should be spaced at a distance of 6 ft from the front of a desk to the desk behind it. This distance should be increased to 7 ft when desks are in rows of two, ingress and egress is confined to one side of the aisle, or in instances where more than two desks side by side cannot be avoided.
4 In private offices the desk should be positioned to afford the occupant a view of the door.
5. In open work areas the supervisor should be located adjacent to the receptionist or secretary. Access to supervisory work stations should not be through the work area.
6. Desks of employees having considerable visitor contact should be located near the office entrance. Conversely, desks of employees doing classified work should be away from entrances.
"Executive Core" Concept
Most new building designs produce a block-type structure which is well lighted and air conditioned, and which is divided by a few access corridors radiating from a central service core. This type of construction permits development of space plans based on the "Executive Core" concept. This concept, or technique, places all or a majority of the private offices in the core area and allocates space along the building perimeter for others. It has proved very satisfactory in many cases where it has been used and has potential in most new buildings in which large, or relatively large, groups of lower echelon" employees will be housed.
This concept arises from the premise that employees performing routine tasks which keep them at their desks almost the entire work day require the psychological advantages of window space. On the other hand, supervisors and executives are frequently called upon to leave their offices for meetings, supervisory tours, etc and interior offices, if properly designed and decorated, are completely acceptable for them. Also, the occupants of private offices generally receive the greatest number of visitors; in fact, the need to receive many visitors is perhaps the justification most fre-qutmtly given for private offices The location

of prrviite ofth s m the ( mi' fm ilitutes the halt <11 ii () f visiloi s it ltd kei'ps them Imiit t lit* gen-fial woik areas
Other Planning Considerations
The application of tht- following coitMcIcutlions will assist the space! planner to attain functional effectiveness in the final layout:
1 Employees performing close work should be in the best-lighted areas Glaring surfaces which affect vision should be identified and cor reefed
2. Clothes lockers in an office layout are out of date and wasteful. Large rooms or open areas should be provided with hanging space for coats and shelves for hats, packages, and other material. Space not suitable for work stations should be used whenever possible.
3. Heavy equipment generally should be placed against walls or columns in order to avoid floor overloading.
4 Be safety conscious. Do not obstruct exits, corridors, or stairways. Comply with fire safety codes governing aisles, exits, etc.
5. Where frequent interviews with the general public are required as in personnel offices, the use of interview cubicles should be considered Such cubicles need only be large enough for the interviewer, the applicant, and a small desk or table.
6. In operations which require employees to work away from their office, with only infrequent visits there to file reports, etc., consideration should be given to assigning two or more employees to each desk. Other considerations include the provision of 45*in. desks and the use of common work tables, with the assignment of file (tabinet drawers to each employee in which to keep papers, etc.
Private Offices
The private office i4 the most controversial problem facing the space planner. The assignment of private offiqes and the type of partitioning to be used are issues to be settled by top management acting on the advice and recommendations of the space planner. Private offices should be assigned primarily for functional reasons, i.e., nature of work, visitor traffic, or for security reasons. When private offices are provided, they should be only large enough for the occupant to conduct his normal business with a reasonable degree of dignity (Fig 2). The following are some of the factors requiring consideration prior to making the assignment:
Classification Grade The necessity for a private office cannot be directly related to the classification grade of the employee.
Supervisors in Open Space Supervisors who are working with their employees, rather than planning for them, should generally be in the same room or open space with them. The supervisor may be separated from the balance of his section by a distance of several feet which permits a degree of privacy.
Prestige A frequent justification for a private office is to impress visiting representatives of industry, and the general public, with the importance or dignity of the official being contacted. Recent studies of office planning in private industry tend to refute such a position. They show many highly paid employees housed in attractive open space. Moderately sized private offices are provided only for upper-echelon officials The offices of many top executives of large, nationally known companies ere less than 250 sq ft each The provision of a private office, or too large a private office, for a Gov
eminent official limy give tin- tnx|myeis an atlvei se impression
Security Requirements The space planner hems many reasons why people in Government need places where confidential discussions can be field and a variety of suggestions as to how this should be accomplished. The private office is the most popular, if not always the most practical, solution. The Federal establishment undoubtedly has a greater problem in this respect than many branches of business
In addition to the security requirements, the Government is faced with privacy situations involving investigative agencies and other activities which have occasion to inquire into ttie most confidential aspects of individuals' personal lives and the operations of business concerns There is no question as to these persons entitlement to reasonable privacy regardless of whether they are summoned to the office, appear voluntarily to render assistance, or avail themselves of services offered by the agency. There are alternatives, however, in determining the methods to be used to satisfy the various requirements.
Sizes of Private Offices It is desirable that private offices be a minimum of 100 sq ft and a maximum of 300 sq ft each in size, depending upon the requirements of the occupant. See sketches of most widely used private offices. Only in cases where it is necessary for the occupant to meet with delegations of 10 or more people at least once a day should the size approach 300 sq ft. For the average Government function, the private office should not exceed 200 sq ft.
Semiprivate OHices
The semiprivate office is a room, ranging in size from 150 to 400 sq ft. occupied by two or more individuals. These offices can be enclosed by ceiling-high, three-quarter-hinh. or bank-type partitions. Examples of semiprivate offices are shown Because of the loss of flexibility introduced by the use of the partitions required to enclose these offices, the same rigid review given private offices should be employed Generally, the need to house members of a work team or other groups of employees assigned to a common task is an acceptable justification for semiprivate accommodations.
General or Open Space
The following paragraphs describe some of the factors affecting good office layout in general or open space:
General "General office space" refers to an open area occupied by a number of employees, supervisors, furnishings, equipment, and circulation area. Large open areas permit flexibility and effective utilization, aid office communications, provide better light and ventilation, reduce space requirements, make possible better flow of work, simplify supervision. end eliminate partition costs. In many cases, however, open-space housing for more than 50 persons should be subdivided either by use of file cabinets, shelving, railing, or low bank-type partitions.
Open-Area Work Stations The space allocated to these work stations is based on the furniture and equipment necessary to perform the work assigned as well a& on circulation area The space assigned to any specific work station may be increased due to special furniture and equipment requirements associated with the particular position.
This is tin- area required to conveniently permit ingress and egress to work stations. The size of an aisle should be governed by the amount of traffic it bears The following standards with regard to internal circulation will be applied in space planning surveys:
1. Aisles leading to main exits from areas which carry substantial traffic (main aisles) should be 60 in. wide.
2. Aisles which carry h moderate amount of traffic (intermediate aisles) should be 48 in wide.
3. Aisles between rows of desks (secondary aisles) should be approximately 36 in. wide.
Conference Requirements
Conferences, meetings, and assemblies are an important part of Government operations. Since there is no established standard suggesting the number of conference rooms based on the number of people, tire needs will vary widely among agencies or agency components, depending largely on the nature of their work. Whenever possible, the establishment of conference rooms should be based on need established from past records and experience, rather than on anticipated needs. Unnecessary conference space is often allowed because planning is not based on such records of demonstrated need. The space planner should always evaluate the utilization of existing conference rooms before recommending others (Fig 3).
Conference Space in Private Offices vs. the Conference Room Conferences are best conducted in space designed for that purpose. Conference space should not be provided in private offices In lieu of large offices, it is desirable to provide a conference room adjoining the office of a top official who holds a large number of conferences and nearby conference rooms for officials with more limited requirements Separate conference rooms permit maximum utilization through scheduling at an appropriate level of management. Where feasible, training and conference requirements should be pooled and conference space used as auxiliary office area for visitors.
Location of Conference Rooms The conference room should be centrally located to the users. Interior space, which is not the most desirable for office purposes, is well suited for conference use. This location eliminates outside distraction and the need for window coverings during visual presentations. Access to conference rooms should be through corridors or through reception areas.
Sizes of Conference Rooms Conference rooms should be designed to accommodate average but not maximum attendance. Extra chairs can be used to achieve additional seating See illustrations of preferred layout of conference rooms of various sizes.
Reception Areas and Visitor Control
Visitors receive their first impression of an organization from the decor and layout of the reception area, it should be attractive, neat, businesslike, and above all. adequate to accommodate normal visitor traffic. An allowance of 10 sq ft for each visitor to be served may be used for space allocation. For example, if space is required for a total of five visitors at any given time, a total of 50 sq ft should be used in planning the space. Size, decor, and equipment will depend largely on the type arid volume of visitor traffic; thus special

1. Convenience to the Public Those departments
having the greatest number of visitors should be located so that the visitors have a short, direct, and convenient route from the main entrance to the department sought. The sales, purchasing, and employment or personnel departments usually have the most visitors Convenient access is not only enjoyed by the visitors but it offers the least disturbance to the work of employees.
2. Flow of Work Departments having the closest working connections should be placed closest together. When this is done, the work flows with a minimum waste of time between operations Sales and advertising departments normally work together; so do the sales and credit departments, cost and payroll departments. When they are too far apart, unnecessary walking time is increased or the telephone switchboard or intercoms are overworked.
3. Equipment Used Some departmental operations require the use of special equipment requiring extensive wiring, plumbing, or ventilation equipment. Moving departments of this type requires expensive alterations. Obviously, two such departments should not be located together because of the difficulty of later expansion.
Some sections of a department may use noisy equipment. They may use teletypes, tabulating equipment, reproduction equipment, and similar specialized equipment. Typing and stenographic sections, because of their concentration, will produce a higher noise level than a similar number of machines scattered throughout the area. To minimize disturbance to the rest of the employees, these sections are commonly segregated into sound-treated rooms.
4. Centralized Functions Sections and facilities that serve the entire office should be centrally located and easily accessible to all who use them. Correspondence and stenographic pools, central files, cost accounting, and tabulating areexamples. Of course, rest rooms, water fountains. and supply cabinets should be provided in sufficient numbers and conveniently located.
5. Confidential Areas Certain functions of a business may be of a confidential nature that requires them to be isolated from others in the office and from the general public. Central files, the paymaster, the controller, and legal offices are examples.
6. Conference Rooms Conference and training rooms should be reasonably near those departments that use them the most If the office is air conditioned, the room can be in the interior of the space to eliminate the distraction of windows and to provide more wall display area.
7. Freight Elevators Departments receiving and delivering large quantities of materials should be located near the freight area for ease of handling, less time and labor, and less distraction of other workers Mail, stockroom, and machine departments are in this category.
8. Shipping Dock Shipping and receiving activities and mail rooms should obviously be near the point of entrance and exit of material.
9. Service Facilities Eating, medical, and lounge facilities are generally on the lower floors to reduce elevator traffic. The number and type of employees in a particular department might be considered in locating it near these facilities.
10. Passenger Elevators When an office occupies more than one floor, elevator service will be more effective when the departments with large clerical forces are on the lower floors.
The fundamental unit (module) for office space planning is the individual worker, seated at his or her desk or work station. The space allowance assigned to each worker can be either liberal or economical depending upon space limitations or the kind of atmosphere desired in the office
In larger offices where there are many routine jobs, space standards tend to be economical. Where the work is specialized, where there are many visitors, or where high morale is promoted, space assignment is apt to be more generous. Larger firms tend to be more economical than smaller ones, for the extra space means extra rental costs or more buildings. Smaller firms have fewer routing operations and tend to have more generous space allowances.
In the general office area, allotment of 100 sq ft per clerical worker is generally considered a liberal standard; 65 sq ft is an economical standard. Eighty square feet would be a reasonable average.
Good space utilization does not necessarily mean allocating the least possible working space per person. On the contrary, too little working space may reduce the worker's efficiency and waste many times the savings made by any reduction in the square-foot rental costs. Good space utilization, in its broad meaning, allots more space to those positions whose activity justifies it, and reduces the space where there is a surplus
There is no accurate scale of space allowances which will make layout planning automatic. We can give you here, however, some guidelines which have been established from a large number of surveys made of offices, both commercial and governmental. These suggestions will help you make a broad estimate of your space requirements or will serve as a check against your own utilization of space.
We can break down the types of space required in the typical office into five categories as follows:
1. Office space
2. File space
3. Special equipment
4. Storage space
5. Special rooms
Let s discuss these five space categories separately.
Office Space Allowance
The following typical allowances include space for departmental aisles, space to move about, space for occasional visitors and consultation, rest rooms, fountains, special files, general office equipment, bookcases, and coat racks. It does not include main aisles, corridors, or the space covered by the other four space categories.
Square feet
Top executive . 400-600
Junior executives 100-200
Supervisors 80-100
Operator at 60 in desk 55
Operator at 55 in desk 50
Operator at 50 in desk 45
Operators are assumed to be at desks side by side, two in a row Add space for file and side chair if needed
The use of L-shaped furniture for work stations will give more surface room than the standard desks, but the floor spaca will be roughly equivalent when the width is the same as desks above.
File Space Allowance
The actual space taken up by a file cabinet and its open drawer is easily measured. It is difficult to estimate how much should be added to these measurements for working area until decisions are made on arrangement of the filing area
In general, each open file cabinet will require the following space allowance without consideration of any working area in front of the open drawer:
Square feet
Standard letter file....................... 6
Standard legal file........................ 7
Side opening letter file........................ 6y,
Side-opening legal file........................ 7'/,
Special Equipment Allowance
Certain special types of office machines require more space than normally allowed in an estimate based on the average clerk or typist position. Any space taken up by the following equipment and their operators should be added to that considered for the regular office space.
1. Tabulating equipment
2. Duplicating equipment
3. Telephone switchboard
4. Teletype equipment
5. Time clock space
6. Other special equipment
Storage Space Allowance
Storage requirements depend on the nature of the firm's work, its age, and the inclination of the administration to retain records. Here are some storage space requirements which should be considered:
1. Vaults
2. Stockrooms
3. Transfer files
4. Shelving
5. Janitor supplies and equipment
6. Stock rooms
7. Coat rooms
Special Rooms Allowance
Depending on the type of business, offices will require rooms of a size matched to their use. These will include:
1 Reception room 2. Waiting room
3 Interviewing room
4 Examination room
5. Conference room
6. Exhibit room
7. Medical room
8. Lunchroom
9 Employee lounge 10. Rest room 1 1. Mail room
The more common rooms will have the following typical space allotments, based on their use by I 5 people.
Square feet
Rpception room 400
Waiting or interviewing mom 200
Conference room 500
Add appr oximately 10 h| ft for each additional person to be provided for

By JOSEPH KLEIMAN, Aichitert. Freidin, Kleimjtit, Kellehtti, New York, N Y.
D; 2 -6 |2-0"- 3-3 2-0'-3-3 i 3 t-e-'
H H 2-K" |2-42-6" 2-5' 2-4 :-t" 2 2 2-1-2-3
l! 5-0 '4-6"- 7-0" 5'-O 3 -9 7-C 3-0" 0-0- S'-O"
1 File
VARIOUS drawer arramgements for pedesta.s
ARTIST ANO DRAFTING desks or tables
37 Vz" x 4 3'/! D 60'- 72"- 84" W x 37" H.
Fig. 4 Office planning: desks sires
Lw4 i- d-4
secretarial chair
i- W4 i D -i-
SWIVEL armchair

- d-4
- W
1-5" l-4" -1'- 8" 2'-4" 1- 8-2'-6" 1-10' l'-6"-2'-3" t'-9" 1-6"-1-11" 1' -6 1- 5-2-O' l'-8" 1- 4"-2 0*
v-rW 1-6- 2'-0" 2'-3" 1-8-2-6" 1-10 l'-7-2-8" l'-9" V-7'-l'-1Cf l'-8" l'-6"-2'-Cf I'-ICf i'-6-2'-e"
2' 6" 2-5V-10" 2'-9" 2-6" 3-0" 2-6" 2-4,;-2-10' 2'-6" 2-4-2-9' 3-0 2-11-3-6'' 2-6" 2-4-2-10"
l'-5" 1-4- 1-8' 1-5" 1-4-1- 10" 1-6 l'-4-l'-7" 1-5' 1-5-1-6" 2'- 4" 1-5-2-10" 1*-6" 1-5-1'- 7"
2-6" 2'-6"-3'-4'
2-7" 2'-2"-3'-4"
2-6' 2-1-J-4"
l'-3" 1-0-1- 6'
2SEATS-5-0-6-7 3SE ATS-6- 0-7 -6" 4 SEATS-7-8-9'-0"
Fig 6 Office planning: Mating met

typical vertical file and
typical lateral file and
depth T-6", t'-IO", 2-0"
WIDTH l'-6", 2'-0",3'-0'
HEIGHT 2-6", 3-6 5-6" 6-6"
0 0

DEPTH 6",9",l'-0",l'-3",1'-6" l-9",2' 0",2'-6",3'-6"
width 2-0", 2-6", 3'-0", 3'-6", 4 -0"
Fig. 6 Office planning: files and storage sizes.
Fig. 7 Office planning: clearances for secretarial areas and general clerical offices.
20'-0" AVG

oo o ro lorded O0
I 65"-72" 1 "J in
39 -48-60" 52"-60'
Fig 8 Office planning: layouts for private offices.
Office layout is often based upon a module derived from standard furniture and equipment and the necessary clearances- For large general offices, the planning unit or module is based upon one desk and chair and is thus about 5 by 6 ft. Since this dimension is also satisfactory for aisles between rows of desks the module can be used to form a regular grid for the planning of large office areas (Fig.
9) .
In the layout of private offices the controlling factors are the minimum practical office layout with the wall and window design. A planning module of 4 to 5 ft works reasonably well for this purpose. With this module the smallest office (2 modules) would be 8 to 10 ft wide, and a convenient range of office sizes is provided in increments of one module (Fig
10) . If the exterior wall consists of continuous windows, one module in width, then the office widths are limited to even modules. If windows alternate with solid walls, then office widths do not have to be in even modules but may vary widely (Fig 11). This type of wall
design permits greater flexibility in office layout at the expense of less natural light in the offices
The planning module and the exterior wall module must be reconciled with the structural module or column bay If all these modules coincide, then the wall or window units adjacent to the column must be smaller than the intermediate units (Fig. 12a). If the wall units are kept uniform in size, then the planning module is interrupted by the column width (Fig. 12h). If the columns are set inside the walls, they do not interfere with the wall module but they create a serious limitation on the layout of private offices (Fig. 12c). If the columns are set outside the walls, then the planning module and the wall module are not affected by them (Fig 12d).
Column spacing most frequently used in multistory steel-framed office buildings is around 25 ft, center to center. Recent trend is toward larger spacing; 30 to 35 ft is not uncommon Flexibility of interior space is so important in office building design that the extra cost of clear span framing with the elimination of all interior columns is sometimes considered worthwhile; clear spans of 60 to 70 ft have been used
Fig 9 Planning module for layout of general office space.
5 WINDOWS 20 25'
3 WINDOWS 12-15'
.-.c 1
Fig. 10 Private office widths using a module of 4 to 5 ft with continuous windows.
(o) One-window office
(b) Two-window office Fig. 11 Private office widths using a module of 4 to 5
(o) T
1 r D ^ X ^ *iS M A 1 X 1 M M M X 1
1 1 D M J. M J_ M __ M
Note: all plans drawn with outside at bottom
Fig. 12 Relation of planning module and wall module to column spacing and location.

