A performing arts center for Boulder, Colorado

Material Information

A performing arts center for Boulder, Colorado thesis document
Decker, John
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
83 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 81-83).
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
John Decker.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16721790 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1987 .D417 ( lcc )

Full Text



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1. Proposal...................................... 1
2. Thesis Statement.............................. 2
3. "Architecture as Space, Seperate Essay.... 10
4. Boulder, History, Context, Urban Analysis.. 12
5. Boulder Climate.............................. 27
6. Zoning Check................................. 36
7. Building Code Check......................... 39
8. Theater Prototypes........................... 46
9. Program/Adjacency.......................... 59
10. Annotated Bibliography...................... 81
11.Other Sources................................ 83

I propose to develop the design for a performing arts complex in Boulder, Colorado. The complex would consist of a large auditorium, possibly one small experimental space, and all support facilities for a large theater.
The project will be approximately 62,000 square feet.
This project is a real proposal currently being considered by various public and private agencies in Boulder, although it has once been defeated by a popular vote.
The site lies on the southeast corner of Thirteenth Street and Canyon Boulevard adjacent to the Boulder Center for the Visual Arts and across Thirteenth Street from an existing amphitheater in Boulder's Central Park. Programmatic data has been obtained from the agencies which have been involved with the real proposal.
My academic advisor is Bob Kindig and I have asked a landscape architect with the City of Boulder, Jim Zarka, to give additional advice. My outside advisor is Garry Harley, A.I.A., at Architecture Four Collaborative, Boulder, Colo.
In the summer of 1985 I was involved in the development of design for the Thirteenth Street "Transportation Corridor" competition which was held by the City of Boulder. In this process I became initially familiar with the issues of infrastructural implication of a project of this type and began to be interested in the design of the arts complex itself.
This project is also of interest to me because of its size and complexity as an intervention into an existing urban fabric and because of my own background and experience with performing arts. Having lived in Boulder since 1982 and having worked for the City of Boulder gives me some understanding of Boulder's fabric, both infrastructural and architecturalas well as the more elusive social fabric. There are some unique constraints to design in Boulder as well as the constraints associated specifically with the architectural type of theater which I feel would make this a challenging and rewarding project.

A Performing Arts Center for Boulder,
Col orado
Theater and performance have been central elements of human cultures since very early times. A type of theater exists in every division of human civi1isation, from the most primitive to every level of advancement. Modern telecommunications and other fusing factors have brought about a worldwide sharing of most, theater forms, as opera houses are found in Tokyo and Kibuki can be seen .in New York.
Theaters as architecture are often central types in the urban context, arid large cities have whole theater districts with theaters as architectural objects contributing significantly to the urban form and scale. Theaters have been part of the evolving urban form just as they themselves have evolved and changed through many different cultural expressions. The outward architecture of the type has reflected this evolution, passing it to the city as a whole.
Community theaters tend to be publicly supported institutions which causes them to be physically associated with the public p a r t i a n s a n d a r c Ii t e c t u re of t h e c i t y, b e c a in :i ng s i gni f :i c a n t urban monumeirts, themselves. This is true of smaller performance arts centers built in cities such as the size of B o u 1 d e r. T h e y ar e m a j o r a r c h i t e c 11 x r a 1 a d d i t j. o n s t o t h e townscape, publicly oriented arid adjacent to other public spaces, and they are meant to be significant contributors to the urban fabric and structure of the city. Indeed, they are meant to be what they are named.."centers."
In order to develop a design for a building of this s:i gni f i cance, the basic issues must be clearly identified and dealt with in terms of the design. In the course of an architectural education the issues that appear to recur the most frequently for me have been the issues of art, context, space, and technology. Space and technology are a part of the elemental knowledge of architecture, and since they are direct representations of the physical part of architecture they are dealt with head on in the artifacts of the design and are themselves issues for different e s s a y s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t ure.
Art and context are not so easily disposed of, being issues not so much of knowledge but of expanding knowledge, or knowledge evolving, because of a continuous blending with inspiration. They are issues of much more severe debate because they are not so easily treated scientifically as the previous two.
Context can be divided into a complex set urbanism, morphology, typology, prototype issues of urbanism and morphology begin examing the implications of the specific
o f s u b i s s u. e s :i. n c 1 u d i n g and modi f .i cat i on. The to be addressed by location .i n t;he gi ven

city, in this case, Boulder, Colorado.
The site at the south-east corner of 13th Street and Canyon Boulevard is an integral piece in a highly developed urban corridor of Boulder, which houses the public areas and functions of the city. Opportunities to interconnect. with all the infrastructure of the city are immediately adjacent in every direction from the site. The corridor along Canyon contains to the west, civic buildings like the city hall and its annex, park land, and a central library. Further west in the same corridor is the? County Justice Center. The system of parks which follows Boulder Creek within the corridor is connected by a series of bicycle/pedestrian trails which connect points of parks further east and west to the university in the south and to the center of the city. The three-point connection in the bicycle/pedestrian way is made in Central Park which is across the street from the site and to the west. Also in Central Park is an old bandshel1 and amphitheater that is rarely used; a potential t.o create an adjacency is offered here. Making a connection between the new theaters and the old amphitheater could serve to revitalise the latter and further integrate the new ones into the preexisting f ab ric.
13th Street gives connection between Pearl Street Mall and the center of town, passing the county courthouse and other county buildings at the point where it crosses Pearl Street. In this, 13th Street is* a connective element between two hierarchies of public things, the city with the county, and two corridors of urban open space, Canyon Blvd. and Pearl Street Mall.
The possibility of .increasing 13th Streets significance as a connection between the parallel corridors of Canyon arid Pearl Street was examined in a competition held by the City of Boulders Transportation Department in the summer of 1935in which I participated. Since the winning entry of this competition has yet to be instituted in fact, the entry submitted by myself and two col 1aborators will be used as a model for connections between the site and the city at large. At the time of this designs development, the proposal for a performance art center existed at this site and such consideration was included in the design for the 1.3th Street project. It will be a very useful model as many of the issues of evolving urban form and urban problems specific to Boulder were considered and addressed in this design, and its use will facilitate making the center/project. a contributory piece in the preexisting urban structure.
The goal that the design be an element of completion in something preexisting can be met by analysis and response to what already exists. Examination of sociological and planning materials will expand this base of knowledge into the realm of what will be there in the future, and points of completion can then be included in the center for other proposed projects as well as ex i sting structures.

A difficult: design environment has been created in Boulder. All design is subject to review as the city is divided into semi~ autonomous neighborhoods each trying to preserve its own character. In spite of this, certain areas of Boulder contain some extremely exotic architecture?, such as the* work of Charles Haertling, which further complicates and enriches the context. There is also presently a thirty-five foot height limit to buildings in Boulder, with occasional exceptions given to fifty-five foot buildings, which was .instituted to preserve views of the Flatirons and other mountains immediately west, of the city. The effect of this limit, has been to spread large buildings out into low block-wide masses, which now contribute their part. to Boulders architectural idiosyncracies. The few preexisting
h ighris e s, in c: 1 u d i n g I. M. P e i s N C A R com p .1 e x a r e m a cl e all t h e more significant by this. Theaters, because of high fly spaces over their stages, tend to be buildings of significant height, a fact often used to emphasise their monumentality. In Boulder, height is discouraged as a means of achieving monumentalism and
some combination of depressing the initial stage height. and nesting the highest mass in surrounding lower masses will be used
to meet, the height least in its spirit. Orientation of
the design to ground view corridors and open space will further s e r v e t o e m p h a size t h e s t. r u c 11.1 r e a s a 1 o w b u t s i gni f i c a. n t u r b a n
For me, the largest challenge of the project is to respond in terms of art, or to respond theatrical 1y. The goal is to make an architectural statement that is the external form of the theater wi t hi i n, but wh .i ch i s a ] so ono wh i c.h .i s f ar med w j. t h i n the constraints applied to buildings in Boulder, that. is, to i ntegrate art and f unc ti on.
Beyond the desired integration of the two, art and architecture are analogous activities in their practice, process, and discipline, and as a result architecture is termed one of the arts. It is specifically a visual art based on drawing. The architect engages in the production of drawn or modelled representatioris of the proposed building and the processes of making such things are all artistic. In order to draw well a background of art drawing is necessary because artistic exploration offers ready prototypes to the designer based on the creative exploration of space, light, time, form, color, texture, substance, rythym and patterna.11 elements dealt with both in art and architect.ure.
Design is best first explored at its pure, free levels where intuitive or poetic understanding of the listed elements can be gleaned. The rules of composition are first learned by artistic manipulation of simple elements within the limits of a particular media. Design understanding can then he applied to the manipulation of sets of specific elements with functional relationships such as parts of a building or parts of its elevat i ons.
Historical 1y, architecture has responded directly to artistic

conceptions of either itself or its elements of compositions. T h e Constr u ctivists, s u c h a s E1 Li 2 i t s ky, ini t i a t e d e v ery d e s i g n in paintings and adhered' strictly to them. Many architects, including A .1. v a r A a 11. o a n d L o C o r b u s i e r, i n v o .1 v e d t ft e m selves directly' with schools of painting. The Modernists, particularly the De Stijl school, based their architectural expressions of space on the prevalent artistic conceptions of it. Many comtemporary architects, such as Michael Graves and Leon Krier, paint and their paintings seem to prophesy a remake of the modern built world in Postmodernisms lyrical spaces.
The challenge of being directly artistic in architectural terms in the "media of architecture"-is that the designs be clearly based on some personal artistic conviction or personal
understanding of art. To do this, the architect must also be an artist involved in personal explorations of art, for only by' this process can art be produced. Art created by a writer or a
painter is often a direct reflection of his life and
circumstancesstuff from his memory'. Architecture also is tied up with memory in that it i s and has been the background to all human life and time. Honest reflection seems to make better art, and none is more honest than the 1 ibrary of history' which can enhance and refresh the "memory'" of both artist and architect, as history' is the collective memory of civilisations.
History :i 5 a source of prototype to I he artist and architect in
that both the activities of art and architecture are very old
ones, and the historical memory is one of most conceivable things and arrangements, styles and techniques, all of which have been tried at least'once, and can be observed as some artifact of history. The most immediate observable form of history is the physical context of the city iri which the site exists. These are the fixed conditions or limits of the problem, analogous to the f rame arouncl a composi tion. Rather thart being a hard 1 i mi t;, the frame in this case is the living edges of a city which is a
p e n e t r a b 1 e a n d act i v e e n t i t y w h e r e c o n n e c t ion s c a n b e m a cl e t o
other compositions rendering the now project a part of the c omp os i t. i on of t h e wh ole city.
Art and architecture, particularly in a changing urban framework, deal with the issue of modification, which introduces the other spacial dimension, time, into the design. Time, previously mentioned in terms of memory, is here dealt with in terms of its passage which causes things and systems of things to evolve. Accumulating design schemes in the context of a city are systems of things. Each new architectural piece in the system is an
incremen t af the modi f i cat .i an t hat causes the who1 e syst em to
evolve, as each is distinct in its time and artistically, stylistically, each is a statement of its time. Each is a pixel, in the changing image and form of the city, having its distinct time of introduction and duration in t.he image. The evo 1 ution becomes apparent when the image is viewed as a whole throught the camera of history. As change is not only unavoidable but also desirable, each addition is a potential point of directed change, a place to implement the first increments of a desired network of

overail chanqo. be neither too c h a n g e, b u t t o j. mp lied b ea t. sugg es t s proper offer dir ec t. i on urban change.
I n a r c h i t e c t: u r ea s w :i. t h a r t, i i :i s d e s i r a h 1 e t. o far ahead nor too far behind the increments of be ri cjht on the hi stor i cal .1 y and contextual ly Knowledge of history arid the immedi a.t:e context increment of modification and planning goals to the overall implementation of networks of
The artist often finds himself developing an overall system of works which begins to suggest, as it evolves, a single clear set of ideas. As his explorations progress he begins to take control of certain factors of his process and art, while letting others vary to observe the independent effects of their variation. Architects exploring architecture as art employ similar mechanisms. Artists, in a sense, are developing processes or systems that consistently produce art having some relationship to their overall set of ideas; often they do this stylistically by developing a personal vocabulary of artistic and symbolic elements. Architects as artists likewise respond in terms of vocabulary, which in their case is a set of architectonic elements and materials having artistic and symbolic qualities. Building materials have functional properties but. they also have visual ones which can impart significant meaning to their expression and use.
All building materials have color and texture which provide two areas of compositional, control. They also have unit sizes or s c u 1 p t. u r a 1 1 i o i i t s w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o c r e a t e d i f f a r e n t. a n d
relative scales of graphic interaction between them. Therefore?, building materials can be placed into a vocabulary because of their artistic properties, as well as their functional ones. Architects often limit their vocabularies sharply to a few materials or a group of materials, exploring these c:omposi ti ona 1.1 y t hr'ough a ser i es of das i gns of d i f f er ent buildings often limited to a single building type. By this, the properties of the materials are learned, singly and in c: o m b i n a t. i o n w 11 h e a c: h o t h e r
Architects and artists are often trying to project a single recognizable image or style and a discernable personal vocabulary facilitates this, making a particular artist's or architects work more cohesive and patternistical 1y observable when taken as a whole. I have attempted to do this throughtout my personal artistic explorations and throughout the academic exploration of architecture, and these formulas and processes will be further tested, r e f i n e d a ri d e n h a n c e d ti y the o x e c u t i a n o f I: it i s thes :i s.
As the project, is to be a community center and is associated with a major public: corridor, some monumental i tv is appropriate for the complex as an urban piece and to the theater as a building type. Because height is not a means to achieve this in Boulder, other mechanisms must be employed. The vocabulary of materials for the project. is chosen based on graphic, structural and contextual properties, with the visual ones being emphasized in this di scussion.

