Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Lowell Village a senior citizens center in Colorado Springs
Creator:
Congdon, Ann M
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 300 leaves : charts, maps, color photographs, plans (some color) ; 22 x 28 cm

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Older people -- Dwellings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Older people -- Dwellings ( fast )
Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

## Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design of Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Ann M. Congdon.

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11264288 ( OCLC )
ocm11264288
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .C648 ( lcc )

## Auraria Membership

Aggregations:
Auraria Library
University of Colorado Denver Theses and Dissertations

Full Text
LOWELL VILLAGE
A SENIOR CITIZENS CENTER IN COLORADO SPRINGS
ENVIRONMENTAL design
auraria library
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
Master of Architecture
Ann M. Congdon
Spring 1984
I
I

The Thesis of Ann M. Congdon is approved.
Gary Long Committee Chairman
Eastern Tin Principal Advisor
Charles Bollar Outside Advisor
Chester Nagel
Committee
Ron Rinker
Committee

Many people contributed greatly to the realization of this project and to my completion of the Master's Degree.
The UCD faculty was a continuing source of challenge, encouragement, growth, and inspiration. Michael Murphy, Gene Benda, Gary Crowell, Dave Decker, Ed Mazria,
Ron Rinker, and Gary Long guided me through Design Studios, setting high standards and teaching me never to he satisfied. I especially appreciate Davis Holder's introduction to the practical side of architecture. More than anyone else,
Chester Nagel has instructed me in the deeply thoughtful aspects of design which make buildings humane and nurturing spaces.
My colleagues were supportive, creative people, who willingly shared ideas and energy, and made the institution a lively energizing place.
My outside advisors, Eastern Tin and Chuck Bollar, gave their valuable time and resources as well as office space to this project. Eastern provided insight which helped clarify issues and focus goals throughout the design process.
Most importantly, Michael, Stacy, and Jessica my family -- lived through it all with grace and good cheer, and never let me doubt that it was worth it. Without their sacrifices and support, it would have been impossible.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I. INTRODUCTION
PROJECT DESCRIPTION THESIS SUMMARY BACKGROUND
PROJECT THESES AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
Repair of the Social and Urban Fabric Empowerment of the Individual Energy Conservation
II. THESIS DESIGN
III. CONCLUSIONS
ADAPTIVE RE-USE AND NEW CONSTRUCTION
LINKAGES
ACCESS
BUILDING FORM AND INTERNAL ORGANIZATION
INTERACTION OF SPACES
DAYLIGHTING
ELEVATIONS
1
\
TABLE of CONTENTS

IV
COST
ESTIMATE
CONSTRUCTION
OPERATING
V. SITE ANALYSIS
SUMMARY
Site Advantages Site Constraints
LEGAL DESCRIPTION
SITE DESCRIPTION
Site Boundaries
Context
Access
Physical Features Pollutants Geology and Soils
Drainage, Flood Potential, and Runoff Utilities
TABLE of CONTENTS

VI.
CLIMATE
ANALYSIS
SUMMARY OF DATA ANALYSIS
BIOCLIMATIC CHARTS
CLIMAT PROGRAM
CHARTS
Temperature Degree Days Relative Humidity Precipitation Sky Conditions Insolation / Sunshine Solar Access Wind
DATA
VII. LOWELL SCHOOL
DESCRIPTION CURRENT CONDITION SIGNIFICANCE REFERENCE ARTICLES
TABLE of CONTENTS

VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
ZONING
CODES
PROGRAM
SUMMARY
DETAILS
PROCESS
RESOURCES
APPENDIX
TABLE of CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION
PROJECT
i
Lowell Village is a multi-purpose senior citizen center in lower downtown Colorado Springs. It combines the adaptive re-use of Lowell School (built in 1891) with new construction to total 66,800 square feet.
Facilities are included for education, recreation, dining, service delivery (health care and personal and legal counselling), social interaction, and cultural enrichment.
Outside the scope of this project, but within a long-range plan is the potential re-use of South Junior High School as senior housing.
INTRODUCTION

For environments . . . an organic process of
growth and repair must create a gradual sequence of changes, and these changes must be distributed evenly across every level of scale. There must be as much attention to the repair of details -- rooms, wings of buildings, windows, paths as to the creatiop of brand-new buildings. Only then can an environment stay balanced both as a whole and in its parts, at every moment of its history.1
INTRODUCTION

THESIS
SUMMARY
This project is based on the premise that the physical environment empowers both the individual and society as a whole. It maintains that the location and physical properties of a building have a great effect on the lives of the people who use it as well as on the balance of the urban environment.
It begins with the understanding that architecture can contribute to the continued independence and personal growth of the aging, and can encourage their self-esteem and self-reliance through careful planning and design.
It holds that energy-consciousness is a fundamental design consideration. This means that new construction is to be as efficient and self-sustaining as possible. It also means that the "residual" energy in old buildings is to be conserved:
. . . 1) time energy -- manifold individual decisions
over a period of development and use; 2) natural and human energy invested in materials and artisanship; ^
3) kinetic energy of construction and the fuel required.
It proposes one step in "an organic process of growth and repair"
--appropriate to a sequence of change in a community plagued by
rapid expansion and seeking to rebuild the social and urban fabric.
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND
Colorado Springs has experienced both meteoric growth and a newfound awareness of its historic heritage. Its suburbs crawl outward; its central business district (CBD) sprouts bold new office high-rise and a performing arts center; at the same time, its historic district flourishes in renovation, while other, isolated, old buildings are evacuated and await destruction.
Its citizens are awakening to the dangers of growth as well as to the potentials of preservation. They are sensitized to the rend in the social fabric caused by suburban sprawl, and they are groping for ways to reinforce a sense of community and a sense of place.
The Senior Citizens of Colorado Springs have for some time been organized toward the goal of a "Multi-purpose Senior Center."
They are seeking a site and the financial support of the community to realize their dream. They want
To provide a facility either by refurbishing or by building a new one that could provide a Senior Center (or even a community center), for the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly members of our community.
Purpose: To provide a centrally located area with a
facility to be used to stimulate the mature person by
INTRODUCTION

educational classes, by recreational opportunities, by arts and crafts classes, by social gatherings, by musical events, by physical fitness classes and health clinics, by nutritional training and food service.
Special Services: To provide, if possible, for represen-
tation of the agencies which serve the elderly person, either by having an agency office in the Center, or by having a clinic and/or office areas available for part-time use.
The important underlying tenet of these goals and purposes is that the quality of life of the aging can be enhanced by a locus for meeting and sharing which is not isolated from the mainstream of society and which physically contributes to the health, safety, and development of its users.
There already exist many services for seniors in Colorado Springs and a network of small, decentralized neighborhood centers which offer a variety of activities. In an excellent survey of existing facilities, their use patterns, and the needs which remain, Dr.
Jay Coakley and his class on aging at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (UCCS) focus on issues which surround the creation of a single center versus expansion and development of multiple neighborhood centers.^ On October 20, 1983, Pikes Peak Seniors,
Inc. brought together representatives of local service agencies
INTRODUCTION

to discuss the value of a centralized facility. Comments by this concerned panel and findings of the Coakley study have strong design implications for this project. Even more significant are the relationships between the needs and concerns of the senior community and the three fundamental concepts of this project.
INTRODUCTION

PROJECT
THESIS
&
DESIGN
IMPLICATIONS
REPAIR OF THE SOCIAL AND URBAN FABRIC
The primary result of aging in our society is the loss of social roles.^ Retirement -- whether forced or voluntary -- means a loss of the work role, often loss of leadership roles,' and almost always a decline in economic status. Separation of the family and death of a spouse can mean loss of parenting and partnership roles.
A decline in health and physical strength causes increasingly limited activity and often isolation and withdrawal.
These losses are even more acute in low-income, minority, and handicapped segments of the population, who have never been highly integrated into the mainstream of society.
The very choice of location of this center makes a statement about priorities and the commitment of the community to reweaving a social fabric which alleviates alienation. The strongest objection to a centralized facility is based on the fear that it will not serve those who have the greatest need, will ignore those from low income or minority backgrounds, and remain inaccessible to the vast majority of seniors within the community. A lower downtown site alleviates these fears. [FIGURE I. I.]7
INTRODUCTION

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14

The conservation and maintenance of neighborhood identity and stability
g
is put forth as a primary concern of the community. One focus of this concern is the perpetuation of symbolic / historic landmarks. Re-use of the Lowell School building (an important civic and historic structure) as the focal point of an attractive senior resource complex is physical and highly visual evidence of commitment to renewal of the urban core.
A building's image has a strong impact on its potential users and
o
its community context. First, its scale can do much to announce its accessibility and to reinforce its integration into the human and physical environment. Even though this facility must be quite large to fulfill its program goals, it must still retain an intimate and approachable scale if it is to encourage participation of those unused to dealing with large organizations*^ and fit well in its residential surroundings. Second, its materials and quality of workmanship must convey a sense of permanence, and the value of the activities contained within it. Image will convey that this is a resource center which enables the full, active involvement of seniors in community life and not an "institution" to isolate
i
them from the mainstream.
INTRODUCTION

In summary, the siting of the complex in lower downtown, the preservation of the Lowell School building, the reinforcement of a residential scale, and the use of high quality materials are all design implications which contribute to repair of the social and urban fabric.
Each of these decisions emphasizes that the full spectrum of senior individuals is a valuable resource to society and worthy of a significant commitment of space, time, energy, and finances.
EMPOWERMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL
Loss of social roles (described above), declining physical strength, and physical or societal limits on activities often produce a negative self-image among the aging. Negotiations which are simple for the young and healthy become barriers; they contribute to an increasing sense of dependence and low self-worth.
Architecture and planning which minimize hazards and barriers to those with diminished faculties, therefore, are a source of power and renewed independence for the elderly. A safe, accessible, well-designed building allows its users to feel confident, capable, and able to express their potential and individuality. "Aging can be viewed as a continual state of becoming,"'* and buildings themselves do much to contribute to the process.
INTRODUCTION

The means by which design can empower fall into three broad categories:
A) INTERPRETATION / ORIENTATION. When users can easily and quickly understand a place, they retain a sense of self-control and the security to move freely and with confidence. This involves a clear distinction between parts and good information about circulation paths. Multiple cues -- visual, audible, and tactile reinforce the information being conveyed and increase the likelihood of its correct interpretation. Ceiling heights, colors, textures, lighting, graphics, and signage are cues which can be used.
Orientation increases a sense of security by establishing relationships between user and environment. Focal points whether spaces or objects -- which are visible throughout the building provide a means of orientation. Windows help users to orient themselves to natural cycles of the day and the seasons.
B) COMMITMENT / CONTROL. Commitment refers to the physical effort required to get involved in an activity or perform a function.
Users' control over their environment involves commitments at many levels from the decision to enter a roomful of strangers at
the risk of being rejected, to the effort necessary to turn a doorknob or flick a light switch with arthritic hands, to the difficulty of reaching an object stored high overhead. Accessible switches,
INTRODUCTION

latches, lavatory controls, lever doorknobs and storage are important design considerations which allow users to manipulate the physical setting. More subtle controls are provided by space arrangements which allow a transitional, decision-making time where users can assess, observe, or participate vicariously in an activity before making a commitment to become involved. Good visual access between activity areas is also an encouragement to growth and experimentation in new, unfamiliar endeavors.
C) SECURITY / NEGOTIATION. One of the most important maintainers of self-esteem is the confidence that embarrassing accidents won't happen, whether serious falling, being mugged -- or not forgetting where a coat was hung, walking into the wrong dressing room. All physical hazards must be absent and many cues must be available for interpretation. Bright, even lighting levels are important to safety and confident functioning. Furniture which is light enough to be moved by users themselves, yet sturdy and non-tipable enough to be used as support and leverage, increases independence. Building security is of primary concern.
Beyond all this, the complex as a whole has a power to contribute to quality of life for seniors as a place to combat loneliness, isolation, and the stress caused by major life changes. It is
INTRODUCTION

a gathering point for inter-generational exchange and a channel
12
for emotions and concerns. Most importantly, its programming
and management must recognize the diversity of seniors, an individu-
*
ality which grows more pronounced as people age. It must provide more than just leisure time activities. It must provide challenges for intellectual and emotional growth and ski 11-building, and develop ways in which seniors can use their vast accumulated resources to enrich the community through volunteerism, a speakers bureau, political lobby groups, tutoring, counselling, etc. In fact, rather than simply serving the elderly, it can enable them to serve, thereby restoring their self-esteem as important members of society.
ENERGY CONSERVATION
Intelligent resource management is vital in any project, but perhaps more so in this one since it is very ambitious, and funding will depend largely on popular approval and be drawn from various national, state, and local sources.
Image is important, as discussed above, and the choice of high quality, durable, low maintenance materials will mean a high initial cost. Pure practicality -- as well as commitment to larger environmental concerns requires attention to economy in the energy required to run the facility.
INTRODUCTION

Popular wisdom suggest that the cost of retrofit and rehab is much higher than all-new construction. This project concentrates on the economy of re-use of a well-built structure and conservation of its "residual" energy. It shows that quality invested in new construction will be repaid by energy savings over the life cycle.
It proves that architecture which is climate adapted is ultimately "cheaper" than a traditional building which is mechanically climatized.
One of the most critical energy issues in this project is lighting.
The elderly require a very high, even level of illumination to function safely and efficiently. At time the requirements are well over the "power budget" found in CODES. This design explores the potentials of natural daylighting and concommitant natural heating to provide an efficient and nurturing internal environment.
In short, this design explores the true meaning of "facility"
e. g., the "absence of difficulty. . . The means by which
1 3
something can more easily be done," the facilitator of individual and societal goals.
INTRODUCTION

FOOT'NOTES
Christopher Alexander, et.al The Oregon Experiment (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1975), pp. 68ff.; as quoted in, James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 198 2 ) pT 3 5
2
Harry M. Weese, Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 29, No. 4,
1976, p. 15; as quoted by Fitch, in, Ibid., p. 32.
3
Ray Tuell, "Colorado Springs Senior Center: Pre-Thesis," (Denver: University of Colorado at Denver, 19 8 2 ) .
4
Jay J. Coakley, "Senior Centers in Colorado Springs: A Needs Assessment Study," (Report submitted to the Board members of Pikes Peak Seniors, Inc.), January, 19 8 3
'Address to Pikes Peak Seniors, Inc., Carrie Bartel, Counsellor and Psychotherapist, October 20, 1983*
^Coakley, op. ci t. p. 12.
7
Sixty Plus Demographics (Colorado Springs, Colorado: Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, 1982), gives 1982 population estimates based on I98O U.S. Bureau of Census Figures. P. 14.
g
Development Framework for the Pikes Peak Region (Colorado Springs, Colorado: Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, 1977), p. 22.
9
Michael J. Bednar, Barrier-Free Environments (Stroudsburg, Pa.:
Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1977), pp 229ff.
^Coakley, op. cit., p. 6.
INTRODUCTION

Joseph A. Koncelik, Aging and the Product Environment (Stroudsburg, Pa. : Hutchinson & Ross^ 19*2) pT 8]
1 2
Bartel, loc. cit.
13
Webster's New World Dictionary (New York: World Publishing Company,
19 56K
INTRODUCTION

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ankerl, Guy. Experimental Sociology of Architecture. The Hague,
The Netherlands: Mouton Publishers, 1981.
Bednar, Michael J. Barrier-Free Environments. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1977*
Coakley, J. J. Senior Centers in Colorado Springs: A Needs Assessment study. Colorado Springs, Colorado: University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1983-
Goldsmith, Selwyn. Designing for the Disabled. London: RIBA Publications, Limited, 1976.
Gutman, Robert, ed. People and Buildings. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1972.
Jordan, Joe J. FAIA. Senior Center Facilities; An Architect's Evaluation of Building Design, Equipment and Furnishings. Washington, D. C.: National Institute of Senior Centers, Department of Health Education, and Welfare, 1975-
Kliment, Stephen A. Into the Mainstream; A Syllabus for a Barrier-Free Environment. Washington, D. C.: Rehabilitation Services Division, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the American Institute of Architects, 1976.
Koncelik, Joseph A. Aging and the Product Environment. Stroudsburg, Pennsylavania: Hutchinson & Ross, 1982.
McGuinness, William J., et.al Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. (6th ed. ) New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980.
INTRODUCTION

Musson, Noverre, AIA, and Helen Heusinkveld. Buildings for the Elderly. New York: Reinhold Publishing Company,1963*
Weiss, Joseph Douglan, AIA. Better Buildings for the Aged. New York: Hopkinson and Blake, 1969-
PUBLICATIONS
"Areawide Plan for Aging Services in the Pikes Peak Region" (for Fiscal Years 1983, 1984, 1985)* Colorado Springs: Pikes
Peak Area Council of Governments, September, 1982.
"Development Framework for the Pikes Peak Region." Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, October, 1977-
"Needs Assessment" (El Paso, Park, and Teller Counties). Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, June, 1980.
"Recommendations of the 1980 Colorado Governor's Conference on
Aging." Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging,
1980.
"Services to Senior Citizens." Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, July 1983-
"Sixty Plus Demographics." Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, December, 1982.
INTRODUCTION

I
There is neither art nor greatness without a freely accepted discipline.
Camus
DESIGN

I
CONCLUSIONS

ADAPTIVE RE-USE AND NEW CONSTRUCTION
This project focuses on the two issues of growth and repair. The choice of a lower downtown site places the services to be offered by this facility within reach of those least likely and/or able to seek them out, yet who have the greatest needs. In this way, one step is taken toward repairing the social fabric which has been damaged by suburban sprawl, and the urban fabric which suffers when fine old buildings are left abandoned. Because Lowell School offers divisions of space well suited to housing classrooms, offices, library, clinic, and service offices, these "meat and potatoes" functions can be accommodated easily with little interior modification.
This keeps the cost of adaptation low. Additionally, the building itself is a neighborhood landmark, offering immediate identity, and approachabi1ity to people unused to dealing with institutions.
LINKAGES
In siting new construction, the issue of linkages was of primary importance. The new building had to be physically connected to the Lowell School in order to establish the interaction of all service and leisure activities, and to truly create a "one-stop" center. Shape of the site, with Lowell situated deep into a "panhandle" as well as the fact that the main floor level is 6' above grade dictated that the link occur at the north end of the building.
South Junior High, at the north edge of the site, is slated to become low-
CONCLUSIONS

income elderly housing, and so a spatial link with the new building is accomplished by landscaping, walks, and mini-plazas.
Finally, the link with the surrounding community is visual, focusing on the view of the new center afforded down Las Animas Street. The theatre, the most urban and largest mass of the new facility, is located at this point, to "stop" the street.
ACCESS
One-way traffic on the service road in front of Lowell and the fact that Nevada Avenue is divided, suggested Weber Street for a safe and leisurely approach by private vehicles. Public or van transport access is available from Nevada Avenue, where a formal entry drive is offered. Parking and a more casual entry is provided with a covered drop-off at the Weber Street side.
Access to both old and new buildings at both levels urged that the entry point and elevator be located at the juncture of the two, yet the shape of the site prevented the "rear" entrance from sharing that spot. Hence, a diagonal axis was created between the two entries.
BUILDING FORM AND INTERNAL ORGANIZATION
Building form and organization grew out of preliminary energy analyses as well as the hard/soft dichotomy created by the urban front of Nevada Avenue and the residential rear of Weber Street. It was necessary to hold the
CONCLUSIONS

street edge on the west, yet become less massive and finer in texture to the east.
Early EWIT runs showed the primary operating costs to be lighting and cooling, in part interconnected because of the high, even light levels required by the aging to move through or work safely in a space, and the heat generated even by florescent lights. The response was to open the building wide to the east and close it to the west, with windows placed carefully there for views and supplemental light. Solar gain from the south and late afternoon west had to be minimized.
The building therefore steps down to the east to allow clerestory lighting and accept early morning sun.
Internal organization focuses on the need for clarity of circulation and ease of orientation, growing out of the issue of dignity and control over one's environment. A large, naturally lit interior courtyard is provided, around which all functions pivot. A strong link with the exterior and natural cycles of day and season is an auxiliary means to orientation.
Additionally, the courtyard sunk 18" easily ramped and slightly separated from circulation and other activities -- makes possible vicarious participation and decision-making space where one can pause to decide if it is "safe" to enter an activity.
CONCLUSIONS

INTERACTION
0 F
SPACES
A theme which runs throughout the building is the provision of spaces where a visual link with activities, yet a slight physical separation, allows people the opportunity to decide on the level of commitment they wish to make. In addition, access to each activity area takes a person by some other activity, providing exposure to new experiences, and creating a wholistic environment where service, leisure, physical, and intellectual activities interact and mutually support.
The balcony of the arts and crafts area is open to the atrium/court and along the route from elevator to service offices and clinic. Circulation between entries takes one under these balcony projections and between columns, along the dining area. Occasional seating allows resting and gathering points along circulation paths. Theatre lobby, dining, and multi-purpose can spill into the courtyard. Overflow dining can take advantage of adjacent multi-purpose space. The display wall outside the gallery/gift shop is the means for pride and accomplishment for seniors and valuable public relations with the community.
DAYLIGHTING
In addition to the economic benefit of natural lighting, close attention to its quality and control provides a pleasurable interior environment. Clerestories created by triangular, east-facing space frame extensions allow selective direct gain and provide a bright, even ambient light,
CONCLUSIONS

even on overcast days. Best quality light comes from two sources, so wall fenestration is balanced with clerestory toplighting. In the pool area, glass block provides a soft, even light while giving visual privacy to shy bathers.
The elaborate space frame running through the center of the building over courtyard and circulation was chosen as a means to daylight effectively as well as to create an exciting sculptural form which makes an energizing interior central node.
ELEVATIONS
The issue of relationship with the old buildings was a difficult one because of the size of the new construction. It was necessary to focus on the most essential elements of the Lowell Building, to clarify and distill them, then to express them in ways consistent with the new structure rather than to simply repeat or imitate.
These essential elements were:
-- paired masses of masonry
-- clarity of expression on the exterior of internal functions: low, intimate, recessed entry
smaller, less massive areas of more private activity large, more massive areas of public activity -- modularity of divisions
roof forms which clearly express interior divisions
CONCLUSIONS

expression of permanence by overemphasis of engaged columns -- attention to quality in materials and detail in craftsmanship
The parti shows two major masses, separated by a circulation corridor. Each functional division is given a height and mass appropriate to its content. The roof is lowered over each entry, and projected to provide an area of outdoor-indoor transition. A 20' bay forms the basic module, which is clustered to form masses appropriate to interior divisions.
The exaggerated roof form at the center of the complex announces clearly that something unique happens there. Oversized columns provide a sense of rootedness and permanence. And, finally, special brickwork is called out to emphasize human scale and detail selected spots where changes of plane occur.
CONCLUSIONS

CON S T R U C T I 0 N COSTS
SPACE CLUBHOUSE AREAS ARTS S< CRAFTS THEATRE "GYM" AREAS CLINIC ?< OFFICES
AREA s-f 26800.00 14400.00 10000.00 6600.00 3600.00
PERIMETER
-ft 710.00 400.00 380.00 200.00 350.00
BASE PRICE */si 28.90 62.39 65.03 44.97 68.16
AREA/PERIM MULTIPLIER .90 92 1.00 . 94 1. 10
STORY HT MULTIPLIER 1.20 1.00 1.36 1.20 1.0~
SPRINKLER */sf 1.54 1.74 1.86 1.92 2 SO
HVAC 3.55 3.55 8.99 T _ 3 5 S
LOCAL COST FACTOR 1. 10 1. 10 1. 10 1. 10 1. 10
TOTAL COST */5f 39.97 69. 16 109.08 61.70 95. 15
TOTAL COST * 1071198.51 995955.36 1090768.14 407246.27 342537.02
TOTAL COST * 3907705.3!
AVERAGE
COS1"
*/sf 63.64
COST ESTIMATE

OPERATING
COSTS
The cost to control the internal environment of this facility.is as important as initial construction costs, and design decisions were based on minimizing the
operating costs. This data was generated using Building Energy Analysis Tool for Microcomputers 1983. EWIT, AREA Energy What If Tool, a inc, Albuquerque, NM,
SUMMARY
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ($/ft2-yr) cooling lighting equipment heating dhw total electric total gas .60 2.08 .25 .01 . 06 3.84 . 12 TOTAL ($/ft2-yr) TOTAL ($/yr at current Colorado Springs rates) 3.96$54,098
DAYLIGHTING ($/ft2-yr) cooling lighting equipment heating dhw total electric total gas .38 1.24 .25 .07 .06 2.45 .25 TOTAL ($/ft2-yr) TOTAL (at current Colorado Springs rates
2.69 $35,763 COST ESTIMATE This represents a savings of$l8,335/yr or 34% over artificial lighting.
This savings has to be balanced against the cost of running an atrium space:
total total
cooling lighting equipment heating dhw electric gas
.11 .00 .00 .30 .02 .14 .65
TOTAL ($/ft^-yr) TOTAL (at current Colorado Springs rates) 79$6,17 2/yr
A total savings of $12,l63/yr, or 23% over artificial lighting. NOTE: This atrium was run on the basis of double pane reflecting glass all across the roof. The final design changes that to involve solid-roofed clerestories, so heat gain will be cut dramatically, as will heating need due to transmission losses through the glazing. Lighting levels can be maintained. COST ESTIMATE CLUBHOUSE EMD USE TYPE FUNCTIONS COOLING L ELEC ARTIFICIALLY IGHTS EQUIP ELEC ELEC LIT HEATING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS GROSS USE Btu/s-f vr 67272 82842 15229 1254 2132 165343 3386 COEFF/EFF 2.50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60 NET USE kBtu/s-f-vr 26.91 82.84 15.23 1.79 3.55 124.98 5.34 FLAT FEE$ /vr 30.00 48.00
RATE */kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 0094
FUEL ADJ CHG */kBtu . 002
CONSUMPT %/sfvr 25 . 78 . 14 .01 .02 1.54 . 05
TOTAL USE
*/sf-vr 1.5
COST ESTIMATE

ARTS & END USE TYPE CRAFTS COOLING ELEC ARTIFICIALLY LIT LIGHTS EQUIF ELEC ELEC HEAT ING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS
GROSS USE Btu/S'f-vr 52415 92842 12146 0 2132 147403 2132
COEFF/EFF 2.50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60
NET USE kBtu/s-f-vr 20.97 82.84 12. 15 . 00 3 55 115.95 3.55
FLAT FEE t/v- 30.00 48.00
RATE */kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 0094
FUEL ADJ CHG t/kBtu. . 002c
CONSUMRT t/s-f -vr . 20 . 78 . 1 1 . 00 .02 1.43 . 03
TOTAL USE
*/sf-vr 1.46
COST ESTIMATE

CLUBHOUSE FUNCTIONS DAYLIT
END USE TYPE COOLING ELEC LIGHTS ELEC EQUIP ELEC HEATING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS
GROSS USE Btu/sf-vr 34886 37995 15229 10451 'n *? 381 10 12583
COEFF/EFF 2.50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60
NET USE kBtu/s-f-vr 13.95 38.00 15.23 14.93 3 55 67. 18 IS. 48
FLAT FEE */vr 30. 00 48.00
RATE */kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 0094
FUEL ADJ CHG */kBtu . 0029
CONSUMPT $/sf-vr . 13 . 36 . 14 .07 .02 .83 . 1' TOTAL USE */sf-vr 1.00 COST ESTIMATE ARTS & CRAFTS DAYLIT END USE TYPE COOLING ELEC LIGHTS ELEC EQUIP ELEC HEATING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS NET USE Btu/sf-vr 26831 37995 12146 143 n j -T9 76972 7 cr COEFF/EFF 2. 50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60 GROSS USE kBtu/s-f -vr 10. 73 38.00 12. 15 . 20 3.55 60. 87 3.76 FLAT FEE$/vr 30.00 48.00
RATE $/kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 009^ FUEL ADJ CHG t/kBtu . 0029 CONSUMPT */sf-vr . 10 . 36 . 11 . 00 .02 . 75 . 04 TOTAL USE$/sf-vr .78
COST ESTIMATE

THEATRE
END USE TYPE COOLING ELEC LIGHTS ELEC EQUIP ELEC HEATING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS
NET USE Btu/s-f -vr 40751.00 54814.00 . 00 345.00 *?! 7.3.00 95565.00 2477.00
COEFF/EFF 2.50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60
GROSS USE kBtu/s-f -vr 16.30 54.81 . 00 . 49 3.55 71.11 4.05
FLAT FEE $/vr 30.00 48.00 RATE f/kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 0094 FUEL ADJ CHG$/kBtu . 0029
CONSUMPT $/sf-vr . 15 . 52 . 00 . 00 '< . 02 . S'7 . 04 TOTAL USE */sf-vr .91 COST ESTIMATE ATRIUM DOUBLE PANE REFLECTING GLASS END USE TYPE COOLING ELEC LIGHTS ELEC EQUIP ELEC HEATING GAS DHW GAS TOTAL ELEC TOTAL GAS GROSS USE Btu/sfvr 28670 0 0 45974 'n i ~T'T> 28670 48106 COEFF/EFF 2.50 1.00 1.00 . 70 . 60 NET USE kBtu/s-f-vr 11.47 . 00 . 00 65.68 3.55 11.47 JL O "T U - FLAT FEE$/vr 30.00 48.00
RATE $/kBtu . 0094 . 0094 . 0094 . 0045 . 0045 . 0094 . 0094 FUEL ADJ CHG */k.Btu . 0029 CONSUMPT$/s-f-vr . 1 1 . 00 . 00 .30 .02 . 14 .65
TOTAL USE
t/s-f-vr .79
COST ESTIMATE

The difficult can be done immediately.
The impossible will take a little longer.
William J. Underhill (my father)
SITE ANALYSIS

Pi^p ANpe
t'--'
f-i h
SITE ANALYSIS
j

SUMMARY
SITE ADVANTAGES
The site is safe from floods and subsidence and enjoys good drainage. Soils are well suited to construction with low shrink-swell potential, easy compactability, and generally excellent foundation stability. Construction will be facilitated by level ground and the absence of physical and natural barriers.
Access by auto, bus, and pedestrian is generally very good, although particular attention must be paid to controlling access points for maximum safety.
Lowell School makes the site highly visible and offers strong potential for reinforcing historic and neighborhood identity (see INTRODUCTION). Height limitations on new construction are not problematic in view of the intimate, residential character desired by the client community.
A generally mild climate and solar access are positive features. Suitability of the soil for growing windbreaks and environmental plantings will contribute to meeting needs outlined in CLIMATE ANALYSIS and will enhance the ambience of the new complex.
6ITE ANALY6I6

SITE CONSTRAINTS
The overall character of the neighborhood is rightly perceived to be one of high risk. Architectural, landscaping, and management decisions will need to be carefully weighed to assure physical safety as well as perceived security. These decisions will involve access, lighting, site planning, transportation services, and personnel attitudes.
Traffic speed and noise on Nevada Avenue are major problems. Access points will need to be carefully chosen and circulation through the site carefully planned for maximum safety. Construction materials will need to be selected for maximum sound control. Plantings will also help buffer the site.
Lowell School poses Juncture of new con carefully analyzed and provide elevato location of the mai in regard to all me
arriers to access be ruction with the exi minimize level chan access to the upper entrance to the faci s of access.
b
st
to
r
n
an
cause of its many stairs, sting building must be ges required of users, floor of Lowell. The lity is of primary concern
Some difficulty may be encountered in excavation, due to the tendency of cuts to cave. Seismic design constraints must be addressed.
(SITE ANALYSTS

LEGAL
DESCRIPTLON
"AIL bLock 305- Lots 1-8, Lots 15 and 16, and the alLey adjacent on West of block 315* Street lying between said blocks. Addition 2, Colorado Springs, South."
"Addition No. 2 to the Town of Colorado Springs, El Paso County,
Colorado Territory. Located in the N.^ of the N.W.| and the N.W.^ of the N.E.5 of Section 19 in Township 14 S. of Range 66 West (6th P.M.)" Original plat dated 1 September 1874, and signed by Henry McAllister, Jr., Ev cutive Director, Colorado Springs Company. [Figure II. 1.]
(El Paso County Tax Assessor)
(El Paso County Clerk and Recorder)
SITE ANALYSIS

FIGURE II.
1 a
's* r

"W'TH
FIGURE II. lb.
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o Â£>
s \ -N X >*
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SITE
DESCRIPTION
SITE BOUNDARIES
District 11 of the Colorado Public Schools owns the entire parcel described above. South Junior High School is located in the Northern half of Block 305 on Lots 1-4 and 16 18. The site for this project is the remaining area [Figure II. 2.] : Lot 5-12 of block 305,
Lots 1-8 and 15 16 of block 315, the alley running North/South through the block, and Las Animas Street (not currently a through street) between Nevada Avenue and Weber Street. It is bounded by Nevada Avenue on the West, Fountain Street on the South, and Weber Street on the East.
The total area of the site is as follows:
18 lots @ 50' Las Animas @ 100' Alley @ 20'
The Lowell School existing structur The 1963 addition
x 190 x 400' x 400'
171,000 ft2 40,000 ft2
8,000 ft2
total 219,000 ft2 = 5.03
building ( 1 891) and its original es on the site to be incorporated is not included.
acres
addition (1901) are into this project.
SITE ANALYSIS

CONTEXT
The site is zoned open space (see ae low-rise area. Th homes, with the ex kept row houses al and R-4, with the School on the East
An R-l classificat 30' maximum height in the ZONING sect
R-l 6000, single family residenti rial map [Figure II. 3*]) in a pr e six remaining lots of block 315 ception of an R-4 zone of very mo ong Fountain Street. Adjacent bl exception of a C-5 zone north of side of Nevada Avenue.
ion specifies a 30% maximum lot c Additional discussion of restr ion.
al, and imarily are si dest, o ocks ar South J
overage
ictions
The immediate neighborhood is composed of 1-2 story stru Victorian/early Bungalow vintage. The area falls outside Redevelopment Administration's target area (which is below tracks to the South), and is still suffering from neglect, signs of renewal in some residences and in the adaptation houses to office and professional use.
The area along South Nevada and South Tejon is currently a area* (primarily burglary and robbery) and does not have a image among local residents.
is a significant residential, ngle-family Id and poorly-e zoned R-2 unior High
and a
will be found
ctures of late of the
the railroad There are of small
high crime positive
SITE ANALYSIS

*1*4 *
> k

1 he!