Planning; Landscaping
Efficiency of an office building design is measured by the ratio of rentable space to total space. Average efficiency is about 70 percent; maximum possible is about 85 percent. The non-rentable space consists of the elevators, stairs, and toilets and their associated lobbies, corridors, pipe and duct shafts, and janitors closets. These facilities are usually planned in a compact unit called the service core. For preliminary assumptions, the number of elevators required may be estimated on the basis of one elevator per 25,000 sq ft of rentable area. Elevator lobbies should be 6 to 9 ft wide if elevators are on one side only; 10 to 12 ft if elevators are on both sides. Corridors are usually 5 to 6 ft wide (Fig. 13), wider if very long, narrower if very short.
Fig. 13 Corridoi width based on requirements of human figures.
Since the floor space within 25 to 30 ft from the exterior wall brings premium rentals, office buildings (site or zoning consideration aside) tend to assume a slablike shape, 60 to 70 ft wide by 150 ft or more long, with the service core in the center (Fig. 14). For greater flexibility in the
Fig. 14 Typical slab plan with service core at center.
j______lI i Li_______i------1------1------1-----
I-------1-------1-----I t--------1-------1-------r--------1----i
Fig. 15 Maximum flexibility of rental area achieved by use of clear-span framing and separate service tower.
rental space, the service core may be moved completely outside the office space. When this scheme is combined with clear span framing, the ultimate in flexibility is achieved (Fig. 15).
Floor to-floor heights are usually about 12 ft, ranging from 11 to 1 4 ft. Finished ceiling heights are generally about 8 to 8Vi ft. The space above the ceiling is required for ducts and recessed lighting. In order to avoid excessive depths in this utility space, girders are sometimes designed with openings in the web to permit the passage of ducts.
A number of large U.S. corporations have been experimenting with an open planning system known in the space-planning and design profession as office landscaping. This concept of planning originated in West Germany and has been used extensively in European office operations. It is intended to create an open, flexible layout by grouping personnel and their work stations in accordance with group communications and with interdepartmental work flow and relationships.
The proponents of the landscaping concept maintain that office planning should not be based upon the traditional organization chart of command structure, but rather on the grouping of personnel in open space along the lines of interpersonal relationships and group communications. When this concept is applied in its most literal form, it means the elimination of private offices, with no distinction made between management"
* Maurice Mogulescu, Profit Through Design, American Management Association, New York, 1970.
personnel and "general office" personnel. The offices are designed with no Fixed walls or partitions. The entire floor space is treated as open space with movable screens, plants, and furniture arrangements utilized to create functional work groups. With the elimination of fixed walls or partitions, a maximum degree of long-term flexibility can be achieved. It should be recognized, however, that in a totally open floor space without walls or partitions, provision for telephone and electrical outlets must be made either through a complex underfloor electrical duct system or through a system that affords the opportunity to drop telephone and electric lines from the ceiling to the work stations below. It should also be recognized that in this type of open operation, factors such as lighting, noise control, and air conditioning will present technical problems that must be dealt with and solved in order to insure a physical environment conducive to a satisfactory work situation.
While presenting technical problems to the office planner, these problems can be solved with careful study and engineering know-how within the existing technology. It is the opinion of the author that although the office landscaping concept offers many advantages, it may also create many new problems unless it is applied after a very thorough study of all factors related to overall office environment.

a D D
4 MODULI! =10 0 9
* MODULES = 1 S 0
t; ~T^
c §-
Fig. 1 Typical modular office plans.


a b c d e f f
curb c nter to een r a idtr.
park, 'l*: ta'.i -tail .lido length f tAoroA bin a ith
angb* A :dth t* curb a id.h per rar lcress road ~yf t a ee n
19 long *ta curb tit curb overlap cc
1 l" i 17 0 73 0 2t 0
u t 0" 0 i: o 23 0 30 0 -
on* 14' 14 t n a 17 0 44 1 37 4
JU t'O" 17 J i; o l| 0 4 S 4 37 1
14" It 4 13 S 12 0 32 3 44 3
t'O" It 1 13 0 17 7 S2 4 / 44 7
a n 14" 20 7 11 1 t 1 It t VS 4
ou t'O" 21 0 11 0 10 4 40 0 SS S
on9 4 4 It 0 23 0* 1 1 ll 0
7 U to" It 0 73 0 t 0 41 0 -
Two wav t.rcuia'.ion
c A r ^
a b c d e f1 r
curb enter-to-ce -ter a- cth
parking Sta i -ta-! .orgth 'won * om a ;:h
ang e a dm it cure a idth pt:r car access road betAeen
15 long sea curb-to-curb overlap rc
O' 7.5 7.5 11.0 w. a 26 0 26.0
30' 7.5 14 0 110 15 0 39.0 3 2.5
45' 7.5 15.9 11 0 10 6 42 8 37.9
60' 7.5 15.7 14 0 8 7 47 5 40.4
90' 7.5 15 O 18 o 7 5 4 8 0 40.0
> *> circulation
Supp. No. 5


This Thesis is Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for a Master of Landscape Architecture Degree
at the
Graduate Division of Landscape Architecture College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver

All cities are the physical remnant of natural processes and human purposes over time, resulting in an urban image.
Some cities have character and unique identity an urban image quality which encourages personal interest and involvement in the workings of the city. Others have a generic, "could be anywhere", image denying personal involvement in the unique forces that provide identity to the city.
My focus in this thesis is to examine that image communication process, the first step toward enhancing image quality for any city. If there are constants, which could improve the quality of the personal experience of the city, those constants should be identified, then made legible and accessible, so that the unique character and identity can be experienced by people as they move through the city.
My interest in cities began as an undergraduate student from Montana, living in an apartment in the Berkeley hills above the campus of the University of California. The first glimpse of the lights of San Francisco beyond the Bay Bridge, followed by the experience, time and again, of surprise and discovery in a city with infinite choice, diversity and "magic", involving people in every aspect of its being, marked the beginning of a journey.
Since that time, I have experienced the same magnetic attraction and involvement in very few cities. This thesis is one milestone in the search for the cause of that lack of character and identity in most modem American cities.
As part of an academic pursuit, research and curiosity led me deep into the complexities inherent in the very nature of the urban experience.
Whatever I have learned, I owe to the patience and the wisdom of a few very talented people who shared their busy and productive days with an optimistic student. Thank you for helping me through to another beginning.
Jacquie Anderson
Candidate for Master's Degree in Landscape Architecture with emphasis on Urban Design as the integration of the human and natural environment of a place.

\ For her support, encouragement, clarity of image and friendship:
Sara Jane Seward
Landscape Architect/Urban Designer The Denver Partnership
For his insight, his patience, his encouragement and his time:
Mark Johnson
Urban Designer/Landscape Architect Civitas
For his urge to keep it simple:
Phil Flores Landscape Architect Acting Director
Graduate School of Landscape Architecture College of Design & Planning University of Colorado, Denver
For his response, his insight, his subtle humor, and his encouragement:
Edmund Bacon
Architect/Planner/Urban Designer Consultant to the Denver Partnership Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
For his time, his wisdom and his advice that "People are the concern and the focus for image enhancement of any city":
Don Miles
Urban Designer/Architect Consultant to the Denver Partnersnip Vice President-Project for Public Spaces President Don Miles Associates Seattle, Washington
For the opportunity to assist in the collaborative public/private urban design process generating the Downtown Area Plan for Denver. The experience disciplined and focused my own investigation into the power of an urban image to involve people in the city:
Gary, Bob, Lii, Eileen, Sara Jane. Barb, and Vickie
The Denver Partnership Civic Design Team
I owe a special debt to friends whose support and philosophy and influence have taught me the power of love and positive thinking:
Peggy and Jim, Kent and Midge, Cathy, Chris, Chip, Sherry, Sandi, Carol, Lin, and especially to Mack and Zack.


May 12, 1986

PROLOGUE................................................ i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................... il
INTRODUCTION.............................................. 1
CONTEXT OP THESIS......................
The value of cities..............
Cities as systems................
The role of image................
INTENTION OP THESIS....................
The value of urban image quality Purpose of thesis
PROCESS................................................. 7
OUTLINE OP PROCESS................................... 9
UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM........................... 10
HYPOTHESIS AND ASSUMPTIONS.......................... 13
PARI I RESEARCH........................................ 15
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY................................ 17
DEFINITION OP IMAGE QUALITY ........................ 18
Evolution of spatial concepts................. 18
Summary of prevalent theories
on Duality of built space..................... 20
Traditional perspective of the city........... 25
Historical evidence........................... 27
Modern evidence............................... 32
PART II THE PRINCIPLES................................. 35
THE PRINCIPLES OP URBAN IMAGE....................... 37
THE EXPERIENCE OP URBAN IMAGE....................... 41
PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY.............................. 54
Test of principles on San Francisco..........
CONCLUSIONS......................................... 62
PART III CASE STUDY.................................... 65
A BRIEF OVERVIEW.................................... 70
ANALYSIS OP IMAGE COMPONENTS........................ 72
Context of place.............................. 72
Structural order through time................. 74
IMAGE QUALITY............................ 90
User interviews.............................. 90
Personal conclusions.......................... 96
Concept Map.................................. 109
The entry at 16th St. over the Platte Valley 111 The edge at Colfax "Civic Center Parkway". 112 The edge and entry at Cherry Creek........... 114
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................ 117
KAtr, -^-uwo


Cities are a part of all our lives. Americans are unavoidably affected by the social, political and economic forces radiating from the cores of modern cities. Yet, the true value of a city cannot be measured in terms of its real estate, its political machines, its isolated social programs. A city is not a collection of metal and glass cubes performing functions separated one from the other by deserted planes of concrete and asphalt and wide swaths of automobile corridors. Such a barren oppressive cityscape falls far short of the meaning and the function of the city.
Purposes of the city are vast and complex. On one level, the city is the fixed geographic center, a magnetic compression of diverse functions, activities and people into a unified system a symbol for collective unity of the urban culture. The city, then, is the core, the heart of an even larger system, the healthy, growing metropolitan region. To deny the health of the heart is to deny the vitality of the region.
But the city is more than this. The true value of the city must be measured in terms of how it affects people in their day to day experience.
As a collection of diverse parts, the city can be an extraordinary facility for human learning and discovery. To realize the potential, to experience the vitality, to value and learn from the depth of meaning and diversity of people and activities, people need to become involved, to participate in the presence of the city on a personal level.
For image of the city to inspire personal involvement and participation, the parts must be meaningful, accessible and stimulate interest.
The eye needs enticement to look more, to become involved, to discover and be surprised by the unexpected. To achieve this involvement in the image of urban space, the city must be considered as a whole a continuous sequence of experience, not as a grouping of isolated buildings, streets and plazas.
It is a special and unique city that offers a rich array of all its parts in an enticing, understandable manner. Such a city offers its citizens a source of pride and inspires their participation and involvement in civic life.
People come together in order to live; they come together in cities in order to live the good life.
The Heart of the Region
Personal Experience
of the City

There are certainly ample reason* for redoing downtown falling retail sales, tax bases in jeopardy, stagnant real estate values, impossible traffic and parking conditions, failing mass transit, encirclement by slums. But with no Intent to minimize these serious matters, it is more to the point to consider what makes a city center magnetic, what can inject gaity, the wonder, the cheerful hurly-burly that make people want to come into the city and to linger there. For magnetism is the crux of the problem. All downtown's values are its byproducts. To create in It an atmosphere of urbanity and exuberance is not a frivolous aim.
Jane Jacobs
The art of building cities is a method for arranging the parts in such a way that the city invites people to become involved.
The diverse parts within the city each have distinct functions to perform, but it is as a system of parts working together as one whole, that a city can reach its potential as a magnetic facility for human learning and discovery.
Nothing in a system exists in isolation, but has its functional, heirarchical place in a continuous sequence of movement. The health and efficiency of the whole are in direct proportion to the health and association between the individual parts.
A system of parts working together as one whole
Functional characteristics which establish, identify and organize systems are:
1. Edge: Essential function is to give def-
inition, to establish boundary and form. The edge, as in an ecosystem, is often the most sensitive and complex part of the system and requires special treatment.
2. Openings: Breaks in the edge which allow
identification of inside with outside. In urban systems, openings help to provide a sense of arrival as well as connection and balance of natural context with manmade forms.
3. Focus: A place or important activity
node or landmark to give orientation and to organize the sense of direction and distance. In a city this may be a plaza, a market or a monument.
4. Connections: The area or space which con-
nects the diverse functional elements of the system to provide physical continuity and continuous circulation.
5. Continuity: The fundamental character of
a system is continuity with connection of elements in a series or in a field. Continuity of the system demands a skeletal framework hinging together what otherwise may be disconnected and unrelated development areas.

Just as a person projects an image based first on structural features (hair, eyes, skin, face, body, clothing), and second on context of environment and past, all associated to create a unique and complex individual personality, so too a city projects an image based upon structural parts, cultural overlay and context of environment.
Just as a person must be accessible and communicate as one whole being to be known, so too the city must be accessible and understandable as a continuous system to be known and to involve people in its workings.
When the essential components of the urban
1. context of place
2. structural order of the parts
3. continuity through time,
are comprehended and experienced together as one continuous system, the urban image has enhanced power to involve people in and to benefit from the urban experience.
These critical parts, the "image components", when working together, comprehended and personally experienced as one continuous system, I am defining as "congruent". That congruence of parts, the joining and working together of previously isolated pieces, is the root and can be the catalyst for an urban image quality which involves people in the unique character of a city.
As a simple example, che human body Is an efficient, helrarchlcal system of Individual parts. The system has clear, defined boundaries, entries and openings for relation with the outside environment. Within the syste'm is an heirarchy of distinct parts each with a unique and necessary function. The health or the disease of any one of the
parts will affect the health of the whole system. But nothing will destroy the health of the system faster than disruption of the continuity and congruence of the parts.
We take stock of a city like we take stock of a man. The clothes and appearance are che externals by which we judge. We next take stock of the mind, the Intellect, che personality. These are the internals. The sum of both the man or the city.
Mark Twain

Aristotle has suggested In "RHETORIC":
"Facility, Interest and beauty are by nature better than chaos, the dull and the ugly, and therefore. If decisions are made wrongly, it must be we designers and planners who, through lack of effective powers of persuasion and compelling concepts of urban living, are to blame."
Continuity of experience from personal contact with any one part of the city to greater understanding and involvement in the whole system is the essence of congruent urban image. What gives an urban image the quality and potential to provide an enriched personal experience is exposure to the interaction and diversity of parts, involving people in deeper levels of understanding and participation in their city.
Designers can help to achieve this goal by making the city accessible and understandable. A method for providing this urban image quality is what we should demand of our government, our planners and our designers in order to once again make the city an enriching part of human existence.
The purpose of my thesis is to determine constants in the experience of a city's image quality that generate personal involvement in the city. Then, to identify those constants in a modern American city and manipulate them in a concept plan for increased involvement of people in the city core.
The structural order of the parts of the city, to be meaningful for people, should have quality relating to a greater context. Awareness of the congruence of parts, as they move through the structural layout of those parts, can link people in the city with the unique environment and place in time.
I propose that the modern American city can offer an image quality for an enriching human
experience that people need and cannot find elsewhere.
The quality of the experience leading to this goal is the measure of uninterrupted association of the parts into a congruent urban image and is the subject of this thesis.



