HILLSIDE HOUSING GLENDALE, CALIFORNIA
An Architectural Design Thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of hasten of Architecture.
Bennie Burton hay 15, 1987
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. THESIS STATEMENT
II. THE PLACE: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
UNDERSTANDING THE PLACE...................................9
WHAT ARE THEN THE PRESENT DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE L.A. AREA?.14
III. SITE ANALYSIS
GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY....................................43
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE.........................................51
PROPOSED LAND USE...............................................81
IV. HOUSE AND DWELLING..............................................86
V. HILL HOUSING AND MULTIPLE HOUSING
HISTORY OF HILL HOUSING..................................92
MULTIPLE HOUSING PROTOTYPES..............................95
VI. RELATIONSHIP OF PROJECT TO CITY ADOPTED POLICIES,
PLANS AND ORDINANCES
SAN RAFAEL HILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN.................... 100
VII. FISCAL ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
VIII. SPIRIT OF PLACE...............................................129
X. ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONS CONSULTED...........................139
XII. PRESENTATION DRAWINGS.........................................143
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Regional Location..............................................2
2. Site Location..................................................3
3. Contour Site Map...............................................4
4 Pacific Electric Rail System..................................11
6. Major Streets.................................................13
7. Courtyard Housing Partis......................................21
8. Glendale Business Facilities..................................35
9. Firms Located in the Glendale Area............................36
10. Glendale Housing..............................................37
11. Housing Characteristics.......................................38
12. Fair Oaks Housing.............................................39
13. Fair Oaks Units and Prices....................................40
14. Geologic Map A................................................44
15. Geologic Map B................................................45
16. Fault Vicinity Map............................................47
17. Existing Hydrology............................................50
18. Vegetation Location Map.......................................53
19. Glendale ClImate Summary......................................60
20. July Average Temperatures.....................................61
LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
21. January Average Temperatures.................................62
23. Viewing Locations............................................66
24. Main Arteries of Glendale....................................75
25. Local Circulation.......................................... 76
26. Single Residence Concept (Goldrich, Kest & Assoc.)...........82
27. Unit and Building Types......................................96
28. City of Glendale Zoning Map.................................103
29. Development Program Checklist...............................133
30. House Planning Checklist....................................134
31. Total Unit Relationship.....................................136
32. Individual Space Relationship...............................137
33. Cluster Concept Development.................................138
LIST OF PLATES
1. Site In Background, as seen from Chevy Chase Drive
north of golf course.........................................67
2. Adjacent residential areas as seen from on-site near
3. Residential area northwest of site as seen from higher
elevations of site...........................................68
4 Major on-site canyon at southwestern end of site as seen
from Cascadla Drive..........................................69
5. Portion of site as seen from residential area along
6. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive southwest
of Drury Lane................................................71
7. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive near
8. Northwestern portion of site as seen from residential area
in vicinity of Cascadia and Kennington Drives................72
9. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive northeast
of Trammell Road.............................................73
LIST OF TABLES
1. Seismic Conditions...........................................47
2. Representative Plant Species.................................54
3. Wildlife Species.............................................56
4. Sun Path Diagram.............................................63
5. Summary Revenue/Cost Comparison............................125
6. Preliminary Site Development Costs..........................126
7. Preliminary Profitability Estimate..........................128
The site of Tract 38905 Is located on the southeastern side of Sycamore Canyon in the San Rafael Hills within the City of Glendale (8 miles from downtown Los Angeles), California (Figure 1,2, and 3). The property (185+ acres) extends roughly from Chevy Chase Drive to Glenoaks Boulevard
The proposed thesis would involve the subdivision of the site into two alternative housing development scenarios. A smaller portion of the site will be looked at, with analysis of the proposed single residential pads proposed by the developer Goldrich, Kest, & Assoc and then my own concept of multiple /cluster housing ( with perhaps some single family residences). I would like to compare and contrast the kinds of implications each scheme presents: physical, economical, environmental, and architectural. A small portion of the site would be within residential lot lines, an equal portion would be placed in a homeowner's maintenance district, with the greatest area dedicated to the City of Glendale as permanent open space. Access to the total site is proposed via the extensions of Laird Drive and St Gregory Road from Chevy Chase Drive; and from Glenoaks Boulevard immediately east of the Scholl Canyon ball fields
This project is different from other projects I might work on because I am in the position of being part-owner, and hence, architect and developer. Where are the lines: responsibility, monetary goals, quality? Are good architecture and development compatible? The developer's main focus is to make money, not the architectscan this be reconciled? Developers get a bad name, planners come out of the woodwork when buildings and site development are looked at not as architecture but solely as means to a profit.
What is the nature of their interaction to make good architecture? This project hopes to illustrate how these three major influences have to interact to allow good architecture. What is the proper balance between the three that will allow the project to be built? What constitutes compatabilty? project hopes to illustrate how these three major influences have to interact
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project hopes to Illustrate how these three major Influences have to Interact to allow good architecture. What Is the proper balance between the three that will allow the project to be built? What constitutes compatabllty? Many urban and environmental problems will not be solved until an Integrated design-development process pursuing quality and value, not quick profits,becomes the normal means of designing and building cities.
At this suburban site, topography guides development. The site's most significant limitation Is Its steep slope: average grade of 67%. Other limitations are the need for the preservation of the woodlands and ridgelines and ecological habitats. However, what Is a site problem can also be perceived as a potential amentlty. The goal Is to optimize the interrelationship of land form and house form.
The developer makes the development program, which is based on a financial evaluation of all developmental costs measured against anticipated sales. The exact Influence of the developer is hard to figure real estate operations often depend on secrecy. Although the real estate Industry Is the major force shaping our surroundings, it has done little to recognize Its responsibility to our environment. With a few exceptions the developer has the reputation of selling the public a very inferior product. Because of rapid growth and change, developers have had little trouble in marketing buildings of poor design, because any product has been better than none. Exceptions are possible and although the primary goal of the developer is to make a profit, the good developer is also concerned with maintaing her reputation of providing quality construction with a reasonable aesthetic appeal.
The development program Includes: the acquisition of landthe approximate number of units; approximate ratio of resident, guest, and recreational parking spaces; numbers In the households; desired communtly feeling; governmental politics; finance and sales; recreation and service facilities to be Included; sewer and water capacity,etc.
The architect Is responsible for schematic design, design develpment, contract documents and specifications, and overseeing construction of buildings on site. The majority of this thesis document Is what I think makes good architecture for the site this Is the main bulk of the statement. The analysis extends from house to spirit of place, and Includes analysis that the architect Investigates In order to achieve her goals.
In this section I want to compare the architect's position with the developer. Often the subject of real estate Is often looked upon with contempt by the architect. It Is not a required class in architectural education and there Is
very little on It In the licensing examinations. The art historians who define much of the architectural thought say very little about the social and economic forces that make most buildings possible. The architect often finds he does not have a clear Idea of whether or not her design Is an appropriate answer to the developers problem. She doesn't know how different designs change the buildings financial feasibility or Its real estate market.
The architects role does not usually begin until many Important decisions have been made about location, size, character, and budget. These decisions greatly restrict the number of alternatives open to the architect, and often assumptions have been made without any real understanding of their effect upon design. If architects could participate In these early decisions, they could design better buildings. The developer feels that the architect is lacking in knowledge and training In elements (besides just development) that are pertinent to the manipulation of large-scale design: traffic, law, zoning, finance, politics, and management in the public sector. Each of these must comprehended before the architect can control any environment beyond a project site's property lines. The architect must assume fuller responsibility and become knowledgable about the development process. Several Issues which must examined are:
1. The structural organization of the city and its existing growth pattern. The problem of working within the constraints of the City, County, and governmental policies and politics.
2. The real estate market and the effect of design and cost on marketability.
3. The preparation of studies that measure feasibility: economic, social and political.
4. Projections of total development cost, of which building cost is a substantial percentage but by no means the whole story. Projections of income and expenses over a long period of time, the "financial pro forma".
5.. The financial market and the ways to put together the financing of a building.
6. The selling and/or renting and operation of the completed buildings. Further discussion of these issues with my particular project in mind is necessary. These will be further analyzed in depth in the economic feasiblity chapter..
A silly antagonism has existed in the past between the architect and the developer and really between the architect and the public that has resulted in the obscurity of what it is that architects do and how much they get for it. It is time for the architect to line up with the influencial forces In the countrythe banker, the politician, etc. so as to Improve the status (both image and economics) of the profession of architecture.
URBAN STRUCTURE AND SITE ANALYSIS
The nature of a particular property is important (equally with the postion of the property within the intricate web of relationships that make up the functional organization of the city). The developer may be unaware that the kind of building that she has in mind could be built more economically on a flat site, etc. The local government may have restrictions on what will be allowed to be built, for example, zoning ordinances that have no relationship to the site. There is an interaction between building location and design, and previous assumptions can block valuable alternatives. This aspect will be the main focus of the design portion of the thesis comparing the two design alternatives. The dream of every family living in a single unit residence should be weighed against the need to conserve the land, Its natural systems, conservation of open space, efficiency of operation, and personal privacy and identity.
The steep topography presents potential natural process trouble, more precisely slippage. The geological information, previosly prepared by Foundation Engineers, must be studied and particular emphasis must be placed on developing sound foundation systems.
There is an Interaction between building design and marketability. The developer usually doesn't prepare their own marketing studies because they want to assure the politicians of their objectivity. There has been little investigation of the ways that changes in design might affect real estate marketability. Architecture needs to be taken into account Into the market studies as well as the more statistical quantifiable information: number of families that live in an area, census data about age, occupation, Income distribution, etc. This site is the rare exception in that it will provide housing for the upper middle class sector of the community. Budget will be on the upper end of the market, with the average residence sales value of $300,000.
The developer must have a good understanding of the costs and benefits that her project creates for the community as a whole and be prepared to argue her case. She must spend a lot of time with community leaders and government officials. A project that makes economic sense may be politically infeasible because of its impact on various groups within the community. The architect must be knowledgeable about the building codes and zoning ordinances as well as the city policies.
BUILDING COSTS AND REVENUES
The developer can bring an architect In to make preschematic designs that form the basis for a takeoff of construction costs. These costs estimates used In figuring the total will make it possible to build something more unconventional rather than the conventional way of using constructional cost averages, based on the price for building similar structures in the same general area (which promote average buildings).
PROJECTION OF INCOME AND EXPENSES
Once total cost has been determined, the next step in analyzing feasibility is to see if projected income, after expenses, can pay back the development costs and provide an appropriate profit. The developer must look for two different kinds of financing: the construction loan and the permanent mortage and other permanent financing, (which are used to pay back the construction loan after the building is complete and which then are paid back over a long term of years. The bottom line figure from the projection of income and expenses is the money available to pay interest on borrowed money and repay the principal. It becomes the basis on which the value of the building is determined for lending purposes. (It is important to remember that the value of the building is related to income and not to construction costs). Taxes are another complication here.
The developer, as a general principle, wants to own as much of the building as she can with as little of her own equity as possible. A permanent lender can give a first mortgage of up to 75% of the building's value. Where the remaining money comes from is a function of the developer's ingenuity and market conditions. Two alternatives (after the first mortgage): she can find a second mortgage or she can sell equity participation in the building. Under the second alternative, the investor becomes part owner and thus owns a percentage of the building's expenses and losses that is deductible for income tax purposes.
(SourceJohn Portman and Jonathan Barnett, The Architect as Developer).
THE PLACE: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
"In on era when so much of our architecture seems to stagger under an explanatory--even exculpatory--burden, the architecture of Los Angeles Is especially encumbered. If it has come to a near norm that buildings explicate themselves, the coastal kin must, in addition, provide some decent account of their setting. As with no place else, we demand that this architecture produce some sort of regional I.D., that it pull over to the curb and demonstrate a little license.
Whereas talking about "New York-ness would be cringingly retardaire, nobod/ erects a stick In LA without seeking to understand and Justify Southland to man.
"L.A. Is probally the most mediated town In America, nearly unviewable save through the fictive scrim of its mythologizers."
"A place which lends Itself so readily to transformation is by Its very nature a fragile environment."
Michael Sorkm, "Explaining Los Anoeles". California Counterpoint.
UNDERSTANDING THE PLACE
Historically derived building types define most cities. These buildings together form urban componets such as the street, the square... The look of the city is dependent upon the continuation and completeness of these urban forms. American cities have grown so fast that these typological elements are extremely varied. Historical typological elements give resonance to a city. Los Angeles is an example of a city with a discontinuous typological structure. It has been said that Los Angeles Is the most cosmopolitan city in the world in that there are more peoples from other places living there than anywhere else! Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary gives this definition: "cosmoploitan: belonging to all the world; not local, composed of elements gathered from all or various parts of the world. The elements of cultural diversity, the rapid growth, and the size, approximately 3,000 square miles, explain this discontinuous structure.
"Los Angeles-Southern California was the first of the Sun Belt regions to prosper and to challenge the dominance and achievements of the Northeast and Midwest, the cradle and heartland of America. Unlike San Francisco, which was always seen as a gentler and prettier version of the older America, Southern California is very different: there 8re no winters and no forest. It is a desert with palm trees. It was first settled not by pilgrims or pioneers but by Franciscan monks and their mark is clearly visible."
CeasarPelli, "Los Angeles Architects."
Californians have always completely accepted and loved the automobile and the airplane, all those toys that moved fast and represented an idea of freedom. The early streets were wide enough for the horse and buggies and the Model Ts. These linear movement paths eventually sprung up commerciaL
businneses and public meeting areas. But It has always been the streets that defined the city. The multiplication of freeways gives southern California an Identity unlike any other place In the world. One reason for the freeways Is that It gives the Individual a means to roam where he or she can be free. Freeways are related to the single-family dwelling. It Is the dream of the house on a good sized lot, with space for a garden and swimming pool that has drawn people to southern California. But perldoxlcally, the freeways have destroyed the landscape that people moved to the area to seek.
Houses and housing are by far the most dominant type of building In the area. One's home Is their private oasis from the rigors of the city, a protected niche from the exterior disorder and cultural diversity. Southern Californians are among the most privacy-conscious people on earth.
"Los Angeles has always been an Intensely private city, lacking in the physical presence of public institutions and the definition of an identifiable single public center. It is in houses and housing that our architectural life values are most clearly expressed."
Polyzoides.et.al., Courtyard Housing in LA
Figure 4. Pacific Electric Rail System
(Source:Charles Moore, et al., The City Observed: Los Angeles) j
Figure 5. Freeways
(Source:Charles Moore, et al., The City Observed; Los Angeles)
Figure 6. Major Streets
(5ource:Charles Moore, et al., The City Observed: Los Anoeleul
WHAT ARE THEN THE PRESENT DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE LOS ANGELES AREA?
1. Self-employment Is a major factor In the economic system. Negotiated contracts are the rule more than salaried positions. People often work
where they live.-----This in terms affects the scale of construction, the
loe-rise free-standing structure. Here exists the most compete realization of the myth of the self-made, self-reliant, self-oriented individual that the world has ever seen.
2. There exists an absense of accepted tradition which leads to creative thinking and inventiveness in every field from high-tech computers to financing looking for the high stakes gamble. Experimentation leads to stretching boundaries rather than neatening them up. Trend-setting as a goal is very important to the individual on all fronts. The most advanced technological industries are there; and hence technology is seen not as an end but a beginning to make something new and wonderful. Eg.: Mies van der Rohes Case Study Houses ( steel was the architecture), Irving Gill (tilt-up walls), Schindler (precast panels), Pelli (ceramic glass), and Frank Gehry 2X4's and chain link fence).
