Conflicts and compatibility of recreation and preservation

Material Information

Conflicts and compatibility of recreation and preservation design strategies for South Platte Park
Design strategies for South Platte Park
Arthurs, Jill ( author )
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (115 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps (some color)) ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Parks -- Planning -- Colorado -- Littleton ( lcsh )
Recreation areas -- Planning -- Colorado -- Littleton ( lcsh )
Parks -- Planning ( fast )
Recreation areas -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado -- Littleton ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 112-115).
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jill Arthurs.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10156 ( NOTIS )
1015686480 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A77 1988m .A927 ( lcc )

Full Text
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Design Strategies for South Platte Park
A Thesis
Landscape Architecture
Jill Arthurs
University of Colorado/Denver School of Architecture and Planning May 1988 ,

Design Strategies for South Platte Park
A Thesis
Landscape Architecture
Presented to:
Pat Gubbins
South Platte Park Supervisor South Suburban Recreation District
Dianne Schade
Senior Parks Planner
South Suburban Recreation District
Harry Garnham
Director-Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado/Denver
Presented by:
Jill Arthurs-Thesis Candidate May 11, 1988
Graduate School of Landscape Architecture School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado/Denver

Patrick Gubbins
South Platte Park Supervisor
Dianne Schade Senior Park Planner
South Suburban Park and Recreation District
Harry Garnham
Director-Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver

This thesis is submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Masters in Landscape Architecture degree at:
University of Colorado/Denver School of Architecture and Planning Graduate Program of Landscape Architecture

I would like to thank my committee members for their help and support:
Pat Gubbins
Dianne Schade
Harry Garnham
and thanks to the following people who gave their time and assistance:
Brian Arthurs
Jan Pilcher
Bill Woodcock
South Suburban Park and Recreation District
Jon Paine
City of Littleton
Bob Searns Urban Edges, Inc.
Merle Grimes
Steve Santee South Platte Park
Mary Jo Rosemeyer South Platte Park
Robert McQuarry
Littleton Historical Museum
Bob Smith DHM, Inc.

Introduction and Hypothesis.................................. 1
Contribution to Profession................................... 4
Recreation.............................................. 6
Preservation........................................... 9
Goals and Objectives........................................ 13
Process................................................... 15
Site Suitability/Carrying Capacity.......................... 17
Design Strategies........................................... 23
Conclusion.................................................. 28
South Platte Park......................................... 29
General Description......................................... 32
Physical Analysis......................................... 35
Historical and Cultural Analysis............................ 48
Goals and Objectives for Development of the Park............ 55
Site Sui tability/Carrying Capacity......................... 56
Conceptual Development...................................... 66
Master Plan................................................. 70
Detailed Design Development...........................;..... 77
Design Strategies........................................... 83
Evaluation and Maintenance................................ 93
Conclusion.................................................. 94
Appendix.................................................... 95
Literature Cited............................................112


In today's culture, leisure time has been increased due to technological advances (Pigram 1983), With more time on our hands, our society is actively looking for more and different ways to obtain that refreshment. People are looking for ways to escape increasing urban pressures. In addition, interest and respect for the environment has led to naturalized systems becoming an attractive source of recreation for a growing number of individuals (Nash 1967). Naturalized systems can be defined as systems that exist in their natural state or are being returned to that state.
Planning with in-depth environmental inventories and recreational behavior strategies, can produce optimum recreational experiences while maintaining the natural and cultural amenities within a site.
Recreation within a naturalized system offers an alternative to the majority of urban recreation sites. Often these urban park sites are sterile and devoid of natural systems with all they have to offer. Different methods of recreation, such as birdwatching and nature study, can be pursued in naturalized environments. These activities promote a sensitivity for nature and our native environment. John Muir, a famous naturalist, said, Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and cheer and give strength to

body and soul alike.
In addition, naturalized areas provide an ideal opportunity for pursuing educational endeavors. The importance of environmental education can not be underestimated. The value of learning about both the physical and historical environment can only increase our ability to understand the world around us.
This knowledge will also help us protect our natural environment by learning about ecological relationships and developing social harmony with our environment. Environmental education will help promote appreciation for the land we live on (Pigram 1983). We can learn ways to maintain our natural environment and preserve our natural history. By increasing this awareness, we can to learn to care for our environment, take pride in the area and learn to preserve it.
Unfortunately, the result of man's use of a naturalized area will result in some degradation to the resource. This degradation could eventually destroy it entirely. However, strategies can be developed by which the amount of recreation and the various forms it takes would allow the natural systems to remain self-sustaining. Schemes can be developed where maintenance and even renovation of the site would be encouraged and promoted.
These preservation techniques can be extended to conserve not only the natural systems but could enhance the cultural characteristics of a site as well. Sense of place or genus loci refers to the distinctive character of an area. In a

naturalized area much of this character comes from not only the physical characteristics but the "something special in a site that is inherent and particular to it (Garnham 1985). For example, seeing wildlife living in their natural environment can gives an area a different experience than seeing it in an urban environment.
As landscape architects, we are charged with stewardship of the land. Protecting our environment should be a consideration whenever design work is begun. Preservation of our environment gives a base from which all outdoor design can grow from. With the integration of preservation in recreation areas, we can allow the natural environment to become part of our everyday lives. Landscape architects should sharpen the skills which allow them to increase enjoyment of our natural heritage as well as enhance our pleasure in being in the outdoor world. Those skills include study of natural systems and ways to preserve them. Study of recreation activities and finding methods to improve them while minimizing the conflicts between the two should be pursued.
The purpose of this thesis is to develop a process for evaluating a site for the enhancement of recreational activity and nature preservation. This assessment can then be promoted through design strategies which can transform a recreation site into an area that provides a rich sensory experience as well as maintaining or improving the environmental integrity of the area.

According to the American Society of Landscape Architects, the profession of landscape architecture is "The art of design, planning, or management of the land, arrangement of natural and man-made elements thereon through application of cultural and scientific knowledge, with concern for resource conservation and stewardship, to the end that resultant environment serves a useful and enjoyable purpose (ASLA). Site design is anticipating the needs and problems of an area and providing physical form that addresses those needs and problems. Anticipating those needs and problems of a naturalized area can result in good design.
This thesis will implement the tenets of landscape architecture into a recreation plan for a naturalized area. It promotes the maintenance of our natural heritage as both a recreation source and valuable educational tool. It also describes a process for developing such and area and strategies and tools to maintain and prevent its degradation. Because recreation encompasses a large number of concepts this thesis focusses on outdoor/passive recreation.


The conflict between recreation and preservation has a long history (Nash 1968). Designers have struggled with trying to enhance to recreation experience while minimizing site degradation and maintaining natural aesthetics. The result of this process is an attractive and aesthetically pleasing site which can handle larger visitor loads while being easier to maintain.
An examination of recreation in the United States and its role in relationship to preservation will explore these issues.

As population and leisure time increases so does the need for recreation. Urbanization is also increasing and land that has been used as natural and recreational areas being is destroyed. These lands need to be preserved for not only our recreational uses but to preserve our natural history as well.
Natural park design began with the work of Fredrick Law Olmstead in the late 1880's. He felt the common man, who was oppressed by the city, should have a place to go where he could put the city behind him and out of his sight and go where he will be under the undisturbed influence of pleasing natural scenery. Olmstead promoted the idea that recreation should take
the form of rural retreats within the ci ty. Passive and semipass i ve recreation worked best with

this type of pastime (Rutledge 1971).
However, an opposing movement advocating planned physical activity and organized sports sprang up. Proponents of both causes thought they were incompatible and became polarized.
While naturalist movement was responsible for developing parks or open space, recreationists developed hard surface courts, ball fields and the like with little attention to the natural systems.
After World War II, with the advent of more leisure time, pressures increased on both the parks and recreation systems. Unfortunately, the dichotomy between naturalist and recreationalist had still not been resolved.
However, with the need for a variety of recreation systems, designers have directed their attention to developing recreation areas that are sensitive to the environment and the needs of the community. For example, with increasing pollution problems in metropolitan areas, it is desirable to provide a variety of recreation experiences closer to home. This diminishes driving time and allows access for a larger number of users.
Recreation use should satisfy a variety of needs and provide a range of experiences. The development of naturalized recreation sites allows for that diversity.
Recreational experiences at the same time must function while preserving the resource. Recreation in a natural area would be more solitary and passive in nature. Passive uses could include a variety of activities including, hiking, jogging,

picnicking, bird-watching, photo-taking, fishing, nature study, and non-motorized boating.

The natural environment holds a unique draw for people, exciting and stimulating the mind (Penn 1982). Combinations that exist in the natural landscape are rich and diversified.
They offer an emotional appeal. But human activity in a naturalized area will cause a certain amount of degradation to that site.
Most environments will tolerate some use before the site is irreparable damaged or unable to regenerate itself (Barry 1979). What good landscape design should accomplish is the development of some recreational activity without the level of damage being so great that the site is no longer self-sufficient.
For nearly a century the public has been faced with the problems of integration of recreation and resource (Barry 1979). In 1864, Yosemite was established as the first state park and in 1872 Yellowstone was created as the first national park. Both of

these events set the stage for future preservation of national wildlands. In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt allowed the creation of the National Park Service to consider how best to provide use with preservation. (National Forest Service 1973). With increasing mechanization providing more leisure time, the focus of the National Forest Service as well as the newly formed National Park Service began to deal with how to provide for those recreational demands. While the National Park Service felt their function was to preserve our nations natural lands, it saw a need for more active recreation that could be considered incompatible with its primary function. Thus it pushed for the development of the State Parks system to provide that increased need. The development of state parks also allowed the service to get back to its original goal of preserving the nations natural heritage.
Rapid development and use of national and state parks caused concern among such prominent individuals and naturalists as John Muir, George Wright Robert Marshall and Aldo Leopold. In fact, Leopold commented, The salient geographic character of outdoor recreation, to my mind, is that recreation use is self destructive. The more people in a given area, the less of a chance to find what they seek.
The end of World War II brought increasing numbers of users to the parks and recreation areas. This in turn increased the pressures on the natural environment. By the 1960s, these stresses were becoming increasingly apparent. Too much

recreation with too little planning was depleting the resources initially determined to be preserved (Barry 1979).
The growing environmental movement of the 1960's caused a reevaluation of the methods and practices being used. New policies and goals were reflected. In 1964 the National Park Service developed this policy. "The national parks are primarily, and should remain natural areas for the enjoyment of men and other animals, and should be managed with this purpose in mind. Man, the visitor, must be looked upon as an introduced species in the ecosystems of parks, capable of interfering with natural processes. Visitors must be accommodated and developments planned in such a way that overall management of the parks will result in preservation of the unique natural features and habitat." This policy reflected a recognition of the role man should take in naturalized areas.
The development of Colorado's State Park system illustrates the dichotomy between recreation and preservation. Because 36% of Colorado land was federally owned, development of its state park system was not developed until the late 1950's. Golden Gate State Park was the first purchase in 1960, with the purpose of preserving the natural environment. Because of its dual purposes of preserving state lands and providing recreational opportunities, the state park service has two types of development areas. One is a state park which requires "preservation of an area for enjoyment, education and inspiration of residents and visitors." The other designation is a state

recreation area which is a "scenically attractive land and water area offering a broad range of outdoor recreation opportunities (Colorado State Parks and Outdoor Recreation 1975). Thus is illustrated the dichotomy between recreation and preservation.
The well being of these natural resources depends on careful design and limited use of these recreational areas. With development of certain strategies, the inherent conflict between recreation use and preservation of the resource can be minimized.


The purpose of this thesis is to examine the design process for a naturalized recreation site that provides harmony between human use and natural systems, with a focus on a specific case study. The underlying thesis of this process is that humans are a part of a the natural system (Bloss, 1979) and that balance between the two should be strived for.
This thesis hopes to accomplish this through the fulfillment of the following goals and objectives.
GOAL I. To develop a process to evaluate a naturalized site and allow the most beneficial development of recreational use both for the user and the site itself.
OBJECTIVE: Develop a process for evaluation of the general
site suitability. This can be determined in terms of the site context and amenities.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the site with various carrying
capacities of both physical and cultural elements.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the various recreational experiences
that would be appropriate and rewarding for the users of the site.
GOAL II: Develop strategies by which recreation in a naturalized area can be optimized while consideration for the environment is taken into consideration. ^
OBJECTIVE: Research other sites where this has been
OBJECTIVE: Research and develop specific strategies to
minimize degradation.

GOAL III: Develop educational facilities for both public and design profession for the feasibility of integration of recreation and preservation.
OBJECTIVE: Develop interperative programs for the public to
enhance their awareness of natural systems.
OBJECTIVE: Develop programs within local colleges to study
impacts of use on natural systems and give recommendations for improvement of such.
OBJECTIVE: Develop a program with local school design
programs for future development of site with relation to the integration of recreation and preservation to progress.
GOAL IV: To apply this method to a real-life case study.
OBJECTIVE: Design a master plan and detailed design
development for South Platte Park.


In conjunction with the research and goals of this thesis, a process has been developed to determine the suitability of an area for a naturalized recreation site. This process entails setting certain criteria that are compatible with the goals of the community and with the sites amenities. Understanding the site is the most useful component of this determination. If the site exudes the natural qualities necessary for establishing this type of recreation area and there is a need in the community for such a resource, this process will help facilitate that development.
The use of this process would then establish not only a master plan, but design guidelines that would accomplish the goals of the development. Throughout the process, it should be continually checked against the goals and objectives established to determine if it is fulfilling them.
It is as follows:



Carrying capacity began as a agricultural tool, when researchers developed carrying capacity studies to evaluate the number of cattle that could feed on a certain number of acres successfully. Recreation designers grasped this tool as a way to evaluate the number of people a site could successfully tolerate. See Diagram 1 for modeling used in recreational carrying capacity.
The recreational carrying capacity of an area can be defined as the amount of use an area can sustain before irreversible degradation takes place. This can be divided into two categories. The first is physical/biological capacity, which is the level of human impact tolerated by a site before the degradation is to great for regeneration. This can be determined by the effects on the non-living environment such as soil compaction and erosion. The effects on the biological systems are also a way to determine the amount of degradation. These effects include floral and faunal inventory alteration.
The second component is the psychological/social carrying capacity. This describes the level of human impact that can be tolerated before deterioration, of recreation quality can be felt or the effects of other peoples presence on the experience of the visitor. Perception and interpretation of that impact is the real test. Certain site characteristics that can effect that

Carrying Capacity Model
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perception such as size of an area, vegetation and configuration of the terrain. Visitor needs also effect that perception. For instance, fisherman dont mind and sometimes enjoy the presence of others in the vicinity, while those enjoying a different experience such as hiking or wildlife observation may have a negative recreation experience with the impact of other users.
Determining the carrying capacity of a site can determine the eventual overall quality of the natural landscape. The carrying capacity can be determined by such factors as overall use and client program. Any use of a naturalized area will cause some amount of damage. The amount of damage that should be allowed in the end comes down to a value judgement. Those values can change in time due to changes in the physical system or in management objectives.
The following method of determining carrying capacity is an innovative approach to the inherent conflicts of increasing the recreational and educational use of an area while preserving the intrinsic natural and cultural heritage of that area (Bloss, 1979). The result of any use will be degradation but this method attempts to determine the areas of a site that will have the greatest ability to absorb various pressures that increased use creates. The method is a modification of "An Optimal Site Suitability Model" developed for the Thorn Ecological Institute for Cal-Wood, a 660 acre parcel in Colorado Rockies. This project developed an ecologically sensitive educational and research center (Bloss, 1979).

The process of this model involves a detailed investigation of all natural systems and analysis and evaluation of cultural assets of the area. These systems are evaluated with respect to their ability to withstand passive recreational activity. A composite map is then developed of the various elements analyzed and that becomes the "graphic basis of the optimal site suitability model" (Bloss, 1979). In addition, the site is evaluated from a historical and ethical view. These factors are then weighed in the model. The result is a model that can then serve as a guide for present and future development of the si te .
An example of how the tolerance mapping works entails the soils mapping. The site is mapped in three categories: low, medium, and high soils tolerances. Low tolerance means soils that are easily erodible and therefore have little tolerance for recreational use. High tolerance implies areas of the site that are well-suited for recreational use.
Climatic aspects of the site can also be mapped with a different set of parameters. Of course, the site has the same general climatic conditions, but the site is then evaluated with the micro-climates within an area. High tolerances would be areas within the site that are more suitable for human use.
Sunny areas are pleasant spots for recreational activities, while shady spots offer rest areas. Areas with windblocks are also spaces that could provide rest areas. Conversely, areas that provide no shade or rest and are exposed to high wind would be

considered low tolerance areas. The parameters are different for each category but all are viewed from the ability of the area to absorb impacts and provide quality recreation space.
Carrying capacity can be shown by a overlay method of mapping. Different tolerance levels of a site are mapped. These can then be used to evaluate the carrying capacity of a site. Physical constraints and opportunities should be mapped with regard for the ability to tolerate use. Value judgments need to be made to determine the relative tolerance levels that can be sustained. Individual site analysis can determine the elements on that site that are more fragile and should carry more weight. For instance, an alpine landscape can tolerate little use on its vegetation which would carry more weight in determining tolerance levels.
Often in a naturalized area the physical components are the elements that carry the most weight in evaluation. For example, the vegetative quality is often judged to be the most critical and its tolerance levels are more important than other tolerance measurements.
Cultural components are also a vital part of the mapping process. These elements affect the social/psychological side of carrying capacity. Visual analysis of a site is important in deciding which elements, either natural or man-made, are essential in preserving or sense of place of the site.
Value judgments must also be placed on these components in tolerance mapping. Judgments on the importance and value of

some views may be more important than other. For example, internal views reinforcing character of the site may be more important than distant views.
After mapping is completed and value judgments are weighted, determining the areas of the site that are best suited for development can be mapped. This composite mapping will give the final analysis in determining areas that need to be preserved and those areas which will tolerate certain amounts of use. The idea is to allow the most positive recreation experience while maintaining the most important characteristics for each site.


Design strategies are tactics that can be used to control the impact of visitors within the site. The unique character of an area can be defined by certain aspects of the natural environment, cultural expressions and sensory experiences (Garnham 1985). In natural design, these characteristics could be such elements as landscape, visual form, spatial definition, light, distance, observer position and sequence. These elements can be implemented in design to help maintain the special characteristics of an area and improve the social/psychological components of an area.
The quality of recreation also depends on the resource itself, the tolerance of the site to use, the number of users, the user type, and design and management of the site. The attitude and behavior of the users will have significant effect on the quality of recreation use. Changing those attitudes could be the best and most helpful strategy to maintain the resource. Evaluation of the value of the resource to the users is important. The ability of natural areas to support those users is also important. Compatibility of the two is critical.
Different strategies can solve this dilemma of recreation and preservation. Separation of uses is one method that can lessen the impact of human activity. If a site is large enough, it can be broken down into areas that will serve one type of user

and other areas that will serve another type. This idea can be expanded with the development of recreation zones. Activities that are compatible can be lumped together. Other activities with different focuses could be placed in a different area or screened from competing purposes. These zones would incorporate different conditions such as size, type, available resources and local needs. Placing facilities away from delicate areas is another way to preserve them.
Controlling access to the site is a good strategy for regulating use. It can limit the amount of users and eliminates the possibility of excessive degradation. Barriers to unwanted movement are important as well. Especially with the character of these types of recreation facilities, entry points should be special and dramatic to let the users know they are entering a naturalized area.
Much of a naturalized areas appeal is related to its vegetative quality. Management of that resource is important for preservation of character. Enhancement and use of landscape characteristics enhances the recreation experience, but minimize site maintenance and allow site character to remain. An ongoing process of renovation and maintenance is important for preserving the site. Vegetation management can stabilize a site, create aesthetically pleasing space and emphasize the character of that site.
Maintaining the ecological integrity of the site can be assured by allowing only native vegetation to be replaced and

restored. Ongoing studies of that vegetations regeneration should be conducted. These tasks could be carried out by local educational institutions. Wildlife preservation can be promoted by protecting critical habitats and migratory routes. If accurate mapping techniques are used, designing elements that respect those areas can be accomplished.
Obscuring the non-natural elements on and around the site can enhance the natural ambience as well. Delicate and fragile systems can be accessed by the public by boardwalks and observation towers that allow interaction but not degradation to the site. Development of structures should be planned in zones that are amenable with recreation use and preservation.
Management techniques can also minimize the impact of use and an area. This tool will ultimately decide the success or failure of the recreational and natural resource. Creating alternatives in the initial design will help facilitate good management techniques. These alternatives would allow increased use and add experiential variety. Closure of specific sites can allow both natural and cultural treatments to rejuvenate it.
Rest and rotation of recreation opportunities are another alternative to site degradation. Creating easily accessible and attractive recreation sites that are more appealing to a user than an area that is less interesting is another alternative.
With these methods delicate and fragile systems can be preserved.
Education of the community is absolutely vital. Emphasizing to the public the importance of ecological zones will allow

restrictions and limitations to be enforced more easily. Interperative trails and appreciation areas can teach the public about the resource and, armed with that knowledge, the public will become its best defender. A knowledgeable public is a caring one.
Visitor behavior should be studied and designs should allow a positive recreation experience while preservation is enhanced. Visitors tend to gather on edges instead of open spaces, much as wildlife does. Enhancement and enlargement of those edges increase visitor experience and creates a large area for activity to occur. Creating positive recreation experiences for users with an aesthetic value discourages vandalism and destruction of a site.
Trail design is a good example of how the trade off between use and preservation works. Trails have inherent problems when they are developed in areas marked for preservation. Soil compaction, erosion, and loss of vegetation damages that are associated with them. But trail design can allow a certain amount of degradation while preserving a greater portion of the environment. If the trail is located where people want to go, then they will use it. That use promotes activity within an area while providing minimal amount of harm. Certain precautions must be taken to prevent undue destruction, such as barrier vegetation at critical points, but the final analysis must conclude that the loss is worth the benefit.
A final note on strategies that can be implemented to

improve the compatibility between use and preservation must be the legislative process. Legislators as well as the public must be educated to the use of our natural environment.
Unfortunately, many people in that position feel, sometimes wrongly, that the greater use of an area the greater satisfaction. They should be educated to the fact that often greater use exceeds the capacity of the land to tolerate it. Certainly, the educational process must be extended to the political scene to alert them to the value and fragility of our natural surroundings and their benefit to the public Using biological and aesthetic criteria in design and planning of recreational areas, certain levels of use can be introduced into a naturalized site while maintaining it's ecological integrity. Degradation will occur, but with careful design implementation it can be integrated compatibly with the natural environment.
When creating a good recreational experience, including a diversity of recreation opportunities, environmental settings, and experiential and sensory activities, it is possible to use that diversity to preserve and protect the environment.


In the past recreation development has often seemed as if it is at odds with preservation of natural resources. Although at times the marriage between the two has been successful, many compromises have been less than spectacular.
With in-depth study of sites and evaluation of both the natural and cultural elements that are offered, the two uses can be effectively combined. Knowledge of the site can allow design decisions which protect and enhance the resource while promoting a positive and enjoyable recreation experience.
By using certain strategies that are compatible with both quality recreation and nature preservation, the resulting design can create pleasing space. That space can enhance the quality of life by allowing the opportunity for choice. Those choices can range from the freedom to enjoy our natural environment, to encouraging environmental awareness in our children.
As landscape architects, we should be dedicated to development which expands those choices and with it the quality of our lives.


CASE STUDY-South Platte Park
On June 16, 1965 an event in the Denver Metropolitan Area
forever change the face of the South Platte Corridor. Severe thunderstorms over Plum Creek and Cherry Creek combined with other thunderstorms over Kiowa and Bijou Creeks and caused what was termed a 100-year flood on the South Platte River through the Denver Area. The flows through the Littleton area alone were recorded at levels of 110,000 cubic feet per second. This flood activity caused over $300 million in damages in the metropolitan area (South Suburban 1983).
The South Platte River is typical of a plains river. Most of the time, it is a peaceful stream cutting through the landscape. However, when the circumstances are right, it can turn into a raging torrent causing damage and destruction.
As a result of the 1965 flood, the Army Corps of Engineers revived its plan to build Chatfield Dam on the South Platte River. Plans were approved for the Dam in 1950, but were not acted upon until after the flood of 1965. The Corps began the flood control project in 1971 for the South Platte River. It proposed channelization of the river downstream of the dam. Previous plans for the river, including a study by S.R. Deboer, recommended that portions of the floodplain be left in its natural state to provide open space and recreational opportunities for the community.

The City of Littleton decided to fight the Corps to maintain the future South Platte Park as a natural floodplain. They wanted to retain the special character of the South Platte River--the natural beauty and the wildlife habitat. The campaign escalated to the national level and ended with a Supreme Court decision in favor of the community and preserving the natural floodplain. This decision declared the Corps would have to donate monies planned for channelization to the local governments for acquisition of the floodplain to preserve it for open space. The land use plan of the floodplain prevents development within that floodplain. Restriction of development avoids potential destruction when the river does flood. It also opens up the area for preservation of open space along our waterways.
In 1974, Public Law 93-251 was signed by President Richard Nixon which stated, "The project for flood control...on the South Platte hereby modified to authorize the Secretary of the participate in acquisition of lands and interests therein and the development of recreational facilities... in lieu of the authorized channel improvements for the purpose of flood control and recreation."
The property in question was acquired by Littleton for the park through a bond issue, state funds, and the Corps funding.
The scenic stretch of land on the South Platte River was saved for the community (South Suburban 1983).



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General Description
Platte Park is 650 acres of floodplain land located in the City of
Littleton. The park is
bisected north to south by the South Platte River. This
riparian environment offers a wide variety of plant communities and wildlife. The park also contains some of the best wetland environments in the metropolitan area.
The eastern portion of the park is characterized by mature vegetation indicative of a plains riparian environment. It also contains the wetland area and its attendant plant and animal varieties. The western portion of the park has been mined for gravel. An extensive series of ponds are the result of this gravel mining.
Present recreation on the site consists of fishing in the river and gravel ponds. Hiking on existing paths and some

equestrian use are also participated in. A log residence has been moved onto the site to provide a visitor and education center.
Gravel mining is ongoing on the site but the reserves are depleted. When the present stockpiles are gone, the plant will be removed and reclamation will begin. This is slated to happen within the next year, 1989.
Mineral Avenue is being extended across the park east to west. Although this presents a major constraint to recreation activity in the park, it can be screened from operations of the park with good landscape planning.
The basic concept envisioned by Littleton officials for park development entails a naturalized area that encourages passive recreation activity. Retaining the natural heritage of the area will also provide educational opportunities.
Development of the Greenway on adjacent lands to the South Platte River is slated to be extended through the park to its terminus at Chatfield Dam. Alignment of the Greenway, a pedestrian/bikeway path, will run on the east side of the river at the northern end of the park and cross further south before reaching Mineral. It will then follow the river on the western bank .
The park has been set aside to become a major wildlife and natural area. Preservation of the natural flood channel, maintaining the native vegetation, and maintenance and enhancement of the wildlife habitat are the goals set for by the

public and the local municipalities.
The unique development of a pocket wilderness within an urban setting will allow those users to pursue the physical and spiritual equilibrium that is important in todays fast-paced urban lifestyle.
The property is owned by the City of Littleton. They have contracted with South Suburban Metropolitan Recreation and Park District to manage the park and develop a master plan. The author of this thesis is working with the City of Littleton and S.S.M.R.P.D. to develop the master plan.