Many modern American cities have lost the urban qualities which involve people in the core,
"In order to love a place, one must first know that place"
Yi Fu Tuan 2
depriving the city of its role as a "magnet" creating a whole greater than the sum of its parts, and depriving the citizens of potential to enjoy and learn from a compressed and diverse mixture of place, people and activity.
In order to involve people in the amenities and activities of a city core, people must clearly understand and vividly experience their city on a personal level.
The problem we are facing with the lost "center" and meaning of our city cores is a human problem restoring and preserving the quality of life in our city cores. The urban image today is often fragmented, not recognizable as one system and, consequently, not understood as an experience which promotes involvement in the whole.
Lack of involvement has become too common and often critical to the economic and social future of many downtowns.
Great, vital cities throughout history have capitalized on the synergy of connections between the pieces, creating a city with congruent urban image, a city which in itself is a complete experience.
American cities often are not used by people as a system of connected parts, but rather as a proximity of singular automobile destinations. The result when people perceive they cannot get from one place to another, is that the city is dead. It matters little if the pieces are good if they are isolated pieces, because the city as a compressive magnet and heart of the region will not fulfill its potential.
The typical American city is in fragments a variety of worlds wholly out of touch with each other.
John Gardner

The history of the probiem dates from the Renaissance and the dawn of quantitative thinking in Western culture. The context of the problem in America must be understood as the cultural reaction to American individuality, independence and entrepreneureai spirit.
In the white, Anglo settlement of America, unmitigated individualism, competitive equality and manifest destiny were built into the American pioneer after the Revolution. The entire country west of the Appalachians was surveyed into a NSEW cartesian gridiron of 6 square mile townships, imposed on the natural landscape according to the Land Ordinance of 1785. Land was a commodity to be sliced and sold to the highest bidder. Towns west of the Appalachians were created not for community, but rather for commerce the buying and selling of goods and land in unbridled capitalism.
The American commercial supply city, laid out in an open, neutral grid along a riverbed, with no spatial structure for heirarchy of connections and centers, was extremely vulnerable to increased technology of movement and building systems. Tension between the centralizing railroad system and the decentralizing auto-superhighway system, along with laissez-faire land speculation, reduced the city center to a fragmented, single-function office core with little potential for diverse experience and enrichment of human life.
The historic nature of the city as a magnet, compressing diverse human needs and activities into a congruent system of heirarchical parts, functioning as one whole, has been compromised.
Through isolated, specialist response to issues and problems, the complexities have been simplified right out of the problems. The pieces are isolated and the city is not meeting all the demands of the place or the people.
We seem to have lost track of the art of building cities in America the art of creating a whole greater than the sum of its parts. Though young, American cities are already unique in the evolution of a new city form.
Will the city reassert itself as a good place to live? It will not unless there is a decided shift in the thinking of those wno would remaite it. The popular image of the city as it is now is bad enougn a place of decay, crime, fouled streets. But what is the image of the city of the future? It la sterile and lifeless. Cone are the dirt and noise and the variety and the excitement and spirit. These bieak new Utopias are not bieak because they have to be; tney are the concrete manifestations and how literally of a deep and at times arrogant, misunderstanding of the function of the city.
William H. Whyte, Jr.
As J.B.Jackson says:
"it may be too early to understand the 20th century American lanascape, but it is essential for the future that we do not destroy meanings inherent in landscape and built forms cnaractenstic of the past."

"It has become dear that the health of both the planet and of individuals requires a degree of interdependency that Western societies have tended to underrate. The enormous emphasis on tne individual at the expense of a more integrated attituae toward both natural environment and social responsibilities. is a denial of human nature and, in modern cities has lowered quality of human life."
Raymond Curran
The problem is separation of the urban components necessary to provide a clear and congruent urban image. The components are present in all cities, but often hidden, neglected and separated from one another. An ordering system can pull them into a congruent whole, providing access to, and understanding of, the image of the city.
Every time a piece of the city is dissociated, the city takes a step toward inhumanity and lack of life. Lack of a congruent urban image hinders personal involvement with and experience of the character and vitality unique to a particular city.
In any living thing, extreme compartmentali-zation and dissociation of internal elements from each other and from the external context is the first sign of coming destruction:
In society: dissociation is anarchy
In a person: dissociation is schizophrenia
and suicide
In any living
system: dissociation results in death
The issues denying access and comprehension in personal experience with rich overlay of place, people and past within the city:
This rage for isolating everything is truly a modem sickness.
Camillo Sitte, 1899
1. Severed ties between personal experience within
the city and natural context of place,
2. Lack of an ordering concept for structure tying
the diverse parts of the city into a legible, continuous system,
3. Severed ties between personal experience within
the city and continuity of the city through time,
4. The lack of personal involvement in unique place,
structural order and overlay of time, suggests that performance criteria be implemented throughout the system for involvement through interest, sequence, activity, human scale and proportion.

A level of quality in a city's image which communicates on three levels to the user,
1. context of unique place,
2. concept of structural order,
3. continuity of time,
could enrich the experience of the urban citizen and visitor, increase a sense of pride and involvement in the city core, and improve the economic health so vital in our culture.
association of the parts into a congruent system
design of the system for human involvement
a unique and enriching urban experience which could attract people to the core of cities, spawning innumerable social, economic and psychological benefits for the city and its citizens


There are considerable resources available on:
1. Human Perception/Image Formation, and
2. The Elements and Desired Relationships of Elements in the City.
A methodology, answering four basic questions, was used in approaching this enormous quantity of research material.
QUESTIONS OBJECTIVES _____________________PURPOSE_____________
1. What is image quality of built space?
2. Why is image quality important for cities?
3. How can image quality be
incorporated as part of a process for enhancing quality of life in the public realm of modem American cities?
4. Does a modern American
city already possessing congruent image quality reinforce the principles and assumptions of the model?
Examine research on human perception/image formation
Examine research on image and design quality of built urban space
Relate the image quality of vernacular settlements and historic, archetype cities to criteria for image quality of any built space.
Define image principles and their relationships in the experience of congruent image quality.
Relate the model for image quality to San Francisco, a modern American city commonly thought to possess an image quality encouraging personal involvement.
By understanding the system of parts and relationships which together create image quality, those criteria can be identified, analyzed and strengthened in any city.
To become aware of the role universal image components and relationships have played throughout the history of urban settlement.
Perhaps a universal truth for the "ART of building cities with enriched quality of life in the public realm already exists.
To provide a method for testing image quality of modern cities. The principles and their relationships can be used as a model to restore, enhance and preserve image quality of cities.
To evaluate criteria and relationships assumed to be necessary for congruent image quality.
"Discovery" in this practical application may alter or enrich my assumptions.

Focus On
Basic to understanding the formation of image by people is the realization that it is composed of two things; 1) movement, which infers passage of time, and 2) focus, which infers involvement with specific place. The relationship between time and place has evolved from one of integration, to one of fragmentation.
Aristotle was the first to develop and record a theory of "place". His concept was a dynamic equilibrium between human needs and environmental quality, both reflected in built form. Direction toward and focus on "place" pulled people toward the city and integrated them through the city with the environment.

The directional quality of the Roman culture emphasized movement and network. Though the Roman "Cardo" and "Decumanus" divided space into quadrants of N-S-E-W, overlaying an axis upon space, it did not negate the quality, character and symbolic meanings inherent in a specific place.

The "Age of reason" introduced theories, based on Euclidean geometry, defining space as infinite and homogenous. The value of movement, time, functional needs and quality of the environment were beginning to be abandoned in new "isolated forms".
"There are bodies and there is emptiness in which those bodies have their place."

With Descarte's introduction of the orthogonal coordinate system, a pragmatic view of space, divided into identical, individual units, was instrumental in quantifying space, obliterating the memory of qualitative space upon which function, direction and orientation depend. The meaning of space became static, disconnected from movement, time and context of the environment.
In the 20th century, the theory of relativity further divided and isolated the meanings inherent in space into a four dimensional space-time concept. The ancient concepts of movement and focus were now split into abstract, isolated units on micro, everyday and macro levels of reality.
In the Western world, this evolution of spatial concepts has changed from one of "integration of forces" creating built forms reflecting basic human needs for movement and focus inherent for 9500 years of urban settlement, to the modern, scientific separation of all forms in an abstract, quantitative, isolating spatial concept.
The reorganization of our visual habits so that we perceive not isolated "things in space, but structure, order and the relatedness of events in space-time, is perhaps the most profound kind of a revolution possible. A revolution that is long overdue not only in art, but in ail our experience.

In reaction to denial of the qualities which together could enrich quality of life in modern built spaces, a number of professionals have questioned the validity of the pure scientific, quantitative outlook, which is specialized and isolating in its problem solving process. There has been considerable research in this century reinforcing the ancient principles of movement on paths toward focused, meaningful spaces which together created legible, integrated, enriching human settlements for thousands of years.
The first step in adequate planning is to make a fresh canvas of human ideals and human purposes.
Lewis Mumford
Early in the twentieth century, the Gestalt school of psychology revealed that image of built space is not the recording of isolated, independent elements, but the grasping of significant structural patterns and relationships within the environment. Most important of these relationships being:
1) Proximity
2) Closed Forms
3) Common Movement
4) Figure-Ground Relation
From cradie to grave, this problem of running order through chaos, direction through space, discipline through freedom, unity through multiplicity, has always been and must always be, the task of education.
Henry Adams
Through social and psychological research, Piaget revealed the contradictions denying basic human needs found in quantitative space, which fragments and isolates the parts, and expanded upon Gestalt relationships with his discovery of "universal spatial schemata" which orient and give meaning to space for people.
Piagets schemata are universal, typical human reactions which relate to the world as a unified whole, rather than as fragmented pieces. Schemata result from the innate human need for orientation and identification within the environment. Through years of research with children, he concluded that space provides orientation and is made useful through the organization of elements into coherent relationships which together create whole patterns.

' The relationships which bring order to the environment are:
1) Proximity
2) Separation
3) Succession
4) Enclosure
5) Continuity
The schemata which unite these relationships into coherent, understandable patterns are:
1) Centers or Places
with Proximity
2) Directions or Paths
with Continuity
3) Areas or Domains
with Enclosure
To orient and identify within the environment, people need to grasp these relationships as a "system" of centers interconnected by paths into a unified whole.
Piaget also discovered that image formation and identification is composed of two levels:
1) Surface level of perceptions -
varies with people egocentric
2) Deeper level of schemata -
universal meaning and identity as part of a greater whole
Schulz reinforces, through research and examples, Piaget's universal schemata for orienting and creating identity in the environment. Schulz maintains that it is a basic need of people to experience built space as meaningful and organized into patterns and relationships.
Legible, meaningful image of built space results from:
1) Orientation by means of nodes, paths and domains with distinct boundaries

identification with quality of the natural environment In die larger context of time and place
mankind symbolizes universal laws connected In a circle
the *way* Is path leading to center (goel)
die center Is universal truth
2) Identification with the quality
or character of the environment by "gathering" of the place into built forms
3) Enriched meaning of tne place
through identity witnin a larger context
Schulz emphasizes that legible, meaningful space cannot be reduced to fragmented, isolated pieces, as decades of abstract, quantitative planning has reduced our cities, without losing the nature of a place and its meaning for enriching the lives of human beings.
"Man is an integral part of the environment and it can only lead to human alienation and environmental disruption if he forgets that"
In "A SENSE OF UNITY", Ardalan summarizes the Eastern Concept of unified space, including complex urban environments, as "multiple manifestations of unity". The fundamental principle of existence is the "cosmology" a profound reality which binds different levels of human existence with corresponding levels of cosmic existence.
This is a purely qualitative approach to the built environment, and its unitary point of view embraces architecture, individual elements and entire cities in its totality.
This unified spatial concept contends that form, which "actualizes" space, is achieved through the "way", indicating that the goal already contains the path as its point of reference and its directional indicator. Movement may be directed toward the goal, emanate from it, or encircle it. All spatial relationships are interdependent. Without law and individual people, there would be no way. Without center or goal, there would be no destination.
The central postulate of this concept for meaningful built form, including the city, is reduced to path and goal, reinforcing Piaget's and Schulz's theories. Ardalan infers that the path and goal concept unifies all built form with humanity and the environment.

Bacon contends that the image of and involvement in the city are acheived through clear, three dimensional connection of ail the parts into one cohesive whole. It is the clarity, the sequence and the continuity of the movement systems pulling the diverse, functional parts together that begins to define the city as a place for the enrichment of human life.
There is intellectual parallel of deepening perception which is based on becoming connected with larger and larger systems. Through this sense of connection to a system greater that himself, man achieves enrichment; the more nearly universal the system, the deeper the enrichment."
Movement systems pull the unique, diverse parts of Rome Into a cohesive system
Kevin Lynch has brought the importance of the legibility and identity of built space more attention than all the other researchers together in his well read work "IMAGE OF THE CITY". His search for methods for measuring image of a whole, rather than isolated aspects of reality, was concerned with the ease with which parts could be organized into a coherent whole.
Lynch singles out what he considers to be the fundamental properties of space which create image. His conclusions defined the main elements of city image as:
1) Paths
2) Edges
3) Nodes
4) Districts
5) Landmarks
"The world may be organized around a set of focal points (nodes), named regions (districts), and linked by remembered routes (paths)."
Lynch's concept of clear, legible structure for image of the city corresponds to the spatial schemata of Piaget and Schulz. However, Lynch does not address quality, character and meaning inherent in the unique place and cultural values through time, thus lowering the potential of his model to enrich human life in the city.

Lynch's analysis of downtown
Boscon for Image elements "" W6!*

Each pattern, to be whole. Is an overlap
Each pattern helps to complete ever larger patterns
In his reluctance to accept the modern isolation of parts within built spaces, Alexander uncovered the field of appropriate relationships, which he calls patterns, between form and context inherent within the solution to any problem.
His concept for legible, meaningful space has at its core the universal principles of movement along a path toward a focus of meaning and use in a goal:
"Each pattern helps to complete ever larger patterns. What is essential is that the connections, the links from one pattern to the next, must not be broken for the 'whole' to contain the essence of both meaning and function of a unique place in its final form."
Nothing is isolated. Each pattern can exist in the world only to the extent that it is supported by other patterns, both internally and externally. What is significant about Alexander's model for
built forms is that he brings the meaning of the
most complex, universal patterns, the city, to the personal level of the individual.
Quality in the image of built space is part of the human experience of a complete system of parts working together in congruence. The parts, and the importance of their association, have been identified time and again by leading experts in the fields of psychology and urban design.
It is the ability of the parts to be experienced together for orientation in and identification with unique place, that leads to a congruent image resulting in enriched quality of life in built spaces.
The essence of congruence and involvement in the image of built space is this system of parts working together:
1. Clear Identity with Unique Character
of Place
2. Clear Sequence of Structural Order
(in edges, paths, centers, domains) for orientation
3. Clear Identity within the Ongoing Continuum of Time

With the birth of the city from its mobile paleolithic (path dominant) and soilbound neolithic (center dominant) fertilization, came the first reflection of human intentions and values "gathering" the environment into built urban form.
The purpose of the city through 10,000 years of urban history has been a collector, a gatherer of isolated pieces, into a unified system of parts whose total effect is greater than the sum of separate effects taken independently.
It is the equilibrium of forces pulling people toward the city and integrating them through the city with previously isolated pieces of society, the environment and finally with the world, which defines the purpose of the city.
To realize the purpose of the city,
1. Context of unique place,
2. Concept of sequence through structural
order, and
3. Continuity of time
FWAXtV or norvt
Enriched, mulci-dimensional quality of human life is the essence of the city, and the literal meaning of civilization.
Integration of Context, Structure and Time for Congruence of Parts in the City
should be accessible and understandable to people who live in the city.

The Path and Coal Structural System
Identity with Character of the Environment and Continuity of Time
From the first traces of archeological evidence on the site of Jericho, through studies of ruins and records of archetype city forms, to
anthropological studies of vernacular and primitive settlements today, all urban settlement adhered to the same universal principles for identification, orientation and meaning within the environment the principles of congruent, understandable image of built space,
A fundamental truth of the "ART" of building cities already exists. By building on evidence from the past, now reinforced by a century of research on the importance of quality and experience of built space, the principles of image can become a powerful model in the future design of our cities.
Throughout history, quality, reflecting congruent image of the city, was strong due to these universal priciples of concentrated settlement.
Though cities considered archetypes in the evolution of urban form, changed form drastically over the centuries, all have congruent, memorable image in common the sequence through a clear structural order, identity with natural place and meaning of the cohesive parts of the city through a continuum of time.
Throughout history, when the city stopped interacting with the natural environment it occupied and the human needs for identification and meaning in place and time of its occupants, it lost congruence, it lost enriching potential for diverse experience, it became one-dimensional and it decayed.