To increase the centers significance as a monument, "big" graphics or "big" patterns will be created on the walls at the largest masses of the complex. The masses themselves will be oriented by the longest clear ground views to them from the city. Possibly, there? will be two major masses created by both a traditional theater and by an experimental one which will be the t.wo largest; sing 1 e masses i n the complexes massi ng stratogy. The? largest of the two masses will be pushed to the edge along Canyon Blvd. to afford it good approach views from the east and west and to turn the hardest edge at the complex towards the city center to the north.
Brick is chosen as a material tor the largest masses of the complex. Brick is a particularly prevalent material in the commercial architecture of Boulder but is usually employed in fairly traditional ways. Here it is used because of the graphic potential of intermixing two or more colors of brief: in a wall. By intermixing colors of brick patterns can be created in walls from the scale of mural-sized supergraphics down to the scale of the brick units themselves. The units can even be used as "pixels" of very complex graphic or even photographic images, making the large brick walls objects of art, expressing several levels of pattern, rythym, and texture., Brick is also chosen because of its sculptural qualities and limits. The units can be arranged into spatial pa11erns such as corbr> 1 s and indentations in a wall down to one brick course wide. These spacial variations in the wall create shadow planes on the wall which then beconie gr aphi ca 11 v observab 1 e. T11e interp 1 ay of 1 i. ght and shadow can be scaled graphically in a similar fashion to the two colors of brick. The implication here is that graphic compositions can be created both in terms of color in the brick and in terms of light and shadow. The two distinct compositions can exist separately in different walls or in the same wall, either reinforcing each other or as two superimposed separate i mages.
Other types of unit masonry and coverings such as tile will be employed in and on the smaller connective and support function masses between the two theaters. Scale of patterns will relate to size hierarchy of the given external mass or internal space.
Theatric mechanisms such as set and scene will be metaphorically expressed in the skin and finishes of the building by such things as cutaway walls and partial reveals of the skin and structure arrangement. The skin of the building will be woven in and out of the structure, making the building in some places oxskeletal and in others endoskeletal, in some places revealed and in some places hidden.
To meet the stated goals of this project, artistic processes which allow continuous three-dimensional modelling of the design as it evolves will be employed during the design process. Starting From zoning data and forming a programmatical 1y defined building envelope or "primal volume," the design will be scu 1 pted, both construc:t i vel y and erc?si vel y, f rom the very

being a threedimensional entity. Bath computer and solid modelling will be employed in the design development of this project to facilitate the completeness of the three-dimensional modelling of the whole project, from the urban scale down to the architectonic ornament.
Treating the complex as. urban art. is only one hal f of the equation as this just deals with the exterior of an object having a great deal of interior functionally,, The interi-or of the theater is mostly a matter of space and technology: the craft of architecture, as opposed to the art.
In theater design, adjacency of facilities and functional are all known. Seating arrangements, acoustics and lines of sight are all matters of calculation. Audience comfort and functional quality are simply the result of attention to known parameters.
In many ways, the inside of a modern theater is an apparatus for the production of theater itself. It is a kind of raw grid for the building of the illusion of the production. During a pr eseri t at i on, t.he bui 1 d i ng shou 1 d essen t i a.1 .1 y van i sh f r om ar ound the stage, becoming only dim background to the brightly lit focus of the production,. The interior architecture should reflect this in its expression and be capable of disappearance when the? house lights go down.
The design intent here is to meet all of these stated goals head on. Space, technology, context and art will be employed, each in turn, as synonyms for architecture as the design development progresses. The result will be a new complex, well integrated into the existing city framework, sufficiently monumental to bespeak its place, and that functionally will be one of the f inest f aci 1 i ties in tIte region

~ Routside-inside
----------R APPARATUS

At the most basic level the architect is dealing with the construction, arrangement, or sculpting of spaces into the singular compound space of the built entity. Built form, therefore, reflects at least the most prevalent special understanding of the particular time and in higher- expression it reflects the times cosmology.
Understanding of the entity of space in architecture has undergone an evolution parallelling the evolution of human spatial concepts both phi 1osophical and scientific. The evolution of space itself progressed possibly from the partial closure of landscapes and earthworks to the radiating space of the classical age through the compartmented and often grand closures of the medieval, to the inside-outside space of the t wen t i eth cent ur y.
Attempting to proceed from knowledge, this centurys rational thinking led to modernism which based its sweeping universal spaces and gridlocked structures an a kind of "accelerated Euclidean" spacial understanding, attempting to deal with new materials and technologies in the scientific terms which generat ed t hem.
Paul Klee put forth that in both the practice of drawing and in spacial terms, point proceeds to line which proceeds to- plane. Planes, of course, rotated in space or, pushed linearly through it, creates vo 1 untes.
Space must be dealt with as a volumetric entity, in terms of all of its dimensions, Klee and most Modernists deal with two or three, but present quantum understanding of space demands dealing with the temporal component of space as well, giving supramodernist space? at least four.
Space? refers to all volumetric el omen ts of an architectural project. Light;, air, heat, users, their circulation patterns and activity patterns, all occupy spatial volumes, and by moving around in space they occupy it through time. Likewise, the structural entity occupies a three cii mt?nsi onal volume equi poi dal to these spaces and encloses them.
Circulation patterns are the volume of the users pushed through space in time to create the still three-dimensionally expressed f orm of a bui 1 ding s ci.rculation, just as a road is the tempara 1 pattern of car movements.
These spacial concepts appeared in Futurist and Cubist painting early in the century and were no doubt absorbed, at least sub 1 iminal 1 y, into the theology of Modernisin.
A quantum analogy could be drawn from solid state electronics. Quantum mechanics states that the atomic matrix of a metal is kind of like a hollow structure in which is an electron gas, the

movement of the electrons or electricity is dealt with three-dimensionally arid through time as though it. were a volumetric, incompressible fluid. A similar model works very well -for archi lecture. All volumetric, components of architecture can be understood as solids, including the spaces occupied by the fluid volumes. The design, from its very first., is a composition in terms of these volumetric elements, a composition of solid forms, proceeding from the knowledge that all elements in architecture are spatial and that in occupying space all can be modelled as soli d.

BOULDER: History and Social Context
Boulder is located 35 miles northwest of Denver in a spectacular setting just east of the Rocky Mountains. The? mountains surrounding Boulder are some of the most beautiful in the Front Range, and Boulders location on either flank of the valley created by Boulder Creek further enhances the views. The city is linked to the 40th parallel with a survey baseline drawn from this parallel running through the city as Baseline Road, just south of the University of Colorado campus. Boulder is urnbi 1 ical 1 y linked to Denver by Colorado 36, a four-lane highway; it is linked by this same highway to Lyons and Estes Park in the north. In addition, Boulder is connected to Longmont in the northeast and Nederland and Idaho Springs in the west by Colorado Highway 119.
Boulder first formed in the middle of the last century as a result of the gold mining ocurring in the mountains west of it. The city grew at the focus of roads coming from the mining areas into the mouth of Boulder Canyon, and it soon became the social and business center of the confluence.. At that time, Boulder provi ded the act i vi t i es nor ma 1 1 y a.ssoci at d wi th a f ront i or mining town: gun-fights, prostitution, and gambling were* common. On 4th Street, just north of Pearl is an a re hi tect.ura.1 remainder of Boulders redlight districta historically preserved Victorian structure which was one of Boulders most notorious brothels.
From the initial economic stimulation of the mines, Boulder' grew into a significant regional center and became the county seat. Later in the 19th century Boulder was chosen to be either- the site of a state pent? tort! ti ary or a uni varsity; in 1076 the choice of the latter was sealed with the founding of the University of Colorado and the erection of its first. building. Old Main. Boulder soon became a center of learning and scientific research, and became elevated to national prominence? in this cenlury as a center for studies in geophysics arid atmospheric: research.
Boulders growth at the mouth of Boulder Canyon directly placed the town into contact, with Boulder Creek. Indeed, most, of the towns center today is within the creeks one hundred year floodplain. In the mining days, Boulder Creek flowed where Canyon Boulevard is now and Pearl Street was called Water Street. Pearl Streets original name proved prophetic when a major flood washed out the center of town and shifted the course of the stream in many places. The stream was moved to its present, course further south and several diversions were built along it to provide irrigation water. Despite the threat of another such flood, there is currently considerable development along the creek, including numerous municipal buildings and Crossroads Mali Shopping Center. Some newer buildings, like the Boulder Public Library addition, have been built with the consequences of potential flooding considered. The f1oodway itself has been

widened by developing parkland and fishing ponds along its edge throughout the corridor. All of this development would be subject to destruction in the event of flooding but it would slow the velocity of the water reducing flood damage in some degree to the surrounding architecture and infrastructure! of the city,, Nevertheless, a major flood would still prove to be catastrophic.
Boulder Creek physically cuts the city in half as it passes east and west through its core. Most of the citys initial residential growth was around this core on either fold of the valley. Current growth is mostly concentric to the whole city, w i t h i n d u s t r i a 1 g r o w t h in t h e e a s t, a n d m a j o r r e si do n t. i a. 1 g r o w t h to the north and south.
Along with the rest of Colorado, Boulder experienced great population growth after World War II, particularly during the 1970s. This resulted in considerable debate in Front Range cities about the consequences of growth and the means of controlling it. In the late 70s Boulder took control of its growth as a city by sharly limiting building permits and by acquiring surround:i ng county 1 and as open space. 7hi s was backed up by county controls which have been enforced by designated subdivisions and downzoning of other lands. The growth limit in Boulder was called the "Danish Plan," after its author Paul Danish, a 1 oca-1 journalist and former city councilman. Other c o n t; i" o 1 s, s u c h a s t h e h e i g h t 1 i m i t a n d '' d e s i g n g u i d e 1 i n e s in historic and new neighborhoods were also instituted in the 70s All of these attempts at control were moti vated by what was perceived to be a unique style of life .in Boulder, one to be p r e s e r v c d a n d f a s t e r e d. T h e e f f i c a c y o f s u c h c o n t r c>I s j. s s t i 11 a matter of debate within and outside the city, however their existence, experimental or proven, is simply a fact.
Politically, Boulder can be said to lie "left of center," as there is considerable, nationally promi.nervt anti -nuclear and environmental activity here. The city governments stance has reflected this with its involvement in programs such as the
sister city projects with Nicaragua and the Soviet Union. Yet, the other side of the political spectrum is also represented here by some significant rightwing voices, some of which can be
considered extreme, as represented by various anti -communist groups and mercenaries associated with rightwing publishing activity in the city. The University and its student population has always played a part in local politics.
The University, Boulders significance as a research center, and the existence of a number of high technology and aerospace-related industries has created a city populace that is largely educated and prof essional. A praport i an af th i s educated an: 1
professional population must commute to and work in Denver in order to afford life in Boulder. Conversely, there is a labor
shortage within the city, and a good percentage of Boulders
labor force lives outside its limits....unable to afford to live
w i t h i n it.

Boulder has earned a reputation as being a progressive, "hip" community, arid it is a center for esoteric, activities as well as scientific ones. It played a role as location for some of beatnik and hippy culture, and always had a "scene" associated with literature, art, and music. Nampa Institute, a Buddhist liberal arts college, was an outgrowth of this activity.
The Boulder arts community is an active one, stimulated both by the University and other varied forces in the community.. All of the arts are represented, including a small group of film makers, as well as more exotic expressions of the arts, such as holography. There are currently four major repertory companies
in Boulder: Boulder Repertory Company, Upstart Crow, Nomad
Players, and the newly-formed Actors Ensemble. Only the Nomad Players have their own building, a Fifties-era facility, located in the north part of town. In addition to the repc?rtory companies, there are also numerous dance companies and schools of mime. There is a philharmonic orchestra in addition to musicians of a more experimental nature.
Although some excellent performance spaces exist in .Boulder, most, of them belong to the University, and no central space associated w i t h t h e c i t y a t 1 a r g e p r e s e 1i1.1 y e x i s t. s. T h e U n i v e r s i t. y
facilities, although public, are subject to considerable use by the University -itself, and are often inaccessible to .greater pub 1 i c: use. 01her pub 1 i c f ac i 1 i t i. es, such as Chatauqua
A u d i t i o r .i u m, hi a v e a 1 i m i t d r a n g e o f i.(s o a g c. The e x p e n s o o f 1 a n d
i n Bou 1 der makes t he bui 1 d i ng af add j. t: i oria 1 pr i vte 111eater s 1 i ke that belonging to the Nomad Players unlikely these days, so a publicly funded and accessible center begins to be the best soluti on.
In 198j, a referendum for the development of a performing arts center in Boulder was put before the populace. A number of art
and theater groups, as well as the population as a whole, was
dissatisfied with the proposal arid the motion was subsequently defeated.. Despite this defeat, interest, in and discussion of such a center still continues.
Boulders significance as a regional center further justifies the do vel op men t: of such a facility, as the audience would be drawn from the region beyond Boulders city limits; presently the nearest such>' is the Arvada Center for the Arts and Humanities, twenty miles away, and not very accessible to Boulder performers. Boulders performance art community is sufficiently large and active enough to justify its own center. If the-presently dispersed activities were brought. together into a central location offering public access to professional-grade production and support facilities, much of Boulders often frustrating attempts at artistic expression could begin to to fruition.

Courtesy of the University of Colorado Western History Collection and the University of Colorado Museum Photograph Collection.

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The miners came in 1885 searching for gold and silver ... and they found it. Boulders mining past remains a vibrant memory of the people and lifestyle that created one of the countrys premier small cities, BOULDER, COLORADO.
Today, Boulder is considered the technical and scientific center of Colorado. Businesses and organizations such as IBM, Bur-oughs, Storage Technology, Ball Brothers, Beech Aircraft, The National Center for Atmospheric Research, the U.S. Commerce Department National Bureau of Standards and the University of Colorado have added much to the flavor and diversity of the area.
There are unique shops and restaurants located throughout the community. The Boulder Center for the Visual Arts and the Boulder Historical Society are open year round. Performing arts include the Colorado Shakespeare Festival and the Boulder Philharmonic.
Bright, beautiful Boulder has a combination of continental charm and western hospitality which makes it an ideal choice to visit or o call home. Boulder, THE QUALITY LIFE.
1980 1982* 1983*
Denver-Boulder SMSA 1,620,902 1,701,300 1,742,700
Boulder County 189.685 201,200 202,600
Boulder 76,855 79,535 80,359
projections Denver Regional Council of Governments &
Division of Research and Evaluation, city of Boulder
1980-Age Structure:
Rest of
City of Boulder
Boulder County
29 46.983 59,896
30-34 7.237 12,182
5-44 7.774 15.933
5-Over 4.689 24,957
_ource: Division of Research & Evaluation, city of Boulder
White 94.4%
ipanish 5.4%
Hack 0.9%
American Indian 0.5%
*.sian 1.2%
Ither ource: Colorado Department of Health 8.4%
Annual average temperature Average monthly temperature
Average annual precipitation Prevailing winds Average number of days
source: Department of Atmospheric Science State University \
51.8f 33.7fJanuary 74.1fJuly 18.4 Inches West Sunny157 Sunny184 Cloudy24 Colorado
The city of Boulder operates under a council-manager form of government. Nine unpaid council members are elected to two and four year terms, one of whom is selected to serve as mayor for a two year term. The city council employs a city manager to handle the affairs of the city in accordance with policies set by the council.
Corporate income taxes are 5% of the Colorado net income. Personal income taxes are graduated from 3-8% of the Colorado net Income. Property taxes on real and personal property are assessed on 30% of the actual value. There Is no state property tax levy or tax on the sale of real estate. State retail sales tax Is levied at 3%, the city of Boulder levies a 2.15% sales tax. There is also a 0.5% sales tax for the Regional Transportation District, bringing the total sales tax to 5.65%. effective 1/1/83