This master plan entails detailed physical and cultural analysis and mapping to determine the best sites for maximum development and minimum degradation of South Platte Park.
Physical analysis includes the major environmental characteristics such as climate, geology, soils, hydrology, physiography, etc.
The climate of the area relates to the type and quantity of plant material on the site. It also relates to various natural elements that effect the general conditions in the park. South Platte Park has a continental climate. Tremendous variations in temperature are the result of the lack of a moderating water body which is characteristic of a continental climate. This also results in low relative humidity and low average precipitation with lots of wind and lots of sun (South Suburban 1983).
Being located of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains has a tremendous effect on the climate of the park as well.
Storms coming from the west often deposit their moisture on the western slope, resulting in a semi-arid environment at the park. However, the development of cumiliform clouds in the summer shade the area and result in only 33 days per year of temperatures over 90 degrees. Approximately 32% of the total precipitation comes from these storms. Because of its continental location, cold air masses from the north result in great temperature drops in

the winter. About 37% of the total precipitation occurs from snows and rains in the spring that come from wet air masses brought up from the Gulf of Mexico.
Autumn is often a favorite time in the region due to clear, crisp days and clear, cold nights and accounts for 20% of the total precipitation.
High winds from the west are not an unusual occurrence in the spring and fall. This is a cause for concern in areas have been mined where erosion could occur.
Snow melt from the mountains and thunderstorm activity are often the cause of flooding. As previously mentioned, flood activity is the reason for the parks existence. Past floods are also the main contributing factor in much of the parks natural characteristics.
The geology of an area determines how it can be designed and places limitations on some of that design. South Platte Park is located in the Littleton Quadrangle on the eastern slope of the Front Range. The Rocky Mountains are the dominant geological feature. The Rocky Mountains were formed by a series of uplifts and alluvial deposits. These deposits were then eroded by the river and its tributaries. Unconsolidated alluvial deposits cover the entire floodplain of the Park. They are up to 50 thick and overlie the Dawson Formation. Piney Creek alluvium is the deposit being mined by Cooley Gravel at the site (South Suburban 1974).
Knowledge of soils on a site can be useful in determining

general resource management. The Alluvial-Nunn soil association dominates the site. It is deep and nearly level consisting of loam with mostly sandy soil on the flood plains and terraces. These soils have severe limitations and make them unsuitable for agricultural cultivation. Revegetation is difficult due to lack of soil nutrients.
The soils consist of three main components. The loamy alluvial land is level and is subject to flooding. Sandy alluvial occurs next to the major stream channels. The third component is the Nunn soils which rest on the terraces surrounding the channel and are not subject to flooding (USDA 1974).
Soil compaction and erosion present problems and must be dealt with in design intent. Developed trail systems directed in appropriate areas appropriate can diminish these effects.
The size, depth, location and quality of surface body waters influences vegetation, carrying capacity and management practices. The hydrology of the South Platte Floodplain governs every feature at the site. Historical flooding caused the deposition of gravel. These gravel depositions have been subsequently mined and the resulting gravel pits are responsible for much of the present day character of the park.
The major hydrological feature of the area is the South Platte River. In 1880 John Young characterized the river as M...a narrow stream with a bed six times too large for it." Charlie Stobie in 1865 called it "too thick to drink, too thin to

plow, too shallow to sail on, too broad to shoot a rifle across," They were not impressed with the river. When the emigrants first came to this area, the native indians warned them that the peaceful river sometimes rose out of its banks and flooded all that was next to it.
Major floods have occurred in 1844, 1933, 1935, 1942, 1965
and 1973. Chatfield Dam was approved after the 1965 flood and was completed in 1973 after the flood. With the completion of the dam, flows are now regulated and the danger of flooding is much less. The greatest danger of flooding in the area is the possibility of the gravel pits being breached.
The river is termed a rural river. It meanders with one high bank and one low bank. It is a shallow channel dotted with gravel and sand bars.
The water table is related to the depth of the river and the gravel pits. The higher the water table, the higher the river and gravel pits become.
The other major hydrological feature is the gravel pits which cover much of the western portion of the park. Although gravel pits are often considered a scar on the face of the landscape, with proper reclamation and landscaping design elements, they could become very viable recreational components in the landscape, such as fishing and boating opportunities.
Water quality of the ponds and the river is classified as "cold water Class I. Cold water Class I is the highest rating in terms of aquatic biota and recreational uses (S. Suburban

1982). This allows body contact for recreational purposes.
Cold water Class I is also excellent for fishing purposes.
The lakes that exist within the area are hydraulically connected to the South Platte River. As the river rises and falls so the ponds. Water quality in the ponds is also very good and increasing aquatic vegetation and fisheries habitat will increase their productivity (S. Suburban 1982). This can be accomplished by developing reefs on the bottom of the gravel pits.
The natural elements that change the landscape can determine design and management practices. This park is characteristic of a plains riparian system. It is a relatively flat floodplain site. Because of the depositions that have accumulated through the ages, the gravel sediments in these deposits have armored the river bottom. Hence, the stream flow tends to meander across the site rather than downcut. This results in a river that is constantly moving across the landscape. It meanders and braids as it travels through the park. This causes the river characteristic to have one high bank that is being eroded and one low bank that is being deposited on. Other than river erosion the site is relatively flat.
Very few large boulders exist in the floodplain, as it is mainly finer elements that have washed down the river. If large boulders were used as design elements in the park, they would have to be imported.
Selection of design material and carrying capacity depend

greatly on the vegetation quality of an area. Because the riparian lifezone is an important ecological edge, a great amount of diversity exists in plant and animal material. The riparian ecosystem provide shelter from wind and sun as well as flood. Early explorers found that the riparian ecosystems on the Colorado plains were the only area where deciduous trees existed (Mutel & Emerick 1984).
South Platte Park is classified as a riparian site for vegetation typical of streamsides and moist depressions, one of the common riparian species is the plains cottonwood, which is considered the climax species (S. Suburban 1984). Climax stands of cottonwoods exist in both the southeast and northeast portions of the park. These stands are reproducing and relatively permanent although maintenance should be begun because of increasing pressures on the site.
There is also some evidence that riparian vegetation such as cottonwood and peachleaf willow need flood conditions to root in a riparian environment. They tend to root best in soil that has been scraped clean of debris. This is characteristic of soil after flood conditions. Because of the possibility of this phenomena, the present climax stands should be closely monitored to be sure if they are reproducing. If there are signs that the climax forests are beginning to fail, measures should be taken to restore their health (Dr. David Cooper, lecture, March 26, 1988).
A variety of other zones exist at the park. Because of the disturbance that has taken place here, much of the site is in

transition. These stages include movement from grasslands to shrublands to riparian woodland zone. The site also contains both an arid vegetation zones and a wetland. Arid plants exist right next to plants more commonly associated with wet communities. That juxtaposition is another example of the sites unique natural environment and an excellent educational tool. Wetland areas offer an array of different plant species. Study of this diversity as well as the importance of wetland systems cannot be overemphasized.
Other plant material in these mature stands include, lanceleaf and narrowleaf cottonwood, box elder, wild grape, poison ivy and common chokecherry. These climax stands are ideal from and educational standpoint. They also provide excellent wildlife habitat.
Shrubs live in many of the disturbed areas. Shrub thickets include native willows, wild grape, snowberry, sumac, wild plum, and chokecherry. These are a good food source and habitat zone for wildlife. Design of recreational elements should take these facts into account.
Grasses compromise a great portion of the park. They include such species as wheat grass, blue grama, and buffalo grass. Grassland maintenance and enhancement can be the key to stabilization of the park. They are the first step in the successional process (Interplan 1975). They can also be the stabilizing element needed for bank and wind erosion from disturbed sites. While enhancement of the trees and shrubs in

the area speed up the successional process, grassland enhancement can be the most economical and efficient method of stabilization. Educational processes directed toward the grasslands can allow visitors to understand the value of a prairie heritage.
Because of disturbance to the area, many noxious and aggressive species have taken root in the site. Control of this problem must be addressed with ongoing maintenance to preserve the natural elements in the park. Introduction of native grasses and understory materials can be a useful maintenance tool in this regard.
Plants are the primary element in developing a natural and wild environment. They are the producers, scale definers and stabilizers of an ecosystem. Design development of any natural site must take the plant systems into account. Plantings can also be useful in control of disturbance to the site. Visual and physical barriers to the site can be created by plantings. These plantings can be functional and still maintain the naturalized character of the site.
South Platte Park contains a large wetland area. Wetlands have gained prominence in the last few years as knowledge of their importance in natural systems has grown.
Wetlands are areas that flood, pond up or have saturated soils for at least a portion of the growing season. The different plant materials within a wetland area respond to the different water levels. Some plants like standing water, some like periods of inundations but not permanent flooding, and

others require a high water table but no flooding.
Wetlands have several functions that are important. They provide habitat for waterfowl, fish, amphibians and other types of wildlife. Especially in the arid west, wetlands act as a magnet to wildlife.
Perhaps their most important function is that of
sediment water quality improvement. When a river or stream carries too much sediment it
tends to fill in the rough spots or pools and riffles. These riffles and pools are habitat and breeding grounds for fish.
When water slows as it travels through the wetland system it tends to drop that sediment and thus cleanses the system.
Another pollution problem that wetlands alleviate is that of nitrogen. Agriculture uses add fertilizer to crops which adds nitrogen to the system. The nitrogen is then washed into the hydrological systems. Wetland plants perform anaerobic activity which causes that nitrogen to change from a solid to a gas and,

therefore, purifies the water.
Flood attenuation is another important function performed by wetland systems. If a flood should occur, flood waters would be retained within the wetland instead of entering the waterway and contributing to the flood.
Wetlands serve a recreation function, too. People are naturally attracted to water. Wetlands are an alternative way to enjoy the water. Because of their distinctive character they provides a change in experience. Different senses are used in different ways to produce a unique experience.
Although in the western U.S. there is no conclusive evidence, it has been proved that wetlands in the east are responsible for ground water recharge functions. This recharge occurs when water filters down into the aquifer below the surface of the ground.
In addition to these valuable functions, wetland systems offer visual diversity, unique plant populations and physical dynamics that are inherent with water.
When designing activities through the wetland system it is best not to intrude so as not to adversely effect birds and wildlife. But efforts need to be made to open these systems to the public and the delights they offer. (See Appendix One for a floral assessment of the park.)
Wildlife types and the location of their habitat is a critical element in the development of South Platte Park. One of the major goals of the park is to be a wildlife preserve.

Assessments of existing habitat and integration of design elements that preserve and enhance these habitats are very important in park development. The carrying capacity evaluation should be heavily weighted to preserve these habitats and thus fulfill that goal.
South Platte Park supports a substantial wildlife population. Deer have been known to wander through the site. In addition, there are many resident mammals including fox, bat beaver, muskrat, cottontail rabbit, squirrel and mice (Division of Wildlife).
Because of the extensive amount of water on the site, a large number of waterfowl, as well as other birdlife are present on the site. Great blue heron are nesting on the site at present. A bald eagle has been hunting on the southern portion of the park in the winter. The wetland portion of the park is a habitat zone for a number of waterfowl and migratory species.
Riparian habitat is the single most important plant community for wildlife. 85% of Colorado wildlife require a riparian zone to survive yet only 2% of the land is riparian environment, where wildlife can find food, water and cover. All of these needs are met in the riparian zone.
In addition, wildlife find edge ecosystems very attractive. These edge zones provide a greater diversity of food and cover areas them. People, too, tend to be more comfortable in edge zone. Increasing the amount of "edge" within the site increases both habitat zones and recreational resources.

A variety of ecological systems throughout the park increases the diversity of species that will live in the park. Different habitats are available for different species.
Increasing the amount of diverse ecosystems in the park will increase the wildlife habitat and diversity within the park.
Plantings within the park and on the boundary could include food sources such as berries and nuts to encourage wildlife habitation. Retaining over-mature or dead trees on the site increases habitat zones.
The diversity of wildlife and the naturalized setting provide perfect opportunities for birdwatching and nature photography. Preservation and enhancement of habitats will increase productivity. These islands of wildlife habitat could be designed with photoblinds and boardwalk overlooks. These will minimize impact and emphasize the interperative advantages within the park. The wetland provides an excellent opportunity for such design elements.
An island habitat for birdlife could be developed within the lake system. This would provide safety and habitat for waterfowl and other types of birds. Observation of the island would then increase access to sightings while limiting impacts on wildlife.
Domestic animals could be the biggest hindrance to development of wildlife habitats. Barriers at the park edge and restriction or elimination of admittance of domestic animals should be initiated to prevent their impact at the site.
Fishing in the area, at present, proves to be the most

popular activity at the park. Enhancement of fish habitat could include developing elements such as stream braiding, riffles and rapids. These should be elements consistent with the natural character of the park. Reefs developed within the lake system also encourages fish habitation (S. Suburban). Access points and circulation trails through the park would accommodate the fishing public.
Development of the park should include strategies that enhance wildlife habitat zones as well as provide appropriate opportunities for the public to enjoy them. This can be accomplished by proper evaluation techniques and using those to make valid design decisions. (See Appendix Two for a faunal assessment of the park.)


The first non-native American to see the South Platte River Valley was probably Major Stephen Long. He was sent by President James Monroe to explore the southwestern border of the Louisiana Purchase and to find the source of the South Platte River. The party passed through the park site July 4, 1820 (S. Suburban)
Long was not impressed with the Great Plains as they approached the Rocky Mountains. He found the area 'wholly unfit for cultivation and, of course, uninhabitable by people depending upon agriculture for their subsidence. This attitude and subsequent reports were probably responsible for the lack of settlers coming west.
In 1857, John McBroom decided he would settle at the confluence of Bear Creek and the South Platte River. At the time there were virtually no white people living within the area. In 1858, William Green Russell discovered gold at the mouth of Dry Creek and the South Platte River and everything changed after that.
The impact of gold discovery on the site was mainly the agricultural development the river valley. Prospectors and settlers flooding into the area needed food and the proximity of irrigation waters, in addition to the fertile river bottom soil, made the river valley the premier spot for agricultural development. Railroads brought more expansion to the settlement

of the area. The Denver Rio Grande Railroad, founded by William Palmer, runs to the east of Santa Fe Drive and is still functional.
Directly to the southeast of the site is the Wolhurst Estate. It was built by Senator Edward 0. Wolcott, who was known for his extravagant lifestyle. The site was extensively landscaped with a lake which remains there today. It had a lavishly decorated house, that was quite spectacular for its time. The estate was used for many political and historical meetings (Bancroft 1952).
A series of eccentric owners followed Senator Wolcott. In 1944 Elijah Stephens, a well-known gambler, bought the site. He turned the house into a deluxe gambling casino. In 1951, a fire destroyed part of the buildings and when Elijah's son Eddie rebuilt, he legalized the activities. In 1976, all of the structures were burned by a massive fire and now a trailer court occupies the site. The lake and some of the exotic plantings are still there as well as a historical marker.
Because of the lack of water in the area, the river also was an important economic element. The City and Nevada ditches, which border the present park site, were built to provide irrigation for the surrounding agricultural uses.
Today they still carry irrigation water to a number of sources. In the 1950's, gravel began being actively mined on the site. This is the most important activity that has occurred on the site due to the changes it has wrought. Peter Kiewit and

Sons mines approximately 200 acres west of the site and will probably continue mining operations into the future.
Cooley Sand and Gravel has mined the western portion of the park, but intends to leave the site within the year (1988) and begin reclamation.
The future uses of the surrounding area are not a absolute certainty. Changing economic conditions of the area have left a question as to the future uses surrounding the site. Probably residential areas will be built on the north east and northwest boundaries. The development on the northwest border will be mixed high density development. At present Kiewit will maintain mining operations on the southwest border. Commercial development is slated for the southeast border with a resort hotel at the existing Wolhurst site.
The various developments all spell increased impact on the site. Residential development poses the greatest impact with a much greater number of users having access to the park. Design strategies should be implemented to mitigate this pressure, such as limited access points and barrier vegetation along the border of the park.
Chatfield State Recreation Area is located to the south. During peak usage days, Chatfield will close because of capacity crowds. The recreation purpose of South Platte Park varies radically from that of Chatfield and efforts must be make to prevent the overflow users of Chatfield from coming into South Platte Park.

Man-made structures that exist on the site can have a
negative impact, but are necessary. Creative design ideas can lessen their presence on the site and sometimes turn the elements into beneficial uses. At present, the main utility constraint is the power line that runs from north to south across the site. Unfortunately, it crosses in front of the existing visitor center and diminishes the views. With appropriate plantings, the impact of the power line can be lessened and a more human scale given to it.
With the completion of Mineral Avenue running east-west through the park, another man-made obstacle will need to be addressed. The attendant traffic will be a great deterrent to maintaining the natural character of the area. Screening plantings and grade changes can prevent this constraint from creating too much of an impact.
A sewer line runs across the river at the southern edge of the park. Erosion has caused multiple problems and it will eventually be replaced or rebuilt. When this is done, boating chutes should be incorporated to provide access through for boating enthusiasts. The establishment of a boat chute also creates fish habitat. This is and example of how recreation and preservation purposes can be mutually beneficial.
The visitors center currently on the site was donated by a Littleton citizen. It is a log home and although it is not an historic building, it is an excellent example of log home building. This log home could provide the theme of the park, a

view to how
things might have looked when the Platte River was first being settled. The rivers course through the park retains the qualities that
existed then and pursuing that historical vein in design other elements would strengthen the experience.
Visual analysis of the park can be subjective and should be broken down into three categories. The highest rating should be given to areas within the park that are pleasing and have pleasant distant views as well. Areas that have good immediate views are second in priority. Zones that are aesthetically pleasing when viewed from a distance rank third in importance.
The majority of the site has good views to the mountains in the west. Whether these views will be marred by future development remains to be seen, but that possibility should always be kept in mind when developing design strategies.
Areas within the park that are covered with riparian forest are also pleasant and aesthetic visually. Of course, the wetland area has its own special sights and the river is of utmost

importance with its ever changing views. Experiences within the park should incorporate close-in views of existing vegetation, pastoral views of the river, and to distant views of the Rocky Mountains.
Information gathered here in conjunction with site suitability information will give appropriate direction to the development of the park.

Site Location Map


Goals and Objectives for Development of South Platte Park
GOAL I: To maintain or enhance the natural ecosystems of the park.
Objectives: Develop strategies for regeneration and
rejuvenation of naturally occurring plant communities
Objective: Implement design strategies that will minimize
erosion inherent in a river setting and erosion prevalent after mining has occurred.
Objective: Develop and improve present wildlife habitat
zones within the park.
GOAL II: To provide recreation opportunities for the community.
Objective: To promote appropriate recreation activities
within the park.
Objective: Design schemes that provide the most beneficial
recreation activity while minimizing degradation to the present ecosystems.
GOAL III: To provide environmental education opportunities for the community.
Objective: Educate the public to the natural heritage of
the metropolitan area.
Objective: Provide outdoor experiences for school children
that heighten their awareness of nature.
Objective: Increase awareness of the impact of human use on
natural environments.
GOAL IV: To maintain the floodplain.
Objective: Develop design schemes to maintain and preserve the existing floodplain.


The method proposed by this thesis for evaluating carrying capacity of an area includes developing mapping of the area for different elements. These different maps are then overlaid to produce a composite map which shows where development will least likely hurt the environment and where development should be discouraged.
Ecological and cultural systems vary in their ability to handle impacts. To illustrate, existing wildlife may accept a trail system through a critical zone but will not tolerate a structure.
The following maps are the various components that have been analyzed previously. Varying degrees of tolerance have been classified into low tolerance or little ability to tolerate recreational impacts, medium tolerance where some development can occur, and high tolerance where the bulk of recreation activity should occur.
Components that fulfill the previously stated goals will carry the most value when the final evaluation is done.
The overlaying of these various maps will how values of light, medium, and dark tones. The dark tones will represent areas that are not suited to high recreational use.
Areas of light tones reveal spaces that can tolerate a higher amount of impact and medium tones are areas that can accept a certain amount of activity with regulation and ongoing

evaluation to the health of the site.
Recreation activity that is compatible with the different zones is listed below.
Recreation Activity Concepts
Not Compatible With Park
baseball softball basketball hockey tennis golf hunting
Passive Recreation Compatible hiking
birdwatching "pioneer trails
Passive Recreation Compatible Areas
playing fields play structures multi-use courts camping picnicking organized sports
with All Areas in the Park
photography educational activities
with High and Medium Tolerance
horseback riding canoeing/non-motorized boating
fishing bicycling
In order to produce a composite map a hierarchy in the value of individual elements was established. Wildlife, vegetative systems and contextual elements were perceived to be the most fragile and heavily impacted by use. These systems were given a value of 100:100.
Slope, drainage, visual elements and soils impacts affects the site to a lesser degree and were given a value of 100:66.
Utilities, wind patterns and climatic zones were considered to be of less value and were given a weight of 100:33.

Wildlife tolerance levels were based on evaluating critical habitat areas. Areas where critical nesting and roosting sites for birds, reptiles and amphibians were deemed low tolerance areas. Medium tolerance areas included those areas where wildlife occupy but are not heavily impacted by human use. High tolerance areas were areas where human impact would have the least impact on wildlife habitat.
Vegetative areas with low tolerance were deemed to be areas where climax vegetation exists and human impact would disturb those systems. Medium tolerance areas were in the process of succession and could tolerate some use. High tolerance areas included areas that were already highly disturbed such as the previously mined areas and recreational impacts would have little ef f ect.
Context refers to the activity that is on the outside of the park and the effects that activity will have on the park. Areas bordering the park that are slated to become residential were given high tolerance level status because they will tend to have the most activity close to them. Conversely, industrial areas were given low tolerance status because they will contribute little impact to the site. Areas where commercial activity is slated to occur were given medium tolerance status.

Soils were evaluated on their ability to support recreational activity. Erosional and unstable soils were given low tolerance levels. Soils that had some vegetative cover were given medium tolerance status and soils that had stable qualities and good vegetative qualities were given high tolerance levels. VISUAL ELEMENTS
Areas with good distant views and were aesthetically pleasing were given high tolerance levels because they provide a positive recreational experience. Those areas that have good distant views only were given medium tolerance levels and those that had negative views were given low tolerance levels.
High tolerance slope means areas that have a shallow enough slope to allow recreational activity. Because of the character of the floodplain, slope tolerance levels referred to the steep banks that surround the river. They were given low tolerance levels because of their inability to accept recreational activity.
Important drainages through the park were given low tolerances because activity would impact their function. Use of the rest of the park has little impact on those drainages and was given high tolerance designations.

Areas with medium tolerance to wind patterns were deemed to be areas with little or no vegetative cover with which to block the prevailing westerlies. Areas with windblocks to the west were deemed high tolerance.
Utilities through the site were evaluated with concern to the natural environment. Because the natural environment is degraded be the presence of these utilites, human impact will have little effect on the area and, therefore, they are considered to be high tolerance areas. The remainder of the site is not heavily influenced by these utilities and is deemed low tolerance.
The micro-climatic qualities of the site are influenced by the presence of vegetation. Areas with canopy vegetation are pleasant and of high recreational quality and are rated as high tolerance. Mined areas that are devoid of vegetation and the shade and shelter it provides are of medium tolerance levels.

This composite map shows areas where recreational activity can occur without heavy impacts on the natural systems while providing the most beneficial recreational experience. It shows areas where recreational activities should not occur due to the degradation to the existing systems and areas where certain levels of passive recreational activity can occur with monitoring and maintenance activities to prevent excessive degradation.

-uw fctefAW
South Platte Park.
Utttoton, Colorado


This conceptual plan will provide the direction for growth and use of the park. From the previous research and information from the site suitability study, a conceptual design has been developed. The design has divided the park into four quadrants. The natural boundaries of these quadrants are formed by the north-south barrier of the river and the east-west barrier of the Mineral Avenue extension.
The northeast quadrant of the park is a naturalized zone due to the vegetative character of the area and the presence of a critical wildlife habitat. The level of activity in the quadrant is mixed. Low tolerance levels in the wildlife habitat call for restricted access in that portion of the park. However, the Greenway enters the park in this quadrant and directs pedestrian traffic through here. In addition, the visitor center that functions as the main access point is also located in this quadrant. Both of these activities suggest a higher level of activity.
The Greenway, as it runs through the park, should have a different ambience than on its more northerly sections. This is the only stretch of the river that is maintained in its natural state rather than the more sterile atmosphere of the channelized portions of the river. The experience in the park should impart an aura of rustic living with views of a meandering river and native vegetation.

An interperative trail could run through the stand of mature vegetation in the "island". Access to this trail would be restricted with permission of the park supervisor only.
The visitors center located in the northeast quadrant would encompass not only the main entry, but also, parking for the park, educational facilities, and rest facilities.
Pedestrian access to the park in this quadrant would be limited to the Greenway, the existing Wolhurst Landing entry and an entry off the proposed Mineral Avenue trail.
The northwest quadrant of the park would be considered a high recreation activity area. Easy access from the visitors center is provided by the Greenway bridge which crosses the river.
Amenities provided here would include a fishing trail around the lake, a handicapped loop and fishing piers. A. fishing trail that borders Olson Lake would be screened from the critical wildlife habitat that exists here.
Because of the high tolerance of the westernmost edge, this would be an ideal location for maintenance facilities for the park.
The lake would be stocked to provide fishing opportunities and an island would be built to enhance the waterfowl nesting opportunities.
Pedestrian entry in this quadrant would be from the proposed Mineral Avenue trail the Greenway bridge and limited access from the proposed residential development to the west.

The southwest quadrant would be a moderate activity area. The Greenway passes through this zone and would stimulate activity. Also, this is the historical fishing zone of the site and that activity would continue to be a large function of this quadrant.
The southeast quadrant of the park would be classified as low activity. This area would be reserved for wildlife habitat and nature preservation. Entrance into this quadrant would be restricted and allowed only with the approval of the park supervisor. Limiting access will preserve the area for wildlife habitation and native ecosystem evolution.
Recreation activity that would occur here would more passive, natural, quiet and solitary. Photoblinds and overlooks would enhance the wilderness experience. An interperative trail focusing on the successional process could wind through this quadrant. A marker here would explain the Wolhurst property and its relationship to the site.
These designations will give a direction and focus for future growth of the park, while considering the natural systems and recreational needs.

natural zone
South Platte Park
Liltteton Cotor.KVi
Sr .*** l'200


Master Plan
The master plan is developed to establish design criteria for instituting and directing growth. The general tone of development should take into consideration the maintenance of natural systems while educating the public to the factors which lead to the formation of those systems. Interperative elements should emphasize the role the river has played in developing the landscape. The park should be maintained to promote the impression that this was the way the land looked when settlers first came to this valley.
As the Greenway progresses through the park, interspersed vegetation allows intermittent views to the river and mountains. These views enhance the natural experience. At designated points there are resting areas with overlooks to the mountains, park and river. These resting areas are furnished with "natural furniture: downed logs, grassy ledges and large boulders. Spurs off the Greenway allow access to hiking trails, fishing spots and the visitors center.
Trail systems through the park are established to regulate

and direct the flow of traffic through the park. Trails also help to minimize soil compaction and erosion associated with foot traffic. Interperative trails through the park strengthen the
educational process. Knowledge of the natural systems within the park can be the real key to preservation. When people know the value of the park, they will work to preserve it.
The three interperative trails proposed are the island, wetlands, and Wolhurst trail systems. The island trail includes the mature stand of vegetation and is a critical wildlife habitat. Interperative signage or brochures would explain the
climax plains riparian ecosystem.
The old box car that has washed up on the bank would be an excellent tool for explaining the power of the river. The wetlands interperative trail could provide interperative information for the wide variety of plant and animal diversity existing within it. The Wolhurst interperative trail would explain the role of Wolhurst and its history as well as the successional ecosystem and wildlife existing here.