In the fertile crescent of prehistoric Mesopotamia, flat rolling plains were punctuated by-lifelines, the Tigres and Euphrates Rivers. There was rich, fertile soil, water and sunshine in abundance all in vivid contrast to one another.
The massive walled cities located along these lifelines were clear, concentrated and enclosed centers, integrated with the place through strong
relationship to water and landform and by common use of clay in built forms they felt would please the skygods.
The concept of paths and goals, direction and containment, was strong at the dawn of civilization in cities. The Mesopotamian city was a classic container city which set the tone for control and discipline in its highly structured relationship both to the fertile river valley environment outside its walls for flood control, irrigation and aqueducts, to the cosmos interpreting cultural environment with distinct castes inside its walls. The monumental walled city of the open plains, clearly defined inside/outside boundaries of settlement in the landscape, while massive gates, triumphal processional avenues leading to the core of the city and heart of the culture, the zigghurat/temple, set up a powerful connected system of paths and goals within the city. A clear heirarchical diversity of city functions was present from the temple/palace/court district of the elite close to the skygods, to the fine-grained maze of streets, homes and humanity occupied by the common citizens.
Though class bondage was a way of life for all but priests and royalty, all people felt their lives spiritually enriched through intimate contact with the monumental walled city dominated by the zigghur-at, home of the skygods. The city evolved a higher form of community. It embodied a sense of permanence and a strengthening of cultural values by symbolizing connection of the individual to the forces of the universe. Knowledge that their concepts of cosmology were strong enough to survive millenium added symbolic meaning to the temporal quality of human life.
___ M e.oiu
temple oriented toward the sun
vertical aspirations on the open plains
City tied to universal forces
Massive Cates and Processional Avenue In the Monumental Walled City of the Open Plains

Siting of buildings in harmony with unique site character
The infertile, tiny valleys along the rocky seacoasts bred independence and self sufficiency in people. The character of the landscape was extraordinary, with earth, sky and water in complete harmony. The relationship of built form to this environment was one of complement, rather than contrast as in Mesopotamia. The Greeks perfected the concept of wholism that magic quality which makes the integration of the whole system greater than the sum of its parts. The independent and confident Greek citizens, governed by the ideal behind all things, knew it possible through reason to create perfect forms, in complete harmony with both themselves and the environment. As such, their built forms earned them distinction as the worlds best siters.
Continuity of paths and goals in structural order of Athens
The structure of the Greek city was identified by a system of heirarchical nodes fitting harmoniously within the spectacular Greek landscape a total interlocking organic unity.
Though Athens was an agglomeratively formed city, while colonized cities such as Miletus and Priene were orthogonal, all Greek cities were multi-nodal, a clearly connected system of diverse parts (goals) linked with paths into one complex whole. Though symmetry and geometry of "perfect" forms was characteristic of individual buildings, the relationship of parts into a whole was qualitative, based on function and topography. The temple, always sited on a hill, was reached by a processional path and linked with the agora,the center of business and public life, which in turn was linked to gymnasium/athletic node and theater node all surrounded by a maze of inward looking atrium houses, the residential fabric.
Greek values evident in overlay of time
Inherent in humanistic Greek philosophy and sense of place was the ongoing struggle through time between the degenerating forces of disorganization and lack of harmony, with the contsructive forces of rationality in creation of ideal harmony. Physical evidence of their success through time, made Greek cities an enriching storehouse of proof that, through reason, people are an equal with spiritual and natural forces.

The dry, rolling, grassy hills along the Tiber River inland from the sea were not fertile, and the city soon looked to trade and conquest for survival. Rome was a crossroads, located on the middle of the Italian peninsula, in the middle of the Mediterannean Sea, the center of the known Western world of 200 3.C.. Characteristic Roman built forms, monumental cylinder and dome structures, awesome roads, aqueducts and arches, not only symbolized power, but also the "gathering" of the entire world environment into the city of Rome.
The Romans achieved coherent structure of goals and paths through practical rather than organic, order. Within Rome itself, massive, self-contained
units of buildings were compressed and related
through tension with the next massive group of buildings all linked by their proximity and unity of design elements. Paths were processional, with triumphal arches, from gates inward to this mass of architecture. Paths were monumental from the gates outward, forming a network of conquered centers in the vast Roman Empire.
Rome crossroads of Roman Empire
Roman attitudes and values of self emulation, control and mobility emerged as a composite of Greek insights, Roman engineering and administrative efficiency and pagan religion which soon became no religion. The "city" became a tool for conquering, a unit of colonization. To be a Roman citizen was to be a part of the most efficient, successful machine ever to appear on earth.
With admiration of self at the heart of the Roman world, the physicl magnificence and permanence of her built forms through a continuum of time reinforced cultural values and provided meaning to Roman civilization the center of the universe. monumental paths and goals

Organic response of Medieval city co site
Medieval cities were located on a river and responded organically to its form. The image of the
medieval city was the result of the new values people placed on their environment. The power of Christianity placed emphasis on the verticality of the cathedral reaching toward heaven, rather on the hori-
zontality and reaching outward for control of the
environment of more secular world views. The cultural focus was inward, away from the wet forests, rich
land, drizzly climate and rugged topography of the
Medeival cities are clearly defined within the landscape by walls separating the inside system of
paths and goals, from the outside pilgrimage and
trade paths directing people to distant centers.
An organic pattern of circulation and contained spaces formed a dense web opening up to a major urban open space, the lifeblood of the city, in front of the vertical stone cathedral. The commanding position of the cathedral gave a singular unity to the town strengthened by the horizontal containment of the encircling walls.
The values of medieval society were reflected in the walled city enclosing a culture based on equal work of all its citizens and focusing on the cathedral and sky above. The dense, walled city reinforced their religious values, symbolizing humanity striving toward the verticality of the church.
Contained verticality symbolized Medieval values through time

The structure of axis and strong central point symbolized the growing concentration of power in kings and nobility. The Baroque city contrasted with, while extending into, the natural landscape. The
concepts of direction and containment dominated not only the citizens, but set about to become master of nature as entire river valleys were brought into the total design, with avenues breaking out and thrusting into the region. With the court's extension of protective influence and regulation of trade throughout the nation-state, a secular spirit in control of matter and motion was created.
Baroque design extended into the environment
In the Baroque city, paths and goals were not only the functional purpose behind spatial structure of the city, but also the newly discovered mathematical, geometric purpose in "perspective", bringing horizontality and ease of mobility back into the city. Points in space (goals or nodes) were pinned down by a vertical element and surrounded by huge, formal plazas, and connected by lines of tension in the unswerving paths of axial, monumental avenues. Every form had its centerline and every space had its axis as all major institutions of the city were connected with long horizontal lines focusing on a central point, integrated into one coherent system.
Baroque city form and substance was concerned with permanent physical evidence of power and control of the total environment through a continuum of time. The grand monumentality and axiality, possible only with strong political centralizatin of power, symbolized control of the "King", and strengthening of secular values of trade and mobility. The city became one part of a larger connected system, the nationstate, as trade and politics expanded the European world across the Atlantic.
Permanent evidence of the power of nobility in the form of Baroque city

Baltimore's Harborplace
Reintegration of the core of the city with its life source, its reason for being, the harbor.
Portland's Love Joy Plaza
Reestablishment of the core of the city as the heart of the region and a part of the unique environment of the natural place.
San Antonio River Walkway
Often some of the newest things we think we learn are some of the oldest things around.
Great vital cities throughout history have capitalized on the synergy of diverse urban parts, creating a city with congruent urban image; a city which in itself is a complete experience.
American cities are young, but already unique in the evolution of a new city form. Most have not found a coherent pattern for synthesizing clear structural order of built form with identity of place and continuity in the greater context of time.
American cities often are not used by people as a system of parts, but rather as a proximity of singular automobile destinations. The result when people perceive they cannot get from one place to another, is that the city is dead. It matters little if the pieces are good, if they are isolated pieces, because the city as a compressive magnet and heart of the region will not fulfill its potential.
By once again utilizing the universal principles which together create congruent image of a city's identity, the city can provide an enriching, rewarding experience for the people who live, work, play and learn in its core.
In some enlightened American cities, the benefits of congruent urban image have been realized. Through reinforcing a connecting framework, repairing holes in the fabric and redefining natural and historic resources, the city can regain a sense of permanence and continuity in space and time.
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Santa Fe and Baltimore are cities which have benefitted both socially and economically from fundamental principles of congruent image in the modern urban world.
Reintegration of the core of the city with its life source, Its reason for being, the river.

According to John Ormsbee Simonds,
"Human needs within the urban environment are basic and have been inherent throughout the history of urban settlement:
1. VARIETY a rich variety of distinct
spaces to express and accommodate human functions,
2. UNITY order and clarity of struc-
ture that will hold the city together and make it work,
3. CONTINUITY access and convenient
connection on all scales,
4. INVOLVEMENT a source of inspira-
tion, stimulation, beauty and delight integrated with natural processes and combining the best of the old with the best of the new.
San Francisco
Unity and continuity through time of the built settlement with unique place quality.
I suggest that a congruent, understandable, accessible image, the product of the dynamic interaction between people, the city and the environment, offers possibilities of becoming an overall organizing concept for enrichment of human life in cities, with the added byproduct of economic health so vital in our culture.


The research phase of my thesis focused on the qualities which together create a clear and congruent image of the city. The value of a clear and congruent urban image seems to be that the city becomes memorable, attracts interest and involves people in its workings. That participation and interest spawns innumerable economic, social and psychological benefits for citizens of the city.
When these image qualities are absent, or hidden, or separated from one another, the city often does not involve people in its workings. Lack of involvement of people in the core, except as necessary for jobs or the rare exception of festivals or special events, has become too common and often critical to the health and vitality of many modern downtowns.
Charles Royer, the mayor of Seattle, has
"The most critical ingredients of a successful downtown are: first people second activity third access."
An image which attracts people to the core of cities should top this list.
There is no incentive for taxpayers to bond money for the multi-modal access necessary in modern downtowns if there is little activity downtown. There will be little activity downtown if people from the metropolitan area are not attracted to the core as a unique place in the region. There is little chance for critical mass of people and urban diversity without congruent image quality of unique identity and enriching urban experience people need and cannot find elsewhere.
An image quality of the city which attracts people to participate can be achieved through the experience of "fit" of diverse parts into a congruent whole. It is not just the physical presence of these basic image components, but their congruence the ability to be experienced together, that seems to create the most powerful quality for personal involvement in the richness and variety of the urban experience.

of Tirt*
A. Distinct Natural Character of Landscape
1. Landform/Materials
2. Vegetation
3. Water
4. Sky/Climate
B. "Source" or Reason for Settlement
A. Inside/Outside Dialogue
1. Edges
2. Openings
3. Entries/Gateways
B. Paths
C. Goals or Destinations
1. Districts
2. Activity Nodes
3. Landmarks
A. Evidence of Overlay in Roots, Healthy Present, Promise of Future
B. Sequence in Movement through Urban
Particular qualities of the site which result in character of place should interact with and relate to settlement.
A. The distinct natural character of the landscape
Landform and materials
Climate and sky
B. Evidence of "source" or reason for settlement in this place
The settlement has unique identity and particular quality relating it to context of place.

A sequence of structural order tying the diverse parts of settlement into a continuous system.
A settlement, as a living system, should grow and change within a legible framework reflecting human purposes and decisions that created the city.
Internal structure of a settlement provides orientation and understanding as a complete system through spatial concept of edges, entries, paths, goals, districts, landmarks.
A. Entries and openings in the edge define beginning of the contained place.
B. Paths should be continuous from origin to destination, knitting the parts together.
C Districts are areas with similarity of function, physical elements and felt boundaries.
D. Goals (centers or activity nodes) should be concentrated focal points of useful, meaningful space with defined edges.
E. Landmarks are visual symbols for which stand out in the cityscape for orientation
Siena, Italy. The Piazza del Campo is at the center.
The Piazza del Campo in Siena climaxes the minor plazas and the entire street network of the town.

The city should be understood for the significance of its evolving forms and setting in the ongoing flow of development, providing meaning and purpose for this settlement, and the people who give it life, in a much greater context than the here and now.
A. The city should be read and experienced for its place in that continuum of time, as;
the presence of roots in flow from the past,
a healthy and vital present generating a magnetic center of diverse activity,
anticipation, promise and planning for the future.
B. Image experience of the city involves time in movement through a sequence of structural order.
Spaces designed within the city should contribute to the experience of direction and containment.
Sequence and rhythm should be inherent in that movement toward a focus.

A clear and congruent urban image is simply human awareness and understanding of urban surroundings. What is essential before depth of meaning and personal growth can be realized as the potential inherent in all cities, is involvement.
Congruent urban image is experienced as a sequence of ever deepening meaning, revealing the whole city, its component parts and its citizens as one living system. To realize and interpret the potential for congruent image and to involve people on a personal level, the component parts must be experienced together in movement through a sequence.
To be experienced as congruent, image, therefore, involves .the concept of movement. It is through a sequence of structural order in a series of linked spaces, each possessing a particular quality and each related to the other, that the experience of congruent image is formed.
The level of quality of the urban image seems to be related to the continous sequence of image impressions as people move through the built space.
^ LA*4PrW'l-
"The designer's problem is not to create a building, a plaza, a streetscape, a park but to create an all-encompassing experience, to generate involvement.
The purpose of design is to affect the people who use it, and in an urban design plan, this effect is a continuous, unbroken flow of impressions that assault the senses as people move through it."
Edmund Bacon
Plan not in terms of meaningless pattern or cold form. Plan rather a human experience. The living, pulsing, vital experience, if conceived as a diagram of harmonious relationships, will develop its own expressive forms.
John Ormsbee Simonds
Involvement and participation of people, crucial to the experience of congruent image of the city, is therefore dependent upon both space and time:
Defined space as the container for the experience,
Time as the directional movement in a sequence necessary for awareness of the experience.

In order to involve people in an enriching urban compression of diverse people, activity, place and time, the urban image requires participation in a process involving a whole range of uniquely human capabilities.
The experience of urban image demands participation and involvement in both immediate sensory stimuli and a deeper level of awareness and understanding of space within a larger context.
Role of the designer in the "ART" of building cities
Surface level of immediate sensation of surroundings, not tied to a system.
Deeper level of awareness, understanding and involvement in a continuous structural system, for orientation and identification with place.
Uniquely human cognitive ability to identify relationship of place within the greater context of space and time, pulling the image components into one congruent whole.
Result of involvement in all of the above in the expression of built settlement which involves people in continuous, unbroken sequence of movement and focus within a congruent system of parts.
"A thing knows what it wants to be."
Louis Kahn
And when it is, it has congruent image.

Congruent image is an active, participitory experience. It is an "experience" because it requires not only perception as a first step, but also participation in the form of evaluation and interpretation.
Picasso's creative process from perception through creation illustrates the relevance of involvement in not just perception, but realization and interpretation to understand and be enriched by the deeper meanings within living systems.
The first level is perception of "Bull" through immediate sensory stimuli.
The second level is realization of the universal relationship of parts that combine to make "Bull".
The third level is interpretation through the unique human ability to think, relating the invariant properties which unite to make "Bull" with the greater context of all living systems.
The fourth level is the result of all of the above in the essence of "Bull". Meaning in its simplest form is the final act of creativity but cannot be understood for its congruent image until its unity as an internal system and its relation with other life forms are first understood.

Congruent urban image, as with most creative experiences, demands involvement in a circular process, forming a complex weave of place, people and time in the minds of those who become involved.
People come together In cities in order to live. They remain together in order to live the good life.
Though immediate sensations and perceptions begin the image process, it is human intelligence, reasoning and movement through a connected sequence of structure which interprets those sensations and perceptions to create image of the city as a congruent system.
The creative image experience necessary to involve people in the urban compression of diverse people, activity, place and time is worth the effort for the quality of life gained when the urban system works and reads as one congruent whole.

The essence of my discovery during the research phase on image experience of cities, lies in congruence of the image principles. All the components should work together for the most powerful, magnetic urban image.
coHc-trf r
In order to be experienced as congruent, image involves the concept of "movement" as the catalyst tying the parts together. The level of quality of the experience of image of the city seems to be a part of the continual sequence through a structural order, from entry, through perceived edges, along continual paths and into a field of districts, nodes and landmarks.
The conscious design of such a congruent urban system calls for performance criteria in order that each of the parts encourage involvement of people.

The Components
- Performance Criteria for
Personal Involvement in Image Experience
Character of landform and materials reflected in settlement
Vegetation on major paths links the city in an open space system
Particular qualities of the site which result in character of place should interact with and relate to settlement
A. Distinct natural character of the landscape
By identifying first the landscape units inherent in the place, then preserving and enhancing those units considered rare or special, unique character can be emphasized.
£ Landform
The topography, materials, textures, colors and spatial relief which give the landscape its characteristic form.
Identify and utilize high points from which the source and the characteristic form of the site can be understood.
The quality of the terrain and the inherent materials and color can express characteristic detail in built form, integrating settlement with greater context of environment.
0 Vegetation
Indigenous vegetation and basic ecological relationships should be assessed in terms of unique qualities for various functions within the city.
Indigenous or adaptable vegetation, identifying an open space system through the city, is an effective way to link the essential parts of the city.
Large groups of trees, especially in wind corridors and water corridors, can effectively reduce city pollution at the human scale.