"The intention is creative innovation through good understanding of the process of building, it requires knowing where the process can be stretched and where it should be left alone. The guidelines are logic and cost. Making aparent the logic of the process and the economy of the means Is 8 reoccuring architectural goal in Southrn California."
Ceasar Pelli, "Los Angeles Architects"
The very nature of California as a region favors the inclinations and biases of those who are counterculturally Inclined. Seen in this context, the college generation of the 60s has evolved aesthetic experiences that are in agreement with its sensibilities. When asked about an off-center column framed in an oval window in the SunarHauserman Showroon, Houston, Texas, Gehry associate Anne Greenwald quipped, "This office is not about lining things up." (p. 78 Charles Gandee, "That was then, this is now", Architectural Record. Mid-Sept. 1986.)
"The greates threat to the Los Angelist is to lose grip of the balance and let his or her work getstained by the goo of sameness that comes from the Easterner's reverence for an architecture of convention. You could lose your bolds,I have great nostalgia for the future. But the Los Angelist cannot abide these continual Interruptions and upsets. Clarity overwhelms speculation, the parts--as In those exploded drawing Mormophosls specializes In--obliterate the whole. It may be that the end of Los Angeles's prospects for unexpected transformation will prove congenial to the nurturing of new architecture, to the growth of some climax form. Who knows? At least it won't go unrecorded.
Michael Sorkin, "Explaining Los Angeles"
"...the cooptation of view (that everyman thinks of themselves as artists) is the most important Los Angeles act."
Michael Sorkin, Explaining Los Angeles"
6. A special category should include the movie industry, entertainment, and Disneyland. It permits the architect to appropriate virtually anything he or she wants from among the forbidden fruits of commercial imagery and yet still hedge the bet.'*
" A word should be said about Movie Star houses since they constitute such a recognizable type, and one that has been well observed by architectural lovers, and others, since the twenties."
Charles Jenks, Daydream Houses of Los Angeles. Rizzoli New York, 1978
7. The influence of foreign culture Is tremendous. Los Angeles welcomes both exile and expectation.
" If poetry 19 unrequited love, then architecture is e species of sexuel fetishism.
All architecture has its erogenous zones and secret places of pleasure."
Charles Jenks Dq/dream Houses of Los Anoeles
The history of Los Angeles architecture Is essentially an analysis of the process by which Americans adapted European Ideas to the special needs of an unusual environment. An exception are the missions, all derived from Mexican design, which had to be relatively simple In comparislon to Mexican churches. Early domestic architectures the area was equally simple, the chief material bring adobe brick from Mexico.
After 1880, southern Californian architecture reflected the current fashions In New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago. which explains the presence of examples of Greek Revival, Italianate, Eastlake, Richardsonian Romanesque, Queen Anne, and Colonial Revival styles. (A style glossary follows later in this chapter.)
In the classic book, Five California Architects. Ester McCoy brings to light the work of the early modernists: Gill, Maybeck, the Greenes, and Schindler. While there architecture was not limited to a particular style, they created an attitude and a creative climate that is still recognizable in the present. They wanted to invent an architecture that was quintessentially indigenous yet a great departure (a difficult irony at the core of everything Californian). A selected list of some of the work in the southern Californian area follows: IRVING GILL (1870-1936) He set the style for San Diego and was part of the movement to simplify structure.
The Normal School, San Diego, 1895 Pickwick Theatre, San Diego, 1904 Laughlin House, Los Angeles, 1907 Scripps Building and Water Tower, La Jolla, 1908 Bishop's day School, La Jolla, 1909-1916 Banning House, Los Angeles, 1912 Lewis Courts, Sierra Madre, 1910 Women's Club, La Jolla, 1913 Ellen Scripps House, La Jolla, 1916 Horatio West Courts, Santa Monica, 1919 CHARLES SUMMER GREENE (1868-1957) and HENRY MATHER GREENE (1870-1954). These two brothers, trained in classical styles with a love of nature and natural materials, established the California Bungalow style. Wodden structures expressed the Identity of each contributing member.
James Culbertson House, Pasadena, 1902
IrwtnHouse, Pasadena, 1906 Blacker House, Hous, Pasadena, 1907 Gamble House, Pasadena, 1908 Pratt House, Ojal, 1909 Crowe House, Pasadena, 1913 Cordelia Culbertson House, Pasadena, 1911 R. M. SCHINDLER (1887-1953). Pioneer of modern architecture, he was concerned with form anf movement; Nuetra and Wright worked under him at one time.
King's Road House, Hollywood, 1922 Pueblo Ribera Courts, La Jolla, 1923 Packard house, Pasadena, 1924 Lovell Beach House, Newport beach, 1926 Sachs Apt. House, Los Angeles, 1928 Wolfe House, Catalina Island, 1928 Oliver House, Los Angeles, 1933 Buck House, Los Angeles, 1934 Harris House, Los Angeles, 1942 Kali is House, Los Angeles, 1945
Thoughts about what was venacular occured as early as the 1890s with the arrival of the Mission Revival style. Gill and his connection to the Mission style must be seen that he was a part of the Arts and Crafts movement, whose epicenter was southern California. Popular and widespread as the Craftsman aesthetic became, It was, nevertheless, the Spanish Colonial Revival (best known arch- George Washington Smith) (or more broadly the Mediterranean Revival) of the 1920's which captured the imagination of the popular and professional journals, and architects and critics In the East as well as the West.
" 'Span Miss' is related to Spanish Mission Revival but, according to the horrible pun latent in its appelation, a near miss and rather like span (an architectural verb, similar to cooking fat). For reasons which escape me Span Miss has incorporated Modern Parabolic, those parabolic forms characteristic of Almost-Modernism. Its one of the most popular styles because of the Spanish vernacular revival and because such movie stars as Yalentino once favored it.
Charles Jenks, Daydream House? of L re Angeles
The "City Beautiful movement hit the area early in the 1900s and planning was accepted pretty much across the board. Los Angeles was the first city in the United States to adopt a comprehensive zoning ordinance (1909). In 1915 a city planning association was organized; in 1920 a Planning Commission was established. In 1923 a Regional Planning Commission for the Los Angles areas was established.
The great epoch of the sub-urban house started in the 19th century The built
form of the suburban house ( a historical modelthe palazzo of the Renaissance and Baroque recalls both Its vernacular relatives and the more civilized townhouses (of such ancient cities as Venice, Rome, Florence, Naples). The sub-urban house was given a new Interpretation by Frank Lloyd Wright. Or rather, FLW brought back to our attention the essential nature of the house as point of departure and retreat. He opened up his plans to make them Interact with the environment, at the same time as he created an Inner world of protection and comfort. The core is always the large chimney where the fire "Is burning deep In the masonry of the house Itself. FLW brought about destruction of the box and the resulting free plan. Rather than a retreat, the house became a fixed point (the fireplace) In space from which man could experience a new sense of freedom and participation.
The dominant southern Californian multifamily dwelling type is the low-rise, high-density courtyard building, Courtyard housing as a type reveals an understanding of: how to achieve a collection of dwellings Ina dense urban situation without destroying the amenities of individual dwelling and garden, concepts about communal living, Ideas about the relationship between the Individual dwellings and the dwellings as a whole.
It is in the space enveloped by the court units that becomes the primary organizing element. In its space rather than object orientation, the courts sympathies lean toward the traditional city virtues of a defined public realm of streets and squares The court, then, can be seen as a significant alternative to the Illusionary American dream of the freestanding house (or apartment house) in the landscaped park.
Courts are an unique fragment within the city, functioning as an Intermediate kink between the scale of the Individual dwelling and the neighborhood. They recognise two kinds of space: the space they enclose and the outside city space.
The severe differentation between an interior court realm and an exterior city realm allows residential privacy and control and at the same time creates a strong feeling of territoriality.
Polyzoides.et. al., Courtyard Housing in L,A.
The population of the City of Los Angeles doubled every ten years between 1880 and 1930. This incredible Increase In population created an acute demand for housing
The bungalow changed public attitudes, with It came acceptance of buildings extending out Into the landscape and the advantages of open space. This was reflected In the design of the courts. The main cultural Influence and the dominant precedent of coutyard housing Is the Hispanic tradition. The organizational elements of Mediterranean urban traditions were evident in the beginning of courts In the 1880s. A good example of this Is the Gilmore adobe, Farmers Market; my godmother lived there and childhood memories are of summer evenings In the patio. The 1920s brought the Spanish revival
courts and the rest Is history. Polyzoldes, et al, describe seven models, from which most southland Spanish Revival court buildings are derived: 1- the urban patio house, 2- the alcazar. 3- the urban palace, 4- the urban market and Inn, 5- the urban casa de veclnos. 6- the rural cortijo or hacienda, 7- the urban callejon. The typological definition and rules of courtryard housing are that, basically, there must be a central courtyard with dwellings arranged around the court; and the courts Integrate the car wltout allowing It to tyrannize the dwelling. Figure 7 shows the various partis. The early modernists that used courtyard housing as a type are: Irving Gill Lewis Courts & Horatio West Courts, Rudolf Schindler Korsen Apts and Richard Nuetra Strathmore Apts (note: hillside site).
With the growth of the twenties even more reliance on the car led to the development of the Commercial strips, eg., Wllshlre Boulevard. During the depression the rich and upper middle classes continued building homes whose exterior shells reflected the period revival styles of the 20s, but the interiors were free-flowing and modernist In the fusing of the Indoors and outdoors, (arch: John Byers, Roland Coate, H. Kelly, Edla Muir, Wallace Neff, & Paul Williams).
The 2nd wave, which flourished In the 30s, was also largely emigre: Nuetra, Ain, Davidson, Harris, Soriano all challenged the dominance of the mission. A selected list of some of the important buildings (housing) in the southern Californian area follows:
RICHARD NUETRA (1892-1970). Epitomizes the rise and wane of modern architecture In California.
Jardineete Apts., Hollywood, 1927 Lovell House, Los Angeles, 1928
VDL I ( Van der Leeuw) Research House, Los Angeles, 1932 Beard House, Altedena, 1934 Sten House, Santa Monica, 1934 Plywood Model Demonstration House, Los Angeles, 1936 Landfair Apts., Los Angeles, 1935-1937 Strathmore Apts., Los Angeles, 1937 Maxwell House, Brentwood, 1941 Kenton Apts., Los Angeles, 1942 Nesbitt House, Brentwood, 1942 Channel Heights Housing, San Pedro, 1942 Kaufmann House, Palm Springs, 1946 Holiday House Motel, Malibu, 1948 Hinds House, Los Angeles, 1951 Slavin House, Santa Barbara, 1956 Van der Leeuw Research House II, Los Angeles, 1966 GREGORY AIN (1908- ). Social concerns led him to explore low-cost housing. International style, hill sites.
SINGLE-BAR TYPE 1
COMPLETED COURTYARD TYPE
Archie Lamm Five Foot Module House, L.A. (project), 1929
General Electric competition, 1935
Dunsmulr Flats, Los Angeles, 1937
Ernst House, Los Angeles, 1937
Scharlln House, Los Angeles, 1939
Hural House, Los Angeles, 1940
Daniel House, Los Angeles, 1939
Model od a factory-fabricated house, 1940,(with JASteln)
Ain House, Los Angeles, 1941 Mar Vista Housing, 1947
JULIUS RALPH DAVIDSON (1889- 1977). The floor plan was prime concern for him. The house was a loose-fitting envelope around the desired floor plan.
Sardl's Restaurant, Los Angeles (destroyed), 1936
Maitland House, Bel Air, 1937
Gretna Green Apts., Los Angeles, 1940
Case Study House, La Canada, 1946
Me Fadden House, North Hollywood, 1948
Dann House, Los Angeles, 1952
Munk House, Los Angeles, 1957
Westgate Apts., Brentwood, 1966
HARWELL HAMILTON HARRIS (1903- ). Search for form In wood and
plaster. International style to Japanese pavilion.
"the soil in which these houses are rooted is the same soil that led to the flowering of California architecture almost 50 years ago. It is 8 combination of abundance, free minds, love of nature, and an unspoiled countryside Simple as such a combination seems, it has happened but seldom in the world's history. The eventual reward for its cultivation is a spontaneous architecture in tune with democratic aspirations."
H. H. Harris, (written 1948 for an exhibition of California work in Melbourne.)
Fellowship Park House, Los Angeles, 1935 Entenza house, Santa Monica, 1937 Bauer House, Los Angeles, 1938 Blrtcher house, Los Angles, 1942 Johnson House, Los Angeles, 1942 Whyle House, OJat, 1949 English House, Beverly Hills, 1950 Harris House, Fallbrook, 1952
RAPHAEL SORIANO (1907- ). Technology was his main Interest and he spent 20 years designing a pre-fabrlcated steel frame which cost the same as wood. All of his buildings from 1940 on used storage wall or pre-fab partitions.
Llpetz House, Los Angeles, 1936
Jewish Community Center, East Los Angeles, 1939
Lukens House, Los Angeles, 1940
Katz House, Van Nuys, 1947
Curtis House, Los Angeles, 1950
Case Study House, Pacific Palisades, 1950
Colby Apts., Los Angeles, 1952
Scheme for a housing project, Baja California, 1960
By the end of the 30s a number of negative viewpoints were added to this Eastern view of L.A.
"Democracy and the innocently progressive longings of arcadia were sinking fast and in their place came a slightly more temperate nexus of aspiration, centering on a nature-proximate life-style and on an idea of California as creatively liberating
Michael Sorkin, "Explaining Los Angeles."
In the post-war years Los Angeles boomed Into the city It Is known as today... time If case-house studies, outdoor living, cars were cars and roadside architecture. In 1941 the Los Angeles Regional Planning Commission adopted guidelines for development. The region was going to continue to stress the single-family house, not the regional center, and the car was acknowledged as the major means of transportation with freeways built non-stop: the Arroyo Seco (now Pasadena) 1934-1941, the Cahuenga (now Hollywood) 1941, etc., until 1970 when almost everyone In Los Angeles were only a few minutes from any one freeway.
By 60's "a new set of "progressive" Ideas had become architectural writ and by their light Los Angeles became monstrous. Now L.A. was the great spawing tank of anomie, a centerless matrix of nothingness, enslaved by the cars that were to have set It free. It was a monument to banality and to the awful haphazard tawdriness of consumer culture. Almost as soon as this attitude took hold, tides turned, and
"using on ironic wedge to pry forms loose from meanings, what had been hideous became beautiful. New, legitimate sounding cultural aspirations were affixed, historically corroborated relevances were adduced."
Michael Sorkin, Explaining Los Angeles".
The new wave of L.A. architecture was widely Interpreted before It was produced.
"The central dilemma of the Los Angelist Is that his or her faith dictates the citys ultimate mysteriousness, yet his or her duty is to explain. Los Angeles is
hermeneut's heaven: everyone expects an answer.(hermeneutunfolding the signification, interpretative.) Los Angeles has a rhetoric but no epistemology."
This rhetorical structure allows different groups to subsume the entire inventory of their predecessors into their own canon. If the results sound foolish or Inconsistent, never mind. Foolishness and inconsistency are what LA are all about."
Michael Sorkin, Explaining Los Angeles".