Trails should be 4-12 wide depending on use, with a 12* high clearance. Soil, gravel or woodchips should be used for base material. Trails through critical wildlife habitat would be restricted through permit system or park employee accompaniment.
The main recreational activity taking place in the
park is
fishing. Fish habitat can be improved by creating "rough" spots in the river
and improving fish environments within the ponds. The Division of Wildlife would be contacted conncerning stocking the ponds.
Trail spurs for fishing off the trail system occur at designated points. The ponds will-have vegetative barriers with selective openings to enhance the natural feel of the area.
These fishing spots can be altered or moved to prevent excessive degradation to the banks. Olson lake will have fishing piers or boardwalks that can enhance the social experience for the

fisherman. They would be accessible for handicapped as well.
Boating access to the river would be provided near the visitors center. The boat launch would be stepped to provide for varying river levels.
The sewer line crossing at C-470 would have a boat portage provided around it and a boat chute through it. The boat chute would also provide additional fish habitat.
Equestrian use should be provided for in all quadrants of the park except the southeast quadrant. Pedestrian trails should be designed to allow horseback riders. The Greenway should be constructed with soft shoulders so it can be accessed by equestrians as well.
Vehicular access off Mineral Road would go to the maintenance areas. Pedestrians access off the Mineral Avenue trail would link to the Greenway and visitors center.
Mineral Avenue should be heavily screened near the wetland;

however, intermittent screening through the rest of the park would allow views from the road into the park.
Improvement of and increasing vegetation will create more habitat for wildlife. All standing dead wood should be left to provide nesting areas for wildlife. Restriction of recreational activities in areas of critical wildlife habitat decrease the impact on the resource.
Because of the bald eagle roosting habits within the park in the winter, certain measures should be taken to prevent disturbing them. The Greenway traffic could be re-routed through the southeast quadrant to keep that activity from disturbing the eagles .
Audubon Island would be created in Olson Lake as a waterfowl nesting point. Protection from predators and domestic animals would afford them security. The fishing piers would serve as observation points to Audubon Island and would enhance the recreational experience.
Barrier vegetation along the edges of the park will provide a visual and physical barrier. Regulation of entry into the park is a strategy to prevent excessive degradation to the site.

Trees and shrubs planted in a natural fashion would prevent entry into the park.
Vegetation would soften the impact of Mineral Avenue through the park by providing a visual and auditory screen.
Erosion control plantings around the river can stabilize the banks. Cultivation of native grass species along the banks and diverting trails away from fragile areas can help stabilize these areas.
Grasses such as buffalo (Buchloe dactyloides), little blue stem (Andropoggon halli), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and side oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) could be planted as a stabilizing factor in areas that have been mined and are susceptible to future erosion.
The power lines that river through the park can be muted and given scale with plantings at the base.
Different sensory experiences can be created with open and closed views manipulated with landform and vegetation.
Because of the character of South Platte Park, special signage should be created to reflect its character. This signage would be placed at every entry to the park to alert people that they are entering a nature preserve and their subsequent activities should respect that fact.


South hath Wvar
Olson Lake
South Platte Park
Utttoton, Colorado

This design reflects what would occur in a high recreation activity area of South Platte Park.
Trails would be soft surfaced as through the rest of the park, but with a base that provides handicapped access.
The lake front trail provides openings to the river for fishing or resting. Vegetation provides canopies and open views on the trail to enhance the experience. Natural furniture provides seating areas and openings.
Several wooden boardwalks would allow access out onto the lake for fishing and wildlife observation of Audubon Island. Piers in the lake for boardwalk construction would provide fish habitat as well.
Signage would be provided through the trail system to indicate direction.
Vegetation placed in strategic areas to guide pedestrians through the space. Grasslands would be developed to provide a prairie experience.

The wetlands is in a restricted access area. Admittance would hinge on park supervisor approval. The trail enters the wetland and follows the outside edge where it climbs the berm on the east side. An overlook provides views to the wetlands and the mountains to the west. Interperative signage explains the value of a wetland. The trail then skirts the wetland to the south. Spurs off the main trail lead to photoblinds within the wetland itself. One blind is large, 15 x 15, to provide access for larger groups such as school classes. The other two are smaller and provide a more solitary experience. All have solar exposures which are beneficial for photography. Interperative brochures would be included within the blinds to help identify the distinctive plants and animals that can be observed here.
While a hands-off attitude is essential for allowing the wetland to evolve, certain measures should be taken to assure its health. Augmentation of existing plant material can be begun. Beaver shields should be installed. Dead wood should remain to provide wildlife habitat.

Vehicle entry enters the park from the east and there is a parking area for 30 cars which is visually screened from the park. A circle drive in front of the Carson House provides a drop-off point for visitors. Employee parking to the south provides security measures as well as access to the storage area of the Carson House and the solar building.
Flagstone surrounds the house which is broken up by perennial plantings in front of the windows. Heirloom plantings such as lilacs and spireas enhance the "pioneer" spirit of the Carson House.
A winding flagstone walk leads to an amphitheater which seats 60 people. It is offset from the front of the Carson House to preserve views to the mountains and river.
A staging area is planned near the parking area that leads to the trail head. The trail head can lead to the Greenway northbound or southbound. Signage designates the proper trails.
Planting to the south would also enhance the prairie/open feeling reminiscent of older times.


To create a design that satisfies the goals of this project, certain design strategies can be developed that create the most aesthetic site while maintaining the natural systems. These strategies have been developed for South Platte Park to give a direction for future design implementation. These schemes will enhance the recreation experience and minimize degradation.
Separation of uses in an area is the best general method for providing both recreation opportunities and fulfilling preservation goals. Allowing certain areas of the site to remain fairly impact-free permits them to retain their native character. Wildlife also benefits from this categorization of space. Much wildlife in South Platte Park is unable to coexist with human activity and the restriction of use of these areas maximizes its benefit. Higher levels of activity should be grouped together.
If degradation does begin to become excessive, it will be localized in one area.
Restricted trails within South Platte Park would include the interperative trail through the "island". Entry through this area would be restricted in two ways. Vegetative barriers would block movement into the area except at the designated entry, where a low impact gate would be surrounded by vegetation.
Split rails would be an inoffensive material for signage designating the area as a "Wildlife Propagation Area." Further

information would designate the area as a protected natural habitat for native birds and other animals. During certain periods of time and/or all portions of time any/or all portions of trail may be closed when human activity becomes detrimental to wildlife(Mary Jo Rosemeyer, interview, April 21, 1988). Entry
into those zones would have to come under the approval of South Platte Park Supervisor. (See figure 1.) Similar restricted entry gates would be located at the southeast entry to the park and at the entry to the wetlands.
Restricted Entry
Controlling access to the entire park is another method that is useful in monitoring use. Controlled entry points allows the number of users to be limited. In addition, controlled entry

points can put up barriers to unwanted movement through the park.
Some type of barrier vegetation should line the boundaries of the park. This vegetative barrier will control entry points into the park. When users enter the park they will then use the designated trails that are appropriate. This vegetative barrier would include trees and shrubs planted in a natural pattern to prevent crossing. (See appendix for plant material suggestions.)
Because the entry points are limited, they should offer a special designation that allows people to realize the have entered a unique area. Distinctive signage and vegetation would denote the park entrance. The architectural elements would carry the flavor of rustic pioneer atmosphere. (See figure 2.)

Preservation and enhancement of the vegetative systems and allowing new stands to develop will enhance all aspects of the park. Vegetative plantings can also help stabilize erosion problems on the site. Undercut river banks should be seeded with natural grasses to increase duff and encourage successional systems. (See appendix for appropriate grass selections.)
Steep banks on the ponds should be modified for access to them. The access should be limited to designated areas and the
rest of the banks should be planted to increase the natural character. (See figures 3 and 4.)
Figure 4 Bank Planting

Non-natural elements can diminish the wild
character of the park and the powerlines that run through the park are an example of non-natural elements. These poles should be diminished from views by plantings at their base. These would plantings soften their impact on the site. (See figure 5.)
Plantings along Mineral should receive important consideration and should take place as soon as possible. Vegetative screening of Mineral Avenue should also be instituted for visual and auditory barriers. This screening should consist of canopy trees in conjunction with shrubs and low-level plantings to provide the most complete screening. (See appendix for plant species appropriate for screening Mineral Avenue.)
Perhaps most important is providing easily accessible and interesting areas to encourage visitors to use areas as designated. Trail design should lead people where they want to
Figure 5
Powerline Plantings

go. To lead them in that direction, however, they sometimes need a little push. Barrier vegetation at important trail junctions can guide users and prevent them from making inappropriate trails through the park and thus lead to increased soil compaction and site degradation. This design provides several different types of experiences that offer users pleasant alternatives and ways to utilize the park.
A boat launch is provided within easy access of the main parking lot to the river.
Kayak and canoe users will find an opportunity to put into the river here and access the boat chutes to the
north of the park. The boat launching area will be tiered in a fashion that allows access to the river at different water levels. (See figure 6.)
The Greenway also has resting points that access views to the river and mountains. Natural furnishings such as fallen logs

or large boulders would provide resting areas in keeping with the theme of the park. (See figure 7.)
Figure 7
Greenway Stops
The wetland trail would also provide an overlook. The edge would be of split rail to keep in character with the park.
Education figures heavily in the theme of the park. Interperative programs would be available to touch on the many important elements of the park. Interperative trails could focus on the value of the wetland, successional, and climax systems that occur in the park. Historical information could be given out through these programs as well. Signage at designated points would disperse interperative information and has already begun at the park.
Photoblinds in the wetland area would be and ideal way to

study the wetland bird and plant diversity in a non-disruptive fashion. One of the photoblinds would be constructed at a size of 15*x 15*that would accommodate larger groups while the two smaller photoblinds at 8*x 8 would provide a more solitary experience. (See figure 8.)
Figure 8 Photoblind
The amphitheater located at the visitor center would also provide an opportunity to educate the public. Educational programs would be run that would enlighten the public to the natural resources available at the park.
To enhance recreational opportunities in the park, visitor behaviors should be taken into consideration People, like wildlife, tend to congregate at edges of spaces. Edges can be

increased by plantings in groups. Trees and shrubs planted in a natural fashion at appropriate places provide resting areas for humans and improve habitat opportunities. See appendix for plant materials that are appropriate for different areas within the park.
behaviors tend to be more social that other types of recreation recommended within the park. Often a f isherman experience is enhanced by interaction
with others. The fishing piers not only allow access into a larger portion of the park but allow contact between fishermen. They are also accessible by wheelchair and allow handicapped persons to experience a greater portion of the park. (See figure
9) .
Trail design through the park should accommodate the needs and wants of all the users to prevent off trail use. Because equestrian use is anticipated in the southwestern quadrant,

equestrian trails should be accommodated along the Greenway trail.
Following the above guidelines are methods to enhance the character and recreational experiences within the park while maintaining the natural systems to the highest degree possible.


Maintenance of the park grounds will be the most critical factor in preserving the character of the park. Employees of the park are aware of the changes in natural systems and visitor behavior before anyone else. Maintenance activities can make or break the success of the park.
Maintenance activities that would help establish if the park is being used correctly include daily ranger activities. Use patterns and activities can be monitored and evaluated from these activities.
Other activities that would increase viability of the park would include inspections for disease problems with the vegetation or unusual animal activity. Noxious weed removal is important to speed the successional process. Test plots could be established to determine if unhealthy changes are occurring in the park vegetation. Biological inventory and evaluation could be implemented by students of various local educational institutions.
Surveys could be developed for park users to determine if the design elements are functioning as desired If recreation patterns vary or excessive degradation is apparent, changes to alleviate the problem should be implemented. These changes could be evaluated by user surveys indicating satisfaction. Different strategies should be implemented to correct problems.
Ongoing evaluation and updating will be the key to keeping the character of the park.


South Platte Park offers a unique opportunity for the metropolitan area. Such a large plot of land left to remain in its natural state amid rapid urbanization is an unusual occurrence. In addition, the location of this plot on the major waterway of the metropolitan area provides a wonderful opportunity to learn about our natural environment while enjoying the outdoors.
The great challenge lies in opening that area up to use while preserving the tremendous resource. Designing spaces that respond to user needs while maintaining our fragile natural ecosystems is the challenge.
This thesis has shown methods in which the two goals of recreation and preservation can be incorporated with maximum
benefit to both.


* *ACERACEAE Acer negundo
Alisma plantago-aquatica Sagittaria cuneata Sagittaria latifolia
AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthus retroflexus
ANACARDIACEAE Rhus radicans Rhus trilobata
Cicuta douglasii Conium maculatum Daucus carota Heracleum lanatum
APOCYNACEAE Apocynum cannabinum Apocynum sibericum
ASCLEPIANDACEAE Asclepias incarnata Asclepias pumila Asclepias speciosa
ASTERACEAE Achillea lanulosa Ambrosia coronopifolia Ambrosia elatior Ambrosia trifida Arctiem minus Artemisia frigida Artemisia ludoviciana Aster bigelovii Aster commutatus Aster ericoides Bidens cernua
Inland Boxelder
American Water Plaintain Native
Duckpotato Arrowhead Native
Common Arrowhead Native
Prostrate Amaranth Intro.
Redroot Pigweed Intro
Poison Ivy Native
Skunkbrush Sumac Native
Western Water Hemlock Native
Spotted Hemlock Intro.
Wild Carrot Intro.
Cow Parsnip Native
Hemp Dogbain Native
Plains Dogbain Native
Swamp Milkweed Native
Plains Milkweed Native
Showy Milkweed Native
Yarrow Native
Western Ragweed Native
Common Ragweed Native
Giant Ragweed Native
Common Burdock Intro.
Fringed Sage Native
Louisiana Sage Native
Bigelow Aster Native
White Woody Aster Native
Heath Aster Native
Nodding Beggarstick Native


Carduss leiophyllus Centaurea picris Centaurea diffusa Chrysothamnus nauseosus Cichorium intybus Cirsium arvense Cirsium lanceolatum Conyza canadensis Dyssodia papposa Erigeron flagellaris Franseria discolor Grindelia squarosa Guiterrrizia sarothrae Helianthus annuus Hererotheca billosa Lactuca scariola Liatris punctata Ratibida columnifera Senecio rapifolius Seneciao spartioides Solidago decumbens Solidago canadensis Taraxacum officinale Thelesperma megapotamicum Tragopogon pratensis Viguiera multiflora Xanthium italicum
BETULACEAE Alnus tenuifolia Betula occidentalis
BORAGINACEAE Lappula redowski Mertensia lanceolata Myostis laxa
CRASSICACEAE Capsella bursa-pastoris Camelina microcarpa Brassica kaber Cardiaria draba Chorispora tenella Descurainia sophia Lepidum montanum Lepidum perfoliatum Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Sisymbrium altissimum Thlaspi arvense
CACTACEAE Opuntia fragilis
Bristle Thistle Intro.
Russian Centaurea Intro.
Diffuse Centaurea Intro.
Rubber Rabbitbrush Native
Chicory Intro.
Canadian Thistle Intro.
Bull Thistle Intro.
Horseweed Native
Grey Whiplash Fleabane Native
Povertyweed Native
Curley Gumweed Native
Broom Snakeweed Native
Annual Sunflower Native
Hairy Goldenaster Native
Prickly Lettuce Native
Dotted Gayheather Native
Prairie Coneflower Native
Groundsel Native
Broom Groundsel Native
Decumbent Goldenrod Native
Cahada Goldenrod Native
Dandelion Intro.
Greenthread Native
Meadow Salsify Native
Showy Goldeneye Native
Italian Cocklebur Native
Alder Native
River Birch Native
Hairy Stickseed Intro.
Bluebells Native
Bay Forget-me-not Native
Shepherds Purse Intro.
Little Seed False Flax Intro.
Wild Mustard Intro.
Whitetop Intro.
Blue Mustard Intro.
Tansy Mustard Intro.
Mountain Pepperweed Intro.
Clasping Pepperweed Intro.
Watercress Intro.
Tumble Mustard Intro.
Field Pennycress Intro.
Brittle Prickypear Native

Opuntia phaeacantha
Prickly Pear
CAPPARIDACEAE Cleome serrulata Polanisia dodecandra
CARYOPHYLLACEAE Symphoricarpos albus
CARYOPHYLLACEAE Saponaria officinalis
CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium album Kochia scoparia Salsola kali-tenufolia
COMMELINACEAE Tradescantia occidentalis
CONVOLVULACEAE Convolvulus arvensis
Cornus stolonifera
CYPERACEAE Cyperus aristatus Cyperus inflexus Eleocharis acicularis Eleocharis macrostachya Carex spp.
Scirpus acutus
ELEAGNACEAE Eleagnus angustifolia
EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense
EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia dentata Euphorbia marginata Euphorbia robusta Euphorbia serpyllifolia
GERANIACEAE Erodium cicutarim
HALORAGIDACEAE Myriophyllum spicatum
Rocky Mountain Bee Plant Roughseed Clammyweed
Lambs Quarter Belvedere Summer Russian Thistle
European Bindweed
Redosier Dogwood
Bearded Flatsedge Flatsedge Needle Spikesedge Common Spikesedge Sedge
Tule Bulrush
Russian Olive
Field Horsetail
Toothed Spurge Snow on the Mountain Robust Spurge Thyraeleaf Spurge
Alf ileria
Parrotf eather
Intro. Native Intro.
Intro Intro Intro. Intro.

Elodea canadensis Canada Waterweed Native
Hydrophyllum fendleri Fendler Waterleaf Native
Phacelia heterophylla Varileaf Phacelia Native
Phacelia neomexicana New Mexico Phacelia Native
Juncus bufonus Toad Rush Native
Juncus nodosus Jointed Rush Native
Juncus tenuis Poverty Rush Native
Juncus torreyi Torrey Rush Native
Triglichin maritima Arrowgrass Native
Leonurus cardiaca Common Motherwort Native
Lycopus lucidus Bugleweed Native
Marrubium vulgare Common Horehound Native
Mentha arvensis Field Mint Native
Mentha spicata Spearmint Native
Monarda fistulosa Horsemint Native
Nepeta cataria Catnip Native
Prunella vulgaris Common Selfheal Native
Scutellaria brittonii Skullcap Native
Amorpha fruticosa Indigobush Native
Glycyrrhiza lepidota American Licorice Native
Medicago lupulina Black Medic Intro.
Medicago sativa Alfalfa Intro
Melilotus alba White Sweetclover Intro.
Melilotus officinalis Yellow Sweetclover Intro.
Psoralea tenuiflora Slimflower Scurfpea Native
Robinia pseudoacacia Black Locust Intro.
Robina neomexicana New Mexico Locust Intro.
Thermopsis divaricarpa Spreading Thermopsis Native
Trifolium pratense Red Clover Intro.
Trifloium repens White Clover Intro.
Lemna minor Duckweed Native
Allium textile Textile Onion Native
Asparagus officinalis Asparagus Intro.
Leusocrinum montanum Sandlily Native
Smilacina stellata Starry Solomonseal Native
Yucca glauca Soapweed Native

MALVACEAE Malva neglecta Sphaeralcea
MORACEAE Morus alba
NAGINACEAE Abronia fragrans Mirabilis linearis Mirabilis nyctaginea
Epilobiaum adenocaulon Gaura coccinea Oenothera albicaulis Oenothera brachycarpa Oenothera serrulata Oenothera strigosa
OBANCHACEAE Orobance fasciculata
PALIDACEAE Oxalis stricta
PAVERACEAE Argenome intermedia Argemone platycerus
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago lanceolata Plantago minor Plantago purshii Plantago spinulosa
Agropyron desterorum Agropyron elongatum Agropyron smithii Agropron Trachycaulum Agrostis alba Andropogon hallii Andropogon gerardii Aristida longistea Avena fatua
Bouteloua curtipendula Bouteloua gracilis Bromis tectorum Buchlow dactyloides
Common Mallow Copper Mallow
White Mulberry
Snowball Sand Verbena Narrow-leaf 4 oclock Heart-leaf oclock
Sticky willowweed Scarlet Gaura Prairie Evening Primrose Yellow Evening Primrose Halfshrub Sundrop Erect Evening Primrose
Common Yellow Woodsorrel
Prickle Poppy Crested Prickle Poppy
Buckthorn Plaintain Rippleseed Plaintain Wooly Indian wheat Plaintain
Crested Wheatgrass Tall Wheatgrass Bluestem Wheatgrass Slender Wheatgrass Redtop
Little Bluestem Big Bluestem Prairie 3-awn Wild Oats Side Oats Grama Blue Grama Cheatgrass Brome Buffalo Grass
Intro. Native
Intro. Intro Intro.
Intro. Intro.

Dactylis glomerata Echinochloa crusgalli Elymus canadensis Eragrostis cilianensis Hordeum jubatum Deolaria cristata Panicum virgatura Phleum pratense Poa pratensis Polypogon monspeliensis Setaria lutescens Sitanion hystrix Spartina pectinata Stipa comata Stipa robusta
POLEMONIACEAE Gilia calcarea Gilia Candida Gilia spicata
POLYGONACEAE Eriogunum effusum Polygonum amphibium Polygonum aviculare Polygonum coccinium Polygonum hydropiper Polygonum persicaria Polygonum pennsylvanicum Rumex acetosella Rumex altissimus Rumex crispus Rumex venosus
POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton foliosus Potamogeton nodosus Potamogeton pectinatus Potamogeton vaginatus
PORTULACACEAE Portulaca oleraceae
RANUNCULACEAE Clematis ligusticifolia Delphinium geyeri Delphinium nelsoni Delphinium virescens Ranunculus aquatilis Ranunculus gmellinii Ranunculus cymbalaria Thalictrum dasycarpum
Orchard Grass Barnyark Grass Canada Wildrye Stinkgrass Foxtail Barley June Grass Witchgrass Timothy
Kentucky Bluegrass Rabbitfoot Polypogon Yellow Foxtail Squirreltail Prarie Gordgrass Needle-and-Thread Sleepy Grass
Sticky Gilia Canada Gilia Spike Gilia
Bushy Eriogonum Water Ladysthumb Prostrate Knotweed Floating Ladysthumb Marshpepper Spotted Ladysthumb Pennsylvania Smartweed Sheep Sorrel Tall Dock Curly Dock Veiny Dock
Leafy Pondweed Pondweed
Fennelleaf Pondweed Sheathed Pondweed
Virginsbower Geyer Larkspur Nelson Larkspur Plains Larkspur Watercrowf oot
Shore Buttercup Purple Meadowrue
Native Native Native Native Native Intro. Native Intro. Native Intro. Native

Amelanchier utahensis Utah serviceberry Native
Crataegus chrysocarpa Fire Hawthorn Native
Crataegus succulenta Fleshy Hawthorn Native
Malus pumila Common Apple Intro.
Potentilla gracilis Northwest Cinquefoil Native
Potentilla raonspeliensis Montpelier Cinquefoil Native
Potentill monspeliensis Montpelier Cinquefoil Native
Prunus americana Wild Plum Native
Prunus pennsylvanica Pin Cherry Native
Prunus virginiana Chokecherry Native
Rosa multiflora Japanese Rose Native
Rosa woodsii Woods Rose Native
Rubus deliciosus Thimbleberry Native
Populus acuminata Lanceleaf Cottonwood Native
Populus angustifolia Narrowleaf Cottonwood Native
Populus sargentii Plains Cottonwood Native
Salix amygdaloides Peachleaf Willow Native
Salix caudata Whiplash Willow Native
Ribes aureum Golden Currant Native
Ribes cereum Wax Currant Native
Castilleja integra Whole leaf Paintbrush Native
Gerardia tenuifolia Gerardia Native
Linstria vulgaris Butter and Eggs Intro.
Penstemon augustifolia Narrowleaf Penstemon Native
Penstemon secundifolius Sidebells Penstemon Native
Penstemon virens Green Penstemon Native
Verbascum thapsus Mullein Native
Verbascum americana American Speedwell Native
Veronica wormskoldii Speedwell Native
Physalis lanceolata Groundcherry Native
Solanum nigrum Black Nightshade Intro.
Solanum rostratum Buf f alobur Native
Solanum sarchoides Nightshade Native
Solanum triflorum Cut-leafed Nightshade Native
Typha angustifolia Narrowleaf Cattail Native
Typha latifolia Common Cattail Native
Urtica dioica-procera Stinging Nettle Native

ULMACECEAE Celtis occidentalis Hackberry Native
VERBENACEAE Verbena bracteata Bigbrack Verbena Native
VITACEAE Parthenocissus vitacea Vitis vulpina Virginia Creeper Wild Grape Native Native
VIOLACEAE Viola nuttalli Nutalls Violet Native
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Tribulus terrestris Puncture Vine Intro.
**Interplan, Rogers-Nagel-Langhart, Wright-McLaughlin Engineers Conceptual Master Plan Littleton Flood Plain Park City of Littleton 1975

Common Loon Pacific Loon
Red-necked Grebe Western Grebe Horned Grebe Eared Grebe Pied-billed Grebe
American White Pelican CORMORANTS
Doubled Crested Cormorant
BITTERNS & HERONS Snowy Egret Great Blue Heron Great Heron Green Heron
Black-crowned Night-Heron Yellow-crowned Night-Heron American Bittern
White-faced Ibis
SWANS, GEESE & DUCKS Tundra Swan Canada Goose
Greater White-fronted Goose Snow Goose Ross Goose Mallard
Northern Pintail Gadwall
American Wigeon Northern Shoveler Blue-winged Teal Cinnamon Teal Green-winged Teal Wood Duck

Redhead Canvasback Ring-necked Duck Greater Scaup Lesser Scaup Common Goldeneye Barrows Goldeneye Buf flehead Hooded Merganser Red-breasted Merganser Common Merganser Ruddy Duck
Turkey Vultures
Northern Gashawk Coopers Hawk Sharp-skinned Hawk Northern Harrier Rough-legged Hawk Ferruginous Hawk Red-tailed Hawk Swainsons Hawk Golden Eagle Bald Eagle Osprey
Prairie : Falcon
Pergrine Merlin Falcon
American Kestrel
Sandhill Crane
Virginia Sora Rail
American Coot
Semiplamated Plover Killdeer
SANDPIPERS & PHALOROPES Marbled Godwit Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs Solitary Sandpiper

Spotted Sandpiper Long-billed Dowitcher Wilsons Phalarope Common Snipe Pectoral Sandpiper Sanderling Bairds Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Semipamated Sandpiper Western Sandpiper
American Avocet
Herring Gull Thayers Gull California Gull Ring-billed Gull Franklins Gull Bonapartes Gull Common Tern Forsters Tern Black Tern Mourning Dove
Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Eastern Screech-Owl Great Horned Owl Long-Eared Owl Short-Eared Owl
Common Nighthawk
Broad-tailed Hummingbird
Belted Kingfisher
Northern Flicker Red-headed Woodpecker Lewis Woodpecker Hairy Woodpecker Downy Woodpecker

Eastern Kingbird Western Kingbird Eastern Phoebe Says Phoebe Willow Flycatcher Hammonds Flycatcher Dusky Flycatcher Western Flycatcher Western Wood-peewee Olive-sided Flycatcher
Horned Lark
Barn Swallow Cliff Swallow Violet-green Swallow Tree Swallow Bank Swallow
Northern Rough-winged Swallow
Black-billed Magpie Common Raven American Crow
Black-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee Bushtit
White-breasted Nuthatch Red-breasted Nuthatch Brown Creeper
House Wren Winter Wren Marsh Wren
American Dipper
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Ruby-crowned Kinglet

SOLITARES & THRUSHES American Robin Townsends Solitare Hermit Thrush Sainsons Thrush Western Bluebird Mountain Bluebird
Northern Mockingbird Gray Catbird
Water Pipit
Bohemian Waxwing Cedar Waxwing
Northern Shrike Loggerhead Shrike
Solitary Vireo Red-eyed Vireo Warbling Vireo
Orange-crowned Warbler Nashville Warbler Virginias Warbler Northern Parula Yellow Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Townsend's Warbler Common Yellowthroat Yellow-breasted Chat Macgillivray's Warbler Wilson's Warbler American Redstart
Western Tanager
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Black-headed Grosbeak Evening Grosbeak Blue Grosbeak Indigo Bunting

Lazuli Bunting
Green-tailed Towhee Rufous-sided Towhee Savannah Sparrow Grasshopper Sparrow Vesper Sparrow Lark Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco American Tree Sparrow Chipping Sparrow Clay-colored Sparrow Brewers Sparrow Harris Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow White-throated Sparrow Lincolns Sparrow Swamp Sparrow Song Sparrow Lapland Longspur
Western Meadowlark Yellow-headed Blackbird Red-winged Blackbird Rusty Blackbird Brewers Blackbird Common Grackle Brown-headed Cowbird Orchard Oriole Northern Oriole
Cassins Finch House Finch Common Redpoll Pine Siskin American Goldfinch Lesser Goldfinch
Ring-necked Pheasant Rock Dove European Starling House Sparrow

Virginia Opossum
Masked Shrw Merriams Shrew
Eastern Cottontail Desert Cottontail White-tailed Jack Rabbit Black-Tailed Jack Rabbit
Least Chipmunk
Thirteen-lined Gound Squirrel
Spotted Ground Squirrel
Rock Squirrel
Black-tailed Prairie Dog
Fox Squirrel
Northern Pocket Gopher
Plains Pocket Gopher
Olive-backed Pocked Mouse
Plains Pocket Mouse
Silky Pocket Mouse
Hispid Pocket Mouse
Ords Pocket Mouse
Plains Harvest Mouse Western Harvest Mouse Deer Mouse
Northern Grasshopeper Mouse
Meadow Vole
Prairies Vole
Norway Rat
House Mouse
Meadow Jumping Mouse
Coyote Red Fox Swift Fox Gray Fox Raccoon
Long-tailed Weasel

Spotted Skunk Striped Skunk Bobcat
Mule Deer White-tailed Deer Pronghorn
*AOU List for South Platte Park **Latilong Study List for South Platte Park
Thanks to the South Platte Park Staff for the use of these lists.