Emphasize any natural water features with restored riparian vegetation to preserve and enhance both;
1. the natural identity of
the place, and
2. the potential for a major
natural open space system within the city.
People gathering places (paths and
nodes) are more comfortable, and,
hence, more effectively used, when
trees and other vegetation are incorporated with sitting and walking.
£ Water
All water aspects should be recorded as both aesthetic and utilitarian features.
Identify drainage patterns and the
potential for visual and physical corridor connection within the city, and of the city to the landscape.
If the source of water is the original reason for settlement, then water embodies the most meaning for connection to this place, and should be made visible for identity and character of place in the public realm of paths and nodes.
Preserve a belt of common land immediately beside all bodies of water for public use and identity with natural place.
0 Sky and climate
The sky as the "ceiling" of a place gives a particular identity and quality to that place.
The climate should be assessed in terms of temperature, light, precipitation, sun and winds.
Places for people to experience the image of the city should maximize the best aspects of the climate, sun, light, color, and minimize the worst aspects of precipitation and wind.
involve people in the city
Water made visible for identity and character of place
Quality of the sky should be felt in experience of the city

Lines of force responsible for settlement
Visual interpretation of the 'Source"
The quality of the sky (open or closed) should be felt in sequence of experience through the city.
0 The source or reason for settlement in this place. There are lines of force in the environment which represent the combination of circumstances that brought the town into being.
Discover, restore and give visual interpretation to the primary environmental force which facilitated the origin and survival of settlement
in this location.
Create physical, visual, or symbolic connection of the activity centers in the city with the reason for settlement (usually water).
A continuous structural framework is the catalyst to make the city understandable and predictable. An urban image with distinct identity and sense of place which involves people, begins on the street and in the plazas the realm of the people.
The fundamental structure of paths and goals with distinct entries, openings and boundaries, is essential to begin the process of involving people in the complex image of the city.
By knitting the pieces together and allowing them to work symbiotically as one system, the structural framework can shape cohesive growth and development through centuries of change.
To distinguish the place at which a city, a plaza, a street, a building begins to be understood, a person must first perceive separation of the inside as distinct from the outside, while still connected through entries and openings.
0 Enclosure, concentration and containment within boundaries is necessary for a place to be understood as having a distinct and separate identity from the "outside".

The boundary or edge is the point at which the enclosed place becomes understandable. The boundary is defined by clear floor, walls and ceiling.
The consistency of the boundary is essential to maintain identifiable character within the city, the district or the node.
£ Openings connect the inside with the outside both physically and visually to set up relationship with the surrounding environment.
Visual openings should orient toward distinct natural or cultural features for identity within a larger context.
Physical openings should begin to establish character of the place in clues as to function, activity, origin.
0 Entry/Gateway
To be experienced and understood, any defined place must be entered. Direction and movement are introduced and demand continuity in "paths".
The city core, which should be identified as unique by its inhabitants, will be reinforced and made more vivid if the paths which enter it are marked by distinct gateways where they cross the boundary.
Gateways should be visible from every line of approach.
Gateways should emphasize the feeling of transition from one place to another by change of surface, directed view, crossing water, or change of level.
Gateways should mark the beginnings of pedestrian path system within the city.
Entry into the city of Venice

Defined Paths widen at destination
The streets for people which connect the parts of the city. "A good path is one that is used by pedestrians."
The city is experienced by movement through it, giving the pedestrian paths enormous social significance and making them the dominant element for tying the city together into an accessible, understandable whole.
Paths must have clear origin and destination as anchors to create movement.
# Paths should widen as they approach destination, creating sequence and expectation of heightened activity.
Paths should have identifiable character associated with the surrounding district or destination district.
Paths must have continuity, be uninterrupted from goal to goal.
Create a "felt" space by defining the path with building facades, trees, street lights, canopy, furniture, to distinguish path
as a place.
Consistent character and treatment of elements along the way (unity in the streetscape).
Paths must have sequence and linear succession to maintain involvement.
Provide activity, excitement and surprise along the way in intermediate goals so that the path is experienced as having character of its own.
Animate space with: color, retail, open cafes, seating niches, openings in buildings.

Serial vision to encourage movement:
terminate vistas surprise views sequence of visual linkage
# Paths need complexity and levels of meaning to involve and interest people.
Surface level of meaning in human scale, proportion, human comfort, pedestrian detail and amenities.
Deeper level of interpretive experience with clues to context and past in materials, symbols and forms along the paths.
Activity centers are understood by proximity and enclosure of the defining elements and by concentration of activity.
# Should be activity focus and polarizing center of the district with high people concentration due to surrounding land use.
Take advantage of major junctions and convergences in the districts as the 100% spot.
Activity is critical and cannot be diffused. Critical mass for "active" is 150#/person.
Embellish density with cafes, retail, inside/outside activity, seating and activity pockets at the edge.
Nodes should formalize the character and identity of the district for which it is the central activity point and stands as a symbol.
Surrounding enclosure of building facades should reflect the character of the node and district.
Support activity should be symbiotic and reflect the character of the district.
Sequence of visual linkage
Concentration of activity Ghiradelli Square
Piazza Navonna Focus of identity of district

Paiey Park Invitation to stop and

Similarity of function and physical elements
Detail, materials and forms within the node should reflect the character of district.
Nodes should invite people to stop and come in.
Lots of sitting and sitting choices. 1 lineal foot seating/ square foot of plaza.
Trees related to sitting.
Accessible water is a magnet, especially if a rare landscape unit.
Connect nodes visually and physically with paths, other districts and with context through materials, colors, textures, vegetation, water, and framed views.
Recognizable as a distinct area by proximity and similarity of function, physical elements and form in common identifying character. The proximity and similarity is reinforced by a name for the district-"Wall Street", "Chinatown", "Beacon Hill" "Waterfront".
Enhance district's character and identify its function as different from other districts in the downtown. Must have specific design for context of the district.
Need legible boundaries to make more cohesive and understandable. Space cannot leak out on all sides.
Prominant visual features, distinct but preferably harmonious, in the urban setting.
Gives user orientation and clues to identity.
Preserve, and frame when possible, all views to landmarks

The city should be understood for the significance of its evolving forms and setting in the ongoing flow of development, giving meaning and purpose to the city in a greater context than the here and now.
£ The city should be understood and experienced for its place in that continuum of time
physical evidence of roots as a flow from the past
healthy and vital present, generating
a magnetic center of diverse activity
anticipation, promise and planning for the future
0 Any experience of the city involves time as movement through a sequence of structural order.
Any space designed within the city should contribute to the experience of direction and containment
Sequence and rhythm should be inherent in the structural order, pulling
people from origin to destination within the urban system.
In che city, time becomes visible.
Lewis Mumford

Spanish Steps
Crucial Historic Piece in sequence of movement between two levels of the city of Rome
A place necessarily possesses direction to be followed toward a goal, since life is movement

Application of these assumptions, principles and performance criteria to the image analysis and evaluation of my case study, Denver, Colorado, will be the focus of Part III.
I propose first, however, to test the validity of these assumptions on the reality of a Western American city already possessing a clear and congruent image which attracts people to participate in its core San Francisco.
FIRST Look at the congruent whole
San Francisco projects an image of congruence and synergy of diverse parts, resulting in a vital and magnetic urban experience.
SECOND Identify and extract the image components from that congruent whole for analysis.
THIRD Determine if the image components, assumed to be constants in a congruent urban image, are legible and accessible for personal involvement in the urban experience of San Francisco.

The image projected by the city and its immediate surroundings
San Francisco projects a clear and congruent image of a diverse and exciting core. The city has, throughout its history, served as a magnet, not only for people in the region, but for people around the world.
The external context and the internal structure seem to be integrated, but to analyze and evaluate the whole, the parts must be pulled
apart. Of final interest, is that the parts are
physically clear and involve people at the personal level.
Continuity of the Whole
Though the Military Presidio and Mission Dolores were founded on the Peninsula in 1776, the primary environmental force responsible for origin in the 1800's, and survival of settlement in this central location, is its gateway to the ocean and port in a protected bay.
The location is totally unsuited to agriculture (sand and no fresh water), but
prosperity and cosmopolitan character have
resulted from foreign and domestic trade and growth due to the "line of life". San Francisco's distinct character and influence as a regional and international crossroads stemmed from her source as a port in a protected bay and support line to gold and the Clondike silver fields in the
San Francisco has protected the waterfront from heavy industrial development so common along most urban waterfronts. Revitalization and connection to cable car and pedestrian path systems have integrated this vital and enriching part of the city with the existing urban fabric.
Revitalization/connection of waterfront with the core

Playing by the Gateway to the Ocean
The fixed receptacle for settlement response
The city is set in an ampitheater of hills, mountains and deep green vegetation, separated by the water of the Bay, making the city visible from any location. 43 hills within the city itself allow for unique inter-visibility of natural features.
Due to the hills, water and sky are incredibly visible and major identity generators. As a powerful moderator of climate, the Bay is a natural fog machine and often gives the city an ether-ial quality, experienced as part of the unique character of the city.
. The park system, along with the presence of vegetation on most hilltops, links the city itself into a pattern of open space and also reinforces the historic context of deep green vegetation on hilltops in the surrounding setting.

Personal Experience/Involvement in the Natural Context
The Hills, Water, Sky and Dark Green Vegetation Interwoven with the City

Movement from entries, through defined edges, along paths, into an internal field of districts, nodes and landmarks.
Downtown San Francisco
4annM**>** __
S Mu*' 1
with edges defined by water, arteries and hills
: LJ \
= fiWAWUAL-i
V*,...... 4 i \
* i
| { UrU
? 5 s
V H x*
The first movement system from the port at Yerba Buena to Mission Dolores and the Presidio, set up a connected pattern of paths soon
reinforced by additional activity centers. This structural framework, based on movement systems, has survived seven fires, a major earthquake and urban renewal.
The devastating fire of 1906 wiped out all trace of the downtown, but strength of the
districts, paths and nodes served as an ongoing framework through decades of growth.
Districts San Francisco's districts have
world repute for memorable character. Strong edges aided by hills, water and downtown arteries, and similarity of function and design elements have combined to create districts which involve people in distinct personalities within the city.
Paths The internal structure is well
understood primarily due to the successful path system, reinforced by the cable car network. Paths, in San Francisco, have been the most important force in tying the diverse parts together.

Nodes - Each district has activity
centers which identify the function and the character of the surrounding area. Such focus, along with human scale diversity, activity and connection to other activity centers with paths, make this city an exciting place for discovery and spontaneity and learning.

Entries The bridges, especially the
Golden Gate, have become major entry symbols. Their visibility and functional necessity have made them an inherent part of the personal experience of the city.
Landmarks The hills, along with the grid
layout of streets, directs views to identifying landmarks within the city, aiding orientation and contributing to character of each district within the city.
Personal Experience/Involvement in the Structural Order
.'f 'E v rJ i
Vitality of the New Overlayed Upon the Continuity of the Old
Clarity of Districts, Nodes and Paths for ease of Orientation
The Golden Gateway
Cable Cars International Symbol of San Francisco's Paths

Though major physical catastrophes are no stranger to San Francisco, the urban fabric contains evidence of the cultural values that created the city throughout its history. The rich diversity within the urban fabric, with architectural examples from every period of its history, facilitates personal understanding of the meaning inherent in the dynamic forces that created the city.
In San Francisco, the components of context, structural order and time combine with a unique vitality that involves the people who live, work, play and visit the core of this city. Social, economic and political benefits have been realized in tourist dollars, vital districts, social diversity and tolerance, and international crossroads significance.
Two parts of the congruent whole have especially dominated the image experience of San Francisco and have resulted in international symbols:
1. The Waterfront
The "source" and reason for being as a port has created -
cosmopolitan diversity
"entry symbols" in bridges reinforcing the ocean gateway
active waterfront as a tourist, recreation and preservation focus
2. The Path System
Successful, well defined paths as the organizing force for sequence of structural order -
the continuity of movement systems goal to goal, have made this a pedestrian city,
Cable Cars have become a much loved symbol for the continuous structure of the city.

1. Influence of one part of the urban
image over others could act as a strong "source", creating an especially powerful image.
2. "Balance" of the parts may not be
important, as long as all are present within the congruent whole.
San Francisco, as a modern American city already possessing an image which involves people in the diversity of the core, reinforces thesis assumptions:
It is the congruence of the image components;
Identity with Unique Context,
Sequence through a Structural Order,
Overlay of Time,
that, working together, create the most powerful image for attracting people to participate and become personally involved in the city core.

Congruence of Pans
In reality, communication of unique context and sequence of structural order are the physical residue of adaptation through a continuum of time the values reflected in the decisions that created the city.
This is true for all cities.
Image Experience Sequence
What gives the parts the potential for "combining", sometimes with a touch of "magic", into an image that attracts people to participate and become involved in the unique identity and character of the city is:
1. Congruence of those parts, so that they may
be experienced together,
2. Movement through the city in a continuous
sequence from entry, through edges, along paths, into a connected field of districts, nodes and landmarks in the core.

Because first, we know the essence of the city is unity with diversity, and, second, a fundamental need of all people is involvement with a greater context than one isolated, individual part -
What is useful for the profession of design in cities, is knowing that we must always design with;
L Congruence of the parts unique to a particular city,
2. Movement through a continuous sequence, a nested heirarchy from personal experience, to meaning in the congruence of the whole system.
I Conscious creation of a legible, understandable, magnetic urban image begins with identification of the parts and existing relationships between the parts.
II Analysis of what exists in terms of image compo-
nents, will define the strengths and potential inherent in the city, as well as the weaknesses, the barriers and the isolated pieces denying perception, personal understanding and involvement in a congruent urban image.
III Synthesis of the components;
identity with place, structural order, meaning in time,
into one congruent image, involves:
A. Design Guidelines (the physical presence of image components), for restoration and enhancement of congruent image quality, and
B. Performance Criteria for the personal involvement necessary to understand and participate in the parts and the relationships between the parts.


It is my assumption that the Western American city can provide a unique and enriching human experience. The power of an urban image to involve people in a quality urban experience is directly leveraged by the clarity of its image components:
An image quality which does communicate congruence of place, stucture and time, can enrich the experience of the urban citizen, increase a sense of pride and encourage involvement in the city core.
The purpose of the case study is to apply these assumptions, to analyze the components and to synthesize an image quality of downtown Denver as:
1. The identity focus of the natural place,
where all settlement in the region has its roots,
2. The magnet pulling people into an under-
standable, congruent structural system of entries, boundaries, paths, districts, nodes and landmarks,
3. A complete experience of the context and structure of Denver through the continuity of time an image quality unique from all other cities.
It is certainly not a fixed product, a static design, I'm searching for, but an organized concept based upon;
1. unique place
2. cultural decisions creating unique structure
3. evidence of overlay of time,
which can become a catalyst for the experience of image as one understandable whole.

PfOpLfeH l?ftklTH*IC-^T|OHl|

IMA6& Av4t? 6111^

1 o . ^rui^v
\ \ \ analHh\h

- [ eVALl4A-tld?N
T* cx^UCJLrX
MAP AN l? PG/bl^H &VCAHI*L£^

I. . Determine if there is a problem involving
people in an urban experience which communicates image on three levels:
1. Identity of place
2. Orientation within legible structure
3. Continuity of time
A. First understand the image components and their relationships which are unique to Denver:
1. Context of place and significance
2. Structural order and significance
3. Evidence of continuity through time
and significance
B. Where, specifically, are the critical components of image having difficulty communicating to the user and why?
C. Evaluate user's image of what exists in Denver today.
II. Evaluate Denver's unique context, urban
structure and continuity in time to define:
Existing strengths of image communication
Potential strengths of image communication.
A. Determine areas with greatest potential and impact for congruent image experience.
B. Determine areas for focus of preservation
and enhancement to define downtown Denver's unique character and identity.
III. Conclusion and synthesis
A. Concept map synthesizing components and criteria for image quality of Denver which could involve people in the urban experience.
B. Design examples for priority pieces of image concept map of Denver.
If the city, any city, Is looked upon as an environment strictly for exploitation, then that city is a doomed city. As a city, as a place to celebrate the human experience, to create, preserve and transmit human culture, such centers will not survive.
Robert Goldston

Denver is just 300 miles from the geographic center of U.S.
Its governnment, cultural, and economic focus, to a large extent, is due to the fact that Denver is the only city of its size in this part of the country.
1986 is a good time to take a look at the image quality of Denver,
1. There are signs of revitalizing the city
core after 40 years of complacency and suburban sprawl,
2. After decades of neglect of its unique
riparian setting in the flat, semi-arid plains, there are encouraging opportunities and signs for orientation and reintegration of parts of the city with the waterfront,
3. The current slump in energy and real
estate cycles makes this a good time to decide how to protect Denver's unique image quality without destroying existing structural character.
Denver Is part of an urban corridor stretching from Fort Collins to Colorado Springs
Downtown Denver has been shaped primarily by four forces:
1. Crossroads at the convergence of two
water systems
2. Mining
3. Railroads
4. Energy
Denver is the focus of government, cultural and economic activity in the Rocky Mountain region.
Denver has inherent potential with its context, its structural pieces and its historic remnants, to provide the compression and synergy not found outside the city core. Denver is rare and unique as the only truly urban experience for 900 miles in every direction.
Denver, today, reflects its historic significance as a major national crossroads and gateway to the Rockies, but physical clues reinforcing awareness of the overlay of forces responsible for the city are difficult to find.
We, as designers and citizens, have a choice to make Denver a vital, memorable, enriching urban experience, or a diluted, generic experience. As historian, Carl Abbott, writes in a 1973 article in Colorado Historical Society Magazine,
"Natives can boast that Denver successfully completed transition from a small town to a large city,...visitors can find little, except its setting, to differentiate Denver from other American cities."