The message that the Los Angeles avant garde architects Is sending in their work is INVENTION. What follows next is a selected list of architects (and some of their work) who are doing work in the southern Californian area: MOORE/RUBLE/YUDELL. The Beverly Hills Civic Centre project has been won by Charles Moore's west coast office in a limited competition.
The design features interlinking courtyards.
FREDERICK FISHER. The solar crematorium first brought him to national attention. lollypop tree collectors and drive-in movie screen concentrator.
Solar Crematory, L.A., CA 1977
Nuart Theatre Facade, L.A.,CA 1980
Caplin Residence, Venice, CA 1979
Jorgensen Residence, Hollywood, CA 1979-1982
Rady Studio, Venice, CA 1981
Horn Residence, Bel Air, CA, 1980
FRANK 6EHRY. Some of his first his Influences were from the art world the obtuse angles, false perspectives, and manipulations of transparency in Ron Daviss work was translated into architecture. Also seen in the make-do personalized constuction and scrap materials of artists's studios. Evolved from the maker of modernist sheds to an explosive and shattering collagist.
If you walk out on the street, there are a lot of cars, lots of dumb walls. But if you look at that street atmosphere and if you are an artist...your eye starts to make pictures and you edit and you find beauty out there. We're commentators on that beauty, on what's around us Thats all were able to do. And this other thing called 'design' is a sort of forced attitude--the values are all wrong. It demands things to be made of fancy, not reality."
Frank Gehry, "Ref lections on Frank Gehry", Frank Gehrv. Buildings and Protects.
O'Neill Hay Barn, San Juan Capistrano, CA, 1968 Gemini G.E.L., L.A., CA, 1976-1979 Gehry House, Santa Monica, CA, 1978 Santa Monica Place, Santa Monica, CA, 1973-1980 Spiller House, Venice, CA, 1980 Loyola Law School, L.A., CA, 1981-1984 California Aerospace Museum, L.A.,CA, 1982-1984 Temporary Contemporary, L.A., CA, 1983
Frances Howard Goldwyn Regional Branch Library, Hollywood, CA, 1983-1984
COY HOWARD. His latest presentational method for his models
attaching them to a rusty bucket, a pasteboard box, a discarded car part, etc. He says he wants people "to relate them (the models) to objects metaphorically." (p. 65 Richard Armstrong, "My Coy Howard, California Counterpoint.)
McCafferty Residence,San Pedro,CA 1977 Palmer/Eckard Condominium, Venice, CA, 1979 Hauser Residence, L.A.,CA, 1977 Daniel Studio, L.A.,CA, 1980 Vacarro Pool, Beverly Hills, CA, 1976 Boudov Residence, Palos Verdes, CA, 1977 Gross Residence, Hollywood, CA, 1978 MORPHOSIS: THOM MAYNE and MICHAEL ROTUND I. Again cheap building materlals-asphalt, metal panels, concrere block are used In odd manner. Buildings areo pushed toward variegated Idiosyncracy and contradiction 2-4-6-8 House Addition, Venice, CA, 1979 Sedlak Addition, Venice, CA, 1980 Cohen Residence, L.A., CA 1980-1981 Lawrence Residence, Hermosa Beach, CA, 1981-1982 Hermosa Beach Commercial Center, 1982 STUDIO WORKS. European influence and sensibility but Californian in the verging on disorder and experimental craftsmanship.
South Side Settlement House, Columbus, Ohio, 1978-1980 Gagoslan Residence and Gallery, Venice, CA, 1981 ERIC OWEN MOSS. Brash construction, celebrates the architecture of the tacky, surreal quality of (the Petal) house with Its roof bursting open.
Pin Ball House, L.A., CA, 1977-79
Fun House, Calabassas, CA, 1980
Houses X & Y, Malibu, CA 1980-81
708 House, Pacific Palisades, CA, 1981-85
Petal House, L.A., CA, 1981-83
Silver Lake House, L.A., CA, 1985-
Western architecture seems to have become, or always was, a catelog to be rummaged through, selected from, and copied. This next section includes excerpts from Architecture in Los Angeles: A Compleat Guide, by David Gebhard and Robert Winter, Gibbs M. Smith Peregrine Smith Books, Salt Lake City, 1985. It is the style gossary for southern California.
The Hispanic Tradition The mission Churches built in Southern California were provincial adaptations of late Churrigueresque and Neo-Classic designs, primarily of Mexico.One of the most common elements was the long, low arcade with just a slight suggestion of piers supportingthe spring of the arches, The
(ca. 1770s-1850s) adobe styles was simply the direct, logical manner of constructing secular buildings, characterized by room widths determined by length of timbers; flat, shed or gabled roofs; interior and exterior walls washed with white lime cement jfloors were packed with adobe, later with tile & elaborate wood flooring. L or U plans, very few large enough to form a complete square.
Greek Revival (Monterey) style rectilinear, gabled-roof volumes, one or two stories, horizontal in character,roof at low pitch symmetrical, balanced plan and disposition of windows and doors (the side-hall plan is simply one-half of the symetrlcal unit)
(ca. 1840s-1860s) wide entablatures, occasionally with dentils gable ends form classical triangular pediment with horizontal roof, eave/cornice carried across gable end frequent occurence of engaged piers at corner flat or pedimented windows and doors use of Doric (occasionally Ionic) columns entrances with side and transom lights, use of narrow wood porches and second-floor balconies, roofs often covered with wood shingles
italianate style emphasis on the vertical in volumes and details broadly projected roofs supported by elaborate, three-dimensional patterns of brackets
(ca. 1860s-1870s) round, segmented, or straight-sided rectangular arched windows; groups of double-arched windows frequent use of angular bays heavy articulation of headers over windows and doors quoined corners; use of thin (almost Gothic), arched colonnettes; classic spindled balustrades, tower with low-pitched, hip roof
Queen Anne Revival (ca. 1885-1900)
French Second Empire
thin, tenuous vertical volumes, surfaces, details; all of a fragile nature exposure (In myth or fact) of structural members-posts, dentils, corner bracing angled struts, etc
surface divided into panels, each area defined by flat board molding,
Inner surface covered with lap siding, tongue and groove siding, diagonal
siding, vertical siding and occasional shingles
profusion of Jigsaw and lath work in wood
ornamet often rendered by the outline of cut-out patterns, drilled
holes, and thin, layered wood (with all edges very sharp); ornamentation
often confined to gable ends and porch posts and entablatures
frequent use of projecting turned knobs as single or repeated decoration
irregular plan, elevations, roof silhouettes vertical emphasis 8t first, later horizontal surfaces covered with a variety of tactile patterns-clapboard, patterned shingles (especially fish-scale pattern)
extensive wrap-around porches on first floor
balconied porches cut into second floor and third floor attic
corner (sometimes bay) towers, roofed with a variety of different
shapes:conical, segmented concave, bulbous
classical detailing: columns, dentils, scrolls, engaged columns, piers
tall, recessed, panelled chimneys
leaded, stained glass windows; especially the stair landing window
emphasis on the elongation and the vertical
use of tower pavilions, central pavilions, corner pavilions
high mansard roof sometimes gently convex or concave in form, usually
flat on top, with its summit surrounded by a cast iron railing
use of a wide variety of domes and other dome-like forms
dormers often break through walls and roofs; form of dormers varied
from pediment types to round arch forms to circular with surrounding
surfaces of the building were, in the more elaborate examples, rich in three-dimensional classical detailing: superimposed orders with entablatures and cornices; projecting pedimented and semi-circular headed windows with bold side framing and sills; rusticated lower floor or basement
heavily projected roof cornices with brackets entablature filled with a variety of classical details porch balustrades of thick, turned spindles
Beaux Arts, City Beautiful Classicism
weight and mass are the essential Ingredients
form of building conjures the medieval and picturesque, these qualities
realized by a minimal number of elements
rough masonry walls, with detailing, arches, and dentils of a different
color, smoother, more polished stone
predominance of the arch, either singly or as an arcade; repeated use of the early Christian arch from Syria, which often seems to spring fronm the ground
rectangular window openings divided into rectangular patterns by stone mullions and transoms;in larger buildings, windows grouped between tall .narrow, clustered piers and arches; windows sometimes grouped horizontally (with either flat or arched headers) as a band directly under projecting roof soffit
gable ends carried up as a parapet; round towers with pyramid or roofs; use of bands of engaged colonnettes
irregular, non-symmetrical plans and silhouettes, with an open play
between the horizontal 8nd the vertical
roofs with high-pitched surfaces; wall and roof dormers with
pedimented parapets; tall chimneys and high pinnacles
smooth-cut stone surfaces for walls
projecting round corner turrets with thin conical roofs
windows, either round-arched or flat-lintel, both accompanied by
classical detailing; some doors and windows of Gothic segmented arch
pattern; detailing (in stone) both classical and late Gothic
simple rectangular volumes, covered by gable or hipped roofs symmetrical, balanced dispensing of windows and doors surfacing od clapboard or brick (shingles earlier)
classical, colonial detailing: columns, engaged piers, cornices and entablatures, shuttered windows double-hung, smal-paned windows
formally, ponderously scaled; purposely non-reference to point-of-scale reference symmetrical and balanced facade
use of columned drums and domes (with resulting interior rotundas)
interior space place major emphasis on sequences of spaces-halls,
corridors, staircases, public meeting chambers- rather than on
utilitarian office and outer spaces
monumental flights of stairs
often usedcenteral projecting pavillion
fondness for classical porticos, usually Ionic or Corinthian orders
Gothic style (ca. 1895-1940)
Craftsman (Arts and Crafts)
Mission Revival (ca. 1890-1912)
Prairie style (1905-1920)
English Tudor (1900-present)
simple, surfaces of stone (often Inside as well as out) employment of terra-cotta for details
elaborate otained, leaded glaoo windowq
stucco end haiT-timbering, brick and stone Tor houses and smaller institutional buildings like libraries and clubs round, conical roof tower placed within L of two major wings of building
designed low to the ground; molded to irregularities of site
direct, simple, box-like shapes;low-pitched roofs
informal plans and non-symmetrlcal elevations
even in large houses, scale suggests the Intimate and Informal
stucco a favorite sheathing .although clapboard, shingles, or board and
batten also used
brick occasionally employed (especially clinker bricks) for foundations, parapet walls of porches and terraces, chimneys river boulder sheathing of lower portion of walls also encountered exposure of some structural members, especially roof rafters, struts to support roof, projecting end beams, etc.
screened sun and sleeping porches, terraces, pergolas
white, plain stucco walls
arched openings- usually with the pier, arch, and surface of buildings
treated as a single plane
tile roofs of low pitch
scalloped, parapeted gable ends
paired bell towers, often covered with tile, hip roofs
occasional use of domes
ornament when present cast in terra-cotta or concrete; patterns often Islamic and Sullivanesque
usually stucco boxes with horizontal emphasis
openings arranged in horizonatal patterns; bands or windows placed
directly under roof soffit
facades (especially street facade) symmetrical and balanced
usually one or more open or closed single-floor porches projecting off
house; second-floor sleeping porches often present
pattern of boards, especially horizontal boards (usually stainedO used
to connect windows, doors, or other elements
casement windows favored in more elaborate examples
source Is the rural or small village cottages and houses of England picturesque, tends toward the informal and detais such as casement windows, doors, half-timbering, and high -pitched gables hug the building to the ground tall chimneys as major design element landscaping informal and meant to enshroud the house
Mediterranean (Spanish & Italian) Revival
Spanish Colonial Revival
Pueblo Revival (1900-1930)
Monterey Revival (1928-1941)
similar to English Tudor with the addition of around, conical-roofed tower
source the farm and small manor houses of France form Is L with a tower placed at the Junction between the two volumes hipped and quite steep roofs, wall dormers with narrow windows stucco walls, occasionally od brick, and half-timbering employed only on the upper sections of the walls
symmetrical composition for the street elevation(or at least a portion)
basic form -single rectangular volume
smooth stucco walls, shutters often used, roof with pronounced
overhang, form of roof- low pitched and hipped
generally details cast in stone with restrained classical references
axial gardens directly related to the symmetry of the building, Its
plan,and interior spaces
stucco surfaces which predominate over theopenings low-pitched tile roofs
limited number of openings (best if deeply cut into the wall surfaces closely related to outdoors through use of French doors, terraces, pergolas
gardens designed in a formal, axial manner
use of decorative ironwork for windows, doors, balconies, amd roof
glazed and unglazed tile used for walls and floors Plateresque and especially rich Churriquersque ornament of cast concrete or terra-cotta occured occasionally
general profile low, earth hugging
thlch adobe-appearing walls, sometimes fake, sometimes real
adobe walls extend vertically as horizontal parapet, usually with edge
of parapet curved to suggest the handmade feeling of adobe architecture
roofs flat and invisible behind parapets
rows of projecting vigas
tree trunks for porch columns
brick used for terraces, porch and interior floors
small windows, usually of casement type
oven-type corner fireplaces
single, two-story rectilinear volume; occasionally with wings stuccoed surfaces; in some examples board and batten used, especially to sheath second floor
low-pitched gable roof covered In most instances with wood shingles projecting second-floor balcony with simple wood supports 8nd wood railing
'colonial" entrances with panelled doors, sidelights, fanlights, panelled recesses and internal detailing
double-hung wood windows with mullions; occasional Greek Revival detailing of wood frame
Art Deco (1920-1941)
International Style (1935-present)
California Ranch (1935-present)
smooth-surfaced volumes, windows arranged In sunken vertical panels; elimination of any classical or medieval termination at the top of
symmetry and balance for each elevation
frequent use of central tower, whose summit recedes In a stepped
flat roof, usually headed by parapets tendency for buildings to be monumental, formal, and heavy ornamentation of zig-zags, chevrons, sunburts, spirals, and stylized plant motifs; stylized animals such as deer and gazelle employed
stucco boxes, often with rounded corners, and even rounded parapets emphasis on the horizontal through banded surfaces, windows, etc. curved projecting wings glass brick
round windows (as ship portholes)
steel (ship) railing brightly colored vitrellte
light, horizontal volumes often cantilevered out over the landscape
horizontality strongly emphasized
walls and glass surfaces kept in same planes
stucco walls conveying lightness
flat roofs, usually without parapets
extensive use of glass
machine, hospital-like image cultivated
single-floor dwelling, composed of informal arrangement of volumes
low-pitched hip or gable roof with wide overhangs
sheathed in stucco, board and batten, shingles, clapboard, or a
combination of one or all of these
windows often treated 8S horizontal bands
glass sliding doors lead to covered porches, terraces, or pergolas
interior spaces open, and of low horizontal scale
building frequently composed of picturesque variety of forms; volumes project horizontally and vertically; contradicting shapes, shed roofs, cylinders introduced
walls 8nd structure of concrete are one again
where wall and structure are separate, brick or other material used as
a separate infill which does not hide structure; and structure, not infill,
openings introduced as holes; occasionally as random holes concrete surfaces left exposed within 8nd without; tactile quality interjected through leaving the pattern of wooden form work pipes, vents, ducts, etc., left exposed
New Formalism single volume preferred bulidings separate from nature and usually set on podium often an exotic Near eastern/lndian flavor
(ca. 1960-present) suggestion of classical columns (piers) and entablatures arches, elliptical and others wall surfaces smooth, often elegantly sheathed in stone delicacy of all details- no heavy monumental qualities grilles of polished met8l, concrete, and stone forma; alndscape: pools and fountains; frequent use of monumental High Art sculpture
Cut-lnto Box rectangular volumes usually several rather than one volume articulated horizontally surface sheathed in brick; skin hides structure
(1965-present) windows and other openings deeply cut into surface; usually with slanted apron sills exteriors tend to be monotone both in color and in use of single surface material
Post-Modern image of the machine via the visual language of the early Modern of the 1920s- nautical portholes, railings, metal stairs, banded windows, stucco walls
(1970-present) use of classical columns (usually a version of the Tuscan order columns or piers coupled with arches; arches often boldely defined by voussofrs and keystone use of circular and lunette windows; roof and wall dormers entrance played up with pilasters and entablature use of pronounced entablatures and projecting cornices occasional use of closed classical pediments building itself (its enclosed space) seems to sit behind a screen or partial screen of historical elements pergolas employed to counter or deny extension of interior spaces
High Tech style first approaches: the building as If it were composed of a series of separate, Independent machine parts, afondness for revealing the buildings Innards (symbolically, not in fact) via exposed piping and
(1870-present) metal chimneys, coupled with everyday machine products such as corregated metal sheathing second approach: the forms of minimal sculpture are enlarged into a building, using elemental shapes- cylinders angular volumes which are articulated by fragile skins of glass, often colored or reflective historical references to International Style- glass brick, metal stairs, pipe railings use of bright colors to bring emphasis to each of the separate parts
CONTEXT OF GLENDALE
Los Angeles has always had an enormous metropolitan area; It was knit together before WWII by the worlds largest trolley system. By 1960 metropolitan Los Angeless sphere of Influence stretched to Santa Monica In the west, Pasadena In the east, Long Beach In the south, and the San Fernando valley In the north. Now metropolitan Los Angeles extends westward Into Ventura County, east to San Bernadlno and Riverside, and south across most of Orange County to span an area many times the metropolitan areas size twenty five years ago. Greater Los Angeles consists of well over a hundred cities and five counties. For a better understanding of the complexity of all these cities meshed together It Is easier to analysis If they are viewed as "urban-vllages". One reason for the growth of urban-villages Is that the nation's economy Is shifting from a manufacturing to a service and knowledge base, whblch in turn has accelerated the restructuring of our metropolitan areas by creating a need for more office space (and people are willing to live near the offices). Other reasons that support this growth are: changes In transportation patterns, Americans have decided they prefer the auto to mass transit; telecommunications advances, more work Is done over the telephone; and It Is cheaper for businesses to operate In urban-villages than in cities. Downtown Los Angeles Is losing Its metropolitan leadership and preponderant influence and Is becoming just another of the region's urban-village cores.