Park Boundary Barrier Vegetation
Eleagnus angustifolia Amelanchier utahensis Crataegus chrysocarpa Crataegus succulenta Prunus americana Prunus pennsylvanica Prunus virginiana Celtis occidentalis
Russian Olive Utah Serviceberry Fire Hawthorn Fleshy Hawthorn Wild Plum Pin Cherry Chokecherry Hackberry
Rhus trilobata Artemisia sp. Chrysothamnus nauseosum Symphoricarpos albus Yucca glauca Rubus deliciosus
Skunkbrush Sumac Sage
Rubber Rabbitbrush Snowberry Soapweed Thimbleberry
Grasses for Bank Stabilization
Agropyron desertorum Agropyron eleongatum Andropogon hallii Andropogon gerardii Bouteloua curtipendula Bouteloua gracilis Buchloe dactyloides
Crested Wheatgrass Tall Wheatgrass Little Bluestem Big Bluestem Side-oats Grama Blue Grama Buffalo Grass
Screening for Mineral Ave.
Acer negundo Populus acuminata Populus sargentii Salix amygdaloides
Cornus stolonifera Amorpha fruticosa Clematis ligusticifolia Rosa woodsii Ribes aureum Ribes cereum Vitis vulpina
Inland Boxelder Lanceleaf Cottonwood Plains Cottonwood Peachleaf Willow
Redosier Dogwood Indigobush Virginsbower Woods Rose Golden Currant Wax Currant Wild Grape

Austin, Richard L
Designing the NaturalLandscape Van Nostrand Reinhold Co 1984
Bancroft, Caroline
The Melodrama of Wolhurst
Golden Press
Barry, Gail
Designing for Recreation in the Natural Environment: The Mueller Ranch as a Case Study in the Conflict Between Perpetuation and Use
University of Colorado/Denver Environmental Design
Landscape Architecture
Bloss, Francine, Donald Brandes, Janet Caniglia, Shirley Clark, Paul Hellmund, Bruce Hendee, William Hoffman, Elsie MacKinnon, Gary Miles, Dan Young Cal-Wood
University of Colorado/Denver College of Design and Planning 1979
Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation Colorado Outdoor Recreation Plan
Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation 1981
Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation Trail Construction Guidelines
Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation
Colorado Division of Wildlife
Wild in the Streets:Denver Area Wildlife Ad.iusts to Urban Living
Colorado Division of Wildlife 1987
Diekleman, John, Robert Schuster
Natural Landscaping: Designing with Native Plants McGraw-Hill

Fry, Debra
Method for Optimizing Recreation Opportunites for Flatwater Recreation
University of Colorado/Denver College of Design and Planning 1986
Garnham, H.L.
Maintaining Spirit of Place PDA Publishers Corp.
Gotteher, Dean
Natural Landscaping
E. P. Dutton
Interplan, Rogers-Nagel-Langhart, Wright-McLaughlin Engineers Conceptual Master Plan Littleton Flood Plain Park City of Littleton
Lynch, Kevin
Managing the Sense of a Region Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Lynch, Kevin
What Time Is This Place?
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1972
Manning, Robert
Studies in Outdoor Recreation Oregon State University Press
McHarg, Ian L.
Design With Nature Doubleday/Natural History Press 1971
Mutel, Cornelia F., John C. Emerick
From Grassland to Glacier The Natural History of Colorado Johnson Publishing Co.

Nash, Roderick
Wilderness and the American Mind
Yale University
Penn, Cordelia
Landscaping with Native Plants
John F. Blair
Pigram, J.
Outdoor Recreation and Resource Management Croom Helm, Ltd.
Rutledge, Albert J.
Anatomy of a Park
Rutledge, Albert J.
A Visual Approach to Park Design
John Wiley & Sons
South Suburban Park Foundation The Arapahoe Greenway 1987
South Suburban Park and Recreation District South Platte Park Master Plan City of Littleton 1983
Stankey, George H.
Visitor Perception of Wilderness Recreation Carrying Capacity
USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-142 1973
Steele, Laurence
The Roots of Prosperity: Littleton in the 1860*3
Littleton Historical Museum
USDA Soil Conservation Service
Soil Survey Arapahoe County, Colorado 1971

Walker, Theodore D.
Designs for Parks and Recreation Spaces
PDA Publishers
Wright Water Engineers, Urban Environments, Denton Harper Marshall
Ma.jor Drainageway Planning: South Platte River Urban Drainage and Flood Control District
Wright Water Engineers, Urban Environments, Denton Harper Marshall
Ma.jor Drainageway Planning: South Platte River Phase B Volume 1 Preliminary Engineering Design Urban Drainage and Flood Control District
Wright Water Engineers, Urban Environments, Denton Harper Marshall
Ma.jor Drainageway Planning: South Platte River Phase B
Volume 1 Recreation Design
Urban Drainage and Flood Control District

6 5L7-
Tibi ^utson
A housing and yacht club development in Sarasota. Florida

The Acacias
A housing and yacht club development in Sarasota, Florida.
Cheri Belz
15 May 1987
An architectural design thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Architecture.

Table of Contents
POETIC SPACE...............51
WATER SYMBOLISM............60


"Most people hold in awe that which they can least understand, and sometimes even worship natural forces that hold sway over their lives and fortunes. The sea, for example, has long commanded man's respect and, by virtue of its immensity, its seemingly limitless power, and its unfathomable mysteries, has elicited his wonder." (Solley, Steinbaugh p. 1).
The sea is mighty, but a Mightier sways His restless billows. Thou, whose hands have scooped His boundless gulfs and built his shore, Thy breath,
That moved in the beginning o'er his face,
Moves o'er it evermore. The obedient waves To its strong motion roll and rise and fall.
Still from that realm of rain Thy cloud goes up,
As at the first, to water the great earth,
And keep her valleys green. A hundred realms Watch its broad shadow warping on the wind,
And in the drooping shower, with gladness hear Thy promise of the harvest. I look forth Over the boundless blue, where joyously The bright crests of innumerable waves Glance to the sun at once, as when the hands Of a great multitude are upward flung In acclamation. I behold the ships Gliding from cape to cape, from isle to isle,
Or stemming towards far lands, or hastening home From the old world. It is Thy friendly breeze That bears them, with the riches of the land,
And treasure of dear lives, till, in the part,
The shouting seamen climb and furl the sail."
-excerpt from A Hvmn of the Sea William Cullen Bryant.
The wonder of water, of the sea, of man's relationship with this element from whence he came and to which he returns (via sailing), can inspire not only written poetry but a poetry of spaces. Being surrounded by the water, contemplating its immensity and being transported to another state of awareness provides a unique opportunity for the design of architecture at such a site.
Ever since living in Sarasota and experiencing the effect of water on my emotional state, I have wanted to design buildings there (or in a coastal setting). The vast ocean as a site, architectural ruins on the water and their subsequent transfixing quality have been recurrent elements in my artwork At this point, the opportunity to translate those concerns into three dimensions is desired.
Like Emilio Ambasz, I am "concerned with making distinctive places in which the processional aspect reinforces the sense of both being in, and of arriving, somewhere special..." Hopefully I can learn from his approach that "manages to be so affecting, yet uses only the primordial elements of sun and wind, water and earth, grass and trees and primitive geometry."

The desired end-all is Bachelardian poetic spaces --"a language of form that appeals directly to the senses and emotions, without sacrificing intellectual rigor or technical refinement....emphasizing the universal human need for surroundings imbued with ritual, myth and magic." (Brenner, Arch. Rec. p. 120).
Speaking of ritual, one can turn to the ritual of sailing and abiding and the idea of designing a yacht club and homes that emphasizes those rituals. American Heritage Dictionary defines ritual as follows:
"1. The prescribed form or order of conducting a religious or solemn ceremony. 2. A body of ceremonies or rites, as those used in a church or fraternal organization....4a A ceremonial act or a series of such acts.
b.The performance of such acts. 5. A detailed method of procedure faithfully or regularly followed." (p. 1065).
How can this be applied to architecture? "...the role of ritual [is] in preserving and enhancing the meaning of...institutions within the culture." (Payton). Architectural form can be derived from the ritual of the institution it houses. To do this successfully increases the power and meaning of the space. The building is not simply a physical structure that houses activities, it can enhance those activities and thereby have a psychologically positive (or negative) affect on the human participant. I use the word participant purposefully. Architecture doesn't have to cater to passive use. By reinforcing the actions/movements/of the users, the building itself can become an important part indeed, even promoter of those actions and become "alive" in a sense.
A building by design can encourage or inhibit movement and moods. Different types of spaces can direct not only physical movement or presence in a space, it can also encourage emotional responses.
One needs to notice the use of the word "space". There is a distinct difference between space and architecture. Architecture is the physical buildingthe walls, floors, ceilings, mechanical and structural systems. On the other hand is space which can be architectural or landscape. Space is a total, an all-encompassing. It includes not only the architecture but the light, the temperature, the color, the smell and all of the psychological implications that this totality implies. This is what Gaston Bachelard alludes to in Poetics of Space.
Luis Barragon and Emilio Ambasz are two architects who truly create mood spaces. The power that their work evokes is like that of a surrealist painting. Dreams of another time, place and dimension are conjured up almost like one is on a set participating in a play.
Avid sailors-those who sail 'religiously' not just for pleasure--take their sport very seriously. Moving from land to boat out into the water, braving the changing weather and water forces are not taken lightly. Rather, the entire experience can be seen both as becoming one with a natural force and fighting that same force-for as sure as one is sailing smoothly through calm seas in tranquility, the next minute he finds himself battling squalls and rough weather. The boat and the boatman, by design, must be able to withstand both. So too the architecture which symbolizes this type of person and his sport.
Christian Norberg-Schulz discusses an idea similar to ritual in Intentions in Architecture. Instead of using the term ritual he uses symbol-milieu and social-milieu. "A building only reveals its full meaning when seen as part of a symbol-milieu, where all objects carry values as participants in human actions which are never indifferent....It

is the symbolic content which gives the concrete things their social meaning." Norberg-Schulz employs the term symbol-milieus to "designate all the higher objects which are mediated by the physical ones." (p.88)
How does this relate to ritual activity and its manifestation in architecture? "Firstly we can establish the fact that any action needs a certain ..The form thus is often
determined by the fact that most functions consist in a series of actions which are connected with different places (locations).... (p. 114) "A milieu is always defined relative to particular activities. The same milieu does not fit all kinds of interactions."
(p119). I think we can all agree a yacht club will be designed differently than housing. And, by the same token housing by the sea will be designed differently than housing by a ski slope.
"The milieu does not only consist of different meaningful expressions, but of a heirarchy of such. Its single expressions are correlated to particular activities. ...We must also recognize the fact that a certain physical environment only fits certain activities...At present we will only stress that any activity has to take place within a psychologically satisfactory frame. Investigations show that the architectural frame may be favourable or not, that is, that it influences our attitude. Hence we could also define the milieu as the psychological effects of the surroundings." (p. 120)
The buildings comprising this thesis project are twofold. On the one hand we have the yacht club which is the 'base camp' for the boat owners. On the other, we have the housing--the permanent residences for these same people. The housing represents the permanent, the land-based. The clubhouse represents the transitory-the connection between land and water. Perhaps ironic, the club itself will be the focus of the project and the drawing card for the people who live in the housing.
The designer must be responsive not only to theoretical considerations and these two programmatic differences but also to this given coastal site which is prone to the forces of nature--in this climate not only rough seas and winds, but harsh sun and humid air. The buildings, like a boat and a sailor, must be able to withstand it all and at the same time exhibit an 'aura of beauty and belonging' on and with the sea.
Does one, and if so how, make a distinction in style and/or materials between the two building types? How does one relate through style and materials to both the land and the water? How will climate affect the project? How can water symbolism and the seaside site be expressed in the design?
The site also becomes a real determinant. The land is edged on the eastern boundary by a major north-south arteriaMhe Tamiami Trail (which runs from Tampa to Miami). However on the west is the water edge. The highway is a major link on land. To travel an it you follow its rules. You go where it tells you to go. On the other hand is the sea, a major link not onjand but gfjand. To travel through it you obey laws of nature, but you can basically go where you tell yourself to go.
Both the highway and the sea have hypnotic effects but they are of a different sort. On the highway, one hypnotizes to block out the noise and surrounding fastmotion. On the seaside the peacefulness and slowmotion surroundings provides the tranquility itself.

I see a great distinction between these two borders. That distinction will have to be dealt with in the design of this project. The hum of the highway must be hampered from encroaching on the serenity one seeks by the sea.
"The stillness of the water has an hypnotic effect on the observer as the surface glistens from the reflection of the sun. Suddenly, a fish is seen breaking the surface, reaching for an insect who has flown too close to the water, disturbing the stillness, thus forcing the individual to become aware of his surroundings momentarily, reality enters into his sphere and he must deal with it, until the water's stillness returns and his thoughts can posess him once again." (Whetsel).


The Acacias is a development consisting of 8 exclusive single family homes and a private sailing club. The site is in Sarasota, Florida on U.S. 41 (also known as Tamiami Trail) at 12th Street. (III. 1a). The east property line is bordered by this highway while the west is bounded by Sarasota Bay. To the north is a two story condominium development now vacant and under foreclosure. To the south is a 14 acre site being developed by the County into a Centennial Park. The Acacias site is on 11.7 acres of bayfront property zoned RMF-4 which allows for 18 units per acre. However, I have opted to de-densify for two reasons: first, the surrounding neighborhoods to the north are RSF-1, a much less dense zoning; second, and more important, is to conform to my conceptual ideas about the project as will be discussed in the final chapters of this thesis.
My initial proposal consists of eight exclusive detached single family residences. In addition to the housing is a private yacht club which is the central focus of the entire site plan development. Also included in the site development are boat moorings (for the yacht club) and a swimming pool.
The total development will consist of approximately 18,680 square feet residential (see following program sheet for breakdown) and a 12,000 square foot club house.
In the design I will focus primarily on the later-discussed conceptual issue which, in a nutshell, is my concern that the site work all together to provide an overall "place" composed of more individualized ritualized, poetic and symbolic spaces.

8 Detached single family residence
Foyer 100
Living 400
Dining 200
Kitchen 175
Master Bd. 225
Mstr.Bath/Dress 150
Bdrm 2 175
Bdrm 3 175
Bath 2 75
1/2 Bath 50
Den 150
Laundry 60
circ/mech/stor. 400
Total 2335
x 8 = 18,680
2 car carport per x 8= 16 unit
Boat Club
Vestibule 100
Lobby 400
Cloak rm/storage 200
Office 200
Club Rm/Library 600
Social Hall 3000
Kitchen 750
2 locker rms. 2250
Weight room 500
Supplies/repair 2000
2 bathrooms 250
Circ/mech 1200

Utilize some type of noise buffer on the eastern edge (highway side) of the site.
Maximize natural ventilation in form, massing and materials.
Bring some type of water element into the site development, i.e., water troughs, fountains, etc.
Incorporate landscaping as an important and complementary element.
Maintain Indian burial mounds and lush vegetation along bayfront.
Separate the residences from the boat club both physically and visually.

Living Rooms and Master Suites are of hierarchical importance in procession through the house.
Use courtyards and ample outdoor living space.
Utilize lush thick foliage (vegetation) for sun protection (shade).
Provide a sense of privacy for each residence through a series of layers comrising the entry sequence.

Boat Club
Establish via design and siting a direct relationship with the sea.
Provide outdoor terraces and/or roof decks overlooking bay and pool.
Locker rooms should address privacy (individual shower stalls vs. open shower area; individual lockers.)
Boat supply storage and repair should intermix collective and individual needs.
Establish social hall and nautical library as prime importance in hierarchical development of procession through the building.

8 Detached single family residences
Each residence used by members and guests of a single family.
Living: eating, playing, sleeping, relaxing, loving, etc. etc.
.1 .'''.'''11'1J1J ^1' 'J'1.
p?:: ,
Foyer 100
Living 400
Dining 200
Kitchen 175
Master Bd. 225
Mstr. Bath/Dress 150
Bdrm 2 175
Bdrm 3 175
Bath 2 75
1/2 Bath 50
Den 150
Laundry 60
20% circ/mech/stor. 400
Total 2335 Sq Ft.
x 8 = 18, 680 Sq. Ft.
+ two car carport per residence

Boat Club/club house
Boat owners, homeowners, their families and guests
|" !'!'.<. !.l, 1.....II.J. I .'! I., .U.'.l/UPN'l PI' ... I !. i I II,. 1 l.ll I I I 1 ' I'..M ,'... W|-.'! WPj
planning/studying navigational courses; eating, congregating, socializing, dressing, showering, repairing, etc.
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Vestibule 100
Lobby 400
Cloak Room 200
Office 200
Club Room/Library 600
Social Hall 3000
Kitchen 750
2 locker rooms 2250
weight room 500
supplies/repair 2000
2 bathrooms 250
circ./mech. 2000
Total 12,150 Square Feet
Nautical feeling with direct relationships to ocean site beyond. Intermingling of indoors/outdoors. Feeling that echoes the ritual/emotion of the spirited sailors.
I"""...-W-r'-g-M =
Exterior verandas/decks affording views of the bay and swimming pool.
Lots of glass areas on the sea-side.

club members and visitors
400 square feet
arrival and welcoming area

adjacent to office ::: :: :
adjacent or providing circulation
(i.e. stairway) to social rooms
adjacent to cloakroom '

a transitional zone from the public exterior to the private interior.

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management personnel (1-2)
bookkeeping, accounting, managerial record files
adjacent to lobby

200 square feet

2 desks filing cabinets

,....1.11|.i ^1 i ,i,;i .1. ^ i| i" . . 11. .....i i .
Club room/library
consulting navigation charts reading
small group socializing/dining
I' |M I II | w I II I I I I II M I M M I IIIWfUlW'MI I I I I II MM M I. "" "" V 'Pl * " "" |
near club room near kitchen
nautical and library feeling
comfortable arm chairs/sofas eating/reading tables bookcases
nautical map storage

600 square feet


Social Hall
club members and party guests

dining, dancing, playing

adjacent to kitchen
grand scale open, airy, light

ability to use the room for a variety of activites
Â¥{ ..
3000 square feet
open--no built ins except for bar
visual and/or physical access to water

1 tt-mm SPACE Kitchen
caterers, cooks, servers
preparation and storage of food
adjacent to social hall adjacent to club room adjacent to service area (or dumbwaiter)
refrigerators/freezers ovens/stoves prep tables sinks
750 square feet

Men's and women's locker rooms
sailors, swimmers
2 @ 1125 ea.= 2250 square feet
II' *'.'!*' .' I PI I I'm PP* II I I 11 I I I I 1 I^^T^PPI I III .'. ) III 1 I I 11
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changing, showering, using the bathroom, storing clothes
adjacent to weight room/sail storage adjacent to outdoor entry leading to sailboats and swimming pool adjacent to hot tub/sauna areas
| ' . ':' "I' I' I l!M:;:l:l:l:'ll.l I""" "'"T""",.. '' ''!'! ''' |
f1 *1111" '' M" 1' P'^IW'W DIAGRAMS
Each locker room shall contain: 50 lockers dressing area 3 shower/drying stalls 3 toilets (and/or urinals)
3 sinks

SPACE Weight room
weight lifting
rowing ,
next to locker rooms
500 square feet


ability to "air out" with natural ventilation
weight training equipment rowing machines floor mats

Supplies/Sail storage

removing and returning sails and other supplies
repairing sails
..... I I M l 111I II I I I I I I I I I 1111 I I I I I I I I I I nwtPW I I I .
adjacent to boat storage/docking adjacent to locker rooms

r"',IJ...................................:.. i
2000 (?) Square feet
' v **&: <.'* v " . -I
-................ i
50 individual lockers tong racks for masts/sails
work tables/benches

Men's and women's bathroom (1 each)

I bet you can guess!

adjacent to club room/library adjacent to social hall near office

Women's: 2 toilets
2 lavatories
Men: 1 toilet, 2 urinals
2 lavatories
Both: towel dispensers, mirrors, trash receptacles,
125 sq. ft. each x 2 = 250 sq. ft



Located on the Gulf of Mexico midway down Florida's west coast, (III. 1 & 2) Sarasota provides a relatively small city (population 200,000) with the amenities usually associated with a much larger metropolis. Between 1970 and 1980, the population increased 66% and Sarasota was assessed as the fourth fastest growing metropolitan area in the nation. The reasons for this can be attributed to the subtropical climate, the recreational, cultural, social and architectural opportunities, and the history of the town which laid the foundation for Sarasota as it is today.
Although the Indians inhabited the region for thousands of years and Spaniards and slaves for over a couple of hundred, their importance to this discussion is only minimal. Of most importance are the Indian mounds used for burial and other ceremonial purposes: "An imposing temple mound, constructed for ceremonial use, stood just north of present-day Whitaker Bayou and along U.S. 41. Indian mounds once lined the coast of the modern city and are responsible for the mysterious bumps and contours in many residential lawns along the bayfront and the islands." (Matthews P. 20). (III. 3) (Note: It will later be clarified why this is important and relative to this thesis).
The following is an excerpt from a xerox sent to me by the Sarasota Chamber of Commerce. I do not know the reference source.
"William H. Whitaker is credited with being the first white man to settle in Sarasota. Born in 1821 in Savannah, Georgia, with a restless spirit in his soul, Whitaker left his home in 1835 at the young age of 14 to appease his wanderlust. He traveled south to Key West, then north to Tallahassee. He spent four years fighting Indians in the Seminole War. At 21, he felt he was ready to settle down. He and his half-brother, a Tallahassee lawyer named Simon Snell, bought a sloop and sailed south in search of a homesite for Whitaker (my italics). When they reached the mainland along Sarasota Bay, the high yellow bluffs (* these bluffs were Indian mounds) and the palm-lined bayou nearby prompted the two to drop anchor to investigate. It didn't take long for Bill Whitaker to decide that he had found the ideal spot in which to build a home and raise a family.
It was 1842 when the dense vegetation, the natural beauty and protecting islands around the bluffs drew Whitaker to settle there permanently. Whitaker founded a homesite of 145 acres on what he named, appropriately enough, Yellow Bluffs. He later added to his deed an adjoining 49 acres at the going price of $1.25 an acre. With his homestead established and his tiny one-room palmetto shack built, Bill went about the business of selling dried slat mullet and roe to Cuban traders and raising a herd of cows bought in Dade County.
His fishing and ranching operations completed only a part of his goal, however. When he married Mary Jane Wyatt, the daughter of a wealthy Manatee plantation owner in 1851, he was on his way to fulfilling his dream.
THe Whitaker's first child was born to them a year later: Nancy Catherine Stuart Whitaker, the first white child born in what was to become Sarasota County. Local legend has it that the Whitakers gave their first daughter so many names because they thought she'd be an only child. The numerous names were not necessary, however, for a total of 10 children were born to Bill and Mary Jane.