Denver, as any living urban system, is continually changing. What some may view as a stable downtown core is a blink of reality in the ongoing metamorphosis of a vital city. A sense of order and place in a constantly changing system could promote orientation and understandimg, properties of congruent image quality permitting active citizen involvement and creating personal, civic and economic benefit.
Understanding the context, the structural order, and their relationships through time can begin to define a concept to improve the image quality of downtown Denver.
Case Study Area defined as
Downtown Denver Core

Assuming that the power of Denver's image to involve people is directly leveraged by the clarity and the congruence of its critical components, I began the case study with the process of understanding just what makes downtown Denver unique unique in this region and unique from other cities.
A long succession of geologic events has sculpted the Front Range of the central Rockies and the high Plains into the landforms and the resources we know today.
Two million years ago, the ice age sculpted the uplifted Rockies into steep peaks and deep ravines, depositing sedimentary material on the plains with torrential streams and rivers. The erosion of soft sedimentary rock from harder
granites has created a dramatic "relief" of 3000' difference in elevation where the mountains meet the plains.
The mountains are a natural barrier to moisture laden Pacific air flow, making Denver's climate mild and dry, with clear blue skies 300 days a year. Extension of the open plains makes the sky a dominant element, strong light source and the views uninterrupted.
The land here is flat and open, not distinguishable from the 600 miles of extended plains spreading to the north, south and east, making the mountains that much more spectacular.
Punctuation at this place by the rare and welcome relief of both a river and a stream, trees and a sense of enclosure and protection, invited settlement.
Its value as a source of settlement began after the Louisana Purchase of 1803, when Americans began moving west following river
corridors as transportation routes. In a remote region, surrounded by 1000 miles of desolate prairie and Indian threat, pioneers met the wall of the Rockies as a physical barrier to westward movement toward gold and fertile land.
In such an arid and desolate region, natural
water and vegetation of the site made it
significant and memorable as a point of safe
landing and jumping off point into the unknown.

The rare qualities which should be preserved and enhanced, are water, vegetation, enclosure and framed views. Water, as a decisive part of the city's heritage, has potential to reunite people with the meaning of "source, as well as to give rise to an open space framework for urban growth through time.
The flat, open character means views extend uninterrupted in all directions. Vertical contrast and terminated views create focus and points of interest. One of the great qualities of a grid city in the mountains, is that views extend for orientation to the outside.
Space is not defined and there is need for enclosure, human scale, proportion and detail in built spaces.

As a boom/bust city, growth and change in the core have occurred within defined, specific windows of time, not as a steady overlay of
development. I found it helpful to understand the image components at each of these windows of time, in order to understand the full meaning of what we have left in the city today.
The first white settlements, the grid town companies of Auraria and St. Charles, at the
confluence, were a direct response to this
"lifeline" in the desert and true crossroads in an open and remote region. The original form and
access routes responded to the directional lines of force of the water systems, with street views terminating at the vegetation of the river and focus of the mountains beyond.
Settlement beginnings, though lacking the diversity of a true city, had sense of unique place.
Instant city centered on the Creek
The beginnings of containment in a two-block main street
In 1858, the largely goldless "boom" camps of Auraria and St. Charles town companies displayed few signs of permanency as a haphazard group of cabins scattered around the creek near the confluence. By 1859, Denver City, on the jumped claim of St. Charles, had overwhelmed and out-peopled both towns with the acquisition of the stage lines and a bonafide two block mainstreet, Larimer, the first sign of manmade enclosure and containment in this remote area on the open plains.
Access routes on the plains and into the mountain valleys, established clear directional path systems. The confluence became the major gateway, the river the only boundary, with the
open grid leaking out on all sides. The activity node on Larimer St. and transportation hub one block away, established a clear center on the
creek. Path and place, the universal truths of
community and basic components for congruent urban image, were in place from the beginning.
# The instant city at the confluence was a haphazard group of cabins.
# Natural systems and access routes defined a strong center at the creek.
# Identity with context was strong, but structural order had not evolved to a diverse succession of urban experience.

ai*>£?are*> cowcxv-rn^re.p
ApLN UAU KCli-lT -£1^6. PEf'fcT AMP g.L^THA)JT ^=T^c
^catte-T' ^e.rru£HtwT

Cherry Creek e dangerous force
The gateway -Union Station
"Center" shifted to 16th Street urban space
With the coming of cross-country railroads in the 1870's, Denver's future as a permanent
regional supply center was assured. The location of the railroads along the river corridor, cut the city off from valuable open space, its symbolic gateway and meaning as "source" of the city.
Riverfront Park, built between 15th St. and 19th St., was isolated from people by industrial use and railroad tracks. The river became a sewer, the creek, having proven itself a dangerous force in the 60's, was neglected and became a trash site. Growth and development pulled away from both.
The Silver Boom of the 1880's and the coming of the railroads along the Platte Valley, defined a new arrival point at the transportation hub at Union Station, shifting the center several blocks away from its previous center at the creek. Union Station Terminal defined the major gateway into downtown.
The NSEW grid of 1874, spreading across the growing Denver region, now offset against the Denver core's Congressional Grid of 1864, created potential for sense of containment and entry of the "inside" as a place different from the "outside". The offset grids also created the potential for terminated views at the "breaks.
A vital sense of permanency was a result of the Silver Boom, as Denver built in brick and stone. The structural pieces were falling into place for the diversity, and compression of a city, all well connected by the horse trolley system.
# Coming of the railroads along the Platte Valley defined a new arrival point at Union Station, shifting the center several blocks away from the previous center at the creek.
# Growth and development was away from the water and relationship to context.
# Offset grids created potential for boundary experience and new entries.
# Structural pieces were falling into place.

500 2000
DENVER 1880s

A VlfcW* Af
ill# |AAIUfM7At;/lHPU6r(SAL
mumjm mm o<7WA*MTf*AT6t? oc^1Her^4AL. PKcTA'M'
rlAJifv ANNUAL I'AlNf'

EARLY 1900's
16th St. Urban Spine
The Tabor Grand Opera House
The Capitol anchoring 16th St.
Speer's Auditorium Theater anchoring the Curtis St. Entertalnmnet District
The "Speer Years" defined another building boom, though people were actually moving out of residences in the core to the new streetcar
During the gold and silver building booms of the 19th century, transportation and development had pulled the core of the city away from the water, leaving unsightly areas of blight and neglect along Cherry Creek and the Platte River. Railroad and industrial use in the Platte Valley created a major barrier, denying pedestrian
The center had shifted once again, expanding up 16th St. and 17th St. from Union Station, creating an urban spine the focus of the city.
The urban spine, anchored at both ends by Union Station and Speer's new Civic Center Park, was the symbol of downtown as the transportation and service center of the metropolitan region.
A healthy and diverse economy, following the bust of 1893, along with Mayor Speer's grand urban design plans, made this a building boom for the
core. Speer realized the special value of water in an arid climate. His parkway master plan to link all the city's parks, lakes and creeks with the Platte River and Cherry Creek at the core would have emphasized downtown's location as focus of the region and oasis in the desert.
Speer's strong ideas and authoritarian leadership reinforced the existing structural order for the core. He began a City Beautiful campaign with addition of Civic Center Park around the Capitol building, anchoring the urban spine, construction of the Auditorium theater, anchoring the entertainment district on Curtis St., and reinforcement of the path system in the core with
paving, street trees, lighting and removal of utilities. Had his plans been completed, especially his parkway plan for connecting Civic Center with the creek, Speer's vision of the "beautiful" city on the plains could have created a framework for congruent image allowing the city's natural, structural and historic components to be experienced as a complete system as people moved through the core.
Denver's core was focused, anchored, connected
# Establishment of "URBAN SPINE" along 16th St.
as transportation and service center of the
metropolitan area
No relation to context


mm |<^|LI^A|y iMPU^friAL.
1000 _J iimimiii unnnTHi ^^wd-turrATte' o^Huv-iAL
500 2000 MAJCT' A^AIUAL. poiwr

As a Boom/Bust city, growth and change in the core occurred within defined, specific windows of time.
f cvrw
/ *>U.VW* \
f 1AU^OHI? **+%*> AAtt-WAV 15*
AM 17
p^wf 1& fAtL-r^At? ^TAru?M
rr^H wATer'
MaJ<5>|A ^tAfg.WAV umiaJ ^Pvri^w
upau - U7U6f*AjbHC>'Z 0f rApLpP 1*7
o.uea>i& p&uveF*? UUKSU6- ip&Mnrv
Diagrams of image focus after each of Denver's spurts of growth, gives a clearer understanding of the city as it exists today.
From its beginnings, through the early 1900's, Denver was building congruence of its structural parts. If Speer's plans for reconnecting activity nodes in the urban spine with the context of water at the So. Platte River and Cherry Creek had been realized, a clear image of Denver's unique character with strong entries, edges, paths and field of distinct activity nodes and districts, could have matured.
That potential congruence, when compared with what we have in the city today, illustrates that it is as important to recognize, enhance and restore what we've lost in terms of missed opportunities for an enriching urban image, as it is to assess what we now have.

Fragmentation of those critical constants, which, when working together, have created congruent image of settlement for thousands of years, denies understanding, orientation and involvement in a total experience.
After urban renewal, in the 1960's, and the energy boom, in the early 1980s, congruence of parts in Denver has been fragmented. However, within the existing parts and remnants of parts, there are clues to Denver's unique character and identity.
Significance of an overlay of time Is that it brings into focus the physical realization of decisions implanted before and establishes vision of development to come.
Edmund Bacon
The sequence of spaces pulling people through the system can provide enriching awareness of the meaning of this place as different, unique and special from all other places in the region. The city's framework, the sequence of structural order pulling people into and through the city, should be a response to this particular site to make vivid the natural systems that made settlement possible as the crossroads and heart of the region.
Oasis in the Desert
The South Platte River confluence with Cherry Creek is the original gateway and edge of
settlement. It is the "source", the natural
resource that made this particular place an oasis in the semi-arid plains.
The value of water in such a flat, semi-arid region, is its significance for creating vegetation, enclosure and framed views. Because they are so rare in an arid climate, Denver should take advantage of indigenous water and vegetation as an open space structural system, bringing acknowledgement of context into the heart of the city.
The open quality of the landscape and tendency for space to leak out on all sides, requires built enclosure for human scale proportion and detail in built spaces. Roughness and colors of indigenous stone and vegetation can provide the palette relating to unique context.
The confluence of Cherry Creek and South Platte River separated and isolated from the core
Skyline Park brings "context" of region into core of Denver

Downtown Denver bordered by Platte River, Cherry Creek, Colfax Avenue and Broadway
Built spaces in the public realm should be oriented for maximum exposure to Colorado's clear, dominant sky and best uninterrupted views.
Significance of Context
Contact with Denver's context and understanding of the larger flow of life around the city, could provide enrichment in the realization that we exist here in something much greater than ourselves. Identity with this larger view should create the "bones" of the structural order for the city through time.
To be meaningful as a magnet for involvement in an enriching urban experience of place, people and time, the structural order should pull people in a sequence from "outside" to the intense focus of identity and activity on the "inside".
Time is significant, not only for movement through that cohesive sequence of structural order, but also for enriching awareness of the cultural decisions through time that have created the city. The physical evidence of that overlay makes the urban experience more powerful and meaningful, as the image of a congruent whole in both place and time.

The essential components, when missing, keep the city from communicating its unique character and most effectively involving citizens. If there are large gaps in the cohesive fabric, image is confused, the environment resists orientation and rejects attention.
In downtown Denver today, the skyline has become the most powerful form for generating image of the city core.
Denver's skyline, from several vantage points, projects a congruent image of the downtown core and suggests an exciting, diverse urban character a total experience.
With approach to the city from its major access off Interstate 25, over the historic Platte Valley gateway, that congruence of parts becomes fragmented.
Remnants give clues to Denver's identity, but there is no synthesis of parts at the edge for beginning an understandable sequence drawing people into that enriching experience of place, people and time.
The South Platte River and Cherry Creek, the natural systems that made settlement possible, are hidden from view at major access points, denying potential awareness of "gateway and edge". Physically, the water systems are separated by industrial, traffic and enclosed concrete barriers. The water in downtown Denver is inaccessible and not useable.
There is little vegetation defining the potentially valuable river and creek corridors through the city. No open space network stems from the water, tying activity centers in the core with the identity of context and the valuable resource of this river location in the core. We lack the natural components that could give unique character and identity to downtown and relief from the density in the public realm boulevards, parks and contact with natural water corridors.
It's a great place to live, but 1 wouldn't want to visit there.
Mark Twain
The skyline with mountain backdrop
No true chaos Is in the urban scene, but only patterns and clues waiting to be organized.
Grady Clay
South Platte ?. iver Inaccessible and not useable from the core

The first stage toward doing something is to know what is wrong.
Ian Nairn
The structural order of the city, necessary for orientation and involvement, should be used to reinforce the meaning of the city in context and in time.
Confusion at th edge with no sense of arrival
The most basic problem with the core is the image of confusion at the edge. Due to lack of delineation at the offset grid and the water edges, important organizing features, there is image of difficulty of access and loss of direction. Such a negative first impression often means downtown is not perceived as understandable by visitors.
Major access points into the city, over Platte Valley Larimer/Lawrence Colfax/Speer Lincoln/Broadway
are not enhanced as gateways. There is no sense of arriving "somewhere" and leaving "somewhere".
There is one successful pedestrian path in the downtown core the urban spine aloing 16th St., through Writer's Square to Larimer Square. Other than that, streets are indistinguishable in heirarchy with few exceptions (parts of 17th St. and Market St. between 16th St. and 17th St.).
Most streets are overwhelmingly devoted to the auto. With R.O.W. measuring 80 ft. in
downtown, 57% is devoted to the automobile and most buildings offer a blank edge. Some streets, which lead from important activity node to activity node, should say "this street is more for
pedestrian than auto", by widening the sidewalk, adding pedestrian amenities and sequence of interest and activity along the way.
When major paths, those leading from activity node to activity node, lack identity, amenity, interest and are not distinguished one from the other, image is confused and pieces float in isolation. Such is the case in downtown Denver outside of the urban spine along 16th st. to Larimer Square.
Major "paths often lack activity and unique identity
When SAKS FIFTH AVENUE looked at downtown as a potential location, they said, "You don't capitalize on people who are already there. Downtown is not walkable."

The paths and destinations the street level is the experience of people. Their importance for tying the city into an understandable, congruent whole cannot be overemphasized. The internal field of districts, nodes and landmarks, connected by paths, are the body of the city. They need disciplined focus to provide unique physical character and identity to let the pedestrian know where he is.
Retail District
The 16th St. Mall, with unified pedestrian treatment along its mile length, is delightful, surprising and unique in Denver due to the scarcity of consideration of pedestrian linkage in the core. It has identified 16th St. as the Retail District in Downtown Denver, and the urban spine of the core.
Financial District
The Financial District along 17th St. is characterized by tall buildings and tight streets, monumentality and the "power of the elite". It has distinct identity, but the ladder streets linking it with the 16th St. spine, often lack the identity and sequence necessary for a good path.
Lower Downtown
Lower Downtown the location of the last remaining critical mass of historic buildings, has tremendous potential as a district, with identity as the birthplace of the region, along the Cherry creek corridor. As an entertainment center, urban housing focus, tourist attraction it could be a major 24 hour a day people generator for activity in the core. Presently, however, Lower Downtown is threatened by an overspeculated real estate market. Land is too valuable for preservation and rehabilitation of the existing historic buildings.
There is a crucial need to develop zoning and preservation tools, so that appropriate use and restoration of unique identity can bring the reality of the past into contact with the vitality of the present.
Districts in the core
?inancial District on 17th Street
Lower Downtown

Civic Center
Civic Center, 11.2 acre park with the State Capitol, City and County Building, Art Museum and Public Library, is not linked with the rest of the city, and is further isolated by enclosure within traffic arteries. It is "the" major open space in the city. Its size and "softness" sparks a sense of opportunity in the core, but inaccessibility and lack of active people oriented adjacent use, make it little used a truly wasted resource.
Civic Center Park and government center
The DCPA is isolated. The Denver Center for the Performing Arts is a substantial urban amenity, but does not relate to its outside "people spaces" or link with the other activity centers within the city. It doesn't matter how wonderful the amenity, until it is linked to the urban
fabric it will not reach its potential. The DCPA
needs disciplined focus, vital people generating activity in its outside plaza and linkage along Curtis St., to both the urban spine and to Cherry Creek and the Auraria Campus, for integration into the urban fabric.
Silver Triangle and Arapahoe Triangle
Denver Center Complex Che cultural center in Denver is not connected with the urban spine and does not relate to its public 3paca
The Silver Triangle and the Arapahoe Triangle are chaotic transition areas from the edge into the spine. They appear dead and hard, with no activity focus. There is a feeling of speculative uncertainty, dominated by parking lots and neglect a gaping hole in the fabric and in the sequence of structural order.
Auraria Campus
separated from the Denver core by traffic arteries and parking lots
Auraria Campus
Colorado's largest college campus is located adjacent to the core of downtown Denver, but is separated from and disjointed within by the major traffic arteries and barriers of Speer Blvd., Larimer St. and Lawrence St.. Its physical character has been compromised by the overwhelming presence of automobiles in both 4-lane one-way couplets and in surface parking.
Auraria, with its 30,000 plus students and historic landmarks, should be reunited with the activity centers of the core, along its Cherry Creek frontage and with clear pedestrian linkage on both Larimer St. and Curtis St. through the DCPA.