In attractive communities near urban-village cores, such as Glendale (actually the third largest city in Los Angeles County), the prices of existing homes are rising fast, owing to the sudden demand from employees of relocated companies. Executives and business owners usually make the decisions about office locations and industrial sites. Most of them are white and upper-middle-class, and they usually decide to bring their offices nearer their homes. Glendale Is a slight exception to this theme, owing to Its size and proximity to downtown Los Angeles: 31.5% work Inside Glendale, 58.3% work outside Glendale, with 10.2% not reported.
The actual history of Glendale begins in 1798 when Corporal Jose Maria Berdugo (later changed to Verdugo) established title to the Rancho San Rafael from the King of Spain. The rancho was a vast track of land (approx. 36,400 acres) containing most of the present day Glendale, Burbank, Eagle rock, and Highland Park. In 861, the Inheritors of the estates, Julio and catallna Verdugo divided the Rancho between them. In 1871 the "Great Partition" decision was made by the court and the rancho San Rafael was dissolved.
Following the dissolution of the original Rancho, many Individuals purchased portions of the vast acreage. In 1884 "Glendale" was selected as the name of a community which had developed. Six individuals contributed land to create the original 150 acre townslte. In 1887 the townslte was plotted and a map
filed and recorded with the County Recorder for the "Town of Glendale". In 1906, Glendale was Incorporated Into a charter city and consisted of 1,486 acres. By 1920, the City had grown through nine annexations to over 7,000 acres. From 1920 to 1930, ten annexations brought the total area to 12,294 acres. The period from 1930 to 1950 saw many small annexations culminating in the 2,160 acre Whiting Woods and Verdugo Mtns. annexations, bringing the city area to 15,140 acres or 23.6 miles. Folowing 1950, two major annexations, New York Avenue and upper Chevy Chase Canyon (location of my project site; my grandfather owned the property before this annexation occured) and several smaller annexations brought the area to 29.3 square miles by 1965. Since 1965, fourteen annexations have taken place. The town now has a land area of 30.59 square miles and a population in excess of 154,000, making it the third largest of the 78 cities in Los Angeles County.
Cultural activites are numerous In Glendale: musical organizations, dramatic and dance clubs, literary societies, photography clubs and art associations. The nationally known Glendale Syymphony Orchestra and several theatre groups preform in season. The Brand Library and Cultural Center features courses, lectures, art exhibits and a collection of books, art and music. The 92,000 square feet Central Library and five branches have some 355,000 volumes and a number of special collections. Of architectural significance is the Casa Adobe de San Rafael, which is one of the old historic adobe houses owned by the original Verdugo family.
Figure 8 shows some of the business facilities and Figure 9 shows some of the firms. Figures 10 and 11 Includes housing characteristics and information. The median housing values are for the 1980 census and values have significantly increased since then. Included is information on Fair Oaks (Figures 12 and 13), the closest new development to the project site which list homes at an average price of $300,000. These all have been sold (prior to actual constuction, just on the model homes). The other large undeveloped site in the area, across Sycamore Canyon has been approved with 588 lots over 316 acres. Other housing activity Is found In the "Residential Development Activity July 1986, a publication put out by the Planning Division included in the appendix.
It is theoretically possible on a larger site to include the complete range of household types. The U.S. breakdown of household types is: 15% singles, 15% young couples, 30% couples with young children, 12% couples with teenagers, 18% couples with grown children, 5% elderly couples, and 5% elderly singles. The ability to work, shop, and play in the same geographic area, while retaining easy access to other urban-village cores with specialized features that their own district lacks makes Glendale a very attractive place to be.
Figure 8. Glendale Business Facilities.
Bank of America 3 Community Bank 1 First Interstate Bank 1 OneCentral Bank 1 Sanwa Bank of California 1
SAVINGS & LOAN 20
American S & L 2 California Federal S & L 2 Central Savings 1 Citicorp Savings 1 Coast Savings 1 Community Federal S & L 2 Fidelity Federal S & L 1 First Nationwide Savings 1
Burbank Daily Review The Foothill Leader Glendale News Press
Security Pacific Natl Bank 4 Sterling Bank 1 Valley National Bank 3 Wells Fargo Bank 3
Glendale Federal S & L 3 Great Western Savings 1 Hancock Savings 1 Home Federal S & L 1 Home Savings of America 1 Lincoln S & L 1 Sears Savings Bank 1
L. A. Herald Examiner
La Prensa de Los Angeles (Spanish)
Mideast Business Exchange
American Motel Astro Glendale Motel Bell Motor Hotel El Rio Motel Glen Capri Motel Glendale Motel Glendale Town House Motel Golden Key Motor Hotel Griffith Park Motel
HOTELS Holiday Inn
(Source: Glendale Chamber of Commerce Economic Profile, 1986)
Manhattan Motel Miyako Inn Regalodge Motel Royal Inn Motel Sands Motel of Glendale Tropico Motel Vagabond Motor Hotels Victory Motor Inn
Figure 9. Firms Located in the Glendale Area.
A Sample list of some of the larger firms located in the Greater Glendale area:
Aetna Casualty & Surety Air Conditioning Co. Baskin-Robbins Bell & Howell
Bekins Movings & Storage Hdq. Belora Fine China Bob's Big Boy Broadway Dept. Store Buffums Dept. Store California Offset Printers CIGNA Health Plan Fidelity Federal S & L Fellerton Sales, Inc.
GENSTAR Mortgage Glenair, Inc.
Glendale Federal S & L Glendale News-Press Griffin Printing & Litho H.W. Hart Mfg. Co.
(Source: Glendale Chamber of Commerce
ITT General Control Johnston Foods, Inc.
Mervyn's Dept. Store Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. Nordstrom Dept. Store J.C. Penney Co.
Products Research & Chemical Corp Rapid Color, Inc.
Robinson's Dept. Store Sears, Roebuck & Co.
Sears Savings Bank Security Pacific Nat'l Bank Singer-Librascope Transo Envelope Co.
USCC/Central Lab Union Mutual Life Insurance Co. Walt Disney Productions Weber Baking Co.
WED Enterprises Western Hoegee Co.
Economic Profile, 1986)
(Source. Glendale Chamber of Commerce Economic Profile, 1986)
Figure 10. Glendale Housing
TYPE OF HOUSING STOCK: (MARCH 1986)
Single Family Units (Estimate) 26,248 41.1%
Multi-Family Units (Estimate) 37,548 58.9%
Total of All Units 63,419 100.0%
CITY VACANCY RATE: (MARCH 1986)
TOTAL# DWELLINGS # VACANT % VACANT
Single Family Units (Estimate) 23,402 155 0.7%
Multi-Family Units (Estimate) 36,009 1138 3.2%
Overall Housing Vacancy Factor 59,411 1293 2.2%
COMPLETED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY (1975-1986)
UNIT TYPE NO. OF UNITS PERCENT OF UNITS
New Single Family 780 14%
New Rentals 1,492 27%
New Condominiums* 3,209 59%
Total 5,481 100%
*Includes buildings constructed as rentals and then converted to condon
NET HOUSING CHANGE (1975 1986)
I ncrease/De crease Sincle Familv Units Multi-Family Units
Increase 780 4,701
Decrease 769 438
Net Change 11 Increase 4,263 Increase
Historically, condomimun development activity has been concentrated in the Central and West Glendale communities. However, condominium activity has occurred in all parts of the city: Central Glendale 84 projects (29%), West Glendale 66 projects (22%) East Glendale 52 projects (18%), Southeast Glendale 34 projects (12%), North Glendale 29 projects (10%), Southwest Glendale 16 projects (5%), Verdugo Canyon 13 projects (4%).
Figure 11. Housing Characteristics
MEDIAN RENT OF HOUSING (1985)
UNIT TYPE NUMBER OF BEDROOMS One Two Three
Furnished $ 850 $1,050 $1,250
Unfurnished 700 900 1,100
Condominium 1,000 1,200 1,425
Furnished 650 800 1,200
Unfurnished 550 675 1,000
MEDIAN HOUSING VALUE (1980 CENSUS)
Neighborhood Housing Value
El Miradero $ 126,100
Grand Central 81,300
Riverside Rancho 90,300
Fremont Park 82,400
San Rafael 120,300
Central Glendale-East 97,100
Central Glendale-West 83,400
Tropico East 89,800
Tropico West 63,300
Acacia Hills 93,500
Thornycroft East 83,400
Thornycroft west 81,700
Verdugo Viejo 92,900
Glenoaks Canyon 137,200
Chevy Chase Estates 187,600
Oak Ridge 135,600
Casa Verdugo 129,500
Verdugo Woodlands East 159,500
Verdugo Woodlands West 140,500
Montecito Park 137,300
Sparr Heights 96,600
Verdugo City 88,400
Del Norte 87,100
Verdugo Mtns.-North 160,400
Verdugo Mtns.-South 200,000+
CITY-WIDE MEDIAN $ 117,400
(Source: Glendale Chamber of Commerce Economic Profile, 1986)
FICE nt St.
\ 91206 31
DESCRIPTION SQUARE FEET
Single story, 2 bedrooms and den or 3 bedrooms, 2 Vi baths, gated entry, living room and family room with see-through fireplace, formal dining room, kitchen with preparation island, kitchen and nook with solarium window, wet bar adjacent to dining room, large master bedroom suite with dressing area, interior laundry room, 2-car garage. 2,051 $230
Two-story, 3 bedrooms and den or 4 bedrooms, 3 baths, formal dining room, family room with fireplace, large kitchen and nook with solarium window, downstairs den/bedroom with optional wet bar and full bath, spacious master bedroom suite with walk-in closet and retreat with fireplace, interior laundry room, 3-car garage. 2,390 $245
Two-story, 3 bedrooms and den or 4 bedrooms, 2Vi baths, formal dining room, kitchen with nook, family room with fireplace and wet bar, downstairs master bedroom suite with walk-in closet and garden-view sliding glass door, loft den/bedroom with optional wet bar, interior laundry room, 3-car garage. 2,521 $269
Two-story, 4 bedrooms, 3 baths, step-down living room, formal dining room with wet bar, large kitchen with solarium window and preparation island, bay-windowed nook, family room with fireplace and built-in bookshelves, downstairs bedroom with full bath, spacious master bedroom suite with fireplace and walk-in closets, interior laundry room, 3-car garage. 2,736 $270
Two-story, 3 bedrooms and den or 4 bedrooms, 3 baths, step-down living room, oak spiral staircase, formal dining room, large kitchen with island cooktop and walk-in pantry, bay-windowed nook, family room with fireplace, downstairs den/bedroom with full bath, wet bar, master bedroom suite with fireplace and large walk-in closet, interior laundry room, 3-car garage. 2,813 $273
Two-story, 4 bedrooms, 3 baths, step-down living room, formal dining room, kitchen with solarium window and preparation island, bay-windowed nook, family room with fireplace and wet bar, full bath downstairs with outdoor access, spacious master suite with fireplace nvn' and wet bar, interior laundry room, 3-car garage. 2,532 $268
Figure 13 Fair Oaks Units and Prices
, ^ACT ' 33228 TRACT : 33228 -II
IT PLAN PRICE LOT PLAN PRICE
46 1 A $230,000 SOLD 66 1 C $250,000 SOLD
71 1 B $258,000 - SOLD
I 2ARX $245,000 - SOLD 47 1 AX $270,000 - SOLD
45 2BRX $245,000 - SOLD
2CRX $266,000 - SOLD 63 2 CRX $254,000 - SOLD
56 2 BX $257,000 - SOLD
> * 3BX $285,000 - SOLD 27 2 CX $263,000 - SOLD
36 3AX $285,000 - SOLD 24 2 BRX $265,000 - SOLD
18 2 ARX $265,000 - SOLD
3 4 CRX $270,000 - SOLD 67 2 AX $267,000 SOLD
37 4CRX $287,000 - SOLD 48 2 BX $285,000 - SOLD
' 1 4BRX $300,000 - SOLD
59 3 BRX $269,000 - SOLD
40 5BX $273,000 - SOLD 57 3 ARX $269,000 - SOLD
44 5 AX $288,000 - SOLD 26 3 AX $271,000 - SOLD
3 5ARX $303,000 - SOLD 21 3 BRX $275,000 - SOLD
69 3 CX $280,000 - SOLD
39 6 AX $268,000 - SOLD 50 3 CX $295,000 - SOLD
55 4 ARX $282,000 SOLD
60 4 CX $282,000 - SOLD
62 4 AX $282,000 - SOLD
28 4 BX $282,000 - SOLD
65 4 BX $290,000 - SOLD
23 4 BRX $290,000 - SOLD
19 4 CRX $290,000 - SOLD
70 4 AX $295,000 - SOLD
49 4 AX $310,000 - SOLD
52 4 CX $310,000 - SOLD
20 5 ARX $283,000 SOLD
61 5 BRX $285,000 - SOLD
58 5 CX $287,000 - SOLD
54 5 CX $293,000 - SOLD
64 5 ARX $293,000 - SOLD
68 5 BX $293,000 - SOLD
22 5 ARX $293,000 - SOLD
25 5 CX $293,000 - SOLD
51 5 BRX $313,000 - SOLD
53 6 ARX $283,000 - SOLD
NOTE: Some of the above "SOLD" homes may be available for sale subject to cancellation of a contingent buyer. Please ask Sales Representative for details. Prices shown for "SOLD" homes may reflect recent price changes and are not necessarily the prices for which those homes originally sold.