The turbulent years before the Civil War caused Bill to move his family north to Manatee after marauding Indians burned their Yellow Bluffs home to the ground. Cheif (sic) Bily Bowlegs was normally a friendly, peaceful representative of his Indian tribe, but when a group of U.S. Army engineers flagrantly destroyed the Indians' crops and refused to make restitution, the peaceful relationship between the Indians and settlers was shattered. Before the end of the Civil War, which served to eliminate the Indian population as well as resolve the conflict between the North and the South, Whitaker moved his family back to Yellow Bluffs.
Once settled in their homestead again, time passed uneventfully for the Whitakers. In 1888 Bill Whitaker, Sarasota's original pioneer, died peacefully in his beloved home. Mary Jane Whitaker lived on for some 20 years; after her death the Yellow Bluffs homestead was left uninhabited. In 1911, a mansion called Acasias (sic) was built on that site in homage to Sarasota's first pioneer but was destroyed by fire 15 years later. The location is remembered today with a historical marker near the present-day intersection of 12th Street and U.S. 41 .H
This last statement is incorrect as the Acacias mansion remained standing until 1983. This Acacias mansion was built in 1911 by Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Honore, originally from Chicago. In 1913 ownership passed to Mrs. Frederick Dent Grant, the niece of Benjamin Honore (deceased in 1913) and widowed daughter-in-law of President Ulysses S. Grant. "Mrs. Grant and her two children, Julia and Ulysses III, lived in the house for several years. In 1918 Julia, who had been born in the White House and had married Prince Michael Cantacuzene of Russia, returned to live at the Acacias with her husband and children because their lives were endangered by the Russian Revolution. In 1940 the mansion was sold to Burleigh Brooks who made his fortune importing the Rolleiflex cameras. In 1958 the house was sold to Mr. and Mrs. I.A. Miller. In 1976 Mrs. Miller had the house stripped of its contents. These furnishings, adornments and the mansion was sold at auction. Mike Propson, owner of Key Plumbing, bought the house for $143,000 as an anniversary present for his wife.
In 1980 The Acacias was the Symphony Women's Association Designer Showcase home. In 1981 Propson sold the land to developer Robert Butler who promptly had the zoning changed to allow for higher density. In 1983 the mansion was razed in preparation for the development of two thirteen story condominium buildings. Today the land still stands vacant as Mr. Butler went bankrupt and the property remains in foreclosure with the bank. Stone columns (III. 4) that once supported a gazebo (III.
5) perched atop the bluff at the bays' edge and an archway grown over with wisteria are all that remain of this historic mansion. There also exists two Indian burial mounds where once the entire property was covered.
This site then, has historical importance to Sarasota. In addition to this, the Acacias belonged to the first era of concern for significant architecture. There have been three such eras, and for some reason the concern has ebbed and flowed. Philip Hiss, a local Sarasota architect traces the first two in his Architectural Forum article of 1967 I include most of it here because not only does it trace the important architecture already existing (or destroyed at this point) in Sarasota, it emphasizes the need for awareness towards design not only to preserve what is already there but to

add to it.
"Less than ten years ago, in February, 1959, The Architectural Forum credited the $7-million school buiding program, then nearing completion in Sarasota, Fla., with producing 'the most exciting and varied group of new schools in the U.S.'
Today, the remarkable concentration of architectural talent which was responsible for these schools in the 1950s has been dispersed. Paul Rudolph, Victor Lundy, and Bert Brosmith are gone, along with many others. Yet I am certain that these men would have retained, at the very least, a foothold in Sarasota if there had been any encouragement at all.
There once was such encouragement, of course; but there is none
For a brief period, from 1956 to 1961, Sarasota seemed to be on the verge of becoming a community with an unusual appreciation of the arts, with enough leisure to pursue them, and with a sufficient number of concerned people who spoke out for those values and were heard.
It was all an illusion: the local Establishment remained in control of the media of communication, of much key property, and of financial resources. Only for a few fleeting years were 'outsiders' able to wrest control of the Sarasota County School Board and the county commission.
Meanwhile, the city commission remained largely under the control of the Establishment, which had staked out its claims when Sarasota was in its infancy. Today, Sarasota has almost completely surrendered to the big developers and to East Coast (of Florida) money. There are a number of multimillion-dollar projects underway-all of them concerned with profits, none of them with architecture.
How did it all happen? To find an answer, I would like to go back a little way into the history of this town.
Sarasota always has been an improbable community, its past filled with improbable characters. Founded at the end of December, 1885, by the Florida Mortgage and Investment Co., with headquarters in Scotland, its first colonists were quickly discouraged by primitive conditions. Early in 1886, John Hamilton Gillespie, the son of the founder, was sent to Sarasota to pinpoint the trouble and resolbe it if possible. He stepped ashore carrying a set of golf clubs and shortly laid out a three-hole course in the general area of what is now Main Street and Palm Avenue. Some say that this was the earliest golf course in the United States.
Mrs. Potter Palmer was as improbable as Gillespie, in her own way. She was, of course, the acknowledged social leader of Chicago, who 'discovered' Sarasota in the early 1900s and claimed it for the Midwest.
"The least probable character of all, John Ringling, began to winter in Sarasota in 1911. He did not make it the winter quarters of Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, Inc. (known to most of us as The Circus) until 1927.
Mrs. Palmer may have established Sarasota as a resort for Midwestern socialites, but John Ringling had a more profound effect on its future

development, through the establishment of the Ringling Museum. Although the 'circus image' was at first stronger, the 'cultural image' has prevailed and has attracted numerous artists, art schools, architects, authors and musicians, who in turn have attracted many wealthy, sophisticated retirees.
John Ringling and his brother, Charles, built mansions side by side (III. 6 & 7) on Sarasota Bay in the early 20s. John and Mable Ringling commissioned Dwight James Baum to design theirs as a fanciful variation on the Venetian Gothic palazzo at a cost of $1.5 million. Construction of the architecturally more restrained art musem was not started until July 1927, a year after the Florida real estate boom collapsed, and it was not formally opened until January 22,1930, after the beginning of the Great Depression....."
"When John Ringling died in 1936, 'he left the art museum and its collections...his sumptuous residence, and his entire fortune to the State of Florida....Ten years of litigation followed. During those years ...many of them (paintings) suffered serious damage from the subtropical climate and poor gallery conditions; the buildings were little better off."
While Mr. Hiss has discussed mainly Ringling's architectural influence on the town during this period, he failed to discuss the other significant work taking place.
Mrs. Potter Palmer built in the Mediterranean Revival Style, The Oaks, fourteen miles to the south of the Acacias-built by her uncle. Likewise, Stanley and Sara Field built a winter estate on the bay. (It is now a private yacht club). (III. 8) Many other homes in this style were constructed up and down the bayfront. The Caples, next-door-neighbors to the Ringlings, built an Italian Renaissance home which is now home of the Environmental Studies department for New College of the University of South Florida. (III. 9) In addition, downtown boasted several hotels in the Mediterranean style. Also in the works were theaters, a shopping circle on St.
Armands Key a casino and even a residential subdivision. "The phenomenal growth in 1923 prompted the city in 1924 to engage John Nolen, city planner of Cambridge, to design a comprehensive plan...." "In the midst of the boom, Sarasota public and private projects shaped an architectural theme which reflected the tenor of the time.
One of the professional definers os Sarasota's Spanish style was New York architect Dwight James Baum...."(not unlike that that Addison Mizner spurred across the state in Palm Beach) "But the central building Baum designed was influenced by the California Spanish Colonial mode. In the heart of the city...the cornerstone was laid in May 1926 for a courthouse and county government building." (Matthews p. 113-114).
Also at this time the "roaring twenties" the Tampa to Miami Trail was completed. It was started in the 1910s but hit many technical, financial and political snags but when finally completed the Tamiami Trail U.S. 41) made a dream come true.
Now, back to Hiss' article:
"Thus ended Sarasota's first age of architecture and the arts. Sarasota's subsequent architectural and artistic renascence owes much to two men who came to Sarasota 20 years apart, each in connection with the Ringling

interests: the first was A. Everett Austin Jr., former director of the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, who became the first director of the Ringling Museum when it was opened to the public as a state institution in 1946; and the second is Ralph Twitchell, father of the 'Sarasota school' of architects, who came to Sarasota in 1925 to finish the John Ringling home, and 'just stayed on.'
'Chick' Austin put Sarasota on the culture map, just as Mrs. Potter Palmer had put it on the society map....
In addition to saving the museum building and beginning the restoration of the paintings, Austin opened the John Ringling residence to the public in 1947, and established a museum of the circus in 1948. He aslso discovered the 18th century Asolo Theater interior stored in crates in a little hill town near Venice, and somehow persuaded the State of Florida to purchase it. Originally installed in Gallery 21 of the museum building, the theater was moved in 1957 to a building designed for it by Marion Manley of Coconut Grove. But by this time Chick Austin was dead.
Ralph Twitchell, the second man responsible for Sarasota's renascence,
(III. 10) got his Florida license to practice architecture in 1926, and a number of young New York architects passed through his office. However, non of them seemed very interested in developing a modern idiom until Paul Rudolph arrived in 1941, a few months after graduating from Alabama Polytechnic Institute....Rudolph returned to Sarasota after a few years in the Navy and at Harvard, to become Twitchell's partner.
Almost immediatly, the Twitchell and Rudolph office began to attract a succession of talented young architects to Sarasota: Mark Hampton, Gene Leedy, Bill de Cossy, Bill Rupp, Bert Brosmith, and Ken and Joan Warriner.
Carl Abbott later came to work for Brosmith. Soon, Victor Lundy and Reginald Knight came to Sarasota. Ralph and William Zimmerman were already in practice in the town. And others followed: Jack West, Tim Seibert, Ralph Erickson, and Frank Folsom Smith among them.
Today only West, Seibert, and Smith remain. But in the 1950s there was a greater concentration of architectural talent in Sarasota than in any small town in the United States except New Canaan, Connecticut--and New Canaan is, of course, a 'dormitory' for New York.
Sarasota first emerged as an architectural force through the publication of Rudolph's small houses (III. 11) and Lundy's earliest works (III. 12); but real opportunity came in February 1957 with the passage by 3 to 1 of a $4.4 million school bond referendum. This money, later supplemented by state funds, became the $7 million school building program mentioned earlier...."(Hiss goes on to discuss the need for schools, problems with the board and architects etc.)
"The last and greatest effort to achieve distinguished architecture in the county involved New College, which was incorporated in the fall of 1960. (my alma mater I might add.) The college was intended to fill a need long felt in the South for liberal arts institutions of very high academic standing....New College was to be a close community that encouraged communication between students and faculty. Thus its architecture was extremely important--not just the style of its buildings, but the situations they were intended to stimulate."
"...Eventually, I.M. Pei was selected to do the master plan and design the

first buildings. (III. 13 & 14).
A better choice could scarcely have been made, but during the process Sarasota had awakened to some of the implications of the college. Community leaders had been sympathetic to the idea at first, when it was seen as a sort of 'light industry' that could bring millions into the county. But then they realized that the initial funds would have to be raised largely in the county, that the standards of academic excellence being set up would make it a national institution with relatively few students from Sarasota, and that 'academic freedom' certainly would be an issue.
Several right-wing groups opened fire on the college, and brought political pressure to bear on the Sarasota-Bradenton Airport Authority...which then refused to sell the college a tract it had hoped to acquire...."
"Because of this obstructionism, the trustees commissioned Pei to design a group of buildings for another site ...Though the buildings were specified to be of permanent construction, they were intended for temporary use as undergraduate dormitories, classrooms, student union, etc. Unfortunately, it never was determined just what their ultimate use would be so Pei had to work in the sort of vacuum which makes good architecture nearly impossible to achieve. He recently has resigned 'due to the pressure of other work,' and planning of the main undergraduate campus will fall to someone else...."
"With Pei's resignation the last hope for architecture approaching greatness has been lost in the county. There simply are no clients for such architecture in Sarasota today--neither county nor city nor school board; neither business nor industry; neither churches nor-the list of non-clients is endless. The leading financial institutions and businesses are not patrons of architecture nor have they ever been. Certainly the speculative builders couldn't care less.
It remains to be seen what will happen to the New College campus, but the trustees already seem to be putting proximity ahead of creativity in their search for a new architect...."
"Sarasota is a rich community; it can afford distinguished architecture if any community can. And Sarasota has some distinguished architecture; but it will soon become a museum of the 1920s and 1950s unless its sights are raised again. Meanwhile, a whole generation of promising architects has left a community that could have offered them expanding opportunities, but has chosen instead mediocrity--and worse."
In 1968 work began on a building which was the start of the third era of architectural concern in Sarasota which I propose ended ten years later. This building was not only architecturally significant to Sarasota, but culturally as well--it was a 1800 seat performing arts hall (III. 15) designed by William Wesley Peters of the Taliesin Foundation and opened in January 1970. "A lavender-to-purple color scheme was personally selected by Olgivanna Lloyd Wright-the venerated architects widow....Public objection to the building's lavender-hued finishes initially inspired such derisive nicknames as 'Purple People Seated and Purple Cow', but the epithets dissipated as the facility's popularity, architectural and acoustical excellence, and civic stature became increasingly apparent." (Matthews p. 216)
Van Wezel Performing Arts Center is one of several buildings at the citys' Civic

Center. Other buildings include Lundys Chamber of Commerce III. 16), a Municipal Auditorium, Recreation Club, and Art Association. Just to the south is the Selby Library (III. 17 &18) designed in 1976 by Gordon Bunschaft of SOM and the Hyatt Hotel and Yacht Club (III. 19) of the next year.
Also gaining recognition in 1977 was Carl Abbott's Greenhouse Restaurant. ((III. 20) This building is all glass and nestled in a virtual tropical forest. "One wonders, indeed, if such great expanses of clear glass can be a workable design solution in the Florida sun. But so dense and so close to the building is the vegetation that sun-screening is accomplished naturally." (Contract Interiors, p. 92).
Since this time again concern good architecture has given way to concern for profits. Two new buildings--the library (III. 21) and Sudakoff Center (III. 22)-- on the New College campus are out of character with the rest of the campus. Even their siting disregards any planning that once existed.
Downtown a new red-brick bank building (III. 23) has popped up but should be blown up. Not only are the materials totally inappropriate for the climate but the styling, massing, sitingthe entire building in fact--has no relationship to anything. The design itself is so poor, one imagines if an architect even had a hand in it, and if so, why he would even claim it.
It is time this back and forth concern for high standards ended. As Philip Hiss stated, Sarasota has the potential for so much more and it is time sight's were raised again.
The previous discussion has centered on the history and architecture of Sarasota and the history of the thesis site. Up to this point there has been no elaboration of climate and recreation.
The one recreational activity that merits mention here is sailing. Boating in general and sailing in particular have been a part of Sarasota history since its inception. The Indians traveled the waters in massive dugouts; 16th century sailing galleons carried famous Spanish expeditions across the Atlantic to Florida; fishing, the main industry in the 1830s was accomplished in 30-40 smacks (a sailboat); as mentioned earlier, Bill Whitaker arrived in Sarasota via his sloop; by the end of the 1880s tourists returned annually from the north "to catch fish and sail the waters of the bay". The list goes on and on and even today a tradition continues which makes Sarasota a viable place for yacht clubs--that is the annual Labor Day Regatta-"the largest sailing regatta in the southeastern United States".
I think we can all, as architects and students of architecture, understand why the Mediterranean revival style of architecture was and is so prominent here given that the climates are so similar. In the following chapter is climactic data which will then be discussed as an architectural determinant.


January 2.02 PRECIPITATION (Average Inches) July 7.74
February 3.03 August 8.25
March 3.36 September 9.72
April 2.80 October 4.00
May 2.35 November 1.86
June 5.89 December 2.07
Average Average Average
Maximum Minimum Mean
January 71.4 53.2 62.3
February 73.5 54.6 64.0
March 76.9 57.8 67.4
April 80.6 61.5 71.0
May 86.8 67.2 72.0
June 89.3 72.1 80.7
July 90.0 73.2 81.6
August 90.6 73.1 81.8
September 88.6 71.6 80.1
October 84.6 65.9 75.2
November 75.7 59.4 67.6
December 72.6 53.9 63.2
DEGREE DAYS (base 65 F)
1985 Normal 1985 Normal
January 306 228 30 66
February 119 186 88 68
March 17 87 163 124
April 5 0 237 202
May 0 0 464 375
June 0 0 569 477
July 0 0 547 533
August 0 0 566 533
September 0 0 475 477
October 0 0 445 295
November 9 65 275 116
Dscflmber 238 1Z2
YEAR 694 739 3917 3324

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) (Normal-avg of last 22 years)
Hour 01 Hour 07 Hour 13 Hour 19
January 84 86 59 73
February 83 85 56 69
March 82 86 55 67
April 82 87 51 62
May 81 86 53 62
June 84 87 60 68
July 85 88 63 73
August 87 91 64 76
September 86 91 62 75
October 85 89 57 71
November 85 88 57 74
December M SZ 52 IA
YEAR avg. 84 88 58 70
January 64 July 61
February 66 August 60
March 71 September 61
April 74 October 65
May 75 November 65
June 67 December 62
January 5.6 July 6.8
February 5.5 August 6.6
March 5.4 September 6.4
April 5.0 October 5.2
May 5.2 November 5.0
June 6.1 December 5.5

MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS (averaged over last 39 years)
sunrise to sunset Precipitation Thunderstorm Fog
clr pt.cldy cldy .01" or more Vis. <1
January 9.6 9.9 11.5 6.4 1.0 5.7
February 9.1 9.1 10.1 6.8 1.6 2.9
March 10.4 10.1 10.5 6.7 2.5 2.8
April 10.9 11.1 8.0 4.7 2.7 1.2
May 10.4 12.1 8.5 6.3 5.7 0.5
June 5.5 13.9 10.6 11.5 13.5 0.3
July 2.1 16.1 12.7 15.7 21.4 0.1
August 2.8 16.4 11.8 16.8 20.9 0.2
September 4.5 13.8 11.9 13.1 12.0 0.4
October 11.2 10.6 9.0 6.9 3.0 1.2
November 11.8 9.4 8.9 5.4 1.2 2.7
December 10.2 11.4 _L2 4,4
YEAR 98.4 142.0 124.9 106.6 86.9 22.4
Peak Gust
Mean Speed Prev. Dir. Speed Direction
(mph) (mph)
January 8.7 N 32 N
February 9.4 E 46 NW
March 9.6 S 32 W
April 9.5 ENE 33 NW
May 8.9 E 49 E
June 8.1 E 48 NE
July 7.3 E 52 N
August 7.1 ENE 45 S
September 8.0 ENE 45 W
October 8.6 NNE 41 SW
November 8.5 NNE 37 N
December M N 22 NW
YEAR 8.5 E 52 N

TIME 22 June 16 May 28 July 16 Apr 27 Aug 21 Mar 23 Sept 23 Feb 20 Oct 26 Jan 17 NOV 22 Dec
Az Alt Az Alt Az Alt Az Alt Az Alt Az Alt Az Alt
sunrise/set 63 0 68 0 79 0 90 0 101 0 m 0 116 0
6am/6pm 69 10 73 8 81 4 - - - - - - -
7am/5pm 74 23 79 21 87 18 91 13 106 8 113 4 117 2
8am/4pm 79 36 84 34 95 31 105 26 114 21 121 16 125 13
9am/3pm 84 49 91 48 102 44 114 39 124 32 131 26 135 o CO CM
10am/2pm 91 63 100 61 115 57 128 50 138 42 144 35 147 32
11 am/1 pm 101 75 117 74 137 67 149 59 156 50 160 42 162 37
Noon 180 S> co 180 82 180 73 180 63 180 53 180 44 % co o o



' J

Now that we have all of this climactic data, what does it mean and what does it imply as far as design implications/opportunities? This subtropical climate has a yearly average mean temperature of 72F with a high relative humidity that ranges from 55%-91 %! There are very few heating degree days but a considerable amount of cooling. To put it into perspective for Coloradoans, Denver has 6000 heating degree days, while Sarasota has only 700 heating degree days. However, Sarasota has 3500 cooling while Denver has only about 700. And yet these numbers are a little misleading I think because the relative humidity needs to be taken into consideration. Sarasota may only average 3500 cooling degree days, (1/2 the heating days of Denver) but given the high relative humidity, cooling/air conditioning is needed much more of the time to "condition'Vde-humidify the air.
The one aspect that distinguishes this subtropical climate from a tropical one is the mild, relatively dry winter." A subtropical house needs insulation and a heating system for the occasional cold weather during winter..." (Fisher, PA p. 98) (As noted above there averages 700 heating days).
Another factor of importance is the precipitation. From November to May there averages 2-3", yet in the summer and fall months it more than doubles to 4-10". Not in the charts is a description of this precipitation. In the summer months it takes the form of afternoon thunderstorms. Those living there say you can set your watch by these afternoon showers. What also happens is as follows: By the time the sun rises the air is already hot and humid. As the day advances the temperature and humidity rises until late afternoon 3:30 when clouds roll in and thunderstorms occur for 1-4 hours. Afterwords, the temperatures have dipped as has the humidity.
Wind also will play a part in design implications. Interestingly enough, the wind speed is lower in the summer and fall months (when it is hottest and most humid). Perhaps it is hotter and more humid because there is less wind yet it is at this time of the year where a designer would want to take full advantage of the wind that is available in order to subdue the effects of the temperature and humidity.
This is particularly true when one also considers the position and subsequent intensity of the sun during these months. From late afternoon to sunset the sun is to the west (reflecting off the water) and low. Given a combination of high temperature and humidity, low wind speed and low glaring/bright sun, the afternoons can be quite miserable. "Thank God" for the thunderstorms!

"The climate is what attracts most people to the tropics. Yet once there, many people come to depend upon air conditioning and tinted glass as a shield against the heat and humidity-removing themselves from the very thing that first attracted them." (Fisher p. 98).
"The architectural response to tropical and subtropical conditions differs in some respects." (insulation/heating during cool spell in subtropics). "In general though, the issues involved in tropical design apply to the subtropics, and to any place where extreme heat and humidity exist." (Fisher p. 98).
The quotations above are from a September 1984 Progressive Architecture article "The well-tempered tropics" by Thomas Fisher. The entire article is a concise reference for design in a tropical (and subtropical) environment. He addresses all the issues raised above and for this reason I include it here.
Inducing air movement within a building during some seasons remains the most effective means of reducing the year-round use of air conditioning in the tropics. Most of the literature on natural ventilation has as its goal the cooling of people within buildings. Yet the passive cooling of people requires large openings to achieve sufficient airflow and airspeed, while the air conditioning of buildings, which cannot be avoided some months, requires openings small in number and in size to reduce the cooling load. Combining natural ventilation and air conditioning in a building thus presents a conflict in the sizing of windows. Researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) have shown that ventilation and air conditioning can coexist as cooling strategies in the same building as long as natural ventilation cools only the building and not people. Window openings amounting to just 10 percent of the floor area will provide enough airflow to cool the mass of most buildings when the outside temperatures are lower than those inside, without significantly taxing the air-conditioning system when outside temperatures are high. Using windows that size for natural ventilation demands the simultaneous use of ceiling fans to cool people.
Using natural ventilation to cool a building's mass rather than its people also affects the placement of windows. When the wind strikes a building, it moves around the structure, creating positive pressures on the windward sides and negative pressures in the leeward wake. The wind also may enter openings in the building, moving in a straight path until it strikes an interior object or is pulled out through a leeward opening. People-cooling strategies call for an inlet window smaller than the outlet to increase incoming wind speeds, and for an unobstructed path between the two to maintain that windspeed as long as possible inside the building. The goal of cooling buildings changes both guidelines. The inlet and outlet openings should be the same size, to maximize the number of air changes rather than the air speed, and the air should be directed along wall and ceiling surfaces to cool them, rather than to an outlet window.
Directing air within a building depends upon myriad details. A window on an upper story or one located beneath an overhang or next to a building projection will, because of unequal positive pressures adjacent to the opening, divert air current

along the ceiling or wall. Projecting windows, blinds, and louvers can further modify the direction of air currents.
Little air will move through a room if its windows face only positive or negative pressure zones. Thast normally occurs with windows on the same or on adjacent exterior walls. (Avoid, if possible, rooms with only one window and no outlet.) Building projections or wing walls, and to a lesser degree, foliage or solid fencing, can create the necessary pressure differences in those situations, especially when prevailing winds strike a building face at an anglel. A projection perpendicular to the building and downwind of the inlet window will funnel air into a room, while a similar projection upwind of the outlet window will create a negative pressure area in the projection's wake. To be most effective, the wing wall should project out as far as the window is wide. Ridge vents that take advantage of the negative pressure behind a roof ridge, as well as attic fans, also work to pull air through a building.
Traditional guidelines for building in the tropics also advocate the location of a building perpendicular to prevailing winds to induce the most interior ventilation. The research of Baruch Givoni, however, has shown that the highest air velocity and best air movement result form orienting a building at a 45-degree angle to the prevailing winds, due to the broader wake and thus greater suction forces pulling air through the building. The benefits of a large suction force become apparent in the wake of tall buildings. Research has shown that buildings located downwind of a substantially taller structure have better ventilation than when downwind of buildings their same size, because of the large amount of turbulence created behind the taller building. When planning groups of buildings, though, it's best to space them apart and to stagger them against the prevailing wind to minimize the chance of one bulding's wake preventing anothers ventilation. Also avoid planting dense foliage upwind of buildings or placing pavement or attic vents in front of inlet windows.
Dehumidification and air conditioning
Natural ventilation and air movement go only so far in cooling buildings or people in the tropics; in the summer months especially, some form of cooling and dehumidification is necessary. The challenge comes with doing so in the most energy-efficient manner. Most mechanical dehumidifiers generate heat in the process of removing moisture-heat that only increases the air-conditioning load. Enthalpy heat exchangers can reduce moisture removal requirements; when coupled with a tight building envelope, they can, according to Mukesh Khattar of the FSEC, reduce interior moisture by 50-70 percent. But in winter, enthalpy exchangers can return some interior moisture, along with heat and air impurities, into the building.
Air conditioning overcomes the limitations of both dehumidifiers and air-to-air exchangers. It is not without problems, however. Many air conditioners operated with temperature-sensitive thermostats. Because of that, they may not remove enough moisture from inside a building, particularly if the air conditioner's sensible heat factor (the ratio of its sensible to its total heat capacity) does not equal the building load sensible heat factor....To maintain 55 percent relative humidities in warm, humid climates, an air conditioner with a higher SHF must cool the air below human comfort levels and then reheat it to room temperature...."

Heat sinks offer another way of cooling builidngs. One of the most effective heat sinks is the building's own mass. This runs counter to the tradition of using low-mass construction in the tropics, but researchers at the FSEC and elsewhere have shown how a high-mass material such as concrete can work to our advantage in hot, humid climates. The mass must be protected from direct exposure to the sun at all times by placing the mass inside the building as, say, a partition wall. The mass also must be regularly flushed with cooler air to shed whatever heat it picks up from people, lights, and equipment....
Heat sinks other than mass walls do exist in the tropics. The night sky can act as a heat sink, although the humidity and cloudiness in the summer reduce its effectiveness to the winter months when there are clearer skies and when outside temperatures may fall below 68F....Earth sheltering or ground-water heat sinks do not work well in the tropics because of the high temperatures of the ground and of subsurface water.
Shading and insulation
Because of the difficulties encountered in flushing heat from a building's mass in hot,humid climates, it's best to shade entire walls and roofs with such devices as double roofs, wall screens, vertical louvers, broad overhangs, verandas, or trees, (see III. 20) Where that can't occur, at least shade the windows, including those on north elevations. The shading of windows with louvers, blinds, awnings, and overhangs (see III. 19,11) not only reduces direct solar gain, it also reduces glare, which, in the tropics, comes from the hazy skies and ground and water reflections...."
"Buffer spaces that can tolerate a greater range of ambient temperatures can also protect the interior of building from excessive thermal gain. Those spaces prove most useful along east and west elevations, for in the tropics, it is the low east and west sun that is the most difficult to shade. In residences, those buffer spaces might include closets, storage areas, garages, or laundry spaces; in nonresidential construction, they might include mechanical chases, elevator shafts, or exit stairs.
The exterior envelope, though, remains the primary means of protecting buildings from the sun...."
"The earth and the sky
Hurricanes and typhoons threaten many, but not all tropical regions, leading to special code restrictions in certain coastal regions against such things as loose-laid roofing or unbraced shading devices. Other building details, while not code derived, have also been developed in response to the tropical storms.
Louvered shutters, for example, protect glazed areas from flyind debris and allow windows to be left open for ventilation during storms....Many tropical buildings also have paved aprons to minimzie splashback and to keep plant life at a distance.

Keeping insect life at a distance is more difficult. While no one has improved upon screening for flying insects, it can corrode in the humidity if made of glavanized metal, or reduce ventilation if placed directly over a window rather than over a larger opening such as a balcony. Tropical termites will quickly destroy all wood that is not treated or that is too close to the ground...."
Hot humid climates can be harder on buildings than on people. Indigenous materials such as mud brick, thatch (my note: not in Florida) and stucco demand constant maintenance: the mud attracts termites, the thatch mildews, and the stucco provides ample crevices for algae.
Some modern materials have not fared much better...'Architectural concrete, with its coarse surface and many pockets, allows algae growth, whille improperly detailed stone cladding could face problems with the collection of moisture behind the panels and with the rusting of anchors.' That list could include galvanized iron that can corrode in a marine environment, untreated wood that is susceptible to fungal as well as insect attack, and oil paint whose slow drying vehicle can collect debris and mold...."
"Generally, the harder and less porous a material, the better its performance in the tropics. Cladding materials that have proven successful include aluminum with anodized or baked enamel finishes, polished or epoxy coated stone attached with stainless steel anchors, naturally resisteant woods such as cedar or cypress, enamel or alkyd resin paints, and glass. Concrete also is a popular and highly resistant material, although it's not immune to the corrosive action of acidic water found in jungle areas nor to the loss of strength that results from the recrystallization of high-alumina cement at high temperatures.
A tropical aesthetic
Just 25 years ago, the tropics had a distinctive climate-responsive architecture: from thatch-roofed pole structure or veranda-shaded plantation houses to stuccoed urban dwellings with arcaded streets and louvered openings or modern buildings elevated on pilotis with open balconies clad with perforated concrete screens. Now, one glance at the sealed glass towers and air-conditioned suburbs in tropical cities such as Miami...shows how much of that tropical aesthetic has been lost. Its loss doesn't just mean that we now consume more energy in tropical buildings. It signifies the much greater loss of an indigenous culture and of a sense of place. Reducing a building's energy consumption in the tropics, however important, must not be our only goal. We must see it for what it is: a first step toward reconnecting people to their climate and their culture."
Paul Rudolph stressed the importance of reconnecting people to their climate when he was partners with Ralph Twitchell in Sarasota in the 1950's. In a 1956 article in Architectural Record he proposed that there are six determinants of architectural form-one of them being the "particular region, climate, landscape and natural lighting conditions with which one is confronted." In studying the homes and schools that Rudolph designed in Sarasota during this period, one can see this was one of his primary concerns. From his material choices to sun screen ventilation and cooling devices he strove to make his buildings as adapted to the environment

as possible. The materials used consisted of ocala block (a special limestone block-similar to a concrete block) (see III. 11), concrete, or cypress for the overall building. Normally terrazzo floors (but occasionally wood) were employed for their cooling effect. In addition, screened in "dog-trots" and/or roof ponds aided in natural air-conditioning. Throughout his early houses, he was also very conscious of the need for controlling the light in a climate like this where too much light is a problem. In almost every instance some type of shading device-be it wooden louvers, recessed living spaces behind screened areas, large overhangs, or walls and fences-was utilized.
One point must be made, and a very important one at that: Although Rudolph was extremely concerned with designing for the climate, it was not done at the expense of "Architecture". He had a knack for using various climactically-oriented devices to heighten the interesting spatial diversity towards which he strived.
One device Rudolph utilized to obtain spatial diversity was a material he dubbed "cocoon" which he experimented with in the Navy. (see. III. 11) (In the Navy it was used for mothballing ships and equipment). This was a plastic material, very flexible, able to stretch three times its length and return to normal with water tightness and had a life expectancy of thirty years. Rudolph used cocoon to construct flexible roofs in a simple tent-like form.
Today, fabric structures have advanced to a state of high art and the simple tent-like roofs that Rudolph played with thirty years ago have given way to much more complex forms. These new materials are as flexible and durable as cocoon but with two advantages: first, the complex forms just mentioned are more readily achieved and second, translucency allows for penetration of natural, diffused light.
Several buildings have gone up in Florida in recent years where these new fabric structures were used. One is the Student Center at the University of Florida, Gainesville designed by Paul Kennon of CRS. Kennon noted that "clients' needs to enclose larger spaces on increasingly constrained budgets, and given the esthetic rift between designers who view buildings as machines for living or as living organisms, energy and lighting issues, [my italics] and structural solutions that need not rely on conventional framing... a future for fabric structures is limited only by imagination." (Gardner, p. 158).
It is my intention to use my imagination in incorporating this new technology in addressing, not only the climactic issues that affect my site but the aesthetic and theoretical ones as well.