The Central Platte Valley
The South Platte River, a major drainage of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, is one of the region's greatest natural resources. Abused and isolated as it is in the core, from 100 years of transportation and industrial abuse and human neglect, the South Platte is a highly retrievable resource. The mere presence of natural water flow makes rehabilitation of the riparian ecosystem a feasible and rewarding pursuit.
Because the Central Platte Valley contains the largest tract of undeveloped land within the core of any city in the United States, an incredible opportunity exists for Denver to create an enriching contact with its source, retrieving sense of place and increasing quality of life in this urban wasteland. Its location adjacent to Lower Downtown and the Auraria Campus, means path connections from existing activity nodes in the core (especially extension of the 16th St. Mall), could reinforce the sense of Denver's unique character and history by bringing the powerful image of the river into the congruent image of the whole city.
The Platte Talley -barrier to the South Platte Hiver, dominated by industrial use
Denver has considerable amenity in its internal field of districts and activity nodes the Mail, 17th St. with its numerous plazas, Larimer Square, Lower Downtown's historic focus, Civic Center Park, the Tivoli, the Auraria Campus.
The problem is unactivated, "dead" outdoor spaces and lack of defined paths pulling them together into a sequence of experience as a total system.
For Denver's identity and unique character to be experienced, there must be clues, physial evidence which vividly suggests its lively past and its meaning as the heart of the region from the beginning. The past two decades in Denver, with urban renewal and the real estate speculation of the energy boom in the early 80's, were devastating to the cohesive urban fabric as well as to some irreplaceable historic landmarks of Denver's boom/bust growth cycles. The Tabor Opera House, the Windsor Hotel, the Tabor Block, the Mining Exchange Building were lost as physical links with Denver's rich history. The contrast of progress and vitality of a healthy, vital and growing city overlayed upon fine examples of the "old", the
Downtown Denver today

"roots" of present metropolitan region, can provide enrichment to the urban experience which can be found in no place but the core.
1 regard cities as consisting of time as well as materials, and forever changing. This is the real continuity. Each reflects the ideas the traditions and energies available to its citizens in past centuries, as well as at this moment. Each townscape is an intricately organized expression of causes and effects, of challenges and responses, of continuity and, therefore, of coherence. It has sequences, successions, climaxes. It reveals patterns and relationships forming and reforming.
Grady Clay
Denver has potential to be, not just a single destination automobile center, but a total and enriching urban pedestrian experience an experience that people need and cannot find elsewhere. But to realize this potential, downtown must be understandable. It needs disciplined focus as to how each part has unique physical character and identity, as well as to how each part fits into a continuous sequence in the urban experience.

MAY 1986
riAjof*. foint or , war
331 weajc of. Ai&<->eur e>r*,£AKA> pcww omeuTaTu^m/ h6u*jrp.y ife O^MTE-F.
||§g PI^OOHTlMUrrie^'/
INo^fc ^>HP<5HfcWfF?
M fe.t?e>yn>L.N
Tf^-, -A^EA
FvyT^'Icr M6.£|5^ rtoou^/Hopa

To better understand the role of the image components in creating an urban image in the minds of users,
I interviewed sixteen people in downtown Denver. The interview was generally one hour, with further time allotted for drawing a map of the core. Questions were directed toward uncovering the forms and the relationships working together to provide a consensus of elements thought distinctive. All people interviewed either lived or worked within the core and were familiar with the overall layout of parts.
It was hoped that by comparison of the "User Image" with my interpretation of problems and potential strengths of urban image in the core, some verification as to the validity of image components working together in this particular city could be assured.
The results of the interviews and maps of the downtown core were recorded by noting:
Image focus The Denver Skyline
16th Street Hall Urban Spine
1. coincidences and frequencies of description
2. vividness
3. confusions and negative image
My assumption, that image of a city most readily encourages involvement when the critical components, identity with context, sequence through clear structural order, and evidence of overlay of time, all exist together, was reinforced after evaluating the results.
The elements thought most often by the users to create image of the city nearly all communicated on all three levels:
1. they related in some way to the natural
2. were a contiguous part ofthe internal
structural order
3. contained evidence of the overlay of time
in this settlement.
The tall buildings creating Denver's new skyline were mentioned as an image focus and source of pride by nearly all people, perhaps because of the unique and distinctive verticality on the flat, open plains, as well as Denver's most notable sign that she has matured into a true city.
The 16th St. Mall was, for all the users, the real core of their image of the city. It was always the first element drawn on the map, with all other elements relating to it. The ease of movement and the close exposure to all the other districts, makes it the most memorable feature to users of downtown and the true spine of the city. Its one mile length precludes the

g.U&HeMfb IM CW&P' Of
fUZGueuoi nwrt\cw$,v
^TF^UM'U^e- r me
bAVUiNt 0 0 0 0
\u>th ^r: mauu o o 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0
LAJ^H£|A AtfUApxS- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o
F'Ccrf £7f o 0 o o o o
vc-r o o o 0
dAp|T2?U o o o o 0 0
d^l6 C£UX£f> Pa*|A 0 o o o 0 o o 0 0 o
U^UEJA t?d*JNrUJM o o o o o o
nrh +>T. plUAUdHAU 0 o o 0 o
P>|^?UJN PAL.A6B. 0 o 0 o
ArrT|AE^66. frUlLWUd, o o 0 o
t?<6^A o o 0 o
Ta^oia d-e^re^ 0 o o
UUltfU A>TAf|d?M 0 o o 0 0
^KyulME. PAF'IA o o o o o o o o
APT MU WMfe.^ P*2UAp^ 0 o o o o
IlVdAUP riAZA^ 0 0 0 0 0
Hd>L.V 6HC*?f dNUK^H 0 o o
P^-PUPUd PLATA £LPd. 0 o
PLATTS- P'lyfeF*' o 0 o
6+4^^ 6^6-S'K' 0 0 o 0
erS'SP' PC>L|u6VAN? 0 0 0 0
Tivoli 0 o o 0 0
F&.p£Pau d^HPue-^ 0 0 0 0 0 0
^^NpLue-Md-e. 0 0 0 o o o
g-Le-ne-wr^ rid*?f rd^we-nruu in <^?nriuNi£ATiM4 ihA^g.T£? u^ef^
HAVJ6. TH6. Aunts' pef* iHA^e. ^oHi^NeHT^^ d-^ure-iT, r& AUP TlH6- I'd? e-^efNew^p fc^e.THef'

Lower Downtown Historic District evidence that Denver does have a past
Contrast of elements soft vegetation of Skyline Park against hard lines of cityscape
Mall from being a true activity "node", but it is the appropriate location for concentration and critical mass required for any major central open space as the heart for the city.
The pedestrian path and sequence of activity from the Mall at the Tabor Center, through Writer Square to Larimer Square was a powerful image element, mentioned by nearly all the users.
The structural order and cohesiveness of the internal urban spine, along 16th St. and 17th St., was understood by all the people interviewed.
The tail buildings and tight streets on 17th St., in the Financial District, reinforce the historic sense of enclosure, a trademark of "The Wall Street of the Rockies" since the 1880's. Such enclosure feels unique and very special in the openness of the rest of downtown Denver.
Though most people felt the downtown core truly lacked physical character and identity which could distinguish Denver from other modern cities, there was consensus that the Lower Downtown historic district has the potential to provide that unique identity. It is sacred as one of the last vestiges in Denver that the downtown core does have a past. Its potential loss was felt by all to be tragic.
All users mentioned the comfortable human scale and proportion and detail of the old brick buildings "like wearing blue jeans around the house". A favorite comment was, "People grow in places like that".
Most people seemed to feel that it's the small scale that creates the city the elements that people can relate to on the street the human scale that improves the quality of life. Lower downtown was felt to be sacred in the core for all these reasons.
Another important coincidence in all interviews was the contrast of elements noted in the core:
historic D&F Tower surrounded by the modern city, Holy Ghost Church juxtaposed against a skyscraper,
100 year old Brown Palace in the midst of towers, Lower Downtown's human scale and historic character in the heart of a "new" city,
Civic Center Park as special due to expanse of green and unusual curves in a city of rectangles, DCPA arches standing out against the skyline of rectangles,
contrast of the "break" in the two grids at the boundary,
soft vegetation of Skyline Park and the Mall against the otherwise cold and hard cityscape.
Openings played a major role in providing orientation within the core for two reasons:
1. the grid is lined up with views directed toward the mountains, so "you always know where this place is",

2. the terminated views at the "breaks" of downtown's grid, with the NSEW grid of the rest of the city. Every time a straight line view terminates with a vertical building, that building was mentioned as a distinct landmark.
EG.- Amoco Building on 17th St.
Union Station on 17th St.
D&F Tower on 16th St.
Capitol Dome on 16th St.
DCPA on Curtis St.
1999 Broadway Building on Broadway
Outside the urban spine along 16th St., 17th St., through Writer Square to Larimer Square, some elements were mentioned frequently, but were not located properly and were often floating in space.
The lack of direct exposure of a successful path to some major districts and/or activity nodes, leaves important pieces "dangling", not a part of the cohesive fabric, creating critical ambiguity of the "shape" of the core outside of 16th St. and 17th St..
The edges and entries into the core were not understood. There is no clear, identifiable edge definition at the offset grid or at the creek and river. Lack of a sense of entry, of "closure", deprives the user of a sense of rationality and satisfying containment within a place. Space simply leaks out. The enormous potential for a unified treatment in an experience of arrival at the edges is, instead, a source of confusion and loss of direction.
Half the users interviewed felt that Civic Center Park, the historic entry from the Smoky Hill Trail, was a gateway, but for cars, not for pedestrians.
The other historic entries, over the Platte Valley and Speer/Colfax from the south, were not recognized as gateways into the core. It should be mentioned that the raised location of Interstate 25, parallel and above the So. Platte River in the Platte Valley, creates a highly used edge that exposes the entire city to itself, giving the Platte Valley the greatest potential as a major entry statement.
Also mentioned frequently were the negative aspects of Denver's image:
lack of open space lack of vegetation lack of water
too "open" space leaks out on all edges little enclosure and defined space too many exposed parking lots lack of convenient access and parking confusion at the offset grids Denver is not making its connections
The most significant elements to be left out of the user's image (mentioned only twice), were the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, which run through the heart of the city and are its very reason for being.
Union Station
terminated view of 17th Street District landmark in Lower Downtown
entry into the core is not defined from Interstate 25
South Platte River -the most neglected resource in Downtown Denver

The river isolated behind the railyards and warehouses
The 16th Street Mall facilitates image organizing efforts within its unified treatment, sequence and ease of movement along the spine
Both the river and the creek are visually hidden resources the creek boxed in between 45,000 vehicles per day on one-way couplets of Speer Blvd. The river totally isolated beyond a no man's land of rail yards and industrial warehouses, inaccessible from the core and felt not to be a part of the city.
As urban elements, both the river and the creek have far greater potential to strengthen and add depth of meaning to Denver's image than any other single elements, due to their inherent congruence of all three image components;
natural place context,
structural order, as paths themselves and open space nodes, historical significance.
The image elements of downtown Denver with the greatest value to users for identifying and orienting within the city, were those which most closely approached a strong total field, dense and vivid with all the parts connected.
Such is the case with the broad view of the skyline from a number of vantage points. A panoramic experience, which pulls even the disjointed parts into a cohesive whole.
Such is the case, also, along the sequence of structural order in the urban spine. The 16th St. Mall facilitates organizing efforts, rather than frustrating them. A sequence of continual people activity makes part fit into part, with each part recognizable. The presence of vegetation, water, native materials, and evidence of "roots", symbolizing passage of time, within enclosed, "felt", spaces along the spine, brings to mind a flood of associations and deeper meanings connecting the core to a larger context than the here and now.
Denver does have problems with image, and, hence, with attracting and inviting people to enjoy and benefit from the irreplaceable resources of the core.
But, all of us who know and love downtown Denver, realize the urban spine is working. It is working because of the ancient principles of urban settlement, now made visible in a modern, vital city.
But one dominant path does not a city make. It does not suit the needs, the interests, the desires of all the citizens. It does not address the isolated pieces of the city which must be incorporated into the field for the city to reach its potential as "the
people magnet and container for enriching urban experience" in the region.

MAY 1986
riAj^F> &wTf*-v
k-OCt £
wrrHiu -rewiiu^Tfe^ c>i_rr } iw

Good planning does not begin with an abstract and arbitrary scheme that it seeks to impose on a community; it begins with a knowledge of existing conditions and opportunities. The final test lies in its ultimate products the sort of men and women it nurtures and the order and beauty and sanity of their communities.
Lewis Mum ford.
In order to set forth recommendations for a complex urban experience of the downtown Denver core, I found it helpful to map my interpretation of the image components unique to the site.
The CONTEXT MAP illustrates the location and directional focus, in order for elements of unique context to communicate with the existing activity nodes within the core.
strong path system and field of congruent elements along the 16th and 17th St. urban spine,
some powerful landmarks and activity nodes, especially along the urban spine,
distinct character, identity and similarity of use evident in the Retail District, Financial District,
Civic Center, and to some extent in Auraria and the Federal Complex,
Edges and access points often isolated in space, not defining arrival and entry experience into "someplace special",
Major skyline viewpoints from outside the core and terminated views from within the core, create focus and interest and attention,
Broken continuity of the path system necessary to tie the critical parts of the city together,
No relation of activity spine to unique context.
THE HISTORIC RESOURCES MAP illustrates what remains in terms of buildings, as well as the river and creek, important clues in understanding the present as a product of the past.
The map emphasizes the potential in Lower Downtown and along Cherry Creek to reinforce the character and identity of a true historic district.
The map also points out the evidence of historic roots along the urban spine and at terminated view points at the offset grid, contributing to their identity and memorability as image elements.
It should be understood that analysis and evaluation necessarily examines the components as individual parts. An image quality which attracts and involves people in the urban experience, synthesizes those components into a complete pattern, working together and experienced together as one congruent whole.
That congruent image of Denver's urban environment -the complex pattern of natural setting, functions and movements within an understandable sequence of structural order, and historic tradition, will enhance the human experience of Denver's urban form and involve people in the unique and irreplaceable core of the city.

500 2000
@ AA-TtUITV Wove.*? AT
W Hau- UfMS>AM
# UFM&AU *>y\\A 6 AM
MAY 1986

500 2000
MAY 1986

f%TH IWitr NOtrfc
^ TeW-iiMATt£? WiTHitJ
V|6.W^ omT > IN

MAY 1986

16th Street Mall with D 4 F Tower
Denver Center Complex
There are considerable existing strengths, very impressive amenities, communicating image in the downtown core of Denver. Of particular value for attracting and involving people are:
# The Retail District with its identifying landmark, the D&F Tower, now unified along its mile length by the Mall reinforcing the historic function
of the urban spine for 100 years. The inclusion of water, vegetation and native materials, makes the Mall an oasis in the city. With attention to performance criteria for continuous facades and sequence of activity, the Mall will continue to be the heart and focus of the downtown core.
# The path system in the Retail District and along parts of 17th St. is successful for pulling people in a sequence from origin to destination.
# Terminated views, due to offset grids at the "breaks", enforces landmarks.
# Several activity nodes are functioning well internally, but their exterior spaces are often not encouraging pedestrian activity or linked to other activity centers within the core.
# The unique contrast of the "old" with the "new" provides physical evidence of the overlay of time in the city, and was a strong image element mentioned by all the users.
# The skyline. From several vantage points, the parts of the city look to be congruent, defining
a city center as the focus of diverse, unique and exciting urban activity.
An image potential map should reinforce what already exists those areas which play a major role in the formation of the image of downtown Denver today. But the essence of the image potential map, is that it indicates, in one cohesive plan, the three critical components of Denver's image, some of which are missing, which must work together for an enriching urban experience inviting people into the core.
Context end amenity of Fiver end Creek should be integrated with the core
Denver's unique context, sequence of structural order and historic overlay can fit together, involving people in the city on all three levels, to provide a congruent image allowing the total city to be presented as one continuous experience, by:
Restoring and Enhancing the Gateways
Defining and Enhancing the Edges
Connecting Existing and Suggested Activity Nodes
into a Continuous System with Paths
Reintroducing the Context of the River, the Creek,
Vegetation and Indigenous Materials into the Core.

inr^fAwr e-wfr-AM^e. im uee.e>
or pe-riHiriou
A6=TlvJiTV \AO)pt*>
rAfH^ Hfc&pe# r &k\VX\UU LALlt?MA|AF>? ryr6,MTiAU uaw(?tiapjaa,

Denver does have rich potential for an image with unique character and identity specific to its place, both geographically and in time. Its image components must not only be present in the city, they must be congruent, work together and be perceived, understood and interpreted as one whole system, for the city to enrich the experience of its citizens.
The essence of "discovery" resulting from research on the power of the urban image to involve people, is this concept. In order to be experienced as congruent, the urban image involves "movement" as the central theme.
The level of quality of the personal experience of urban image, is a part of the continuous sequence of spaces from entry, through defined edges, along paths and into a connected field of distinct and memorable districts, nodes and landmarks.
By looking at Denver in terms of movement through this image experience sequence, impact potential for a congruent image experience specific to this city, can be understood. With such focus, the best place for design effort in the overall concept plan can be determined.