1975 1980 1982
City 13.81 11.74 13.40
Schools 64.10 54.80 57.29
'ounty 22.60 25.03 29.11
Total 100.51 91.57 99.80
1965 ASSESSED VALUATIONS: 84,998,550
1970 134,706,330
1975 181,214,720
1980 322,810,120
1981 317,026,520
1982 331,509,030
source: Colorado Division of Properly Taxation
Public Service Company P.O. Box 551 Boulder, CO 80306
Parks 56
Golf Courses 11
Campgrounds 1
Tennis Courts 23
Skiing 1
Fishing 8
Boating 2
Theater 10
Dinner Theaters 1
Restaurants 170
Motel Rooms 1,000
Meeting Facil. 20
Libraries 2
Swimming Pools 4
The location of Boulder in relation to the Rocky Mountain Range offers individuals a number of recreational opportunities ranging from hiking to downhill skiing. A complete listing of the cultural and recreational opportunities in Boulder Valley can be obtained from the:
Boulder Chamber of Commerce P.O. Box 73 Boulder, CO 80306
2 with 25S total beds 20 245 113
Supplier city of Boulder
Average daily consumption 10,000,000 g.p.d. winter
55,000,000 g.p.d. summer
Type of treatment Ave. daily capacity Peak capacity
Secondary 11.000.000 g.p.d. 15,600.000 g.p.d
Major Highways
Railroads Commercial Air
Local Airport
U.S. Highway 36
State Highways7, 72, 93, 119,
Burlington Northern Union Pacific
Stapleton International
35 minute drive
Service by all major airlines
4,100 foot hard surface runway Lighted altitude 5,288 feet Services: fuel, repair, wash Navigation: unicorn beam Charter service available
Fire department Personnel Vehicles Stations
65 full-time 7 6
Personnel 54 patrol
20 detectives
Vehicles 28
DAILY CAMERA: issued daily and maintains a circulation ol approximately 32,000. For more Information write:
Boulder Daily Camera P.O. Box 591 Boulder, Colorado 80306
COLORADO DAILY: a free publication issued daily while thf University is in session, maintains a circulation of approx imately 21,000. For more information write:
Colorado Daily P.O. Box 1719 RniilrW Pf) flnmfi

KBOL1490 KGNU88.5 KADE-1190 KBVL94.7 KBCO-97.3
Station Location Affiliation
KWGN-2 Denver None
KOA-4 Denver NBC
KYCU-5 Cheyenne CBS
KMGH-7 Denver CBS
KBTV-9 Denver ABC
cable available
Mountain Bell 1805 33rd Street Boulder, CO 80301
Western Union 1705 14th St. Boulder, CO 80306
schools enrollment
Elementary 21 9,467
Middle School 2 1,166
Jr. High 7 4,289
Sr. High 5 5,269
Private &
Parochial 16
University 1 22,176
Trade School 1 554
less than eight grades 1.0%
eight-twelve grades 10.2%
high school graduation 20.6%
some college 28.6%
college graduate 22.1%
grad, school 16.8%
source: Department of Human Resources, city of Boulder
Boulder Valley schools
The Boulder Valley School District is dedicated to providing quality educational program for all students. The distrii serves an area of approximately 500 square miles and has a approximate enrollment of 20,000 in 40 schools. The Bouldi Valley School District is accredited by the Colorado Depar ment of Education and the North Central Association ( Schools and Colleges. The average Boulder elementary an high school students consistently out perform studenl across the country on standardized tests of achievement. Fc more information write:
Boulder Valley Schools P.O.Box 9011 Boulder, CO 80306
The University of Colorado was founded in 1876. The Unive sitys five colleges and five professional schools offer mor than 3,000 courses In over 140 fields of study. There ar approximately 100 degree programs at the bachelor level, 7 at the masters level and 54 at the doctoral level. Boulder campus enrollment Is approximately 20,000 with full-tim faculty numbering 939. For more Information contact:
University of Colorado j Campus Box B-7
Boulder, CO 80309
1965 $ 85,716,0
1970 132,177,9
1975 249,172,1
1980 406,665,0
1981 425,655,0
1982 source: Polks directory of banks 484,273,0
Year Number Value
1965 540 $ 8,470,805
1970 231 4,082,990
1975 286 9,204,283
1980 259 22,810,243
1981 472 19,468,904
1982 525 18,384,034
source: Boulder Building Department
Year Number Value
1965 24 $ 1,208,837
1970 29 1,983,600
1975 17 2,037,600
1980 39 15,909,420
1981 50 36,087,230
1982 45 27,869,943
source: Boulder Building department

source: Colorado Department of Revenue
$ 135,064,486 265,592,020 415,814,996 822,953,341 928,306,356 1,024,633,000
HOUSEHOLD INCOME CHARACTERISTICS: Effective buying income (after taxes) 1980 Median Household # of buying income households Boulder $22,877 29,800
Boulder Co. 24,193 74,700
Accounting Clerk $6.53
Clerk Typist 4.73
Computer Operator 7.60
Data Entry Operator 5.37
Drafting Technician 7.29
Secretary 6.76
Foreman 10.69
Heavy Equipment
Operator 10.43
Laborer $6.22
Mechanic 9.70
Production Worker 4.94
Buyer 9.68
Nurse 9.73
Programmer Analyst 11.03
Electrical Engineer 14.68
Accountant 8.73
source: City of Longmont total compensation survey1982
Percentage of households by effective buying income:
$10,000-14,999 10.5 9.8
15,000-24,999 22.1 : 23.0
25,000-49,999 37.3 ,. ^ 40.3
50,000-Over 8.2 7.7
source: Sales and Marketing Management, Survey of Buying
Power, July 1982
1975 1981 1982
Civilian Labor Force 78303 105,782 108,743
Employment 73,302 100,738 101,371
Unemployment 5,001 5,044 7,372
Unemployment Rate 6.4% 4.8% 6.8%
source: Colorado Division of Employment & Training
Storage Technology 8000 Boulder Community Hospital 376
IBM 5000 Boulder Memorial Hospital 286
University of Colorado 3700 Syntex Chemical 270
Boulder Valley Schools 2400 Boulder Daily Camera 255
Ball Corporation 1500 Technetics 250
Rockwell International 1500 First National Bank 233
County of Boulder 1000 Boise Homes 210
National Oceanic & JC Penney Company 180
Atmospheric Admin. 940 Colorado Electro-Optics 175
Neodata Services 800 Hilton Harvest House 175
City of Boulder 769 Celestial Seasonings 165
Longmont Turkey Processors 750 King Soopers Grocers 160
NBI 750 Micro Motion 150
National Center for Watts-Hardy Dairy 140
Atmospheric Research 700 Safeway Stores 135
Valleylab 640 IntraWest Bank 135
Flatiron Paving Company 500 Coors Paper Packaging 130
National Bureau of United Bank 114
Standards 500 Dieterich Standard Corp. 110
AMF Head Division 470 Mesa Vista Sanatorium 110
Mountain Bell 465 Boulder County Mental
Public Service Company Health Center 100
of Colorado 400 Leanin' Tree Publishing
Beech Aircraft 380 Company 100
Post Office Box 73/Boulder, Colorado 80306

Boulder, like other Front Range cities, has a general-1 y mild but unpredictable climate. Precipitation tends to be of least or famine type with heaviest preci pi tat i on ocurring :i n the winter, generally as snow. In the summer, cloudbursts can deliver several inches of rainfall in an hour making flashflooding a hazard in some areas.
Due to brilliant winter solar radiation, diurnal temperatures can be extreme, ranging from the mid-sixties in the daytime to well below freezing at night; this can be particularly hard on bui 1 d i ng ex ter .i. ors and 1 andscape mater i a 1 s.
With the exception of hurricanes, virtually every type of weather which occurs on the planet, can occur in Boulder, but the best known phenomena i s wind. Bou1ders mi x ed elevati ons and specific Front Range location make it prone to periods of sustained alpine type wind, particularly in the spring, and gusts over 120 mph. are not uncommon. These winds are downslope in nature and generally come from due west.
The weather is generally sunny but prevail i ng winds of ten cause the formation of* high lenticular clr'ds over the city, generally in late afternoon. The shaoe and position of these cloud
f or mat i on s 1 s of t en r esp on is i b 1 e sunsets.
A n n u a 1 a v e r a g e t. e m p e r a t. u r e Average monthly temperature
A v e r a g e a n n u a 1 p r e c :i. p i t a t i o n Prevai 1 i ng wi rids
Average number of days
Average winter t e m per atur e Degree days
or the creation of spectacular
51.0 F 33.7 F- Jan.
74.1 F July 18.4 inches wester]y to
1.20 mph.
107sunny 184-part1y sunny 24cloudy 37.6 F 6283 days/ year

' !
i i
SVF mm n m IV VI vm
.30 January 20 6 12 2.83 .79 1.56 .26 .06 .135 .017 1.83 .18 139 5 49
.35 February 19 9* 14 4.13 .75 2.15 .23 .07 .15 .016 1.38 .18 224 3 89
.29 March 30 10 19 7.20 1.74 4.05 .38 .12 .216 .049 2.67 .41 315 57 199
.28 April 32 13 22 13.33 3.72 7.24 .53 .18 .33 .086 3.31 .60 366 198 300
.20 !%y 35 19 28 12.86 5.16 8.11 .43 .20 .29 .098 3.37 .84 365 259 323
.47 June 33 15 23 10.10 1.38 5.13 .44 .09 .22 .060 3.40 .38 355 36 222
.27 July 34 18 25 9.13 2.09 4.69 .32 .11 .19 .060 4.80 .29 346 83 227
.29 August 37 18 24 11.47 1.60 4.12 .39 .08 .165 .050 3.06 .29 362 48 199
.33 September 24 11 17 7.36 1.88 4.10 .44 .13 .24 .050 3.05 .48 319 66 198
.38 October 22 7 15 8.79 1.35 4.05 .59 .13 .26 .050 2.50 .37 339 30 190
.31 November 16 6 12 4.90 .49 2.58 .32 .08 .21 .030 1.00 .18 248 1 119
.37 Decsnber 18 5 11 4.19 .56 2.03 .29 .09 .18 .024 1.47 .23 228 2 82
(The first entry in each column is the high, the second entry is the low and the third entry is the average)
*Leap day in these two categories has figures of 7 and .63 respectively


JANUARY 17, 1982
MAY 5-6, 1978


TOTAL # 12 412 841 548 134 2 1949 (total;not a
MOST 3 19 25 22 9 1 60
DATE 1951 1952 1955 1983 1956 1947 1952
1956 1983 1953
AVERAGE 1 5 10 6.7 1.6 23
Every 7 Years
AVERAGE 1 7.5 14 8.8 2.6 32.6
SINCE Every 2.7
1950 Years
MOST 3 12 14 14 7
CONSECUTIVE 1951 1952 1934 1958 1956
Longest span of time without 90 temperatures: 8/31/1905 (95) to
7/4/1907 (90) 671 days including the entire year of 1906
Days with 100 temperatures: 24
July 23, 1910 (no record kept, but 101 in Denver)
July 15, 1925 100
July 22, 1931 102
July 19, 1934 100
Aug. 24, 1936 102
Aug. 1, 1938 100
July 27, 1947 101
July 28, 1947 100
July 29, 1947 100
Aug. 4, 1947 101
July 7, 1951 100
June 12, 1952 100
June 15, 1952 100
July 24, 1953 101
June 23, 1954 104
June 24, 1954 100
July 10, 1954 100
July 11, 1954 104
July 12, 1954 103
July 13, 1954 102
Aug. 8, 1969 101
July 12, 1971 100
July 6, 1973 100
Aug.- 6, 1979 101
July 29, 1980 100
Sep. 2, 1983 100
(There were no records kept for June, July, and August 1910 and for the first
through the nineteenth of August 1909)

63 1-20-43 61 to -2
61 2- 8-36 33 -28
60 1-21-35 44 -16
59 12-10-19 50 -9
59 1- 5-59 55 -4
57 1-11-11** 56 -1
55 11-21-00 67 12
55 1- 7-09 61 6
55 11-28-58 55 0
54 8-27-10 93 39
54 9-29-21 89 35
54 2- 6-33 51 -3
54 1-12-74 52 -2
53 1-17-40 43 -10
53 3- 7-43? 45 -8
53 11-16-59 55 2
53 2- 9-75 55 2
52 1- 3-11 42 -10
52 12-28-20 62 10
52 1-10-63 48 -4
52 12-17-79 70 18
51 12-29-17 65 14
51 3- 7-18 60 9
51 1-12-20 55 4
51 10- 5-50 82 31
50 2- 2-02 42 -8
50 8-10-12 90 40
50 5-11-16 88 38
50 4- 8-17 73 23
50 11-22-29 43 -7
50 5-22-30 83 33
50 3- 4-32 51 1
50 1- 7-42 44 -6
50 1- 8-42 45 -5
50 11-14-59 50 0
50 1-21-73 64 14
0 5-31-11* 64 64
0 4-18-14* 52 52
0 2- 8-44 30 30
0 11- 2-46 28 28
0 5-15-47* 47 47
^Unconfirmed, may be an error-entry in the official records
(3 Also: 53 3-15-49 From 68 to 15
** December 6, 1984: 67 degrees to 11 degrees = 56 degree range


Lowest temperature: -33 1/17/1930
Coldest month: 16.4 January 1930
Coldest year: 48.1 1912 and 1913
Coldest winter: 26.3 1898-99 (29.3, 31.6, 18.0)*
Coldest summer: 65.5 1915 (63.0, 68.2;'t 65.2)
Coldest two consecutive months: 24.8 1-2, 1899 (31.6, 18.0)
Coldest two consecutive years: 48.1 1912-13
Earliest 32 in autumn: 9/9/1929 and 9/9/1941
Earliest 0 in autumn: 10/29/1917
Latest 32 in spring: 6/13/1947
La est 0 in spring: 4/2/1975
Highest temperature: 104 6/23/1954 and 7/11/1954
Hottest month: 78.3 July 1954
Hottest year: 55.86 1954
Hottest summer: 74.9 1954 (71.5, 78.3, 75.0)
Hottest winter: 41.0 1953-54 (35.5, 39.8, 47.6) Hottest two consecutive months: 76.6 July-August 1954 Hottest two consecutive years: 55.4 1953-54 Earliest 90 in spring: 5/15/78 Earliest 100 in spring: 6/12/1952 Latest 90 in autumn: 10/5/1947 Latest 100 in autumn: 8/24/1936
Wettest month: 9.27"'May 1957
Most consecutive days with precipitation (.01" or more): 15 June 1967 & May 1935
Most days with precipitation (one month): 26 May 1935
The wettest consecutive months: 16.12" April-May 1957
Most rain in 24 hours: 4.80" July 31, 1919
Wettest year: 29.09" 1938
Driest month: 0.00" November 1896, November 1913, January 1914, January 1919, January 1931, October 1934
Most consecutive days without precipitation: 55 September 17, 1934 to November 20 Two driest consecutive months: .06" January-February 1925 Driest year: 8.8" 1893 (since 1900: 10.91" 1954)
Snowiest year: 123.8" 1959
Snowiest season: 142.9" 1908-9
Snowiest month: 56.7" March 1970
Two snowiest consecutive years: 220" 1908-1909
Two snowiest consecutive months: 68.7" March-April 1944
Most consecutive days of snowfall: 11 March 7-17, 1958
Most snowy days (one month): 20 March 1941
Least snowiest year: 36.5" 1904
Least snowiest season: 21.5" 1924-1925
Two least snowiest consecutive years: 77.9" 1976-1977
Two least snowiest consecutive seasons: 87.0" 1917-1919
December 1R7A -T5R.1 dearees}and February ]s7a dearees> were the second