Tract 38905 Is a proposed residential development located In the City of 61endale In the San Rafael Hills, on the southeastern side of Sycamore Canyon (Figure 2). Glendale Is located seven miles north of Los Angeles and 435 miles south of San Francisco (Figure 1). The subject property (185^ acres) extends roughly from Chevy Chase Drive to Glenoaks Boulevard, with a maximum northeast-southwest orientation of approximately 6,800 feet. The entire property Is characterized as steep, with an overall average percent slope of 67.91%.
The legal description as recorded in the Assessors' Map Books for property tax purposes is as follows:
MAP BOOK__________PAÂ£Â£________PARCEL. NUMBER
5662 22 2
5660 26 2
5660 22 16
5662 21 1
5660 24 1,3, 4,6
The art of site planning relies on determining satisfactory relationships between existing and proposed conditions. Decisions are based in large part on natural process factors, that is, how site use affects and is affected by geology, soils, climate, hydrology, vegetation and wildlife. In addition to these, visual, functional, and user needs factors play an Important part Including natural process data into the site planning process can help determine initial development costs. This analysis will also add to the site's amenities since the critical canyons can be partially retained The goal will be that areas of high natural value will be retained intact or developed with restraint, and that areas of low natural value will be manipulated, changed, and developed more freely.
Richard Untermann and Robert Small in Site Planning for Cluster Housing, described the four steps of ecological site planning:
1. Determining the site's most significant natural process limitations, and prioritizing the remaining processes.
2. Inventoring and mapping existing natural process data.
3. Interpreting the findings for limitations to development. This usually involves a scale of possible actions from build to no-build, with a build-wlth-restraints category.
4. Developing site planning guidelines, including valued features, drainage concepts, road widths, parking arrangements, unit access
conditions, foundation types, and so on.
The topography of this site Is Its foremost limitation and Its foremost amenity. This chapter In the following sections will discuss In detail the categories of the site: geology and hydrology, vegetation and wildlife, views, climatological data, circulation, amentles, etc. It Is Important to Identify In this ecosystem what are the qualities which are Important to the people who will live there and to society. It Is Important to be aware of the laws regulating Impact on endangered species, unique vegetation; and laws concerning landslides and earthquakes. The architect and the site planner must assure adequate and proper food sources, shelter, and water for existing wildlife species.
Natural processes can affect development costs in three ways: I) instantaneous natural hazard (eg landslide, earthquake), 2) cumulative natural hazards(eg erosion) 3) intangible costs. These problems can be addressed as follows: avoiding the problem area by not building there or correcting the problem by applying technology to over come known conditions (eg. special foundations, retaining walls, drainage systems).
GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY
A geotechnical Investigation of the project site was conducted by the Foundation Engineering Company, Incorporated, 16344 Oxnard Street, Tarzana,
CA, 91356, In the month of May, 1980. The following Is a summary and analysis of that report.
The site of the proposed project Is located along the southeastern side of Sycamore Canyon, a northeast-southeast trending canyon. The site extends from the canyon bottom to the top of a primary ridge and includes several secondary north-south trending ridges with steeply Incised drainages (Figure 3). Elevations vary from approximately 775 feet to 1,575 feet, and slopes range from 10% along the ridge lines to near vertical along the flanks of the ridges. The majority of the site Is characterized by slopes exceeding I 1/2:1 (horizontaLvertical) or a grade of approximately 67%.
The site Is underlain by relatively hard granite types of bedrock, Including quartz diorite, granodiorite and gneiss (Figure 14). These units have been subject to a long history of deformation and are highly fractured, exhibiting primary and secondary Jointing. The steep slopes located throughout the site can be attributed to the highly fractured nature of the bedrock, since the angles of Inclination of both the primary and secondary joints are steep (1e. greater than 45 degrees), and slopes on the site are considered to be stable against deep seated landslides. In the canyons, bedrock is overlain with alluvium, consisting of loose, gravelly and silty sand (Figure 15). The maximum observed depth of the alluvium Is nine feet, although localized deeper areas are probally present.
Soil, consisting of loose silty sand, mantles most of the natural slopes to a maximum observed depth of I 1/2 feet. Topsoil on the ridge tops and steeper slopes Is generally absent or extremely thin.
Localized exposures of moderately dense reddish brown clayey sand are found near the lower ridge lines. These soils are derived from the In-place weathering of bedrock which Is relatively high In Iron and magnesium. Expansion tests of the soil and crushed bedrock indicate that these materials are nonexpanslve.
Seismic conditions: No major faults were encountered on the site. The closest known fault Is located Just offsite bordering Greenwich Road and traversing across Sycamore Canyon. Exposures of this Sycamore Canyon Fault have been mapped; as the fault zone has been Intruded by Miocene basalts, the fault should be considered inactive. Other mapped faults within the general vicinity include the Verdugo Fault, Scholl Canyon Fault, Eagle Rock Fault, York Blvd., San Rafael, Sierra Madre and San Andreas Fault. Each of these faults are shown In Table 1 with the most active fault listed first.
(Source: Geotechnical Report by Foundation Engineering)
Figure M. Geologic Map A
(Source: Psomas and Associates)
Figure 15. Geologic Mop B
These expected maximum ground accelerations should be considered general. Substantial variation is likely to occur due to the complex nature of the geologic setting and imbricate fault patterns.
A Fault vicinity Map, Figure 16, is Included showing the location of subject development with respect to the nearby active faults.
Due to the absense of groundwater, other than spring activity, and the fact that the proposed subdivision will be built entirely on compacted and tested fill or rock, llquidfaction is not considered as a hazard.
The existing conditions on the site for hydrology will now be discussed. While the site receives an average of only 20 inches per year, periodic intense rain storms are characteristic of the area. During a 50-year storm, 14 Inches of rainfall could be expected at the site during a 24-hr period (Los Angeles County Flood Control District (LACFCD), Hydrology Manual, 1971).
The steep slopes and open vegetation cover in the Sycamore Canyon drainage do not allow much of the rainfall to percolate Into the ground. Consequently, a heavy rainfall often produces large quanities of debris-laden runoff. The estimated runoff and debris producing characteristics of the site during a 50-year storm is summarized in Figure 17. The LACFCD has classified the site vicinity as a Debris Production Area (DPA) 2, which is the second highest classification on the scale of 1 to 9. This area is expected to produce approximately 145,000 cubic yards of debris per tributary square mile of watershed, based on a 50 year strom occurring 4 years after a major burn (De Chellis, 1981). A four-year recouvery period combined with a 50 year storm is considered a design level objective.
The construction of several County flood control structures began In 1968 and 1969. Before these were completed, a heavy rainfall would often result in Chevy Chase Blvd. being impassable because of flooding and debris. The construction of the Sycamore Canyon channel has eliminated flood flows In Chevy Chase ( and could accept additional runoff (De Chellis, 1981), debris entering the street from side canyons periodically results in the temporary closure of the road. A study by the Association of Engineering Geeologists, 1980, within the entire county of Los Angeles have indicated that more property damage and loss of life has occurred from superficial debris and mud slides than from deep-seated landslides.
Fault rupture on the site is not considered a potential hazard. However, because of the proximity of the site to major active faults, the proposed tract is expected to be subject to the moderate to strong earthquake shaking,
SEISMIC CONDITIONS-- FAULTS WITHIN SITE VICINITY *
Active Distance Recurrence Maximum
Fault from Interval, Credible
Zone site,(miles) ysars Magnitude
San Andreas 22 200 8
Sierra Madre 5.3 300 7
Raymond Hill 3 200 6
York Blvd. 2.1 NA** 6.5
Verdugo 1.2 NA** 6.5
Eagle Rock 1
San Rafael 1/2
School Canyon 0.4
Sycamore Canyon 50
Verdugo Canyon 3/4
* p.7-8, Geotechnical Report, bv Foundation Engineering, May, 1980.
FAULT VICINITY MAP
7H/3 MAP /S &A3ED ON TPC FOLLO WJNCr yfOUJECES .*
CAL.D/V.M/NES f GrÂ£OLOCy-SPEC/AL &EPOJET *t/0t/170
dry Op GLENDALE'*
SEJ3M/C HAZARDS MAP,/97S
expected generally in southern California in the event of a major earthquake. Excavation;
Cut pads should be overexcavated and covered with a blanket of compacted fill as this will facilitate footing and utility trench excavation and will also Improve the landscaping condition of the lots.
Minor areas of adversely oriented bedrock may be encountered during grading. Such areas should be evaluated during In-grading Inspections by the geologist or soils engineer, and mitigation measures implemented.
Fills over 30 feet in depth should have the lower 30 feet compacted to 95% of maximum density. The upper 30 feet of fills, except on slopes, should be compacted to 90% of maximum density. On 1 1/2:1 fill slopes in excess of 30 feet vertical height, the fill should be compacted to 95%. Slopes less than 30 feet high should be compacted to 92%.
The excavation of bedrock may produce large quanities of oversized fill material. Placement of oversized material in the fill will require special handling and supervision by the soils engineer to insure tha the larger material is Incorporated without creating voids.
Fill slopes will require that: I) planting of dense, deep rooted vegetation be Implemented as soon as feasible and that it be maintained via a sprinkler system; 2) burrowing rodents be controlled; 3) drainage be directed away from fill slopes; 4) runoff not be allowed to pond above fill slopes and 5) terrace drains be maintained.
Areas to receive fill in the canyons should be stripped of all vegetation and alluvium to firm bedrock. Subdrains should be provided as specified by the soils engineer.
New fill overlying existing fills should not be utilized for structural support, other than streets, unless the existing fill is covered by an Engineer's Certificate for compacted earth fills. If existing fills are non-structural, they should be removed and/or recompacted during grading. The cut portion of building pads located on the transition between cut and fill should be overexcavated and the material replaced as compacted fill.
A debris basin and storm drain system designed and constructed by LACFCD guidelines would be required. In addition, debris basins would be required above lots within gullies draining areas greater than four acres. Where debris basins are not required, debris diversion devices would be recommended.
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
The proposed project site Is located In the southern portion of the San Rafael Hills and contains vegetation and wildlife typical of these and other natural foothill habitats throughout the Transverse Ranges (San Gabriel, Santa Monica, and San Bernadino Mountains and associated ranges).
The predominant existing vegetation Is composed of evergreen native shrubs collectively known as chaparral. South-facing slopes are covered with summer deciduous shrubs forming a vegetation known as coastal sage scrub. Drainages and north-facing slopes support a mosaic of chapparal shrubs and streamside (riparian) woodland dominated by coast live oak. Many forms of wildlife Inhabit both the shrub and woodland areas and are particularly abundant in the four major on-site drainages where water is present.
Plant communities and associated wildlife of the site are given in the following Tables 2 & 3. (ref: Small Wilderness Area Preservation (SWAP) in the Verdugo-San Rafael Urban Mountain Park Proposal, July, 1976.)
The riparian or streamside woodland is a naturally occuring plant community of trees, shrubs, and herbs associated with a year-round supply of water, either in a stream channel or in a high water table. Because of the scarcity of water in southern Cal 1 ifomia, these woodlands are highly restricted in distribution, occupying streambanks, riverbanks, narrow canyons, and valleys. Plant species diversity in riparian woodlands is relatively high in comparison to more arid communities because of the well-drained, well-aerated, moist soils characteristic of most drainages.
Riparian vegetation is an important part of natural drainage systems in that It helps to absorb runn-off and associated nutrients, prevent erosion, and catch large quanities of silt. The riparian woodland is a particularly significant community on southern California because of its restricted distribution, scenic contrast to surrounding bush covered hills, and value as a wildlife habitat, the importance of Individual woodlands is heightened as a result of the extensive loss of riparian habitat in recent years due to agriculture, flood control practices, water polution, residential development, and other urban-related disturbances.
Riparian woodlands are located In the four main canyons on-site Fifure 18. The most diverse canyon is the one that extends southeast of Trammel Road. These areas are dominated by dense coast live oak trees and scattered California sycamore trees. A lush layer of shrubs, vines and herbs grow under the oak canopy.
Native wildlife of the site are concentrated in these areas, due mainly to the availability of water and the dense, tall vegetation. Birds are the most
conspicuous wildlife forms, particularly California quail, scrubjays, various woodpeckers, bushtlts, and Audubons warblers.
Chaparral and coastal sage scrub are shrub-dominated types of vegetation which are widespread In the San Rafael and Verdugo Mountains. The on-site representatives of these communities are generally relatively open, such that a dense blanket of seasonal grasses covers the area between shrubs. In general, the evergreen chaparral Is dominant on northerly-facing slopes, and the deciduous coastal sage scrub Is dominant on more southerly-facing slopes. The communities are Intermixed, however, creating a varied shrub cover. Dominant species Include laurel sumac, chamise, California holly, scrub oak, and wild buckwheat. Both chaparral and coastal sage scrub are extremely fire-prone, as is evidenced by the frequency of brush fires. Just this past summer of 1986 the top one-sixth of the site was burnt out. In general, major bush fires burn In any given brush area every 20 to 50m years. Both chaparral and coastal sage scrub are ecologically vital in retarding erosion on steep slopes by intercepting rainfall and slowing run-off.
The most biologically significant habitats on-site are the riparian woodlands. These areas are highly varied botanically and are critical to large numbers of native wildlife due to the abundant food, water, and shelter available in these woodlands. The surrounding chaparral and coastal sage scrub are of more limited significance due to their relatively common occurence.
No rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as defined by the California Native Plant Society (ref: Powell, 1974 ) or by state or federal government (ref:Cal1forn1a Fish and Game Commission, 1978 & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1976) have been observed on or near the site. Rare and endangered animals that would be likely to occur within the project site (although not encountered) because of the presence of appropriate habitat include:
*San Diego coast horned lizard (Phrvnosoma coronatum blalnvillei). This subspecies Is considered threatened as a result of habitat destruction (ref: Ashton, 1976) It occupies chaparral, woodland, and beach vegetation.
^Black-tailed gnatcatcher (Pollsptnia melanura californica).
This subspecies is considered endangered by the Los Angeles County Environmental Resource Committee, (ref: Los Angeles County Environmental Resource Committee, 1973.) It occupies coastal sage scrub and Is considered endangered because of habitat destruction.
Neither of these animals currently has legal protection.
(Source: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1976.)
Representative Plant Species Observed In the Project Site Area
COMMON NAME TREES
California Sycamore Coast live oak Arroyo willow Elderberry
NATIVE SHRUBS/SUBSHRUBS Chamlse
California sagebrush Mule fat Coyote Bush California lilac Yerba santa
California wild buckwheat
Bush monkey flower
Our Lords candle
Platanus racemosa Quercus agrifolia Salix asiolepls Sambucus mexlcanus
Adenostoma fasclculatum Artemisia California Baccharus glutlnosa B. Pl.lular.ls Ceanothus splnsus Erlodlctyon crasslfollus Erio.flonjj.m fasclcuiatum HaDlopaDDus.sauarrosus Heteromeles arbutlfolla Lotus sc.opanus Malacothrix californica M. longlflorus Prunus IHclfolia Quercus dumosa Rhamnus IHclfolia Rhus laurtna Ri.bes malyacsum
R. speciosum Rosa californica Rubus.urs.1nus Salvia aplana
S. melllfera Seneclo douglasll Solanum xantl Toxicodendron dtversllobum Yucca whlpplel
TABLE 2 (continued) Representative Plant Species Observed In the Project Site Area
Mugwort Giant rye Wild oats Mustard Larkspur Golden yarrow Manroot
Evening primrose Wild heliotrope Brackton Blackberry German Ivy Periwinkle California fuschla Nettle
Artemisia douglasll Arundo donax Ayena frarbata Brasslca genlculata Delphinium so.