It is the internal most field of districts, nodes and lankmarks along 16th St. and 17th St. to Larimer Square the Urban Spine -which is the most successful for orientation, identity and, hence, involvement in the core. It can certainly be embellished using performance criteria, but it is presently the strength of the urban image of downtown Denver.
One plans not places, or spaces, or things plans experiences:
Mellon Square, Pittsburgh
The path system connecting that internal spine of congruent image with other existing districts and activity nodes, as well as with needed nodes in districts without focus, is broken in places. The urban spine, as powerful as it is for image, is not a total urban experience. Designated paths must be animated with strong termini and rhythmic stimuli to pull people through the city and bring the city's parts together as one understandable whole.
We need sequences of space which arouse one's curiouslty, give a sense of anticipation, which beckon and impel us to rush forward to find that releasing space which dominates, which climaxes and acts as a magnet, and gives direction.
Paul Rudolph
It is the entries and the edges in Denver that are the weakest. The downtown core is not physically. defined at the edge, making it impossible to recognize as a congruent, distinct and identifiable place. The So.
Platte River and Cherry Creek on two sides, the offset grid on three sides, should define the arrival experience and potential organizing elements setting up the critical movement sequence and focus on the core. The entries and boundaries are not even approaching their potential to physically define and identify the core.
The moat frustrating part of U.S. cities is getting into them, or knowing when we have.
William H. Whyte

ENHANCEMENT PLAN 1000 500 2000 iiiiiiim
o A^TIVITV 6^?

T .
II ** Wl*>lT&(^4<3-LANMfef1'
pS-pfe^TAlAN pATH'b co^uW-

500 2000
nAjtfi*' e-Hr^v/^ArcwAV

The urban entries and edges, with their approach routes, are the first impression in presenting the city to people. To most effectively involve people, this
arrival experience must make clear the point where the city begins and is most vivid at that point when it relates to natural and cultural features that give the city its unique identity.
The edges in Denver today present a donut of blight and traffic, a barrier that disorients and keeps people from moving in a sequence from entry into the focused core.
There is extraordinary potential in Denver's core to define the edge with the rare, historic and neglected value of the waterways on two sides, and the offset of the 1864 and 1874 downtown grids on the
Colfax and Broadway sides.
The power of a unified pedestrian treatment of the edge, punctuated with identifiable landmarks at the terminated viewpoints, could, at the beginning of the image experience, contain and define downtown Denver, as a unique, identifiable, cohesive whole a place people can belong to and become involved in.

Make no little plans; they
have no magic to stir men's blood, and probably themaelvee will not be realized. Make big plana, aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble logical diagram, once recorded, will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting Itself with ever growing insistency.
Daniel Burnham
Denver has unique identity. We must use it!
After analysis and evaluation of Denver for highest quality areas communicating unique context, movement through sequence of structural order and meaning through time, a structural framework is suggested, exposing people to and involving participation in the critical image components of the city.
This "Concept Plan" is not meant to be a hardline, inflexible urban design plan. It is meant, rather, as the "bones", the structural order, of a city reflecting physical factors, historic factors and movement of people through a sequence of clear and inviting spaces. Inevitable and desirable growth and change can occur around this framework without compromising the identity and the character of the city the image of Denver.
An urban image within which people can "feel" and understand the "quality" making Denver unique in the region, and unique from all other cities.


1 Platte Valley Edge and Entry
It is people moving through a sequence of structural order which gives identity to and promotes involvement in the whole city which could give Denver a sense of itself.
The beginning of that experience at the entries and edges, has been evaluated as the weakest link in that necessary sequence in downtown Denver, and is the focus of design in this thesis.
The purpose of the edge is not to restrict one part of the city from another. It is to make the whole more intelligible. People need to see the parts of the city to recognize where they are and where they are going.
2 Colfax Ave. Edge and Entry
3 Cherry Creek Edge and Entry
Enhancement and/or restoration of the historic and current entries, through defined edges, where organization of the image experience begins, are illustrated as design examples:
1 Platte Valley
2 Colfax Avenue between Speer Blvd. and Broadway
3 Cherry Creek along the Urban Core Frontage
The Platte Valley, Colfax and Cherry Creek edges, to realize their potential as arrival experiences, should:
reinforce unique contextual features
give locational clues
emphasize access by foot, as well as by car
clearly define major entry points into the
city, combining natural and urban activity opportunities in clear nodes

The edge at the Platte River, with entries off 1-25, is the Front Door, where the city presents itself to itself.
As the historic gateway and edge, location of the city's greatest natural resource and the beginning of the sequence into the coherent structural order of the city the Platte Valley is the most visible orientation point to make sense of entry into downtown Denver more intelligible to the greatest number of people, letting everyone who comes in see and experience the "source".
Union Station, as the visually prominant landmark for both the Platte Valley and
Lower Downtown, is the particular point which triggers "arrival" into the
density/compression of the downtown core. Union Station was the gateway symbol and transportation/service center in the entire region for 75 years. It can function again as the major gateway symbol and transportation hub for a much needed regional rapid transit system.
An extended 16th St. Mall pedestrian entry connecting the core with the regional transportation hub at Union Station, a Riverfront Park and across the river to the northwest neighborhoods, reinforces the Platte Valley as, not only a felt edge and entry, but also as a seam between the outside and the inside of the downtown core.

ff^AtTV/AV/ WWC-£?LM ^urtr*
rep&*?r^M e-MT^y
The offset grid at both Colfax Ave. and Broadway, where the downtown ore begins, has been a point of confusion and disorientation in Denver for 100 years. If there is some way to keep people from being confused upon entry into the offset grid, the entry experience will be more understandable, increasing potential for involving people in the unique identity of the core.
A Civic Center Parkway, connecting Cherry Creek with Civic Center Park, could make opportunity out of the current blight and confusion along Colfax Ave. Continuous facades along both sides of Colfax, with government/tourist use on the Civic Center side and pedestrian scale retail use on the downtown side can provide sequence of activity, identity and character along a clear pedestrian path. Incentives for land use and bulk should define increased scale from the edge toward the center of the
downtown business deistrict, reaching maximum height at the 16th/ 17th St. Urban Spine.
By unifying and delineating the edge with a parkway treatment, the Civic Center Parkway allows a boundary to be experienced as, not only entry into the downtown
core, but also a path linking two major urban open spaces, Cherry Creek and the
special contact with water in an arid region, with downtown's largest existing park -11.2 acre, Civic Center Park.
P0UU0AP* - c+w a *****


The Cherry Creek edge is chaotic as it exists now. Cars, parking lots and lack of organized pedestrian development along the creek, have made it a true barrier to the Auraria campus and the Tivoli activity center.
The role of a waterway in the city can be one of natural public open space, sequence of experience in the "crossing", and visual orientation with the strong edge created by a natural water corridor. Cherry Creek's unique location along major automobile entries, Speer Blvd. and Auraria Parkway, between the core and Auraria, while running through the middle of the city, provides opportunity to realize all these roles in the treatment of a defined edge and entry.
With the proposed relocation of
Speer Blvd. to the west of Cherry Creek, and ailignment of the new Auraria Parkway, the opportunity exists to establish an open space corridor along the creek's entire urban length. There is sequence and rhythm felt along the parkway between bridges over the creek as entry/ "crossing" points, leading to defined parts of the core.
The creek, then, becomes an experience in itself, with activity nodes at the major entry points, pulling people from two sides toward it, and connecting through it.
An urban walkway on the downtown side of the creek, follows an organized se-
quence of pedestrian activity leading into the more intense development of the core.
Larimer St. is currently the only successful pedestrian path to reach out of the urban spine and touch the creek. The potential and the need for a waterfront park and pestrian linkage to the currently isolated Auraria campus and Tivoli activity center, makes this an ideal location for major pedestrian entry experience into the core.


The most important design characteristic of a city is coherence. Cities are alive, and their living quality must come through in the articulation of the various parts of the city, in its adaptations, in its growth.
Frederick Guthelm
if American cities are to change into something worth having, there must be a clear image clearly conceived of what that city should be. If the image exists but does not make contact with the form-determining processes, the city will fail to acheive the humane character we seek for it.
Edmund Bacon
Denver has unique character specific to ts context and its structural order of parts through an overlay of time. The task in defining the image quality of Denver has been to identify those constant principles as they occur in this place -the nature of what Denver wants to be and already is. Then to manipulate those constants and their relationships in a conceptual framework plan which could encourage involvement of people in the core of the city.
The tools I've used for analysis of the image quality of Denver have led to conclusions specific to the situation in Denver.
Denver has a healthy urban spine providing a powerful image and substantial involvement in the core. It is the edges and the connections between vital functional pieces in Denver that are not reaching their inherent potential to pull the city together into a total urban experience an image quality that could involve people to participate in a unique and vital downtown.
Such involvement, as evident in other American cities using these principles to revitalize their cores, can bring economic, political and social benefits to the downtown, and a sense of pride to the citizens of the region.
The Concept Plan defines an experience. Sequence through the structural order and identity of the critical parts is accessible and understandable in the continuous experience of movement through the city.
The edges and entries are delineated as the beginning of someplace special a device that could make "Denver" as a district more intelligible. The most important paths lead and pull people from origin to destination within the urban core, building heirarchy into the grid. The
internal field is vivid and dense, with all the
parts connected.
By defining, then enhancing and preserving the character and identity unique to the core of the city of Denver, an urban image can be structured, through such an urban design plan, which invites people to participate and become involved in the city as an enriching experience.

Ardalan, Nadir, and Bakhtier, La-leh, THE SENSE OF UNITY: THE SUFI TRADITION, Chicago, 111., Univ. of Chicago Press, 1973.
Alexander, Christopher, "A CITY IS NOT A TREE", ARCHITECTURAL FORUM, New York, April 1965, pp.58-62, May 1965, pp. 58-61.
Alexander, Christopher, A PATTERN LANGUAGE, New York, N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1977.
Arps, Louisa Ward, DENVER IN SLICES, Denver, Colo., Sage Books,
Ashihara, Yoshinobu, THE AESTHETIC TOWNSCAPE, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1983.
Bacon, Edmund, DESIGN OF CITIES,
New York, N.Y., The Viking Press,
Bancroft, Caroline, DENVER'S LIVELY PAST, Boulder, Colorado, Johnson Publishing Co., 1952.
Berry, Brian, "Urbanization and Counter-urbanization in the United States", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 45 (sep. 1980): 13-20.
Brenneman, Bill, MIRACLE ON CHERRY CREEK, Denver, Colo., World Press,
Inc., 1973.
Chronic, John and Halka, PRAIRIE,
PEAK AND PLATEAU, Denver, Colo., Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 32, 1972.
CITIES: THE FORCES THAT SHAPE THEM, Cooper-Hewitt Museum, New York,
N.Y., Rizzoli International Pub.,
Inc., 1982.
Clay, Grady, CLOSE-UP: HOW TO READ THE AMERICAN CITY, Chicago, 111., University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Cullen, Gordon, THE CONCISE TOWN-SCAPE, London, Architectural Press,
Curran, Raymond, ARCHITECTURE AND THE URBAN EXPERIENCE, New York, N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
Inc., 1983.
Cutler, Lawrence, and Sherrie, RECYCLING CITIES FOR PEOPLE: THE
URBAN DESIGN PROCESS, New York, N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
Inc., 1983.
DeChiara, Joseph, and Koppelman,
Lee, URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN CRITERIA, New York, N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Inc., 1982.
Dorsett, Lyle W., THE QUEEN CITY, A HISTORY OF DENVER, Boulder, Colo.,
Pruett Pub. Co., 1977.
Gallion, Arthur B., Eisner,Simon,
THE URBAN PATTERN, New York, N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980.
Garnham, Harry Launce, MAINTAINING THE SPIRIT OF PLACE, Mesa, Arizona,
PDA Publishers Corp., 1985.
Gosling, David, and Maitland,
Barry, CONCEPTS OF URBAN DESIGN, New York, St. Martin's Press,
Greenbie, Barrie B., SPACES, DIMENSIONS OF THE HUMAN LANDSCAPE, New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 1981.
Halprin, Lawrence, CITIES, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1972.
Hilberseimer, L., THE NATURE OF CITIES, Chi-cago, 111., Paul Theobald & Co., 1955.
Jacobs, Allan B., LOOKING AT CITIES, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1985.

Johnson-Marshall,Percy, REBUILDING CITIES, Chicago, 111., Aldine Pub.
Co., 1966.
Kaplan, Stephan, and Rachel, HUMAN-SCAPE:ENVIRONMENTS FOR PEOPLE, North Scituate, Mass., Duxbury Press, 1978.
Krier.Rob, URBAN SPACE, New York,
N.Y., Rizzoli International Pub.,
Inc., 1979.
Lynch, Kevin, THE IMAGE OF THE CITY, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1960.
Lynch, Kevin, THEORY OF GOOD CITY FORM, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1981.
Lynch, Kevin, MANAGING THE SENSE OF A REGION, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1981.
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl, MATRIX OF MAN,
New York, Frederick A. Praeger,
Pub., 1968.
Mumford, Lewis, THE CITY IN HISTORY, New York, N.Y., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961.
Noel, Thomas J., DENVER, ROCKY
MOUNTAIN GOLD, Denver, Colo., Sil-vey & Drown Pub., 1980.
Noel, Thomas J., LARIMER STREET, Denver, Colo., Historic Denver,
Inc., 1981.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian, EXISTENCE, SPACE & ARCHITECTURE, New York, N.Y., Praeger Pub., 1971.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian, GENIUS LOCI: TOWARD A PHENOMENOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE, New York, N.Y., Rizzoli International Pub., Inc.,
Norberg-Schulz, Christian, INTENTIONS IN ARCHITECTURE, Cambridge,
Mass., The MIT Press, 1965.
Norgren, Barbara, and Emrich,Ron, ARCHITECTURAL & HISTORIC SURVEY OF DOWNTOWN DENVER, Denver, Colo., Historic Denver, Inc., 1984.
"Perception of Environment", Commission on College Geography, Resource Paper #5, Assoc, of American Geographers, Wash. D.C., 1969.
Piaget, Jean, THE CHILD'S CONCEPTION OF SPACE, New York, N.Y., Norton Pub., 1967.
Piaget, Jean, THE MECHANISMS OF PERCEPTION, New York, N.Y., Basic Books, 1969.
Rapoport, Amos, HUMAN ASPECTS OF URBAN FORM, Elmsford, N.Y., Perga-mon Press, Ltd., 1977.
Relph, E., PLACE AND PLACELESSNESS, Brondesbury Park, London, Pion Limited, 1976.
Richmond, Jerry, DENVER, AMERICA'S MILE HIGH CENTER OF ENTERPRISE, Woodland Hills, Calif., Windsor Publications, 1983.
Sitte, Camillo, THE ART OF BUILDING CITIES, New York, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945.
PLANNING AND DESIGN, New York, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1983.
Spirn, Anne Whiston, THE GRANITE GARDEN, New York, N.Y., Basic Books, Inc., 1984.
Spreiregen, Paul D., URBAN DESIGN:
Steele, Fritz, THE SENSE OF PLACE, Boston, Mass., CBI Pub. Co. Inc.,
Tuan, Yi-Fu, SPACE AND PLACE, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Univ. of Minn.
Press, 1977.

Tuan, Yi-Fu, TOPOPHILIA, Englewood Press, N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
URBAN OPEN SPACES, Cooper-Hewitt Museum, New York, N.Y., Rizzoli International Pub.,Inc., 1979.
Weidenhoeft, Ronald, CITIES FOR PEOPLE, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981.
Whitney, Gleaves, COLORADO FRONT RANGE: A LANDSAPE DIVIDED, Boulder, Colorado, Johnson Publishing Co.,