Greatest annual range: 130 (-33 1-17 to 97 7-7) 1930 & (-28 2-8 to 102 8-24)193
Lowest annual range: 92 (0 1-28 to 92 9-9) 1904 & (1 12-15 to 92 7-29) 1945
Highest annual low: 4 January 15,1953
Lowest annual high: 89e August 16, 18, & 19, 1906
Greatest monthly range: 98 (-28 2-8 to 70 2-22) 1936
Lowest monthly range: 32 (61 8-29 to 93 8-14) 1919
Highest wind speed: 147 mph January 25, 1971 (6:15 a.m.)
Annual mean: 52.0
Mean winter temperature: 34.8
Mean summer.temperature: 71.2
Average annual range: 106
Mean annual precipitation: 18.24"
Mean annual snowfall: 75.0"
Mean seasonal snowfall: 75.0"
Average growing season: 148 days (5-8 to 10-4)
Average date for last snow in spring: April 30 Average date for first snow in autumn: October 10
Latest first-killing frost in autumn: 11/10/1907 Earliest first-killing frost in autumn: 9/9/1929 & 9/9/1941 Latest last-killing frost in spring:- 6/13/1947 Earliest last-killing frost in spring: 4/10/1956 Longest frost-free season: 1940 (4/12 to 11/5) 207 days Shortest frost-free season: 1951 (6/2 to 9/21) 111 days Average date of last-killing frost in spring: May 7 Average date of first killing-frost in autumn: October 12
Strongest wind: 147mph, January 25, 1971, Roof of the National Center for Atmospheric Research

2aaHai(3 SlbaaS
Project Name: BgtH-D&i. CEHwP, RX. FEM*W/*fc- AKfS
Location: 5qQT^ PA5TP<. coMFA Of / 3 7."/ S;. Pup CAVYCV 131 vD.
PmDPX rcie&vo_________________________________________
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: 04? ^ A P,rjfV ^ (nf (&* C
Zoning Check By: JOl/N DICKPf'_________________ Date: 1KL.__tili£_
Section Page
1-1-3 5
<1-2-1 1
1-3-1 ~r
3-3-z 15
9-3-Z 15
Proposed uses ~WM W\ll
Support r>^/77rs__________________________
Present Zoning Classification
6b-e (zpy)
Applicable Allowable Uses l^00^ /\MUjr^r^P Ar- A
r,\nf'£~i/)rWrvr rsr/ir/K/Mrvrs iAf(u/n" mu, f unn/\ri&0 TMirts' f\iiDro P. W' j:.
Zone Change Required? ~ l/C P^lTfrQ ?'/ \ f(_____l t /( >J
Minimum Lot Size
area: C00 fr2-__________________________________
width: _____________________________________________
Minimum Yard Requirements
front: 5$' SfT&KK_______________________________

rear: ________________________
side: __________ both sides: .
allowances for overhangs: Maximum FAS iUh Available Bonuses ____________
7-3-iT J1
Maximum Height _________________________________________
feet; 55 frfr win/ctfftrWfit/) 55 ^r( q-^-H 5-CC.
stories: _______________________________________
Bulk Planes _____Dj/Jj._________________________________
Off street Parking
rqd. spaces by use: l / f f
rqd spaces for project: ________
parking permitted in setbacks?

f-3-/^ 2o
0 b'It 2b
Open Space Requirements C\fiK Z.C"f"r ''* )
\o%' oFrm^w) fox rveat w>ji(H yiosr at
(rfowp L?WL._____________________________
Landscaping Sqmts. U\!C IN /IffA
MQOif'KMlCHS TO dfCMfC fXv'r1" w a< r'2
0 rn/zyrr^nfr ?iw p/_Aur prg/uin/''rV7,.>, rt -
/"(f lTWft>/S j'rrn, c. - Aw P, yyp- >/,>.,
Fen ces /\/l(Mrf) g) rfi fW(/} fJo M FlfC. Pf'MT;'<
Sign Restrictions
Other Special Requirements

Project -. P,OVLDFR Pffi Fid t¥H<' F MT frr/Tff
n m bm cjtnqj r. i^/wr/?._________________________
FicV'PrA QoJJlELLLl________________________________
Applicable Code Memo- : / O. f _f _________________________
Code Check By J. D FFffF_______________ n.te- [?££
Section Page
5 A 57
Lot- (,o7.
Co? t> b
P> (J 7
W? 53
vi i mr
30^ 3
OjLctif fi fiX rf)
Fire zone (.. fA/7/TY, J-___\.ZC.______________n/a
Occupancy classification
Principle (\ 2.fppJ/^iC/J _____________
Others (specify __kV'//$/fA/ 3 I---------------n/a
qtAft3 fenr Own stw 3___________________
fnn<(tructinn type / /ft .17 ftpr ft r >' V'/£
r ypr I rdf rr"-vvn\
Occupancy separations required Hie. Min AL /,
A- Z- /I /, 1 - ft hours
/\ ^ to /) Jl> t'L hftiiM
/}-'?-! in / "5 - hi hours
to hours
to _ hours
Changes in occupancy--------------------------------
Maximum allowable floor area 1 ^7'------------------
Zf;7GC if 7j7J 2/-
If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides ff5 r*'.~Ii£l
If over one story
_ n/a L n/a n/a
If sprinkiered
'l V

Increases for fire separations

: n

-ft t'W, [\uQtywf rr It/ Vw/yrK io /o'
Maximum Allowable height
(Jf/t (M/H
\jnncjT f c *//f w r; 3/
(7/' /v /*>>/
Towers, spires, steeples
Fire resistance of exterior ails (see occupancy & construction
North South East Vest _
tw r tv f^r./T

TW M! Ur. i.j/y
Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior wails n/a
North .g Zo'

5D 52-
East .
West /WM f'Jlf/i'h'C
r^r it
j n/a
^ dO\UUi^ c fio /^J£c7 fcrfj
till/ fmu. fern cr v/r/j
Location within city/ location on property f/Y/- O'* / / //(//',,
vizjmlc- m-rn ifri: imr v1 rn. r.'-> rr(.
Dse of Public Property /Q FVFlr /Till ((a/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property?_______
Restrictions on marquees, conopies, etc. ________________
Other projections.
Windows required in rooms
Window area ^fc lew p. ncuers Mu1/ 3nf
(qO b (n b
Get nimty 53
Qti EXtfO
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd. '//.// i nj cJi_
Ventilation requirements feicrAOT/C C.'c'' M 'n/a
r-nrmtr vi -n: ff'T r/ in, /.re 7;(nr or- r
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms 2l_/' A -'' 7-_
2 ire
cr /// {''///

H. l£
Minimum floor tret of rooms
Fire resistive requirements.

Q&L, / gO Exterior bearing walls t//t / me n 4
Interior bearing walls
Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame _______


Permanent partitions Exit corridor walls ___
iqc-jftf Vertical openings
m. Sec. SoH(l1 Floors------------
Exterior doors
All Dock
y n.
Exit doors L frames Inner court walls _
/ 7
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) Roof coverings______________
. hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
? ; Fyr
Mirp /;//
Boiler room enclosure
ft 3 /fci
i ms
ML i£
/ r
Olli^_L£L__- n/a
Structural requirements llLL.
(}{/)( 'PA' '
Framework -Of jL_____5JCLL >. CrJC. Cfi fOP'JLf hrs
fY'tr'frr'{ L
I o? Floors B£L QMS ijUL
Roofs iwtru'H.v rjgijjriirjLsLJILIf
LiL. k kExits LM Z LLLLi kc
(Mcnes 35 l ^3
(HP- r 35 -4
A S> 2 TdfLjtKL 7//.' A) }(VC
-Z_3_" ______ Basis AFJ1 Actual Load
IV/7;/ Wr-I'ir firm rf 7,:-V 'a

'tfrn I^LU\S5fCcWZ
"\a$5MiZ NKk
!(i*Tf/ / H/ty £0*74
. rcric /w m.
5vliw j/sucf^ i
fty/A U- *- ^ (>
5ft r f 54 7
run ? y
L)C(. Iftu 1ft TO/{
:5o n

~7 n*
ah nr, it' f-rmn <. ,
>5 n*
Number of exits required / ^ 1 ft Ah 0T ft' '/f ///j n/a
prp. / , /w? /rr- ^
Or,\r^!f^ /'v.-z/n-, rr^tf TfiflX ftfr( SCO -fCCl
no less v/nJ 3 £*ns. 73z3
Minimum width of exits 1 o 7 /> / <5/ 4 f//^/' 1 n/a
117 i/A-r. \cj
Exit separation arrangement truGnH Cl
(>//: /^/ // Ssi'/Vf? MU'-
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit With sprinklers
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas) __
1 y n/a
QOftlPE. ft/if.
Em doors HL /,"'/ v
J n/a
Minimum width & height

Maximum leaf width
ilnirl/c/m ft "U
Width required for number of occupants
swing /a/ ^ PngricAj eft ft/ir r/A^n
Change in floor level at door ftftAA (A IC'/t!' .. f < ;
Exit Corridors A Off'f'CA! 1Ai (>' f ('r n/a
1f" /*>'!__________________________
Required width Required height
Dead end corridors length
M7 AV'/7 v ''

3?>4 551
'3f;cbr) 55/
/cl ;
55301,1$) 777
Openings 1 W W "< V- J
suir. /1AV f-ifl-r 'dLlilA t££. n/
Min. width
. load of / 'V/i: :
H cf if%>
occ.load of occ. load of
Maximum riser allowed Minimum tread allowed
occ. load of
-fl 11
Winding, circular, spiral stairs M-L_(e^f '_211--- n/a
("> rrnrf____________
Landings f L0-5- rJ5-£l L 'n/a
Minimum width rqd. -WV /r <- 7/"1 _____________
Maiimum width rqd. ___________________5____________
Vertical distance between landings
H '7'?
Handicap refuge space

^ ^ L I m c,
(( k
Stair to roof rqd.?
Stair to basement restrictions Stair enclosure rqd ? _________

Stair headroom Handrails____
_Ln/a 1 .^n/aj n/a n/a n/a
Rqd. at each side? / f Mi AP 0li>T__
? rev /7vy/ ff" wp7J/ n., 11 vrr.r I P> loi( Y
Intermediate rails rqd.
Max. width between interior rails .
Rqd. height
x0" -
/ 7,
Max openings in rails Height above nosing _
L It


Extension of railing Projection from wall Exceptions __________
35cF S£f 3 5B4
Horizontal exit requirement* i w. rye,,
mH Nof prcw m Samos n/a
Width S/wr K- 5T/\I/?S
Maximum slooe / til. 1
our iMjr ri i-'fnr in.'/py:
Handrails A P'. H- f\ ^TP'PV/C^b F cm n r, 7 *
Exit sicns rad. X 7 /)1 L E'X
Toilet room requirements (code utilized?) i n /a
Fixture requirements (basis?) n/a
Vomen U...
Drinting fountains XX fPCM FlClV !/ V in /a
miiKWu> Showers n/a
Handicapped Requirements
Si.* DLL rm5 Of 5'ir < rP
Accessible Routes

Accessible bathrooms
Accessible housing ___
Number of units ______
Minimum requirements
CM AO 511
Special rqmts. not listed

m t/rM\ Wflcrr/'f.i -
Mm if a/ 'ncru/r- rwo Fry err"






All Historic Prototype illustrations from Encyclopedia Brittanica .

t 1 1 ! 1 1
i 1 1 *

': rtn t-r
The open-thrust shape.
The apron shape.

The open stage of Jacques Copeau s Vieux Colombier, Paris, had multiple levels and a flexible but permanent architecture! set.
In todays piosconium theater, the width of the pioscenium opening can often bo varied by adjustable panels.


The Btauaom Thaatei at lincofa Caatar daaigaad b £ara Saarmaa and Jo Mialiiaar >a 1960 ca ebaaga n ihapa (two ill Tba laab Oiaaa Caatat at Harvard Uawarwrv deeded b arcMacl Hagb Stabbiaa aad tbaatar aagiaaat
Saorga l/a*i m I960, u a -* raalitetioa of tba mMIm ataga £tactnca#t aggratad aoMa aaaoag aam pad ataga taction a can ba raarraagad to craata la) a baa* praacwMo* ibaaa, |b) a bat* egaa-tbrnt Uapa. aad It) a atodifiad araaa or caatai ataga ibaaa


The arena stage in Washington, arena-shaped theater.
D.C.. designed by architect Harry Weese in 1961. is an exemplary modern


Rearrangeable community type theater, changes in seating allow use as either procenium type or thrust type stage.
All illustrations of prototype from Timesaver Standards

As is desirable in all community performance art centers these facilities will be geared towards use by local amateurs as wel 1 as to v i s i t. i ng professionals. T h e a c: t i v e g r a u p s .i n B o u 1 d er, a n d possibly the most frequent, users, tend to be highly professional and practiced.
The potential users of the performance space will be the various repertory companies, dance companies and some more experimental users such as performance artists, local film makers and experimental music ensembles. For other types of music production such as symphonic and operatic two facilities already exist in Boulder so this type of useage is not being considered i n t. h i s p r a p o s a 1 .
The complex must offer sufficiently flexible space to meet both the range of artistic expressions in Boulder and the range of correlative audiences for each type of event. As this project is a c a d e m i c a n d c o s t 1 i m i t a t i o n s a r e n o t b o :i n g h e a v i 1 y c o n s i d e r e d, things are being dealt with at the ideal. For a space of this type the ideal is to construct two theaters, a large and a small one. The large one will have a seating range of 600 t.o 1000 seats, with some possible adjustment in seating arrangement to accomodate di fferent, types of product? on, but sight l ines to the more traditional procenium type stage will be fixed. This theater will also have film projection capabilities.
The smaller of the two theaters will seat around 300 and will be of a more experimental nature offering rearrangement of stage and seating from an arena form to an overthrust, stage type theater for more intimate types of production like dance and drama.
In addition to the support facilities for the two theaters there will be alternative spaces as referred to in category 4. These consist of publicly accessible performance and rehearsal spaces and more specialized facilities such as studios and workshops to stimulate artistic activity consi dered peripheral to per formance, such as video and audio recording. Such facilities are gravely absent in Boulder and where they do exist they are? generally economically out of reach of the embryonic artists who need them most. The facilities would include a professional recording studio and a video editing suite. The recording studio is simply an acoustically isolated room usually having "out of square" walls and a smaller acoustically isolated room in it acting as a control booth. The video suite would consist of a room with editing benches and equipment and a storage space for rental equipment, thus needing no particularly unique arc: hi tectural treatment. Dance and rehearsal spaces like the sound studio should also be acoustically isolated but generally are rectangular in shape and have facilities such as wal1-mounted barres and mirrors.