Erlophyllum confertlflorum Marah macrocaroa Qmtheca^p, PhacÂ£lJ.a..dlstaps Pterldlum aaulllnum Rub.us.urslpus Seneclo mllkanoides Vinca major Zauschneria callfornlca Urtlca hQlosertcea
NOMENCLATURE FOLLOWS MUNZ, 1984,A FLORA OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
WILDLIFE SPECIES COMMON ON THE SITE
California slender salamamder Western toad Pacific tree frog Escholtzs salamander
Western fence lizard Gopher snake Common king snake Western rattlesnake Side-blotched lizard Coast horned lizard Foothill alligator lizard Weastern garter snake
Red-tailed hawk American kestral California quail Mourning dove Brown towhee Common bushtit Bewick's wren Annas humingbird Song sparrow Common flicker Scrubjay
California thrasher Western robin Black-headed grosbeak Western wood pewee Dark-eyed Junco Wrentit
Batrachopseps attenuatus Bufo boreas Hvla regtlla Ensatlna eschscholtzl
Sceloporus occidental^ Pituophis melanoleucus Lampropeltus getulus Crotalus virldus Uta stansburlana Phrynosoma coronatum Gerrhonotus multicarlnatus Thamnophlsslrtalls
TABLE 3 (continued)
WILDLIFE SPECIES COMMON ON THE SITE
Downy woodpecker Acorn woodpecker Yellow-romped warbler
Audubon's cottontail Mule deer
Dusky-footed woodrat Coyote
Black-tailed hare Beechey ground squirrel Gray fox Deer mouse
Western harvest mouse
Svlvllagus audubonl Odocolleus hemlonus Neotoma fusclpes Canls latrans Lepus callfomlcus Cltellus beechevl Urocyon clnereoargenteus Peromyscus maniculatus Reltb.rgdQQLo.mys megaiotls
Taxonomy follows AOU Checklist (Auk 90:411-419. Auk 93:875-879). Scientific names for birds not Included, as common names are standardized, per AOU Checklist.
There Is no discounting the weather In southern California. Millions have moved to the area because of It. Television and the movies have advertised It. Living In southern California depends on this harmonious Interplay of cool ocean breezes and warm desert air.
"The lazy breeze In Santa Monica Is an invitation to stroll --just as the great red disk is being slipped into the Pacific -- and what remains is far more than a touristic memory extending as it does into a territory of evocativeness that no medium can capture."
Peter Cook, "City of Dreams, LosAnoleles Now,
The following Is a summary taken from the "Local Cllmataloglcal Data, Annual Summary with Comparative Data, 1985, Los Angeles,California, Civic Center" published by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina, 28801.
The climate of Los Angeles is normally pleasant and mild throughout the year (mean yearly daily maximum- 70.1 degrees; mean yearly daily minimum- 55.0 degrees).
The Pacific Ocean is the primary moderating influence. The coastal mountain ranges lying along the north and east sides of the Los Angeles coastal basin act as a buffer against extremes of summer heat and winter cold occuring in desert and plateau regions in the interior A variable balance between mild sea breezes, either hot or cold winds from the interior, results in some variety in weather conditions, but temperature and humidity are usually well within the limits of human comfort. An important, and somewhat unusual, aspect of the climate of the Los Angeles metropolitan 8rea is the pronounced difference in temperature, humidity, cloudiness, fog, rain, and sunshine over fairly short distances.
These differences are closely related to the distance from, and elevation above, the Pacific Ocean. Both high and low temperatures become more extreme and the average relative humidity becomes lower as one goes inland and up foothill slopes.
During periods of high temperatures, the relative humidity is usually below normal so that discomfort is rare, except for infrequent periods when high temperatures and high humidity occurs together.
Like other Pacific Coast areas, most rainfall comes during the winter with nearly 85Â£ of the annual total occurring from November through March, while summers are practically rainless. As in many semi-arid regions, there is a marked variability in monthly and seasonal totals. Precipitation generally increases with distance from the ocean, from a yearly total of around 12 inches in coastsl sections to the south to over 20 inches in foothill areas. Destructive flash floods occasionally develop in and below some mountain canyons. Snow is often visible on nearby mountains in the winter, but is extremely rare in the coastal basin. Thunderstorms are infrequent.
Prevailing winds are from the west during the spring, summer, and early autumn, with norteasterly wind predominating the remainder of the year. At times, the lack of air movement, combined with a frequent and persistent temperature inversion, is associated with concentrations of air polution in the Los Angeles coastal basin and some adjacent areas. In fall, winter, and early spring months, occasional foehnlike descending Santa Ana winds come from the norteast over ridges and through
passes In the coastal mountains. These Santa Ana winds may pick up considerable amounts of dust and reach speeds of 35 to 50 mph In north and east sections of the oity, with higher epeedc in outlaying arose to the north and east, but rarely reach coastal portions of the city.
Sunshine, fog, and clouds depend a great deal on topography and distance from the ocean. Low clouds are common at night and In the morning along the coast during spring and summer, but form later and clear earlier near the foothills so that annual cloudiness and fog frequencies are greatest near the ocean, and sunshine totals are highest on the inland side of the city. The sun shines abouit 75% of daytime hours at the Civic Center. Light fog may accompany the usual night and morning low clouds, but dense fog is more likely to occur during the night and early morning hours of the winter months.
The appendix contains the above document in entirety, as well as: Climatography of the United States No. 20: Burbank, CA and Pasadena, CA; Local Climatological Data, Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Civic Center, Los Angeles, CA and International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. These include daily and monthly data on temperature, pressure, precipitation, heating and cooling degree days, sky cover, humidity, wind, and snowfall.
Figure 19 gives a summary of the climate data on Glendale. Figure 20 shows both the July average maximum and minimum temperatures in the area. Figure 21 shows both the January average maximun and minimum temperatures in the area. Table A gives the sun path information. Figure 22 gives the percent of days exceeding state standards for suspended atmospheric particles.
Figure 19. Glendale Climate Summary
PRECIPITATION: (Environmental Science Services Administration) Varies from 16" toward the
southern city limits to 29" in the mountains to the north.
Normal Average Annual Precipitation 17 1/2 "
Recorded Low Annual Precipitation 6 1/4 "
Recorded High Annual Precipitation 32 1/2 "
TEMPERATURE: (News Press)
Average Low Daily Temperature 55
Average Noontime Temperature 70
Average High Daily Temperature 75
HUMIDITY: /National Weather Service!
Average 4 a.m. Humidity 77%
Average Noon Humidity 49%
Average 4 p.m. Humidity 47%
WIND: (U.S. Weather Bureau!
Prevailing daytime wind flow from south to north and at night from north to south.
- ' n
(Source. Glendale Chamber of Commerce Economic Profile, 1986)
61 Figure 20. July Average Temperatures
(Source:Charles Moore, et al., The City Observed: Los Angeles)
FIGURE 5 AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
Figure 21. January Average Temperatures
(5ource:Charles Moore, et al., The City Observed: Los Angeles)
t *. -
AM ALT AZM s SE DTU/SQ FT E NE HR N SW HOR
5 7 1.47 117.57
6 6 12 86 109.78 57 126 121 45
7 5 24.80 102 54 103 188 162 42 34
8 <1 37.07 95.28 125 195 151 18 99
(A 9 3 49.49 87.10 9 127 171 115 158
c i 10 2 61.79 76.00 31 111 125 67 205
3 k n 1 73.17 55.10 46 79 66 14 234
~D 12 79.45 0.00 51 36 36 244
a H PM s sw w NW N SE HOR
ar 0 Or MARCH/SEPTEMBER 21
AM ALT AZM s SE E NE N SW non
u rf* 6 6 0.00 90.00
CO -U 7 5 12.39 81.48 25 134 165 99 37
vQ 8 4 24.49 72.11 69 201 215 103 103
2 9 3 35.89 60.79 110 217 197 61 163
3 1 10 2 45.89 45.92 142 204 147 3 211
CO ! 11 1 53.21 25.60 163 170 78 60 241
12 56.00 0.00 169 120 120 251
PM s SW w NW N SE HOR
AM ALT AZM s SE E NE N SW HOR
1.' 8 4 9.08 53.57 93 155 126 23 25
9 3 18.38 43.12 173 236 162 8 79
10 2 25.86 30.65 219 246 130 63 123
11 1 30.81 16.05 245 223 70 123 152
* 12 32.55 0.00 253 179 179 162
PM s SW w NW N SE HOR
Percent of Days Exceeding State Standard for Suspended Atmospheric Particulates (1980)
Figure 22. Impurities
The project site (Plate 1) is located in the San Rafael Hills as previously described. Figure 23 shows the positions of the viewing locations for plates 1-9. Hillside residential developments are situated along steep slopes and ridges north of the site in the vicinity of Chevy Chase Country Club, and bordering the site In the vicinity of Chevy Chase Country Club, and bordering the site in Sycamore Canyon (next to Chevy Chase Drive, Plates 2 and 3). The primary visual feature of the site is the major northeast-southwest trending ridge that forms the "backbone of the site. This ridge is dissected by four canyons which can be seen at higher points on Glenoaks Bouvelard and Kennington Drive (Plates 4 and 5). In addition to the rugged topographical features, the scenery is mainly green brush vegetation. Scattered trees in canyons are also seen. Ridgetop fire-breaks, an overhead power line, and several graded slopes located northwest of Glenoaks Bouvelard are the primary conspicuous man-made visual features of the site.
Views of the site are obstructed from some of the nearby roads and residences by topography. The view from Chevy Chase Drive, the closest major road to the lower portion of the site, is composed of only scattered glimpses of the site above and behind existing homes in Sycamore Canyon (Plates 6, 7, 8 and 9). The site is the major view of the homes along Kennington Drive, Casadia Drive and smaller roads directly across the canyon (Plates 4 and 5). The site Is also a prominent part of the view from existing hillside residences surrounding the Chevy Chase Country Club (Plate 1) and along Emerald Isle Drive north of the site.
Plate 1. Site In
Background, as seen from Chevy Chase Drive north of golf course (see index map for viewing location)
Plate 2. Adjacent residential areas as seen from on-site near Glenoaks Blvd.
Plate 3. Residential area northwest of site (Kennington and Cascadia Drives) as seen from higher elevations of site ________,
General development area
Plate 4. Major on-site canyon at southwestern end of site (north of Laird Drive) as seen from Cascadta Drive. Project site area shown within dashed lines.)
Plate 5. Portion of site as seen from residential area along Kennington Drive
Area to be developed
Plate 6. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive (northbound) southwest of Drury Lane
Plate 7. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive (northbound) near Larkstone Lane
Plate 8. Northwestern portion of site as seen from residential area In vicinity of Cascadla and Kennlngton Drive.
Plate 9. Portion of site as seen from Chevy Chase Drive (southbound) northeast of Trammell Road
Direct access to the project on the northwestern portion Is available along Chevy Chase Drive via Laird Drive, Trammell Road, and St. Gregory Road, and along the southeastern portion via Glenoaks Boulevard. The width of the roadway In the site vicinity for Chevy Chase Drive Is 40' with an approximate grade of 3% -4% and sidewalks of 4.5' both sides. The width of the roadway In the site vicinity for Glenoaks Boulevard Is 40' with an approximate grade of 8% and no sidewalks (City of Glendale Public Works).
The City's Circulation Element defines both Chevy Chase Drive and Glenoaks Boulevard as "minor thoroughfares. Roadways within this classification generally serve major thoroughfares (often freeways) by accomodating trips of Intermediate distance within densely developed areas and near regional traffic generators. Currently the two streets only serve low density residential development.
Regional access to the San Rafael Hills Is provided by the Ventura (134), Glendale (2), and Foothill (210) Freeways (Figure 5). Figure 4 shows the Pacific Electric Rail System. Figure 6 shows the major surface streets of Los Angeles.
Bus service Is provided by the Southern California Rapid Transit District (RTD) which operates Route 201 along Glenoaks Boulevard, providing service every 30 minutes. The City's Circulation Element propses a bus line along Chevy Chase; there is none presently because of lack of funds and because the roadway will not accomodate buses.
There are no bike lanes in the project vicinity.
Figure 24 shows the main arteries of Glendale and Figure 25 shows the shows the local circulation.
Figure 24. Main Arteries of Glendale
Figure 25. Local Circulation
The project Is located within the jurisdiction of the Olendale Unified School
District which includes the following schools: GJenoaks Elementary School (K-6), Wilson Junior High School (7-9) and Glendale High School (10-12).
Present capacities are: Glenoaks Elementary School: 54%, Wilson Junior High School: 73%, and Glendale High School: 101% (Glendale Unified School District, McGlashan, 1986).
The site is located within Fire Zone 4, which is designated as a hillside brushfire hazard area. Canyon wids which are commonly experienced during early evening hours greatly increase fire hazard conditions. Santa Ana wind conditions, although less frequent, can extend wind activity to 24 hours or longer. Fire protection service is provided by the Glendale Fire Department. Facility locations, equipment, staffing, and emergency response times to the project are as follows:
Eauioment Location Staffing to Site Response Time
1. Engine 23 3303 E. Chevy 3 fire- 2.25 miles 4.5-6.0 minutes
(1500GPM pumper) Chase Drive fighters
2. Engine 25 353 N. Chevy 4 fire- 2.75 miles 5.0-6.0 minutes
(2500 GPM pumper) Chase Drive fighters
3. Truck 26 1145 N. Brand 4 fire- 5.0 miles 10-12 minutes
(100 ft. aerial) Blvd. fighters
4. Battalion 2 210 S. Orange 2 fire- 5.5 miles 8-10 minutes
5. Helipad Glenoaks Blvd.,
adj.to Scholl Cyn. baseball fields
Source: Fire Division, City of Glendale, 1986.
Welter to oupplled to the project area for Oomcotlc uoe and fire flow Py the
Glendale Public Service Department, a municipal utility. The area Is served from three different storage-level systems. Lots at an elevation of 850 feet and less are served from a 145 million gallon capacity storage facility located north of the site at an elevation of 968 feet. Lots between elevations 850 feet and 1,180 feet are served from two storage facilities at the 1,290 foot level: 1) one 5.4 million gallon capacity reservoir located on the opposite rldgellne northwest of the site and 2) one 3 million gallon underground reservlor located adjacent to the site on Glenoaks Boulevard. Lots above 1,180 feet are served by steel tanks with capacity of 1.25 million galllons at an elevation of 1,666 feet located northeast of the site. Presently these facilities adequately serve the site, delivering water at pressures ranging from 40 to 180 psi.
The project site Is located within the service area of the Southern California Gas Company. Presently, the Gas Company provides natural gas to residences adjacent to the project site, via a six-inch distribution main located beneath Chevy Chase Drive. Connections to this line are presently available at the following Intersections: Chevy Chase Drive at Laird Drive and Chevy Chase Drive at St. Gregory Road.