n,v ' \ u
1 }imÂ§
"*-* $L. A The Lowell School is a neighborhood (see LOWELL SCHOOL section) and phy for adaptive re-use makes a very st of Colorado Springs to revitalizati and inclusion of minority and low-i fabric of the city. landmark of historic significance sical prominence. Its selection rong statement about the commitment on of the lower Downtown area ncome people in the social ACCESS Nevada Avenue is a divided four-lane major arterial street. A frontage road parallels Nevada on the West of the site. This and the alley are accessible from Fountain Street on the South. Las Animas, in the center of the site, could be used in some way to provide access for auto traffic from Weber Street (a fairly low-volume route) as well as from Nevada. The site enjoys good bus service, with routes along both Nevada and Weber. Fare for folks over 60 is only 25<Â£, with no transfer or zone charges. Busses on these routes run every half hour on weekdays and every hour on Saturdays. The location is only ten blocks from the transit terminal in central downtown, and therefore is easily accessible from all parts of the city. [Figure II. 4*] Pedestrians are offered no obstructions at any point on the site, although Nevada traffic is a deterrent. The sidewalk immediately SITE ANALYSIS [FIGURE II in front of Lowell School is buffered by the service road. A tunnel exists under Nevada at Las Animas, but its use by the elderly is doubtful. Special care must be taken to locate a bus stop appropriately close to the facility's main entrance, but indications are that the city is supportive of any move to assist the elderly and handicapped in this regard. The existing entrances to Lowell School involve many steps, both up to and within the building. This will need to be addressed by siting a main entrance in the new construction at a point more amenable to level access. PHYSICAL FEATURES The site is almost flat, the only change in grade occurring at the -t 5' below the level of Lowell's front yard. Vegetation is quite consisting of some shrubs, a few large deciduous trees along at the edges of the site, and seven large evergreens front of Lowell School's West fa9ade. These provide from afternoon sun. J9ade of Lowell School enjoys good solar access, with .lly placed deciduous trees at its Southeast and Southwest Additional discussion of solar access will be found in the ^ ANALYSIS section. SITE ANALYSTS POLLUTANTS Noise from Nevada Avenue is the major site detriment. Temperatures inversions which trap air poilutants in the winter months and photochemical oxidents formed in the prevalent summer sunshine are hazards created by the local climate, which is arid and offers little natural cleansing of the air except for favorable wind conditions.^ GEOLOGY AND SOILS El Paso County Land Use Department provides the following information. A) ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC MAP FOR LAND USE (Charles S. Robinson and Associates, Inc., Golden, Colorado, 1977) [Figure II. 5*] This classifies the area as 1A: "Stable alluvium, colluvium and bedrock on flat to gentle slopes (0 5%)." It also notes that "El Paso County is considered to be in seismic zone 2. Rockfall, landslides, unstable slopes and subsidence hazards may be intensified by seismic events." B) MAP OF POTENTIAL GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS (Charles S. Robinson and Associates, Inc., Golden, Colorado, 1977) [Figure II. 6.] This indicates an aQlo classification, with the following characteristics. LOUVIERS ALLUVIUM: Gravelly sand and silt with cobbles and boulders in 6ITE ANALY6I6 terraces along Fountain and Monument Creeks; coarse sand along tributaries from east. Locally may have clays with a low to high potential for swelling. Occurs as the major terrace at the confluence of Fountain and Monument Creeks. Top of terraces are about 70 feet above major streams. WORKABILITY: Excavation: Easy. Compaction: Moderately easy. SURFACE DRAINAGE, ERODABILITY & GROUND WATER: Infiltration: High except where clayey. Runoff: Low. Moderately to highly resistant to erosion. Yield to wells ranges from 10 to 100 gallons per minute. FOUNDATION STABILITY: Generally excellent. May have expansive clays locally. POTENTIAL GEOLOGIC HAZARDS: May have expansive clays locally. Maps of known abandoned coal mines in the area [Figure II. 7*]^ show the site to be outside of any danger area. Kenneth Myers of Rocky Mountain Geotechnical, Inc., of Colorado Springs^ confirms the absence of any mining activity near the site, and, in fact, the absence of coal in the immediate area's geologic composition. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE designates the soil of the site as 16: "Chaseville gravelly sandy loam, 1 to 8 percent slopes . . . deep, somewhat excessively drained soil." It continues with a description of each layer, and notes that "Permeability of this Chaseville soil is rapid. Effective rooting depth is 60 inches or more. Available water capacity is low. Surface 6ITE ANALYSIS SITE ANALYSIS abandoned coal minee. Shaded araaa In the map above ahow areas mined In Rockrimmon, while thoae below show mines in the Cragmor-Country Club area. O c 7> m o Sunday Nov. 20, 1983 Gazette Telegraph runoff is slow, and the hazard of erosion is moderate. . Windbreaks and environmental plantings are suited to this soil. Low available water capacity is the main limitation to the establishment of tree and shrub plantings . . . Supplemental ir- rigation may be needed to insure survival. Trees that are best suited and have good survival are Rocky Mountain juniper, eastern redcedar, ponderosa pine, and Siberian elm. Shrubs that are best suited are skunkbush sumac and lilac. . . . This soil has good potential for homesites. Because of its gravel content, problems with excavations may arise because banks cave in. . . .6 Capability subclass Vie designates "severe limitations that make [ generally unsuitable for cultivation . . . the main limitation is of erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained."7 Q Tables in the soil survey0 elaborate on the nature of this soil: SHALLOW EXCAVATIONS: severe limitation due to cutbank cave DWELLINGS WITH AND WITHOUT BASEMENTS: generally favorable SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: moderate limitation if the site slopes SHRINK-SWELL POTENTIAL: low RISK OF CORROSION: uncoated steel, moderate; concrete, low soils] risk high cut 6ITE ANALYSIS DRAINAGE, FLOOD POTENTIAL, AND RUNOFF The City of Colorado Springs, Drainage Department provides a map of major drainage basins. [Figure II. 8.] A more detailed map, unavailable for reproduction, shows that the site lies just outside the Shooks Run Basin boundary in an unstudied area. The Department representative points out that storm sewers along Nevada Avenue drain the site due South to Monument Creek. Additional maps from this department show the one hundred year flood planes [Figure II. 9] and overflow limits of Monument Creek [Figure II. 10]. Both indicate that the site is well above any danger zone. Historic runoff to be maintained is calculated on the basis of information given by Davis C. older, ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, Spring, 1982, as follows: Historic runoff in acre-feet/year Y = A I R where: A = area of site in acres I = coefficient of imperviousness R = average annual precipitation in feet here: Y = 5.03 acres x .20 x 1.29 ft/year^ = 1.30 acre-feet/year 1.30 acre-feet/year x 326,000 galIons/acre-foot = 423,800 gallons/yea This must be taken as a very rough estimate of runoff which occurred !V V'tAj n vfeis if Z O N E A \ .. r iu TKi'm (*u itvo VjS :S^=Tnj^TonPOR^IE LIMIIS k i$
6ITE ANALYSIS

LEGEND
OVERFLOW LIMITS
A?
L 1 H
RIVER MILE
GROUND ELEVATION IN FEET MEAN SEA LEVEL DATUM
CROSS SECTION POSITION AND RIVER MILE
NOTES
1. LIMITS OF OVERFLOW MAY VARY FROM ACTUAL LOCATIONS ON OROUNO, AS EXPLAINED IN THE REPORT
2. BASE TOPOGRAPHY FROM USG3 7 1/2 MINUTE QUADRANGLE MAPS.
3. CONTOUR INTERVAL 20 FEET
A
Pi
&
I
PLATE INDEX
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AL8U0UER0UE DISTRICT. CORPS OF ENGINEERS ALBUQUERQUE. NEW MEXICOt..
FLOODED AR^aT'-^
MONUMENT CREEK
COLORADO SPRINGS. COLORADO *
nr
[FIGURE II. 10.]
SITE ANALYSIS

before any construction on the site. After the complex is designed calculations of runoff resulting from roofed, paved, and landscaped areas must be calculated so that retention facilities may be sized.
Isopluvial maps are included for future reference. [Figures II. 11 UTILITIES
City water, gas, sewer, and electricity lines are in place to serve School. The demands of the new use may require upgrading the sizes of some of the lines. [Figures II. 16 19]
- 15.]
Lowel1
SITE ANALYSIS

1RAD0
NO^A ATLAS 2. Volume III
j_C 30 40
'----- MILES
Prepared by S Department of Commerce National Ocea* c and Atmospheric Administration National Weaker Service, Office of Hydrology Prepared for S Department of Agriculture,
Soil Conservi' on Service, Engineering Division
'08
107
106
[FIGURE II. 11.]
To 5
BOPt-lMALS Of lOO-YH 24-MA PHEOPrTATlON m TENTHS or AN INCH
FIG. S-7
104
103
102

lORADO
0 20 30 40
MILES
Prepared by U S. Department of Commerce National Ocea~'C and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service, Office of Hydrology Prepared for L S. Department of Agriculture,
Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division
BOP1.UVIALS or 50-YU 24-H* nCOCTATKM M TOfTMS or AM MCM
108
[F1GUR>E II. 1 2 ]
FIG. S-7
107
106
105
104
103
102

Prepared by U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service, Office of Hydrology
Prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division
108
107
[FIGURE II. 14]
106
105
m

loRADO
10 20 30 40
MILES
NOaIa ATLAS 2, Volume III
Prepared by U.S. Department of Commerce
rFIGURE II. 15]
UOPUMALS OF 5-YR 24-HR PRECIPITATION W
rorrxf of ah inch
FIG S-7
103
102

[FIGURE II. 16]
ITE ANALYSIS

SITE ANALYSIS

9I9A1VNV U\$L *** 1? ~ [V 4* t I tit > \ >l> Ml %) *" ; * 4 3 z 1 i - i *a ; 9-. * c * A W *- a M ** *1 >4 *> *>4 ) C AVENUE ) it ft > or ioi " e * M m. 04 MORENO t 4 AVENUE SITE ANALYSTS FOOTNOTES Telephone conversation with Ms. Emily Inman, Crime Analysis Division, Colorado Springs Police Department, October, 1983* 2 "Needs Assessment for El Paso, Park, and Teller Counties," Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, June 1980. 3 "Development Framework for the Pikes Peak Region," Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, October 1977* ^Rebecca Cantwell, "Undermined: Old Coal Mines Pose a Threat Beneath Springs Neighborhoods," Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph, November 20, 1983. Section "C," pp. 1-2. See also: "Mining Report: Colorado Springs Coal Field, A Guide for Future Land Use," City of Colorado Springs Planning Department, Geology Section. August 1967- ^In a telephone conversation, October, 1983- ^"Soil Survey of El Paso County Area, Colorado," United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, June 1981, p. 16. 7Ibid., p. 70. o Ibid. pp. 1 1 7ff. o The coefficient of imperviousness is estimated on the basis of soil descriptions. Average annual rainfall is 15-49 inches. SITE ANALYSIS BIBLIOGRAPHY Cantwell, Rebecca. "Undermined: Old Coal Mines Pose a Threat Beneath Springs Neighborhoods." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph. Sunday, November 20, 1983* "Development Framework for the Pikes Peak Region." Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, October, 1977- "Mining Report: Colorado Springs Coal Field, A Guide for Future Land Use." Colorado Springs: City Planning Department, Geology Division, August, 1967- "Needs Assessment" (El Paso, Park, and Teller Counties). Colorado Springs: Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging, June, 1980. "Procedures For Determining Peak Flows in Colorado." Washington, D. C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, March, I98O. "Soil Survey of El Paso County Area, Colorado." Washington, D. C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, June, 1981. 6ITE ANALYSTS Natural environmental forces . . . affect us all equally; they discriminate against no one. Manmade environmental forces, shaped by modern technology, do not affect us all equally. -- Gunduz Dagdelen Ast Barrier-Free Environments, 1977 CLIMATE ANALYSIS SUMMARY 0 F DATA Annual extremes range from -27 to 100. The monthly mean ranges from 28 to 70* Diurnal swings range between 24-2 and 28, with the greatest swings in April through October. Humidity is highest in the summer months, when it is 65-70%. Lowest humidity is recorded in April and October, when it is around 33%- Most precipitation is in the form of summer thundershowers, with over 80% of the water equivalent occurring between April 1 and September 30. June, July, and August have the highest amounts of precipitation (3+ inches) occurring within a 24-hour period. April is the month of heaviest snowfall, the extreme being almost 43 inches. Winds up to 60 m.p.h. (fastest observed one-minute value) do occur, but the mean range is 9-12 m.p.h., or moderately high. Winds are predominantly from the north (NNW to NNE) especially in the colder months. June and September offer SSE winds. The Narrative Climatological Summary mentions the west-to-east chinook winds which moderate winter temperatures. CLIMATE ANALYSIS Clear and partly cloudy days comprise 68% of the total. September through December boast a large number of clear days, whereas June through August are predominantly partly cloudy. The climate is well suited to passive solar. The Narrative Summary concludes that this climate is semi-arid, with relatively light precipitation, normally low relative humidity, and moderately high wind movement. Considering the latitude and elevation (6145), the temperatures are mild, with uncomfortable extremes being relatively rare.^ CLIMATE ANALYSIS ANALYSIS Based on the Bioclimatic Chart of mean temperatures^, this climate most nearly matches Olgyay's "cool" typ.e. Although the range of relative humidity is somewhat lower, the temperature ranges are similar. He points to the high slope of daily temperature swings, which is also common to Colorado Springs. For this climate, he outlines the average yearly requirements as being:"76% sun heat, 24% shade, 76% wind protection, 4% cooling breezes, and 15% of the time is in shade comfort." (p. 27) For this type of climate, Olgyay suggests that the optimum orientation is 12 east of south (p. 6l), or SSE. In addition to facilitating early-morning warm-up and solar gains in the winter, here it affords the possibility of taking advantage of prevailing SSE winds in June and September (swing months) for passive cooling. This orientation also assists conservation efforts by turning its back to prevailing cold winds from the NNW-NNE. In regard to basic form, Olgyay makes the following conclusion : "Winter optimum is received with a form 1:1.1, summer optimum 1:1.4* As the stresses in wintertime are CLIMATE ANALYSIS about twice as large as in summer, and the duration of the overheated period is only 20% of the year, the winter index was adopted. The elasticity of the shape is 1:1.3*" (p. 88) He goes on to say that compact forms are preferable, as are higher, more dense buildings, (p. 90) This advice differs somewhat from that given by the CLIMAT program on the basis of the Mahoney Tables. This suggests the buildings be oriented on an east-west axis, with long elevations facing north and south. Both agree that compact planning is desirable, and that heavy walls and interior mass are necessary to give a time lag sufficient to flatten out temperature fluctuations. Both Olgyay (p. 156) and CLIMAT stress that openings should be small, except on the south and partly east. It is important to shade openings in the summer months, and provide some form of insulation to reduce heat loss in cool months. Windows should be double-glazed. Olgyay further recommends deciduous trees near the SE corner and at the west side for shading. Roofs should slope to shed rain and snow. Operable windows, placed to take advantage of summer breezes, will probably be sufficient most of the time for cooling. In siting outdoor activity areas, care must be taken to buffer winds and accept as much solar gain as possible in the winter to help control snow retention. CLIMATE ANALYSIS BIOCLIMATIC CHAR T (MEAN TEMPERATURES) CLIMATE ANALYSIS BIOCLIMATIC CHART (EXTREME TEMPERATURES) . X. o _____L_ -I O yi'.niYfi !*!*.71 t! . CLIMATE ANALYSIS C L I M A T PROGRAM (MAHONEY TABLES4) LOCATION COLORADO SPRINGS LONGITUBE 104 43 LATITUDE 30 49 ALTITUDE 6145 TABLE 1 CLIMATIC DATA MONTH MAX MIN RANGE MONTH MAX MIN A OF G RAIN UP US JAN 5 -8.9 13.8 JAN 58 41 49.5 p .31 NNE XX FEB 6-4 -7.3 13.7 FEB 58 38 48 .34 N X MAR 8.7 -5.2 13.8 MAR 60 37 48.5 '? ~r -y / N X APR 15.1 * 6 14.5 APR 62 33 47.5 p 1.45 N X MAY 20.2 5.8 14.3 MAY 64 34 49 p 2.12 NNU X JUN 25.. 6 10.6 15 JUN 66 34 50 P 2.31 SSE X JUL 29.1 13.8 15.2 JUL 70 38 54 3 3.1 NNU X AUG 20 13.2 14.7 AUG 70 39 54.5 3 2.58 N X SEP 23.8 8.2 15.5 SEP 67 38 52.5 3 1. 11 SSE X OCT 17.8 2.6 15.2 OCT 58 35 46.5 n .92 NNE X NOV 9.8 -3.9 13.7 NOV 60 40 50 p . 45 NNE x DEC <6 N .1. -7.3 13.4 DEC 55 40 47.5 p .27 NNU X HIGH = 29.1 LOU = -8.9 TOTAL 15.73 AMT = 10.. 1 AMR = 37.9 .... _ - - Humidity group: 1 If average RH: below 30% 2 30-50% 3 50-70% 4 above 70% CLIMATE ANALYSIS TABLE 3 DIAGNOSIS DAY- > < NIGHT > SIRE :ss MAX UP LOW MIN UP LOW D N JAN 5 27 20 -8.9 20 C C FEB 6.4 27 20 -7.4 20 C C MAR 8.6 27 20 -5.2 20 C C APR 15.1 l->7 20 .6 20 C C MAY 20.2 27 20 5.8 20 0 c JUN 25.6 27 20 10.6 20 0 C JUL 29.1. 26 19 13.8 19 H 0 AUG 28 26 19 13.1 19 H 0 SEP 23.7 26 1.9 8.1 19 0 c OCT 1.7.7 27 20 2.5 20 C c NOV 9.8 27 20 -4 20 c c DEC 6 27 20 -7.4 20 c c AMT over 20C AMT 15-20 *C AMT below 15*C Comfort limits Day Night Day Night Day Night Humidity group: 1 26-34 17-25 23-32 14-23 21-30 12-21 2 25-31 17-24 22-30 14-22 20-27 12-20 3 23-29 17-23 21-28 14-21 19-26 12-19 4 22-27 17-21 20-25 14-20 18-24 12-18 TABLE 4 INDIC ATORS MONTH HI H2 H3 A .1. A 2 A3 JAN 0 0 0 1 0 1 FEB 0 0 0 1 0 1 MAR 0 0 0 1 0 1 APR 0 0 0 1 0 1 MAY 0 0 0 1 0 0 JUN 0 0 0 1 0 0 JUL 0 0 0 1 0 0 AUG 0 0 0 1 0 0 SEP 0 0 0 1 0 0 OCT 0 0 0 1 0 1 NOV 0 0 0 1 0 1 DEC 0 0 0 1 0 1 TOTAL 0 0 0 12 0 7 M'.imng Indicator Thermal stress Day Night Ramlall Humidity group Monthly mean range An movement csstnlidl Ml M t H 2 3 l ess than 10 An movement desirable M2 0 4 Ram protection necessary M3 Over 200 mm Thi-imjl capacity necessary A1 1 2 3 Vom than 10 Out door sleeping dusuable A2 H 1 2 1. 2 Protection born cold A3 C CLIMATE ANALYSIS itit it it itft ft ft ft ft tt ft ft L A Y 0 LJ T ft ft ft ft ft tt ft ft ft tt ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft tt it tt ft ft tt 01.J T 000R S L I- E F' IN G ft tt tt ft tt tt ft tt tt tt BUILDINGS SHOULD BE ORIENTATED ON AN EAST-WEST AXIS, THE LONG ELEVATIONS FACING NORTH AND SOUTH TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO THE SUN.. tt tt tt tt tt tt tt ft tt tt tt tt S P AGING tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt f t tt tt ftt tt tt tt ff COMPACT PLANNING IS RECOMMENDED IF THE AIR MOVEMENT REQUIREMENT IS SIGNIFICANT. it it ft it titt ft it it AIR MOVEMENT ttititttttttit tt tt ft it tt it ft it IF AIR MOVEMENT IS NEVER ESSENTIAL, AND IS DESIRABLE FOR NOT MORE THAN A MONTH, ROOMS CAN BE DOUBLE BANKED AS THERE IS NOT MUCH NEED FOR CROSS VENTILATION. ft ft tt tt tt tt ft tt tt tt tt tt tt 0 P E NIN G S tt tt tt tt tt tt t* tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt t* 'VERY SMALL', LESS THAN 20 % OF THE WALL. tt tt f tt ft ft tt ft tt t* tt tt tt tt if tt tt ft U A L I... S ft tt tt if ft tt tt ft tt tt tt ft ft tt BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WALLS SHOULD BE MASSIVE. tt tt tt tt tt tt tt ft tt ft tt tt tt ft tt tt R 0 0 F S tt tt tt tt tt ** tt tt tt tt tt tt tt t* A HEAVY ROOF, WITH SUBSTANTIAL THERMAL CAPACITY, GIVING A TIME LAG OF AT LEAST 8 HOURS. ft tt tt tt tt ft tt tt tt tt tt RAIN PROTECTION tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt T A B L E 4 D E T AIL R E C 0 M M E N D A T10 N S tttfttttttttftttttt* SIZE OF OPENING tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt tt MEDIUM : 25 -- 40% ft tt tt tt tt tt it tt tt tt POSITION OF OPENINGS tttf tttf if titt tt tt tt tt tt ft tt tt tt tt PROTECTION OF OPENINGS tt tttf tttf tttf tttf tttf tttf ft ft WALLS AND FLOORS ft tt f t tt tt tt tt tt tt ft if HEAVY, OVER 8 HOURS TIME-LAG. tt tt tt ft tt tt < tt ft ft ROOFS t* tt tt t* ft ff tt tt ft tt tt tt tt ft tt ft tt tt tt tt ff tt HEAVY, OVER 8 HOURS TIME-LAG. ttttttttttttfttttttt EXTERNAL FEATURES tt tt ft tt tt tt tt tt ft tt CLIMATE ANALYTIC TEMPERATURES (op) * average diurnal range CLIMATE ANALYSIS D E' G R E E DAYS 3 BASE JAN FEB MAR APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC YEAR 50 663 524 457 145 19 1 0 0 3 74 377 589 2853 55 818 1 664 611 271 74 5 1 1 17 166 525 744 3896 60 973 804 766 415 166 25 4 6 66 300 675 899 1054 65 1128 944 921 564 301 103 9 13 155 456 825 1054 6473 70 1283 1 084 1076 714 451 181 71 96 279 605 975 1 209 8023 CLIMATE ANALYSIS RELATIVE HUMIDITY (mean daily max and min) % CLIMATE ANALYSIS JAN FEB MAR APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC YEAR PRECIPITATION (water equivalent/ inches) CLIMATE ANALYSIS WINDS (prevailing direction and mean speed / m.p.h.) NORTH ENE EAST ESE CLIMATE ANALYSIS SKY CONDITIONS / SUNRISE T 0 SUNSET (mean number of days) clear ..........partly cloudy ------cloudy CLIMATE ANALYSIS INSOLATION JAN FEB MAR APRIL MAY I JUNE I JULY I AUG I SEPT I OCT RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE 2400 (Btu/ft2 day)^ NOV DEC I YEAR j YEAR J SUNSHINE (hr/day)2 CLIMATE ANALYSIS SOLAR 9 ACCESS l n c a r t o n = c o l. o r a d o s p r i n g s s o l a r t i m e ORIENTATION = 90 LATITUDE = 3(3.83 LONGITUDE = 104.32 MONTH = I DAY = 21 HR AL AZ VS A HSA 7.1 = SUNRISE 3 8.6 124.7 10.4 34.7 <:> 17.5 135.9 24.4 45.9 10 24.7 148.9 41.7 58.9 ti 29.4 163.3 63.7 73.8 12 31 130 90 90 13 29.4 196.2 0 0 14 24.7 211 .1 0 0 15 17.5 224.1 0 0 16 16. 3.6 9 = SUNSET 235.3 0 0 LOCATION = COL ORIENTATION = LATITUDE = 33. MONTH = 4 HR AL .OR ADO 90 33 AZ SPRINGSSOL LONGITUDE ~ DAY =21 VSA AR TIME l04.82 HSA 5 H 3 = SUNRISE 6 7.2 30.9 7.3 -9.1 **y / 13.9 90.2 13.9 A} 8 30.5 100.1 30.9 10.. 1 9 41.7 111.9 43.9 2 J. 9 10 51.9 127.5 58.1 37.5 11 59.7 149.9 73.6 59.9 12 62.7 180 90 90 13 59.7 210.1 0 0 14 51.9 232.5 0 0 15 41.7 248. t 0 . 0 16 30.5 259.9 0 0 17 O' c CG T! 269.3 0 0 18 7.2 279.1 0 0 18 .7 = SUNSET * HOUR ALTITUDE AZIMUTH VERTICAL SHADOW ANGLE HORIZONTAL SHADOW ANGLE CLIMATE ANALYSIS LOCATION = COLORADO ORIENTATION = 90 LATITUDE = 28.03 MONTH = 7 SPRINGSSOLAR TIME LONGITUDE = 104.32 DAY -21 HR AL AZ OS A HSA 6 = SUNRISE 9.7 71.9 10.2 -18.1 "7 / 22.4 78.2 22.3 -11.8 8 35.4 84.4 35.5 -5.6 9 48.5 91.2 48.5 1.2 1.0 61.6 100.3 62 10.3 1.1 74 1.1.8.3 75.3 28.3 1.2 81.6 180 90 90 13 74 241.7 0 0 14 61.6 259.7 0 0 15 48.5 268.8 0 0 16 35.4 275.6 0 0 17 22.4 281.3 0 0 18 9.7 288.1 0 0 18. 8 = SUNSET LOCATION = COL ORIENTATION = LATITUDE = 33. MONTH ~ 1.0 ORADO SPRINGSSOL 90. 33 LONGITUDE = DAY 21 AR TIME 104.82 HR AL 1 1 1 i Ni 6.6 y = SUNRISE 4 108.6 4.2 18.6 8 14.7 11.8.3 16.7 28.8 9 24.3 130.6 30.7 40.6 10 32.2 144.7 47.4 547 1.1 37.5 1.61. 4 67.4 71.4 12 39.4 180 90 90 13 37.5 198.6 0 0 14 32 2 215 3 0 0 15 24.3 229.4 0 0 16 1 4.7 241.2 0 0 17 4 251.4 0 0 17. 4 = SUNSET CLIMATE ANALYSIS LOCATION = COLORADO SPRINGSSOLAR TIME ORIENTATION = 180 LATITUDE = 38.83 LONGITUDE = 1.04.82 MONTH 1 DAY 21. HR AL A 7. VS A HSA 7.1. 8 = SUNRISE 8.6 124.7 14.9 5 b .3 9 17.5 135.9 23.8 -44 . 1 1.0 24.7 148.9 28.2 -31 . 1 11 29.4 163.8 30.4 -16 M 2 12 1.3 31 29.4 180 196.2 31 30.4 0 16. '? 14 24.7 211.1 20 H 31. i 15 17.5 224.1 23.8 44. i 16 8.6 235.3 14.9 bb - 3 .1.6.9 = SUNSET 1.0 c A T10 N = C 0 L 0 R A D 0 S P RIN G S S 0 L A R TIM E ORIENTATION = 180 LATITUDE = 38. 33 LONG ITUDE = 10a.32 MONTH 4 DAY 21 HR AL AZ VS A HSA 5.3 = SUNRISE 6 7-2 80.9 0 0 ~r / 13.9 90.2 89.5 -89 .8 3 30.5 100.1 73.5 -79 .9 9 41.7 11.1.9 67.3 6 8 . 1 10 51.9 127.5 64.5 -52 - b 11 59.7 149.9 63.1 -30 . i 1 2 62.7 1.80 62.7 0 13 59.7 210.1 63.1 30. i 14 51.9 232.5 64.5 3 5 15 41.7 243.1 67.3 68. 1 16 30.5 259.9 73.5 79. 9 17 18.9 269.3 89.5 89. 8 18 7-2 279.1 0 0 18. 7 = SUNSET / CLIMATE ANALYSIS LOCATION = COL ORADO SPRINGSSOL AR TIME ORIENTATION = 180 LATITUDE = 38. 83 LONG ITUDE = 104.82 MONTH = 7 DAY = 21 HR AL AZ OSA HSA 4.8 = SUNRISE 5 1.7 64.9 0 0 6 12.6 73.8 0 0 -y / 24.1 82.4 0 0 8 35.7 91.5 87.9 -88.5 9 47.3 102.2 79 -77.8 10 58.3 116.8 74.5 -63.2 11 67.5 140.6 72.3 -39.4 12 71.6 180 71.6 0 13 67.5 219.4 72.3 39.4 14 58.3 243.2 74.5 63.2 15 47.3 257.8 79 77.8 16 35.7 268.5 87.9 88.5 17 24.1 277.6 0 0 18 12.6 286.2 0 0 19 1.7 295.1 0 0 19. 2 = SUNSET L0CATIGN COL0RA D0 SPRINGSS0LAR TI iiE ORIENTATION = 18.0 LATITUDE = 38.83 LONGITUDE = 104.82 MONTH = 10 DAY =21 HR AL AZ OSA H S A 6.6 y = SUNRISE 4 108.6 12.4 -71.4 8 14.7 J. 18.8 28.6 -61.2 9 24.3 130.6 34.8 -49.4 10 3 n o 144.7 37.7 -35.3 11 37.5 161.4 39 -18.6 12 39.4 180 39.4 0 13 37.5 198.6 39 18.6 14 32 2 215.3 37.7 35.3 15 24.3 229.4 34.8 49.4 16 14.7 241.2 28.6 61.. 2 17 4 251.4 12.4 71.4 17. 4 = SUNSET CLIMATE ANALYSIS LOCATION = COL ORADO SPRINGSSOL AR TIME LOCATION = COL ORADO SPRINGSSOLAR r i me ORIENTATION - 270 ORIENTATION 27.0 LA r ITUDE = 30.. 03 LONGITUDE = 104.02 LATITUDE = 30. 03 LONG ITUDE = 104.82 MONTH 1. DAY ~ 21 MONTH = 4 DAY = 21 HR AL A 2 VS A HSA HR AL AZ VS A HSA 7.1 - SUNRISE 5.3 = SUNRISE 8 8.6 124.7 0 0 6 T *) / A.. 00.9 0 0 9 17.5 135.9 0 0 7 1.0.9 90.2 0 0 1.0 24.7 148.9 0 0 8 30.5 100.1 0 0 11. 29.. 4 163.0 0 0 9 41.7 11.1.9 0 0 12 31 180 0 0 10 5.1.9 127.5 0 0 13 29.4 196.2 63.7 -73.8 11 59.7 149.9 0 0 14 24.7 211.1 41.7 -58.9 12 62.7 180 0 0 15 17.5 224.1 24.4 -45.9 13 59.7 210.1 73.6 -59.9 16 8.6 235.3 10.4 -34.7 14 51.9 232.5 58 1 -3/ 5 16. 9 = SUNSET 15 41.7 248.1 43.9 -2.1.9 -10.1 16 30.5 259.9 30.9 17 10.9 269.0 18.9 O 10 7.2 279.1 7.3 9.1 18. 7 = SUNSET CLIMATE ANALYSIS LOG ATION = COL OR A DO SPRINGSSOL AR TIME LOCATION = COL OR A DO SPRINGSSOL AR TIME ORIENTATION = 270 OR I ENT AT.I ON = 270 LATITUDE = 38- 83 1 -ONGITUDE = 104.32 LATITUDE = 33. 33 L ONGITUDE = 104.32 MONTH = 7 DAY =21 MONTH = 1.0 DAY =21. HR AL i x> i N i i i VS A HSA HR AL AZ VS A HSA 4.8 = SUNRISE 6.6 = SUNRISE 5 1.7 64.9 0 0 *r 4 108.6 0 0 6 12.6 73.8 0 0 8 14.7 1.18.8 0 0 ~r / 24.1. 82.4 0 0 9 24.3 130.6 0 0 8 35.7 91. 5 0 0 10 3 j> m n 144.7 0 0 9 47.3 1 02.2 0 0 1.1 37.5 1.61. 4 0 0 10 58.3 116.8 0 0 12 39.4 180 0 0 11 67.5 140.6 0 0 13 37.5 198.6 67.4 -71.4 .1.2 71.6 130 0 0 1.4 32.2 21.5.3 47.4 -54.7 1.3 67 5 21.9.4 75.3 -50.6 15 24.3 229.4 30.7 - 4 0.6 1.4 58.3 243.2 61.2 -26.8 16 14.7 241.2 16.7 -28.8 15 47.3 257.8 48 -12.2 1.7 4 251.4 4.2 -18.6 16 35.7 263.5 35.7 -1.5 17. 4 = SUNSET 17 24.1 277.6 24.3 7.6 1.8 12.6 286.2 13.2 16.2 19 1.7 295.1 1.9 25.1 19. 2 = SUNSET CLIMATE ANALYSIS Local Climatological Data Annual Summary With Comparative Data 1982 COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO '4TE S Narrative Climatological Summary At an elevation near 6,200 feet m.s.l., Colorado Springs is located in relatively flat semi-arid country on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Immediately to the west the mountains rise abruptly to heights ranging from 10,000 to 14,000 feet but generally averaging near 11,000 feet. To the east lie gently undulating prairie lands. The land slopes upward to the north, reaching an average height of about 8,000 feet in 20 miles at the top of Palmer Lake Divide. Colorado Springs is in the Arkansas River drainage basin. The principal tributary feeding the Arkansas from this area is Fountain Creek, which rises in the high mountains west of the City and is fed by Monument Creek originating to the north in the Palmer Lake Divide area. Other topographical features of the area, and particularly its wide range of elevations, help to give Colorado Springs the various and altogether delightful plains-and-mountain mixture of climate that has established the locality as a highly desirable and healthful place to live. The "Means and Extremes" record table, pinpointing records for the City itself, necessarily omits interesting essentials about the general locality of which the City is the center. For example: The temperature difference between the City and the summit of Pikes Peak, 12 airline miles away, is about the same as the difference between Colorado Springs and Iceland; precipitation amounts at higher elevations in the Colorado Springs neighborhood are approximately twice those at nearby lower elevations and the number of rainy days almost triple. In Colorado Springs itself, precipitation is relatively light and over 80 percent of it falls between April 1 and September 30 much of it as heavy downpours accompanying summer thunderstorms. Temperatures, in view of the station's latitude and elevation, are mild. Uncomfortable extremes, in either summer or winter, are comparatively rare. Relative humidity is normally low and wind movement moderately high. This is notably true of the west-to-east movement of the chinook winds, so important in moderating winter temperatures and reminding white men that the Indian meaning of "chinook" is "snow eater." Colorado Springs is best known as a resort city, but the surrounding prairie is also important for cattle raising and a considerable amount of grazing land is used for sheep in the summer months. The growing season varies considerably in length, from a recorded shortest of 110 days to a longest of 194 days. The average is 149 days, from about May 8 to about October 4. noaa NATIONAL OCEANIC AND / NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE, ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION / DATA, AND INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER ASHEVILLE, N.C. Meteorological Data For The Current Year Station: COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO COLORADO SPRINGS MUNICIPAL Standard time used: MOUNTAIN Latitude 38" ,' .. Longitude: ,0 NJ g Elevation Igroundl : t5 fcM \nr. ,,M Month S >1037 Temperature F Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity, pet. Wind X o c. a, c J 11 Average sky cover, tenths, sunrise to sunset Nun iber of days Average station pressure mb Averages Extremes Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 z 05 3 0 1 1 1 (Loca 3. O X 17 time i X 23 Resultant Â§ lx Q. i Direction Maximum Minimum Daily maximum Daily minimum Monthly Highest Date 1 Date I S I Total Greatest in 24 hrs. Date Total Greatest in 24 hrs. Date 11 Speed | m.p.h. i Direction Q 0 >0 1 8 x u o ] 0 (b) o si r | 32 and | below 1 i o O CM O) co x I 0 and below Elev. 6170 feet m.s.l. JAM >*2.2 16.6 29.<4 68 26 -7 7 1095 C 0.25 0.14 6-7 3.6 1.8 6-7 51 4 1 42 51 36 0.9 7.8 25 28 1 4 5.4 11 9 11 6 1 n 4 0 5 31 1 805.6 FtP 4 1 4 16.5 29.0 69 22 - 1 9 5 1001 c 0.27 0.10 2-3 6.2 2.8 2-3 53 43 42 51 C 5 2.1 f.2 36 8 5.3 11 6 11 7 3 0 2 0 11 25 6 810.4 MAP 50.9 25.2 38.1 6 <4 10 8 6 827 r 0.73 0.53 4-5 8.4 6.6 4 54 38 33 50 14 0.4 37 27 29 5.6 10 10 11 6 2 0 5 0 3 26 0 805.6 APP 60.0 31 .<4 45.7 80 11 18 21 571 0 0.76 0.48 26-27 2.3 1. 3 19 2 r 48 26 25 46 32 0.7 11.{ 4 U 2 7 2 5.1 10 1? * P 1 2 1 n 1 14 0 808.7 MAY 64 .8 <40.6 52.7 78 <4 26 6 374 0 3.07 0.95 11-12 3.9 3.9 5 72 43 42 64 01 2.4 10.2 31 35 14 6.7 4 1. 15 lc 1 10 0 n 0 3 0 808.7 JUM 72.3 <47.8 60. 1 89 29 40 2 163 23 3.81 1.66 2-3 0.0 0.0 72 45 47 63 09 1 .8 9.. 26 24 1 7 6.0 9 1 1 1C 10 0 13 0 n 0 0 0 811.7 P4.2 56.2 70.2 95 23 48 in 8 176 3.64 2.18 28-29 0.0 0.0 58 32 29 50 05 2.2 P.9 23 1 7 26 4.5 1 3 12 6 8 0 7 2 11 0 0 0 814.4 79.8 57.1 68.5 88 1 51 25 1 1 127 5.37 2.31 20 0.0 0.0 73 47 52 69 05 1 .5 7.6 31 34 24 6.5 6 12 13 15 0 15 1 n 0 0 0 816.8 70.1 <47.9 59.0 90 4 38 14 198 26 3.02 1.17 1 3 0.0 0.0 75 50 53 70 07 1 .4 P.5 26 1 . 27 6.2 9 7 14 15 0 5 1 i 0 n 0 813.8 OCT 61.5 33.7 <47.6 76 5 23 29 532 C 0.22 0.1 1 27 0.2 0.2 1 3 58 33 34 55 30 36 19 4.9 12 9 10 4 0 0 1 n 0 14 0 812.1 48.9 21.9 35.<4 63 6 1 1 14 880 0 P. 1 0 O.Ofc 22-23 0.9 0.7 22-23 61 37 40 57 05 2.L 7.9 30 35 14 5.6 9 in 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 1 30 0 809.0 DEC Ml.7 17.8 29.8 69 17 -2 29 1084 0 0.70 0.62 23-24 8.2 7.3 23-24 54 39 42 53 36 4.5 9.0 45 34 24 5.5 10 8 1 3 4 1 0 5 0 9 31 1 808.0 JUL FEB AUG DEC 0EC YE AR 59.8 34 .<4 <47.1 95 23 -19 5 6744 352 21.94 2.31 20 33.7 7.3 23-24 61 40 40 57 C 3 1.7 P.6 45 34 24 5.6 114 1 18 133 103 9 52 22 12 30 174 8 810.4 Normals, Means, And Extremes Month Temperatures F Normal Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Pelative humidity pet. Wind Pet. of possible sunshine i c Â£ II > o jt 3f sf is Mean number of days Average station pressure mb. Normal Extremes Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets i X 0 5 ( 1 X 1 1 oca i X n tifTM i X 23 ) Mean speed m.p.h. Prevailing direction Fastest mile Sunrise to sunset ii Is Is Snow, Ice pellets 1.0 inch or more E o C c 3 X t- Heavy fog, visibility % mile or less Tempera Max. tures 0 F Min. Daily maximum 1 Daily minimum 1 Monthly Record highest > if Year f S X 3 1 5 z Maximum monthly Year Minimum monthly : >- Maximum in 24 hrs. JB8A If I i > !| Is Year i! Direction Year 1 >-s SI X O Cloudy lb) si |I co -O o 0 and below Elev. 6170 feet m.s.l. (a) 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 22 22 22 22 34 14 32 32 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 22 22 22 22 10 J 41.0 16. 1 28.6 72 1974 -26 1951 1128 0 0.31 1.12 1956 T 1964 0.73 1956 12.7 1956 8.4 1971 57 4 46 58 9.7 NNE 55 29 1950 5.3 1 1 9 11 5 1 0 2 0 8 30 3 808.1 F 43.6 18.9 31.3 76 1963 -27 1951 944 0 0.34 0.73 1960 0.03 1950 0.48 1957 11.5 1971 7.0 1971 58, 39 39 57 10.2 N 52 36 1954 5.5 9 8 11 5 2 0 2 0 5 27 1 808.9 M 47.7 22.8 35.3 91 1971 -11 1956 921 0 0.77 2.38 1979 0.01 1966 1 .14 1977 20.5 1964 13.3 1964 6C 4 f 38 57 11.4 N 60 29 1954 5.8 9 9 1 3 7 3 0 2 0 4 26 * 805.9 A 59.2 33.1 46.2 63 1981 -3 1959 564 0 1.45 5.90 1957 0.01 1964 2.45 1957 42.7 1957 18.0 1957 6C 34 3] 54 11.9 N 46 23 1963 5.8 8 1 1 1 1 7 2 2 2 0 1 13 0 808.3 M 68.4 42.6 55.5 92 1964 21 1954 301 8 2.12 5.67 1957 0.33 1974 2.57 1955 19.4 1978 17.4 1978 (5 3 36 58 11.5 NNU 52 27 1971 6.C 7 12 12 in * 9 2 0 2 0 809.1 J 78.1 51.1 64.6 100 1954 32 1951 103 99 2.31 8.00 1965 0.15 1968 3.09 1954 1.1 1975 1.1 1975 65 35 34 56 10.7 SSE 55 20 1954 4.8 1 1 12 7 9 11 1 4 0 0 n 812.2 J 84.4 57.0 70.7 1 00 1954 42 1952 9 200 3.10 5.27 1968 0.94 1959 3.00 1951 o.ol 0.0 68 3 40 60 9.5 NNw 4 7 35 1968 5.0 9 15 7 14 n 17 1 9 0 0 n 814.9 A 82.4 55.8 69.1 99 1954 43 1978 13 149 2.58 5.94 1976 0.15 1962 3.73 1976 0.0 0.0 70 4 a 41 63 9.1 N 40 36 1972 5.0 10 1 3 8 12 n 14 1 3 0 0 0 814.8 S 74.9 46.9 60.9 94 1960 25 1971 155 45 1.11 4.28 1976 T 1953 1.73 1959 27.9 1959 17.1 1959 66 4 ' 38 bC 9.5 SSE 40 27 1953 4.2 15 8 7 7 * 5 2 0 1 0 814.4 0 64.2 36.8 50.5 86 1979 5 1969 456 0 0.92 2.86 1969 0.01 1980 1.60 1960 21.7 1969 13.8 1972 51 34 35 54 9.7 NNE 4 1 36 1975, 4.2 16 7 8 5 l 1 2 0 * 8 0 812.8 N 49.8 25.1 37.5 78 1981 -8 1976 825 0 0.45 2.21 1957 T 1965 1.45 1979 19.1 1979 14.5 197 2 60 40 45 59 9.6 NNE 50 32 1953 5.0 12 8 10 4 2 * 2 0 3 24 * 810.6 0 43.1 18.9 31.0 77 1955 -16 1972 1054 0 0.27 1 .02 1979 T 1970 0.69 1981 1 7.6j 1979 9.6 1979 55 40 .5 56 9.7 NNW 60 27 1953 5.0 12 8 11 4 1 0 2 0 6 29 2 809.2 JUL FEB JUN DEC AUG APR APR MAR YR 61.4 35.4 48.4 100 1954 -27 1951 6473 501 15.73 8.00 1965 T 1970 3.73 1976 42.7 195 7 18.C 1957 62 38 39 58 10.2 NNE 60 29 1954 5.1 129 120 116 88 12 59 21 17 28 160 7 810.8 Data for February-December 1960 considered in extracting temperature extremes above. Data for April-December 1948 considered in extracting other extremes. Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Lowest temperature -32 in January 1883; maximum monthly precipitation 8.10 in May 1935. (a) Length of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data. (b) 70 and above at Alaskan stations. * Less than one half. T Trace. NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period. DATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent In cases of multiple occurrence. PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963. WIND DIRECTION Numerals indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 indicates calm. FASTEST MILE WIND Speed is fastest observed 1-minute value when the direction 1s In tens of degrees.$ Based on measurements at 6-hour intervals through April 1974.

Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station COL 04 PO SPRINGS, COLOAOO COLORADO SPRINGS MUNICIPAL Standard time used MOUNTAIN Latitude 9 . Longitude j0 j Elevation (ground) 6115 ,e* Ye#f 1982
naj-i- Temperature F Degree day! Base 65 *F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity, pet. Wind # I Is Number of days . -1 Average station pressure mb
Averages Extremes Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 1 1 1 Fastest mile Sunnse to sunset ,! If I 1 ff Temperature F
Maximum Minimum
Month I * >2 (b) Elev
E ,1 2 i E > 1 21 > Z I ! z a o ] ! o ? I ? J a Â£ i t S Â£ oS 5 o H 5< 6 S a o n 11 (Local 17 time 23 Â§ 1 6 II U | t E vT E i i 5 o j? If 1 s % 6 2" -O SI f 0 It z Â£ 9 55 1 j Is H I a* Si s. mi ?, 0 O rv u ro 3 ? < v 0 h s 6170 feet m.s.1.
jav *2.2 16.6 29.1 68 26 -7 7 1095 C 0.25 o.n 6-7 3.6 1.8 6-7 51 11 12 51 36 C .9 7.8 25 28 11 i S.i 11 9 11 f> 1 n 1 n 5 31 1 805.6
PEP 16.S 29.0 69 22 -19 5 1001 C 0.27 0.10 2-3 6.2 2.8 2-3 53 13 12 51 C8 j.i 6.2 23 3 6 8 5. J 11 6 11 7 3 0 2 0 1 1 25 6 BIO.*
MD SO.9 25.2 38. 1 61 10 8 6 827 r 0.73 0.5 3 1-5 8.1 6.6 a 51 38 3: 50 11 O.i 7 T 37 2 7 29 5.6 1U 10 11 6 2 0 5 0 3 26 0 805.6
IPC 60.0 31.1 15.7 80 11 18 21 57J c 0.76 0.18 26-27 2.3 1.3 19-2' 18 26 25 16 32 0.7 1 1.7 *U 2 7 2 5.1 10 1? 8 1 2 I 0 1 1* 0 808.7
HI t 61.8 10.6 52.7 78 a 26 6 37< 0 3.07 0.95 11-12 3.9 3.91 5 72 13 12 61 Cl 2.1 ID.2 31 35 11 6.7 i? 15 1* 1 10 0 0 0 3 0 808.7
JU N 72.3 17.8 60. 1 89 29 10 2 163 23 3.81 1.66 2-3 0.0 0.0 72 15 1 7 63 O'* 1 .0 9.1 26 2i 1 7 6.0 9 1 I 1C IP 0 13 0 n 0 n 0 811.7
JUL 81.2 56.2 70.2 95 23 18 in 8 176 3.61 2.18 28-29 0.0 0.0 58 3? 29 50 05 2.2 8.9 1 7 26 1.5 1 3 12 * " 0 7 2 11 0 p 0 811.1
auG 79.8 57.1 68.5 88 1 51 25 1 1 127 5.37 2.31 20 0.0 0.0 73 IT 52 69 os 1.5 7.6 31 3i 21 6.5 6 12 3 i' 0 15 1 n 0 p 0 816.8
SEP 70.1 17.9 59.0 90 a 38 H 198 26 3.02 1.17 13 0.0 0.0 75 SC 5! 70 07 1 .1 8.5 26 1 27 6.2 9 7 11 15 0 5 1 1 0 p 0 813.8
OCT 61.5 33.7 17.6 76 s 23 29 532 0 0.22 0.1 1 27 0.2 0.2 1 3 58 33 31 55 C 3 2. P 8.1 30 36 19 1.9 12 9 10 * 0 0 1 n 0 l* 0 812.1
NOV 18.9 21.9 35.1 63 6 1 1 11 880 0 0.10 0.06 22-23 0.9 0.7 22-23 61 37 10 57 05 2.6 7.9 30 35 1* 5.6 9 in 11 5 0 0 0 P 1 3P 0 809.0
OEC 11 7 17.8 29.8 69 IT -2 29 1081 0 0.70 0.62 23-21 8.2 7.3 23-21 51 39 12 53 36 1.5 9.0 15 3i 21 5.5 10 8 13 i 1 0 S 0 9 31 1 808.0
JUL FEN aug OEC OEC
YE IP 59.8 31.1 17. 1 95 23 -19 5 6711 352 21.91 2.31 20 33.7 T.3 23-21 61 10 10 57 03 1.7 8.6 15 3i 21 5.6 111 118 133 10! 9 52 22 1? 30 171 8 8 10.8
Normals, Means, And Extremes
| Month Temperatures *F Normal Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Peletive humidity pet. Wind ? 1 3 5 I "o Â£ i t 5 > c 8 3 > 0 it Mean number of days Average station pressure mb.
Normal Extremes Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets i 1 05 (l 1 1 1 oca 1 X P timi I 23 ) h fl Fastest mil# Sunrise to sunset 1 S fl n. is E 3 C Â£ 2 s1 1 s it Tempera Max. ures F Min.
E ,1 ll E > i 5 1 5 1 IS 1 > II 1 > | I r J ? 1 > 5 II 1 > Minimum monthly 1 >- 1 > E k i 5 11 1 > !! Jc i > I! 1 1 0 1 > 1 > 0 S| 1 (b) ll n. m -d ll 21 Elev. 6170 feet m.s.1.
(*) 38 31 3i 31 31 3i 31 22 2'. 22 22 31 11 32 32 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 22 22 22 22 10
J 81.0 16.1 28.6 72 1971 -26 1951 1128 0 0.31 1 .12 1956 T 1961 0.73 1956 12.7 1956 8.1 1971 57 12 16 58 9.7 NNE 55 29 1950 5.3 11 9 11 5 1 0 2 0 8 30 3 808.1
F 13.6 18.9 31.3 76 1963 -27 1951 911 0 0.31 0 .73 1960 0.03 1950 0.18 1957 11.5< 1971 T.q 1971 SC 3 < 39 57 10.2 N 52 36 1951 5.5 9 8 11 5 2 a 2 0 5 27 1 808.9
N 22.8 35.3 91 1971 -11 1956 921 0 0.77 2 .38 1979 0.01 1966 1.11 1977 20.5 1961 13.3 1961 6C if 38 57 11.1 N 60 29 1951 5.8 9 9 13 7 3 a 2 0 1 26 a 805.9
A 59.2 33.1 86.2 83 1981 -3 1959 561 0 1.15 5 .90 1957 0.01 1961 2.15 1957 12.7 1957 18.C 1957 6C 3 33 51 11.9 N 88 23 1963 5.8 8 11 11 7 2 2 2 0 1 13 0 808.3
12.6 55.5 92 1961 21 1951 301 8 2.12 5 .67 1957 0.33 1971 2.57 1955 19.1 19 7 8 17.1 1978 65 3 36 58 11.5 NNW 52 27 1971 6 C 7 12 12 in 9 2 a 0 0 809.1
J 51.1 68.6 100 1951 32 1951 103 99 2.31 8 .00 1965 0.15 1968 3.09 1951 1,1 1975 1.1 1975 65 3?i 31 56 10.7 5SE 55 20 1951 1.8 11 12 7 9 1 1 8 0 0 n 812.2
J 88.8 57.0 70.7 100 1958 82 1952 9 200 3.10 5 .27 1968 0.91 1959 3.00 1951 o.d o.a 68 3 10 60 9.5 NNV 17 35 1968 5. C 9 15 7 18 0 7 1 9 0 0 0 811.9
82.8 55.8 69.1 99 1958 13 1978 13 119 2.58 5 .91 1976 0.15 1962 3.73 1976 o.a 0.0 7C 1C 11 63 9.1 N 10 36 1972 5.C 10 1 8 12 n I* 1 3 0 0 0 8H.8
s 86.9 60.9 98 1960 25 1971 155 15 1.11 8 .28 1976 T 1953 1.73 1959 27.9 1951 17.1 1959 66 it 38 6C 9.5 SSE 10 27 1953! 1.2 15 7 t a 5 2 a 0 0 811.1
50.5 86 1979 5 1969 156 0 0.92 2 .16 1969 0.01 1980 1.60 1960 21.7 196-; 13.8. 1972 57 31 35 51 9.7 NNE 1 1 1975 1.2 16 1 8 5 1 1 2 0 a 0 812.8
89.8 25.1 37.5 78 1981 -8 1976 825 0 0.85 2 .21 1957 T 1965 1.15 1979 19.1 1979I 19.S 1972 6C it 15 59 9.6 NNE 50 32 1953 5 C 12 8 10 1 2 a 2 0 3 21 a 810.6
13.1 18.9 31.0 77 1955 -16 1972 1051 0 0.27 1 .02 1979 T 1970 0.69 1981 17.6| 1979 9.6 1979 55 1' 16 56 9.7 NNM 60 27 1953! 5.0 12 8 11 8 1 0 2 0 6 21 2 809.2
JUL FEB JUN OEC AUG APR APB MAR
61.8 35.8 88.1 100 1958 -2 7 1951 6173 501 15.73 8 .00 1965 7 1970 3.73 1976 12.7 1957 is.a 1957 62 38 39 58 10.2 NNE 60 291 1951 5.1 129 120 116 88 12 59 21 P 28 16C 7 810.8
Data for Pebruary-Decembar 1960 considered in extracting temperature extremes above. Data for Apr11-December 1948 considered in extracting other extremes. Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Lowest temperature -32 in January 1883i maximum monthly precipitation
() Length of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70 and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
QATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent 1n cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
MIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed is fastest observed 1-mlnute value when the direction 1s In tens of degrees.
$Based on measurements at 6-hour intervals through April 1974. STATION LOCATION COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO Elevation above Tv Sea Ground M = AMOS level c T = AUTOB Location Occupied from Occupied to Airline distance and direction from previous location Latitude Nor th Longitude West Ground at temperature site Wind instruments Extreme thermometer Psychrometer Sunshine Switch Tipping bucket rain gage Weighing rain gage e O' 1 O' e '3 CD Hygrothermometer Automatic Observi Equipment * Remarks COOPERATIVE - 12/1871 11/11/73 NA Unk Unk Unk Precipitation record from December 1871. - 11/12/73 3/16/74 Unk Unk Unk Unk Supply Station for Pikes Peak. Wanless Block, Corner of Tejon & Pikes Peak Ave. 3/16/74 7/31.76 Unk 38 50' 104 49' 6012 Huntington Block, Corner High & Broad Streets 1878 7/1/87 Unk Unk Unk 6038 Station served as supply station to Pikes Peak. Breaks in record. Tejon & Uintah Streets Second Floor 7/1/87 11/1/89 Unk 38 51' 104 49' 6065 16 16 1 North window type shelter. Bottom of rain gage probably 1 inch above ground. El Paso & Uintah Streets 11/1/89 4/1/90 2950 ft. E 38J 51' 104 49' 6055 12 11 2 Standard shelter used. First National Bank Building, Tejon & Pikes Peak, 3rd Floor 4/1/90 11/30/90 6800 ft.SW 38 50' 104 49' 6012 71 70 61 Standard shelter in use. CITY Ha german Hall Colorado College N. Cascade Avenue 1/1/93 7/31/47 4800 ft.NNW 38 51' 104 50' 6060 56 a49 49 a39 49 aJ9 42 a32 Station reopened as USWB. a Effective 10/1/94. AIRPORT Building T-20 Peterson Field 6.22 miles ESE of P. 0. 1/2/42 6 25. 48 NA 38 49 104 J 42' 6170 78 5 5 3 Air Force to 4/1/48 then Weather Bureau. Building T-20 Peterson Field Moved to 3rd Floor 6/25/48 1/26/54 No change 38 49' 104 42' *6175 78 35 35 33 - New survey. Wind equipment still on old tower. Administration Building Peterson Field 2nd Floor NW End 1/26/54 4/12/67 No change 38 49' 104 42' X6173 f 6145 78 b76 c67 d22 20 20 NA NA NA 17 NA e6 g6 NA 7. New survey. b Effective 9/15/54. c Effective 5/5/56. d Moved to field site 2/20/58. e Commissioned on field site 2/1/60. f Effective 2/1/60. g Moved 750' SE 4/5/67. Maytag Hangar Peterson Field t t Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (Effective 12/12/75) 4/12/67 Present 5775 ft. SW 38 49' 104 43' 6145 h22 4 4 NA NA NA i5 j5 4 h6 NA h Not moved 4/12/67. i Installed 4/10/74. j Type changed 6/13/74. SUBSCRIPTION: Price and ordering information available through: National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville l certify that this is an official publication of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and i* National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina 28801. North Carolina 28801, ATTN: Publicatio compiled frqm records received at the Acting/f)f rec t o'r National Climatic Data Center USC0MM-N0AA-ASHEVILLE 1050 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL EN VI RONMENTAL SATELLITE. DATA. AND INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE. N.C. 28801 POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COM 210 FIRST CLASS Average Temperature Heating Degree Days COLORADO SPRINGS, CO Year Jan Feb Mar Apr 1 May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annua! Season July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May [June Total 19* 3 32.9 39.C 35.7 52.9 51.6 69.8 71.9 69.5 59.9 SO.6 39.P 31.9 99.9 1962-63 6 li 128 335 728 910 1331 73C 817 815 167 30 5608 19*5 31.8 32.6 31.9 91 .9 91.9 59.9 S*.9 67.9 68.0 67.0 58.6 53.0 39.0 1969-65 0 22 151 385 790 99 2 910 lr39 1218 897 306 107 6808 19*6 31.9 9?.6 52.6 99.8 63.r 61.5 97.3 36.* 36.3 1965-66 10 31 309 366 632 93 1 1232 1 n6 1 788 613 289 63 6236 198 P 98. r 55.8 69.0 70.0 68.9 69.9 50.0 39.0 29.6 1967-68 6 52 138 397 75e 122 3 1057 932 912 669 911 99 6508 195C 31.3 36.9 37.6 36.3 95.5 52.9 69.9 66.C 66.1 58.8 57.5 38.3 39.6 99.1 1969-70 1 8 109 72C 833 1 05 3 11 35 772 998 668 218 95 6601 1951 25.7 33.3 33.2 91.7 55.8 59.0 71.3 o 7.9 59.1 97.7 36.1 29.8 86.7 1970-71 2 3 235 637 797 >8 7 1086 98 0 837 589 357 32 6537 1953 37.6 30.9 90.8 91.9 51.3 6 7.3 71.8 67.8 63.9 51.7 91.2 30.1 89.7 1972-73 81 3* 1 36 97t 1099 128 1 1221 912 877 715 359 76 7177 1955 27.2 26.9 35.6 97.9 56.9 6 ?. 3 72.P 70.3 62.2 52.9 35.3 35.2 98.7 1979-75 1 17 229 376 789 1 19 3 1102 980 909 608 350 88 6587 1956 31.9 26.7 37.8 99.1 58.7 70.3 70.0 67.6 69.3 52.7 39.8 33.9 99.3 1975-76 0 in 200 391 852 916 1075 82 391 512 319 eo 6023 195 P 32.7 36.6 31.3 93.2 60.2 69.? 68.8 70.7 62.6 52.0 90.2 35.0 50.0 1977-78 2 22 73 813 789 938 1231 1036 791 8 79 386 98 6203 I960 29.C 21.7 35.6 98.5 59.7 65.6 69.P 70.0 63.9 50.5 38.7 29.9 88.0 1979-80 6 91 88 807 1 COS 96 9 1180 a8 3 901 615 351 32 6878 19b 1 30.1 32.9 36.2 9 3.6 59.7 6 7.9 68.2 68.9 59.3 99.6 39.9 29.7 96.6 1980-61 0 7 113 963 759 776 928 *50 789 335 321 38 5379 1963 21.9 38.7 3.9 51.0 60.2 6.0 75.5 69.9 65.9 58.? 92.1 27.2 51.5 1982-33 8 11 198 532 880 108 9 1968 30.3 26.1 3r.9 96.2 57.6 6s. r 75.3 69.3 61.9 52.3 38.9 32.8 93.8 196 6 25.1 26.8 9P.8 99.9 57.1 66.7 73.9 66.8 62.1 98.9 90.6 29.9 93.5 Cooling Degree Days 196* 30.7 32.6 3.6 92.5 51.5 66.0 69.9 65.8 60.3 51.5 39.5 29.8 87.7 Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July ] Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total 197P 28.2 3 3.8 37.? 32.6 82.6 58.2 69.6 71.2 71.9 57.7 99.2 38.2 32.9 98.3 1969 o c o o o 0 u 27 21b 177 18 0 0 0 899 1971 29.8 29.8 37.7 95.3 53.3 67.8 68.8 69.1 56.7 99.3 37.9 30.9 98.0 1973 25.9 32.3 36.5 90.9 53.3 6 r 6 69.9 70.6 58.8 52.6 39.6 31.2 93.0 1972 0 0 0 2 0 96 168 128 17 0 0 0 907 1975 29.1 29.P 35.6 99.9 53.9 6 3.P 71.n 70.2 59.9 52.3 36.9 35.3 98.9 1979 0 0 c C le 130 291 109 26 0 0 0 528 1*76 30.1 37.e 36.1 9 7.7 59.7 69.3 72.1 6e.i 59.3 95.7 36.2 32.9 98.8 19 7 P 25.1 2 7.7 90.9 98.8 52.5 6 .2 72.8 67.5 62.8 51 .9 36.5 21.9 97.9 1977 0 0 0 0 0 103 209 182 89 0 0 0 898 198 r 26.7 39.3 3* 7 9 9.3 53.9 6.? 75.3 70.9 62.3 90.9 39.5 39.8 50.1 1979 0 0 0 0 l 88 185 128 77 2 0 0 873 1981 39.9 39.9 39.3 53.P S9.5 60.9 71.9 67.3 63.9 50. P 93.3 32.7 5*1 KECCPD 29.9 * 1 -2.7 61.1 7u.. 68*5 1932 c 0 0 0 23 176 127 26 0 0 0 352 MEN 28.8 32.3 36.9 96. 1 55.3 6* .8 70.0 68 .e 61.0 50.6 37.9 31.5 98.7 PIN 15.6 19. 1 23.5 32.6 92.1 5 1.3 57.1 55.3 97.3 36.8 29.7 18.8 35.3 Precipitation Snowfall Year Jan 1 Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Season July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Total 198 3 0.32 0.31 0.8 3 1.37 3.21 2 .90 2.0? 2.68 0.08 0.13 0.35 0.1? 13.78 1988-99 0.0 0.0 o.c T 0.8 3. 5 7.0 7.3 6.8 5.1 0.2 0.0 26.3 198 8 0.12 0.13 J.97 3.55 1.59 0 .63 3.73 3.73 0.12 0.38 0.20 0.15 15.30 1989-50 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 T 0. 9 5.1 ?.2 9.3 1.6 1.1 T 19.7 1985 0.39 0.88 0.38 1.99 1 .78 1 .52 5.85 9.07 0.02 1.88 0.03 0.93 1950-51 0.G 0.0 T C.O 2.1 0. 8 7.7 ? 5 3.5 1 3 T 0.1 18.0 1986 0.17 0.02 T 1 .29 2.69 0.35 2.38 3.66 0.36 1.25 1.60 1.10 19.89 1951-52 0.0 0.0 0.8 3.3 5.9 1. 3 0.2 1. 1 15.1 1.2 0.3 0.0 29.2 198 7 1952-53 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 3.5 1.8 T 1.9 2.7 11.5 3.2 0.0 28.6 198P 1 .07 1.90 9 .01 1.99 9.62 0.80 0.1? 0.02 0.29 1953-58 0.0 0.0 o.c 1.9 5.9 3. 2.6 0.8 9.7 3.3 2.9 0.0 25.8 1989 0.32 0.13 0.67 0.6 P 1.19 9 .22 3.59 0.59 0.26 0.98 T 0.08 12.61 1959-55 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.2 2.7 3.2 9.0 9.2 3.9 T 0.0 28.8 195T 0.32 0.03 C 3 3 0.8? 1.00 1 .59 9.50 0.89 2.82 0.12 0.18 0.06 12.17 1955-56 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 3.7 1.2 12.7 ! 1C.9 8 7 T 0.0 39.8 1951 0.59 0.22 0.36 0.31 1.58 i .3e 8.8? 9.31 0.85 1.5 2 0.53 0.1 1 16.19 1956-57 0.0 c.o 0.0 C 8 9.0 3. 9 8.7 8.3 5.5 92.7 19.9 T 89.8 195? 0.08 0.10 1.13 1.36 2.21 0.37 1.19 3.79 0.37 0.09 0.23 0.13 10.96 1957-58 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.0 18.3 0. 2 1.8 7.8 16.1 9.1 0.0 c.o 51.1 1953 T 0.13 0.21 1 .SP 1.33 1 3P 2.19 1.88 T 0.78 0.57 0.23 10.16 1958-59 0.0 0.0 T 2.P 2.9 1.8 5.2 7.8 10.3 25.5 0.0 0.0 55.9 1958 0.22 C.C6 0.59 0.62 2.57 3 .69 3.1? 1 .98 1.91 0.2? 0.23 0.21 15.83 1959-60 0.0 c.o 27.9 9.0 0.8 C.8 1.5 9.5 a .6 2.9 2.8 0.0 62.9 195! 0.29 0.57 0.32 0.33 9.8P 0.93 2.3 8 2.86 1 35 0.01 0.30 0.CP 13.36 1960-61 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 2.0 7. 8 3.0 .8 9.5 5.8 0.9 0.0 39.3 1956 1.12 0.19 0.89 1.10 0.88 0 .81 3.07 1.82 0.59 0.18 0.91 0.30 10.93 1961-62 0.0 0.0 9.2 5.1 5.0 7. 1 6.8 7.7 8 .8 2.0 0.0 0.0 82.3 1957 0.85 0.88 0.56 5.9T 5.67 1 .08 3.65 1.78 1.25 2.02 2.21 0.02 25.07 1962-63 0.3 0.0 T 0.0 8.3 0. 5 5.8 2.1 8.1 T 0.0 0.0 28.8 1958 0.C9 0.28 1.29 0.99 9 79 3 .01 8.8 2 1.20 1.38 0.58 0.22 0.20 18.85 1963-68 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 9.2 9.2 T ? 7 20.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 39.7 1959 0.93 0.87 1.19 2.03 3.88 1 .6 1 0.98 2.63 3.58 0.97 0.05 0.03 17.81 1968-65 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.9 8.9 3.2 9.C 19.9 2.2 0.0 0.0 38.6 196P 0.11 0.73 0.95 0.59 1.61 0.93 2.2? 0.78 0.61 1.97 0.23 0.58 11.27 1965-66 0.0 c.o 0.1 T T 6. 1 6.0 9.7 0.1 8 1 8.2 0.0 30.3 196 1 0.18 0.65 1.21 0.56 0.88 3 .86 2.18 2.26 1.91 0.98 0.99 0.83 15.82 1966-67 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 1.7 2. 9 9.1 3.6 2.1 13.9 T 0.0 31.7 1962 0.92 0.38 0.88 0.98 0.63 3.36 1 .60 0.15 0.81 0.97 0.89 0.03 10.12 1967-68 0.0 P.0 0.0 T 3.1 11. 7 3.0 9.8 5.7 2.8 0.2 0.0 31.3 196 3 0.53 0.20 C. 62 0.02 0.77 1 .2? 1 .38 5.22 1 .89 0.39 0.96 0.62 13.28 1968-69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 12.3 8. 9 5.7 2.0 11 .3 6.6 0.0 T 83.0 1968 T 0.22 1.08 0.01 2.58 0.96 1 .19 0.60 1.33 0.03 0.86 0.22 8.59 1969-70 c.o 0.0 0.0 21.7 5.6 7. 3 0.8 2.8 19.9 7.0 T T 68.7 1965 0.18 0.72 1.12 1 .61 1.81 8 .00 5.0? 3.83 2.28 0.89 T 0.85 25.83 1970-71 0.0 0.0 0.8 9.6 1.5 T 8.7 11.5 3.0 2.8 T 0.0 3?.9 1966 0.39 0.99 0.01 C 7 9 0.95 2 .56 2.91 2.00 2.12 0.36 0.16 0.17 12.91 1971-72 J.O 0.0 9.7 2.9 0.3 3. 8 5.2 3.6 7.0 3.3 T 0.0 35.8 1967 0.31 0.15 C. 18 2.08 2.18 2.78 5.26 3.G9 0.73 1.6P 0.25 0.67 19.28 1972-73 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.8 16.9 11.9 3.9 ?. 3 15.6 11.2 0.8 0.0 76.0 196" 0.10 0.22 0.37 0.S8 0.62 0.15 5.27 2.1? 1.03 0.93 1.32 0.28 12.91 1973-79 c.o 0.0 0.0 3.9 1.8 9. 1 2.8 2.8 6 .8 10.0 0.0 T 36.8 1069 C.ll 0.12 0.77 1 .83 8.86 2.7? 3.90 2.38 1.13 2.et 0.39 0.32 20.99 1978-75 0.0 0.0 T T 1.5 6. 3 2.8 9.8 3.5 6.9 0.2 1 1 27.1 197P 0.05 0.17 1.C6 0.9 1 o.33 3 .63 3.79 8.28 1.09 0.95 0.27 T 16.89 1975-76 0.0 o.c 0.0 u.3 9.3 0. 9 6.9 5.2 8.6 10.1 0.0 0.0 95.8 1971 0.39 0.53 0.38 1.36 2.28 0.39 2.8? 1 .99 1.36 0.23 C 0 3 0.23 1 1 .86 1976-77 0.0 0.0 T 2.5 9.9 2. 6 9.8 ?. 5 13.3 8.3 0.0 0.0 35.9 1972 0.27 0.2* 0.55 0.82 1.86 2.07 9 .OP 3.55 9.13 1.38 1.08 0.83 20.03 1977-78 0.0 0.0 0.0 C. 9 1.9 3.0 8.2 0 6 3.3 1.1 19.8 0.0 82.8 1973 0.06 0.06 1.16 1.72 8.27 0.87 3.31 0.89 1.03 0.35 0.15 0.69 19.11 1978-79 0.0 P.0 T 0.5 9.0 15.2 9.9 1.2 20.0 19.6 8.1 0.0 69.5 1978 0.26 0.1P 0.52 1 .88 0.33 1 .29 1 .8? 1.19 0.83 1.36 0.23 0.82 9.96 1979-80 0.0 3.0 0.0 1.3 19.1 1 7. t 8.7 5.9 12.7 11.3 0.0 0.0 72.6 1975 0.13 0.29 0.28 0.6 P 1.00 2 .97 2.6* 2.06 0.16 0.52 1.00 0.07 11.77 1980-81 0.0 0.0 o.c r.2 9.9 1.8 1.0 1.7 9.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 18.2 1976 0.32 0.23 0.63 1 .63 2.09 2 .96 1 .7* 5.98 8.28 0.89 0.90 0.12 20.39 1981-82 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.5 9. 1 3.6 6.2 8.9 2.3 3.9 0.0 39.9 1977 0.29 0.20 1.18 2.57 1.1? 3.ei 3.0? 5.11 0.85 0.19 0.60 0.18 18.78 1982-83 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 8. 2 1 9 7 P 0.25 C.3P 0.80 1.15 3.58 0.58 2.18 2.51 0.05 0.90 0.37 1.01 13.28 1979 0.53 G.C8 2.38 1 .83 3.1 3 1 .5 * 2.7? 2.50 0.92 0.55 1.8? 1.02 19.03 19 8 P 0.25 0.58 1.30 3.69 8.99 1 .60 1 .69 8.59 0.65 0.01 0.35 0.05 19.66 **E AN c.o 0.0 1.3 2. P 5.0 5. 0 8.5 8.8 9.0 6.9 1.7 T 90.6 198 1 0.07 0.1? 0.93 0.13 3.18 1 .98 3.69 5.28 0.52 0.37 0.03 0.82 16.99 198 2 0.25 0.27 0.73 0.76 3.07 3 .81 3.68 5.37 3.02 0.2? 0.10 0.70 21.98 RCC0HD MEAN 0.27 0.29 0.77 1.25 2.2 5 2.13 2.97 2.66 1.35 0.73 0.98 0.33 15.98 # Indicates a station move or relocation of instruments. See Station Location table. Record mean values above are means through the current year for the period beginning in 1949. Data are from the Hagertnan Hall location through 1946 and from Airport locations thereafter. STATION LOCATION COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO II i 3 T3 2 3 n : z s s. Latitude North Longitude West Elevation above See level i. is n ax. % 1. ? ? S ? *1 1 S S? M- AMOS T-AUTOB COOPERATIVE Wanless Block, Corner ot Tejon li Pikes Peak Ave. Huntington Block, Corner High It Broad Streets Tejon It Uintah Streets Second Floor El Paso A Uintah Streets First National Bank Building, Tejon It Pikes Peak, 3rd Floor Ha german Hall Colorado College N. Cascade Avenue 12/1871 11/12/73 3/16. 74 1878 11/11/73 3/16/74 7/31/76 7/1/87 7/1/87 I 11/1/89 11/1/89 4/1/90 1/1/93 Building T-20 Peterson Field 6.22 miles ESE of P. 0. Building T-20 Peterson Field Moved to 3rd Floor Administration Building Peterson Field 2nd Floor NW End Maytag Hangar Peterson Field 1 t Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (Effective 12/12/75) 4/1/90 1/30/90 NA Unk Unk Unk Unk 2950 ft. E 6800 fc.SU 5775 ft. SW Unk Unk 38 50' Unk 38 51' 38 51* 38" 50' Unk Unk Unk Unk 6012 6038 6065 #6175 X6173 f 6145 Precipitation record froi December 1871. Supply Station for Pikes Peak. Station served as supply station to Pikes Peak. Breaks in record. North window type shelter. Bottom of rain gage probably 1 inch above ground. Standard shelter used. Standard shelter in use. Station reopened as USWB. a Effective 10/1/94. Air Force to 4/1/48 then Weather Bureau. * New survey. Wind equipment still on old tower. 7. New survey, b Effective 9/15/54. c Effective 5/5/56. d Moved to field site 2/20/58. e Commissioned on field site 2/1/60. f Effective 2/1/60. g Moved 750' SE 4/5/67. h Not moved 4/12/67. i Installed 4/10/74. j Type changed 6/13/74. SUBSCRIPTION: Price and ordering mforn.it ion Available through: National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, North Carolina 28801, ATTN: Publications I certify that this is an official publication of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and is compiled from records received at the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina 28801. A V/ ,'i ^Ac t i n *7 D f r ec t or National Climatic Data Center USCOfW-NOAA-ASHEVILLE 1050 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE. DATA. AND INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE, N.C. 28801 POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COM 210 FIRST CLASS BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES ^A.I.A. Research Corporation Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes, HUD/DOE, Washington. ^ASHRAE, 1972 Handbook of Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., p.387 3Balcomb, J. Douglas ( 1982) Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three, DOE, Washington, p. 266. 4Ko enigsberger, O.H., et. al. (1974) Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part One: Climatic Design, Longman, London. 5Mazria, Edward (1979) The Passive Solar E nergy Book, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. 6NOAA (1982) Local Cl imatological Data; Annual Summary with Comparative Data, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, N.C. ^Olgyay, Victor (1973) Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism, Princeton University Press, NJ. 8s zokolay, S.V. ( 19 8 0) E nvironmental Science Handbook for Architects and Builders,Halsted Press, New York, pT 285* 0 Woolard, D.S. (I98O) Building Energy Performance Software, Computer Program, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, Colorado. CLIMATE ANALYSIS The design of our community facilities reflects society's concern for its institutions; architecture is its mirror. DESCRIPTION Lowell Elementary School is a free-standing, brick and sandstone Victorian Romanesque structure which consists of three elements. 1) THE ORIGINAL (1891-92) EIGHT-CLASSROOM BUILDING. Approximately 70' x 100', at the south e dge of the si te (FIGURE 2), this portion consists of two stories, an attic story (unf inished) , and a raised basement. The fa9ade is composed of three major divisions: two-bay blocks on either side of a rece ssed, three-bay central portico. Colorado Springs brick is laid in stretcher (or running) bond on a Manitou red sandstone foundation. Sandstone is also used for window sills, for a lintel and raking cornice on the central gabled dormer, for a stringcourse at the top of second-story windows, and for decorative capitals on the engaged columns/buttresses* at the corners of each segment. Jack arches of brick span the rectilinear windows of the center bays. The four large round-arch windows on the main level are articulated by brick laid in rowlock, two soldier, rowlock courses. The arched window above the door is spanned by three rowlock courses. The center window of the dormer is capped by a a blind arch spanned by four rowlock courses. A brick stringcourse (comprised of stretcher, rowlock, stretcher courses) wraps the main level at the spring point of the arched windows. LOWELL SCHOOL The most notable use of sandstone is in the triple-arched portico, which was originally designed as the students' entrance. Here, voussoirs form one large central and two smaller side Roman arches, supported by pilasters at either side and smooth, short, flaring columns on heavy, rusticated pedestals at the center. The capitals are intricately carved, but have been severely eroded. The center capitals are decorated with grotesques; the capitals of the pilasters appear to have been decorated with foliated forms. Large carved leaf forms accentuate the two points where the arches intersect. A large carved sandstone panel bearing the school's name and date of erection is centered above the portico. A multi-hipped roof tops a narrow cornice with simple modillions. At each corner, the gutters extend well beyond the cornice in a gentle, upward sweep (FIGURES 3 and 4). The original public entrance to the building2 was the single large arched doorway on the south end (Fountain Street) (FIGURE 3). This span is created by rowlock, two soldier, rowlock, and alternating soldier/double rowlock courses. The broad flight of stairs is executed in large blocks of Peachblow sandstone, and is framed by massive rusticated balusters of Manitou red sandstone. On either side of the doorway are two circular pedestals which were intended to hold statues when the district became wealthy enough.^ This south fapade is comprised of five bays. The side bays contain arched LOWELL SCHOOL windows which stop about 6' above the main floor level. They provide light for the cloak rooms on either side of the central hallway. The last bay to the east has been altered to include doors and metal fire escape stairs. Above the main doorway is a recessed plane containing three small windows topped by sandstone lintels and blind arches. String courses of sandstone occur at the bottom of windows on both levels. Original illustrations of the building (FIGURE 12)4 show the gabled dormer above this entrance. At some point the gable was moved to the west side of the building and placed atop the three-windowed, hipped dormer which was already there. Close inspection shows the sandstone lintel above the west dormer windows to be much less weathered than the sill below, and the bricks of the gable and columns appear to be newer and with a harder surface (similar to those of the "new" wing; see section 2 of this description). Also, they are laid in common bond, whereas below the sill there are no header courses. The raking cornice was probably saved and moved from its original location. This alteration explains the break in the cornice on the south fa9ade just above the center bay. Possibly when the duplicate wing was added, the south entrance was de-emphasized and twin west entrances created. LOWELL SCHOOL 2) THE FIRST ADDITION ( 1901-02).- This exactly duplicated the existing building in size (see floor plans, FIGURE 11) and faithfully replicated the original in design, materials, and detail (FIGURE 1). The west facade now includes two seven-bay wings connected by a narrow center bay. (The total impact is obscured by evergreens, but is discernable in the rear --east elevation, FIGURE 5*) The plan is now an elongated rectangle. The only visible evidence that this is a later addition is the integrity of the materials. Apparently there had been some advances in brickmaking over the ten years, for these bricks appear to have a much harder surface and have suffered far less weathering. The sandstone, too, in foundation and trim, shows much less erosion. The bricks in this wing are laid in common bond, with every seventh course a header course. The care which was taken to integrate the "new" with the "old" can be seen in FIGURES 6-9* These compare the two student entrances and two generations of capitals. LOWELL SCHOOL 3) THE 1963 ADDITION.6 A multi-purpose room and additional classrooms, this is a low, "modern" brick structure joined to the north end of the original buildings by a narrow hallway. It was designed by Harry M. Pierceall, a local architect. Intended to accommodate the rapid growth in school-age population experienced by the community after World War II, this wing was important to educational history, but does not contribute to the historical value of the Lowell building, and therefore is not documented in this report. CURRENT CONDITION Declining enrollment in lower downtown schools forced school officials to close Lowell School in 1982. Since that time the building has been vacant and offered for sale. The business office of District 11? notes that it has not been boarded up, so it has suffered much vandalism. Most of this is superficial, though there is some fire damage on the lower levels. The interior would require extensive repair and renewal, but the integrity of the original design is intact and the building would easily regain its stately appearance. SIGNIFICANCE The significance of Lowell School is found on many interlocking levels. Architecturally, the structure is an excellent example of Victorian Romanesque. That a style which was popular from 1870-90^ in older urban areas could be so quickly interpreted in a "pioneer" town is a credit to the cultural awareness and sensitivity of Colorado Springs residents. Published accounts name G. M. Young as the contractor, but designate no architect. That a local builder could identify the essential elements of' a style*1 and organize them in an efficient, if simple, way is a tribute to the skill and resource of local trades- and craftsmen. Historically, the building represents a significant period for the community. Two important events coincided to create a population explosion in Colorado Springs: the opening of the Colorado Midland Railway in 1888, and the gold strike at Cripple Creek in 1890. In those two years, pupil enrollment soared from 1000 to 2000, and the school board initiated a ten-year construction program (I89I1901) which increased the size of the public school system five-fold.10 This was the most rapid expansion in the history of the district unsurpassed until the post-World War II boom. "Construction began with a bond issue for$100,000 voted in 1891 for the new high school. Further bond issues of similar amounts in 1894, 1896, 1898, and 1901 were required to carry out
LOWELL 6CHOOL