60 Cultural
The community theater usually contains 500 to 1,000 seats and serves amateurs, semiprofessionals, and visiting professional groups Most of the scenery and costumes are designed and made at the theater and require a special type of workshop. Because of its varied use, and the rather indeterminate responsibility of its management, its planning should be as simple and as foolproof as possible. This study will not include experimental theaters, since these present special problems.
A properly, selected site offers (1) Accessibility by normal means of transportation. (A central location is essential for walking only. Automobiles should not have to traverse congested traffic zones when this can be avoided.) (2) Sufficient separation from bus and streetcar lines, principal highways, and other sources of noise. (3) Parking space (4) Convenience to complementary community activities, educational or recraational, in order to reduce interbuilding traffic and minimize supervision and maintenance.
"Front" or puMic areas, and backstage" or work groups, constitute the two major elements. Spectstors should find everything necessary for their needs accessible from the foyer once they have presented tickets Included are toilets, coatrooms, drinking fountains. lounges, and smoking areas. The lobby should provide waiting space and circulation to areas other than the theater, which may be contained In the building The manager s office is convenient If adjacent to the boa office and accessible from the lobby. In the work group, control of the stage entrance will avoid inter-farence from unauthorized persons and facili*
Fig. 1 Organization chart.
Timo-Saver Standards, 1st ed McGraw-Hill, Inc New York. N Y 1946
tate accounting of players, properties, and scenery. Rehearsal rooms are part of the work area and should be near other work elements. Movement of heavy furniture and other properties demands close relation between work spaces and stage proper Dressing rooms may be more remote but within supervisory distance. (See Fig. 1.)
Requirements for community theaters, although derived from the same sources and from the same historical background as those of the commercial, or "professional," theater, exhibit fundamental differences Emphasis upon creative effort leads to demands for a different type of accommodation than does the necessity for financial profit Two general types of creative community activity, directly related to the theater, require special provisions.
Audience Actnrtty This is great before and after a performance and between acts, due to the social nature of the occasion. Spaces for lounging, talking, smoking, are all necessary. Easy access to such spaces is of prime importance. At times, audience and actors may intermingle; for this a combination of lounge and reh>nl room is needed. Since refreshments may iffved, a small kitchen or serving pantry is essential.
Product ton Activities These consist of preparation for and presentation of the performance. In a community theater, scenery, costumes, and properties are mostly prepared within the theater plant. Separate workshops are ordinarily provided, one for costumes, and one for scenery and properties Used materials are salvaged insofar as possible, stored within the plant, and reused. Ample storage space is needed.
Presentation problems may be solved differently in the community theater than in its commercial prototype. Both types demand ample stage space; but, whereas in the "professional" theater, urban real-estate values have forced a vertical development with lofty stage houses for lifting scenery vertically ("flying"), tiered dressing rooms, and often inadequate wing space, the community theater, built on less expensive land, may be expanded horizontally. Scenery can be shifted horizontally, perhaps on wagon stages. Proscenium size and shape may be variable. Such flexibility and multiplicity of uses are not only financially desirable, but some theater authorities cell them essential for the theater's progress Types of stages which are considered impractical in the average commercial theater, become available.
liefest ions Because the theater has suchhighly specialized requirements, this study is limited in scope to those items within the creative center which are strictly community theater needs. Emphasis in the community theater being on amateur participation In all phases of the theater, there is to be expected less efficiency of personnel, end a necessity for greater
flexibility of facilities, than in commercial theaters
Capacity of the auditorium for the type of theater here discussed averages approximately 800 persons, often less. If, for financial reasons, provisions for road shows must be included, minimum seating capacity has to be increased to 1,200, preferably 1,500 persons. This increase brings many disadvantages, among which are lack of intimacy and lack of flexibility in auditorium shape and stage type.
Public Circulation A prime requisite for public areas in the community theater is ease of movement Access between the various parts needs to be as free as possible, to permit their full use by the audience before the show, between sets, snd after the final curtain. Code requirements as to doors and exits are minima for safety; the community theater needs even greater circulation facilities Depending upon site, nature of surrounding developments, disposition of plan elements, and raquirements for acoustics, lighting, etc., the number of openings to vestibule, lobby, auditorium, and lounge may be increased far beyond the minimum.
Access to Auditorium If possible the principal entrances from the lobby to the auditorium should be arranged without doors In order to achieve this it is necessary to make a careful acoustical analysis; in all probability sound-deadening material will be required on the walls of approaching corridors or lobbies, to prevent parallelism.
Types of Specs It is always desirable to have both vestibule and lobby. In most cases, it would be well to provide a separate lounge which on occasion may be used for social meetings, lectures, discussion groups, etc. The lounge may also serve as rehearse1 space.
Vttlrbule The lighting in the vestibule adjoining the street may be quite brilliant. Telephone booths should be provided, accessible from the vestibule In general the addition of other features, such as small bookstores, etc which will attract the public to the theater as a part of their daily lives, is desirable.
Ticket Office This should, if possible, both command the entrance to the inner lobby and at the same time permit the lines to form without obstructing it. There are preferably two ticket windows, one for reserved seats and one for current seats Necessary Also is sufficient free well space for a small ticket rack which can be made locally
lotoy While the theeter in the large city has no particular need for oversize lobbies, in the community theater the performance must be considered as a social occasion as well as dramatic entertainment Therefore, the lobby should be arranged to show off groups of people and their clothes to advantage
A combination of exhibition space end lobby is easy to achieve, and is generally desirable in the community theater. It is hoped that the community will take an interest in the produc-

Community Thoatort
Typical space requirements Typical Space Requirements
Aiees* Areas'
Spaces Isq ft) Remarks Spaces Isq ftl Remark!
Vestibule and gallery. . .. 1.200 Less area would hamper use of Siege ... 3,500 Ample; 2,800 sq ft minimum;
space as gallery and meeting 3,500 usual avg except for
place Area may be increased encircling stage. Air conditioning
in proportion as auditorium in conjunction with auditorium
capacity exceeds BOO. Good desirable; no outside light; top of
lighting is necessary. stage house louvered (consult
Checkreom 240 Minimum unless checkroom does codes); if conventional stage,
not serve auditorium or unless minimum height, floor to grid, is
patrons do not check overcoats. 70 ft.
Lobby . 1,000 See Vestibule; mechanical venti- Stage workshop.... ... 1,500 Sometimes reduced to 1,200 sq ft.
letion needed here. Outside light, if clear glass, ptef-
Ticket office 50 Minimum; for larger houses addi- erably from north; if obscure,
tional administration office 150- orientation unimportant.
60 sq ft) is required Ticket win- Scene storage 1,000 Minimum; larger if possible.
dows |2) and wall space (approx. Costume workshop . .... 420 May reduce to 300 sq ft; north
4 by 8 ft) are necessary light desirable.
Lounge- 750 Minimum size, equal to acting Costume storage . .... 210 Minimum; no outside light; pref-
rehearsal room area of stage; mech. vent, needed. erably ventilated; must be dry
Administrative 350 Minimum; area varies. Outside Costume dyeing .... 80 Minimum; no outside light required;
light and air needed. unless outside eir provided, must
Men's toilets 250) /Consult codes; areas ample for be mechanically ventilated.
\ < 800 capacity; either mech. vent. Six dressing roomsf 680 Each room requires access to two
Women's toilets 250> v or outside light and air needed. lavatories; size not changed with
Auditorium . 5.600 Minimum for conventional seating; size of building; stars' dressing
may increase to 7.000-8,000 rooms each need private toilet
sq ft for aisleless seating. Area and shower; all preferably eir-
includes forestage Iremovable conditioned.
seats). Outside light undesirable. Makeup roomf .... 130 Minimum: used also for dressing,
Radio studio 300 Can be reduced to 200 sq ft; no requires two lavatories: prefer.
outside light; mech. vent, needed. ably air-conditioned.
Control room 70 Minimum; mech. vent, needed. Two chorus rooms-)-. . 440 Reasonable minimum: three lave-
Director's room. . 20 Minimum, but adequate tories needed in each; preferably
Quiet room 30 Acts as sound insulation between air-conditioned.
circulation and radio unit. Two bathrooms . 300 Reasonable minimum.
Projection room 200 Ample, includes toilet and lavatory; Stage manager .... 150 Minimum.
consult code requirements. Oiscussion room. . .... 750 Can be used for rehearsal; erea
Spotlight booth 400 Area may be divided into three determined by acting area.
booths: one on center with stage,
one at each side of auditorium.
* Based on auditorium capacity of 800.
t Dressing, chorus, make-up rooms require mirrors, preferably 3-sided type, movable; and overhead lighting, mirror lighting equipment.
tion of a play ae well aa in ita presentation, and, therefore, exhibition space is desirable to show the various developments: costume designs, sketches for stage settings, etc., even though the apace is not used as an actual art gallery.
Checkroom This should be either adequate or omitted entirely. If included it should open from the main lobby and provision should be made to have a sufficient number of attendants and a sufficiently large opening to the lobby so that standing in long lines after the perfor* mance ia not necessary. In community theaters the expense of the proper number of attendants may become a problem. The checkroom serves not only the theater, but also other fecilities in the building, and therefore should have an an* trance to the main vestibula.
Auxiliary Specs! These include areas not always essential to the theater, but usually desirable. Projection rooms are fairly well atandardixed. If provisions for radio broadcasting ara desired, for either instruction and study of new dramatic techniques, or actual broadcasting, the minima outlined in the table above may be provided. Discussion or viewing rooms are
similar to radio studios, and, like them, usually need loudspeakers. Here an instructor and class, or the theater director and assistants, may discuss a production freely while it is in progress.
Maximum Setting Distance Even in theaters of 1,200 to 1,500 capacity, the last seat is preferably not over 75 to 100 ft from the stage, and much less in smaller houses. When balconies are used, the front of the balcony is preferably within 50 ft of the stage.
Sight Line! The apron of a forestage may be excluded from view to prevent sight lines sngled sharply downward from rear seats. In auditoria of 800 or less capacity, when balconies are not used, a complete view of the forestage should be possible. Side proscenia of encircling stages do not require perfect sight lines; balconies may help improve them. Sight lines for the side seats in the auditorium should permit a minimum of two-thirds of the main acting spaca to
be seen through the conventional proscenium; conversely, care should be taken that areas beyond the acting space are masked.
Setting Facilities Seat spacing preferably always exceeds the minimum of the New York Code of 32 in., back-to-back; and, if possible, seats are not less than 20 in. on centers. Use of Continental" seating, in which each seat row becomes an aisle, should be limited to small auditoria, where it does not force the rear row to be located too far from the stage. Aisle widths and number of aisles ere generally determined by building codes.
Auditorium Capacity and Type Need to vary the capacity of an 800-seat auditorium is not urgent. However, when necessary, this may be accomplished with curtains, placed in such a way, perhaps under the lip of a balcony or at a natural break in the auditorium, that they do not appear to change the essential proportions of the auditorium. Empty seats visible to actors are a detriment to good performances. Experts should be consulted as to the acoustical affect on the euditorium. A solid partition will very probably cause havoc in the acoustics.

52 Cultural

< .
J I 1 I
1 f
1 ~r
-PW 40'--2 PW +
PW, Proscenium Width PH, Proscenium Height Pin roil is located at lines ga

[ i 1 1 i i ; 5 i i ^ i t_4_ ^
1 J__
Cross Section
Rigging Diagram
Advantages or disadvantages of stadium houses versus balconies ere subject to much discussion. The best opinion seems to agree that a stadium house for a capacity of over 800 or 1,000 will have a rear row of seats too far from the stage for "comedies of errors, although satisfactory for spectacle pieces.
Auditorium Lighting The object of lighting in the auditorium is to concentrate attention upon the stage, even before the curtain goes up. In most cases, lights with reflectors, in coves hidden
from view, will prove most satisfactory. Fluorescent lighting, though efficient, is difficult to use because it cannot be dimmed. The color of the light should be neutral though warm. Chandeliers are usually considered objectionable.
Stage Area Space is the most vital consideration. It is necessary that the stage be so arranged that up to five sets can be set up and stacked in succession, without being seen during the performance; and that this be done
without acrobatics on the part of amateur stage hands. Furthermore, open-air (plein-air) scenes require the appearance of great height. Again, a high stage loft and an expanse of unimpeded wall space are desirable for storing current sets. Ibis means confining openings to one wall if possible, or, at the most, two. It is also necessary that the stage provide a "crossover,"
l.a., a passage for actors across the stage, either behind the stage through a corridor, possibly through the stage shop, or behind the cyclorama
No Cross Aisles
Stadium Type
One Cross Aisle
Three Cross Aisles
SEATING AND AISLE ARRANGEMENTS: Heavily shaded areas represent stage and seating area losses from comparative visual position in various systems.

Cultural ' 6 3
Acting FtcHititt Thaacfmp area extends slightly more then the width off the proscenium, end is, at the least, 20 fft deep. It should be trapped throughout its extent, with unimpeded space below.
All types off stages are preferably provided with an ample forestege. Even though this is not carried to an extreme, it is desirable for performances which are to be seen in the "round" rather than through a picture frame, and for soloists or lecturers. It can include pro* visions for removable seats, thus varying the auditorium's capacity.
The stage manager requires at least a desk, with direct access to stage, and to dressing rooms. The prompter needs a small space from which he can hear and follow action without being seen.
Scenic Provisions Cycloramas, or background surfaces, are illustrated by diagram and are
Combined Green Room and dressing room for women's chorus (20 people). The Green Room is an actor's recreation and discussion space, to which a few visitors may be admitted. Lights and mirrors are similar to those in other dressing rooms.
susceptible to great variation, both as to material, number of units, and shape. In planning for the type of cyclorama to be used, provision must be made for moving scenery horizontally. Permanent solid cycloramas, made of plaster, are particularly desirable for use only as a back wall of an encircling stage Curves must be acute, and as a rule it will be found desirable to tilt the cyclorama back slightly to reduce objec* tionable sound reflection. (See Fig. 2.)
The gridiron consists of a number of structural steel shapes suspended from 70 to 90 ft above the stage floor. Its exact location and composition are best determined by a stage equipment specialist. The pinrail is located along one wall of the stage, and serves as a means of securing grid lines It is commonly 14 to 1 5 ft above the stage floor.
Two doors, each at least 8 by 12 ft, are usually required for loading scenery One should open to the scene shop, the other to a street or
Typical dressing room for four people. Overhead lighfs are necessary for adjusting wigs and costumes, and for final inspection of make-up. Lights at mirrors are preferably designed to illuminate the actors' faces evenly, rather than to light the mirrors.
alley. The latter door may be omitted when no provisions are made for road shows.
Revolving or elevator stages may also be desirable, but are often too costly.
Nonconntioiul Stagai If great flexibility it re-quired in the stage, as would seem desirable for the community theater, a greater amount of stage area and cubage may be added to the wings With certain exceptions, it is obvious that a given amount of cubage up in the air does not have the multiplicity of use that it will have at stage level. The result may be a long, circular, low stage surrounding the better part of the audience, closed off from the auditorium by a series of panels which may be shifted at will. Gridiron is usually eliminated unless funds are available for both grid and "encircling" stage.
With this encircling" type of stage, additional storage space should be provided adjacent to the shop; and scenes may be shifted on