Before we can examine how ritual can be incorporated into architecture and used programmatically in the design of poetic space (as discussed in Chapt. 5), it must first be defined and discussed. Ritual is one of those nebulous terms that has different connotations to different people. Most immediately associate it with acts in an organized religion, however, as I hope to demonstrate, this is a narrow view and our understanding can include far more.
American Heritage Dictionary defines ritual as follows: "1. The prescribed form or order of conducting a religious or solemn ceremony. 2. A body of ceremonies or rites, as those used in a church or fraternal organization....4a. A ceremonial act or a series of such acts. b. The performance of such acts. 5. A detailed method of procedure faithfully or regularly followed." (p. 1065)
Ronald L. Grimes in Beginnings in Ritual Studies devotes an entire book expounding on his sense of the definition and meaning of ritual. He feels that "most definitions of ritual are disappointing because they define the word too narrowly or lack fruitful images....The usual scholarly view is that ritual is: (1) repeated (e.g., every Sabbath); (2) sacred (related to the Holy, or utmost significance); (3) formalized (consisting of prescribed unchanging movements such as bowing or kneeling); (4) traditional (not being done for the first time, claiming an ancient history or authorized by myth); and (5) intentional (non-random actions, done with awareness of some reason or meaning)." (p.55-56). He quotes othersdefinitions. Victor Turner in Images and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Studies speaks of ritual as "formal behavoir prescribed for occasions not given over to technological routine that have reference to beliefs in mystical beings or powers" (p. 243). James Fernandez' is quite obscure and almost unintelligible "The acting out of metaphoric predication upon incohate pronouns which are in need of movement." (Persuasions and Performances p. 56). And in Ritual Resourcefulness and Cultural Pluralism. Roland Delattre describes ritual as "Those carefully rehearsed symbolic motions and gestures through which we regularly go, in which we articulate the felt shape and rhythm of our own humanity and of reality as we experience it, and by means of which we negotiate the terms or conditions for our presence among and our participation in the plurality of realities through which our humanity makes its passage." (p. 282)
Grimes conveys "that ritual pervades more of our life than just an isolated realm designated 'religious'....The usual distinctions, sacred/profane or rites of passage/seasonal rites, are insufficient. As a beginning, I propose to distinguish six modes of ritual sensibility: ritualization, decorum, ceremony, liturgy, magic and celebration..." (p. 36)

RITUAL- IZATION ecological psycho- somatic ambivalence exclamatory embodying compelled symptons mannerisms gestures
DECORUM interpersonal politeness inter- rogative co- operating expected greeting departing
CEREMONY political conten- tiousness imperative competing enforced inauguration rallies legalities
LITURGY ultimate reverence interrogative/ declarative being cosmically necessary meditation invocation praise
MAGIC transcendent anxiety declarative/ imperative causing desired healing fertility divination
CELEBRATION expressive festive subjunctive playing "spontaneous" carnivals birthdays
These modes are not mutually exclusive. Probably many rituals are a hybrid of 2 or more of these. He goes on to broaden his definition : "Ritualizing transpires as animated persons enact formative gestures in the face of receptivity during crucial times in founded places."(p. 55 and 67) These words are chosen very carefully and each phrase is expounded upon within those pages (55-67) yet it is not within our scope to include it here.
All of this can be synthesized into a working definition that relates to this thesis. This will be easier if the word religious is taken to mean, not as "adhering to or manifesting religion" but rather, "extremely faithful" "adhering firmly and devotedly to a cause or idea". If ritual is looked at in these terms then it can apply to a vast number of actions.* (Please note that there is a difference between ritual and habit-the particular way one brushes ones teeth every morning is habit, not ritual.)
Delattre's idea is closest to mine, but I go one step further in that ritual isn't characterized merely by rehearsed symbolic action, but by action/feeling which is compelled. Ritual,then, for the purpose of this thesis, is a fervent and particular method of essential action/mood in which symbolic behaviour and emotional attitudes exist and are practiced as an expression of our concern and preoccupation with a personal idea of Reality*. (Reality with a capital "R" refers here to an all-encompassing reality which not only includes, but elevates the position of the spiritualthe heartfelt. It is not by accident that spiritual contains our word in question, ritual.)
Mircea Eliade in The Sacred and the Profane begins to talk about ritual and its relationship to the structures we construct and the spaces we inhabit. First he establishes a differentiation between sacred and profane experience that "will be apparent when we come to describe sacred space and the ritual building of the human habitation, or the varieties of the religious experience of time, or the relations of religious man to nature and the world of tools, or the consecration of human life itself,

religious man to nature and the world of tools, or the consecration of human life itself, the sacrality with which man's vital functions...can be charged." (p. 14)
"There is, then, a sacred space, and hence a strong, significant space; there are other spaces that are not sacred and so are without structure or consistency, amorphous....a sacred space possesses existential value for religious man....for profane experience, space is homogenous and neutral; no break qualitatively differentiates the various parts of its mass." (p. 20-21).
Eliade views Corbusier's attitude that the house is a machine to live in as a perfect example of profane space. The home has seen a gradual desacralization throughout history and Eliade proposes that the house is not and should not be an object, "it is the universe that man constructs for himself by imitating the paradigmatic creation of the gods, the cosmogony." "The house is sanctified, in whole or part, by a cosmological symbolism or ritual." (p. 56-57) "...cosmic symbolism is ground in the very structure of the habitation. The house is an imago mundi. (An idealized, symbolic vision of the world.) The sky is conceived as a vast tent supported by a central pillar; the tent pole or the central post of the house is assimilated to the Pillars of the World..." (p. 53) The threshhold of the house also holds symbolic importance. It is a boundary, a place surrounded with ritual (bowing, kissing, a pious touching of the hand) and protected by guardians. (*The threshhold isn't so easily defined today as sometimes a distinct boundary between inside and out does not exist. There has, in many instances, been a melding of the two.)
In a similar vein, Christian Norberg-Schulz discusses meaningful space in Intentions in Architecture though he relates it, not to the religious per se, but to the cultural/historical. Although Norberg-Schulz doesn't use the word ritual, the intention and similarity exist. "Only through cultural symbolization can architecture show that the daily life has a meaning which transcends the immediate situation, that it forms a part of a cultural and historical continuity." (p. 126) He also proposes that "a building only reveals its full meaning when seen as a part of a symbol-milieu, where all objects carry value as participants in human actions which are never indifferent." (p. 88)
"We can establish the fact that any action needs a certain space.... The form thus is often determined by the fact that most functions consist in a series of actions which are connected with different places." (p. 114-115) Although Norberg-Schulz makes this statement in reference to a simple functional framework, it can be extended to ritual.
By so doing, the meaning of that space has the potential to surpass its functional aspects and become imbued with a more specific power. Eliade began a discussion of this in relation to the house. Remember he describes Le Corbusier's notion of "a machine to live in" as profane-- responding to the functional aspects of the program but failing to go "beyond"-- into the power and meaning of the rituals associated with the home.
Emilio Ambasz believes the "designers real task begins once functional and behavioural needs have been satisfied. We create objects not only because we hope to satisfy the pragmatic needs of man, but mainly because we need to satisfy the demands of our passions and imagination." (Domus, p. 35).
Anyone can build a shelter that fulfills the functional requirements of day to day livinga place to sleep, eat, and go to the bathroom. It is done everyday everywhere across the world and in most of these cases it is simply that-a functional shelter, a house. However, a home is something different, something beyond this. It is, like Eliade states, the Center of Our World. For him, the construction of a dwelling is a ritual transformation where two things happen: (1) it is assimilated to the cosmos and (2) it is a repetition of the "paradigmatic acts of the gods by virtue of which the world came to birth..." (p.52)

Before a home, or any building for that matter, can be designed as an expression of the ritual(s) it houses, those specific rituals have to be recognized. Each room or area can be designed according to the ritual that takes place there. Ronald Grimes gives a set of questions which can be used in order to help understand the ritual and perhaps provide some insight into the subsequent design. The following are excerpted from his eleven page list:
Where does the ritual occur-indoors, outdoors, in a randomly chosen place, in a special place? If the place is constructed....what traditions or guidelines, both practical and symbolic, were followed in building it? What styles of architecture does (can) the building follow or reject?
If the space is a natural one, is it high or tow, secluded or accessible? How rigidly are its boundaries defined? Do they seem clear or amorphous? What objects, such as trees or rocks, have special status, and which function merely as background?
What rites mark the transitions in and out of it? Are the roads and ways leading to the site considered sacred? Are journeys to and from the place ritualized?
What shape is the space? What size is it? Do participants regard its shape as symbolic? Is the place a replica or analogue (see Bachelard) of anything else? What are the functions of color and light in the place? What actions do they activate, discourage? Does sight, sound, or some other sense seem best provided for?
How is the place oriented? What directional symbolism is designed into it? Do up and down, left and right, back and front have values associated with them?
Are participants territorial or possessive of the space? To what extent is their identity bound up with the geography of the place? How are boundaries and thresholds marked-by stones, walls, gestures, or strips of no-man's-land?
What hierarchies does the space facilitate? Where are the most private spots, the most public
What and how many, objects are associated with the ritual?What are their physical characteristics? What is done with the object? Where is it kept? What does it symbolize?
How did the object become special? What would occur if it were missing? Is it valued more for what it means or for what it does?
At what time of day does the ritual occur-night, dawn, dusk, midday? At what season? Is it a one-time affair or a recurring one?
Are solar, lunar, or other natural cycles significant for the timing of the ritual? What lifecycle rhythms are significant for the rituals?
How does the ritual time coincide or conflict with ordinary, social times?
What is the duration of the ritual? Does it have phases, interludes, breaks?
Are ancestors felt to be present during the rite? Was there a past or mythical time which is a model for the present enactment? What role does age play in the content and officiating of the ritual? Does the event emphasize beginnings or endings?
Does the ritual employ non-linguistic sounds such as animal sounds, shouting, or moaning? Are there discernible ocnnections between rhythmic or musical patterns and social circumstances. What

moods do the sounds most often evoke? What is the role of silence in the ritual?
Do the people consider it important to talk about the ritual, to talk during the ritual?
How important is language to the performance of the rite? What styles of language appear in it--incantation, poetry, narrative, rhetoric, creeds, invective, dialogue? In what tones of voice do people speak?
What ritual roles and offices are operative-teacher, master, elder, priest, etc? Which roles extend beyond the ritual arena, and which are confined to it? Who participates most fully, most marginally? Do participants undergo a transformation of consciousness such that they are regarded as divine beings or sacred vessels? What kindhip metaphors are important in the rite-brother, mother, grandfather?
What feelings do people have while they are performing the rite, after the rite? At what moments are mystical religious experiences heightened? Which is most emphasized-action, feeling, thought, or intention.
What kinds of actions are performed as part of the ritual-sitting, bowing dancing, lighting fires, touching, avoiding, gazing, walking? In what order do they occur? What actions are symbolic?
What qualities of action persist-quickness, slowness, verticality, hesitancy, mobility, exuberance, restraint?
What senses are most often used? How does the physical context influence the actions?
What actions are inner-directed, outer-directed? What actions are regarded as work, as play?
Now that we have definitions and descriptions of ritual and even a set of questions to ask to help understand them, we can look at specific buildings, particularly the house and boat club -the programmatic elements with which this thesis is concerned By looking at examples of these two genres we will gain a clearer picture of how architecture can be a specific expression of ritual.
Circulation paths, level changes, volumetric variety, hierarchical arrangement of spaces, distinct degrees of lighting, directional siting, inward/outward orientation and building forms--all of these can be utilized to enhance the sense of ritual in architectural space.
Since each person and each family has their own fervent beliefs and practices, it is almost laughable to suggest that "speculative housing" (housing for no client) can fulfill such individual needs. However, this project is not intending to design 8 homes for 8 different 'programs'. Rather, it will try to provide a setting where the overall planning provides a "place" that is capable of fulfilling collective and individual needs.
In this day and age a house can still express ritual but the expression and meaning, and in fact, the ritual has changed. Eliades premise that the house is a symbol of the birth of the cosmos becomes my premise that the home is an expression of our ideas about our place in the cosmos at this time. It is a private space that has the potential of expressing our very personal values and beliefs. It is a personal space that has the potential of re-iterating and reinforcing our private, 'religious' rituals both as individuals and as a family.

Charles Moore, in a design for his home in Orinda, California 1961, (III. 24) gives us an example of a man creating his own world according to his own personal rituals. By utilizing aedicules to define his living and bathing areas he has not only indicated a functional difference but elevated the importance of them. That is to say, he has shown what is of importance to him.
In his design for the Burns residence he dealt with "positioning landmarks in a private inner world." (Moore, Body Mermory and Architecture, p. 127). For this couple music is prized. In fact, the owner's pipe organ has been given a special space--a stage--in the living room. This room has also been given a simpler shape and dimmer light than those in the rest of the house, to separate it out.
John Lautner designed a home for Allan Turner and Jude Risk-Turner in Aspen, Colorado. (III. 25). Lautner states that "architecture represents the time and portrays the time and thinking of a people in a specific area..." (Architectural Digest p. 108). His designs strive to include those "all-too-frequently neglected human qualities of romance, mystery and delight". The Turners are intrigued by the hills and snow and the "ever-changing episodes of the mountain scene". To address this, Lautner has provided a home that mimics the hills and changes scenes within itself-from the mysteriously lit circular stairway to the brightly, naturally lit living room complete with a corner that actually pivots and is at once a space indoors and out.
Ron Krueck and Keith Olsen redesigned an apartment for Celia Marriott in Mies' Lake Shore Apartment building in Chicago. (III. 26). For her, the views and changing skies and play of light on the Lake probably provide a sense of wonder. Krueck and Olsen designed her apartment to maximize that same sense. "Enter the apartment at any time of day and the effect is spellbinding. At dawn, the vision is radiant; in the afternoon, the mood is of being becalmed on a silvery sea; at night, the scene ranges from serene to theatrical" (House and Garden p. 112). By using different sized holes in perforated metal screens that overlap, a moire is created. Iridescent colors are used on closet walls and pocket doors, and "ribbons and dots of color applied to the floor and ceiling pick up the moire..." and high gloss colors everywhere else are utlized to reflect every ray of light "just as the lake beyond the window bounces the sun into the space."
Emilio Ambasz in his design in California for a cooperative of grape growers "posits a rather complex interrelationship between the ritual of growth and the harvest and the ritual of community building that actually takes place beneath the grape arbors." (Design Quarterly, p. 10). Here the houses are grouped literally under a roof of grape leaves, "hidden from the sky and protected by this raised soil of natural material". (Architecture and Urbanism p. 57). This can signify the importance to these people of their livilihood to life itselfthe grape arbors provide shelter as well as an economic base.

In the house in Cordoba, the architecture is used to create its own myth, its own ritual which coincides with the couple who lives here. (III. 27).
The two right-angle walls assume, in one sense, the role of facades denoting a real building behind, while in another, they reveal their true nature as masks. There, architectural language, congealed in the act of telling its own story, conjures up brilliant artifices and recalls sensual suggestions: two steep and narrow cantilevered stairs emphasize the perspective of the walls' encounter reaching, when they meet on top, a quiet balcony for meditation; two veins of water cascade in troughs chiselled inside the walls as handrails to meet, rumorous and turbulent, in the middle of the patio in a semi-circular well."
"....Ambasz conceives of the house in terms of consistent movement, as a journey into the interior of the house, entering and penetrating, as it were, from the sonor js spaciousness of the exterior into the mysterious intimacy of the veiled interior. The axis of descent is an intimate line, delicate and descends to re-energize (in time) and to recover pre-natal peace.'
"The triangular patio is a wide caesura device which makes less dramatic the tale of descent. It softens and mellows the descent by providing an unexpected pause which domesticates time and space, establishing a filter between the outside reduced to graspable size and the recovered dimension of the house. The Cordoba house is a 'primeveal dwelling as well as a trace of Architectura Aurea--it is a cell for him and an expanse for her; reconciliation takes place in the patio." (Architecture and Urbanism p. 55-56)
In conclusion "G. Durand writes it is always the notions of descent and return as well as the archtypes of intimacy which dominate the images of the house. The house's imagery is never just wall, facade, pinnacle, or even less, construction. It is abode. The house is, thusly, abode, the place where we abide. It is the poetical answer to intimacy rooted in space. As Ambasz writes 'the house is not the answer to the pragmatic needs of man (that is the task of building) but the answer to his passions and imagination." (Architecture and Urbanism p. 57).

From the small boat house on the river to the large yacht basins at the seaside, boat clubs, like homes, come in all types, expressing different needs and rituals. One which caters to the weekend motorboat cruiser has a set of rituals alien to the avid sailor or skuller. Most boating facilities are located on the shoreline of some body of water. And many address the water and/or a nautical theme in some way. However, surprisingly enough, the boat club doesn't have to be associated with a site on the water, as is the case with the New York Yacht Club (which probably incorporates ritual stronger than most clubs located on a waters edge.)
John Walter Wood, in a boathouse on the St. Lawrence River, places his building half on shore/half in the water. The separation in siting re-iterates the distinction of land-based activity (eating, sitting, sleeping) and water based (canoe house, boat workshop and launch house). Appropriately enough, at the shore line itself is where this distinction is made. A shoreline forms then, a datum distinguishing not only where river meets its bank but where water activity meets land activity.
Joseph Emberton has placed his design for the Royal Corinthian Yacht Club (Burnham-on-Couch England) in a similar siting, but here the clear land/water distinction becomes blurred. (III. 28, 29 & 30). The service area (bathrooms, kitchens, stairways) are landside. The rest of the spaces (lounges, game rooms, bedrooms, verandas) could be perceived as neither on land or over water-- This portion of the structure is supported by pylons on the beach. At low tide the building seems completely "landed", yet at high tide, only half (service area) is landside while the other half appears to float on the water. This design then, can be assimilated to the idea that a boat is a link between land and water. This similarity in design occurs in other ways too: "Every sailor is aware that each stay, sheet, halyard, sail and spar of a ship must be conditioned by rigid requirements derived from absolute necessity and
years of experience. The architect, therefore..has essayed to produce the same
inevitable reduction to fundamental terms....Concrete and steel replace canvas and hemp, but the principle is maintained throughout. The sport of small boat sailing demands of the architect that he shall produce a structure which is part ship, part grandstand, and part dormitory. Each must have its place yet may not interfere with the others...."(Architectural Forum 1938, p. 11-13)
The Sausolito Yacht Club by Theodore Boutmy (III. 31 & 32) is perched on pilings and hovers in and over San Fransisco Bay--there is no diffusion between land and water here. The club becomes an island which the members reach via a bridge landside or a stairway from the boat float waterside. As the "site" commands an 180 view of the bay, the building is wrapped with a deck thereby encouraging members to be at the club but outside, viewing the water/sailing which, after all, is the purpose for them being there.
Robert Mathew Johnson-Marshall and Partners set their building totally back from the water's edge in their design for the Grafham Sailing club in Huntingdonshire, England. This structure expresses two important qualities--(1) that it is a private club and (2) that it is intended for the viewing of the sport. The entry fagade is devoid of windows-it is a solid mass punctuated with two entry doors reached by two sets of stairs (III. 33). Yet on the fagade facing the reservoir, it gradually opens up from a covered patio on the lowest level, to the second level which encloses locker rooms and

hence places windows at ceiling height (III. 34). Finally the third level is totally opened up by sheathing three sides completely in glass, allowing a panoramic view of the entire reservoir and "provides for the multifarious social activities undertaken by the club."
As in the fagade treatment, the circulation through the building is one of ascent to the space of hierarchical importance--the "social club" and viewing platforms.
Frank Lloyd Wright uses a completely opposite approach in his design for the Yahara Boat Club in Madison, Wisconsin. While inside the club no view is afforded of the Lake or outside events. And even while on the outside deck one must peer through eye-level port holes in the wall. Hence the building has become a complete separation of land and water.
The last extreme is Warren and Wetmore's New York Yacht Club--at West 44th St. in New York City, this edifice is nowhere near the water and yet it incorporates the ritual to the hilt. This is a club steeped in tradition of the no-nonsense sailor. This is not the man who simply likes to go out for an afternoon sail for relaxation and pleasure. This is the man who competes in international sailing regattas and who does so out of a sense of inner need--religious fervor. The building exudes this preoccupation for it itself is an expression of complete involvement in the sport. From the w. 44th St. fagade to the grill room, there is no mistaking what drives the users of this building.
Nautical and sailing themes abound. Above the entry door appears a bas-relief of Neptune (god of the sea) and to the sides are crests composed of anchors and rigging. Inside, one ascends the stairs to the second floor and finds the model room--an enormous room filled floor to ceiling with models of sailing crafts (III. 35). Even the windows in this room convey the preoccupation--they are shaped in a form resembling the swell of a wave and imbue the room with a sense of motion (III. 36). The grill room "Between Decks" is designed as its name suggests-- one is literally in the hull of the boat (III. 37).
This examination of sailing clubs, both old and new, reveal all the different ways the ritual of such a club can be incorporated into its design. There is no set standard and yet each club is given a stronger sense of meaning in architecture.
At this time we can turn to the project at hand--The Acacias--a residential development centered around a sailing club.

As stated in the programmatic chapter, the design aspect of this thesis project combines housing and a boating club. The residential component results from a commonly held love for sailing and the sea. Ritual sailing requires teamwork and each individual has his/her job to insure, excuse the pun, smoothe sailing. In like terms, a home in this development is not out there all alone--it is part of the whole and all the units plus the club should work together to provide a "place" that demonstrates the ritual of living by and sailing on the sea.
"....the house is sanctified, in whole or part, by a cosmological symbolism or ritual. This is why settling somewhere-building a village or merely a house-represents a serious decision, for the very existence of man is involved; he must, in short, create his own world and assume the responsibility of maintaining and renewing it." (Eliade p. 56)
The site-where to build is of the utmost importance. If the individual is spurred by the power of the sea, it would be disadvantageous, nay, profane, to settle in Kansas. For this person then, choosing to build by the sea shore is the first step in constructing a home that can fulfill his spiritual (and ritual) needs. This thesis addresses those who feel the power of the sea. This person is driven, not just by contemplating the waters' mystery and power as he sits along the shore, but, through sailing, the need to become one or perhaps even conquer the sea.


POETIC: 1. Of or pertaining to poetry. 2. Having a quality or style characteristic of poetry.... 5. Characterized by romantic imagery.
POETRY: 5. The essence of or characteristic quality possessed by a poem. 6. The quality of a poem, as possessed by an object, act, or experience.
POEM: 4. A creation, object, or experience thought to embody the lyrical beauty or structural perfection characteristic of poetry. (American Heritage Dictionary, p. 956 and 957.)
Synonyms of poetic include : visionary, idealistic, quixotic, romantic, lyrical, dramatic, pastoral, amoebaeic, idyllic, poetico-mythological, poetico-mystical, poetico-philosophic.
And to think when people hear the word poetic or poem they immediately, and almost exclusively, think of the written word. Obviously, the definition and implications include far more and, I believe, can include architectural space. Poetic space--of course: It is precisely this type of space and the subsequent emotional experience that is the original impetus for most who pursue the field of architecture. (It certainly isn't the monetary rewards!)
Gaston Bachelard, the French philosopher, has devoted an entire book to the subject The Poetics of Space in which he traces specifically, the poetics of the house--a particularly personal space. And architects such as Luis Barragon and Emilio Ambasz devote their life's work to pursuing this ideal: Bachelard's words are translated into built form.
We associate the house (or as Bachelard contends, our first house) with protection. It is the first space we "know" and it is not simply an object that shelters us physically but also emotionally. It is in the house that we are, potentially, most "at home". I think this phrase to feel at home, includes all the implications that Bachelard goes to great lengths to describe. What does one feel when one feels at home? It refers, not to physicalism but to metaphysicalism.
The former pertains to "the doctrine that all phenomena can be described in spatiotemporal terms and consequently that any descriptive scientific statement can in principle be reduced to an empirically verifiable physical statement." The later, on the other hand, is beyond physicalism--it describes an "emotional level which contemplates a world beyond this physical one"--a "spiritual essence underlying physical realities". Feeling at home is an emotional and spiritual feeling of being protected, of feeling secure, of feeling one with one's-self and the cosmo--all of this for reasons possibly inexplicable. It is simply a feeling.
Just what is it about a house that allows us to transpose mere habitation to feeling at home? It is precisely this question that Bachelard addresses in The Poetics of Space. Although my purpose here is not to give a book report, it is important to succinctly address the overall important issues about which Bachelard writes, and which form the basis for discussion of poetic space in general and in particular, the poetic space Georgio de Chirico captures in his paintings and Luis Barragon and Emilio Ambasz in their architecture. (Who, not surprisingly, were influenced by the paintings of de Chirico.)