the program. With these funds the Board of Education constructed
Bristol School and Lowell School in 1891 "11
A survey of the schools built in this era shows that Bristol, the High School ( 1893), Washington (1894), Columbia ( 18 9 8 ) and Steele ( 19 01) have all been razed, leaving Lowell as the sole representative of a period of growth and organization extremely important to the educational system and to the viability of the community. (It should be noted that Garfield School built in 1886 is the oldest brick school in District 11; it is currently being used as an Industrial Training Center.)
Newspaper articles of 1891-92 document the fact that this building evidences
both civic pride and an incipient planning attitude. On the occasion of the
bid for Lowell's construction being let, it was reported that,
"The board has decided to change the location of the building from that decided upon lately. The building will be erected at the northeast corner of Fountain street and Nevada avenue, one block east of the other location. Located at this point the handsome building will be in plain sight of the Rio Grande and Santa Fe trains and the electric road. It is to be a very creditable building, and will do much to impress travellers with the city.
"The board has decided upon a plan of placing school buildings at a distance of eight blocks apart. They find that there are 300 children of school age living below Moreno Avenue, who will not have to cross the tracks after the new building is erected."12
LOWELL SCHOOL

The Board of Education expressed in Lowell a profound concern for the
physical and psychological well-being of its students, and a belief that
a positive environment would further the goals of education. Great care
was taken in the control of lighting, ventilation, heating, and interior
decoration. An article announcing the opening of the school evidences
a satisfaction that architectural, engineering, and technological advances
found in the building would enhance social concerns for health and safety:
"The first thing that impresses a visitor is the warm tinting of the corridor walls...this and the arched doorways prevents the bare rectangular appearance that corridors are apt to have. The school room walls are also tinted but in a dark color. The lighting is excellent. In all the rooms on the south side there are windows on one side only and the seats are so arranged that the light will come over the left shoulder. The north rooms have north windows as well on the side but these are filled with opaque colored glass to prevent confusion of light. . .
"The heating apparatus works perfectly. The other applications of the Sturtevant system in this city have been studied and its defects remedied. If a fire should get into the hot air flues it would go all over the building in a very short time, therefore particular pains are taken to prevent it from getting in. The boiler room is in the extreme northeast corner of the basement, surrounded by stone walls. From this a pipe conducts steam to the fan in the extreme southwest corner. This fan is the same size as that in the opera house and throws 20,000 cubic feet of air per second at full speed.
It is turned by an electric motor connected with the street car wires. The air is drawn from outdoors, forced through a steam coil and then carried in stone ducts to different parts of the cellar floor whence vertical risers carry it up to the rooms. If desired in warming up the building before the pupils come in the morning the air can be drawn out of the floors of the rooms and circulated again and again until every cubic foot of it has been warmed. Then

when studious lungs begin to pollute the air, fresh air can be taken from out of doors instead."13
An earlier article had announced,
"The building will be well warmed and ventilated, will be fitted with the best plumbing and will have fire protection of standpipes with adequate lengths of hose on every floor."14
In summary, although some ornamental elements of the exterior have suffered erosion and the building has been vandalized, it retains its integrity and is eminantly worthy of nomination. Architecturally and historically it is of great significance to the character and identity of the community as it represents a period of prosperity and growth and reflects the artistic, cultural, social, and technological awareness of the citizens of Colorado Springs.
LOWELL SCHOOL

FOOTNOTES
Ijohn J.-G. Blumenson, Identifying American Architecture: A Pictorial Guide to Styles and Terms, 1600-1945, (Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1982), p. 45- Blumenson identifies similar projecting, free-standing columns as buttresses.
^Colorado Springs Gazette, November 12, l891,p. 1, col. 5
3lbid.
4See also Harriet Seibel, A History of the Colorado Springs Schools, District 11, (Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1975) p. 55, photograph.
5Manly Dayton Ormes and Eleanor R. Ormes, The Book of Colorado Springs,
(Colorado Springs: The Dentan Printing Company, 1933), p. 146. "On November 11, 1901, the district was bonded for $100,000 without a single dissenting vote. With this sum in hand the board planned additions to the Lowell school of eight rooms ..." 6Cerv i1s Journal, March 6, 1963, p. 2. (Microfilm in Denver Public Library) 7Mr. Robert Howard, District 11 Business Office. Phone conversation, 9/83* Q Blumenson, op. cit., offers these dates for Victorian Romanesque. ^Blumenson, ibid., cites these elements as hallmarks of the style: round arch openings, short columns, steeply pitched gabled dormers, brick finish with rock-faced stone trim, decorative stone bands and patterns, foliated capitals, polished stone columns, rock-faced coursed ashlar, rounded buttresses, gabled porch with compound round arched entry. 10 Philip Jansen Van Pelt, A History of the Colorado Springs Public Schools, a dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the School of Education, University of Cincinnati, 1966, (microfilm in Denver Public Library),p. 75. LOWELL SCHOOL 11 Ibid. p. 76. 1 ^Colorado Springs Gazette, June 27, 1891 p. 3, col ^Colorado Springs Gazette, February 7, 1892, p. 3, ^Colorado Springs Gazette, November 12, 1891, p. 1, . 2. col. 1. col. 5. 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Ot the peo|>l 'ne*t happily hleml Tbe a fcatwes nTiidi makes a cruel j action involve* the merry making of ytaHiiNO ir iSsrs kwrrl its national rjs .rl. j mrmkerp, the ail venture* of cirle and tits MMirtnri FaI vita th# (]r*4l llf*clr l relied try inr ts%t nwft Whll* trwielltm chifVM* tl TMROrui! j<*wc?j|* r i ttiln* flick hini i< U H*-C uni N*.'^hnetcin In fr* fJ4 nf tfitt AHmnwi * * RKirrin to TV rtcihnt InfltVnh > k*srie of (Vkh^vtii ietrti AimtIJ ti, 1VW *i*l S**44 irrr tbtt tCfUnn ib** |4are In which V fVm A f AitrMi. Tbe i cte- in the OM Vvi, S* rntf tVN'JWtf ffiltf brth liTth* bvpt. C lalair cfcr Vf t )F,turrw. For the taUtwtf < l Kr hf^atirjff Hpr^r^uii wnirks tx*trFwl ari.l t1 Artll 4'tvr j galUntfA, etc-. Anti hnrf intrrfen'rnw -i d frwtt. (HhVwt-i init . . - a .. \ . .x . w* a a ... . . _ .1 ___*_____t*.....-K { W*A< *4 fi The otbw A|iplio4ti>iR4 tf lex ant Bvstn n tliin city N at% !wb Btutlici! anti it rcmcb^ .t tif n ^ *tthtuikl get into the bot txn Huv<4 rt nf phe* hf^l itn live hero of the ^J^Ug) l-t*uViTu) AmAnan ieg y<''io cf tl '.el iwilfinoe peo,s nf heroism th.t!! 1 On 1o have heard of *)'< pv j 'dr tU-f' (iluvft'fMb SiFr.trp. Hsu waT'Taerti e/w^rst .r%f W. T}A*Tii1X TtTT io ?nliifTil OkHWift COLORADO SPRINGS GAZETTE June 26, 1891 At 3 oclock yesterday afternoon the meeting of the school board was called to order to receive and consider the bids for the new ward school building. There were eight bids for the construction of the new building. These were read by the secretary as follows: Johnson Bros.$33,586; Hal leek. Saver 8< Newton Lumber company, $29,990; D. J. Hervey,$33,365; Johnson & Allison. $30,270; G. W. Atkinson ?< Son,$28,748; Gill is Bros. & Walsh, $33,500; Joseph Dozier,$35,582.50; G. M. Young, $29,500. The lowest bid was that of G. W. Atkinson !< Son of$28,748.
After some discussion the meeting adjourned until 10 oclock this morning, when the contract will probably be awarded.

COLORADO SPRINGS GAZETTE
June 27, 1891
Contract Let.
There was quite an important meeting of the school board yesterday. After a great deal of figuring and discussion the contract for the building of the new ward school was let to
G. M. Young of this city. His bid was *29,500, and was next to the lowest bid made. The school board concluded that the lowest bid might not be the best, as it did not feel satisfied with some of the work done in the citv by that f i rm.
The board has decided to change the location of the building from that decided upon lately. The building will be erected at the northeast corner of Fountain street and Nevada avenue, one block east of the other location. Located at this point the handsome building will be in plain sight of the Rio Grande and Santa Fe trains and the electric road. It is to be a very creditable building, and will do much to impress travellers with the city.
The board has decided upon a plan of placing school buildings at a distance of eioht blocks apart. They find that, there are 300 children of1school age living below Moreno Avenue, who will not have to cross the tracks after the new building is erected. Something is to be done for the west side before fall, but it is not decided what it will be as yet.
LOWELL SCHOOL

COLORADO SPRINGS GAZETTE
November 12, 1891
The new Lowell school building at the southern end of the city limits is now very nearly completed and its eight rooms will probably be filled with children after the holiday vacation. The brick and stone work is all done and the plasterers are now at work although their operations have been somewhat interfered with by the cold snap.
The building faces on Fountain street and has a very imposing front. A broad flight of steps, each 11 feet wide, of one solid block of Peachblow sandstone, leads up to the arched entrance. On each side of the steps is a balustrade made of two solid blocks of Manitou red sandstone, one 30 by xx by xx inches and the other 30 by 24 by 48 inches. Above the door is a stone balcony and on each side are pedestals on which xxxx statues may be placed when the district is wealthy enough. The building turns up to a sharp gable above the doorway and this is surmounted by a steel flag staff.
The arched opening leads into a broad hallway which extends to the middle of the building whpre a stairway on each side, one for each sex, leads up stairs. In each of the four corners of the building is a school room and there are two "coat rooms" to each school room where the boys and girls may hang their hats and coats. The rooms are all large and have ample and well arranged windows. Each has three doors and is so arranged that the pupils may pass in and out with as little disturbance as possible. At each side of the building at the center, there is an entrance for pupils. It is the intention to use the front entrance for visitors and state occasions, while the scholars will come in on the sides.

Upstairs there are -four school rooms arranged as are those below, with two coat rooms apiece. There is also a recitation room over the main entrance which has doors leading into the school rooms on each side, out upon the balcony and into the hall; a principals room over the east stairway and a teachers toilet room over the west stairway.
In the basement will be the janitors quarters, -five spacious and well lighted rooms: two play rooms tor the children to eat their lunches in in cold or rainy weather and which can be used as school rooms in an emergency; toilet rooms, a boiler room with a Sturtevant boiler, -fan, etc., and coal and storage rooms. The large attic will not be -finished.
The building is nearly square in ground plan except -for a recess in the middle o-f the west side where the entrance is. This entrance is through three low stone arches supported by two columns with elaborately carved capitals and pedistals. All this work is in Manitou sandstone. The material of the outside walls is Colorado Springs brick with Manitou stone trimmings. Each corner is finished off with a small circular stone tower, capped with a stone bracket which supports a lead gutter that protrudes from the angle of the eaves. The roof is covered with cedar shingles on the faces of the gables, and these will be stained in dark gray and greenish tints.
The building will be well warmed and ventilated, will be fitted with the best plumbing and will have the fire protection of standpipes with adequate lengths of hose on every floor. The interior will be finshed in tints, terra cotta in the corridors and on the ceilings of the rooms, and dark brown on the walls of the rooms. The woodwork will all be oiled hard pine. G. M. Young is the contractor.

COLORADO SPRINGS GAZETTE
February 7, 1892
THE LOWELL SCHOOL
It will be Occupied -for the First Time This Week.
To-morrow and next day will be event-ful occasions -for many of the children of the south end for they will then move into their new school home, the Lowell building.
Though the cold winds had a free sweep outside the building yesterday afternoon the warmth inside was almost tropical and a large number of men were at work putting the finishing touches. The floors were having the final oiling, desks were being put into position, curtains were being hung, plumbing connections made and all the little last things being done. Owing to the non-arrival, of course, of the material the building will not be ready to turn over for some days but it will be ready for occupancy by to-morrow afternoon.
The first thing that impresses a visitor is the warm tinting of the corridor walls. They are something between rose color and terra cotta; this and the arched doorways prevents the bare rectangular appearance that corridors are apt to have. The school room walls are also tinted but in a dark color.
The lighting is excellent. In all th rooms on the south side there are windows on one side only and the seats are so arranged that the light will come over the left shoulder.
The north rooms have north windows as well on the side but these are filled with opaque colored glass to prevent confusion of light. The desks are about all in position, most of them new with white maple tops.
LOWELL SCHOOL

The heating apparatus works perfectly. The other applications of the Sturtevant system in this city have been studied and its defects remedied. If a fire should get into the hot air flues it would go all over the building in a very short time, therefore particular pains are taken to prevent it from getting in. The boiler room is in the extreme northeast corner of the basement, surrounded by stone walls. From this a pipe conducts steam to the fan in the extreme southwest corner. This fan is the same size as that in the opera house and throws 20,000 C?3 cubic feet of air per second at full speed. It is turned by an electric motor connected with the street car wires. The air is drawn from outdoors, forced through a steam coil and then carried in stone ducts to different parts of the cellar floor whence vertical risers carry it up to the rooms. If desired in warming up the building before the pupils come in the morning the air can be drawn out of the floors of the rooms and circulated again and again until every cubic foot of it has been warmed. Then when studious lungs begin to pollute the air, fresh air can be taken from out of doors instead.
The Lowell school contains eight school rooms, twenty-five by thirty-two feet each, with two cloak rooms for each one. On the first floor the two rooms on the west side will be occupied by the first and second grades and the two on the east by the third grade. The fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh grades will be upstairs. On the second floor is also a recitation room, a principals office and a teachers room. The cloak rooms have hooks at the right height for the children occupying the adjacent room and there are also a two-story row of pigeon holes next Cto3 the floor, the lower compartments being for overshoes and the upper ones for lunch
LOWELL SCHOOL

baskets. There is a drinking fountain on each floor in the hall and a standpipe with sufficient fire hose to reach to all parts of the building.
The basement is divided into two divisions, one for boys and one for girls. Each of these contains a play room and toilet rooms. The janitor has a suite of well lighted and ventilated rooms in the southwestern corner of the basement. Mr. G. M. Young is the contractor for the building.
U
OWE
JUJULI
SCEIOO

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Blumenson, John J.-G. Identifying American Architecture: A Pictorial
Guide to Styles and Terms, 1600-1945. Nashville: American Association
for State and Local History, 1982.
Ormes, Manly Dayton, and Eleanor R. Ormes. The Book of Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs: The Dentan Printing Company, 1933
Seibel, Harriet. A History of the Colorado Springs Schools, District 11. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1975*
Sommers, Herbert M. Pioneer Colorado Springs, 1896-1904. Colorado Springs: Herbert M. Sommers, 1975*
Van Pelt, Philip Jansen. A History of the Colorado Springs Public Schools;
A Dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the School of Education, University of Cincinnati, 1966.
PERIODICALS
Cervi1s Journal, March 6, 1963, p. 2.
Colorado Springs Gazette
June 27, 1891, p. 5, col . 5.
June 24, 1891, p. 3, col . 1.
June 26, 1891, p. 3, col . 2.
June 27, 1891, p. 3 col . 2.
September 23, 1891 > P* 4 , col .
November 12, 1891, p. 1 , col .
February 7, 1892, P- 3, col. 1
February 19, 1892, P- 4, col.
LOWELL SCHOOL

A senior center will be a monument to civic pride and wisdom.
Carrie Bartel, 19^3
ZONING

CONDITIONAL
USE
This site is currently zoned R-l 6000, specifying single family
2
residential with a minimum lot area of 6000 ft R-l allows conditional uses of 1) public and non-public schools, 2) religious institutions, and 3) human service establishments.
The definition of human service establishments (City of Colorado Springs Zoning Ordinance, July 1982, Article 12) is broad enough that a zoning appeal would not be necessary. An "Application for a Conditional Use" [FORM V. 1.] would be sufficient.
The limitation of lot size would be dealt with by filing a "Request for Approval of Combining Lots for Zoning Purposes" [FORM V. 2.].
This sets in motion an in house Planning Department action which is easier and cheaper than requesting a replat. The latter requires a re-survey and fees for rerecording with the County. The former has a strong precedent in the location of Lowell School across several lot lines.
The alternative is to file for a Planned Unit Development [FORM V. 3>] which is also an expensive and complex procedure.
If, in the design process, it becomes clear that zoning ordinances regarding yard regulations interfere with solar objectives, an
ZONING

Art. 3 Part 5.
Art. 8.
"Application for the Board of Adjustment" may be filed [FORM V. 4*J to obtain a variance. [See: Art. 15-H2]
REGULATIONS
As a conditional use, the facility is still subject to other regulations of an R-l zone. Of particular import to design are the following:
1) Maximum 30% lot coverage.
2) Maximum 30' (average height of roofline) (exception: Art. 15-105 places of public assembly in residential areas; if side
& rear yeads are increased by the same number of feet the building exceeds the height limit.)
3) Minimum 25' front and rear yard.
4) Minimum 5' side yard.
Off-street parking requirements which will apply to the center
1) Assembly halls (without fixed seats) gyms, recreational and
other public gathering places: 1 space / 150 ft ground area
used for assembly.
2) Auditoriums & theaters: 1 space / every 4 permanent seats.
3) Barber, beauty shops: 1.5 spaces / chair.
4) Bowling alleys: 4 spaces for each alley.
2
5) Libraries: 1 space / 1000 ft gross floor area, plus 1 space
for every two employees.
2
6) Medical & dental clinics: one space / 200 ft gross floor
area .
ZONING

I
ZONING

ATTACHED SIDEWALK
CONCRETE
EDGE OF DRIVEWAY
NEW CURB OPENINGS MAY BE CONSTRUCTED IN EXISTING CURB AS SHOWN EXISTING CURB SHALL BE BROKEN VERTICALLY AT THE FACE OF CURB. THE ENTIRE CURB STRUCTURE MUST BE REMOVED AND THE APRON 8 CURB HEAD BE POURED MONOLITHIC
SECTION A-A
GENERAL PROVISIONS
I. WHERE THERE IS MORE THAN CNE DRIVEWAY ON -0! 30' OF FULL CURB SHALL BE PROVIDED BE rWEEN DRIVEWAYS.
WHERE AN EXISTING SIDEWALK IS IN PLACE WHICH IS LESS THAN 6" IN THICKNESS, THAT PORTION OF SUCH SIDEWALK SHALL BE REMOVED AND REPLACED WITH PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE 6" IN THICKNESS.
WHERE THERE IS EXISTING CURB, GUTTER AND SIDEWALK THE REMAINING STRUCTURE AFTER ALL CURB GUTTER AND SIDEWALK REMOVAL SHALL BE LEFT TO A NEAT VERTICAL SAWCUT JOINT.
ALL EXCAVATION, EMBANKMENT. AND CONCRETE SHALL BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH CITY STANDARD SPECIEICATIONS ALL PROVISIONS OF SEC. 14-15-104 OF THE CITY COOE, SHALL BE MET WITH REGARD TO MIN SETBACK FROM INTERSECTION AND SIDE PROPERTY LINES, MIN SPACING, MAX WIDTH,ETC.
'

DETACHED SIDEWALK
6" CONCRETE
CITY OF COLORADO SPRINGS
STANDARD DRiyi rJf y |
APPROVED BY.^JÂ£

Art
Art. Art.
2
7) Office: 1 space / 600 ft gross floor area.
2
8) Retail : 1 space / 400 ft gross floor area.
2
9) Restaurants: 1 space / 150 ft gross floor area.
NOTE: The client-developed program calls for 200 spaces.
Regulations:
1) No portion of any front or side yard lying adjacent to a street shall be included as part of required off-street parking area in any residential zone.
2) Design standards including parking angle and space dimension (See also, Art. 15-102 regarding surfaces, pedestrian guards, screening, and illumination.)
g Signs:
1) All signs require a sign permit issued by the Regional Building Department.
2) Freestanding and low profile sign setback property line.
jq Landscaping:
This becomes important only if filing for a rezoning.
^2 Human Service Establishments
Conditions to be met if Conditional Use is granted:
1) That there is a need for the establishment in that portion of the city wherin the location is sought.
2) That the establishment not be within one mile of an existing other human service establishment, computed by direct pedestrian route from the nearest property lines of the two establishments.
ZONING

Art 15-
Supplementary Regulations
1) Minimum 20' from property line of intersecting street; 3' from fire hydrant, catch basin, or side lot line.
2) Common drive serving adjacent properties may be within 3' of line common to properties served.
3) Maximum 30' width of entrance drive leading from public street at its intersection with lot line (unless reviewed & approved
by City Engineering, Traffic Engineering and Planning Department.
4) Minimum 30' between two driveways from a public street to a single use.
5) Covered porches, decks and balconies may not extend into required front, side, or rear yards.
ZONING

14-8-101
14-8-104
CHAPTER 14 ZONING
ARTICLE 8 OFF STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS
SECTION:
14-8-101: Parking Space Required
14-8-102: Parking Exempt Zone
14-8-103: Compact Car Spaces
14-8-104: General Parking Requirements by Use
14-8-106: Parking Area
14 8-101: PARKING SPACE REQUIRED: With the exception of the C-6 Commercial zone, which is so designated on the "sectional district zoning maps'', as referred to in Section 14-8-102 of this Article, there shall be provided off-street parking space in ail zones at the time of the erection of any building or at the time any building is moved, converted, extended, enlarged or increased in capacity by adding dwelling units, guest rooms, floor area or seats. (Ord. 80-131)
14-8-102: PARKING EXEMPT ZONE: The following described areas are excepted and excluded from off-street parking requirements:
A. Central Business District. Bounded on the north by Bijou Street, the east by the alley between Weber Street and Wahsatch Avenue, the south by Cucharras Street and the west by the railroad right of wsy.
B. The area bounded on the north by the south line of West Pikes Peak Avenue, on the south by the north line of West Cucharras Street, on the east by the west line of South 24th Street and on the west by the east line of 28th Street. (Ord. 80-131)
14-8-103: COMPACT CAR SPACES: Up to thirty three percent (33%) of all required parking spaces may be designated as "compact car spaces". The required dimensions of a compact car spacaurnay be a minimum of eight and one-half feet by sixteen feet (814 x 16'). These spaces are to be designated by signage. (Ord. 80-131)
14-8-104: GENERAL PARKING REQUIREMENTS BY USE:
A Requirements of Particular Use. The following are the minimum requirements of parking spaces to be maintained in connection with the building and uses indicated:
1. Appliance Stores: For furniture and appliance stores, plumbing and hardware stores, building supply stores, motor vehicle sales, machinery sales and household equipment shops, at least one parking space for each seven hundred fifty (750) square feet of floor area used for display.
2. Assembly Halls: For public assembly halls, without fixed seats, gymnasiums, amusement parks, exhibition halls, skating rinks and other similar amusement, recreational or public gathering places, at least one parking space for each one hundred fifty (150) square feet of floor or ground area used for amusement or assembly.
3. Auditoriums. Theatres and Other Similar Places of Assembly: At least one parking space for every four (4) permanent seats provided in such buildings or structures. Where individual seats are not provided, every twenty inches (20") of benches shall be considered one seat.
4. Banks: For banks and other financial or lending institutions, except as otherwise herein specified, at least one parking space for every six hundred (600) square feet of floor area provided.
5. Barber and Beauty Shops: One and five tenths (1.5) parking spaces per barber or beauty chair.
6. Boardinghouse: For hotels, boardinghouses and rooming houses, clubs, fraternities, sororities, dormitories, lodges and other similar buildings, at least one parking space for every three (3) guest rooms or suites. If, in addition to those spaces normally provided for guests or residents of the establishments, if assembly halls, restaurants or bars are provided, additional parking spaces will be required in accordance with the regulations as set forth herein for such uses.
14-8-104
14-3-104
A) 7. Bowling Alleys: At least four (4) parking spaces for each alley.
8. Clubs: See Boardinghouses.
9. Colleges: See Education Institutions.
10. Convalescent Homes: For convalescent homes and sanitariums, at least one parking space for each eight (81 patient beds, plus one additional space for each staff or visiting doctor, plus one additional space for every two (2) employees, including nurses.
11. Department Stores: See Retail Business.
12. Dormitories: See Boardinghouses.
13. Dwellings.
a. Single family detached 1 space per dwelling unit.
b. Attached dwellings and multi-family dwellings one and five-tenths (1.5) spaces per unit with two (2) bedrooms or under; one and seventy five-one hundredths (1.75) spaces per unit with over two (2) bedrooms plus adequate guest parking.
c. Intended for elderly one space per unit. Variances may be granted by the Planning Commission upon sufficient justification. Area gained by variance must be landscaped.
14. Education Institutions:
a. There shall be provided one off-street parking space for each four (4) seats in the principal auditorium or assembly room, fixed or otherwise for each education institution.
b. There shall be provided for elementary, junior high, nonpublic schools and proprietary schools below the high school level, at least one parking space for every two (2) employees, including teachers and administrators, plus sufficient off-street space for the safe and convenient loading and unloading of students, if necessary. These spaces may be counted towards the auditorium requirements.
c. For public schools, nonpublic schools, proprietary schools and colleges or universities
A,14)at the high school level or above, at least one parking space for every six 16) students and members of the faculty, based upon the greatest number of attendance during anv one period of the day or night and sufficient off-street space for the safe and convenient loading and unloading of students, if necessary These spaces may be counted towards the auditorium requirements.
15. Fraternities: See Boardinghouses.
16. Grocery Stores: See Retail Business.
17. Gymnasiums: See Assembly Halls.
18. Hardware Stores: See Appliance Stores.
19. Hospitals: One parking space for every six (6) beds, plus one additional parking space for each staff or visiting doctor, plus one additional space for every two (2) employees, including nurses. Loading and unloading spaces for hospital ambulances and similar vehicles are not included in the spaces required herein.
20. Hotels: See Boardinghouses.
21. Industrial Plants: For manufacturing, wholesale or industrial buildings, nursery sales, contractors and lumber yards, warehouses and storage buildings or yards, public utility services, research laboratories, business services, such as blueprinting, stenographic, printing and engraving, mimeographing and repairs and service to all types of business machines and other similar uses at least one parking space for every three (3) employees, computed on the basis of the greatest number of employees on duty at any one time.
22. Libraries: For libraries and museums, one parking space for every one thousand (1,000) square feet of gross floor area, plus one parking space for every two 12) employees.
23. Medical and Dental Clinics and Medical Offices: One space per every two hundred (200) square feet gross floor area.
24. Mortuaries: For mortuaries or funeral homes having fixed seats, at least one parking space for every six (0) seats provided in the main assembly or service chapel. Where no