Typical "Stars' dressing room for two people. Triple mirrors are desirable. Chaise longue is desirable but not essential. Adjoining toilet should contain a shower and water closet.
At left, plan of typical costume shop. Good light, prefer, ably natural, is essential for sewing machines. In many respects the costume shop is similar to the sewing department of a modern high school.

wagons. When the encircling stage it used with all panels open, wagons are diapeneed with and scenery is formalized. If structurally possible, the entire proscenium should be unimpeded by fined columns. However, two columns placed at either side of an imaginary proscenium may be very useful for concealing vertical banka of lights. These light housings (in this case the columns) are called "tormentors," and are pref-erably movable. (See Fig. 3.)
Diagram of the encircling stage shows three spaces for two wagons (excluding the shop). If there Is unlimited apace, more wagone may be made available; but the ensuing complications are considerable and the gains small. The encircling stage becomes leas practical as the size of the auditorium increases. Even with au-ditoria for 800, good sight lines sre difficult to obtain unless stage area is substantially increased. It should be noticed, however, that productions which need side stages do not require perfect sight lines.
One may conclude that encircling stages are both economically and functionally desirable for the smallest auditoria, while for those of 800 seats and up, their cost may become prohibitive.
Outdoor Stage Size of outdoor auditoria varies considerably. The stage, of necessity, is some-
what formalized. If possible it should havs immediate acceaa to the inside stage, preferably through the wall, unless this arrangement is prevsnted by a built-in cyclorama.
Stags Shoo Adequate area is a prime consideration. Equally important Is the height to be allowed for the paint frame. When the conventional type of stage, with gridiron, la used, the height for a paint frame ie at leaat 30 ft Even with the comparatively low "encircling" stage, a 30-ft paint frame is necessary, since the effective height of scenery remains tha same. It is possible to rig the paint frame on the rear wall of the auditorium, or on a stage wall. However, when this is done, no scenery can be painted on the frame during productione or during rehearsals. The shop is the center of most of the dramatic activities and includes subdivisions for carpentry, electrical, metal, and painting work. It should be provided with good outside light, preferably diffused. It should immediately adjoin the stage storage space, the desirable clear ceiling height of which is 15 ft. Less height can be used in storage spaces, but this necessitates laying flats on their sides, which is considered unsatisfactory.
Costums Shop This, too, is a vital element in the community theater, because, of necessity,
most of the costumes are made on the premises. The costume-storage space should adjoin the costume shop.
Dressing Rooms Requirements for individual dressing rooms vary, depending upon the likelihood of producing professional shows and the funds available. Most satisfactory would be provieions for 18 to 20 actors in s number of dressing rooms, each providing for 3 to 4 actors, end two chorus rooms, one for men and one for women, each providing for about 20 actors. One chorus room may be used as a Green Room or lounge for actors.
Reheartal Rooms The number of rehearsal rooms is determined entirely by how much use is made of the building and how often the stage is available for rehearaal. Rehearsal rooms should be in the same proportion and somewhat larger than the acting area of tha stage; and, acoustically, should reproduce stage conditions as closely as possible. The public lounge, adjacent to the auditorium lobby, may also serve for rehearsals.
Arts center. The proscenium stage at Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, N.Y. Architect: Marcel Breuer. Consultants: Stanley C. McCandless, E. C. Cole, Sidney K. WoKe. This multipurpose auditorium (capacity 500) is steeply raked and the stage floor is low to allow better audience perspective, especially for dance performances. Alternate rows of seats are removable to permit installation of tables or desks. The lighting gallery is close to the staqe so that the control board operator's sight lines are similar to those of the spectators. The backstage wall opens onto tennis courts so the stage may be used for outdoor performances, commencement exercises, and special events.

Sight Linat
If th patron is to sea satisfactorily, plan and section must conform to a numbar of limitations which ara set forth in the following list. To design an auditorium ia to datermina a seating area within these limitations and to establish position (not shape) of walls and shape of floors therefrom.
1. The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision (no eye movement) is approximately 40 .
2. The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage, upstage of the curtain line, cease to bear the intended relationship to other objects onstage and to the background ia approximately 60.
3. The horizontal angle to a flat projection sheet at which distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60 measured to the far side of the projected image. Curvature introduced into the screen may render the distortion less from the extreme seats on the opposite side of the center line of the house but will increase distortion from the seats on the same side of the ^center line (see Fig. 14).
4. Judged by the audience's ability to recognize shapes, and confirmed by free audience choice of seats, the following is the order of desirability of locations:
. front center (except when the screen ia close to the front row)
. middle center
c. middle side
d. front side
e. rear center
f. rear side
5. Audiences will not choose locations beyond a line approximately 100 to the curtain at the side of the proscenium.
6. The vertical angle beyond which ability to recognize standard shapes falls off very rapidly is approximately 30 (see Figs. 1 5 and 1 6).
7. The recommended maximum angle of motion picture projection to the horizontal is 12.
If the foregoing limitations are applied in the horizontal plane for any given proscenium opening, they will limit an area of maximum value as seating space which is approximately elliptical. It is interesting to note that this shape for an auditorium plan was pioneered by the late Joseph Urban who had little of the present data to work with and may safely be assumed to have chosen the shape largely on esthetic grounds. A fan shape provides additional seating space at minimum sacrifice of sight lines, but nobody wants the seats in the extreme rear corners.
Occupants of all seats are visually related to the performance when the seats are oriented toward the stage. This necessitates curving the rows of seats. The center of curvature ia lo-
Thoatros and Auditoriums. 2d ?d copy-riqht 1964 by Litton Educational Publishing, Inc by permission of Van Nostrand Romhoid Company
cated on the center line of the auditorium approximately the depth of the house behind the proscenium. Budgetary limitations may dictate that seats be in straight rowa to aimplify construction; these rows can at least be related to the center of attention on stage by being placed on chorda of the optimum row curvature.
To provide bast visibility from any seat, no patron should sit exactly in front of any other

patron unlesa more than ona row distant. Thia requiremant makes it necessary to stagger seats. Staggering is accomplished by the non-uniform placement of seats of varying widths in succeeding rows. Unless the walls of the theatre are parallel (which is acoustically hazardous), it is extremely unlikely thst more than a very few rows can be made up of seats of uniform width. The lack of uniformity thereby introduced provides the means by which staggering can be accomplished. Sests are made with uniform standards and interchangeable backs and seats so that a wide variation of seat width is possible; a variation from seat to seat of an inch or two, cumulative enough to accomplish satisfactory stagger and make rows even, is not noticed by the patron.
Various seating companies have their own schemes and formulas for seat stagger, some of them patented. The client may ask a seating company for a seating plan and should examine it critically for (1) insufficient stagger in occasional areas of the house and (2) the introduction of seats narrower than the acceptable minimum.
Aisles are of questionable desirability except In the largest houses They must, however, be employed in many localities because of building laws which make no provision for continuous-row or so-called continental seating in which all rows are widely spaced and serve as transverse aisles Many a bad sight line has resulted from putting the maximum legal number of seats, usually 14, into each row in every section. Obviously, for purposes of seeing, radial aisles are best, with curved aisles only slightly less efficient. Aisles perpendicular to the curtain line often have the accidental result of making side section seats undesirable because people using the aisles interrupt the view toward the stage. The box office would
Fig. 14 (t) The horizontal angle to th contot lino ot which objocli omtago. upataga ol tho curtain lino, caaat to
baai tho intondad relationship to othet obiocts omtaga and to tho background ia epproiimetely 60. Tho hotiiontol angla to tho projection screen at which distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60 Ibl Basad on tho ability to recognize shapes and confirmed by sequential seat selection of unreserved seats, the order of do* suability ol locations is: A. front center, escept when the picture screen is close to the front row; B. middle canter; C, middle side; D. front side; E. tear canter; F, rear tide fc) Audiences will not choose locations beyond a line epprosi-mately 100 to the curtain at the proscenium The shaded areas contain undesirable teats.

66 Cultural THEATERS
Sight Linat
Fig. IS Tha vertical angle above which ability to recognize familial shapes falls off vary rapidly h 30.
like theatre with all aeats in the center sec-tion. A center aiale wastes the most desirable seating area in the theater and inevitably causes the objectionable condition of seats near the aisle being directly in front of each other. (See Fig. 17.)
Depth of House
There ere many formulas used to determine the depth of the house, or more accurately, to determine the relationship between depth of house, width of house, and width of screen or proscenium. They vary considerably and are all empirically derived on the basia of existing theaters, with too little reference to whether such theaters are good or not. Typical are the following: Optimum depth equals_ 4 times screen width. Maximum depth equals 6 times screen width. Depth equals 1.25 to 2.35 times
Fig. IS III tctne of direct conflict knot Hi yituol gignifieonco to tpoctotore outside tho ingle, 0 ,-D-D,, tc. One perform, eovort thi othtr tor tpoctotore iniidi tho ingle I D,-D-D,. lb) Sconoi of direct conflict staged anywhere between B end C on tn extended stage retain iaual significance for all spectator! between linei BB, and CC,.
house width when house width is 2-5 to 3.5 times screen width. Practically, there are only two significant considerations in planning the depth of the house:
1. Visual acuity. Normal human vision can perceive a minimum dimension or separation equal to 1 minute of visual arc. Translated into space measurement this means that at 10 ft a normal eye can perceive a dimension of 0.035 in., at 50 ft. 0 175 in., and at 100 ft. 0 35 in. Details of actors' make-up and facial expression are not plainly recognizable at diatances of more than 50 ft from the stage.
2. Capacity. The larger the house, the lower can be the price per seat or the greater the gross- If the box office is not to be considered, cepacity may be limited by optimum seeing requirements, and the last rows kept within 50 ft of the stage. As various requirements

Fig 17 Straight radial liilsi ire bsttsi thin liiln which curvi or bind.
operate to increase capacity, the distance of the reer seats from the stage must be increased and seeing conditions impaired in proportion. The theater operator may compensate the occupants of these seats by charging less for them. For shows involving live human actors, 75 ft is generally accepted on grounds of visibility ei maximum house depth. (See Fig. 18.)
In theatrical entertainment which has as its chief visual component human actors (live shows), the degree to which these performers must be seen to satisfy the audience end put the show across varies.
A. Details of facial expression and small gesture are important in legitimate drama, vaudeville and burlesque, intimate revue and cabaret.
B Broad gesture by single individuals is important in grand opera presentation, musical comedy, and the dance.
C. Gesture by individuals is unimportant and movement of individuals from place to place is the smallest significant movement in pageant.
It follows then that theaters planned for the types of entertainment listed under A must be limited in depth of auditorium so that visibility from the remotest seat still allows the occupant to perceive facial expressions (not over 75 ft).
Theaters planned for the types listed under B may have greater distance from the atage to the remotest seat, but this distance is set et a maximum beyond which the individual actor ia diminished to insignificance (approximately 125 ft).
Spectators in the last rows at the Radio City Music Hall in New York, looking through a distance ranging from 160 to over 200 ft, depending on the location of the performers onstage, see a ballet reduced to the size of midgets, and an individual performer, even with the dramatic enhancement of a follow apot, is a very insignificant figure indeed
Given the proscenium opening and capacity, laying out the orchestra and balcony or balconies in plan becomes a aimple and straightforward process. Sight lines determine proscenium splay and house width. Visibility limits and capacity determine depth. Minimum distance from stage or screen to first row is determined in the section.
As can be realized from the foregoing requirements for seeing, any scheme which attempts to provide flexible audience-perfor-mence relationships sacrifices something, usually in every form attempted. The multiform theater cannot be justified except as a laboratory, where -certain limitations are an acceptable price for flexibility and the box office does not need to support the enterprise
The vertical angle of 30 at the spectator s position establishes the distance from the closest seat to the screen or to the highest significant object on the stage The lowest seat in the orchestra must be located where the patron can just see the stage floor (except in the case of theaters built for motion pictures only). The highest seat in the balcony must be on a line which is not more than 30n to the horizontal at the front curtain at the stage floor if it is not to be above the limit of reasonable distortion. The standing patron at the back of the orchestra must be able to see the top of the screen, which is usually as high as any significant portion of a stage setting. Each spectator must see the whole stage or screen over the heads of those In front of him. Within these limits the floor slope of orchestra and balcony can be laid out: the first step in determining auditorium section. (See Fig. 19.)
Several methods have been offered heretofore for developing the floor slope. Doubtless others will be offered in the future. The authors present the following method as one which assures unobstructed vision from all seats It may be noted that this system produces a floor slope considerably steeper than that in many existing theaters It also produces better seeing conditions
To determine floor slope, establish eye position of spectator in first row on center line by approximately 30 vertical angle above. For live shows, stage floor will be approximately 2