"The great function of poetry is to give us back the situations of our dreams." (Bachelard, p. 15) "To read [experience] poetry is essentially to daydream." (Ibid., p.
17). Extending this to the house, Bachelard postulates that "The house we were born in is more than an embodiment of home, it is also an embodiment of dreams. Each one of its nooks and corners was a resting-place for daydreaming. And often the resting-place particularized the daydream." (p. 15) "...the house shelters daydreaming, the house protects the dreamer, the house allows one to dream in peace." (p. 6)
He also writes of the metaphysics of abiding:
"It is body and soul [the house]. It is the human beings first world. Before he is "cast into the world," as claimed by certain hasty metaphysics, man is laid in the cradle of the house. And always, in our daydreams, the house is a large cradle. A concrete metaphysics cannot neglect this fact, this simple fact, all the more, since this fact is a value, an important value, to which we return in our daydreaming. Being is already a value. Life begins well, it begins enclosed, protected, all warm in the bosom of the house."
"From my viewpoint, from the phenomenologists viewpoint, the conscious metaphysics that starts from the moment when the being is 'cast into the world' is a secondary metaphysics. It passes over the preliminaries, when being is being-well, when the human being is deposited in a being-well, in the well-being originally associated with being. To illustrate the metaphysics of consciousness we should have to wait for the experiences during which being is cast out, that is to say, thrown out, outside the being of the house, a circumstance in which the hostility of men and of the universe accumulates. But a complete metaphysics, englobing both the conscious and the unconscious, would leave the privilige of its values within. Within the being, in the being of within, an enveloping warmth welcomes being. Being reigns in a sort of earthly paradise of matter, dissolved in the comforts of an adequate matter. It is as though in this material paradise, the human being were bathed in nourishment, as though he were gratified with all the essential benefits."
"When we dream of the house we were born in, in the utmost depths of revery, we participate in this original warmth, in this well-tempered matter of the material paradise...." (p. 7).
From this discussion of the house as a totality, he then goes into the specific rooms and ideas, layouts and furnishings that all separately and together provide the spaces that we need and crave to "feel at home". The basement, the attic, the nest', the shell, the nooks the crannies, the corners, the drawers, the chests, the miniature, the immense, the outside, the inside-all are component parts capable of providing the space to daydream and to feel at home.
From going down into the cellar to going up into the attic, the traditional house provides a variety of spatial types all inviting perhaps different types of comfort. The cellar-signifying on the one hand the foundation, the support system; on the other, the depths of the earth, the cave, mysterious underground passages, " is first and foremost the dark entity of the house, the one that partakes of subterranean forces. When we dream there, we are in harmony with the irrationality of the depths." (p. 18)
In opposition, stands the attic-the light, the sky, the tower, the adventure in the heights. "In fact, at the very end of countless tortuous, narrow passages, the reader emerges into a tower. This is the ideal tower that haunts all dreamers of old houses: it is "perfectly round" and there is "brief light" from "a narrow window." It also has a vaulted ceiling, which is a great principle of the dream of intimacy. For it constantly reflects intimacy at its center." (P. 24).
The stairs provide the passageway for going down to the cellar and going up to the attic. A twofold problem with stairs, and hence multi-level houses, exists nowadays: One, the fact that many "houses" now are apartments in a highrise, or even ranch-like-spread out on one floor. There is no cellar. Neither is there an attic. All the

rooms are homogeneous, not even allowing the imagination to suppose it were a cellar or an attic. Second, even in a highrise, the elevator has "done away with the heroism of stair climbing so that there is no longer any virtue in living up near the sky. Home has become mere horizontality. The different rooms that compose living quarters jammed into one floor all lack one of the fundamental principles for distinguishing and classifying the values of intimacy." (p. 27).
And yet, given the different type of living (not to even mention daydreaming) that we do in each room, it seems imperative to distinguish the varying degrees of intimacy, one from the other. "Nests" or "shells" can be created. Bachelard likens a nest to an image of a simple house. "A nest- house is never young. Indeed, speaking as a pedant, we might say that it is the natural habitat of the function of inhabiting. For not only do we come back to it, but we dream of coming back to it, the way a bird comes back to its nest, or a lamb to the fold." (p.99) I can accept this metaphor and yet take it one step further. In one room we can surround ourselves with all the things we collect and arrange them into a "shape" that mirrors our own "shape". It is my belief that the things we collect and display are signs about our inner (and outer) being. These "things" can reflect more about us than we do about ourselves. One can go into a person's room with that person absent, and I believe, be able to read the "shape" of that person. In other words, we shape our nests in a form that echoes our "inner shape". In this way, we are like birds in creating their nests: "In reality, a bird's tool is its own body, that is, its breast, with which it presses and tightens its materials until they have become absolutely pliant, well-blended and adapted to the general plan...The house is a birds very person; it is its form and its most immediate effort, I shall even say, its suffering...." (Bachelard quoting Jules Michelet, p. 100.
Bachelard also includes the thought by Joseph Joubert "It would be interesting to find out if the forms that birds give their nests, without ever having seen a nest, have not some analogy with their own inner constitutions.")
If a nest has some analogy to an inner constitution then perhaps the shell has an even stronger one. If the nest, as a form, provides impetus for imagination, it is the formation of a shell "that remains mysterious" and hence encourages daydream. The shell is a part of not apart from its inhabitant. It is formed from itself, not from collected things. As humans, we will not, of course, have our shell-houses attached to use physically, but can create "chambers" that echo those found in a shell. Bernard Palissy (16th century scholar, potter, enamalist, architect and landscape gardener) writes of constructing his own shell-house: "The exterior...will be of masonry made with large uncut stones, in order that the outside should not seem to have been man-built. When the masonry is finished, I want to cover it with several layers of enameling, from the top of the vaulted ceiling down to the floor. This done, I should like to build a big fire in it...until the aforesaid enameling has melted and coated the aforesaid masonry..." "In this way, the inside of the chamber would seem to be made of one piece...and would be so highly polished that the lizards and earthworms that come in there would see themselves in a mirror." (Bachelard quoting Palissy, p. 131). Bachelard continues, "Here a man wants to live in a shell. He wants the walls that protect him to be as smoothly polished and as firm as if his sensitive flesh had to come in direct contact with them. The shell confers a daydream of purely physical intimacy. Bernard Palissy's daydream expressed the function of inhabiting in terms of touch." (p. 131)
"With nests and shells, I was quite obviously in the presence of transpositions of the function of inhabiting. My aim was to study chimerical or crude types of intimacy, whether light and airy, like the nest in the tree, or symbolic of a life rigidly encrusted in

stone, like the mollusk. Now should I like to turn my attention to impressions of intimacy which, however short-lived or imaginary, have nevertheless a more human root, and do not need transposition...."
"The point of departure of my reflections is the following: every corner in a house, every angle in a room, every inch of secluded space in which we like to hide, or withdraw into ourselves, is a symbol of solitude for the imagination; that is to say, it is the germ of a room, or of a house." (p. 136).
The corner, although open, is a hiding place. An immobility and inner retreat occurs while sitting in a corner. Why else would a teacher send a misbehaving pupil to sit in the corner? The answer, to sit quietly alone and contemplate the consequences of that misbehavoir. It is a space that evokes turning inward. I submit that it doesn't have to elicit the negative connotation of punishment--it can just as easily be a place to contemplate the consequences of favorable behavoir as unfavorable. Likewise, it can provide a place for dreaming of anything the unconscious sends to the surface.
The unconscious is incredibly affected by conscious musings of the miniature and the immense--the micro and the macro. "If a poet looks through a microscope or a telescope, he always sees the same thing." (p. 172). Both provide vehicles for inner escape. Hermann Hesse, again as included in The Poetics of Space wrote a particularly beautiful tale that describes this action: "A prisoner paints a landscape on the wall of his cell showing a miniature train entering a tunnel. When his jailers come to get him, he asks them 'politely to wait a moment, to allow me to verify something in the little train in my picture. As usual, they started to laugh, because they considered me to be weak-minded. I made myself very tiny, entered into my picture and climbed into the little train, which started moving, then disappeared into the darkness of the tunnel. For a few seconds longer, a bit of flaky smoke could be seen coming out of the round hole. Then this smoke blew away, and with it the picture, and with the picture, my person..." (p. 150).
In contemplating tiny details, one can become transported by a self-imposed, almost hypnotic state and create entire worlds within that one miniscule fragment. Likewise, in the contemplation of the immense--say the heavens, or the sea--that same inner alertness and creativity is allowed. "And this contemplation produces an attitude that is so special, an inner state that is so unlike any other, that the daydream transports the dreamer outside the immediate world to a world that bears the mark of infinity." (p. 183).
Whether it is contemplating the paintings of Georgio de Chirico (or Yves Tanguy for that matter) or experiencing the architectural space of Luis Barragon and Emilio Ambasz, this same special attitude, this same unique inner state surfaces.
I originally experienced this unique inner state and began my investigations of this special attitude over 10 years ago in my undergraduate thesis.
"I cannot even remember the first time I experienced it, nor the situation that spurred it. This experience can be described as transcendental, affecting me emotionally rather than rationally. However, I did not realize this until it recurred. Strangely enough, different settings and situations sparked these recurrances.

One afternoon I was surrounded by an active crowd: motion and noise were very much present around me. Yet I felt alone, suspended in my mind, away from all these people. Despite the noise and movement, I heard and felt nothing--the noise turned to silence and the moving crowd into an inanimate mass so that complete silence and stillness enveloped me. I felt immobilized by awe-floating in my mind.
Another time at night, I was walking through a dark and deserted arcade. Though no one else was around, I sensed a presence-a presence of life-perhaps of the arcade, perhaps of the people who had passed through the space at an earlier hour. This sense subdued me and suspended my awareness of the real world; silence and stillness once more enveloped me.
And still another evening, a sunset shifted me to this other, perhaps fourth, dimension. The luminous reds and oranges of the sunset were bright and screaming. Yet, being in this other level of consciousness, I read them as calm and hushed_____
All theses situations seemed to be illogical and explicable only as figments of a mad mind. Some enigmatic quality (people, places and things taking on new and different realities) was the common denominator.
Though this was the only realized common attribute, my response-finding myself on another level of reality-also served to unite them. These incidents were never frightening: rather, I felt awed and enlightened by the mysterious yet calming silence and suspension of time and place that enveloped me as a result of the experience.
The phenomenon in all cases was spurred by three-dimensial reality-one set in the real, "bump-world. However this summer while touring through the Modern Museum of Art in Paris ...I came to Georgio de Chirico's Portrait of Guilliame Apollinaire. Once more I felt drawn into another space and time..." (Belz P-1-3).
At the time I studied metaphysical and surrealist paintings and attempted to capture similar characteristics in my own photographic artwork. Now, through independant research I have become familiar with the architectural work of Barragon and Ambasz. Both of these men capture in their work the qualities de Chirico captured in his paintings, and hence, the same sense of awe, the same sense of drowning within the contemplations of the mind to a new state of awareness exist. It is these qualities and the subsequent emotional experience I wish to capture in my architectural design.
Gaston Bachelard premises his theory of poetics on the belief that architectural space can indeed inspire dreams. Georgio de Chirico indeed based his metaphysical oeuvre on capturing the dreams that certain Italian piazzas inspired in him:
"While passing through Turin in 1911, de Chirico discovered a new dimension of reality hidden in the buildings and squares." (Belz, p. 16).
"This innovation is a strange and profound poetry, infinitely mysterious and solitary, based on Stimmung (which might be translated as atmosphere) based, I say, on the Stimmung of an autumn afternoon when the weather is clear and the shadows are longer than in summer, for the sun is beginning to lower." (Belz quoting Soby, p. 16).
De Chirico paints in two dimension the type of spaces that Barragon and Ambasz create three dimensionally. Ardengo Soffici, in speaking of de Chirico's creations asserts:
"By means of almost infinite escapes--of arcades and facades, of bold straight lines, of looming masses of simple colors, of almost funereal lights and shadows--he ends in fact by expressing this sense of vastness, solitude, immobility and ecstacy..." (Soby p. 48) (III. 38)

This statement could just as well be addressing the architecture of Barragon. An important point to note is that de Chirico (and Barragon and Ambasz) "does not attempt in his art to describe (visually portray) this second level of reality. [This second level being the 'daydream' world] Primarily, it becomes his means to understanding this hidden reality which is a psychic one 'consisting in the poetic emotion of the poet himself and secondarily, it becomes a psychic influence on the observer. The painting [or architecture] does not and is not meant to show the viewer the meta-level, rather, it should raise a reaction in the beholder's mind that intuits an existence of a reality beyond the empirical world: the purpose is not to define but to spur the imagination towards personal investigations." (Belz, p. 17-18).
Luis Barragon indeed creates settings ripe for this type of investigation. Ambasz likens Barragons work to de Chirico's:
"In the de Chirico-like settings he creates, the wall is both the supreme entity and the inhabitant of a larger metaphysical landscape, a screen for revealing the hidden colors of Mexico's almost white sun and a shield for suggesting never seen presences. His magnificent fountains and carefully constructed plazas seem to stand as great architectural stages for the promenade of mythological beings...." (Ambasz, Preface).
The statements Barragon makes about his own work is extremely reminiscent of Bachelard's thesis:
"My house is my refuge, an emotional piece of architecture, not a cold piece of convenience."
"I believe in an 'emotional architecture.' It is very important for human kind that architecture should move by its beauty; if there are many equally valid technical solutions to a problem, the one which offers the user a message of beauty and emotion, that one is architecture."
"Any work of architecture which does not express serenity is a mistake. That is why it has been an error to replace the protection of walls with today's intemperate use of enormous glass windows."
"The construction and enjoyment of a garden accustoms people to beauty, to its instinctive use, even to its pursuit."
"I believe that architects should design gardens to be used, as much as the houses they build, to develop a sense of beauty and the taste and inclination toward the fine arts and other spiritual values." (Ambasz quoting Barragon, p. 8).
Although Barragon treated all his work and building types (homes, chapels, apartment buildings, playgrounds, gardens and plazas) with the same sensitivity, I will only address his master plans and designs for residential subdivisions.
From 1945-1950 Barragon was working on El Pedregal, a subdivision in a volcanic area. (III. 39). The master plan he devised included suburban plots, road system, water supply layout, public landscaping and ornamentation. The site itself was comprised of purplish gray lava rock formations. "Seduced by the savage beauty of its strange vegetation and the ominous shapes of its lava formations, Barragan began to

evolve the idea...of transforming the inhospitable El Pedregal into a livable garden, where Man and Nature could become reconciled. He felt it was a holy mission.
"Barragans plan was to create a residential area, respectful of both the existing lava formations and the extraordinary natural vegetation. Rather than houses, Barragan had in mind perhaps a vision closer to the ancient Persian concept of living quarters: he conceived of the garden as the soul of the house--the place where guests are received. He perceived of rooms as simple retreats meant just for sleeping, the storage of belongings, and shelter from hostile weather." (p. 11).
The roads, pathways, pools and walls flow as if they were formed by the flow of the lava. "The houses were required to be surrounded by high lava rock walls" that seem to loom out of the landscape. These hard-edged surfaces were contrasted with the softness of spraying fountains and pools spilling water over their rims (III. 40). Water also flowed along the tops of walls that were stained "rust, pale green, pale blue-and sometimes painted bright solid pink". The entire development held "the aura of inexorability which classical myths once possessed." If de Chirico had been here first, this is truly what he would have created.
The Towers of Satellite City were built as a symbol of Ciudad Satellite-a residential subdivision north of Mexico City (III. 41). Because of their heights which range from 100-165 feet and their bright color, they act as beacons visible from quite afar. Man standing amidst them is miniaturized and looking up becomes transfixed and moved into a state of awareness, not unlike that reached while contemplating immensity.
If the outstanding natural-site feature at El Pedregal was the lava formations, then at Las Arboledas it must certainly be the eucalyptus trees. Again, he designed the subdivision to accent the natural features and heightened that accent with the use of free-standing walls and again, the filled-to-the-brim water troughs. "A ponderous stillness seems to dwell among the trees, while the shadows of branches are silhouetted across a tall free-standing white wall (III. 42)...Magritte would have appreciated its Surrealist qualities; the Persians would have admired the many meanings water assumes in Barragan's austere ensemble..." (p. 63).
One thing not cited by Ambasz is the smell. Certainly in this eucalyptus forest, reflected off water and shadowed on walls, the feeling of presence in another world would be accentuated by the fresh, wafting scent. Eyes could be closed and the mind attuned to this essence and certainly daydreams would abound to another time and place.
Perhaps Barragan's most famous work is Los Clubes, again a subdivision in Mexico City, catering to equestrian lovers. The subdivision as an entirety and San Cristobal, the residence for Mr. and Mrs. Folke Egerstrom within Los Clubes, incorporate the same elements (III. 43). Here, water and architectural "stage settings" alone form the theme. I dont think I could write descriptions more poetic than Emilio Ambasz:
"As a symbol, he designed a heroically scaled fountain for horses...."
"The magic play of shadows and reflections against solid and liquid surfaces achieves in this fountain lyric perfection...De Chirico, Delvaux, and Magritte must always have known that this fountain existed. A place where cobblestones seem to melt into water the sun will later turn into clouds."

"...The luminous effect is one of classic serenity and mythological beauty--a pagan temple for the communion of horse with rider." (p. 73)
At San Cristobal, Barragan creates an exercise area for the horses composed of walls which "Under the sun, reflected in the pool and enveloped by silence...acquire a legendary significance." With another wall "Barragan introduce with lyric effortlessness two aspects of high ritual: the suggestion of a space beyond, and, even more magically, transubstantiation." (III. 44).
In conclusion "Like Borges, Barragan is the author of one archetypal story inexhaustible reformulated. If the story is a private one, the artistry it expresses belongs to our heritage of great architectural poetry." (p. 91).
Not only is Emilio Ambasz a poetic writer who recognizes the architectural poetry of some of his fellow designers, he himself is a creator of such poems. He too creates metaphysical spaces straight out of a de Chirico painting. "Ambasz sees himself preeminently as a poet....Beauty is his primary goal: his hope is that it will yield harmony." (Architecture and Urbanism, p. 36). "His forte is what he calls the 'poetics' of architecture, a language of form that appeals directly to the senses and emotions, without sacrificing intellectual rigor or technical refinement. He emphasizes the universal human need for surroundings imbued with ritual, myth, and magic..."
(Doublas Brenner, p. 120). He is a visionary architect and even looking at his work through pictures inspires dreams. How powerful it must be to actually physically experience one of his creations! From his plazas designed for Salamanca and Houston to the Celestial Gardens to his recently completed Halsell Botanical Conservatory in San Antonio-Ambasz' work is "out of this world".
Both plazas in plan are the simple geometry of a square and both gradually step down to an area of central focus. In Salamanca (III. 45), honey locust trees are planted and step down along with the terraces. The central area is circular and open, covered with a patterned metal grating allowing light to pass through to a dance hall below. In Houston (III. 46), the terraces contain a grid of square trellised frames that become taller as one descends down toward the central area. Upon these trellises, flowering vines will grow. In the circular middle of this plaza, "water would perpetually stream over the tall edges of a square pool and crash inwards in a circular cascade to some centre from which would constantly rise cooling mist of fine spray ejected at high pressure through tiny nozzles." (Peter Buchanan, p. 52).
Both provide within an urban environment a humane space that enchants and moves the user and invites him to dream. It is the same effect all of Ambasz' work has. Hopefully, his proposed Celestial Gardens will be built. Heaven on earth would be
achieved. "Ambasz has proposed a greenhouse-------inside a greenhouse, with
colored----vapor permeating the cavity---inner and outer membranes." He was
"intrigued by the idea of a transparent building veiled in perpetual mist: amid the arcs of rainbows he could picture lasers simulating stars and planets on the three-dimensional 'screen' of vapor." (III. 47) (Brenner, p. 130-131).

Whether he is designing a public space for use by many or a home for the use of a few, the imaginative reigns. One will remember the discussion of the residence in Cordoba discussed in the previous chapter.
It seems that what Ambasz has done in his work is not just create poetic space which encourages imagination and dreams for others, but vice verse, he has drawn upon his personal visions to provide concretization of a dreamed-of poetic space.
Visionary architecture has been around for centuries-remember Ledoux (III. 48 & 49) and the German Expressionists (III 50 & 51). Yet through Barragan and Ambasz this type of work is finally going beyond the drawing board into three dimensional construction. Hopefully more architects in the future will strive to tap their imaginations and create poetic space for the benefit of all. To become more emotional and passionate and less mechanical can only be a positive move. When asked if his designs are like fairy tales, Ambasz replies: "More than just fairy tales, the fables and the architecture I create are both steeped in mysticism. On the one hand, I am playing with pragmatic elements that come from my period, such as technology;. On the other hand, I am proposing a certain mode of existence which is a different one. This is a search for essential things--being born, being in love, dying. They have to do with existence on an emotional, passionate, and sensual level." (Domus, p. 1).
How can anyone dispute the advantage of that?


A mortal's soul seems Like the water,
From heaven coming To heaven rising Again renewed then To earth descending Ever changing.
Soul of man mortal--Thy likeness to water,
Fate of man mortal--Thy likeness to wind.
Water gives us the advantage of life. Without it we could not exist. Without it this planet could not exist. Seventy-two percent of the Earth's surface is comprised of salt-water oceans, and seventy percent of the human body is water. Water: one of the four elements along with air, fire and earth-yet it has three forms whereas the others have only one. It is simple yet complex; abundant yet scarce; heavy yet soft; laughing yet somber; revealing yet shrouding; colorful yet colorless; healing yet destroying; masculine yet feminine; gentle yet harsh; life giver yet life taker. How can such a simple, necessary element be all these things? How can this element instill serenity in one person yet fear in another? The answers lie beyond personal experience to a religious and mythological past.
Whether one is a creationist or an evolutionist, life was born out of a form of water. First, though, from whence did water come? In Genesis 1:1-2
"In the beginning G-d created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was waste and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." 1:6-10 "And G-d said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters form the waters. And G-d made the firmament and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so." And G-d called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day."
"And G-d said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And G-d called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and G-d saw that it was good..."
On the other side is the scientific theory of the beginning of the earth and water:
"No one can be sure exactly how things happened in the first chapters of the earth's history. There are several versions, and we will follow the most probable and generally accepted account. At first the planet was probably a mass of very hot gas, too hot for the formation of water: when oxygen and hydrogen met their terrific dynamic energy always drove them apart. The white-hot gas was radiating heat at a tremendous rate and consequently was cooling rapidly. As the cooling progressed, the elements began to unite to form compounds. Comparatively soon, as we reckon time in the life of a planet, the elements and compounds began to condense into liquids. The interior of the sphere became liquid as the elements with high boiling points condensed. Convection currents carried the lighter and hotter materials to the surface, where they radiated away their heat. Finally, the surface began

to crust over as the molten material cooled to glowing rocks. About this point in the evolution of the planet water appeared."
"There is a good deal of evidence to indicate that the moon was thrown off from the earth after the crust began to solidify, and that it came from what is now the Pacific Ocean. A single cataclysmic event gave us our great satellite and our largest ocean...."
"Time rolled on; the years became centuries, and the centuries became millions of years. The cooling, which at first had been rapid, progressed more slowly as the temperature fell. The young planet acquire a solid surface of rock. This slaglike crust thickened and became more stable. At last the temperature of the atmosphere sank to a point at which steam could condense, and liquid water appeared. With this event a new chapter in the history of the earth began. Liquid water was to dominate and carve it, slowly preparing it for the advent of life." (King, 34-36).
Indeed life in the beginning came from one form or another of water--be it primordial water or clay (a mixture of water and dust).
"And G-d said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of the heaven. And G-d created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after its kind: and God saw that it was good." (Genesis 1:20-21)
"...But there went up a mist form the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. And the Lord G-d formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." (Genesis 2:6-7)
(Note in The New Oxford annotated Bible: A mist (or flood) probably refers to the water which surged up from the subterranean ocean, the source of fertility.)
Again, on the other, scientific hand:
"Great has been the speculation and diverse the theories as to how, where, and when life began on this planet; but there is general agreement that it started in water...Most biologists believe that life began in the salt water of the primeval oceans, but a few advocate a fresh-water theory...."
"Not only did life begin in water; we may say...that life has never left the water. All life is carried on by and in protoplasm, which one dictionary defines as 'a semi-fluid, albuminous substance, regarded as the ultimate basis of physical life from which all living organisms are developed,' and another as 'the essential substance both of the cell body and nucleus of cells of animals and regarded as the only form of matter in which, or by which, the phenomena of life are manifested.' The other substances of protoplasm are dissolved or suspended in water. Water is essential to protoplasm;

protoplasm is essential to life." (King p. 100).
Other cultures also believe life sprung from water: Ancient Egyptians believed that the first man was born of the mud of the Nile; Ancient Greeks propounded that all terrestrial animals (and even their gods) sprang from the water; And "in some of the legends of the East, of Europe and of Siberia, the bounteous spring from which have come all the creatures of the earth spouts from the ground at the foot of the tree of life." (Wendt, p. 104). Goethe states "All is born of water, all is sustained by water."
That sustenance is not limited to the physical-it also applies to the spiritual.
Souls are enlivened by contemplation of water in all its many forms: "The ethereal loveliness of high fleecy clouds, the gorgeous colors of clouds at dawn and sunset, the massive, resistless movement of glaciers that have covered half a continent, the splendid arch of the rainbow, the glistening lacy symmetry of snow and frost srystalsall are aspects of water." (King, p. 13)
Many of us don't think of water when we think of clouds or the colors at dusk and dawn. Water can be quite colorful-every spectrum in the rainbow, " and large, the bluer the sea the more barren it has been known to fishermen from time immemorial...The color of the sea is affected by clouds, waves and the altitude of the sun...color in the shallow water is usually caused simply by the color of bottom sediments...In some regions...the color of the suspended material has a marked effect on the color of the sea. The Yellow Sea is a typical example. Here, the yellow mud brought to the sea by the great Hwang Ho River gives a vivid hue to parts of the Yellow Sea. The seawater off the mouths of the mighty Amazon is distinctive in color. The brown or reddish color to be seen in this vicinity is due to the lateritic mud which is brought to the sea by this river...the olive-green color of polar seas is due to diatoms; the reddish color of the Red Sea and the Gulf of California, at certain seasons, to the presence of numerous red-colored dinoflagellates." (French p. 59-60).
The Impressionists saw and portrayed colors as refracted by water--both in rivers and oceans and the sky. Rainbows are formed by white light refracted by water crystals in the air. The Impressionists say and painted "rainbows" in all forms of water-oceans, rivers, the skies. After viewing an Impressionist painting of, say, a water lily pond and then seeing the real thing, indeed all the colors can be observed. The water truly is a composite of millions of tiny rainbows reflected off its surface.
Water is not necessarily always so colorful, particularly on gloomy days or at night. Water can be seemingly clear as in a shallow creek or opaque like in a deep, deep dark pool. This "black" water isn't light and gay as in an Impressionist painting, it is foreboding. "Water is no longer a substance that is drunk; it is a substance that drinks. It swallows the shadow like a black syrup." (Bachelard, 1942, p. 54). This portrays an image of death. However, in most cases water still invokes images of life and life sustenance.
Since time immemorial, man has lived by the water because his very life has been dependant on it. In this day and age, though, it is not a necessity to live by a body of water-it is brought to us via modern technology. Yet many are drawn to live by the water for a variety of reasons, some including sheer pleasure others including sheer necessity of the soul. The latter is what concerns us here. The first affinity one feels is

between the water and the self.
As stated earlier, the earth's surface is composed of 72% water while it comprises 70% of our bodies. This correlation can be stretched into philosophical terms. When we look into the water, we look into ourselves. This is literal as well as figurative. The myth of Narcissus is an early account of self reflection. Water is a mirror--it reflects our bodies as well as our souls.
"First, we must understand the psychological advantage of using water for a mirror: water serves to make our image more natural, to give a little innocence and naturalness to the pride we have in our private contemplation....The mirror a fountain provides, then, is the opportunity for open imagination. This reflection, a little vague and pale, suggests idealization." (Bachelard, 1942, p. 20)
This vague reflection invites self-reflection-looking inward, dreaming, poetry. "A pool contains a universe. A fragment of a dream contains an entire soul." (Bachelard, p. 50). We see our selves, our complete, inner selves, reflected in water. A resultant feeling of unity imbues the soul with a sense of serenity and melancholy.* (*As meaning "pensive reflection or contemplation "as opposed to "sadness or depression of the spirits". American Heritage Dictionary, p. 783). Many are drawn to the water for just this reason-it affords them the ability (whether conscious or not) to be at one with themselves.
This sense does not simply come from viewing ones reflection in the water. It can come simply from being on the water. Sailors feel this strongly. Thor Heyerdahl states: "You feel at home with yourself and with nature in a beautiful way at sea-a sort of undisturbed entity which is difficult to experience ashore." (French, p. 21). And Melville alludes to a similar feeling in Moby Dick: "There is, one knows not what sweet mystery about this sea, whose gently awful stirrings seem to speak of some hidden soul beneath...." (French, p. 42). (Perhaps we can infer that the hidden soul is our own.
The mystery of the sea is also a mystery within ourselves.)
Others are drawn to the water out of another concem-it is not to a calling from ones self but from one's "mother":
The sea is for all men one of the greatest and most constant maternal symbols.
The real sea, by itself, would not be enough to entrance humans as it does. The sea sings a song which reaches them on two different levels, the higher and more superficial of which is the less appealing. It is the deeper one...which has from time immemorial ...drawn men to the sea.
"This underlying melody is the maternal voice, the voice of our mother:"
It is not because the mountain is green or the sea blue that we love it, even if we give these reasons for our attraction; it is because some part of us, of our unconscious memories, finds that it can be reincarnated in the blue sea or the green mountain. And this part of us, of our unconscious memories, is always and everywhere a product of our childhood loves, of these loves which in the very beginning went out only to the one who was our source of shelter, our source of food, who

was our mother or our nurse. (Marie Bonaparte)
If life first sprung from the water it is indeed maternal. And like a mother nourishes her child, the waters nourish many people--from providing water to drink to food we eat. Without water there would be no life just as without a mother there would be no child. (Although in this day and age with the onset of test-tube babies, this may not hold true in the future.) The unconscious longing to be near it comes from the soul which intuitively "feels" a connection-the type of connection a "child" feels for his "mother". This soul "feels at home" near the water and even attains a sense of security here. The sound of ocean waves gently lapping the bubbling of a brook; the gurgling of a river, the dripping of rainall are soothing to the spirit (like a mother's laugh) and all instill a feeling of safety, of a oneness between the soul and the water, the child and the mother.
In opposition, we have thundering waves, raging streams, roaring waterfalls and torrential rains. These are all "angry" sounds, much more masculine and for the most part, they instill fear, not safety at all. In fact, there is not even a feeling of unity but rather, one of the need to overcome. This type of water still engages by enraging the soul.
"In its violence, water takes on a characteristic wrath; is largely given all the psychological features of a form of anger...The water becomes spiteful, it changes sex. Turning malevolent, it becomes male." "Violent water is one of the first settings for universal anger" and it is also "a schema for courage". (Bachelard, p. 15,177 & 168).
Masculine water encourages challenge and active (as opposed to passive) imagination. In overcoming the water, fear is also overcome and again a sense of inner oneness is achieved, likely from physical fatigue. Witness the swimmer (in a lake or ocean, not a swimming pool) or the sailor battling rough waters. These people face a violent, unforgiving force--an enemy. Like the fear inside of them it must be overcome.
It is a physical, as well as a mental battle and in the ensuing fight a unity will be achieved with the water one way or another. If the swimmer or sailor "weathers the storm" (no pun intended!) their courage has assuaged their fear and generated instead a euphoric oneness. To go out to sea and come back is, in a sense, not just overcoming fear, but also overcoming death. Bachelard terms this the Charon complex. One will remember from mythology that Charon was the ferryman who steered the boat filled with souls to the land of the dead.
However, if raging waters win, the individual becomes physically, not psychically, united. Like Shakespeare's Ophelia, the body is immersed in the water which takes the life out of the body. From water. Much more apt than from dust... to dust. Perhaps this is one reason why some people, sailors in particular, ask for a burial at sea. They are the ones who truly know from whence they came. In this case the masculine water is again transformed back into the feminine, maternal water.
The duality of water is beginning to come clear-- Feminine vs. masculine; life-giver, life taker. "Water is both friend and enemy to men...their servant and their tyrant. One man dies in the desert because he cannot reach even a little trickle that would give him life. Another drowns because he cannot escape from too much water." (King, p. 14)