14-3-104
14-8-105
A,24)fixec seats are provided, one parking space for eac.n one honored (100) sauare feet of the main assemoly or service chaoel. plus additional parsing soace for all mortuary-owned venicles and one space for each family resident on the premises.
25. Museums: See Libraries.
25. Night Cubs: See Restaurant.
Ai^O.Amusement: parks, minature golf
courses and sicilar outdoor recreation uses: 30 spaces for the first gross a and 25 spaces for each additional acre
B. Other Uses. In the case of a use not specifically mentioned, the reauirement for off-street panting facilities for a use which is mentioned and to which such use is similar, shall aocly and shall be determined by the Planning Director.
27. Office: One soace for each six hundred (600) scuare feet of gross floor area.
28. Race Tracks: See Assembly Halls.
Mixed Uses. In the case of mixed uses, the total requirements for off-street parking facilities shall be the sum of the requirements for various uses.
29. Religious Institutions: In all zones there snail be provided one off-street parking soace for eacn four (4) seats in any auditorium or assemoly room, fixed or otherwise. Twenty incnes 120") of undivided seating shall constitute one seat.
30. Restaurants. Bars and Night Clubs: One soace for every one hundred fifty (150) square feet gross floor area. Drive-in and carry-out restaurants: one soace for every fifty (50) sauare feet gross floor area.
31. Retail Business. For retail businesses, department stores and commercial services except as otherwise herein specified at least one parking soace for every four hundred (400) square feet of gross floor area provided.
32. Roominghouses: See Boardinghouses.
33. Sanitariums: See Convalescent Homes.
34. Sororities: See Boardinghouses.
35. Skating Rinks: See Auditoriums.
36. Theatres: See Auditoriums.
37. Motels: At least one parking space for each individual dwelling unit, plus one additional soace for the owner or manager, if resident on the premises.
38. Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks: Two (2) parking spaces for each designated mobile home park or recreational vehicle park space.
39. Wholesale Business: See Industrial Plants.
0. Additional Requirements. For any and all uses of buildings, the Board of Adjustments, upon recommendation of the Planning Commission can require additional parking soaces after considering ail the parking generating factors involved in the particular case. (Ord. 80-131; Ord. 82-97)
14-8-105: PARKING AREA:
A. Plan of Parking Area. Whenever parking is required, provided, changed or redesigned, plans must be suomitted to show how the required parking soaces shall be arranged in the area supplied for that purpose and to indicate sufficient soace for turning maneuvers, as well as adequate ingress and egress to the parking area.
B. No portion of any required front or side yards lying adjacent to a street shall be included as a part of the required off-street parking area in any residential zone. OR, OC or in connection with the development of residential uses in any other zone. Such required front and side yards lying adjacent to a street must be adeauately landscaped and forever maintained to provide a park-like appearance. Driveways, as permitted by oroinance. may cross the required side and front yards to provide access and egress for said off-street parking. The City Council may by resolution grant a variance from the provisions of this subsection after recommendation and at least one public hearing by the Planning Commission.
C. Design Standards. The design standards are controlled by parking regulations of this Code. The entrances are limited as stipulated by the Traffic/ Engineer and this Code. Parking
2E3
14-8-105
14-8-105
C) standards including parking angle and space dimensions that must be complied with are hereby incorporated into this Code and appear at the end of this Chapter.
D. Location. The parking area must be provided on the same lot as the principal buildings, except when off-street parking is required in a C-6 zone, in which case the parking area may be within five hundred feet (500') of the principal building but not separated by an arterial street. When the required off-street parking space is provided on a separate lot from the main building, there shall be recorded in the office of the City Clerk a covenant by the owner of such lot that such parking spaces will be maintained as long as such building is maintained.
E. Existing Parking Area. Off-street parking space being maintained in any of the zones in connection with any existing structures on the effective date of this Chapter shall thereafter be maintained so long as such building remains, unless an equivalent number of such spaces are provided conforming to the requirements of this Section; provided, however, that this regulation shall not require the maintenance of more automobile parking space than is herein required for a new building.
F. Use of Required Off-Street Parking by Another Building. No part of an off-street parking space required for any building or use for the purpose of complying with the provisions of this Chapter shall be included as a part of an off-street parking space similarly required for another building or use, unless the type of structure indicates that the periods of usage of such structure will not be simultaneous with each other.
G. Free Parking Space Required. With the exception of the off-street parking exempted area as set forth in the section above, and the Municipal Airport, the minimum number of off-street parking spaces required by this Article shall be provided without direct charge to the users of the facilities providing such parking spaces.
The providers of such minimum off-street parking spaces shall have the right to reasonably control the users thereof by means
G) which may include, but not be limited to, restricting all parking to the users of the facility providing such parking spaces; parking lot attendants; control gates; tow-away areas; employee, tenant and staff restricted areas; customer and visitor restricted areas; and imposing reasonable time limitations on users other than tenants, employees and staff. None of the above control means shall be applied to defeat the intent of this Section. Direct charges may be made to users who exceed minimum time limits.
H. No parking space shall be approved where the unparking vehicle must be backed across any property line except in single-family and two-family areas, nor for any parking space that is blocked off by another vehicle.
I. Design Standards. The stall length of required parking spaces may be decreased by the dimensions indicated in the table on the following page, providing that the following conditions are met:
1. Parking spaces so reduced shall be located at the perimeter of the parking area.
2. No sidewalk shall be decreased to less than four feet (4') in width by permitting the overhang.
3. No required landscaped area shall be reduced by permitting the overhang.
J. Except for parking sreas provided for one and two-family dwellings, the surface of all required parking spaces, drives and aisles, shall be paved with asphalt, concrete or similar permanent surfacing. (Ord. 80-131; Ord. 81-1021
Imc following page* for Parting Standard* and maps)
981

APPLICATION FOR A CONDITIONAL USE
Applicant's Name______________________
Applicant's Address___________________
Owner's Name__________________________
Owner's Address_______________________
Representative's Name_________________
Representative's Address______________
(to receive all correspondence)
Zone of Property______________________
Proposed Use__________________________
________Telephone No._
______________Zip Code
________Telephone No.J
______________Zip Code
________Telephone No._
______________Zip Code
Acres
***PR0VIDE A LEGAL DESCRIPTION TYPED ON AN 8j" x 11" PAPER***
Nearest Street Intersection__________________________________________________
Tax Schedule Number__________________________
(From County Tax Assessor's Office, 471-5570)
The applicant must provide justification. Answer the three questions below which are the conditions necessary to grant a Conditional Use. (Section 14-6-103) A separate sheet of paper may be used.
1. State why you believe that the value and qualities of the neighborhood surrounding the Conditional Use will not be substantially injured:
2. State why such Conditional Use will not be detrimental to the public health, safety, and general welfare:
3. State clearly why you believe that the Conditional Use would be in keeping with the comprehensive plan of the City:
I hereby certify that I am the applicant named herein and that I have familiarized myself with the rules and regulations with respect to preparing and filing this petition and that the foregoing statements and answers herein contained and the information on the attached map are in all respects true and accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signature of Owner Date Signature of Applicant Date
if other than owner
_________________SEE REVERSE SIDE FOE ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS____________
For Planning Department Use Only:
Legal Description________ Fee Receipt Number__________________________
Authorization______ Accepting Planner_________________________________
Completed Form_____ Date Received________________________________Time____
PIans(15)__________ CPC Hearing Date__________________________________
Envelopes Self-Post Explanation
5/16/83
FORM

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
1. Letter of Authorization from owner of property if applicant is other than the owner, or is the agent for the owner. Letter should state the relationship of applicant to the owner (agent, contract purchaser, other). The letter must specify the extent to which the representation is authorized.
2. A LEGAL DESCRIPTION of the parcel involved (typed on an 8Â£" x 11" paper) must be submitted with the application. Applications which do not provide the legal description,will not be accepted.
3. The petition shall be accompanied by fifteen (15) folded copies of a completed development plan. It should show all required information which is contained on the attached checklist. The plans should be folded with the lower right corner facing up.
4. Addresses, stamped envelopes of all adjacent property owners must accompany this application.
5. Fee, as determined by City Council, required at time of submittal.
6. The petitioner by his signature understands and agrees that he is responsible for the completion of all on-site improvements as approved on the final plan including landscaping, paving, lighting, etc., prior to receiving a Certificate of Occupancy.
7. Applicant is responsible for posting property with the Public Hearing Notice supplied by the Planning Department.
A. Posting schedule is available at time of submission of application.
B. Affidavit to affirm posting is available at time of pickup of poster and must be presented at the City Planning Commission hearing.
8. An application for a Conditional Use is heard at public hearing by the Planning Commission and then by the City Council. Please check the schedule of due dates/meeting dates to make certain that you submit your application on time. Applications to Planning Commission must be submitted to the Planning Department by 4:00pm on the due date.
9. If you have any questions about these requirements, please call the City Planning Department at 578-6692.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN CHECKLIST
NAME OF DEVELOPMENT PLAN _________________________________________________________________
DATE _______________________
Please complete the following checklist by checking all appropriate boxes under Applicant column, indicating compliance with the Zoning Ordinance.
APPLICANT SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS: All submitted development plans shall contain the
following information:
______ A. Completed application form. ______
______ B. Indication of appropriate scale and bar scale. ______
______ C. North arrow.
______ D. The location, exterior horizontal dimensions and proposed ______
height of all buildings with reference to property lines and public rights of way.
______ E. All public and private easements. .
______ F. All existing and/or proposed entrance and exit curb cuts, ______
deceleration and acceleration lanes, traffic island and other devices.
______ G. All existing buildings or portions of buildings that will remain. ______________
H. All pedestrian walkways or sidewalks (existing or proposed). ______
I. Location of fences and signs, with dimensional information. ______
______ J. Location and dimensions of all parking areas, number of parking ________________
stalls and all driving or maneuvering lanes, parking formula used, (typical parking stalls may be indicated to eliminate repetition of all stalls).
______ K. General use of all buildings. ______
______ L. Vicinity map (does not have to be drawn to scale). ______
______ M. Landscaping plan. ______
______ N. Indicate adjoining properties as to significant buildings, ______
parking, access drives, vacant, zoning, etc.
______ 0. Show any adjoining public improvements, existing or proposed, ______
rights of way, easements and drainageways.
______ P. Legend indicating appropriate information on the plan, i.e., ______
acreage, density, G.L.A. etc.
______ Q. Existing and proposed contours at two foot (2') intervals. ______
______ R. Legal description. ______
______ S. Lighting standards, location and height.
______ T. Anticipated future expansions, if known. ______
______ U. Approximate schedule for development. (Ord. 80-131) ______
______ V. Elevation and detail of screen walls or landscaping screening. ______
______ W. Location of Multi-Use Trails as defined by the Trails Master Plan. _____________
______ X. Requirements of the zone. ______
I hereby acknowledge that the information indicated on the development plan submittal checklist is correct, and any incomplete and/or incorrect submittal will cause a delay in review.
SIGNATURE (Rev. 7/27/83)
DATE

REQUEST FOR APPROVAL OF COMBINING OF LOTS FOR ZONING PURPOSES
Applicant's Name Telephone No.
Applicant's Address Zip Code
Name of Owner(s) Telephone No.
Address of Owner(s) Zip Code
Representative's Name Telephone No.
Representative's Address Zip Code
Tax Schedule Numbers of Lots Involved
(Available from El Paso County Tax Assessor's office, 471-5570.)
Addresses of Properties to he Combined
Complete the following:
STATE OF COLORADO)
) ss.
COUNTY OF EL PASO)
I (We)____________________________________, being the owner(s) of the following
(Typed or printed name of owner(s) described property:***PLACE LEGAL DESCRIPTION HERE***
jo hereby agree that saic! property shall henceforth be considered as one LOT purposes of applying City Zoning Ordinance (Chapter XIV, Code of the City of Colorado Sp|nngs). I (We) acknowledge that while all of the platted lots described above remain legal!/ platted as individual lots, they are now tied to each other for zoning purposes, and I Tie) may not dispose of any portion thereof in such a way as to cause a violation nf the Zoning Ordi nance.
Signature of Owner(s) Date
Subscribed and sworn before me this ___________ day of
My commission expires:
IP
<
SJ
NOTARY PUBLIC
(SEAL)
10/13/83
FORM

SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS
1. Application must be signed by owner(s) and notarized. This is acceptable as proof of ownership. Application must be completed in full.
2. Recording Fee. This may be cash or a check payable to the El Paso County Clerk and Recorder. Sufficient funds must be provided to record both the application and one copy of the survey. The amount required is based on document size. The cost is as follows:
8i" X 14" or smaller....................................$3.00 larger than 8J" X 14", up to 26" X 24" (plat size) .$10.00
3. Submit 12 copies of a CERTIFIED property survey of the lots involved. The survey MUST include the following.
A. Certification of the survey of the lots involved (stamp of registered land surveyor must appear on survey along with his/her signature).
B. The subdivision name, lot and block numbers, ajid the book and page number of the recorded plat.
C. All existing structures which will remain.
D. The statement below, including space for the signature of the Planning Director, adapted to the particular property, MUST APPEAR ON THE SURVEY:
Lots ______________, Block ___________, of__________________________
Subdivision are henceforth considered as one LOT for purposes of the. Zoning Ordinance (Chapter XIV of the City Code) of the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Planning Director Date
ANY APPLICATIONS AMD SURVEYS WHICH ARE MISSING ANY OF THE ABOVE LISTED ITEMS ARE CONSIDERED INCOMPLETE AND WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED FOR REVIEW. APPROVAL OF THE RF.OIJEST IS SUBJECT TO THE FINDINGS OF THE REVIEW PROCESS AND NOT GUARANTEED IN ADVANCE.
RESTRICTIONS: This procedure is confined to whole, platted lots. There is no limit to the number of lots under one ownership that may be combined, but as a general rule the entire area to be combined should be two acres or less. The procedure is intended for relatively small lots in older subdivisions where lot size or lot pattern is not compatible with contemporary development. It does not change the legally recorded plat of the property. Only one action of this type (combining lots; property boundary adjustment; or waiver of replatting) may be approved for any one lot any further changes will require replatting.
GENERAL INFORMATION: This procedures requires approximate!'/ 10 to 15 working days to complete. The Planning Department must solicit and receive comments from ten other agencies. Once these comments have been received and reviewed, if the request can be approved it is taken to the El Paso County Clerk and Recorder for recording. The recorded documents are returned to the Planning Department within about three days and a photostatic copy of the documents is then forwarded to the applicant, or if there is one, the applicant's representative.

APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF A SUBDIVISION PLAT
APPLICATION FOR REVIEW BY
Preliminary Plat City Planning Commission________
Preliminary/Final Plat________ Minor Land Subdivision Committee
Final Plat_______ City Planning Department_______
Applicant's Name Telephone Number
Address Zip Code
Owner's Name Telephone Number
Address Zip Code
Representative's Name Telephone Number
(To receive all correspondence) Address Zip Code
Subdivision Name Total Acres Total Lots Zone |
Tax Schedule Number (From County Assessor's Office, 471-5570) Nearest Street Intersection
IF FINAL PLAT The Preliminary Plat was approved by the City Council on 19 under the subdivision name of >
with City Planning File Number IF PLANNED ZONE Name of Development Plan Date Of Approval City Planning File Number

I hereby certify that I am the applicant named herein and that 1 have familiarized myself with the rules and regulations with respect to preparing and filing this petition and that the foregoing statements and answers herein contained are in all respects true and accurate to the best a* my knowledge and belief.
Signature of Owner Date Signature of Applicant if Date
other than Owner
IF NOT SIGNED BY THE OWNER, AUTHORIZATION MUST BE SUBMITTED.
If this is being submitted to the Minor Land Subdivision Committee, the requirement for the preliminary plat may be waived. Signatures of the department heads listed below must be obtained prior to submittal.
Planning Director Director of Public Works
SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
For Planning Department Use only: Fee Receipt Number Plats: Preliminary(20)
Authorization Final(15)
Envelopes(if Final Plat) Date Received Time
Accepting Planner Completed Application
Self Post 3/1/83
FORM

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
1. Number of Plats required at time of submittal:
Preliminary 20
Final 15
The plats shall be folded to file size with the lower right corner facing up.
2. Fee, as determined by City Council, required at time of submittal.
3. Applicant is responsible for posting property with the Public Hearing Notice supplied by the Planning Department.
A. Posting schedule is available at time of submission of application.
P. Affidavit to affirm posting is available at time of pickup of poster and must be presented at the public hearinq.
4. final plats to be reviewed administratively do not require posting.
5. Final plats to be reviewed administratively require stamped, addressed envelopes of the adjacent property owners (includes across streets and alleys).

PRELIMINARY PLAT SUBMITTAL CHECKLIST
NAME OF SUBDIVISION DATE
Please complete the following checklist by checking all appropriate boxes under the applicant column and thus indicating plat compliance with the Subdivision Ordinance.
APPLICANT
__________ 1.
__________ 2.
____________3.
____________4.
___________ 5.
__________6.
___________ 7.
__________ 8.
__________9.
__________ 10.
__________ 11.
__________ 12.
__________ 13.
__________ 14.
__________ 15.
__________16.
__________ 17.
_____ 18.
__________ 19.
__________ 20.
__________21.
__________ 22.
__________23.
24.
iRev. 7-28-83)
PRELIMINARY PLAT CHECKLIST
PLANNING DEPARTMENT
Name of Subdivision. _________
Name and address of owner.
Name and address of preparer.
Date of preparation. _________
Legal description with the acreage of the subdivision. _____________
To scale with bar scale. _________
Northpoint. _________
Vicinity Map. __________
Existing zoning on site and contiguous properties. _______________
Contours. _________
Lot layout, lot dimensions and number of lots. _________
Area in square feet of all lots. _________
Names of all streets plus easements and all ROW'S. _________
Location of Multi-Use Trails as defined by the Trails ______________
Master Plan.
Radii of all street curves. _________
Approximate location of all areas subject to _________
inundation or storm water overflow.
Location, widths and direction of flow of all water ________________
courses.
Existing lot lines on replat. ________
Existing structures to remain. _________
Authorization to act for owner. _________
Completed Application Form. _________
Fee. _________
Meets all requirements of the Subdivision Ordinance ________________
and the Zoning Ordinance.
Proof of ownership. ___i_____

APPLICANT
FINAL PLAT CHECKLIST
PLANNING DEPARTMENT
__________ 1. Name of Subdivision with property subtitles. ________
__________ 2. Sheet size of 24" x 26" with J" border. ________
__________ 3. Scale of 1" = 100 feet; with bar scale. ________
__________ 4. Legal description with the acreage of the subdivision. ___________
__________ S. Date of preparation. ________
__________ 6. Northpoint. ________
_______ 7. Vicinity Map. ________
__________ 8. Statement and proof of ownership; proof of ownership _____________
shall be a recorded deed, a signed and notarized copy of the plat or a title policy.
__________ 9. All required easements. ________
__________ 10. Correct dedication statement. ________
__________ 11. Surveyor's certificate. ________
__________ 12. Notary statement. ________
__________ 13. Approval statements for Mayor, Clerk, Planning _____
Director and Director of Public Works.
__________ 14. Lot and Block identification. ________
__________ 15. Lot dimensions with bearings. ________
__________ 16. Lot area in square feet. ________
_______ 17. Street ROW and street names. ________
_______ 18. Location of Multi-Use Trails as defined by the ________
Trails Master Plan.
__________ 19. Radii of street curves. ________
__________ 20. Names of adjacent subdivisions. ________
__________ 21. Replat vacation statement on replats. ________
__________ 22. Other required plat statements. ________
__________ 23. Fees Block. ________
24. Completed application form. ________
__________ 25. Meets all Subdivision and Zoning Ordinances. ________
l hereby acknowledge that the information indicated on the plat submittal checklist is correct, and any incomplete and/or incorrect submittal will be cause to have the plat removed from the agenda of the City Planning Commission or the Minor Land Subdivision Committee.
SIGNATURE
(Rev. 7-28-83)
WE

INSTRUCTIONS TO APPLICANT
1. Complete the application in full.
2. Answer the questions clearly, completely and fully.
3. Applicants are required to submit stamped, addressed envelopes with the name and address of each adjacent property owner (includes across streets, alleys and drainage ways). The Planning Department will use the envelopes to notify property owners of the request. The envelopes must be large enough to accommodate the plans.
4. Submit the fee with the application.
5. LATE APPLICATIONS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.
6. Public Hearing notices must be posted on subject property where they are visible to interested passersby. Unless notices are posted near the front property line, your request cannot be heard as scheduled. Your request will have to be postponed until the next regularly scheduled meeting.
7. Your site plan should show all required information which is listed below. The Planning Department encourages applicants to submit a property survey for the site plan. Please complete the following checklist by checking all appropriate boxes under Applicant column, indicating a complete site map submittal.
8. Additional information may be required of the applicant by either the Planning Staff or individual members of the Board. This information may include:
a. Adjacent property locations.
b. Existing and proposed contours at 2' intervals.
c. Ownership history.
d. Landscaping.
e. Public right-of way and pavement.
f. Drives, traffic islands and other traffic control devices.
g. Utility lines, storm drainage facilities and easements.
h. Details of natural features (rock outcroppings, vegetation, slope,etc.)
APPLICANT REQUIREMENTS: All submitted site plans shall contain PLANNING DEPARTMENT
the following information:
_____ A. LEGAL DESCRIPTION. (from your deed or County tax assessment). _____
______ B. Scale (i-10, 1-20, 1-30, 1-1/8, 1-1/16 are recommended). ______
______ C. North arrow. _______
______ D. Existing and proposed structures. ______
______ E. Square footage of all structures (existing & proposed). ______
______ F. Lot size and dimensions (area in square feet). ______
______ G. Other improvements (driveways, sidewalks, curb line, fences, ______
parking areas, etc.).
H. Address and phone number where you can be reached. ______
______ I. Adjacent structures (if possible). ______
J. Lot coverage (existing and proposed coverage by principal and ______
accessory structures in percentages).
K. Number of existing and proposed parking spaces. ______
______ L. Completed application. ______
M. Proposed building height. ______
N. Signs (for commercial and industrial). ______
O. Twenty (20) copies of site plan on sheets which are no larger ______
than 84" x 14" or folded.
I hereby acknowledge that the information indicated on the site plan checklist is correct, and any incomplete and/or incorrect site plan will cause a delay in review.
SIGNATURE
DATE
2
5/16/83

APPLICATION FOR THE BOARD OF ADJUSTMENT
Name of Applicant__________________________________________________ Phone_____________
Address of premises involved___________________________________________________ Zip
Mailing address (if different from above)______________________________________ Zip
Zone________________ Tax Schedule Number ______________________________________
(From County Assessor's Office, 471-5570)
1. Request is for: _____ Variance of the Zoning Ordinance
_____ Interpretation of the Zoning Ordinance
2. If request is for an interpretation of Zoning Ordinance, explain below or on an attached sheet.
3. If request is for a variance of the Zoning Ordinance, explain the request below and answer the three questions below or on an attached sheet.
A. Will the use or value of the area adjacent to the property for which the variance is
sought be adversely affected? (Explain)___________________________________________________
B. Is there a practical difficulty in developing the property for which the variance is sought which is not ordinarily found in the zone in which the property is located?
(Explain)_____________________________
C. Physical requirements of the zone for which a variance is requested:
(Ordinance Section) (Requirement)
Proposed:
l
1.
2
3.
Applicant's Signature
SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND PLAN CHECKLIST
FOR PLANNING DEPARTMENT USE ONLY
Fee receipt number ____ Accepting Planner
20 copies of site plan ____ Date
Site plan checklist completed _____ Time
Completed application ____ BOA Hearing Date
Envelopes (Stamped & Addressed)____
Authorization ____ File Number
Sign ____

FORM
Date <

5/16/83-

INSTRUCTIONS TO BOARD OF ADJUSTMENT APPLICANTS
This handout is designed to familiarize you with the Board of Adjustment (BOA) process. We suggest that you read this thoroughly and that you bring it to the meeting with you. If you have any questions, please call either Mike Robinson or Tom Burdett at 578-6692.
Posting
When you file your application for a variance, you'll be given an orange poster. Don't post it before the scheduled time. If it is destroyed or lost, come back to our office and get another. Make sure the poster is placed in a visible location on the street front of the lot for which the variance is requested. Be sure and give the posting affidavit to the planner at the hearing.
Recommendation
The time between the application submittal and the hearing is used by the planners to evaluate your request. If they have questions they will call you. You may call them, but their recommendations will not be ready until the Tuesday before the BOA meeting. The planners will make their recommendations at the BOA meeting.
The Hearing
You should plan on attending the BOA meeting. Although the meeting is formal and has rules of procedure, don't be afraid of speaking. We suggest that you spend a few minutes rehearsing what you plan to say. The most important thing to remember is that you should extend the same courtesy to others which are extended to you. Please don't interrupt other speakers. Keep your remarks brief.
An agenda is published about one week before the meeting. It is the order in which the requests are considered and will tell you when your request will be heard. The meeting has three parts: Consent Calendar, Old Business and New Business.
If your request is on the Consent Calendar, this means it will be automatically approved unless it is brought up for discussion. Unless your item is brought up, you may leave after the Consent Calendar is approved.
If your request is on either Old or New Business, it will be handled as shown below:
The planner will explain the request and make a recommendation for approval, denial or postponement.
You will explain why the variance should be approved. If the planner has recommended approval of your request and you agree with his recommendation, all you need to say is "I agree with the Planning Department's recommendation".
The members of the Board of Adjustment may ask you questions about your request.
- Anyone in favor of or opposed to the request will have an .opportunity to speak.

You have an opportunity to respond to these remarks.
The Board will discuss the request. They will vote on a motion to approve, deny or postpone the request.
If your request is approved, you can pick up an approval slip the next day at the Planning Department's office. Take this slip to the Regional Building Department at 101 West Costilla. Your building permit will then be issued.
If your request is postponed, you should talk with the planner and plan to be at the next meeting.
If your request is denied, the Board's decision is final. The only appeal is to the District Court. However, a rehearing may be possible if new information comes to light which could not have been presented at the original hearing. The planner will advise you on the rehearing procedure. Please remember that rehearings will be granted only when new evidence is present.

Senior centers are the visible statement of how communities value their senior citizens.
-- National Council on Aging
CODES

Colorado Springs is currently revising its Building Codes and is still using the 1979 Uniform Building Code (UBC) and the 1979 Pikes Peak Regional Building Code.
PIKES PEAK REGIONAL BUILDING CODE
A)
Occupancy 1 ) Group
descriptions A Division 1
2) Group B Division 2
3) Group H
Division
Division
which will apply to the Center:
Assembly buildings with stage; occupant load 1000 or more.
Retail stores, office buildings, workshops using not highly flammable or combustable materials, rooms used for educational purposes beyond 12th grade; occupancy less than 50 per room.
Workshops, storage, sales rooms of non-combustable, non-explosive materials. In educational buildings, vocational shops, labs, etc. need not be classified as Group H if they are separated from each other & other classrooms by a minimum one hour separation.
B) Plumbing requirements [FIGURE VI. 1.]
C) Retrofit requirements [FIGURE VI. 2.]
D) Energy Conservation Guidelines:
1) Design temperatures and U values
2) Lighting Power Budget
E) Compliance of adapted buildings
[FIGURE VI. 3.] [FIGURE VI. 4-J [FIGURE VI. 5-]
CODES

APPENDIX C
(3X7X18)

TYPE OF BUILDING Urinals Lavatories Bathtubs Drinking Other OCCUPANCY WATER CLOSETS (15) (4) or Showers Fountains (5) Fixtures (12)
Assembly No. of No of No. of No. of Places of Worship Persons Fixtures Persons Fixtures 1-150Women 1 300 Men 1 (21) 1| 1-300 Men 1 Add 1 each for each additional 150 women and 1 for each 150 men over 300 3er floor

Assembly (20)( 17) No. of No. of No. of No. of 1 for each
Auditoriums, arenas, ar- Men Fixtures Men Fixtures 300 persons
mories, gymnasiums, stadiums, stages, field houses, skating rinks, 1-100 1 101-200 2 201-400 3 1-200 201-400 401-600 1 2 3 per floor
assembly halls, dance halls, meeting rooms, banquet rooms, billiard rooms, drive-in restaurants, laundromats, theaters, drive-in-theaters, courthouses, public libraries or other similar buildings for entertainment or recreation over 400 add 1 fixture for each additional 500 men Note: The No. of W.C. *or women shall be the sum of the no. of W.C. and urinals required for men over 600 add 1 each 300 (2) fixture for men (21)
(1) 1 for each 10 patients - (1) 1 for each 10 1 for each floor and/ 1 slop sink per unit o
each sex patients each sex or each nursing dept. dept.
12) 1 in each patient room or See Note 9
ward room
tals and similar establishment (1) Nursing Dept.
(Centralized facilities)
(2) Individual patient rooms or ward rooms
Institutional (1) 1 for each 8 patients -
(Health) each sex
Hospitals, nursing homes. (2) See note 8 homes for the aged, sanitariums, mental hospi-

Institutional (Penal) To all jails or other places of detention 1 in each cell 1 in each exercise room 1 in each exercise room 1 in each cell 1 in each exercise area 1 per 10 persons for each cell block floor 1 in each block floe 1 in each cell >r exercise area 1 slop sink per floor
Public buildings, offices, No. of No. of No. of No. of 1 for eac h 75 persons 1 slop sink per floo
barber shops, beauty Persons/Sex Fixtures Persons/Sex Fixtures
parlors, retail and wholesale 1- 15 1 1- 15 1
establishments and places 16- 35 2 16- 35 2
of employment not other- 36- 55 3 36-60 3
wise regulated (11X 13)< 15) 56- 90 4 61- 90 4
(16) 81-110 4 91-125 5
111-150 6 1 fixture for each additional
1 fixture for each additional 45 persons
40 persons
Dormitories Men: 1 for each 10 persons 1 for each 25 men Over 150 1 for each 12 persons 1 for each 8 persons. 1 for eacl h 75 persons Laundry trays: 1 fo<
School, labor institutional Women: 1 for each 10 add 1 fixture for each 50 For womens dormi- each 50 persons. Slop
or other dormitones, hotels, persons men tones additional bath- sinks. 1 for each 100
tourist courts, lodges. 12) tubs shall be instal- persons.
rooming houses
led at the ratio of 1 for each 30 women. Over 150 persons, add a fixture for each 20 persons.
-a H
7) Kitchen sink and laundry tray or trap: I

< for each dwolling unit
H (10)
Dwellings (19) One and two family
1 for each dwelling unrt(10)
1 for each dwelling unit! 10)
1 for each dwelling unit (10)
Dwellings (19)
Multiple or apartment
apartments or multiple dwelling units (10) in excess of 10 apartments or units. 1 double laundry tray fo each 10 units or 1 automatic laundry washing machine for each 20 units
1 for each dwelling unit (10) or apartment
1 for each dwelling unit (10) or apartment
1 tor each dwelling unit (10)
Kitchen sink: 1 for each dwelling unit (10) or anarfment For
PEAK F&V^IAL. frplLp/ritj sr PL '"7 !

TYPE OF BUILDING OCCUPANCY
WATER CLOSETS
Urinals
(15)
Lavatories
(4)
Bathtubs or Showers
Drinking Fountains 15)
Other
Fixtures
Industrial No. of No of No. of No. of No. of No. of 1 shower for each 15
Warehouse, factories. Persons' Sex Fixtures Men Urinals Persons.'Sex Fixtures persons where exces-
foundries workshops. 1- 10 1 1 10 0 1-100 1 each 10 sive heat or occupa-
parking areas with attend- 11 25 2 11 30 1 persons tional hazard from
ants and similar estaolish 26- 50 3 31- 80 2 poisonous, infec-
ments 51- 75 4 81 160 3 tious or irritating
76-100 5 161-240 4 Over 100 1 each 15 material exists
1 for each additional 30 1 for each additional 50 persons
persons over 100 persons men over 240 men
1 for each 75 persons

Institutional (Nurseries) 1 for each 26 men
Full time nurseries, 1 for each 20 women
oiphanages and similar occupancy (on each occupied story)
1 for each 50 men
(2)
1 for each 10 persons
1 for each 10 persons 1 for each 50 persons
1 slop sink per unit or department
Bowling alleys
1 for each 16 alleys for men
1 for each 10 alleys for women
1 for each 10 alleys for men
1 foi each 10 alleys for men
1 for each 10 alleys for women
1 for each 10 alleys
Employees Fixtures for employees shall De included in the occupant load for the public
I
Food
Establishments No of Men
Additional Urinals Where Alcoholic Beverages Are Served
1- 15 1 0 1 o r
16- 30 31- 60 1 1 1 1 1 1 or (21) 0 1 r
61100 1 1 (21) 2
101-250 2 1 (21) 3
251 425 2 2 (21) 3
426 600 2 2 (21) 4
Over 600 1 for each additional 500 1 for each additional 500 (21) 1 for each additional
Food
Establishments No. of Women
Additional W.C. Where Alcoholic Beverages Are Served
1 75 76 200 201 400 401 GOO
Over 600
1
2
3
4
I for each additional 300
1 or (21) (21) (21) (21) (21)
1
2
3
4
1 for each additional 300
,1) Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four id both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property.
<2) Where urmais are provided for the women, the same number shall be provided as for men. Urinals for women may be installed as an auxiliary or supplemental fixture. The fixture shall not be considered as a substitute for water closets: .n all the required minimum number of water closets shall be provided. The urinal for women shall be enclosed with a water closet compartment and a door to insure privacy in use. '3' The figures shown are based upon one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction thereof
4i Twenty four lineal inches of wash sink or 18 inches of a cncular basin, when provided with water outlets tor such space, shall be considered equivalent to one lavatory. When there is exposure to skin -ortaminat.on with poisonous, infectious or irritating materials, provide one lavatory for each five persons.
,5) Drinking fountains shall not be installed in toilet rooms.
(6l Facil.ties shall oe located convenient to occupied areas being served and in no case more than three hundred (300) feet on the same level, or more than one floor removed from the occupied area.
7) Every toiiet room shall have at least fourteen (14) square feet of floor area with a minimum width of three (3) feet, and at least one hundred (100) cubic feet of volume for each water closet and each urinal in add.non to adequate space required for other plumbing fixtures or equipment installed within the toilet rooms. A water closet compartment if provided in toilet rooms shall be not less than thirty (30) inches in wdth with a clearance of not less than twenty four (24) inches between the front of the water closet and the front of the compartment.
18) If water closets to individual patient rooms or ward rooms replace centralized facilities, enclosed water closets shall be directly connected to not more than two (2) patient rooms or ward rooms, serving not nore than a total of four (4) beds
<9) Bubbler fountain shall not be connected to a water faucet or lavatory
10) Dwelling unit snail mean jny room, or group of rooms located within a dwelling and forming a single habitable unit with facilities which are used or intended to be used for living, sleeping, cooking and
eating. _____
q
H
o
a
73
m
APPENDIX C (cont.) 11
(11) Any single retail establishment or groups of retail establishments located on the same property or with an occupant load of five hundred (500) or more shall be required to have for the public in addition to the individual shop requirements for the employee a minimum of two (2) water closets, one urinal, one lavatory for men and three (3) water closets and one lavatory for women for the first one hundred (100) persons of each sex. For each additional five hundred (500) persons or fraction of each five hundred (500), an additional water closet, and lavatory shall be added.
12) Service sinks shall not be installed in toilet rooms.
< 13) This chart shall include the total occupant load of the building which included both the public and the employees. The employees and the public may use the same toilet facilities if the facilities are conveniently accessible for both the public and the employees. Conveniently accessible shall mean that the public shall not pass through the employees area and the employees shall not pass through the public area. See Note 6.
*(14l
U5) Urmais may be substituted for water closets on the basis of 1 to 1, but the number of urinals may not be greater than % total fixtures plus urmai
116) For retail and wholesale establishments the occupant load is based only on employees The employees are determined by taking the total occupied area and dividing by 300.
(17) Dnve in restaurants shall mean there are no sitting facilities within the building for consuming food.
(18) Construction sites are not required to have lavatory facilities
(19) In residences and buildings intended for human occupancy, hot water shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment used for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or building
maintenance.
(20) In assembly occupancies, where peak use of plumbing facilities may occur, the number of plumbing fixtures required shall be doubled
(21) In assembly occupancies, there shall be a minimum of 1 lavatory for every two water closets and/or urinal or fraction thereof.
* Omit