Electricity for the site Is supplied by the Glendale Public Service Department, a municipal utility. Electricity Is presently furnished to the City's system from a City owned generating plant and outside sources Include facilities at Hoover Dam and In the northwest. The City's delivery system Is presently operating at 60% of Its 350 megawatt capacity during peak periods. However, it should be noted that the City maintains ties to transmission lines from addtional electricity sources and can supplement its electrical energy needs by purchasing power from Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Washington.
The Scholl Canyon substation has the necessary capacity to serve the proposed development. Electrical energy would be provided to the proposed development via underground extensions from existing facilities along Glenoaks Boulevard and Chevy Chase Drive.
The project site Is located within the service area of Pacific Telephone Company, which currently provides telephone service In the vicinity via underground facilities along Chevy Chase Drive.
Sewer facilities In the project area are operated by the City of Glendale Public Works Division. A 10 Inch sewer main is located adjacent to the site In Chevy Chase Drive. This line drains to the southwest Into a major outfall at the intersection of Chevy Chase Drive and Verdugo Road. The sewer line in Chevy Chase Drive was designed with the assumption that the project site and
Wdte*' ie> ouppHed to the project dred for domeotle uoe end fire flew by the
Glendale Public Service Department, a municipal utility. The area Is served from three different storage-level systems. Lots at an elevation of 850 feet and less are served from a 145 million gallon capacity storage facility located north of the site at an elevation of 968 feet. Lots between elevations 850 feet and 1,180 feet are served from two storage facilities at the 1,290 foot level: 1) one 5.4 million gallon capacity reservoir located on the opposite rldgellne northwest of the site and 2) one 3 million gallon underground reservlor located adjacent to the site on Glenoaks Boulevard. Lots above 1,180 feet are served by steel tanks with capacity of 1.25 million gal 1 Ions at an elevation of 1,666 feet located northeast of the site. Presently these facilities adequately serve the site, delivering water at pressures ranging from 40 to 180 psi.
The project site Is located within the service area of the Southern California Gas Company. Presently, the Gas Company provides natural gas to residences adjacent to the project site, via a six-inch distribution main located beneath Chevy Chase Drive. Connections to this line are presently available at the following intersections: Chevy Chase Drive at Laird Drive and Chevy Chase Drive at St. Gregory Road.
Electricity for the site Is supplied by the Glendale Public Service Department, a municipal utility. Electricity is presently furnished to the City's system from a City owned generating plant and outside sources include facilities at Hoover Dam and In the northwest. The City's delivery system is presently operating at 60% of its 350 megawatt capacity during peak periods. However, It should be noted that the City maintains ties to transmission lines from addtional electricity sources and can supplement Its electrical energy needs by purchasing power from Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Washington.
The Scholl Canyon substation has the necessary capacity to serve the proposed development. Electrical energy would be provided to the proposed development via underground extensions from existing facilities along Glenoaks Boulevard and Chevy Chase Drive.
The project site Is located within the service area of Pacific Telephone Company, which currently provides telephone service In the vicinity via underground facilities along Chevy Chase Drive.
Sewer facilities In the project area are operated by the City of Glendale Public Works Division. A 10 Inch sewer main Is located adjacent to the site In Chevy Chase Drive. This line drains to the southwest into a major outfall at the intersection of Chevy Chase Drive and Verdugo Road. The sewer line In Chevy Chase Drive was designed with the assumption that the project site and
other vacent land In Sycamore Canyon would be developed with residential
uses. Consequently, this line Is currently operating well below capacity.
Solid waste collection In the site vicinity Is currently provided by the Sanitation Section of the City opf Glendale Public Works Division. Solid waste generated In the City of Glendale Is presently disposed of at the Scholl Canyon landfill which Is operated by the county of Los Angeles. The anticipated useful capacity of the landfill site Is 25 years.
(Source: Goldrlch Kest & Assoc., Kelly, Constan, Freeman)
other vacent land In Sycamore Canyon would be developed with residential
uses. Consequently, this line Is currently operating well below capacity.
Solid waste collection In the site vicinity Is currently provided by the Sanitation Section of the City opf Glendale Public Works Division. Solid waste generated In the City of Glendale Is presently disposed of at the Scholl Canyon landfill which Is operated by the county of Los Angeles. The anticipated useful capacity of the landfill site Is 25 years.
(Source: Goldrich Kest & Assoc., Kelly, Constan, Freeman)
PROPOSED LAND USE
The proposed land use Involves the subdivision of the site Into two alternative housing development scenarios. My design concept of multiple/cluster housing with some single residential units cannot be analyzed In all the previously discussed categories until the later part of the thesis design semester. Some of the Information is consistent: the Impact on circulation and schools. The alternative design concept proposed by the developer, Goodrich, Kest, & Assoc., is one which Involves two separate communities (approx. 185 untis) on the project site: Laird Drive and St. Gregory Road/Glenoaks Blvd. Each of the development areas has Individual access, with no linking internal circulation pattern. Connection between Chevy Chase Drive and Glenoaks Bouvelard is provided. 1 was able to gather enough information from the developer to analyze the project in the previously discussed site Impact categories. I am presenting this imformatlon now, below, so that I will be able to compare and contrast the physical and environmental Implications that each scheme presents. For example, the multiple housing concept will involve less grading than the single residential concept. Ecological Impacts are proportional to the amount of topographical modification. Reduced grading in biologically significant areas will mitigate significant natural losses.
GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY:
The developer's total site concept is a single family detached unit (approximately 115 units) concept, with graded pads, and slopes of 1:1 orl 1/2:1 (Figure 26). Pads in that area have been made available where conveniently feasible. Average residential lot size is 8,960 sq ft with an average pad areas of 6,488. The concept plan involves approximately 134 acres of open space (not including graded slopes) and approximately 9,400 feet of paved roadway. Grading is estimated at 1,567,000 cubic yards of cut, and 1,414,000 cubic yards of fill. Grading could be balanced with minor redesign. Gross density for the site would be 0.57-0.68 dwelling units per acre.
Grading for the proposed project will Involve the excavation and fill placement of approximately 1,500,000 cubic yards of earth. Seismic refraction profiles Indicate that the upper 50 feet of bedrock is rippable with conventional heavy equipment. Below 50 feet, the rock is expected to be less fractured, more indunated, and may require blasting. In addition, issolated plugs and dikes of very hard rock are located throughout the site and may require blasting locally.
In general, the proposed cut slopes should be stable with respect to any deep seated failure. Potentially adverse conditions associated with the deep fill
erosion potential on fill slopes; 3) filling of canyons underlain by
conooildated alluvium and exhibiting iocaiircd seepage of groundwater; *4)
new fill overlying into existing uncertified fill; 5) settlement and fill slope failure during an earthquake. Building pads located on the transition between cut and fill could experience differential settlement resulting in the cracking of foundations. Lots located within gullies below natural slopes with gradients of 1 1/2:1 or greater could be subject to indundation from debris slides, as debris tends to concentrate In these areas.
This two community concept would allow for retention of major portions (approximately 60%) of the significant woodland east of Trammell Road, which is the most diverse and most extensive woodland on-site. Two riparian woodlands (off Laird Drive and off Greenwich Drive) would be lost, while the canyon near Olympic Drive would be retained as open space. This design concept also involves retention of contiguous open space in the central portion of the project area and, as such, this would allow retention of most of the chaparral and coastal sage scrub vegetation and wildlife. This concept does not involve any grading or disturbance to the prominent east-west trending ridgeline in the southern portion of the property. The visually prominent steep slopes south of the conspicuous east-west trending ridgeline that bissects the site are retained as uninterrupted open space. Thus, views of this area from homes in Sycamore Canyon and residential areas northward will not be impacted by prominent graded slopes. This concept will result in the replacement of the natural slopes in the southwest portion of the site by graded slopes and residences. Similarly, the highly visible natural slopes in the central portion of the project will be interrupted by high, unvegetated cut slopes.
This would be in keeping with the provisions of the ridgeline preservation portion of the Hillside Subdivison Ordinance regarding restriction of building construction along a designated major ridgeline. However, roadway construction and engineered slopes as indicated in Figure 26 would require a City Council determination that the ridgeline concerned would "promote the public health, safety, and general welfare, insure adequate circulation and/or provide appropriate ingress/egress for emergencies."
The linkage between Chevy Chase Drive and Glenoaks Bouvelard would be in keeping with the internal vehicular circulation system as identified in the San Rafael Hills Development Plan.
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE;
Implementation of the single family residence (two community concept) project will result in the alteration of many acres of presently undisturbed natural vegetation and wildlife. It will alter the natural scenic character of the site as it will result in replacement of vegetated natural slopes in
several highly visible areas by a mixture of graded slopes, residences and open space. Scenic woodland areas in two of the four major canyons on-site (near Laird and greenwich Drives) will be removed, as well as approximately 40% of a third woodland off Trammell Road. These habitats are critical to the many forms of wilflife on-site that are dependent upon woodland for food, shelter, and water. Although many of the wildlife that currently occupy the project area are mobile and can move to neighboring habitats, many of them will not survive due to the limited resources available in adjacent areas. Wildlife species tolerant of human habitation will re-inhabit the site once project landscaping matures. Shy forms (such as the gray fox, thrushes and many warblers, will probally not re-appear.
Botanical ly, loss of hundreds of mature oak trees and the many more sycamores clustered in the three canyons is significant, as these trees and associated woodland shrubs and herbs are a scarce natural commodity in the Glendale area. Loss of native vegetation can be mitigated to some degree by re-introducing native species as part of on-site landscaping. This will also facilitate return of native wildlife, particularly birds.
Part of the project design is the retention of 134 acres of open space to be dedicated to the City of Glendale.
Some attention must be given to minimize the potential for fire in this fire-prone area. A greenbelt of fire-resistant plants can be established at the interface between urban areas and natural brushlands.
Implementation of the project will result in substantial alteration of existing views of the site and alteration of the views from adjacent residential areas. The natural ridge and canyon terrain will be modified by grading. The most conspicuous visual impacts of the grading will be the resulting prominent cut slopes that will stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding green brush cover. Although fill slopes will be planted with vegetation to blend with the surroundings, the cut slopes will not be easily planted due to the lack of soil on the granite. The existing landscape will be dissected by the proposed residences and streets. These changes are negative for the people who now live in the neighboring residences and place a high value on the present views. (Even though the major portions of the secondary ridgelines are proposed to stay as undeveloped open space.)
There would be a significant Impact of traffic volume on Chevy Chase Drive, which could cause conjestion and further traffic accidents.
Site access is a major problem. In the past the site had many access routes
but ordinances have changed and presently two of the three routes, Laird
Drive, and t. Orcgory Road, arc oubotandard in width < City 9ubdivioion
Ordinance requirements). A portion of privately owned property has been acquired so that Laird drive can be Improved to City standards. There Is still a concern with St. Gregory Road which Is presently 26' In width at its Intersection with Cornwall.
As enrollment at the high school currently exceeds capacity, students generated from the project will significantly impact the existing conditions. New classrooms and corresponding increases in support facilities ( i.e., cafeteria, gyms, restrooms, etc.) would be required to avoid an overcrowded situation.
HOUSE AND DWELLING
"...the house Is sanctified, in whole or part, by a cosmological symbolism or ritual. This is why settling somewhere--building a village or merely a house--represents a serious decision, for the very existence of man is involved; he must, in short, create his own world and assume the responsibility of maintaing and renewing it."
Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and Profane.
" 'Before he is thrown into the world,' Bachelard writes, man is put inthe cradle of the house.' In the house man becomes familiar with the world in its immediacy; there he does not have to choose a path and find a goal, in the house and next to the house the world is simply given. We could say that the house is where daily life takes place ..Why, then, do we have to throw ourselves into the world when we possess the cradle of the house? The answer is simply that the purposes of human life are not found at home...to participate we have to leave the house and find a path. When our social task is accomplished, however, we withdraw to our home to recover our personal identity. Personal identity, thus, is the content of private dwelling."
Christian Norberg-Schulz, The Concept of Dwelling
To settle in the landscape means to mark an area, a place. The settlement Interprets the site and transforms it into a place where human life may take place. Times have changed since people used to live in caves. Settlement means house. House means a creation, a shelter freed from the idea of cave. From ancient times the house has been understood as a "microcosmos it expresses the basic structure of the environment: the floor is the earth, the ceiling the sky, and the walls the encircling horizon. Ancient Rome gave us the typology of the house as we know it today, two kinds of domestic structure domus and insula, the atrium and the urban tenement house. The former is the prototype of the villa and suburban house and the latter is the prototype for the urban block. These two types are still relevant; they are the two types to be used at the project site.
Norberg looks at house-building as shelter in terms of phenomenology. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary defines phenomenology as: 1. branch of science dealing with the description and classification of phenomenon. 2. scientific description of all phenomena, with avoidance of all interpretation, explanation, and evaluation. The definition of phenomenon is. 1. Philos, any object known through the senses rather than through thought or intuition, specif., with Kant, the object of experience. 2. any observable fact or event. Phenomenology assumes the meanings of things is not inherent In them but a product of our relationship with them. How well you can communicate your ideas in building is a measure of the success of that building.
"Noturolly should you want to really live in a way and in a place which is true to this deeper thing in you, which you honor, the house you build to live in 8S a home should be(so far as it is possible to make it so) integral in every sense. Integral to site, to purpose, and to you. The house would then be a home in the best sense of the word. This we seem to have forgotten if we ever learned it. Houses have become a series of anonymous boxes that go into a row on row upon row of bigger boxes either merely negative or a mass nuisance. But now the house in this interior or deeper organic sense may come alive as organic architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright. The Natural House.
The goal is to create an integrity of meaning through the action of building. How do you combine concepts of built form with feeling? Concepts or ideas of design are often platitudes and sophismspainfully and idiotically simple. Critical thinking is easier. You can look at art over and over without boredom, because it brings more than it physically represents; knowledge and feeling of the world is shared. How do you find form adequate to feeling? The home is where you meet others, where you trade feelings and exchange ideas, where you experience life:
"...dwelling primarily consists in the appropriation of a world of things, not in a material sense, but as an ability to interpret the meaning the things gather."
"The architectural means which are employed to make man's being-in-the-world 8n acomplished feet, are in general embodiment and admittance, or, in architectural terms, built form and organized space."
Christian Norberg-Schulz, The Concept of Dwelling
What are the activites of spaces? What are the moods? What are the relationship of the contrasting moods? What spaces are most relevant to which member of the family? For example, the child is interested in her room, the dining area, and the T V. area. Because of the differentiated functions of daily life, the paths and goals of the house produce more complex patterns than those of the public building.
"The courtyard, the hall, the passage, and the veranda are distinct figures which transform the domestic space into a place where life may take place. Private dwelling, thus, does not consist in 8 withdrawal into a formless nowhere, but demands a defined and imageable stage."
Christian Norberg-Schulz, The Concept of Dwelling.
In China, the house is conceived as a stage and the structure as mere props. These buildings in the past were not permanent; structures were put together for particular occasions or ceremonies to show "man's position" in society. Spatial arrangements of relationships surpassed structural methods.
The development of the modern house In the 20s and 30s significantly improved the living conditions of the middle class, but did it satisfy the need for life with images? The problem of figural quality is not only a question of visual images. It is also related to the demand for places where daily life may take place. The Chinese concern with planned movement was geometrically related, people were involved in the spaces formed by rituals and ceremonies. Charles Moore, In his The Place of Houses, is concerned with movement as well; centrifugal movement is expressed by peripherally added rooms "like saddlebags".