Sight Line*
In. below this level For theaters designed solely for motion pictures, the locetion of the stage floor ie not critical; the position of the bottom of the screen is. (See Fig. 20.)
A point 3 ft 8 in. below, and 18 in. in front of the eye position will be the floor level for the front row. (1) Draw a sight line from the eye position to downstage edge of stage, end extend it back of the eye poaition for the front row, step off horizontal seat spacing (back to back), and draw vertical lines at the points thus established. (2) Establish a point 5 in. above the intersection of the extended sight line and the next vertical line. (3) This is the eye position for the second row and the floor level at the front edge of the second row seat is 3 ft 8 in. below and 18 in. in front of the eye poei-tion. Repeat steps (1), (2), and (3) to the back of the house and draw in the floor slope. Where the slope exceeds 1 % in. per foot, platforms are required under the seats, and steps in the aisles. A cross aisle which divides the orchestra into front and back sections entails the elevation of the first row of seats behind it to make up for horizontal width of the aisle.
The standing spectator's eye level behind the rear row of seats is assumed to be 5 ft 6 in. above the floor level of the last row. The sight line from this poaition to the top of the screen or highest probable curtain trim establishes the minimum height for ceiling under balcony. (See Fig. 21.)
Raising the stage will make it possible to reduce the floor slope but at the penalty of producing upward sight lines in the first two or three rows which ere uncomfortable and unnatural for viewing stage setting and action. If the stage floor is above the elevation of the first row eye position, the upstage floor out of sight by perhaps as much as 6 in. from the first row is generally preferable to having an excessive floor slope, especially if more than one balcony is used.
When planning for motion pictures only, the lower sight line from the first row will come to the bottom of the projected picture, approximately 24 in. above the stage floor, or still higher if a reverse floor slope is planned.
In laying out the balcony, sight lines ere laid out from rear to front because it is unsafe to change balcony slope. The focal point onstage is the point farthest downstage at which visibility is requisite, or, in the case of motion pictures only, the bottom of the screen. The maximum forward extensity of the balcony is then determined when the location of the spectator's ays position has been moved forward to a point beyond which the floor and supporting structure would intersect the upper sight line of the spectator standing at the rear of the orchestra.
- /V
Fig. 20 (a) Maximum tolerable upward light line angle for motion pictures, (b) Maximum angle determines location of closest seats, (c) Baste dimensions for plotting floor slope.
The pitch of balcony floors should not change since that would entail a change of risei height for aisle stairs and introduce attendant hazards. If vision from the rear row in the balcony ie adequate, the rest of the balcony is satisfactory-
In theaters designed only to show motion pictures, the first row need not be located so that the patron can see the stage floor. It is satisfactory if he sees without obstruction the bottom of the screen which is seldom placed less
than 2 ft above the stage floor. Raising the screen makes it possible to flatten the contour of the orchestra floor The reversed floor slope developed by Ben Schlanger makes use of this relationship to get the maximum number off seats into the zone of least visual distortion., and to hold the height of motion pictures theaters to a minimum. A result of the reversedi floor slope is to place balcony seats in the zone of optimum seeing.
Fig 21 Tha light lina of tha standing patron liaHtm tha balcony osarhang.
It is apparent that a theater designed for maximum efficiency for motion pictures (reversw floor slope) is almost completely useless fo any other sort of production except largw-screen television. The principle survives in thw angle of the car stands in the drive-in motiow picture theaters.
Floor Dish
The planning of the floor slope is not completed when pitch of orchestra and balcony has been* laid out on the center line. It depends also on the curve of the rows of seats. The wholw row must be at the same elevation if the seatai are to be level. The floor therefore is not sloped plane, but a dished surface in whiefk horizontal contours follow the seat row curve. The floor section at the center line, rotatedi horizontally about the center of curvature off the rows of seats, will determine the orchestra floor shape The balcony is planned the lama way save that the floor is terraced to take tha seats. (See Fig. 22.)
It has been established that conditions off seeing limit the depth of the house. Sinew capacity is a function of depth and widtfe, increasing the width increases the capacity. However, since sight lines from the side seat* limit the angular spreMf of the side wells, tfee width can be increased only by increasing the proscenium opening. The width of tNa proscenium opening is a function of the kind of production contemplated for the theatw The dimenaions given in Table 1 are derived from the requirements of the types of prodiec-
TABLE 1 Proscenium Widths, in Feet, for Kinds of Theatrical Production
Mini- mum Usual Reasonable maximum
Drama 28 30 to 35 40
Vaudeville, revue . 30 35 45
Musical comedy,
operetta 30 40 50
opera 40 60 80

63 Cultural THEATERS
Sight Llnti; Stage Space
tion noted when the performances ere so staged as to assure maximum effectiveness.
Where budget permits building to have better then minimum visibility standards, wall angles may be narrowed, floor angles increased, and balcony omitted, and visibility from the worst seats thereby improved to e point considerably better then what is just salable A very real problem, however, is to prevent precedent or pereonal prejudice from so influencing auditorium design as to cause the inclusion of large numbere of unsalable seats. One manager insisted, after floor slope and etage height had been determined and the auditorium floor laid, that the stage floor be lowered some 10 in. below the height called for in the plan, in the interests of, as he put it, intimacy.'* From the middle of the orchestra in that theater it is hard to see below the level of the actor's navel. (See Fig. 23.)
Greek theaters were semicircular (horizontal sight-line angle 90 to center line). This was all right in Greece where there was no proscenium. It Is obviously not all right where a proscenium is used. Yet, a misguided reverence for ancient practice still gives us some theaters with impossible sight lines.
open stage form must follow the requirements for open stage. Any theater In which performance extends beyond the proscenium onto either forestage, open stage, or extended etage requires very careful planning to provide good seeing from all balcony seats to all parts of the acting area.
Anna Stipe
Few, If any, arena-form theaters have balconies, nor are they likely to have eince the all-around eeating of the arena form seems to satisfy seating capacity demands without balconies Moreover, to satisfy the requirements of good seeing in arena, it is necessary to elevate euccessive rows of seats more than in proscenium form as a partial solution of the insoluble problem of actors covering other actors from some spectator's direction. (See Fig. 24.)
If seat rows are successively end sufficiently elevated, the audience may see over the heads
Fig. 24 Tin sight line problem inherent in the trene form: A hides B end C from first tera reran.
of near actors to the heads, and partially the bodies, of actors farther away
The stage is easily defined: it ie that part of the theater where the performance takes place.
Its size, shape, arrangement, and equipment, therefore, must logically develop from the nature of the performance. Inasmuch as architectural acoustics and the electronic control of sound can provide for optimum audience perception of the auditory components, regardless of the form of the stage, development of the requirements for the etage may proceed from a consideration of the visual components and the routine of performance.
For all production types, the visual components divide into two categories: performers and scenic investiture. These indicate the functional divisions of the stage: (1) the apace in which the performers work, which, though actuslly three-dimensional, is usually referred to as the seting ares, and (2) the space wherein the scenic investiture is arranged, which will be called hereafter the scenery space A corollary of the presence of scenic investiture is the need for its operation and storage. This indicates a third functional division of the stage: working and storage space.
There is a functional relationship between acting area, scenery space, and working and storage space The size, shape, and arrange ment of the acting area must be determined before the other spaces can be logically developed. (See Figs. 26 and 26 and Table 2.)
Performance-Audience Relationship
The theater situation is fundamentally one of the relationship between the performers and the audience. The audience wants to hear and see the show without distraction and in comfort end eafety, as stated, but its ultimate objective In attending the show is to receive the utmost sensory stimulation toward the maximum emotional and intellectual experience. Maxi mum appreciation and enjoyment of, end in e very real sense participation in. the theater experience by ench individual member of the audience depend upon the maximum enjoyment of it by the entire audience. Group reaction to a single performance stimulus is something less than total unless that stimulus be perceived at the same time, in the same measure. and with the same significance by the entire group.
Fig. 23 Zone of mvisibilrty. Causai: stage too High, front Mats too low.
Opera houses of the Renaissance had aide boxes for the very good reason that the people in the boxes competed (often successfully) with the stage show for audience attention. This condition persists, but it is worth noting that the best example of euch s theater In America has not made a nickel for a generation. Nevertheless, theaters with at least vestigial side boxes are atill built.
It is perhaps unnecessary to add that theaters planned in conformity with the principles here set forth may adhere in spirit to almost ny architectural style by the discreet planning of eervice and decorative elements which do not affect the basic shape of the theater. In theatere which are being rebuilt, It is often possible to retain the desirable features and still provide a good theater.
Open Stipe and Eitended Stipe
The open etage form In which eight lines must be directed to the edge of the acting area necessitates steep balconies. The balcony of a theater which is convertible from proscenium to
Fig. 25 Position of Hsckstags trots rtltthrt to itch other. This diagram must sot be ifitsrpratad in tanas of size or shape.

Stags Space
TABLE 2 Spatial Requirement! for Various Types of Theatrical Productions
General characteristics Acting area size Shape
Pageant and symphonic drama Dramatic episodes, processions, marches, dances, and crowd scenes Masses of performers engaged in simple but ex pensive movements before very large audiences From 2,000 to 5,000 sq ft, depending on the scale of the pageant Rectangular with aspect ratio between 1 to 3 and 2 to 3
Grand opera
large numbers of performers on the acting area at one time; olten more than one hundred in big scenes and finales Movement is martial processions and group dances and the costumes are elaborate. Soloists perform downstage center, close to the footlights but within the bounds of the conventional proscenium, principals play twosome and group scenes in the area near the audience, and choiuses and supernumeraries require space upstage The ballet and the chorus of soldiers, pilgrims, peasants, or what not. sometimes fill the entire acting area The performance is viewed objectively by the audience and does not benefit by intimate contact between performance and audience
Minimum: 1,000 sq ft Usual: About 2.500 sq ft Reasonable maximum: 4.000 sq ft
Quadrilateral with an aspect ratio between 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 Sides converge toward the back of the stage, following the sight lines from the extreme lateral positions.
Vaudeville, revue....................... Vaudeville and revue emphasize the
human scale Although the vaudevillian keys his performance for the lest row in the gallery, the form is characterized by intimate direct relationship between performer and audience: monologues straight to the front, confidential asides to the front row, and audience participation in illusions Other acts {acrobatics, etc.I are played across the line of audience vision fot maximum effect
Oance................................... Graceful and expressive movements
of human figures in designed patterns, chiefly in two dimensions but with the third dimansion introduced by leaps and carries. Occasional elevation of parts of the stage (loot. Singles, duets, trios, quartets, groups. The movement demands maximal cleat stage space.
Minimum: 350 sq ft Rhomboid with aspect ratio about 1 to 3.
Usual: About 450 sq ft Sides converge toward back of stage
Reasonable maximum: 700 sq ft following the sight lines from the extreme
lateral seats.
Anything under 700 sq ft is constricting. Rhomboid with aspect ratio about 3 to 4.
Reasonable maximum: 1,200 sq ft May project into and be surrounded by
audience {open stage or arena) since frontal aspect of performers has minimal and space-filling quality has maximal significance.
Musical: folk opera, operetta, musical comedy, musical drama
These forms embody on a smaller scale the production elements of grand opera, plus a certain freedom and a quest for novelty which encourage the development of new performance devices. Close audience contact of soloists and specialists is borrowed from vaudeville end revue. Big scenes involve many dancers, singers, and showgirls, often with space-fillino costume and movement Fifty people on stage at one time is not unusual.
Minimum: 600 sq It Usual: About 1,200 sq ft Reasonable maximum: 1,800 sq ft
Rhomboid with espect ratio between 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 Sides converge toward the back of the stage following the sight lines (torn the extreme lateral seats
Circle, square, or rectangle 13 by 4 aspect ratio! or ellipse |3 by 4 aspect ratio!.

70 Cultural
Stage Space
long dimension of acting area perpendicular to geneial sight line Audience entirely on one side, elevated to perceive two-dimensional movement Large openings at ends and in side opposite audience lot processions, group entrances, and exits. Some elevation ol portion ol acting area opposite audience, purely tor compositional reasons.
Long dimension petpendicular to the general sight line Audience elevated to perceive two-dimensional movement.
Proscenium '
Either no proscenium with pertormers entering the "pageant field" (torn beyond the lateral sight lines, 01 structural or natural batriets to delineate the side limits ol the acting area and conceal backstage apparatus and activity "Curtains" ol sliding panels, lights or fountains lor concealing the acting area; often the concealment is by blackout only
Width eoual to the long dimension ol the acting atea
Space lor 100 musicians between audience and acting area Conductor must see performance
Pit for 60 to 80 musicians Conductor must have good view of action
Primarily an outdoor lotm. it is often staged in makeshift or adapted theatres, utilizing athletic fields and stands or natural amphitheatres A few permanent pageant theaties have been built.
Movement in two dimensions in acting area is a significant visual component, predicating elevation of the seating area to make this movement visible
Long axis of the acting area perpendicular to the optimum sight line. Audience grouped as close as possible to the optimum sight line.
The fotestage is en essential part of the acting area; steps, ramps, and runways into the house are useful
Width equal to the long dimension of the acting area. Flexibility is to some advantage in revue but of little value in vaudeville
Music and music cues closely integrated with both vaudeville and tevue performances Pit space for (torn 15 to 30 musicians Conductor and percussionist must have good view of the action
Most of the visual components of vaudeville and revue are such that they are perceived best in the conventional audience-performance relationship The comic monologist who must confront his audience is defeated by the open stage end arena arrangements.
Neatly sguate acting area so that dance patterns may be arranged in depth and movement may be in many directions including along the diagonals Many dance figures require circular movement Many entrances desirable, especially from the sides of the acting area
Long axis of acting area perpendicular to the optimum sight line Mechanized mobility of structural parts to produce changes in acting area arrangement are desirable Forestaoes, sidestages, acting area elevators
Numerous wide entrances for actors and stage hands via the aisles or through tunnels under the seating banks Ramps preferable to stairs or steps. Experimentation possible in tendering stage flexible by lifts, and in development of flying systems oyer the acting area
Ptoscenium not really necessary, though useful as concealment for lighting instruments end dancers awaiting entrances, other devices such as pylons, movable panels, and curtains may be substituted
Usually as wide as the acting area, but should be adaptable to changes in the arrangement of the acting area described in the preceding column
Arena: None
Music almost always accompanies dancers For dance as part of opeia or musical show, orchestra is in pit For dance as specific performance, as in ballet, orchestra may be in remote location and music piped in Maximum orchestra fot dance: 80 musicians in pit for classical ballet Minimum: one drummer
Music an integral auditory component, sometimes integral visually Elevating orchestra pit to accommodate from 20 to 40 musicians
Orchestra pit beside the acting area parallel to long axis end opposite principal entrance. This unavoidably imparts a performer orientation toward the oichestra and favots the seats in that general direction
Dance in its various manifestations is the performance form best suited to the open stage or arena since it possesses the least amount of facial-expression significance end the greatest amount of movement and pattern in two or three dimensions Elevation of the audience to perceive best the patterns of dance is desirable_______________________________
The assumption by ballet of a greatei share in the performance of musical comedy indicates the need for a high general sight line from the audience A phenomenon of the lest 20 summers has been the growth of the musical theatre arena under canvas by which huge audiences have been enabled to see revivals of standard and Broadway musicals at popular prices though with general reduction of scenic investiture to that which is possible in the arena form The movement has been economically feasible and generally profitable

Stag* Spac*
TABLE 2 Spatial Requirements lor Various Tipes of Theatrical Productions (Continued)
General characteristic! Acting area size Shape
legitimate drama
Of all production types, legitimate dtama pieces the greatest emphasis upon the scale of the human actor. Tha importance ol the individual actor requires that stage space and scenery do not dwarf him. Dominance of plot, locale, end characterization requires verisimilitude in the size and relationship of scenic objects. Too small an acting area crowds actors and furniture, hampers stage action, and detracts from the dramatic effect which is the sole aim o( the performance. Too targe an acting area diminishes the actor in scale end renders his performance ineffective by weakening the effect of his gestures and movement.
Minimum: 240 sq ft f 12 by 20 ftl Usual: About 525 sq ft (15 by 35 ft) Reasonabla maximum: 1,000 sq ft (25 by 40 ftl
Ouefrilateral with an aspect ratio about 1 to 2. Sides converge toward the hack of the stage following the sight line from the extreme lateral seats
Open stage:
Semicircle, quadrilateral, or polygon projecting from e proscenium or from an architectural facade
Circle, square, rectangle, polygon, or ellipse with about 3 by 4 aspect ratio. Entrances from diagonal corners and in middle of one or both long sides.
Total Uniform Effect
If the theater does not permit total uniform stimulus and reaction, the performance can never reach its peak of effectiveness. The best efforts of theater artists stand the best chance of appreciative reception by audiences if the audience-performance relationship fosters to* tal uniform stimulus and reaction, hereinafter called total uniform affact.
The producer and the theater artists have requirements consistent with these: they want the physical facilities which will allow their show to stimulate the audience to the maximum of intellectual and emotional appreciation. The skilled theater artist applies knowledge of audience reaction to the preparation of every part of the performance. If, because of inadequacies of the theater building, the audience cannot perceive the performance as the artist has planned it, the artist fails through no fault of his own, and the audience is disappointed.
Not only is it the height of theatrical artistry for the showman to achieve this condition of total uniform effect, but it is good business. The spectator who does not see or does not hear or
does not comprehend a speech or action because of inadequate physical orientation toward the performance feels to some degree cheated of his admission fee and less inclined to return to the theater than does the spectator who perceives all the components of the performance fully and who feels that the performance is projected toward him and those close to him.
Expert showmen and artists use their productions! knowledge and skills to the fullest within the limits of the physical plants at their disposal. It is the duty of the theater planner to provide them with facilities which neither limit nor hinder their efforts.
The performance and the audience can be related to each other in a limited number of combinations with some degree of variation possible in each arrangement.
Performance-Audience Arrangements
Audience Looking in 0ns Direction toward the Performance: Proscenium This has been the conventional arrangement of the twentieth-century
theater in the United States. It has the following attributes:
It affords the maximum confrontation of performers and audience and is best for lecturers, concert singers, recitation and dramatic presentation. It establishes a limited orientation of performers to audience. The audience