Water is mainly thought to have healing properties but it can also destroy. In many cases it is not the water itself but what is in the water that has the power to give or take away health. Throughout history folklore has asserted the healing powers of water.
The Fountain of Youth is purported to stop the aging process and thereby insure immortality.
Romans believed firmly in the curative properties of mineral waters. The great bath houses are one of the first things we think of in conjuring up the Roman Empire. They too felt these were the "springs of health and youthfulness".
This belief in the curing powers of water exists today: "Each year a million pilgrims make their way to Lourdes where, a century ago, Bernadette Soubirous had a vision of the Virgin Mary; thousands of sick people have hoped that immersion in the waters of the grotto there will cure their infirmities." (Wendt, p. 104) Likewise, we have today the prevalent use of hot tubs, mineral baths and vapor caves. Not only do we immerse ourselves in all types of "healing" waters, we drink it too. "Andre Simon, in his formidable Encyclopaedia of Gastronomy, has indexed sixteen waters: aerated, aesculap, Aix-les-Bains, apollinaris, barley, Evian, Hunyadi, Janos, Kissingen, mineral, Perrier, potash, Rosback, soda, table, tonic, Vichy." I bet for each type we could find someone who believes it has healthful properties. But then again, that's a given we established in the beginning-water is essential to life so of course it is healthful!
A point of fact, as yet established, is that there is no such thing as "pure" water. All water has something in it-be it helpful minerals or destructive bacterias. The decline of the once popular Roman baths was due to the spread of disease within those same baths. From near and afar, contaminated water has brought much discomfort to man. Hikers in our own Rocky Mountains drink water from the streams thinking how clean and pure it is. Only within a days time do they regret that decision when they find themselves quite sick! Visitors to Mexico know not to drink the water for similar reasons.
I viewed a quite shocking documentary about contaminated water in rivers in Africa. Local people went to the waters for psychological and religious reasons (cooling off, purification, and healing) only to have microscopic animals enter their bodies through pores. Once inside the human, they multiply and live as parasites. These poor humans are plagued by these parasites that form huge lumps throughout the body and divest them of their rights to a pure, healthy body. The saddest thing of the entire story is that there is no cure for this particular disease. Instead of incurring the benefits for which they first went to the water, they got just the opposite-contamination, not purification.
Water as a symbol of purity and purification by the ritual of immersion in water is a widespread practive through all times and all cultures. "Water offers itself as a natural symbol of purity; it gives precision to the prolix psychology of purification." (Bachelard, 1942, p. 133).
Throughout history spiritual man has practiced one type or another of ritual purification. Water is the medium through which this purification is enacted. "To purify oneself is not purely and simply to wash." "The psychology is dependant on material imagination and not on an external experience." (Bachelard, 1942, p. 140). From the Zulus "cleansing themselves after attending funerals to the Kaffir who " his body
only when his soul is dirty" to the Persian who "carries the principle of removing legal uncleanness by ablution so far that a holy man will wash his eyes when they have been polluted by the sight of an infidel." "Votaries of Isis and Mithras were initiated through a font, and in the mysteries of Apollo and Eleusis men were baptized 'as the presumed to

think unto redemption and exemption from the guilt of their perjuries." "To the Hinduys, the Ganges is the holiest of rivers; each year hundreds of thousands of pilgrims go to Allahabad and Benares to wash away their sins by bathing in its sacred water." (King, p. 187).
The Judeo-Christian practices of ritual purification are probably most familiar to us. In Judaism "on entering the vestibule of a traditional synagogue, visitors will find a pitcher and washbasin for pouring water over their hands. Physically purifying themselves, they are reminded of their duty to be pure in conduct." (Leo Trepp, The Complete Book of Jewish Observance. P. 16.) "Long before the Christian Era, the Hews baptized their proselytes." Today, the Mikvah is the ceremonial purification bath. "A Mikvah is a special pool, filled with 'living waters' as prescribed. The water must be in contact with the groundwater of a stream or rainwater caught in a cistern. Once the required amount of 'living waters' has been achieved, other water may be added, included hot water." (Trepp, p. 294.) Those required to be purified in the Mikveh include converts to the religion, a woman before her marriage ceremony, a woman after her menstruation, and anyone in contact with a dead body.
In Christianity and Catholocism the sacrament of baptism is one of purification. "Once baptized and cleansed of original sin the child is admitted into the bosom of the Church." (Wendt, P. 106.) "In the Roman Catholic Church, holy water is 'created' by the act of a priest's blessing perfectly ordinary water, causing it to be purified into baptismal water, Easter water, or Gregorian water...Holy water is useful in casting out of devils and for curing diseases 'so that whatsoever this water shall be sprinkled in the homes or other places of the faithful, it may be freed from everything unclean and harmful. In the spiritual order it quenches the fire of inordinate passions and fosters the growth of virtues." (French, P. 222.)
It has been demonstrated then, that water is not just a simple physical combination of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It is complex in all its psychological implications. This is all well and good but what does it have to do with this thesis in particular and architecture in general? For one thing the site of this thesis is on the Sarasota Bay with connecting waters to the Gulf of Mexico--a great body of water. The program calls for a boat club and a private housing development. This project is intended to address those people whose desire to "abide" by the sea comes from an inner force-from their soul. It is necessary then to evaluate what those possible forces might be. This is what I have tried to address inthis discussion of water and water symbolism. From this, I am given a starting point of ways to consider not just addressing the sea-side setting, but of bringing water into the development of the entire site and the forms of the buildings.

As far as the relationship to architecture in general goes, two quotes sum it up quite nicely:
"a new aesthetic, new methods and new materials have created undreamedof possibilities of water architecture. No longer need water be an accessory to architecture--it can function as a contrasting element within the organic whole of the composition." (French p. 204 quoting from Ernst-Erik Pfannschmidt's Fountains and Springs.).
"Water is the wine of architecture. The character of water is primarily sensuous, and its pleasures are visual and auditory. It adds extra dimensions-motion, sound and the manipulation of lightto the customarily static three dimensions of building. It is a performance and a show. There is perhaps no more solid, stable and material art than architecture, and no more ethereal, evanescent and volatile element than water. When the two combine, it is for effects of singular magnificence and mystery. Water is spirit to architecture's substance." (French, p. 203 quoting Ada Louise Huxtable).
In addition to the using water as a physical amenity in a design, an architect can derive the actual "architectural substance" from water. For example, certain forms can be utilized that evoke images of water. Paul Rudolph in his cabanas at Sanderling Beach Club (III. 52) has employed the repition of arches to evoke the idea of waves. This is also true inn the Sausolito Yacht Club by Theodore Boutmy (III. 31). Cab Childress has designed picnic shelters at the Cherry Creek Reservoir Marina (III. 53) which mimic the boat sails. As the sails are a prominent form on the water, they become a prominent form landside. And finally, Emilio Ambasz, in the New Orleans Museum of Art (III. 54) has developed a building that is an abstracted boat that floats on the lagoon. One almost imagines that it actually moves across the water.
So we see, that water encourages the imagination--of both the designer and the user. Water-be it an amenity (i.e. fountain, pool), a generator of form, or a siteis indeed capable of elevating architecture out of the realm of the strictly physical and into the realm of the spiritual.


In the preceding chapters I have outlined the program for my thesis, summarized the history of my site and architecture in Sarasota, included climactic data and discussed subsequent possible design implications. Beyond this objective data I have discussed subjective ideas of ritualization, poetic space and water symbolism. Up to this point one has probably wondered how it could all be related. This is what I will try to do in this conclusion.
The program for this design thesis consists of fifty housing units-ranging in nature from detached to cluster to stacked--and a private sailing club. The site is on the Bay in Sarasota, Florida where, off and on throughout its history, significant, innovative architecture has thrived. There is a present lull in this trend and many local citizens would like that once again reversed. In the past climate has been given necessary consideration in its affect on design but that too appears to be neglected in the present day larger commissions. Hence the architecture has no relation to the place much less the "spiritual" concerns of the user. It is my desire to incorporate this relation between the spirit of the place and the spirit of the person.
Ritual was described in general terms and how it can be incorporated into design. Poetic space was addressed in a similar way. Overall, ritual deals with man and his actions, while poetics deals with images and man's imagination. The discussion of water and its symbolism considered physical and spiritual characteristics. Water can be incorporated into symbolic ritual which in turn can inspire imagination and poetic space within which that symbolic ritual transpires.
The individual this program addresses is one who hears the calling of water in his/her soul. This is the person who "feels at home" when by the sea. To design spaces of poetic figures and voids that incorporate the water and the ritual and symbolism that surrounds it, can only serve to enhance that sense of "feeling at home".
Forms will be derived for the buildings that respond to three things: the climate and the site, the ritual housed (be it sailing for the boat club or abiding for the residences), and spatial diversity catering to the imagination. Water elements-troughs, fountains and pools--will be utilized to unify the site development in physical terms with the bay and the abider/sailor in spiritual terms with the site. They (water features) will also be incorporated into the individual building designs so that all the parts work together within the whole. The entire site development (not just an individual house within that development) will strive to evoke the sense of "being at home". It hopes to be the best of both worlds. As Bachelard states in The Poetics of Space: "When we live in a manor house we dream of a cottage and when we live in a cottage we dream of a palace...We all have our cottage moments and our palace moments." (P. 63).
The site in toto could be thought of as the palace while the individual unit can be the cottage. On a smaller scale, spaces within the individual unit can, and should, be designed to evoke the grand palace on the one hand and the hut on the other.
Neither the homes nor the boat club is the central focus of the development. In this scheme, both are essential elements to the provision of a particular spirit of place which I seek. The club will be like the "playroom" and "entertainment" center (public spaces) within the "palace" while the homes will be the "private" rooms. The macrocosm will contain the microcosm. Likewise, within the microcosm, the macro will be perceived. As quoted in an earlier chapter, "If a poet looks through a microscope or a telescope, he always sees the same thing." (Bachelard, p. 172).
With The Acacias I hope to capture the spirit of the abider in the creation of a


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4. Stone columns at Acacias
3. Indian Mounds

6. John Ringling Mansion
7. Charles Ringling Mansion

10. Ralph Twitchell- Lido Beach Pavilion
9. Caples Estate
11. Paul Rudolph- Cocoon House

12. Victor Lundy- St. Pauls Church
13.1.M. Pei- New College
14.I.M. Pei- New College

15. William Wesley Peters- Van Wezel Performing Arts Center
16. Victor Lundy- Sarasota Chamber of Commerce

18. Selby Library

19. Hyatt Hotel
20. Carl Abbott- Greenhouse Restaurant

21. New College Library
22. New College, Sudakoff Center
23. First Federal Savings Bank

24. Charles Moore- Orinda Calif.
25. John Lautner- Turner Residence

26. Kreuck and Olsen- Marriott Apartment
27. Emilio Ambasz- Cordoba House

2B Joseph Emberton- Royal Corinthian Yacht Club 29. Joseph Emberton- Royal Corinthian Yacht Club
30. Joseph Emberton- Royal Corinthian Yacht Club

33. Johnson-Marshall- Grafham Sailing Club

35. Warren & Wetmore- New York Yacht Club, Model Room
36. Warren & Wetmore- New York Yacht Club, detail of Window
37. Warren & Wetmore- New York Yacht Club, Grill Room

38. Georgio de Chirico- Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
39. Luis Barragon- El Pecfregal
40. Luis Barragon- El Pedegal 41 Luis Barragon- Towers of Satellite City

44. Luis Baaragon- Los Clubes, fountain

45. Emilio Ambasz- Salamanca Plaza
46. Emilio Ambasz- Houston Plaza
47. Emilio Ambasz- Celestial Gardens

50. Eric Mendelsohn- Einstein Tower
48. Claude-Nicolas Ledoux-Bridge
49. Claude-Nicolas Ledoux
51. Max Berg- Centennial Hall, Brealau

52. Paul Rudolph- Sanderiing Beach Club
53. Cab Childless* Cherry Creek Reservoir Mari
54. Emilio Ambasz- New Orleans Museum of Art


Adie, Donald W. Marinas: a working guide to their development and design.
London: The Architectural Press Ltd.,1975.
Ambasz, Emilio. The Architecture of Luis Barragan. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1976.
Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space, trans. bv Maria Jolas. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.
(La poetique de I'espace. Presses Universitaires de France, 1958.)
Bachelard, Gaston. Water and Dreams an essay on the Imagination of Matter, trans. by Edith R. Farrell. Dallas: The Pegasus Foundation, 1983. (Leau and les Reves. Essai sur ['imagination de la matiere. Paris: Librairie Jose Corti, 1942.)
Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane.
French, Herbert E. Of Rivers and the Sea. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1970.
Fry, Maxwell and Jane Drew. Tropical Architecture in the Humid Zone. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1956.
Grimes, Ronald L. Beginnings in Ritual Studies. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 1982.
King, Thomson. Water: Miracle of Nature. New York: Collier Books, 1953.
Kukreja, C.P. Tropical Architecture. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 1978.
Matthews, Janet Snyder. Sarasota: Journey to Centennial. Tulsa: Continental Heritage Press, Inc., 1985.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenemenoloav of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Intentions in Architecture. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press,1965.
Sarasota, city of. Zoning Ordinance. Tallahassee: Municipal Code Corporation,
Sarasota Tourism Council. Discover Sarasota. Sarasota: SEE Publications, 1985.
Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. Standard Building Code. Birmingham. 1985.
Wendt, Herbert. The Romance of Water, trans. by J.B.C. Grundy. New York: Hill and Wang, 1963

Belz, Cheri. "The Enigma of Metaphysical Reality". Bachelor of Arts Thesis, New College, 1977.
Whetsel, Richard. ""Keystone Inn Resort". Master of Architecture Thesis, University of Colorado, Denver, 1985.
Stanley Abercrombie, "Carl Abbott; Greenhouse Restaurant". Contract Interiors. (Dec 1977) P 92.
Emilio Ambasz. "Emilio Ambasz Design Quarterly 118-119 ( 1982) p. 5-11.
Architectural Forum. (Oct. 1938) V. 61. P. 263-266. "The Royal Corinthian Yacht Club.
Architectural Record. (Jan 1936) v. 79. P.38-42. "Boathouse of Sherman Pratt".
Architectural Record. (April 1901) v. 10, P. 417-424. "Some Recent American Designs--The New York Yacht Club".
Architectural Record. (May 1962) v. 131. P.154. "Yacht Club Built over San Fransisco Bay.
Architectural Record. (July 1978) P. 96-98. "SOM Library".
Architectural Record. (Nov 1975) v 158. P 117-132 "Design for recreation".
Architectural Review. (Oct 1968) v 144 P 289-291. "Sailing Club, Grafham Water".
Architecture and Urbanism, no. 5(116) (May 1980). p. 33-60,107-114. Special issue on Emilio Ambasz.
Horst Berger. "The evolving design vocabulary of fabric structures". Architectural Record. (March 1985) P 152-156.
Mario Botta. "Houston Commentary" Domus. no. 639. (May 1983) P.2-5.
Douglas Brenner. "Et in Arcadia Ambasz". Architectural Record. (Sept. 1984) p. 120-133.
Peter Buchanan. "The Poet's Garden" Architectural Review. (June 1984). p.51-56.
Thomas Fisher. "The well-tempered tropics". Progressive Architecture. 4:84. P. 98-103.

James B. Gardner. "The nature of architectural fabrics" and "Fabric structures pioneers look back and envision the future". Architectural Record. (March 1985) p.157-159.
David Gebhard. "Architecture: John Lautner" Architectural Digest, (feb. 1984) p. 107-114.
Philip H. Hiss. "Whatever Happened to Sarasota?" Architectural Forum. (June 1967). p. 66-73.
Heather Smith Maclsaac. "Sensuous Modern Movement" House and Garden (March 1984) P. 112-117, 120.
Alessandro Mensky. "Colloquio con Emilio Ambasz" Domus. 639 (May 1983) p. 1.
William Rick. "Planning and Developing Waterfront Property". Urban Land Institute #49. (June 1964). p.7-24.
Paul Rudolph. "Six Determinants of Architectural Form" Architectural Record. (Oct 1956) p. 183-190.
Michael Sorkin. "The Architecture of Emilio Ambasz". Architecture and Urbanism (May 1980). p.36-60).


Project Name: The Acacias
Location: 12th St. & Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, Florida
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: Zoning Ordinance, City of Sarasota, 1985.
8:15i 8:16
Page Item
Proposed uses: Multi-family housing with private boat club.
111 Present Zoning Classification: RMF-4.
18 units per acre.
112-113 Applicable allowable uses: Multi family housing, 114-115 child's play area, bbq area, swimming pool, boat docks, private marina.
Zone change required? No
126 Minimum lot size
area: 20,000 sq. ft. land area/unit= 2,420 square feet width: 100'
129 Minimum yard requirements
front: 30' rear: 15' side: 15' waterfront: 30'
127 Maximum Lot coverages -4 stories= 25%
5+ stories=24%.
128 Available bonuses: with covered parking coverage
can be increased 25% for the first level of such parking.
130.1 Maximum Height
feet: 45' (+10' for interior parking)
124 Height Exception: can go as high as 140' with certain
134-135 Off street Park! n g
rqd. spaces by use: 2 per dwelling unit 1 per 100 sq. ft. private club (if on separate lot) rqd spaces for project: 141. (100 for dwelling, 41 for club.
parking permitted in setbacks: Yes
327 Landscaping Requirements: off street parking
> 1500 sq. ft. (or 5 spaces) : a strip of land 6' in depth
between abutting right of way and the off-street parking area. Shall contain avg. of 1 tree for each 50 linear feet. A hedge at least 2' in height the entire length of such landscaped area.

8:5-12 280
6:23.1 94
6:10 84
8:18(d) 116
Sign Restrictions: Multi-family residential: One identification wall or ground sign, which may have two faces on each streetside, with the surface area of such sign not to exceed thirty-two square feet in total aggregate area.. Such sign may be illuminated.
Private club: One identification wall, ground or projecting signs (which shall not project more than 4 feet from the building wall, which may have two faces, no more than twelve square feet in aggregate area. Other Special Requirements:
Lowest Floor elevation-Flood zone: Residential:
New construction shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to above the base flood level, as indicated by the depth number specified on the flood insurance rate map, in feet, above the highest adjacent grade. If no depth number is specified, the lowest floor, including basement, shall be elevated at least two feet above the highest adjacent grade. Nonresidential: Lowest floor, including basement, elevated to or above the base flood level...
Docks: Docks on the open waters of Sarasota Bay shall not exceed an overall length of 50 feet exclusive of tie off piling, and no portion of such dock, exclusive of tie-off piling shall project into the open waters of the bay more than 30 feet as measured at a right angle from the shoreline.
Accessory structures: (5) accessory structures shall not be located in any required waterfront yard, except that unscreened swimming pools may be located in required waterfront yards provided that (i) The edge of the water of the swimming pool shall be set back a minimum of five feet from the mean high-water mark and from adjacent lot lines and (ii) The unscreened swimming pool shall not be higher than thirty inches above average grade.
Yacht Club: Is allowed in this zoning provided that any required parking area is located at least fifty feet and any building or structure at least two hundred feet from any other residential^ zoned property.

Project Name: The Acacias
Location:12th St. & Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, Florida
Applicable Code Name: Southern Standard Building Code, 1985
Standard Plumbing Code 1985
Section .Page Item
Occupancy classification
404 29 Boat Club (Assemble Occupance- Group A)
411 67 Residential (Group R)
601 95
403 27
Tbl 400 73-75
402.3.1 25
Tbl 400 73-75
703 106
Construction type: Type II or III for residential
Type I or II for boat club Occupancy separations required:
The minimum fire resistance of construction separating any two occupancies in a building of mixed occupancy shall be the higher rating required for the occupancies being separated: Small assembly-2 hours. Private garage to any occupancy = 1 hour residential,
2 hour small assembly Townhouse to townhouse = 2 hour Maximum allowable floor area:
Residential: Type III 18,000 sq. ft. floor (multi-story unsprinklered. 36,000 if sprinklered .
Type ll=unlimited
Boat club (A-2 Assembly) Type II or III: unlimited If adjacent to open area : area may be increased l=4/3[100(F/P-o.25)] l= % increase of unsprinklered areas F= building perimeter in feet which fronts on streets, public places or horizontal separation > 30' wide.
P= total perimeter of building in feet.
Maximum allowable height Feet: Residential-65' Type III, 80' Type II A-2: 80' Type II, unlimited Type I Stories: Residential: 3 Type III; unlimited Type II A-2: unlimited Type II or III.
Towers, spires, steeples: Allowed to be taller than height limit.
Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior walls.
Every exterior wall within 15' of property line shall be equipped with approved opening protectives except 1 & 2 family dwellings.

Chpt. 22 321 + Use of public property Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? Yes Windows OK if at least 8' above walk Restrictions on marquees, canopies, etc.: 1 hr fire rating, at least 9 clear above walk. Other projections: bay windows, porches, balconies=3' decorative features=6"
2001.1 313 Windows required in rooms: 1+ window per
1104.4 152 habitable room. Area= 8% of floor area. Size: 22" height X 20" wide. The net clear opening area shall in no case be less than 4 sq. feet. Sleeping rooms: 5 sq. feet of ground floor window and 5.7 sq. ft. second story window. Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts, size rqd: > or = 1/2 window area.
2001.5 314 Ventilation requirements If not natural, (i.e. rest room) 2 cubic feet per minute per sq. ft. floor area.
2001.1 313 Natural: same as windows req'd in room (above)
2001.2 313 Minimum ceiling heights in rooms:7-6" 7-0" in bathrooms
2001.2 314 Minimum floor area of rooms: At least 1 room = 150 sq. ft. Others > or = 70 sq. ft. (except kitchen)
Tbl 600 100-102 Fire resistive requirements Exterior bearing walls: 1-4 hrs dependant on construction type and distance to property line. Interior bearing walls: 1-4 hours, again dependant on construction type and what its supporting. Exterior non-bearing walls: 0-3 hours Structural frame: 2-4 dependant on # floors supported. Permanent partitions: Party walls=4 hours
104 Exit corridor walls: 2 hours
103 Vertical openings: 1-2 hrs dependant on # stories Floors: 2-3 hours Roofs: 1,1-1/2 hrs Exterior doors: 1-1/2 hrs Mezzanine floors (area allowed): < or = 1/3 sq. ft room it is in.
806 128 Boiler room enclosure: 2 hrs.
Chpt 11 149-176 Exits
Occupancy: 1-500 need two exits In residential, one exit ok if: (1) max distance of travel to reach exit from entrance door to any living unit < or = 30. (2) Max. units per floor = 4. (3) Max gross area of floor < 3500 sq. ft. (4) max building height = 2 stories.
Tbl 1103 150
Minimum width of exits: 32"

1101.1 149
1114.1 164
Tbl 1103 150
1112.3 162
1112.4 162
1117 168
1112.2 162
Exit separation arrangement: Where more than one exit is required, at least two shall be located as remote from each other as practicalbe and shall be so arranged and constructed to provide direct access in separate directions from any point in the area served and to minimize the possibility that both may be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition.
Max. allowable travel distance to exit: 150' with sprinklers: 200'
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory uses: shall be continuous and unobstructed to the exterior of the building. Not permitted through kitchens, closets, restrooms, or through adjacent tenant spaces.
Exit doors:
Minimum width and height: 32" x 6-8" per 100 people Max. leaf width: 48"
Width rqd for number of occupants: 32" per 100 people Swing direction: Direction of exit Exit corridors:
Required width: 44"
Required height: 7'-6"
Dead end corridors length: 20'
Min. width: 44" (fire exit) occ load of 75 36" occ less than 50
Max riser allowed: 2 R+T >24"<25"; 7-3/4" max
Min tread allowed: 9" excluding nosing
Winding, circular, spiral stairs: Not permitted as exit
stairs except in residential. Circular ok if min. tread
depth > or = 10" and small radius > or = 2 width
Min. width required: not less than width of stairs Vertical distance between landings: 12'
Stair to roof rqd? if 4+ stories Stair to bsmnt restrictions: In group A occupancies an exit stair from a lower story shall not lead to an exit doorway serving an exit stair from an upper story. Enclosed exit stairways that continue beyond the floor of discharge shall be interupted at the floor of discharge by partitions, doors or other effective means.
Stair headroom: 6'-8"

1112.5 163
1116 168
1115 167
922.2 66-74
App.M 459
App M 459
Rqd at each side? only if w/o adjacent walls on 1 or both sides + < 44"
Intermediate rails rqd? yes if width > 88"
Max width between interior rails? 88"
Height above nosing: 30-34" above nosing
Max openings in rails: 6" diameter object cant pass
Projection from wall: 3-1/2"
Horizontal exit requirements
2 hour fire rating
Width: 44" except 36" in 1-2 family dwelling
Max slope: 1:8. Hndcp=1:12
Landings: same as stairs
Handrails: 3-1/2" projection into ramp
Toilet room requirements (Standard Plumbing Code)
Fixture requirements. Basis? Club: 40 sq ft = 1 person
(8200 / 40 = 205 occupants)
Division of facilities: Clubs: 65% Male, 35% females Total water closets: 3 (1 men, 2 women) urinals: 2
Drinking fountains: 2 Lavatories: 3 (2 men, 1 women)
Handicapped Requirements
Site: every building shall have all levels and areas accessible except (1)Group R buildings and (2) mezzanines and balconies in Group A Accessible bathrooms: 1 drinking fountain per floor 1 toilet
Accessible housing: number of units: 0-10 units, none 11-19 units, 1 unit 20+ units, 5%