"Rooms are unspecific spaces, empty spaces for human action, where we preform the rituals and improvizations of living....The empty stage of a room is fixed in space by boundaries, it is animated by light, organized by focus, and then liberated by outlook."
Christian Norberg-Schulz, The Concept of Dwelling.
" The dreams which accompany all human actions should be nurtured by the places in which people live... The Order of Dreams demands that you open up the full range of your own responses to the world, your own concerns. It demands that you acknowledge and display trhe pretenses which you harbor, that you imagine your house in the ways your daydreams and memories suggest, and that you envision the special places which might correspond to them. Doing this will not produce a design for your house, but it will bring forth a structure of intent to guide you as you make the practical decisions about the rooms and the machines you will need.
Charles Moore, et al., The Place of Houses.
These dreams have been realized in architecture, for example: in the peculiar roadside vernacular the Tail O' the Pup in West Hollywood, CA; The Brown Derby, L.A., CA; the Coca Cola Bottling company, L.A., CA; The Egytptian Theatre, Hollywood, CA, etc. Even Le Corbusier expressed his dreams of being aboard a ship in the Villa Savoye, and Philip Johnson's glass house is the realization of the dream of living in a fully transparent enclosure.
These dreams can affect simple functional aspects of design. Stairs, level changes, quick turns, hallways alter actions and hence give the house special meanings for the inhabitants. These design characteristics limit how you move, how much energy you use and at what speed you can move at..."they show how you imagine yourself" (Charles Moore, et al., The Place of Houses). These actions that the house promotes enter our dreams and become a part of our self image.
...She was in a burrowing frame of mind. This cosy haven: two rooms and a kitchen on the second story of a cut-up old town house. The floors creaked and were hilly. The feature' was a real fireplace with stained-oak paneling and three carved cherubs supporting the mantel. They looked to her like Henry Kissinger in various stages of getting sloshed. She had named them Henry Winkum, Henry Blinkum.andHenry Nod."
"She had fallen for the place the moment the real-estate lad/ opened the door the previous Wednesday. The light in the main room had been a clear swimmoble liquid- zip she was snorkeling off Cinnamon Bay on St. Thomas during that crackbratn trip with Greg winter before last..."
John Hersey, The Walnut Door.
Openings, under, over, in out, behind, between all the prepostions carry special connotations that can be used to make special places. The interiors of the house personify the private world; the exterior is part of the outside world. The easiest and most prevalent means for expressing the "Order Of Dreams" is use of past vernacular and historical reference. This explains our concern with the forms and the images which have served as the language of expression in the architecture of the past.
"I had to achieve a kind of representation in stone of my innermost thoughts and of the knowledge I had required. Or, to put it another W8y, I had to make a confession of faith in stone. That was the beginning of the Tower," the house which I built
for myself at Bollingen.In the Tower of Bollingen it is 8S if one lived in many
centuries simultaneously. The place will outlive me, and in its location and style it points backward to things of long ago. There is vey little about it to suggest the present....my ancestors' souls are substained by the atmosphere of the house, since I answer for them the questions that their lives once left behind. ..There I live in my second personality and see life in the round, as something forever coming into being and passing on."
Carl G Jung, Memories. Dreams. Reflections
Jung shows us how he has turned to the symbol (of the Tower) when he was trying to give meaning to things that are just beyond the limitations of reason and intellect. There is more to building than pure function, more than a series of rooms, more than the sum of the parts.
Some of the greatest influences on a house are the natural environment and the climate of its location. Architecture serves to reveal and emphasize qualities that are already present. Building can give emphasis to the peak or ridge and can compliment the environment. There are many ways to design the inner workings of the house. The basic constituents of organized space, according to Norberg-Schulz are center, path and domain. Palladio has given us seven ways of proportioning the plan of a room. Moore, et al, uses the length and width,the two horizontal dimensions of rooms, to determine the ways in which people are encouraged or even required to move. Frank Lloyd Wright used variations in height to allow for the feeling of surprize, for example his use of very low ceilings. He also extended rooms outward, for example, in the Willitts House, so the shape of the whole house flowed across the land and would seem to merge with it. With the resulting free plan, the house, rather than a retreat, became a fixed point (the fireplace) in space from which man could experience a new sense of freedom and participation.
"I had an idea (it still seems to be my own) that the planes parallel to the earth in buildings identity themselves with the ground, do most to make the buildings belong to the ground."
Integral ornament is simply 'structure-pattern made visibly articulate and seen in the building as it is seen articulate in the structureof the trees or of a lily of the fields. It is an expression of the inner rhythmn of Form.
Frank Llovd Wrioht. The Natural House.
The climate of the site location is the other great influence on a house. The way you think is closely connected to climate. Early American housing assumed a form which was directly related to these two factors. For example, in New England, houses were built and finished in unpainted, weathered oak boards; while in New Mexico, adobe made from desert clay was used as the main building material. In the southwest, comfort is achieved by closing out dry winds with rooms arranged around a patio where green grass and a fountain can add to the real as well as the apparant cool. When the winters are mild and the summers hot, as in Virginia, fireplaces are placed next to the outside walls rather in the center, so as to arrange the roooms along a central corridor which runs through the middle and opens to the outdoors at both ends.
In more modern times methods and material, such as reinforced concrete, steel framing, glass, etc., have developed with the spread of modern architectural theory. Almost to the point of the eradication of the venacular house. In southern California, this is another one of the contradictions that exist there--perhaps this has become the vernacular?
Every new $900,000 summer house in the north woods of Michigan or on the shore of Long Island has so many pipe railings, ramps, hob-tread spiral stairways, sheets of industrial plate glass, banks of tungsten-halogen lamps, and white cylindrical shapes, it looks like an insecticide refinery".
Tom Wolfe, From the Bauhaus to Our House.
A house does not, however, only express the atmosheric qualities of the environment, it also should seek to express the mood of the actions which take place inside. So, I return again to the general purpose which determines the form of the house the development of human, personal identity and a place of security.
...and this is the t8sk of the house to reveal the world, not 8S essence but as presence, that is as material and color, topography 8nd vegetation, seasons,
weather, and light.a place where man gathers his memories of the world and
relates them to his daily life of eating, sleeping, conversation and entertainment."
Charles Moore, et al., The Place of Houses.
HILL HOUSING AND MULTIPLE HOUSING
The need for housing exists in Glendale and this hill site must be developed by sensitive planning. Existing forms and patterns must be analyzed along with local social and environmental factors. Hopefully, the understanding of this and the site analysis will generate new housinmg configurations. One of the advantages to hill housing is that human scale can be easily maintained, with units appearing to be a few stories in height integration and proportion with the existing community can be maintained. (Also, the steeper the site the higher becomes the possible density at any given specific site area). Because of the relationship of the housing to the site the hillside unit can maintain harmony with the ground.
"...the appropriate use of sensitively designed hill housing could do much to redeem the lack ot human-scaled buildings and spaces, that together with intimate and sensitive proportions, is missing from so much contemporary housing.
Neither the extremes of high-rise nor low-density sprawl satisfy both the needs of the human spirit or the practical requirements of land use-- hence the case for hill housing."
Derek Abbot & K. Pollit, Hill Housing.
Multiple housing consists of repeating units with a constant relationship to vertical and horizontal circulation. By studying and looking at other solutions of related problems, by exploring the types of vernacular buildings common to the landscape you can gain insight for the solution of this site's problems. A look at the history of hill housing as well as the prototypes of modern housing is in order.
HISTORY OF HILL HOUSING
Since America was only recently discovered, the main mountains of historical interest are in Europe, Central and South America and the Far East.
Antiquity 1q.Middle. Ages;
The Palace at Knossos, Crete (1400B.C.) "a palace of astonishing complexity and sophistication., their architects tailored their concept to this hillside in a manner which anticipated, and set standards for every world civilization which followed them. Derek Abbot & K. Pol lit. Hill Housing. Priene, Greece, a grid plan Hellenistic city.
Machu Pichu, Peru (1450-1532). The buildings grow out of the site but are integrated ( mainly due to the use of stone) in the landscape while the forms imitate the surrounding peaks.
"In this immense mountain structure a unity of contrast has been achieved between the gigantic scale of symbolic building, including both temples and houses 8nd the natural landscape
Derek Abbot & K. Pollit. Hill Housing.
The Potala Palace at Lhasa, China (formerly Tibet).
Kyoto, Japan. At the Kyomizu Temple (15th century), entry to the temple is via a series of platforms which give the travelers a floating experience as they ascent the slope. Since most of Japan is mountainous, hill-slope terracing is the most common type of land cultivation for both building and agriculture.
The main areas of hill building have been in the center and south of the continent, along the 'Alpine' chain of mountains.
Siena, Italy, the best known Italian hill town found in the Appenine mountains in northern Italy.
Portofino and the other hill towns along the Appian Way in southern
Le-Puy, in the Auvergne region of France.
The hill towns in the Pyrenees, France.
Because of the physical and cultural diversity (even though the 'Alps' are often seen as a single group of mountains, they stretch from Sardinia and Corsica to Austria and the north of Yugoslavia via France and Switzerland) they are a diverse region and there is no one regional venacular. One thing all the regions have in common is houses which show an immitative relationship to their landscapes. The relationship between house and landscape, however, is not only established by the overall form and the shape of the roof,but also by the use if materials and type of construction.
Village of La Forcla, Valais region, Switzerland. Most of the buildings are compact log structures clustered around small clearings.
"Houses in Switzerland are often located for maximum protection against cold winds. Houses are placed in hollow's so that the north wall facing south is two storeys high and has many windows protected by shutters, when there are few shade trees in the area. Open porches are also used in lieu of shade trees."
Amos Rapaport, House Form and Culture.
The Bernese Oberland, Switzerland. These hill houses are often stone construction up to the first floor with timber above and richly decorated with elaborate carvings and paintings.
Edinburg, Scotland. The dominant castle overlooks the Scottish capital which illustrates one type of hillside selltlement- the coastal port.
Bath and Malvern, England. The spa towns. The former has magnificient 18th century terraces, many of which were curved to follow the site contours.
Durham, England. A well preserved hillside town with the cathedral site dominating the skyline.
Halifax, England. An industrial 19th century valley town, with typical gallery houses rising to five stories.
Bristol, England. Hillside residential neighborhoods of Regency terraces on steep contoured cliffs that face the Avon gorge.
There are three examples of cities where the grid has been superimposed over natural landscape are: San Francisco, Edinburgh New Town, and Glasgow.
20th century modern architects building major projects on sloping sites: Mackintosh (1860-1920). The Glasgow School of Art and Hill House. Scheerbart (1863-1915) and Taut (1860-1938). In 1972 Bruno Taut's Alpine Architecture and Paul Scheerbart's Glass Architecture were republished as one book.
Steiner (1861-1925). British architect wrote: Wavs Towards a New Architecture. 1925) Steiner Press. He built the second Gotheanum in Switzerland, a massive building of reinforced concrete and organic design, from the site you can see both France and West Germany.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959). Sturges House, L.A., CA., 1939. Construction of a cantilever deck, held back by the characteristic massive brick chimney. Further discussed in the southern California section.
Aalto (1898-1976). Sunlla, 1936. Kattua, 1938. In the latter heused a terraced balcony extending the full width of the house.
Le Corbusier (1889-1965). La Saint Baume and the Roq et Rob housing designs. Porte Molitor Apts., Paris, 1933. Immeuble Villas (ProjectO, Paris,
1922-29. L-shaped solid arranged around a cubic void. Typical 3 bedroom unit, almost 4,000 sq ft with 2,500 sq ft of living area. Unite d' Habitation, Marseilles, 1945-52. Durand Apartment Project, Algiers, 1933-34. 5teped-section slab.
H. Bebb. House at Gatlenberg, Tennessee. Raised timber pole structure. H.C. Schultz. Coldwater Canyon, CA, 1977. Steel skeleton structure, 3 levels, walls not load bearing.
MULTIPLE HOUSING PROTOTYPES
A look at solutions to housing helps to solve basic organizational problems. What form will the individual units take? What building form will the collection of units take? What will the circulation patterns be? Most of these examples are on hill slopes and show a heightened sensitivity towards the site. Examples of courtyard housing protoypes were given in the southern California chapter.
Detached and Semidetached Housing:
Jorn Utzon. Kingo Houses, Elsinore, Denmark, 1956. Sixty three separate houses are grouped together on an irregular hilly site; the houses are arranged in a loose group with restricted access for the car and entry one one side, the other side opens to either a pond or the slope. Each house has a courtyard about 50 feet square that is defined by a brick wall. The house is L-shaped and shows a combination of traditional and modern vocabulary.
Christian Hamp. Mountain Goat Country, Buchs, England, 1964 Twenty nie individual houses, with a split level (dining and living areas have large windows facing down the slope), on a hill top site facing all directions.
Charles Moore, et al. Sea Ranch. So much has been writen about Sea Ranch, I don't need to.
Row (and Stepped) Housing:
Weissenhof Exhibition, Stuttgart, 1927. This was an apartment housing problem with many interesting solutions. Mies van de Rohe designed a long, continuous building with walk-up inits arranged around internal stairs. Le Corbusier picked the most difficult area of the site on the boundaries between the different system ecologies.
Atelier 5. Siedlung Halen, Bern, Switzerland, 1959-61. Halen consists of 81 terrace houses arranged in two staggered rows on a sloping site (built as a condominium project). Units are highly repetitive but with a great variety of types: studio units with a small garden to seven room houses. Most are three-story units of 4, 5, and 6 rooms arranged on the site with entrance at an intermediate level. Nearly every bedroom and living area opens onto a completely private outdoor space. It is designed as a pedestrian community with all public space paved.
Atelier 5. Croydon, Surrey, England. 1969. Originally planned 147, only built 21. Terraces are linked by paths running across andf along contours.
P.R. Thompson. 5t. Columb Minor, Cornwall, England, 1976. Recreated the character of a traditional Cornish village using contemporary materials. Strong pedestrian route which frames tower of 14th c. church.
Team 2000. Muhlehalde Housing Switzerland. Thirty-six flats on south facing slope. 295 foot long lift shaft, with stations at every fourth floor.
Figure 27. Unit and Building Types
BUILDING TYPES FORM I
low ase oe +Hcsh e/sc 0 DCp'CMEC op-
R*lph Erskine. Byker Wall, 1981.
Jacques Covelle. Port la Galere, France, 1972. Organic architecture with construction which includes in-situ concrete foundations and basements. Wall partitions of solid or hallow concrete block with finish of pigmented cement. Series of terraced and galleried houses cascading down steep slope to beach.
H. Holzman (Pfeiffer & Assoc.) The Cloisters, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1970. Cluster divided into 2 groups: the upper level contains 7 "type A L-shaped units and the lower level contains 9 "type B" L-shaped units. Constructed of concrete, steel, and timber with external cladding of vertical boarding. Cluster reads well in relationship to its neighbors.
Moshe Safdie. Habitat Puerto Rico and Habitat Tehran. Cellular agglomerate. In section the residential cells of Habitat Puerto Rico look like flattened hexagons.
Cesar Pel 1 i and A.J. Lusden. Sunset Mountain Park Competition, 1966. Whole community in a building, 1500 units. Built on the diagonal, high density with each house contacting nature. Access routes at back of mountain, individual unit access by inclined lifts. Main structure is reinforced concrete with anchore walls at the hilltop parking level.