16-2-703
16-2-703
A,3) supplemental energy provided for heating is not intended for use except to protect the equipment or processes during down time. In which event, the supplemental energy required for heating shall not exceed that required if the building had a complying envelope."
4. Section 103.2. Delete and add:
"103.2 Additions, Alterations or Repairs to Existing Buildings:
"(a) Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, except as hereinafter provided. The new addition shall conform to the provisions of this Code as they relate to the new construction only.
"(b) Any renovation, alteration or repair which results in or is likely to result in, 50 percent or greater increase in replacement value, as determined by the County Assessor, shall require such building or structure to conform to the following requirements:
A,4) nondepletable energy resources or
otherwise, equals or is less than the total fossil fuel energy used if the building is renovated according to paragraph (1)
above, shall be considered an acceptable alternative for conformance with the
standards set forth in paragraph (1)
above. Computations shall be considered acceptable when calculated by
acceptable engineering procedures. Where State statutes require design by an architect or engineer, the statement of compliance shall be prepared by an
architect or engineer."
5. Section 103.3. Delete and add:
"103.3 Change of Occupancy. Any change of occupancy or use of any building or structure, as specified in the Uniform Building Code,1 which would require an increase in demand for either fossil fuel or electrical energy supply, shall not be permitted unless such building or structure is made to comply with the requirements of Section 103.2.
6. Section 107.0 is deleted.
"1. The combined thermal transmittance value (U0) for the roof/ceiling shall not exceed that specified in Section 502.2, Table 5-1, Colorado Energy Conservation Standards; and exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundations; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other such openings in the building envelope shall be caulked, gasketed, weatherstripped or otherwise sealed against leakage in an acceptable manner; and
"If in the course of renovation, change of occupancy or use, the mechanical equipment identified in Section 503 through 510 of the Colorado Energy Conservation Standards is replaced, replacement equipment shall conform to the requirements specified in those Sections; or
"2. Computations submitted, stating that the total fossil fuel or electrical energy required in the renovated building through design, utilization on
7. Add new Section 108.0: "108.0
Administrative and Appeal Procedures. Administrative and appeal procedures set forth in Section 16-1-105 of the Code of the City of Colorado Springs shall be applicable and followed in the administration of this Code."
8. Section 2. Either include where missing or substitute the following definitions in this Section:
"Glazing: The nonopaque portion of the building envelope.
"Gross Wall Area: The vertical projection of the exterior wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system; includes opaque wall, window and door areas. The gross area of exterior walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls to a point two feet below grade, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, window areas including sash, and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to outdoor air and enclose a heated or mechanically cooled space, including interstitial n areas between two such spaces.
r
1. See Section 16-2-102 of this Code.
FIGURE VI

16-2-703
16-2-703
I
}
f
I
V /
>
p
A,8)l "Historic Buildings: Those buildings which have been designated as historic by the State Historical Society, or by the governing body of a county or municipality, or are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
"Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV): An overall coefficient of heat gain expressed in units of Btu per hour per square foot.
"R-Value: The reciprocal of the thermal transmittance value (U-Value). The term is applied to usual combinations of building materials, as generally accepted in the building construction industry."
"Service Voltage: Utilization voltage from the utility source to the service entrance of the building.
A,12)envelope shall be determined as follows (For Residential, also see Appendix B, 502.1(a)).
U0 = Uw Aw + Ur Ar + 5 Uf Af + ..........~
Aw + Af + Af + ------ --------------
13. Section 502.0. Delete and add:
"502.1(c) The proposed design of a subterranean building may take into consideration the insulating values of undisturbed earth or fill as approved by the Building Official."
14. Section 502.2(a), Table 5-1 is amended by the addition of the following specific values.
"Walls, 3 stories or less. Heating U not exceeding .265
"Utilization Equipment: The m.o t o r components of equipment which utilizes electric energy for mechanical, chemical, heating, lighting or similar purposes."
9. Section 301.0(c). Delete and add:
"301.0 (c) When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein."
10. Section 302.1 is amended by the inclusion of the following temperatures:
"Winter Design Dry-Bulb 4F.
Summer Design Dry-Bulb 88 F.
Summer Design Wet-Bulb 62 F.
Degree Days Heating 6473
Degrees North Latitude 38-49"
11. 403 1 Solar Processes Change the
reference to "windows" to "glazing".
12. Section 502 1(a). Delete and add:
"502.1(a) The stated U0 value of any assembly, such as roof/ceiling, wall or floor, may be increased and the U0 value for other components decreased provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from conformances to the Uo values specified in Table 5-1 Complying U0 for building
"Walls 3 stories or less, Cooling, OTTV not exceeding 33
"Walls, over 3 stories Heating U not exceeding .32
"Walls over 3 stories, Cooling OTTV not exceeding 33
"Roof/Ceiling, Heating or exceeding. 0.72"
Cooling U not |
15. Delete subsection 502.2b(2).
16. Section 503.0. Add to the first paragraph:
"Utilization equipment in these systems shall be in accordance with Section 509.1."
17. Delete Section 507.0(b) and add:
"507.0(b) When low pressure supply air ducts are located outside of the conditioned space, all transverse joints shall be sealed using mastic or mastic plus tape. All longitudinal seams, except Pittsburgh-lock type, shall be sealed using mastic. For fibrous glass ductwork, heat activated or pressure sensitive tape may be used."
18. Delete Sections 508.1(b) and (d) and add:
"508.1(b) Gas and Oil Fired Storage Waters Heaters All gas and oil fired automatic storage '
s. t
r-J \
1 *
FIGURE VI

16-2-703
16-2-703

A,18)water heaters for nonresidential buildings shall have a recovery efficiency (Er) not less than 75 percent and the exterior storage tank loss shall not exceed that set forth in Section 508.1(c) below. (For Residential, see Appendix B, 508.1(b).)
"508.1(d) Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers (that is, boilers that have as another function winter space heating).
"Exception:
"1. Exempt from these requirements are systems with service/space heating boilers having a stand-by loss Btu/h less than:
13.3 pmd + 400 n
pmd = probable maximum demand in gallons/hour as determined in accordance with Chapter 36 of Std. RS-11.
n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean temperature exceeds 64.9 F.
The stand-by loss is to be determined for a test period of 24 h duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of 90 F above ambient.
"2. Exempt from these requirements are systems with service/space heating boilers where the Btu requirement for a service water heating exceeds the Btu requirement for space heating."
19. Delete Section 508.6(b) and add:
"508.6(b) Lavatories in restrooms of public facilities shall:
"1. Be equipped with outlet devices which limit the flow of hot water to a maximum of 0.5 gpm, or be equipped with self-closing valves that limit delivery to a maximum of 0.25 gallons of hot water.
A,19)"2. Be equipped with devices which limit the outlet temperature to a maximum of 110 F.
"Exception: Separate lavatories for physically handicapped persons shall not be equipped with self-closing valves."
20. Delete section 509.1 and add:
"509.1 Power Factor: Utilization equipment, with a labeled rating greater than 1,000 W and lighting equipment greater than 15 W, with an inductive reactance load component, shall have a power factor of not less than 85 percent under rated nameplate conditions. Power factor of less than 85 percent shall be corrected to at least 90 percent under rated nameplate conditions. Power factor corrective devices, installed to comply with this Code, shall be switched with the utilization equipment, except where this results in an unsafe condition or interferes with the intended operation of the equipment."
21. Delete section 509.2 and add:
"509.2 Service Voltage: Where a choice of service voltage is available from the power supplier a computation shall be made to determine which service voltage would produce the least energy loss, and that voltage shall be selected."
22. Delete all of 510.0 through Table 510 C and add:
| "510.0 LIGHTING. The building lighting shall be designed in accordance with the following methods:
"(a) LIGHTING POWER BUDGET. For purposes of establishing a budget, a Room Cavity Ratio (RCR) shall be calculated for each rectangular area of identical use within ceiling-height boundaries the following formula:
RCR = LW
Where L = Length of space (ft.)
W = Width of space (ft.) h = Vertical distance (ft.) from the work plane to the lighting fixture plane
"A value of watts per square foot shall be selected from Table 510A based on the
FIGURE VI. 4a.

16-2-703
16-2-703
A,22)applicable area category and Room Cavity Ratio, and this value shall be multiplied by the floor area in square feet to obtain watts. This calculation shall be made for all areas of the building and these values shall be summed to yield a total allowable lighting voltage. This total allowable lighting wattage is the maximum amount of lighting power for the building, which may then be allocated as desired provided this value is not exceeded.
"Note: Irregular areas should be approximated by a minimum number of rectangles and the corresponding Room Cavity Ratios used for each rectangular area.
"Exceptions: The following area of classes of lighting equipment may be exempt from the criteria of (a) of this section:
"1. Local task lighting fixtures applied to an individual location with switching under the user's immediate control, such as, but not limited to, a desk lamp, a work light on a machine, or a dental examination light.
"2. Lighting for special applications where the lighting is an essential technical element for the function performed, such as theatrical performances, spectator sports, surgery, and emergency and exit lighting.
"(b) ILLUMINATION BUDGET. If the total allowable lighting wattage value determined by the calculations outlined in (1) above is exceeded, then the illumination shall be determined by a method acceptable to the Building Official.
"510.1 LIGHTING SWITCHING AND CONTROL. Each area enclosed by ceiling-height partitions shall have independent control of the lighting in that area through localized switching devices located within the area.
"Note: It is recommended that switching, ^ circuiting or dimming be provided for lighting in task areas larger than 150 square feet to reduce the lighting level by at least one-half when the task is not being performed or is relocated."
(See following page for Table 510 A)
f
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FIGURE VI. 4b.

16-2-703 16-2-703
!
J
TABLE 510 A Lighting Power Values
\
1 J Maximum Connected Lighting Load in Watts/Sq. Ft. RCR
Occupancy 0-2 2+-4 4+ -6 6 + -8 8 +
1. Sales or display area 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.0
< 2. Office, reception, steno, data processing, mailroom, accounting, cashier 2.0 2.2 2.5 3.0 3.3
i ! 3. Entry, stairway, lobby, vestibule, foyer, waiting room, corridor 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.8
4. Classroom, school laboratory, library, gymnasium 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
; 5. Auto service and repair, car wash 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.5
i r * 6. Bulk storage area, warehouse, vehicle storage 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.0
i 7. Shipping and receiving 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.5
8. Stock room, tool room, mechanical room, janitor closet 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5
* \ ^ 9. Church, assembly area, conference room 1.4 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.5
f' 10. Toilet, shower, locker room, laundry room 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.2
* ' 11. Apartment kitchen or dining room 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6
4 12. Apartment stairway, foyer or hall 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5
13. Living or sleeping area in apartments, hotels, motels and other places of detention and abode 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0
1 14. Manufacturing, factory or work area 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.2 2.6
15. Restaurant kitchen or serving station 1.3 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.2
i j 16. Restaurant dining, bar 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.4
J i 17. Medical examination room, surgery, laboratory 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.2
Indoor parking structures -0.25-
Outdoor parking areas 0.05
Facade, building perimeter 4.0 watts/lin. ft."
1
J
FIGURE VI. 4c

16-2-901
16-2-902
CHAPTER 16 BUILDING ARTICLE 2 BUILDING CODES
PART 9 APPLICA TION OF REGULA TIONS
SECTION:
16-2-901:
16-2-902:
16-2-903:
16-2-904:
16-2-905:
16-2-906:
16-2-907:
16-2-908:
Applicability to Buildings and Structures Additions, Alterations or Repairs Nonstructural Alterations or Repairs Repairs to Roof Coverings Existing Occupancies Maintenance of Buildings Alternate Materials and Methods of Construction Tests
16 2-901: APPLICABILITY TO AND STRUCTURES:
BUILDINGS
Ja.
B.
C.
Existing Buildings. Buildings or structures to which additions, alterations or repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements for new buildings or structures except as specifically provided in this Part. The value or valuation of a building shall be the estimated cost to replace the building in kind, based on current replacement costs as determined by the Building Official. |
New Buildings, Structures or Equipment. This Building Code shall apply to all equipment, structures and buildings heretofore or hereafter erected or installed.
Moved Buildings. Buildings or structures moved into or within the City or the zoned areas of El Paso County shall comply with the provisions of this Code for new buildings or structures. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-7)
16-2-902:
ADDITIONS,
REPAIRS:
ALTERATIONS OR
More Than Fifty Percent. When additions, alterations or repairs within any twelve (12) month period exceed fifty percent (50%) of the value of an existing building or structure, such
A) building or structure shall be made to conform to the requirements for new buildings or structures.
B. Twenty Five Percent to Fifty Percent. Additions, alterations and repairs exceeding twenty five percent (25%) but not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of the value of an existing building or structure and complying with the requirements for new buildings or structures may be made to such building or structure within any twelve (12) month period without making the entire building or structure comply. The new construction shall conform to the requirements of the Building Code for a new building of like area, height and occupancy. Such building or structure, including new additions, shall not exceed the areas and heights specified in this Code.
Where stories or basements are expanded over twenty five (25) percent in area under the provisions of this Code, even though the expansion takes place in several stages, and would have been required to have an automatic fire-extinguishing system if the entire floor was being newly constructed, the entire story or basement must be provided with the sprinkler system.
C. Twenty Five Percent or Less. Structural additions, alterations and repairs to any portion of an existing building or structure within any twelve (12) month period not exceeding twenty five percent (25%) of the value of the building or structure shall comply with all of the requirements for new buildings or structures, except that minor structural additions, alterations or repairs, when approved by the Building Official, may be made with the same material of which the building or structure is constructed. Such building or structure including new additions, shall not exceed the areas and heights specified in this Code. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-7)
r
FIGURE VI. 5a

16-2-903
16-2-908
' (.***>
1
1
*
l!
16-2-903: NONSTRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OR REPAIRS: Alterations or repairs not exceeding twenty five percent (25%) of the value of an existing building or structure which are nonstructural and do not affect any member or part of the building or structure having required fire resistance may be made with the same materials of which the building or structure is constructed.
EXCEPTION: The installation or replacement of glass shall be as required for new installations. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-17)
16-2-904: REPAIRS TO ROOF COVERINGS: Not more than twenty five percent (25%) of the roof covering of any building or structure shall be replaced in any twelve (12) month period unless the new roof covering is made to conform to the requirements of the Building Code for new buildings or structures. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-7)
16-2-905: EXISTING OCCUPANCIES: Buildings in existence at the time of the passage of the Building Code may have their existing use or occupancy continued if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the passage of the Building Code, provided such continued use is not dangerous to life. If any change is made in the use or occupancy of any existing building or structure, the provisions of Part 2 of Article 4 of this Chapter must be complied with. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-17)
The Building Official may approve any such alternate provided he finds that the proposed design is satisfactory, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in the Building Code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. The Building Official shall require that sufficient evidence or proof be submitted to substantiate any claims that may be made regarding its use. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-10)
16-2-908: TESTS: Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of the Building Code or evidence that any material or any construction does not conform to the requirements of the Building Code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternate materials or methods of construction, the Building Official may require tests as proof of compliance to be made at the expense of the owner or his agent by an approved testing agency.
Test methods shall be as specified by the Building Code for the material in question. If there are no appropriate test methods specified in said Code, the Building Official shall determine the test methods.
Copies of the results of all such tests shall be retained for a period of not less than two (2) years after the acceptance of the structure. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-11)
16-2-906: MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS: All buildings or structures both existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards which are required by this Code in a building or structure when erected, altered or repaired, shall be maintained in good working order. The owner or his designated agent shall be responsible for the maintenance of buildings or structures. (Ord. 75-17; 1968 Code Â§ 5A-7)
16-2-907: ALTERNATE MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION: The
provisions of the Building Code are not intended to prevent the use of any material or method of construction not specifically prescribed herein or regulations adopted thereunder, provided any such alternate has been approved by the Building Official.
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I
FIGURE VI. 5b.

601-605
I
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
Chapter 6
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A,
DIVISION 1 OCCUPANCIES
Group A, Division 1 Occupancies Defined
Sec. 601. Group A, Division 1 Occupancies shall be:
Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 602. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group A, Division I because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be of Type 1 or II-F.R. construction and shall not exceedThn area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
(b) Special Provisions. Stages as defined in Section 420 shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 39.
The slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall not exceed one in five.
Location on Property
Sec. 603. Buildings housing Group A, Division 1 Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot wide right-of-wav, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way. The main assembly floor shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level.
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Sections 1803 and 1903.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 604. Stairs, exits, and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33. (See also Section 3315.)
Light, Ventilation, and Sanitation
Sec. 605. All enclosed portions of Group A, Division 1 Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall supply a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute
1976 EDITION
605-608
per occupant in all portions of the building and such system shall be kept continuously in operation during such time as the building is occupied. If the velocity of the air at the register exceeds 10 feet per second, the register shall be placed more than 8 feet above the floor directly beneath.
Lights in all parts of the building customarily used by human beings shall be on a separate circuit from that of the stage and shall be controlled from the box office. All lights in corridors, exit courts and exit passageways shall be protected by a wire cage.
All registers or vents supplying air backstage shall be equipped with automatic closing devices with fusible links. Such closing devices shall be located where the vents or ducts pass through the proscenium walls and shall be operated by fusible links located on both sides of the proscenium wall and both inside of and outside of the vent or duct.
There shall be provided in an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex. and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
For other requirements on water closets, see Section 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 606. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33. (For specific requirements see Section 3315.)
Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Fire extinguishing Systems
Sec. 607. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 608. Stages shall be equipped with automatic ventilators as required in Section 3901.
Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
Motion picture machine booths shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 40.
Proscenium curtains shall conform to the requirements set forth in U.B.C. Standard No. 6-1.
Flammable liquids shall not be placed or stored in any Group A. Division I Occupancy.
All exterior openings in a boiler room or room containing central heating equipment if located below openings in another story or if less than 10 feet from other doors or windows of the same building >ha 11 be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assemblies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be
CODES

608 609
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
separated front the rest or the building by not less than a One-hour Fire-
resistive Occupancy Separation.
FXCT'PHON: Boilers or central heating plants where the .argesi piece ot fuci equipment does not exceeJ 400.000 Btu per hour input.
Modifications
Sec. 609. Gymnasiums and similar occupancies may have running tracks constructed of wood or unprotected steel or iron.
1976 EDITION
701-702
Chapter 7
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A DIVISIONS 2, 2.1, 3 AND 4 OCCUPANCIES Group A. Divisions 2, 2.1, 3 and 4 Occupancies Defined
Sec. 701. Group A, Divisions 3.2.1, 3 and 4 Occupancies shall be:
Division 2. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage.
Division 2.1. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load .of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
Division 3. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
Division 4. Stadiums, reviewing stands, and amusement park structures not included within other Group A Occupancies. Specific and general requirements for grandstands, bleachers and reviewing stands are to be found in Chapter 33.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height, and Allowable Area
Sec. 702. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group A, Divisions 2, 2.1. 3 and 4 because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
EXCEPTION: Division 4 structures of open skeleton frame type without roof, cover or enclosed usable spaces, shall not be limited in area or height.
(b) Special Provisions. Stages and enclosed platforms as defined in Sections 417 and 420 shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 39.
A fire-resistive ceiling shall not be required in one-story buildings of Type II, One-hour, Il-N, III, IV or V construction having an open frame roof.
Division 2 Occupancies with an occupant load of 1000 or more shall be of Type 1, ll-F.R.. II, One-hour, III, One-hour, or IV construction.
Division 3 Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistiv e construction.
Group A assembly rooms having an occupant load of 1000 or more shall not be located in the basement.
Div ision 3 Occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more, which are located over usable space, shall be separated from such space by not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
CODE&

702-706
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
For attic space partitions and draft stops sec Section 3205.
(c) Division 4 Provisions. Erection and structural maintenance of structures housing Division 4 Occupancies shall conform to the requirements of this Code.
Structures housing Division 4 Occupancies, other than those of open skeleton frame type, when more than one story in height or 400 square feet in area, shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
When the space under a Div ision 4 Occupancy is used for any purpose, including exits, it shall be separated from all parts of such Division 4 Occupancy, including exits, by walls, floor and ceiling of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Exits under temporary grandstands need not be separated.
2. The underside of continuous steel deck grandstands when erected outdoors need not be fircprotectcd when occupied for public toilets.
The Building Official may cause all Division 4, structures to be reinspccted at least once every six months. .
Location on Property _
Sec. 703. All buildings housing Group A, Divisions 2. 2.1, 3 and 4 Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot wide right-of-way unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 704. (a) General. Stairs, exits, and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33. (See also Section 3316.)
(b) Amusement Structures. Exits and exit signs for Division 4, Amusement Structures, shall be approved by the Building Official and, where practicable, shall comply with the requirements specified in Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 705. All portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural or artificial light, ventilation and sanitary facilities as specified in Sections 605 and 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 706. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33. (For specific requirements see Section 3316.)
Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed, and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
1976 EDITION
707-709
Fire-extinguishing Systems
Sec. 707. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 708. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
Motion picture machine rooms shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 40.
Proscenium curtains shall conform to the requirements set forth in U.B.C. Standard No. 6-1.
Flammable liquids shall not be placed or stored in a Group A Occupancy-
All exterior openings in a boiler room or rooms containing central heating equipment if located below openings in another story or if less than 10 feet from other doors or windows of the same building shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assemblies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a Onc-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTION: Boilers or central heating plants where the largest piece of fuel equipment does not exceed 400,000 Btu per hour input.
Modifications
Sec. 709. Gymnasiums and similar occupancies may have running tracks constructed of wood or unprotected steel or iron.
In gymnasiums or in multipurpose schoolrooms having an area not greater than 3200 square feet, l-inch nominal tight tongue-and-grooved or VJ-inch plywood wall covering may be used on the inner side in lieu of fire-resistive plaster.
CODES

1001-1002
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
Chapter 10
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP H OCCUPANCIES
Group H Occupancies Defined
Sec. 1001. Group H Occupancies shall be:
Division 1. Storage and handling of hazardous and highly flammable or explosiv e materials other than flammable liquids.
Division 2. Storage and handling of Class I. II and lll-A liquids, as set forth in U.B.C. Standard No. 10-T; dry cleaning plants using flammable liquids; paint stores with bulk handling; paint shops and spra> painting rooms and shops.
The storage or sale of hazardous materials or chemicals or Class 1, II and lll-A liquids in amounts that do not exceed those set forth in Table No. 10-A is permitted in buildings or portions thereof without classifying such buildings as a Group H Occupancy, provided such chemicals, hazardous materials or liquids are stored and handled in compliance with the provisions of the Fire Code. '
, Division 3. Woodworking establishments, planing mills, box factories, buffing rooms for tire rebuilding plants and picking rooms: shops, factories or warehouses where loose combustible fibers or dust are manufactured, processed, generated or stored; and pin refinishing rooms.
Division 4. Repair garages.
Division 5. Aircraft repair hangars.
In buildings used for educational purposes, vocational shops, laboratories and similar areas need not be classified as Group H Occupancies, provided they are separated from each other and from other classrooms by not less than a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separa-I tion.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
Where an approved spray booth constructed as specified in the Fire Code is installed, such booth need not be separated from other Group H or Group B Occupancies.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 1002. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group I H because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the ; types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505. 506 and 507.
(b) Special Provisions. Division 5 Occupancies shall have everior walls of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction or shall be surrounded by public space, streets or yards, not less than 60 feet in width.
The area increases allowed by Section 506 (a) shall not exceed 500 percent for aircraft repair hangars.
1976 EDITION
1002-1005
In areas where motor vehicles, boats or airplanes are stored, repaired or operated and where flammable liquids are stored or used, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustible nonabsorbent materials.
EXCEPTION: Floors may be surfaced or waterproofed with asphaltic-pas ing materials where no repair work is done.
For special provisions and hazardous chemicals and magnesium see also the Fire Code.
A Division 4 Occupancy having a floor area not exceeding 2500 square feet shall have exterior walls of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction when less than 5 feet from a property line and of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction when more than 5 feci but less than 10 feet from a property line, w hen located in Fire Zone No. 3.
For smoke and heat venting, see Section 3206.
Location on Property
Sec. 1003. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 1004. Stairs, exits and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33. (See also Section 3319.)
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1005. All portions of Group H Occupancies shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
In all buildings or portions thereof where flammable liquids are used, exhaust ventilation shall be provided sufficient to produce four complete air changes per hour. Such exhaust ventilation shall be taken from a point at or near the floor level.
In all buildings used for the repair or handling of automobiles operating under their own power, ventilation shall be provided capable of exhausting a minimum of 1 cfm per square foot. Additionally, each engine repair stall shall be equipped with an exhaust pipe extension duct, extending to the outside of the building, which, if over 10 feet in length, shall mechanically exhaust 300 cubic feet per minute. Connecting offices and waiting rooms shall be supplied with conditioned air under positive pressure.
EXCEPTION. In public repair garages and aircraft hangars not exceeding an area of 5000 square feet, the Building Official may authorize the omission of such ventilating equipment where, in his opinion, the building is supplied wiih unobstructed openings to the outer air which are sufficient to provide the necessary ventilation
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be
CODES

10-A
UNIFORM BUILDING
TABLE NO. 10-AEXEMPT AMOUNTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, LIQUIDS AND CHEMICALS
MATERIAL MAXIMUM QUANTITIES
1. Flammable liquids
Class l-A 30 cal.
Class l-B 60 gal.
fUec I./"*
Class II 120 gal.:
2. Combustible liquids. Class III-A 250 cal.
3. Combination flammable liquids 120 gal.:
4. Flammable eases 3000 cu. It. at one atmosphere
ot pres-ure at OF
5. Liquefied flammable eases 60 cal
6. Flammable fibersloose 100 cu. It.
7. Flammable fibersbaled 1000 cu. It.
8. Flammable solids 500 lbs.
9. Unstable materials No exemptions
10. Corrosive liquids 55 gal.
11. Oxidizing materialgases 6000 cu. ft.
12. Oxidizing materialliquids 50 gal.
13. Oxidizing materialsolids 500 lbs.
14. Oreanic peroxides 10 lbs.
15. Nitromethane (unstable Materials) No exemptions
16. Ammonium nitrate 1000 lbs.
17. Ammonium nitrate compound >
mixtures containing more than 60%
nitrate bv weight 1000 lbs.
18. Highly toxic material and
poisonous gas No exemptions
Containing not more than the exempt amounts of Class l-A. I-B. or l-C flammable liquids.
'Quantities may be increased by 100 percent in areas which are not accessible to the public. In buildings where automatic fire-extinguishing systems are installed, the quantities may be increased 100 percent in areas accessible to the public. '
1976 EDITION 1101-1102
Chapter 11
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B,
DIVISIONS 1, 2 AND 3 OCCUPANCIES
NOTE: Tables in Chapter 11 appear at the end of the Chapter.
Group B, Divisions 1,2 and 3 Occupancies Defined
Sec. 1101. Group B, Divisions 1. 2 and 3 Occupancies shall be:
Division 1. Gasoline service stations, storage garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Division 2. Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling. (See Section 402 for definition of Assembly Buildings.)
Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes beyond the 12th grade with less than 50 occupants in any room.
Division 3. Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Open parking garages.
Heliports.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height, and Allowable Area
Sec. 1102. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B, Divisions 1.2 or 3 Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. ?-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506, and 507.
Other provisions of this Code notwithstanding, a Group B. Division 1 Occupancy located in the basement or first story of a building housing a Group B, Division 2 or a Group R. Division 1 Occupancy may be classed as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of area limitation, limitation of number of stories and type of construction, when all of the follow ing conditions are met:
1. The Group B, Division 1 Occupancy is of Type 1 Construction.
2. There is a Three-hour Occupancy Separation between the Group B. Division 1 Occupancy and all portions of the Group B, Division 2 or Group R. Division 1 Occupancy.
3. The basement or first story is restricted to the storage of passenger
CODES

1102-1105
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
vehicles (having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle), but may contain laundry rooms and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.
4. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D for the least type of construction involved.
(b) Special Provisions. Marine or motor vehicle service stations including canopies and supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible, fire-retardant treated wood or of one-hour fire-resistive construction.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Roofs of one-storv service stations may be of heavy-timber construction.
2. Canopies conforming to Section 52I2 may he erected over pumps.
In areas where motor vehicles, boats or airplanes are stored, and in gasoline service stations, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustible, nonabsorbent materials. Floors shall drain to an approved oil separator or trap discharging to sewers in accordance with the Plumbing Code.
EXCEPTION: Floors may be surfaced or waterproofed with asphaltic-paving materials in areas where motor vehicles or airplanes are stored or operated.
Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales, shall be separated from the public areas by a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation as, defined in Chapter 5. Such areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
EXCEPTION: A One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation is not required where an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building. Area increases also shall be permitted as specified in Section 506 (c).
Storage garages in connection with Group R, Division I Occupancies ; shall have an unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 in-| ches above the finish floor to any ceiling, beam, pipe, or similar construction except for wall-mounted shelves, storage surfaces, racks or cabinets.
! For attic space partitions and draft stops see Section 3205.
For smoke and heat venting see Section 3206.
Location on Property
Sec. 1103. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 1104. Stairs, exits, and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33; see Section 3316.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1105. All portions of Group B, Div isions 1. 2 and 3 Occupancies, shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-
1976 EDITION
1105-1106
twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated v entilating system as specified in Section 605.
In all buildings or portions thereof where flammable liquids are used, exhaust ventilation shall be provided, sufficient to produce four air changes per hour. Such exhaust ventilation shall be taken from a point at or near the floor level.
In all enclosed parking garages, used for storing or handling of automobiles operating under their own power and on all loading platforms in bus terminals, ventilation shall be provided caphble of exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per square foot of gross floor area. The Building Official may approve an alternate ventilation system designed to exhaust a minimum of 14.000 cfm for each operating vehicle. Such system shall be based upon the anticipated instantaneous movement rate of vehicles but not less than 2.5 percent (or one vehicle) of the garage capacity. Automatic CO sensing devices may be employed to modulate the ventilation system to maintain a maximum average concentration of CO of 50 ppm during any eight hour period, w ith a maximum concentration not greater than 200 ppm for a period not exceeding one hour. Connecting offices. waiting rooms, ticket booths, etc., shall be supplied with conditioned air under positive pressure.
EXCEPTION: In gasoline service stations without lubrication pits, storage garages and aircraft hangars not exceeding an area of 5000 square feet, the Building Official mav authorize the omission of such ventilating equipment where, in his opinion, the building is supplied with unobstructed openings to the outer air which are sufficient to pros ide the necessary ventilation.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed'. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property.
Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where food is prepared, stored, or served, shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish on floors, walls, and ceilings and shall have hand washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto.
All water closet rooms shall be provided with an exterior window at least 3 square feet in area, fully openable: or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility with an additional 50 square inches for each additional toilet facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system, which is connected to the light switch, capable of providing a complete change of air every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be vented to the outside air and at the point of discharge shall be at least 5 feet from any openable w indow.
For other requirements on water closets, see Section 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 1106. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33.
CODES

1109
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
(h) Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed when required by the provisions of Chapter 38.
(i) Fire-extinguishing S>stems. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance w ith the provisions of Chapter 38.
(j) Enclosure of Vertical Openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in subsection (g) for stairs, exits, and lifts.
(k) Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in subsection (b), shall not be required.
(l) Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:
1. Automobile repair work.
2. Parking of busses, trucks and similar vehicles.
3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
TABLE NO. 11-AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
I TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION I AREA PER TIER (Square Feet) HEIGHT
RAMP-ACCESS MECHANICAL-ACCESS
Automatic Fire-Extinguishing System
NO YES
i L'nlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
II-F.R. ; 125.000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers IS Tiers
II l-hour j 50.000 " 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
II X i 30,000 8 Tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
TABLE NO. 11-BOPEN PARKING GARAGES EXTERIOR WALLS

UldlANUC rftUPfl PROPERTY LINE TO BUILDING FIRE ZONE NO. t FIRE ZONE NO. 2 FIRE ZONE NO. 3
0'-10' 10'-20' 2-hour 1-hour 2-hour 1-hour l-hour None
CODES

TABLE NO. 17 ATYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
(In Hours)
For Details see Chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction and for Exceptions see Section 1705.
TYPE 1 TYPE II | TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
NONCOMBUSTIBLE COMBUSTIBLE
BUILDING ELEMENT FIRE RESISTIVE Fire Resistive 1-Hr. N | 1-Hr. N H.T. 1-Hr. N
Exterior Be.trine Walls i Sec. 1803 la) -1 1903 la) i X 4 2103 (a) 4 2103 (a) 4 2103 (a) i X
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 i N 1 X 1 i N
Interior Xonbearint; Walk 1 Sec. 1803 fa) 4 1903(a) i N 1 2103 (a) 4 2103 (a) 4 2103(a) i X
Structural Frame' 3 2 i X 1 X l or H.T. i N
Partitions Permanent v i* i- N 1 X 1 or H.T. i X
Shaft Enclosures o 2 i 1 1 1 1 1706 1706
Floors 2 2 i X 1 N H.T. 1 X
Roofs o Sec. *1806 i 1900 i 2000 X l N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Sec. 1803 (b) 1903 (li) 2003 2003 2103 ) 2103 (h) 2103 (b) 2203 2203
Note: For changes to types of construction designations, see page 21.
NNo general requirements for fire resistance. H.T.Hea\y Timber.
Structural frame elements in the exterior wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, whichever is greater.
'Fire-retardant treated wood (see Section 407) may be used in the assembly provided fire-resistance requirements are maintained. See Sections 1801. 1901 and 2001, respectively.
CODES
17 A UNIFORM BUILDING CODE

TABLE NO. 17 ATYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
(In Hours)
For Details see Chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction and for Exceptions see Section 1705.
1982 EDITION
17- A
TYPE V COMBUSTIBLE z Z 2 Z z Z s z Z Cl Cl
X - - - - - _o c- - - Cl Cl
TYPE IV X Cl - Cl -= - t H Cl
TYPE III z s -r ro s n 2 s -r ro 8 C4 2 Z - z z S' m 8 rj
X S r ro 8 C4 - S CO 8 Cl - - - - - s ro 8 d
TYPE II NONCOMBUSTIBLE z 2 Z 2 Z z - z z -y*. JO m S
X ?l -I S CO 8
> 2 -S fiC d ^CO x C Cl ?l Cl Cl cc CC X
TYPE 1 > 2 **: cc T t ~~ X c X 7:8 X rr - Cl Cl o X Cl- 12 X X

BUILDING ELEMENT X CC tt 2 u / 2'* ^ y Structural Frame1 1 '/. 7 u c u: _c lx. r. 1 CC / po ^
107
NNo general requirements for fire resistance. H.T.Heavy Timber.
'Structural frame elements in the exterior wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, whichever is greater.
-Fire-retardant treated wood (sec Section 407) may be used in the assembly, provided fire-resistance requirements are maintained. See Sections I KOI and 1901, respectively.
1982 EDITION
Chapter 18
TYPE I FIRE-RESISTIVE BUILDINGS
1801-1804
Definition
Sec. 1801. The structural elements in Type t fire-resistive buildings shall be .if steel, iron, concrete or masonry.
Walls and permanent partitions shall be of noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that permanent nonbearing partitions of one-hour or two-hour fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a shaft enclosure, may have fire-retardant treated wood (see Section 407) within the assembly.
Materials of construction and fire-resistive requirements shall be as specified in Chapter 17.
Structural Framework
Sec. 1802. Structural framework shall be of structural steel or iron as specified in Chapter 27, reinforced concrete as in Chapter 26, or reinforced masonry as in Chapter 24.
For additional requirements for Group H Occupancies, see Section 902.
Exterior Walls and Openings
Sec. 1803. (a) Exterior Walls. Exterior walls and all structural members shall comply with the requirements specified in Section 504 and the fire-resistive provisions set forth in Table No. 17-A.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
2. In Groups R, Division 1, and B Occupancies, exterior bearing walls may be of two-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
3. In other than Group H Occupancies, exterior nonbearing walls may be of one-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and two-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
(b) Openings in Walls. All openings in exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Section 504 (b) and shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line or the center line of a street or public space.
No openings shall be permitted in exterior walls of Groups A, E, I, H and B, Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Occupancies less than 5 feet from the property line, and no openings in Groups B, Division 4, R and M Occupancies less than 3 feet from the property line.
Floors
Sec. 1804. Where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete fire-resistive floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with noncombustible material or fire-stopped in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 square feet in area and such space shall be filled solidly under all
109
Pe- 109 TYPE I BLDG. Ch. 18

1'( > !( i t
I I" : L
I

! ,
FLOOR
WOOD HANGERS OR WIRES
ry
ADJACENT
ROOMS
u
RATED 'SUSPENDED CEILING OR WOOD JOISTS. PROTECTED BENEATH
NO FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED
vNONRATED CEILING
FIRE-RESISTIVE PROTECTION ^
ADJACENT ROOMS
CORRIDOR ^ CFLOOR
CASE C-1
CASE 04
RAFTERS OR TRUSSES,
jLOCKING iVOOD STUDS
ADJACENT
ROOMS
o*
FLOOR
NO FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED
v~'l
ADJACENT ROOMS
WOOD STUDS
FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED NONRATE D SUSPENDED CEILING ^
ADJACENT ROOMS FLOOR*^
CASE 02
\!'.I I K'1-Tv.n
U ~T' nj * '*
,ki#
NO FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED

CASE 05
FIRE DAMPERS NOT REQUIRED PROVIDED DUCT IS CONSTRUCTED FLOOR OF GALVANIZED STEEL
/ WOODS
/hangers
/ OR WIRESC
RATED SUSPENDEDl CEILMG
DJACENT
DOMS
FIRE-
RESISTIVE
PROTECTION
CORRIDOR
y ^ T\ FI
FLOOR JOISTS
%
lL
ONE-HOUR FLOOR-CEILNG ASSEMBLY
WOOD STUDS
ADJACENT ROOMS
FLOOR.
RATED SUSPENDED-CEILING OR WOOD JOISTS PROTECTED
Z' ( Tre
( \ ; pro'

ADJACENT ROOMS
FIRE RESISTIVE PROTECTION
CORRIDOR
WOOD STUDS
acr?
ADJACENT ROOMS
FLOOR

J
67
CASE C-3
CASE C-

ONE-HOUR FLOOR-CEILNG ASSEMBLY
NONCOMBUSTIBLE STUDS
ADJACENT ROOMS
A
ADJACENT ROOMS
VFIRE-RESISTIVE FLOOR CEILING ASSEMBLY
NONRATED SUSPENDED CEILING
OflloATFn
incombustible ^ suspendedBoB
STUDS
__ '
FIRE-RESISTIVE S O } PROTECTION Ml a'
ADJACENT ROOMS
NO FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED
M
CEILNG CORRIDOR
0
1
ADJACENT ROOMS
FLOOR.
CASE N-1
^2^"k?li
v 3 P A f^r1
CASE N-2

CD

FIRE-RESISTIVE
PROTECTION
ADJACENT ROOMS NONCOMBUSTIBLE
STUDS
FIRE DAMPER REQUIRED
K
ADJACENT ROOMS
:V7
CASE N-3
- x* ,

V 34-row
Width of stairs = (1) Occupant load + 50
s (2) 30 for private stairwayoccupant load lass than 10 S (3) 36* for occupant load 10 to 50 = (4) 44 minimum for occupant loads over 50 Need not exceed 4'0* If landing occurs in a straight run of stairs.
STAIR DETAIL STAIR DETAIL
OCCUPANT LOAD LESS THAN 10 OCCUPANT LOAD MORE THAN 10
(Privata Stairway)
/
69

3301-3302
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
(c) Exit Obstruction. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this chapter.
(d) Changes in Elevation. Within a building, changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along any exit serving an occupant load of I0or more shall be by ramps.
EXCEPTION: Group R. Division .1 Occupancies and along aisles adjoining seating areas.
(c) Building Accessibility. Portions of buildings shall be accessible to the physically handicapped as required by Table No. 33-A. and at least one primary entrance to a building which is required to be accessible shall be usable by the physically handicapped and be on a level that would provide accessibility to the elevators where provided.
Occupant Load
Sec. 3302. (a) Determination of Occupant Load. In determining the occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time.
EXCEPTION: Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided w ith exits as though they are completely occupied, but their occupant load need not be included in computing the total occupant load of the building.
The occupant load for a building shall be determined in accordance with the following:
1. General. For areas without fixed seats, the occupant load shall be not less than the number determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the occupant load factor set forth in Table No. 33-A. Where an intended use is not listed in Table No. 33-A the building official shall establish an occupant load factor based on a listed use which most nearly resembles the intended use.
For a building or portion thereof which has more than one use. the occupant load shall be determined by the use w hich gives the largest number of persons.
The occupant load for buildings or areas containing two or more occupancies shall be determined by adding the occupant loads of the various use areas as computed in accordance w ith the applicable provisions of this section.
2. Fixed seating. For areas having fixed scat and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The required width of aisles serving fixed seats shall not be used for any other purpose.
For areas having fixed benches or pews, the occupant load shall be not less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of length of pew or bench.
Where booths are used in dining areas, the occupant load shall be based on one person for each 24 inches of booth length or major portion thereof.
3. Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers. The occupant load for reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers shall be calculated in accordance with this section and the specific requirements contained in Sections 3323 and 3324.
(b) Maximum Occupant Load. The maximum occupant load for other than an
1982 EDITION
3302-3303
asscmblv use shall not exceed the capacity of exits as determined in accordance with this chapter.
The maximum occupant load for an assembly use shall not exceed the occupant load as determined in accordance with Section 3302 (a).
EXCEPTION: The occupant load for an assembly building or portion thereof may be increased, when approved by the building official, if all the requirements of this code are met for such increased number ol persons The building official may require an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram to substantiate such an increase, and may require that such diagram be posted.
(c) Posting of Room Capacity. Any room having an occupant load of 50 or more where fixed seats are not installed, and which is used for classroom, assembly or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place on an approved sign near the main exit from the room Such signs shall be maintained legible by the owner or his authorized agent and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for each room use.
(d) Revised Occupant Load. After a building is occupied, any change in use or increase in occupant load shall comply with this chapter. See Section 502.
Exits Required
Sec. 3303. (a) Number of Exits. Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit, not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A and additional exits as required by this subsection.
For purposes of this section, basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories.
Floors complying with the provisions for mezzanines as specified in Section 1716 shall be provided with exits as specified therein.
The second story shall be provided with not less than two exits when the occupant load is 10 or more.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Except as provided in Table No. 33-A. only one exit need be provided from the second story within an individual dwelling unit. Refer to Section 1204 for emergency escape or rescue requirements from sleeping rooms.
2. Two oi more dwelling units on the second story may have access to only one common exit when the total occupant load does not exceed 10.
Occupants on floors above the second story and in basements shall have access to not less than two separate exits from the floor or basement.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Floors and basements used exclusively for serv ice of the building may have one exit. For the purposes of this exception, storage rooms, laundry rooms, maintenance offices and similar uses shall not be considered as providing service to the building.
2. Basements w ithin an individual dwelling unit having an occupant load of less than 10 may have one exit.
3 Storage rooms, laundry rooms and maintenance offices not exceeding 300 square feet in floor area may be provided with only one exit.
For special requirements see the following sections: Group A. Sections 3317 and 3318: Group E. Section 3310; Group H. Section 3320: Group I. Section 3321; Boiler. Furnace and Incinerator Rooms and Cellulose Nitrate Handling
CODES

3303
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
Rooms. Section 3322; Reviewing Stands, Grandstands and Bleachers. Sections 3323 and 3324; and Open Parking Garages, Section 709 (g). For stage exits, see Section 3907.
Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits.
Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load ol 1001 or more shall have not less than four exits.
The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows;
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the structure. (See Section 3311.)
(b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained.
(c) Arrangement of Exits. If only two exits are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
EXCEPTION: When exit enclosures are provided as a portion of the required exit and are interconnected by a corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 3305 (g), exit separations may be measured along a direct line of travel within the exit corridor. Enclosure walls shall be not less than 30 feet apart at any point in a direct line of measurement.
When three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the others will be available.
(d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped w ith an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet, or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler
546
1982 EDITION
3303-3304
system throughout. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, complying with Section 3305. See Section 3319 for Group E Occupancy and Section 3320 for Group H Occupancy travel distances.
In a one-story Group B, Division 4 Occupancy classified as a factory or warehouse and in one-story airplane hangars,, the exit travel distance may be increased to 400 feet if the building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout and provided with smoke and heat ventilation as specified in Section 3206.
In an open parking garage, as defined in Section 709, the exit travel distance may be increased to 250 feet.
(e) Exits Through Adjoining Rooms. Rooms may have one exit through an adjoining or intervening room which provides a direct, obvious and unobstructed means of travel to an exit corridor, exit enclosure or until egress is provided from the building, provided the total distance of travel does not exceed that permitted by other provisions of this code. In other than dwelling units, exits shall not pass through kitchens, store rooms, rest rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Rooms within dwelling units may exit through more than one intervening room.
2. Rooms with a cumulative occupant load of 10 or less may exit through more than one intervening room.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Doors
Sec. 3304. (a) General. This section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of 10 or more, or serving hazardous rooms or areas, except that Subsections (c), (h) and (i) shall apply to all exit doors regardless of occupant load. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exterior exit door that meets the requirements of Subsection (e).
(b) Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an area having an occupant load of 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits when any of the following conditions exist:
1. The occupant load served by the door is 100 or more.
2. The door is part of a fire assembly.
3. The door is part of a smoke- and draft-control assembly.
4. Panic hardware is required or provided on the door.
A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches.
(c) Type of Lock or Latch. Exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
EXCEPTIONS: I. This requirement shall not apply to exterior exit doors in a Group B Occupancy if there is a readily visible, durable sign on or adjacent to the
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UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
door staling THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED DURING BUSINESS HOURS. The sign shall be in letters not less than I inch high on a contrasting background. The locking device must be a type that will be readily distinguishable as locked. The use of this exception may be revoked by the building official for due cause.
2. Exit doors from individual dwelling units and guest rooms of Group R Occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less may be provided with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool and mounted at a height not to exceed 48 inches above the finished floor.
Manually operated edge- or surface-mounted flush bolts and surface bolts are prohibited. When exit doors are used in pairs and approved automatic flush bolts are used, the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts shall have no door knob or surface-mounted hardware. The unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than one operation.
EXCEPTION: Group R. Division 3 Occupancies.
(d) Panic Hardware. Panic hardware, when installed, shall comply with the requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 33-4. The activating member shall be mounted at a height of not less than 30 inches nor more than 44 inches above the floor. The unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds when applied in the direction of exit travel.
(e) Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height. When installed, exit doors shall be capable of opening so that the clear width of the exit is not less than 32 inches. In computing the exit width required by Section 3303 (b), the net dimension of the exitway shall be used.
(0 Door Leaf Width. A single leaf of an exit door shall not exceed 4 feet in width.
(g) Special Doors. Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits.
Power-operated doors complying with U.B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit purposes. Such doors when swinging shall have two guide rails installed on the swing side projecting out from the face of the doorjambs for a distance not less than the widest door leaf. Guide rails shall be not less than 30 inches in height with solid or mesh panels to prevent penetration into door swing and shall be capable of resisting a horizontal load at top of rail of not less than 50 pounds per lineal foot.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Walls or other type separators may be used in lieu of the above guide rail, provided all the criteria are met.
2. Guide rails in industrial or commercial occupancies not accessible to the public may conform with Exception 4 to the provision of Section 1711.
3. Doors swinging toward flow of traffic shall not be permitted for use by untrained pedestrian traffic unless actuating devices start to function at least 8 feet 11 inches beyond door in open position and guide rails extend 6 feet 5 inches beyond door in open position.
Clearances for guide rails shall be as follows:
548
1982 EDITION
3304-3305
I Six inches maximum between rails and leading edge of door at the closest point in its arc of travel.
2. Six inches maximum between rails and the door in open position.
3. Two inches minimum between rail at hinge side and door in open position.
4. Two inches maximum between freestanding rails and jamb or other adjacent surface.
(h) Floor Level al Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. The floor or landing shall be not more than '/: inch lower than the threshold of the doorway. When doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet.
EXCEPTIONS: I. When the door opens into a stair of a smokeproof enclosure, the landing need not have a length of 5 feet.
2. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and within individual units of Group R. Division I Occupancies, a door may open on the top step of a flight of stairs or on an exterior landing, provided the door does not swing over the top step or exterior landing and the landing is not more than Vh inches below the floor level.
3. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies, screen doors and storm doors may swing over stairs, steps or landings.
4 In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and private garages and sheds when a door opens over a landing, the landing shall have a length equal to the width of the door.
(i) Door Identification. Glass doors shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 5406.
Exit doors shall be so marked that they are readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction.
(j) Additional Doors. When additional doors are provided for egress purposes, they shall conform to all provisions of this chapter.
EXCEPTION: Approved revolving doors having leaves which will collapse under opposing pressures may be used in exit situations, provided:
1. Such doors have a minimum width of 6 feet 6 inches.
2. At least one conforming exit door is located adjacent to each revolving door.
3. The revolving door shall not be considered to provide any exit width.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Sec. 3305. (a) General. This section shall apply to every corridor serving as a required exit for an occupant load of 10 or more except as provided in Subsection
(b) for Group R, Divisions I and 3 Occupancies. For the purposes of the section, the term corridor shall include exterior exit balconies and any covered or enclosed exit passageway, including walkways, tunnels and malls. Partitions, rails, counters and similar space dividers not over 5 feet 9 inches in height above the floor shall not be construed to form corridors.
Exit corridors shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms.
EXCEPTION: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
(b) Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less than 44 inches in width. Regardless of the occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and within dwelling units in Group R. Division 1
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UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches. For special requirements for Groups E and I Occupancies, see Sections 3319 and 3321.
(c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
(d) Projections. The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed.
EXCEPTION: Handrails and doors, when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches. Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features may project into the required width I '/b inches on each side.
(e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
(0 Changes in Elevation. When a corridor or exterior exit balcony is accessi ble to the handicapped, changes in elevation of the floor shall be made by means of a ramp, except as provided for doors by Section 3304 (h).
(g) Construction. Walls of corridors serving a Group R, Division I or Group I Occupancy having an occupant load of 10 or more and walls of corridors serving other occupancies having an occupant load of 30 or more shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction and the ceilings shall be not less than that required for a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system.
EXCEPTIONS: I. One-story buildings housing Group B, Division 4 Occupancies.
2. Corridors more than 30 feet in width where occupancies served by such corridors have at least one exit independent from the corridor. (See Appendix Chapter 7, Part I, for covered malls.)
3. Exterior sides of exterior exit balconies.
4. In Group I, Division 3 Occupancies such as jails, prisons, reformatories and similar buildings with open-barred cells forming corridor walls, the corridors and cell doors need not be fire resistive.
When the ceiling of the entire story is an element of a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system, the corridor walls may terminate at the ceiling. When the room-side fire-resistive membrane of the corridor wall is carried through to the underside of a fire-resistive floor or roof above, the corridor side of the ceiling may be protected by the use of ceiling materials as required for one-hour floor or roof system construction or the corridor ceiling may be of the same construction as the corridor walls.
Ceilings of noncombustible construction may be suspended below the fire-resistive ceiling.
For wall and ceiling finish requirements, see Table No. 42-B.
(h) Openings. I. Doors. When corridor walls are required to be of one-hour fire-resistive construction by Subsection (g) above, every door opening shall be protected by a tight-fitting smoke- and draft-control assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes when tested in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 43-2 without the hose stream test. The door and frame shall
550
1902 EDITION
3305-3306
bear an approved label or other identification show ing the rating thereof, the name of the manufacturer and the identification of the service conducting the inspection of materials and workmanship at the factory during fabrication and assembly. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 4306 (b). Smoke- and draft-control door assemblies shall be provided with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal where the door meets the stop on both sides and across the top.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Viewports may be installed if they require a hole not larger than I inch in diameter through the door, have at least a '/j-inch-thick glass disc and the holder is of metal which will not melt out when subject to temperatures of 1700F.
2. Protection of openings in the interior walls of exterior exit balconies is not required.
2. Openings other than doors. Interior openings for other than doors or ducts shall be protected by fixed, approved '/t-inch-thick wired glass installed in steel frames. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any portion of an interior corridor shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor. For duct openings, see Section 4306.
EXCEPTION: Protection of openings in the interior walls of exterior exit balconies is not required.
(i) Location on Property. Exterior exit balconies shall not be located in an area where openings are required to be protected due to location on the property.
Stairways
Sec. 3306. (a) General. Every stairway having two or more risers serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this section.
EXCEPTION: Stairs or ladders used only to attend equipment are exempt from the requirements of this section.
(b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or more shall be not less than 44 inches in width. Stairways serving an occupant load of 49 or less shall be not less than 36 inches in width. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 shall be not less than 30 inches in width.
Handrails may project into the required width a distance of 3'A inches from each side of a stairway. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features may project into the required width I 'A inches on each side.
(c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 1'A inches. Except as permited in Subsections (d) and (0. the run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads. Except as permitted in Subsections (d), (e) and (0. the largest tread run within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than Vt inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than Vs inch.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 and stairways to unoccupied roofs may be constructed with an 8-inch maximum rise and 9-inch minimum run.
551

3306
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
2. Where the bottom riser adjoins a sloping public way, walk or driveway having an established grade and serv ing as a landing, a variation in height of the bottom riser of not more than 3 inches in every 3 feet of stairway w idth is permitted.
(d) Winding Stairways. In Group R. Division 3 Occupancies and in private stairways in Group R. Division I Occupancies, winders may be used if the required width of run is provided at a point not more than 12 inches from the side of the stairway where the treads are the narrower, but in no case shall any width of run be less than 6 inches at any point.
(e) Circular Stairways. Circular stairways may be used as an exit, provided the minimum width of run is not less than 10 inches and the smaller radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than '/inch.
(f) Spiral Stairways. In Group R. Division 3 Occupancies and in private stairways within individual units of Group R. Division I Occupancies, spiral stairways may be installed. Such stairways may be used for required exits when the area served is limited to 400 square feet.
The tread must provide a clear walking area measuring at least 26 inches from the outer edge of the supporting column to the inner edge of the handrail. A run of at least Vh inches is to be provided at a point 12 inches from where the tread is the narrowest. The rise must be sufficient to provide 6-foot 6-inch headroom. The rise shall not exceed 9Vi inches.
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches when fully open. See Section 3304 (h).
EXCEPTION: Stairs serving an unoccupied roof are exempt from these provisions.
(h) Basement Stairways. When a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into the basement. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 3314.
(i) Distance Between Landings. There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
(j) Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equally across with the entire width of the stairway.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Stairways 44 inches or less in width and stairways serving one individual dwelling unit in Group R. Division I or 3 Occupancies may have one handrail, except that such stairways open on one or both sides shall have handrails provided on the open side or sides.
2. Private stairways 30 inches or less in height may have handrails on one side only.
3. Stairways having less than four risers and serv ing one individual dwelling unit
552
1982 EDITION
3306
in Group R. Division I or 3. or serving Group M Occupancies need not have handrails
Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing of treads. They shall be continuous the full length ot the stairs and except lor private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than h inches beyond the top and bottom risers. Ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals
The handgrip portion of handrails shall be not less than 11 a inches nor more than 2 inches in cross-sectional dimension or the shape shall provide an equivalent gripping surface. The handgrip portion of handrails shall have a smooth surface w ith no sharp corners.
Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of not less than 11: inches between the wall and the handrail.
(k) Guardrails. See Section 1711.
Ill Exterior Stairway Protection. All openings in the exterior wall below or within 10 feet, measured horizontally, of an exterior exit stairway serving a building over two stories in height shall be protected by a sell-closing tire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.
EXCEPT ION: Openings may be unprotected when two separated exterior stairways serve an exterior exit balcony.
(m) Interior Stairway Construction. Interior stairways shall be constructed as specified in Part IV of this code.
Except when enclosed usable space under stairs is prohibited by Section 3309
(f), the walls and soffits of the enclosed space shall be protected on the enclosed side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
All required interior stairways which extend to the top floor in any building lour or more stories in height shall have, at the highest point of the stair shaft, an approved hatch openable to the exterior not less than 16 square feet in area vv ith a minimum dimension of 2 feet.
EXCEPTION: The hatch need not be provided on smokeproof enclosures or on stairways that extend to the roof w ith an opening onto that roof.
(n) Exterior Stairway Construction. Exterior stairways shall be of noncombustible material except that on Types III and IV buildings not exceeding two stories in height, and on Type V buildings, they may be of wood not less than 2 inches in nominal thickness.
Exterior stairway s shall not project into yards where protection of openings is required.
Enclosed usable space under stairs shall have the walls and soffits protected on the enclosed side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(o) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. See Subsection 3306 trn) for roof hatch requirements.
(p) Headroom. Every stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. Such clearances shall be measured vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosings to the soffit above at all points
553

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UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
(q) Stairway Numbering System. An approved sign shall be located at each floor level landing in all enclosed stairways of buildings four or more stories in height. The sign shall indicate the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stairway and the identification of the stairway. The sign shall be located approximately 5 feet above the floor landing in a position which is readily visible when the door is in the open or closed position. Signs shall comply with requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 33-2.
Ramps
Sec. 3307. (a) General. Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this section.
(b) Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
(c) Slope. The slope of ramps required by Table No. 33-A shall be not steeper than 1 vertical to 12 horizontal. The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal.
When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room of a Group A, Division 1, Division 2, 2.1 or 3 Occupancy may have a slope not steeper than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.
(d) Landings. Ramps having slopes steeper than I vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6 feet.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3'/: inches when fully open.
(e) Handrails. Ramps having slopes steeper than I vertical to 15 horizontal shall have handrails as required for stairways, except that intermediate handrails shall not be required. Ramped aisles need not have handrails on sides serving fixed seating.
(0 Construction. Ramps shall be constructed as required for stairways.
(g) Surface. The surface of ramps shall be roughened or shall be of slip-resistant materials.
Horizontal Exit
Sec. 3308. (a) Used as a Required Exit. A horizontal exit may be considered as a required exit when conforming to the provisions of this chapter. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and when two or more exits are required, not more than one half of the total number of exits or total exit width may be horizontal exits.
(b) Openings. All openings in the two-hour fire-resistive wall which provides a horizontal exit shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than one and one-half hours. Such fire assembly shall be automatic closing as provided in Section 4306 (b) upon actuation of a smoke detector.
554
1982 EDITION
3308-3310
(c) Discharge Areas. A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having capacity for an occupant load not less than the occupant load served by such exit. The capacity shall be determined by allowing 3 square feet of net clear floor area per ambulatory occupant and 30 square feet per nonambulatory occupant
Stairway, Ramp and Escalator Enclosures
Sec. 3309. (a) General. Every interior stairway, ramp or escalator shall be enclosed as specified in this section.
EXCEPTIONS: I. In other than Group I Occupancies, an enclosure will not be required for a stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors. For enclosure of escalators serving Group B Occupancies, see Chapter 17.
2. Stairs in Group R. Division 3 Occupancies and stairs within individual apartments in Group R. Division I Occupancies need not be enclosed.
3. Stairs in open parking garages, as defined inSection 709. need not be enclosed.
(b) Enclosure Construction. Enclosure walls shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction in buildings more than four stories in height or of Types I and II fire-resistive construction and shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere.
(c) Openings into Enclosures. There shall be no openings into exit enclosures except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls. All exit doors in an exit enclosure shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than one hour where one-hour shaft construction is permitted and one and one-half hours where two-hour shaft construction is required. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector as provided for in Section 4306 (b). The maximum transmitted temperature end point shall not exceed 450F. above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of the fire exposure specified in U.B.C. Standard No. 43-2.
(d) Extent of Enclosure. Stairway and ramp enclosures shall include landings and parts of floors connecting stairway flights and shall also include a corridor on the ground floor leading from the stairway to the exterior of the building. Enclosed corridors or passageways are not required from unenclosed stairways. Every opening into the corridor shall comply with the requirements of Section 3309 (c).
EXCEPTION: In office buildings classed as a Group B, Division 2 Occupancy, a maximum of 50 percent of the exits may discharge through a street-floor lobby, provided the required exit width is free and unobstructed and the entire street floor is protected with an automatic sprinkler system.
(e) Barrier. A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is provided at the ground-floor level to prevent persons from accidentally continuing into the basement.
(0 Use of Space Under Stair. There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose.
Smokeproof Enclosures
Sec. 3310. (a) General. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of a vestibule
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3314-3315
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
exit illumination by Section 3313 (b) 2. power to one of the lamps for exit signs shall be from storage batteries or an on-site generator set and the system shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Code. For high-rise buildings, sec Section 1807.
Aisles
Sec. 3315. (a) General. Aisles leading to required exits shall be provided from all'portions of buildings.
(b) Width. Aisle widths shall be provided in accordance with the following:
1. In areas serving employees only, the minimum aisle width may be 24 inches but not less than the width required by the number of employees served.
2. In public areas of Group B, Division 2 Occupancies, and in assembly occupancies without fixed seats, the minimum clear aisle width shall be 36 inches where tables, counters, furnishings, merchandise or other similar obstructions are placed on one side of the aisle only and 44 inches when such obstructions are placed on both sides of the aisle.
3. In assembly occupancies with fixed seats.
A. With standard seating, every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet when serving seats on only one side and not less than 42 inches wide when serving seats on both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured from the point furthest from the exit, cross aisle or foyer and such minimum width shall be increased by I'/: inches for each 5 feet of length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
B. With continental seating as specified in Section 3316, side aisles shall be provided and be not less than 44 inches in w idth.
(c) Distances to Nearest Exit. In areas occupied by seats and in Group A Occupancies without seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150 feet. Such travel distance may be increased to 200 feet if the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
(d) Aisle Spacing. With standard seating, aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
With continental seating, the number of intervening seats may be increased, provided the seating configuration conforms with the requirements specified in Section 3316.
When benches or pews arc used, the number of seats shall be based on one person for each 18 inches of length of pew or bench.
(c) Cross Aisles. Aisles shall terminate in across aisle, foyer or exit. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle plus 50 percent of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto. In Groups A and E Occupancies, aisles shall not have a dead end greater than 20 feet in length.
(D Vomitories. Vomitories connecting the foyer or main exit with the cross aisles shall have a total width not less than the sum of the required w idth of the widest aisle leading thereto plus 50 percent of the total required w idth of the
560
1982 EDITION
3315-3317
remaining aisles leading thereto.
(g) Slope. The slope portion of aisles shall be not steeper than I vertical in 8 horizontal, except as permitted in Section 3307 (c).
(h) Steps. Steps shall not be used in an aisle w hen the change in elevation can be achieved by a slope conforming to Section 3315(g). A single step or riser shall not be used in any aisle. Steps in aisles shall extend across the full width of the aisle and shall be illuminated. Treads and risers in such steps shall comply with Section 3306 (c).
Seat Spacing
Sec. 3316. (a) Standard Seating. With standard seating, the spacing of row s of seats shall provide a space of not less than 12 inches from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
(b) Continental Seating. The number of seats per row of seats for continental seating may be increased subject to all of the following conditions:
1. The spacing of unoccupied seats shall provide a clear w idth between rows of seats measured horizontally as follows (automatic or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position, other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position):
18 inches between rows for I to 18 seats
20 inches between rows for 19 to 35 seats
21 inches between rows for 36 to 45 seats
22 inches between rows for 46 to 59 seats 24 inches between rows for 60 scats or more
2. Exit doors shall be provided along each side aisle of the row of scats at the rate of one pair of doors for each five row s of seats.
3. Each pair of exit doors shall provide a minimum clear w idth of 66 inches discharging into a foyer, lobby or the exterior of the building.
4. There should be not more than five seat row s between pairs of doors.
Group A, Division 1 Occupancies
Sec. 3317. (a) Main Exit. Every Group A. Division I Occupancy shall be provided with a main exit.
The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one half of the total occupant load but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
(b) Side Exits. Every auditorium of a Group A. Division I Occupancy shall be provided w ith exits on each side The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of sufficient w idth to accommodate one third of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public wav. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
tc) Balcony Exits. Every balcony ha\ ing an occupant load ot I I or more shall
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3317-3319
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
ho prov ided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly to an exterior stairway or other approved stairway or ramp. When there is more than one balcony, exits shall open into an exterior or enclosed stairway or ramp. Balcony exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle. The number and distribution of exits shall be as otherw ise specified in this chapter.
(d) Panic Hardware. An exit door from a Group A. Division I Occupancy having an occupant load of 50 or more shall not be provided w ih a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware.
Group A, Divisions 2, 2.1,3 and 4 Occupancies
Sec. 3318. (a) Group A, Divisions 2,2.1 and 3. Group A. Divisions 2 and 2.1 Occupancies shall have exits as required by Section 3317. In Group A, Division 3 Occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more, exit doors shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware.
EXCEPTION: Group A. Divisions 2.1 and 3 Occupancies, such as restaurants, bars, bowling alleys, auditoriums and similar commercial uses, and in churches, panic hardware may be omitted from the main exit when the main exit consists of a single door. A key locking device may be used in place of the panic hardware, provided there is a readily visible durable sign adjacent to the doorway stating THIS DOOR MUST REMAIN UNLOCKED DURING BUSINESS HOURS. The sign shall be in letters not less than I inch high on a contrasting background. When unlocked, the single door must be free to swing without operation of any latching device. Flush, edge or surface bolts or any other type of device that may be used to close or restrain the door other than by operation of the locking device are prohibited. The use of this exception may be revoked by the building official for due cause.
(b) Group A, Division 4. In Group A. Division 4 Occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more, exit doors shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware.
Group E Occupancies
Sec. 3319. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section, the following definitions apply:
INTERIOR ROOM is a room whose only exit is through an adjoining or intervening room which is not an exit corridor.
ROOM is a space or area bounded by any obstructions to exit passage which at any time enclose more than 80 percent of the perimeter of the area. In computing the unobstructed perimeter, openings less than 3 feet in clear width and less than 6 feet 8 inches high shall not be considered.
SEPARATE EXIT SYSTEM is a path of exit travel separated in such a manner from other required exits as to provide an atmospheric separation which precludes contamination of both paths by the same fire.
(b) Separate Exit Systems Required. Every room with an occupant load of more than 300 shall have one of its exits into a separate exit system. When three or more exits are required from a room, no more than two required exits shall enter into the same exit system.
(c) Distance to Exits. I. The distance from any point in a room shall be not
562

1982 EDITION
1715-1716
separation which is adjacent lo the atnum may he omitted between a Group B. Division 2 Occupancy office or sales area or Group A. Division 3 Occupancy and Group R. Division I apartment or guest room located on another level.
(g) Standby Power. The smoke-control system for the atrium and the smoke-control system for the tenant space are to be provided with standby power as required in Section 1807 (i).
(h) Interior Finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium and all unseparated tenant spaces allowed under the last paragraph of Subsection (c) above shall be Class I with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.
(i) Acceptance of the Smoke-control System. Before the Certificate of Occupancy is issued, the smoke-control systems shall be tested in an approved manner and shall show compliance with the requirements of this section.
(j) Inspection of the Smoke-control System. All operating parts of the smoke-control systems shall be tested by an approved inspection agency or by the owner or his representative when so approved. Such inspections shall be made every three months and a log of the tests be kept by the testing agency. The log shall be on the premises and available for examination by fire department personnel.
(k) Combustible Furnishings in Atriums. The quantity of combustible furnishings in atriums shall not exceed that specified in the Fire Code.
Mezzanines
Sec. 1716. Rooms may contain mezzanine floors when constructed in accordance with the following:
1. The construction of a mezzanine shall be consistent with the requirements for the type of construction in which the mezzanine is located, but the fire-resistive time period need not exceed one hour for unenclosed mezzanines constructed in accordance with Item No. 4 below. The clear height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall be not less than 7 feet.
2. There shall be not more than two levels of mezzanines in a room. However, there is no limitation on the number of mezzanines within a room.
3. The aggregate area of mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one third the area of the room in which it is located. Intermediate floor levels that are 6 or more feet above grade shall be considered a story when the area of such level exceeds one third the area of the room in which it is located.
4. All portions of a mezzanine shall be open to the room in which it is located. The side of the mezzanine which is open to the room shall be unobstructed except for columns and posts and protective walls or railings not more than 42 inches in height.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Partitioning may be installed, provided the aggregate floor area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10 percent of the area of the mezzanine or an occupant load not exceeding 10. whichever is greater.
2. Mezzanines having two or more exits need not open into the story in which they are located, provided at least one of the exits gives direct access to a protected exit corridor, an exit court, enclosed exit stairway, exterior exit, exterior exit balcony or exit passageway
105
1716
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
3. In industry facilities, mezzanines used for control equipment mas be glazed on all sides.
5. Two exits shall be provided from mezzanines having an occupant load of more than 10 or when the area of the mezzanine exceeds 2000 square feet, whichever is the more restrictive.
6. The occupant load of the mezzanine shall be added to the occupant load of the story or room in which it is located.
106

By the use of inert materials and starting from conditions more or less utilitarian, you have established certain relationships which have aroused my emotions. This is Architecture.
-- Le Corbusier Vers une architecture, 1923
PROGRAM

SUMMARY
Administrative offices
Arts & Crafts
Barber / Beauty Shop
Billiard Room
Circulation & Courtyard
Classrooms
Dining
Exercise & Massage
Gallery & Gifts
Game Rooms
Geriatric Clinic
Greenhouse
Janitor's Room
Kitchen
Library
Lockers
Mechanical
Multi-Purpose Room
Restrooms
Service Offices/other offices
Ft ^______ Parking
1600 2
9400 15
200 3
800
12800
3200 13
3600 24
1 200 8
2200 4
1600 10
1600 5
400
100* l
1 200 4
800 2
900 6
2400
3400 22
1200
3200 25
PROGRAM

Ft ^_____ Parking
Swimming Pool & Spa 3400 16
Theatre 1 1600 1 2 5*
TOTAL 66800 165
Because the theatre is used in the evenings and on weekends, its parking requirement is met by spaces provided for weekday use.
PROGRAM
/

SPACE Administrative Offices PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 600 ft^ provide 2
AREA Reception 270 Administration 130 Offices 200 Conference 250 SPACIAL QUALITY variety: private (visual and acoustical)
Duplicating 100 Staff w.c. 150 Staff lounge 200 TOTAL 1300 i (,oo shared open
USERS staff / seniors PEAK TIMES 9 5 SECURITY lockable doors & storage
ACTIVITIES all administrative functions MATER1 ALS/F1NISIIES carpeting acoustic ceiling
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL lobby / activity areas VISUAL lobby EQUI PMENT/FURNISIIINGS desks / chairs / file cabinets dup. machines / conference tables & chairs / comfortable furniture for lounge
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY * ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS clerical tasks 100 fc less for more intimate areas
DESIGN GOALS Maximum efficiency. Perhaps a large space subdivided by landscape, furnishings, moveable partitions to accommodate changing needs. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Offices too accessible to patrons encourages disruption of work and places undue stress on staff.
PROGRAM

SPACE Arts & Crafts Areas (general) PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1f t-50ft provide5-2 1 / O' -pv-oKiieke, 1 <5
AREA 7668 SPACIAL QUALITY variety of intimate / public

USERS staff / seniors PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY individual lockers for projects in progress lockable storage for supplies
ACTIVITIES MATERI ALS/FI NISIIES
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL arts & crafts reception arts & crafts office VISUAL links with all activity areas to encourage experiments in new fields equipment/furnisiiings moveable / modular storage cabinets which can subdivide space
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS non-glare natural daylight supplemented by adaptable artificial light
DESIGN GOALS To provide space which will accommodate changes in popularity of various activities. A large general area which can be subdivided and which shares some facilities with smaller, specialized activity rooms. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Wet and dry activity areas. Special ventilation requirements and fire ratings for different activities.
PROGRAM

SPACE Arts & Crafts Library PARK 1NG REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff provide 1
AREA 150 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door or bookcases
ACTIVITIES MATER1ALS/FIN1SUES acoustic ceiling carpet
ADJACENC1ES PHYSICAL arts & crafts areas VISUAL receptionist / office EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS bookshelves / tables / chairs
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITIL1TY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate for reading 70fc
DESIGN GOALS A resource room: storage & reading of arts & crafts DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
materials.
PROGRAM

SPACE Arts & Crafts Office PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff provide 1
AREA 120 SPACIAL QUALITY quite / semi-private

USERS staff PEAK TIMES 9_5 SECURITY lockable door
ACTIVITIES supervision of arts & crafts program MATERI ALS/F I NISIIES acoustic ceiling carpeted floor
AD.J ACENCIES PHYSICAL reception area library VISUAL arts & crafts area EQU I PMENT/FURNISIII NGS desk / chairs / file cabinet bookshelves / storage
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTAB1LITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS for clerical tasks 100 fc
DESIGN GOALS Ability to view most activity areas for non-obtrusive DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Combination of privacy & lack of distraction
supervision. with overview of area-
PROGRAM

SPACE Arts & Crafts Reception PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff provide 1
AREA 50 SPACIA1. QUALITY inviting

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9_5 SECURITY lockable desk & files
ACTIVITIES assistance to programmer information to seniors / security over gallery & arts & crafts library MATERIALS/FINISHES acoustic ceiling carpeted floor
ADJ ACF.NCIES PHYSICAL arts & crafts office arts & crafts library / gallery VISUAL gallery entrance arts & crafts area EQUI PMF.NT/FURN I Sill NGS desk / chair / file cabinet
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS task 70fc less for ambient
DESIGN GOALS Ability to observe activity areas to encourage involvement DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
and allow decision time and vicarious participation.
PROGRAM

SPACE Barber / beauty shop PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1.5 spaces / chair provide 3
AREA Work 150 Wa it 50 SPACIAL QUALITY informal / inviting a place for socialization /
TOTAL 200 , interaction
USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 0 5 SECURITY lockable doors & storage cabinets
ACTIVITIES hair cutting & styling socializing MATER IALS/fTnTsHES non-skid floor acoustic ceiling
ADJACENC1ES PHYSICAL major circulation routes billiard room / game room VISUAL major circulation routes EQUIPMENT/FURNTSHINGS 2 barber's chairs / 2 sinks with counter and storage / 4 chairs or a bench / 2 end tables / wall mirrors
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM SE / SW ACCEPTABLE E / N UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS ambient lOOfc reading 70fc
DESIGN GOALS An area to privde a needed service and encourage DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Adequate ventilation from drain.
socialization. Near activity rooms.
PQOGQAM

SPACE Billiard room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/150 provide
AREA 1000 SPACIAL QUALITY a retreat

USERS seniors PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable storage
ACTIVITIES shooting pool socializing materials/finisiies
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL major circulation card room barber / beauty shop VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS 5 tables chairs cue racks
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E UNACCEPTABLE S / W LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS lights over tables 30fc no glare ambient can be less
DESIGN GOALS A major social spacce for men, but located along a major circulation route, it will allow interaction of the sexes and not become an exclusively male domaine. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
PROGRAM

SPACE Ceramic Room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1Hj-f) provide8 O
AREA 1080 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-4 SECURITY lockable door and storage
ACTIVITIES ceramic making MATER IALS/FINISHES non-skid / concrete floor acoustic ceiling washable surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL kilns / dressing rooms restrooms / glazing room VISUAL other activity areas EQUIPMENT/FURNISIIINGS sink and counter storage / lockers stools / tables / chairs
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient 30fc task lighting lOOfc no glare
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation: clay dust Floor drain.