Fig. 27
being in one compact group within a narrow horizontal angle, the performers can relate their actions to the whole audience simultaneously (See Fig. 27.)
It creates a limited, unified, fixed frame for the pictorial composition of the performance. Scenery can approach the quality of fine art in the refinement of its design elements.
It permits the director and designer to relate performers to scenery, secure in the knowledge that the whole audience will perceive the relationships in the same way.
It is the best arrangement for presenting to an audience a dramatic action of conflict or opposition of forces because the line of action of the opposition or conflict is across the line of vision of the audience and hence is maximally perceptible.
It is the form most conducive to the production of total uniform effect.
Being the established conventional form, it stands vulnerable to attack by avant-gardists who often seek change for the sake of change.
Fig. 2B Position of backxti

72 Cultural THEATERS
Stoge Space
The realistic style of dramatic production confines the performance to an acting area entirely inside the proscenium The apron is not used Most historic styles and much modern dramatic theory demand more freedom of audience-performance relationship than the realistic style and call for the projection of the performance toward, into, and around the audience. For this projecting aprons, foresteges, sidestages, runways, steps and ramps into the aisles are all to some degree useful To meet the demands of different styles and stylists, the acting area for drama must be capable of assuming many shapes. To confine it within the proscenium opening is adequate for the realistic style but inadequate for the others; to project it toward, into, or around the audience in any rigidly unalterable form is likewise adequate for one style but inadequate for others
Width equal to long dimension of the acting area Moving panels to vary width, openings in proscenium splay to form side-stages, movable pylons or columns by which opening may be subdivided ere all desirable.
Flexibility end mobility are increasingly desirable The application of motive power under remote control to the movement of structural parts to produce different arrangements appears desirable but is costly Manually alterable parts, particularly forestage proscenium panels and sections of the stage floor, if not unwieldy, are reasonable substitutes
Orchestral music is sometimes an integral visual pert of the performance, but most generally it is e purely auditory component It is not generally necessary for the orchestra to be seen by the eu-dience. but because cueing of music is so exacting, the conductor must see the action It is reasonable to provide e pit for from 15 to 30 musicians, but the flexibility cited at the left must be provided, either by portable pit covers, steps, and platforms or by mechBnited orchestra lifts There is opportunity for originality of arrangement
The various forms of theatre used by legitimate drama are discussed fully earlier in this chapter.
It is limited in seating capacity because the principal direction of expansion is away from the performance; the limit of good seeing becomes the limit of expansion. Expansion laterally tends to destroy total uniform effect by making occupants of the side seats view the performance from widely divergent angles and thus see the actors, action and scenery in nonsignificant relationship.
Theatrical production refuses to be contained within a strictly limited space behind a rectangular opening. The existing proscenium form has been called the picture frame stage, and the peep show stage, and even during its incidence and rise to prevalence there were objections to its restrictive character. The theory of theater admits, and numerous modern plays contain, instances where the contact between performance and audience must be more intimate than the formal frame permits. History of theater shows 24 centuries in which the picture frame was either nonexistent or modified by the use of acting areas in front of it, against *he last century and a quarter during which the proscenium developed in prominence. Modern theatrical practice contains frequent instances of the performance s attempting to come through the frame, into, about, and around the audience.
Audience Partially Surrounding the Performance: Open Stage In several variations this arrangement has gained in popularity during the midcentury. Essentially an old arrangement descended from Greek, Roman, Renaissance, and Elizabethan theaters, it has been readopted for several reasons:
It places the performers in the aame space envelope as the audience. This is said to produce a unity of experience between performers and audience, though the authors believe that the essential dichotomy of function between performers and audience persists regardless of spatial relationship and that attempts to resolve this dichotomy are futile, fallacious, and irrelevant. (See Fig 28.)
It places more spectators closer to the performance than does the proscenium arrangement and In this way contributes to good
seeing, but it places a burden of diffused orientation upon directors and performers and makes impossible the achievement of total uniform effect.
It contains inherent difficulties in the entrance and exit of actors which are usually solved by providing entrances beneath the seating area.
Difficulties pertaining to the scenic investiture which are common to both this arrangement and the arena arrangement will be considered together.
Audience Surrounding Performance: Arena or Central Staging Variously called bandbox, arana, the-ater-in-theround, circle theater and deriving certainly from circus, ancient amphitheatre (double theater), and primitive ritual sites, the arrangement of the acting area in the center of a surrounding ring of audience has gained in popularity in the twentieth century for a number of reasons:
Expediency. At a time when formal theaters have been decreasingly available and Increasingly expansive to build, while simultaneously the number of play production groups has been increasing rapidly, the arena arrangement, achievable in any large room, makes a rudimentary theater possible
Economy. As well as seating maximum audience in the minimum enclosure, this arrange-
ment seats the largest audience within the shortest distance from the acting area. It is therefore attractive to the showman and also to the spectator who attaches value to proximity to the stage (See Figs 29 and 31.)
The claims of intimacy which are voiced for the open stage arrangement are repeated for the central stage and the same demurrers apply with the additional statement of positions pro and contra the feature of seeing the audience across the acting area The argument pro is that seeing other members of the audience enjoying the show stimulates one's own enjoyment. The argument contra claims that the opposite audience seen beyond the actors is no part of the performance and is therefore a negative factor to the degree that it is distracting It is surely a negative factor in that it is not a part of the design and plan of the performance; it is not scenic investiture.
Economy is also affected by the effective limitation of scenery: There can be no scenery or properties that the audience cannot see over, under, or through This restricts scenic investiture to paint or other coverings on the stage floor, very low platforms, devices suspended above the acting area, outline representations of such objects as must be set on the

Slag* Spac*
tag* for uaa by tha actors (doors, windows, and similar architectural details), and low pieces of furniture.
Disadvantages. Because the audience is Bested all around the acting area, it is unavoid* able that viewpoints will be maximally different and it becomes impossible for director and actors to compose the performance so as to produce a total uniform effect. Furthermore because the conditions of covering (one actor blocking audience vision of another actor) are also maximized, it ia necessary to prevent covering by increasing the pitch of the seating area.
An unavoidable disadvantage of this form lies in the anterior-posterior aspect of every actor and the fact that the most dramatically expressive side is oriented in only one direction. The summary comment on this aspect was made by the late David Itkin: I have seen one-half of the show; now I will buy a ticket on the other side of the house and see the other half of the show." Unfortunately, because the performance must (at times) be oriented
toward the sides where ha haa not yet sat with his two tickets, he would have had to buy two more tickets, four in all
Performance Extending around Audience: Extended Stage Variously called side stages, multi-proscenium, theater-all-around, and even thea-trama, this arrangement has gained some acceptance in the midcentury decades. (See Fig. 30.)
This form begins as an extension of the conventional acting area to left and right, usually as parodoi entrances on the audience side of the proscenium, or as doors in the side wall splays which may be used when desired as frontal entrances onto the stage Its fullest development is in the four-stage form which requires that the audience sit in swivel chairs.
Its uses in production are various:
1. Small scenes played on side stages while scenery is being changed on the main stage.
2. Processions entering from the side stages and moving into the main stage.
3. Expansion of acting area for simultaneous showing of several settings or locales.
4 Elimination of changes of scenery by having all scenery set up on the various stages and moving the action and even rotating the audience. (This form relates directly to the television studio method of having several settings set up and moving actors and cameras from one set to anottier.)
Fi. 31 Arena stage, Washington, D.C. Architects: Harry Weese & Associates. Consultants: Bolt, Beranek & Newman. The arena stage (capacity 752) is an octagonal shaped theater in-the round with a rectangular performing area. One of the four tiers of seats is removable to permit a three-quarter arena form. The stage floor is trapped to provide additional staging flexibility and to provide an orchestra pit when the three quarter arrangement is used for musicals. The height of the catwalk lighting grid from the stags floor is also adjustable. The building was designed for a resident, professional, repertory company.



Category # 1
Faci1i ty
E> i z e (s q. ft.)
Stage with fly space S< wings
1200 1500
* Rearrangeable 1i ght ing gr i d over S'
* Projection booth 100
* Audio booth 150
* Lighting booth 150
* Di rec:tor s booth 150
* Audio-visual control room 100
* Winch-diminer room 100
* Work space under stage trap 1 < >oo
* Audi ence (6001000 seat s ) 10,, 000
Little Theater
* Raw space 10,000
* P r o j e c t i o n b o o t h 100
* Audio booth 100
* L i g h t i n g b a o t h too
* Directors booth 1 0O
* A u d i ov i s u a 1 c o n t r o 1 .100
% Wi rich -~d i mm or room 100
T o t; a 1 C a t e g o ry #1 = 25,050

Category # 2 L.obby Spaces/Ga 11 ery |
Fac i111 i es Size (s q. ft. )
* Lobby space 2000
t Ticket office 300
* Restrooms <2 0 120 ea.) 240
* Gallery 10,000
$ Meeting rooms (2 S) 300 ea. ) 600
Total Category #2=
13, .140

Category #5 Functional Support Facilities
Faci1ities Size (sq. ft.)
* Green rooms (2 5> 500 ea. ) 1000
* Star dressing rooms (2 S> 300 ea. ) 600
t General dressing rooms (2 600 ea.) 1200
* Costume shop 400
* Set shop 2000
t Mechani cal /El ec:tri cal rooms 300
* S er vice doc k 100
Total Category #3 5,600
Category #4 Alternative Spaces
Faci1i t i es
S i z e (s q. f t. )
* Dance studi o/Rehearsal rooms (2 S> 500 ea. ) 1000
* Small studios (2 5) 300 ea. ) 600
* Professianal recording studio . 600
* A u d i a b a a t h 15 0
t V i d e o p r o d u c t :i a n s u. i t e 12 0 0
* Equipment storage 300
* Alternative work space 1000
* Workshop/Machi. ne shop 600
Tat a .1 Cat egor y #4=
S'! 50
S i 2 e (s q. f t. )
Total Category #5= 2000
PROJECT TOTAL= 6.1., 240
C a t e g o r y tt 5 D f f i c e / M a n a g e m e n t S u i t c?
Fac i 1 .i t i es
# Manager's office
# General offices ( 5 0 150 ea.)
* Secretary/Reception
* Conference room.
K Xerox/Machine room




Annotated Bibliography
John Decker
1. Ching, Francis D. K.. Architecture: Form, Space and Order New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979 A very complete graphic and written treatise
on architectural design principals from the very basic through the fairly complex.
2. Halpria, Lawrence. R.S.V.P, Cycles. New York:
- A treatment of design and environments as the backround for the "theater" of human activity, scoring of events as sequences in both space and time, relates design to choreography and storyboarding.
3. Joseph, Steven. Actor and Architect. Manchester: Manchester University Press,
1964 A collection of essays on theater as an architectural event by a group of both actors and architects who have been involved in theater design. Topics include shapes of theater, forms of the stage and an article on the design of
a large theater for Minneapolis.
4. Ledoux C. N..' Architecture. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press,
1984 A beautiful volume of Ledoux1s visionary and graphic work at the end of the eighteenth century, some typology studies like Durand's but mostly of interest for the graphic style of the work.
5. McHarg, Ian L.. Design With Nature New York: Doubleday, Natural History Press, 1971- A significant work dealing with the environmental effects of human activity and ways of designing with more sensitivity to environmental factors, no real solutions are offered yet many important questions are raised which apply to any design project of any scope.
6. Mielzinger, Jo. Shapes of Our Theater. New York: Crown Publishers, 1970 -A very complete source book for theater design showing types of theater and tracing the evolution of various types and forms.
7. Porphyrios, Demetri. Leon Krier, Houses, Palaces, Cities. A.D. Profiles 54, London, Architectural Design Magazine, 1984- Krier is very concerned about modernism's effect on the state of cities creating what he calls anticities, an interesting treatise on the theory of typology and morphology as applied to a new artistic urbanism.
8. Ramsey/ Sleeper. Architectural Graphic Standards. Edited by Robert T. Packard, AIA. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981- The complete technical source for just about every aspect of architectural design, excellent material on theater design.
9. Sachs, Edwin 0.. with Ernest A. E. Woodrow. Modem Opera Houses and Theaters.
3 volumes, New York: Benjamin Blom, 1968 A catalogue of theaters and performance spaces throughout the world, showing type as related to use, graphic and written material.
10. Sexton, R. W. and Betts, B. F.. American Theaters of Today. 2 volumes, New York, The American Architect, 1966 A similar catalogue to number 9 but dealing with American theaters exclusivly in the book's words," Plans, sections and photographs of exterior and interior details of modem motion picture and legitimate theaters throughout the United States."

A. B. page 2
11. Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modem Art, 1966 A theoretical essay on the failure of modern architecture and a manifesto for change, possibly the initiation point of what is now termed post modernism however the stance of the book is one calling
for greater pluralism in architectural expression rather than design tied to a narrow polemic.
12. Zucker, Paul. Town and Square, from the Agora to the Village Green.New York: Columbia University Press, 1959 A study of urban form and urban open space
as it evolved and was de-evolved by modernism and planning, an analysis of the significance of open space to cities and city activity.

1. Time-Saver Standards, McGraw-Hill, Inc., Hew York, N.Y.
2. Encyclopedia Brittanica, Brittanica Press, 1974 edition
3. City of Boulder, departments of Mapping and Records, Parks and Recreation.
4. Boulder Chamber of Commerce
5. Midyette Associates, Architects, Boulder, Colorado
6. Architecture Four Collaborative, Boulder, Colorado
7. Boulder Weather Loc, William G. Callahan, Upslope Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1986
Special Thanks In Preparation Of This Document To
Elvira Ursula Strghle James Zarka Jacqueline Berry
All research materials, base maos, utility maps, etc. have been obtained for this site and project and are being retained for my use, I did not feel it was necessary to duplicate them in this document.
John Decker
January 1987