PROGRAM

SPACE Chair caning Room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/3-^0 provide4
AREA 600 SPACIAL QUALITY light

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9 ! SECURITY lockable storage
ACTIVITIES chair caning basket weaving MATERIALS/F1N1SHES non-skid floor washable surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL storage / woodworking VISUAL other activity areas equipment/furnISHINGS sink & counter tables / chairs
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM NE ACCEPTABLE SE UNACCEPTABLE W / E LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient (70fc) task lOOfc
DESIGN GOALS Expandable area with adequate storage. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Control of natural light to avoid glare. Floor drain.

PROGRAM

SPACE Circulation PARKING REQUIREMENTS
AREA 15% of floor area TOTAL 6490 SPACIAL QUALITY
pIKVSvU |
USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES SECURITY heat detection devices to close stairway doors in case of fire
ACTIVITIES exercise, information exchange (bulletin boards, personal encounters) MATER 1ALS/FINISIIES non-skid floors or carpet non-institutional handrails
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL VISUAL All activities to encourage participation. equipment/furnisiiings Employ texture and color to distinguish circulation from other areas and to announce stairs or plane changes.
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS very bright, even distribution especially at stairs 20 30 fc; more over bulletin boards
DESIGN GOALS Bright, cheerful corridors which are short, wide, and relieved DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Absolute minimum of 5' in width to allow wheel chairs.
by small lounge spaces for resting, and visually stimulating views, graphics and colors. Positive experience to encourage exercise. Remain on one level, except where necessary. Elevators long enough for large furniture and stretchers.
PROGRAM

SPACE Classrooms PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/^ n/i 1
AREA 2 25 ft / person + storage TOTAL 3300 SPACIAL QUALITY adaptable to larger or small groups / variety of intimate
^ is O and public spaces
USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES 9 12 / l 3 SECURITY lockable doors & closets securable from other activities for after-hour use
ACTIVITIES meetings / lectures / classes MATER1ALS/F1NISI1ES low pile carpeting / acoustic ceilings / perhaps fabric or carpeting on portions of walls
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL exterior / restrooms / kitchenette possibly theater & library VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISWINGS ample storage (moveable modules) moveable seating & conference / activity tables blackboards / bulletin boards
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY x VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS rheostat on all fixtures daylighting 70fc for general lectures (more available for special demonstrations)
DESIGN GOALS Each classroom able to expand into one other space for overflow DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation, preferably operable windows. Shades on
attendance as well as sub-dividable if crowd is small. One room should be soundproofed for music rehearsal or listening; quiet games. windows for moview & slides. Sound control.
PROGRAM

SPACE
Dining
PARKING REQUIREMENTS
I / 150 ft'
provide 2rt 1ZA:
AREA
storage 300
dining 3000
TOTAL 3300
Plh^U 9?t,CO
SPACIAL QUALITY
inviting: an important social
space / variety of options for intimate to banquet-type seating
USERS
SECURITY
PEAK TIMES
seniors / staff noon / 5 pm
ACTIVITIES
MATERIALS/F1NISIIES
bright & textural acoustic control
ADJACENCIES
PHYSICAL outdoor patio ?
kitchen / lobby / lounge / restrooms / multipurpose room for overflow VISUAL lobby / lounge to encourage participation
EQU1PMENT/FURNISI11NGS
sturdy furniture for support in sitting down & getting up / portable tables & chairs (round tables are preferable: more eye contact & less institutional feel)
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x C0NVERTAB1LITY x VERS IT!LITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM SE / SW ACCEPTABLE E UNACCEPTABLE N / S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS ambient 30fc up to lOOfc for quick service, but goal is to avoid institutional atmosphere
DESIGN GOALS Visibility on approach to building to announcy symbolic importance. Well DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Table spacing to allow for wheelchairs and walkers. This area must
planned circulation for pre-meal & accommodate largest number of users
post-meal activities. Choice in seating arrangements, adjacent seating for early arrivals, postmeal lingerers.
and variety of uses: limited menu
selection times / banquest / snacks / "coffee shop" atmosphere.
PROGRAM

SPACE Exercise (Mti\ e. PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 150 ft provide % &
AREA 25 ft / person TOTAL 750 SPACIAL QUALITY bright, open

USERS staff / seniors / ?community groups PEAK TIMES 9 2:30 SECUR1TY secure from other areas when they are not in use
ACTIVITIES MATERI ALS/F1 NISIIES hardwood floor acoustic tile on walls and ceilings
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL lockers / restrooms ? theater VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS mirrors on one long wall with barre
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS natural light without overheating 20+ ambient
DESIGN GOALS A bright, open area for dance and exercise. A potential for community DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation and sound insulation from other areas.
involvement & revenue. May be cool, since physical activity is involved.
PROGRAM

SPACE Gallery uAtt* PARKING REQUIREMENTS 2 -4/f-Â§t ft pru v ide7 | +- 1 / \<>0c> 'p*Tyv~i<4e-
AREA 1000 SPACIAL QUALITY gracious / intimate
fl MAu VZ^>o
USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door / storage cabinets
ACTIVITIES display / demonstration of arts & crafts by center members MATER IALS/F 1N1SIIES ample wall space with surfaces suited to hanging & display
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL arts & crafts areas gift shop / entry VISUAL entry / admin offices EQUlPMENT/FURNISHINGS pedestals display options
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS variety of natural & artificial to accommodate different display strategies
DESIGN GOALS An impressive area for display. A view of the mountains would be nice. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Too much direct sunlight could harm art and overheat the
space
PROGRAM

SPACE Game room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 150 provide % \0
AREA 500 SPACIAL QUALITY an irregular shape will allow some differentiation of activities
plMAcU \i*&0 without compartmentalizing
USERS seniors PEAK TIMES 9 5? some evenings SECURITY lockable storage
ACTIVITIES card playing / puzzle making / dominos / chess / checkers / etc. materials/finisiies carpet acoustic ceiling
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL barber / beauty shop billiard room / multi-purpose room VISUAL patio EQUIPMENT/FURN ISIllNGS card tables and chairs game storage cabinets
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY x VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM SE / SW ACCEPTABLE E / N UNACCEPTABLE S / VV LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS diffused daylight over-table artificial light ambient 70+ fc
DESIGN GOALS Large space within which several activities may occur simultaneously DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Operable windows. Compatibility of activities.
without conflicting. Perhaps some subdivision could be provided for quiet, intense games.
PROGRAM

SPACE Geriatric clinic PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 200 provide 5
AREA conf 150 restrooms 60 dental 80 3 med exam @ 80 240 SPACIAL QUALITY relaxed, inviting, assuring good views in waiting areas /
recept 70 offices 200 wait 200 TOTAL 1000 acoustical privacy in exam rooms and offices
USERS seniors / staff / visiting health care 1 PEAK TIMES mornings SECURITY lockable files / desks / cabinets
ACTIVITIES dental checkup / blood pressure diabetes control MATER! ALS/FI N iSIIF.S non-institutional
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL senior offices VISUAL equipment/furnisiiings casual furniture / exame tables desks & chairs / dental chair refrigerator / supply storage sterilizer
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM W ACCEPTABLE SE / SW UNACCEPTABLE N LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS daylighting / ambiant for waiting 20fc / ambient for exam rooms 50fc task for exam tables lOOfc
DESIGN GOALS An area which is reassuring and relaxed to encourage use and lessen anxiety about institutions. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
PROGRAM

SPACE Gift shop C^rydvtsU-*- /"Â£i 1 PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff Fcfloor area
AREA ^ ^ _ SPACIAL QUALITY dignity / professional quality

USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door lockable storage, display cases
ACTIVITIES display & sale of arts & crafts & other products created by seniors MATER1ALS/FIN1SHES
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL lobby VISUAL street / entry for high exposure information desk for surveillance EQUIPMENT/FURNISIIINGS variety of display modes
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM W ACCEPTABLE SE / SW UNACCEPTABLE N / E LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS ambient 30fc display focus 30+ additional
DESIGN GOALS As an income-producing activity the gift shop enhances self esteem DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Security of goods, vulnerability to neighborhood.
of participants & fives tangible reward to time & effort of crafts. Good PR to community.
PROGRAM

SPACE Glazing room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/-1 56 provide1-
AREA 150 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door
ACTIVITIES glazing pottery MATER I ALS/FINI SIIES non-skid / concrete floor acoustic ceiling washable surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL ceramics room / kilns / wedging room dressing rooms / restrooms VISUAL EQUIPME NT/FUR NISIIINGS sink & counter / stools shelves for drying & storage of glazes
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS ambient 30+fc (?) task lighting lOOfc
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation / floor drain

PROGRAM

SPACE Greenhouse 1 PARKING REQUIREMENTS
AREA 400 SPACIAL QUALITY warm, bright, airy

USERS seniors PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY
ACTIVITIES gardening, quiet reflection sunning, relaxing MATERIALS/FINISHES vertical glazing mass walls & floors
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL waiting rooms, lounges VISUAL library equipment/furnisiiings storage for gardening equipment shelves for plants chairs & tables
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM s ACCEPTABLE SE / SW UNACCEPTABLE all others LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS varies natural
DESIGN GOALS A functioning greenhouse which helps temper the interior environment DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Operable windows for ventilation and humidity control.
by gaining warmth in cool months, adding humidity, and providing natural ventilation / cooling in warm months.
PROGRAM

SPACE Janitor's room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff provide 1
AREA 4 25 TOTAL 100 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS PEAK TIMES SECURITY lockable door
ACTIVITIES storage of supplies MATERIALS/FI NISIIES washable
ADJACENC1ES PHYSICAL major adtivity areas VISUAL equipment/furnisiiings shelves / hooks / drawers / sink
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS 20 fc
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

PPOGQAM

SPACE Kilns PARKING REQUIREMENTS
AREA 180 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY
ACTIVITIES firing pottery & ceramics MATER1 ALS/F1NISI1ES non-combustable
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL ceramics room / wedging room exterior / storage VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS one gas kiln / two electric kilns shelves for greenware and fired pieces
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE W / E UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS daylighting exterior access 30fc
DESIGN GOALS Use this area on the north to provide "free" heat in winter DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Must be on exterior wall. A high heat generator. Possibility of fire / need for first aid, good ventilation.
time and help reduce possibility of overheating in warm months.
PROGRAM

SPACE Kitchen PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff provide 4
AREA food preparation 700 storage 300 SPACIAL QUALITY
TOTAL 1000
USERS staff PEAK TIMES 9*30 330 SECURITY
ACTIVITIES meal preparation MATER1ALS/FINISHES stainless steel
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL dining / loading dock / storage multi-purpose (to accommodate overflow for large events) VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISII1NGS
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM n ACCEPTABLE e UNACCEPTABLE S / W LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS 70fc
DESIGN GOALS Adequate, well-planned food storage & preparation space. Able to DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Expense of installation suggests developing this kitchen in stages.
accommodate variety of in-house meals as well as those sent out to homes & other centers. Possibility of catering services developed as source of income. As a heat-producer can go on north side. Growth must be anticipated since meals are the most subscribed to activity of the center.
PROGRAM

SPACE Library PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 1000 ft gross floor area +1 / everv 2 staff provide 2
AREA 35 ft^ / person TOTAL 400 SPACIAL QUALITY intimate and nurturing view of greenry

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door
ACTIVITIES reading / reflecting / writing MATERIALS/F1 NISIIES sound absorbing
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL classrooms / reception VISUAL ? greenhouse / patio equipment/furnisiiings comfortable reading chairs with side tables and lamps / shelves / fireplace
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM Â£ ACCEPTABLE SE / SW UNACCEPTABLE S / W LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient (stacks) 30fc reading tables 70fc files 1OOf c
DESIGN GOALS A quiet area away from activity. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

PROGRAM

SPACE Lobby c^>vv\^.AJ>~cK \AACVi PARKING REQUIREMENTS 4/1-53f-t provide6*
AREA coats 150 information 500 SPACIAL QUALITY public, welcoming
trip desk 250 TOTAL 900
USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES noon SECURITY
ACTIVITIES entry / orientation / information MATER 1ALS/FI N1SIIF.S heavy, traffic resistant floor cover carpeting to keep down noise / "mud" space adjacent to entry
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL admin, office / restrooms / theater classrooms / parking / gift shop / lounge VISUAL entrance, lounge, gift shop, activity rooms EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS information desk auto opening doors
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM W / S ACCEPTABLE E UNACCEPTABLE N LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS As low as lOfc, but here it is important not to create a great differential with exterior which demands time to adjust.
DESIGN GOALS A clearly announced place of entry; a focal point & place of orientation; DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Trip desk: much activity & confusion therefore needs some isolation.
a welcoming ambience and good first impression. 1 Isolation from ringing phones, shielded from winter winds, and provide solar gain to minimize snow buildup.
PROGRAM

SPACE Lockers PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 150 ft^ provide J/f C*
AREA 15 ft^ / person TOTAL 750 SPACIAL QUALITY clean / bright
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USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockers / locked storage for equipment
ACTIVITIES changing / showering MATERIALS/FINISIIES non-skid floors water / mildew resistant surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL pool / exercise room / restrooms whirlpool / massage room VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURNISIIINGS lockers/ benches with backs grab bars at strategic points
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS skylighting ambient 20fc
DESIGN GOALS Safe and accessible facilities. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation necessary.

PROGRAM

SPACE Lounges uj/ 4 PARKING REQUIREMENTS 4/1-50 -provide6
AREA 35 ft / person TOTAL 800 SPACIAL QUALITY variety of options as to size, orientation, type of activity,
view, furnishings
USERS seniors / staff / some community PEAK TIMES around lunch time SECURITY
ACTIVITIES sitting / resting / observing talking / singing / watching TV MATERI ALS/FINISIIES relaxing colors carpet
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL to some major corridors / theater dining / lobby VISUAL activity areas / reception / patio EQUIPMENT/FURNISI1INGS Comfortable, sturdy, (not too deep or soft) some mobile pieces / piano in one lounge / TV in separate lounge / card tables
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS natural as low as 20fc, but only a subtle difference from adjacent circulation
DESIGN GOALS These areas enhance the goals of the center by encouraging socialization. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Adequate separation of active / passive activity. Distance
They allow active as well as vicarious participation and permit individuals to decide whether or not to physically enter an activity area. Also provide rest areas along circulation paths. between noisy / quiet lounges.
PROGRAM

SPACE Massage Oevu&CfU- us/ PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/staff provide2
AREA 12 x 14 TOTAL 175 SPACIAL QUALITY intimate / relaxed

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES afternoon SECURITY
ACTIVITIES massage / podiatry MATER1ALS/FINISIIES non-skid surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL lockers / restrooms VISUAL equipment/furnishings 2 tables / curtains between sturdy furniture for leverage
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM S ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE N LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS daylighting 30fc
DESIGN GOALS A warm, sunny space. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

PROGRAM

SPACE
PARKING REQUIREMENTS
Mechanical
AREA 5% of floor area TOTAL 2500 pIlOA-u- 2- \'2^x> + (X>o + -4 <3 0 Z-*\-Â£0 SPACIAL QUALITY
USERS staff PEAK TIMES SECURITY lockable door
ACTIVITIES MATER1ALS/FI NISIIES
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL VISUAL equipment/furnishings VAV boxes at individual zones thermostatic controls in each space
FLEXIBILITY ORIENTATION EXPANSIBILITY OPTIMUM CONVERTABILITY ACCEPTABLE VERSITILITY UNACCEPTABLE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS as low as lOfc with available task lighting
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
Highly flexible, multi-zoned HVAC system to back up natural and architectural systems. Most cooling will be accomplished by operable windows and time lag construction, so air movement and heating is the major concern. Drafts to be avoided by low velocity output. High number of ACH1s required. Noise potentially distracting to hearing deficient folks. Acoustical barriers, duct linings, mufflers needed. Ease of maintenance. Individ, preferences of temperature is more pronounced in elderly & flexible system is required.
PROGRAM

SPACE Multi-purpose PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 150 provide 2it
AREA 3300 SPACIAL QUALITY high ceilings airy, spacious
'plfOA'L- *5^00
USERS seniors / staff / community PEAK TIMES afternoon dances SECURITY lockable storage for equipment & decorations
ACTIVITIES dancing / large meetings / entertainment / volleyball / exercise MATERIALS/FINISIIES T~ hardwood floor / matte finish
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL restrooms / lobby / dining / patio possibly also theater VISUAL lobby / dining / major circulation EQU1PMENT/FURNISHINGS volleyball court 30' x 60' with 6' surround and 20' ceiling / portable (?) stage / chairs
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY x VERS1TILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS rheostat / natural lighting (skylights?) / as low as 15 lc with variety of options to augment
DESIGN GOALS A highly versatile space, visually accessible to major thoroughfares DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Acounsit control is necessary.
to encourage participation. Operable windows to cool down hot dancers. Access to patio for warm weather parties.
PROGRAM

SPACE Painting / printmaking PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/150 pru v trie6
AREA 25 ft^ / person TOTAL 900 SPACIAL QUALITY light / large volume view of mountains
(
USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable storage for projects in process and supplies
ACTIVITIES watercolor / oil / acrylic painting wood block / silk screen printing pencil / charcoal drawing / china paintine / other crafts materials/finishes non-skid floor
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL storage / kiln / overflow space exterior for trash disposal VISUAL other activity areas EQUIPMENT/FURNISH1NGS sinks / kiln for china / presses silkscreen tables / work tables stools / easels / ample storage
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY x CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM NW ACCEPTABLE SW UNACCEPTABLE SE / NE LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS natural daylighting (skylights) appropriate to color rendering (200fc) / may be as low as 70fc ambient
DESIGN GOALS Space adaptable to a variety of activities with access to DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Balance natural light with heat loss of glazing.
cleanup facilities. Weigh view of mountains against harsh S / W light. Good ventilation.
PROGRAM

SPACE
Restrooms
PARKING REQUIREMENTS
AREA
SPACIAL QUALITY
stage dressing room
theater
general
TOTAL
60
300
300
660
USERS
seniors / staff / community
SECURITY
PEAK TIMES
ACTIVITIES
MATERIALS/FINISHF.S
tile walls non-skid floors
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS
wall mounted water closets grab bars
ADJACENCIES
PHYSICAL
VISUAL
circulation
FLEXIBILITY
EXPANSIBILITY
CONVERTABILITY
VERSITILITY
ORIENTATION
OPTIMUM
ACCEPTABLE
UNACCEPTABLE
LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS
ambient as low as lOfc 30fc over mirrors
DESIGN GOALS
DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
Locations should be dispersed to serve all areas adequately.
Dressing rooms: 1 wc > 1 lav ea. sex
Theater: men - 4 wc , 4 ur. , 3 lav.
worn - 4 wc , 3 lav .
General : men - 4 wc , 2 ur , 4 lav .
worn - 4 wc , 4 lav.
Emergency buzzers in each location At least 3 drinking fountains in the general area and 3 in the theater.
PROGRAM

SPACE Service of f ices Ja'VM*' PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / staff + 1 / 600 ft gross floor provide
AREA receptionist* 20 offices @ 65 TOTAL 1300 :p| SPACIAL QUALITY inviting / intimate / reassuring good views
USERS staff / seniors PEAK TIMES afternoons SECURITY lockable desks / files / securable from rest of facility
ACTIVITIES information / counseling / referal MATERIALS/FINISUES non-institutional warm materials / low pile carpet acoustic ceilings & walls
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL restrooms / clinic VISUAL equipment/furnishings desks / chairs / writing chairs and end tables / file cabinets information board
FLEXIBILITY ORIENTATION EXPANSIBILITY OPTIMUM W / SW / SE CONVERTABILITY ACCEPTABLE N VERSITILITY UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS tempered natural light lOOfc for office tasks as low as 20fc in waiting areas
DESIGN GOALS "Receptionist directs clients to specific service & possibly serves both clinic and service offices to share staff and waiting area. Open plan with some very private areas. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
PQOGQAM

SPACE Silversmithing / Lapidary PARKING REQUIREMENTS -1-/-1 50 provi de4
AREA 600 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door and storage
ACTIVITIES stone cutting & polishing jewelry making MATERIALS/F INIS1IES non-skid floor acoustic ceiling washable surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL storage VISUAL all activity areas equipment/furnisiiings sink & counter / work benches stools / equipment
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTAB1LITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM E ACCEPTABLE N / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient lOOfc task lighting 500fc
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation / floor drain noisy activity

PROGRAM

SPACE Swimming pool wSfK PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1 / 150 provide -M" / p
AREA pool 25' x 50' TOTAL 2100 SPACIAL QUALITY sunny, warm
pi MAC- ^>^0
USERS PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY
ACTIVITIES swimming / floating / therapy exercise classes MATERIALS/FIN1SUES non-skid floor
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL lockers / restrooms / patio VISUAL patio EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS handicapped slide grab bars deck chairs
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM S ACCEPTABLE W UNACCEPTABLE N / E LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS daylighting ambient 20fc with additional at stairs / ramps
DESIGN GOALS A sunny, leisurely, physically safe environment. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

PDOGQAM

SPACE Theater (400 -/500)seats) PARKING REQUIREMENTS ^ l/4 seats provide 113 10^1 2 5 7
AREA lobby 1250 seating 7000 stage 3300 proj booth 150 SPACIAL QUALITY
dressing 300 TOTAL 12000 storage(?)
USERS seniors / staff / theater groups / community PEAK TIMES evenings / weekends SECURITY secured from other parts of building when they are not in use '
ACTIVITIES plays / music / dance / lectures movies / slides materials/finisiies 7" sound proof construction
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL exterior lobby / restrooms / wood-shop / storage/ kitchenette (for receptions) VISUAL equipment/furnisiiings fixed seats: 32" min. back to back 20" min. o.c. P.A. system (headphones for hearing impaired)
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY x ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N / E ACCEPTABLE W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS Availability of natural light, but adequate shades for movies / slides. Ambient, entrance lobby 20fc; auditorium min 5fc intermis.
DESIGN GOALS A space of significant community involvement and potential revenue. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 2 14 ft / seat. Adequate exit size. Adaptability of acoustical proper-
Possibility of subdivision into smaller lecture halls and medium size auditorium. ties to a variety of performances / uses. Sound proof projection booth. Access to large storage area .
PROGRAM

SPACE Weaving / quilting PARKING REQUIREMENTS 4-f-1 50 p-r o v i d c7"
AREA 1050 SPACIAL QUALITY light with nice view

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES mornings SECURITY lockable storage
ACTIVITIES weaving / quilting / sewing MATER1ALS/FIN1SHES acoustic ceiling carpet
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL storage VISUAL other activity areas equipment/furnishings looms / sewing machines work tables / chairs storage
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM SW / SE ACCEPTABLE N UNACCEPTABLE E LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient 150fc task 500fc
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Balance natural light with heat loss, weigh views against
glare.
PQOGQAM

SPACE Wedging room PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/Hr provide5
AREA 700 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door and storage
ACTIVITIES wedging clay MATER IALS/F1NISUES non-skid / concrete floor acoustic ceiling washable surfaces
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL kilns / dressing rooms / restrooms glazing room / damp clay storage / clay storage VISUAL other activity areas F.QU I PMENT/FURNISIIL NGS sink & counter / stools / table chairs / slab roller / lockers throwing wheel / shelves for green ware
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERS1TILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N ACCEPTABLE E / W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambient 30fc task lOOfc no glare
DESIGN GOALS / DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation Floor drain

PROGRAM

SPACE Whirlpool ( ,y>nA jwf j PARKING REQUIREMENTS
AREA 75 SPACIAL QUALITY relaxed / intimate

USERS seniors / staff PEAK TIMES afternoons SECURITY provide cover
ACTIVITIES relaxing / therapy MATER 1ALS/FINI SIIF.S non-skid, mildew resistant
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL swimming pool / lockers / restrooms patio VISUAL pool / patio EQUI PMENT/FURNISITINGS ventilation to exterior
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM S ACCEPTABLE W UNACCEPTABLE N / E LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS natural light ambient 20fc (additional at points of caution)
DESIGN GOALS DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation / mildew prevention
%
PROGRAM

SPACE Woodworking PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1/L-5Â£ pxxivi-d-e4r
AREA 2 60 ft / person TOTAL 600 SPACIAL QUALITY

USERS PEAK TIMES 9-5 SECURITY lockable door and storage
ACTIVITIES woodworking, cabinet making / maintenance for center / set building for theater / furniture repair / wood carving MATERIALS/FINISIIES concrete floor / acoustic walls & ceiling solid core fireproof door
ADJACENCIES PHYSICAL storage / loading dock / stage exterior (debris removal) VISUAL EQUIPMENT/FURN fSHINGS band saw / table saw / lathe / sander / tool & wood storage vices / workbenches / stools
FLEXIBILITY EXPANSIBILITY CONVERTABILITY VERSITILITY ORIENTATION OPTIMUM N / E ACCEPTABLE W UNACCEPTABLE S LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS adequate ambienat 50fc task lOOfc
DESIGN GOALS An asset to the center for repairs and shelf / display making DESIGN CONSTRAINTS Good ventilation soundproof ing

PQOGDAM

I
Develop an infallible technique . . . then
put yourself at the mercy of inspiration.
-- Chester Nagel
interpreting a Zen principle

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dedu?! pWipira-l perceived ^p&v|clvl^fVal)/?jetl/ e?e>y neepftefien o-f -Ja^e? ej 'jeh'vifiee? miViimurvi foi/tl cha^^; bright, e.ver> ktrtlvj non ^l&e, rvn ^bid ^iMr-face^j multiple eue^ ef changes> W/unr^, dcler^, liz\Met -bounds
provide oenrice*? b meed need*? ^ -$" -fo ffor larger * m^ipej^merij r pn?<^ranr>iingfo provide chalkn ycviAc ^iCnvicp^-, \o defiVe^ hdalfJo^ (e^v?! Czes-vic&b *aB5e r^n^rvafi^n rf- V^'cluslWiergu (vuVuVvihJ u^e n- renewable erurre/b * rfhabili'f j'Ken r| ^fv't'efun? r^Frdidnf- ad^pfaf/rn 4 rrm uep?>[ e>ifi',i<^ C ^n'enfr -Jr rni'niiiV ACTUAL- H/tll-jUl, rprn enfrs) poiVif-b at living S'fa-ff conbrcl f# *purie.\[[ar\e0 j froiecAcci ^Sferltfr cjla^incJ fep^givep- busy Neve* 4a Aye. ei4e. "-lech" sa-fe rj wafched j <=julet- Weber 3i. eeems tnaderahUj -s-afe, but tr>Urvf Y& f'i/iV !evdl <>f Lflvue-O f^phet?! is Â£' pioovc. grade-. MtWJ censfvueft en rvoust be. tbiah /ev/e|( -so site Kvai(?f be. (Ccnfaured aac.Â£>r-c4ini^Up 'Ibe VcvrtX\ tvuWi^v.^ tvrll prrvidt seetfridata^ acres.simUj, Im^e* tfj-fUe S+e-pd- A new e-nlYv2'nce. dvr'll t>e. "fVyj. painf dÂ£ cJnneeftm uATh 7W old Jjrcilcii/lf as tttM at. "Hie rAapro -Aonf -Wefc [\Hsf t') ay. is Nevada AVÂ£- dees n<4 pr evide ^eep+eJole 3uf dcin <*nd nefee fewffPTyu^ l-anddc^ptc.^ misi rwtViVAuija. oei'se fdLirh'cn.^A>m Tke nfc-sf-. 7he h'i'zp.- area recjuArad /r par'Ki'v^ -Hire&tene, -!z> in\cr\tsc. wiflri 4he. desired nen- ineffluff^a?( ijua^e farbiVx^ K.uesf be kepf beKind" -tbe bud l4ive Weber- sf. side.) -fe ali^Mi #n vr-\or-. -roea+rvient i&iev'>f mirh 7*1^ -traffic rcnednaCnt Vi A M?vfh-^outb is up b.-) fhe M^iri (nivance ^ vlr Hi. ^ tvbich isdna d/red line wif'b "The p4ler]. 1+ is imper+wif respect tHie? Arculfi>n rt>uh tt'nce ^iaHi is a res/denfial IeeahVn -/bv abn>|e, Aj/iia*' Ct>mmvf\Ctu i twc determined blj ~lhe letT'-teon fetuda-tM ^l-yee'f l ew; l Kruses Le\\xr Mlaer Sfvyef P?sie|erifi'sl |of=> which er^inss>rh <->n "thf ^ifti i\insf be screened HeiX^nshuefidn rvuis-f be e>ifed dV[C |0(7vfb af rieso cansfrucbbn sboi/14 |>yStvi/a ia/cM- irif>u [&M hfii/lder -b wind^j, VviYh l^Moirtral -\^e.r\f bfr-a+i'on wWieJn -pnoiAi'des da^U'^lT.} Jouf rvxini'/ui'yb \r\^ilte&teen rmd hrsf U>c%. hfollft) ?>rv\ en-|v^t must besiKad -fc -jexulihete .virui I, idolUj p|- Â£e>iy77]ev>T 5ui +t> fcet^, de>ujn LCt-cVsd t^THride a voprvn| poo 4o -hilc-c ad-vevvfa^^ ini/i'Kj. let us recognize ourselves in this old man or in that old woman. It must be done if we are to take upon ourselves the entirety of our human state. Simone de Beauvoir The Coming of Age RESOURCES SENIOR ISSUES Carrie Bartel, Director Pikes Peak Mental Health Center 873 West Moreno Colorado Springs 471 8300 ext. 390/396 Steve Bender, Director Pikes Peak Area Agency on Aging 27 E. Vermijo Colorado Springs 80903 471 7080 Edgar Doyle Berry, Former Treasurer Pikes Peak Seniors, Inc. 104 E. Platte Colorado Springs 80903 633 6539 Jay J. Coakley Sociology Department Room 131, Science Building University of Colorado Colorado Springs Colorado Springs 593 3144 or 593 3476 Melinda Groening, Vice President Pikes Peak Seniors, Inc. 2909 Drakestone Drive Colorado Springs 80909 473 0534 RESOURCES Nancy Lewis Superintendent of Leisure Programs Park and Recreation Department Coiorado Springs 578 6640 Ms. Lee, Director Second Horizon Acacia Center 104 E. Platte Colorado Springs 80903 578 6644 SITE Clerk & Recorder of Documents El Paso County, Colorado Drainage Department (Linda drafting) City of Colorado Springs 30 So. Nevada Colorado Springs 80901 587 6606 Bob Tegler (drafting) Topo and aerial photography Land Use Department El Paso County, Colorado 27 E. Vermijo Colorado Springs 80903 471 5742 RESOURCES Kenneth Myers (subsidence) Rocky Mountain Geotechnical, Inc. 634 1999 Emily Inman Criminal Analysis Division Colorado Springs Police Department Colorado Springs 578 6976 Ed Spence / Roy Cammack Soils Conservation Service #114 Springs Center Building 1826 E. Platte @ Union Colorado Springs 473 7104 Surveyor, El Paso County 27 E. Vermijo Colorado Springs 471 5751 Tax Assessor, El Paso County (legal description) 27 E. Vermijo Colorado Springs 471 5562 QESOUQCES CODES / ZONING Bob Wolcott, Zoning City Planning Department 30 S. Nevada, Suite 301 Colorado Springs 80901 578 6692 Redevelopment Administration 30 S. Nevada Colorado Springs 80901 578 6910 Regional Building Department 101 W. Costilla Colorado Springs 578 6802 UTILITIES Ed Bruce Central Utility Locating Electric, Gas, Waste Water, 350 Karen Lane Colorado Springs 636 5333 Dan Jawarski (Gas) 240 W. Cucharras Colorado Springs 636 5723 Water RESOURCES Gary Rombeck Waste Water Management 636 5811 Peggy Fielder (water) 404 W. Fontanero Colorado Springs 636 5647 LOWELL SCHOOL Deborah Edge Abele Planning Department Historic Preservation Specialist 30 S. Nevada, Suite 301 P.0. Box 1575 Colorado Springs 80901 578 6692 Bob Howard Business Office Colorado Springs School District #11 Colorado Springs 635 6214 Dr. Paul Kemp, Asst, to the Superintendent Community Relations Colorado Springs School District #11 Colorado Springs 635 6113 Kieth Kristy, Superintendent's Office Colorado Springs School District #11 635 6113 Penrose Public Library 473 2080 DESOURCES We all pass through stages in our lives with varying degrees of ability and disability. An environmental design that is responsive to life's stages and the capabilities of all users can truly be termed barrier-free. -- Michael J. Bedner Barrier-Free Environments, 1977 APPENDIX >-7Ajr^ [} =^HANÂ£jÂ£S /m -KahEi WXWfr fATT^FN^ tliM^T/^HAU-Y ffc^CPN^j* - WNlfWM " i?paftl6% ' ^f7 te#^k u*. ^ *5^* - VmniAri^N k? ibjfVF^wr t>f'TÂ£'&r\Z /uMAI^b l. /^ . 3-T ^LlM^ >\" Hoti^tqp TP&\PZ T7>n &TTz>hi tr^T Wnf fuqr z)u>hl - 2) p/^ft fums* \/LmjU*-^ tvO/l S- It- / - v^ -r / AJf^T A4tU** ^y/A , ., WmMCiXTlH^ UMmtdXUw^td/ms fiv d&ftH '^7A/r^ J ^PFIPOPJ M/aJ. 10-15f*, ~ VUfXAC ^PA^5>- M>uJ}U fUl -- WtrvmAJ Ci Hue^r ^ l&ui? ahp LfiW-FiTctfep f&HF^l^fX AU1PI&LS 5(LiH/\L5 H/TH VftUAi^ * 0UlLPINÂ£,e> T^F TH{5 ew7Ep/_Y flfiVtne Hubert/ A/A and //g/ APPENDIX ?U>0f' - PAH^E To WALL*? , A w\a\ #$gr|TÂ£|2 pjpp THE A^EC?, W^/^, A/a
APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

LOWELL
VILLAGE
A SENIOR CITIZENS CENTER FOR COLORADO SPRINGS
MASTER
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LOWELL
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