Citation
F.U.T.U.R.E.

Material Information

Title:
F.U.T.U.R.E.
Alternate title:
Future technologies research exchange
Creator:
Engbar, Steven J
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
128 leaves in various foliations : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 12 (1st ser.)).
General Note:
On cover: Future technologies research exchange.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Steven J. Engbar.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16775187 ( OCLC )
ocm16775187
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .E66 ( lcc )

Full Text

F.U.T.U.R.E.
FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES REARCH EXCHANGE
Steven Engbar Master Thesis


RUoToUoRoE,
An Architectural Thesis Presented to
the College of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Steven J. Engbar Spring 1987


Table Of Contents
Thesis Statements 1
Design Opportunities 6
Context 3
Conclusions 10
Footnotes 11
Bibliography Site Information 12
Location
Zoning, Building Codes History Analysis Traffic
Noise and View Flood Plain Zoning Service and Utilities Soil Conditions Climate
Programming
Appendix
Presentation Drawings


Thesis Statements
I think it is important for a designer to work from a basis in theory and to use that theory to guide criticism, discussion and the development of projects. The theory is not an end in itself but rather it is a means to ar general understanding of what design 'is all about.
Insolence Is design arbitrary?
Yes. Design is insolent. There is no optimal solution to design problems. Each design derives as much from the intentions, convictions and prejudices of its designer as from the problem itself. Design decisions are based on objectives and strategies supplied by the designer. A group of designers will not make the same decisions about the same design problem because the decisions come from the designer not from the problem.
No. Design is not insolent. Any design decision which is arrived at in an arbitrary way is a bad design decision. If a design is to be fully integrated and if it is to fully realize its potential, then every decision must be consistent with previous decisions. Development must be based on strategies, strategies must be connected to objectives and objectives must come from factors inherent in any given design situation.
The perception and comprehension of the environment is a major concern of the designer. How one perceives the environment I think, lies in how information about objects and the environment is processed by the human mind. In general the act of information processing is analyzed as leading from the intake of information, to its storage, to retrieval and finally to action.
W. Sperry in his research has identified the sequence of parallel information processing a3 related to the functions of the two hemispheres of the brain.1 His research indicates that the left hemisphere mediates
-1-


analytic,rational processes; it specializes in verbal thought. The right hemisphere mediates synthetic and intuitive processes; it specializes in non-verbal or imaginal thought. The 'left handed' (right hemisphered) system takes in information, stores it, retrieves it and initiates action instantaneously without verbal mediation and its attendant logical possibilities.
The 'right handed' (left hemisphered) system is analytic, rational, it relies on words and naming to attain its ends.
By analyzing the information processing system, the brain can be divided into two halves another way.
One 'side' can be labeled the passive-receptive side (which takes in information and enters the processing system). The other 'side' can be called the active-reactional side (This takes out information and prepares for action).2 On the passive-receptive side of the brain the left and right handed parallel psychological processes may be labeled intuiting and perceiving respectively.
On the active-reactional side we may call them imagining and reasoning.
Designers create a visual language in manipulating the environment. In expressive forms they convey to the user the intended uses of their design, its potential audiences and its emotional and utilitarian aspects.
They also convey implicitely their aesthetic preference and their mastery of form, technique and materials. It is important to understand how people interpret different shapes and forms in the built environment in an effort to be able to design more appropriate places and spaces for them to enjoy.
Given parallel methods of information processing, certain routes would be preferred in particular settings
for the message on which the design is supposed to rely. The messages most important to me as I design my thesis project involve the architectural content which will;
1) Inform the user/visitor of the function and service of the facility.
2) Impress an eirtotion upon them which suggest
its unique realm of endeavors that characterize the tone of its environs as differing from that of the world outside the walls of the structure.
To achieve this I will most closely scrutinize the affects of manipulating the following elements;
Scale- (particularly in the iobby/reception area
-2-


where the shape,form,size and height of the artefacts composing the room can impose a sense of majesty and wonder on a person. (The 'Rotunda' at The National Gallery Of Art, Washington, D.C., 1939, John Russell Pope) .
Color
Lighting
Sound
Materials and the quality of their finishes
These are considerations which produce the most immediate impression on someone and can involve them so they begin to experience the architecture, they become aware of their feelings as they pass through the spaces of the building.
The figure below is one best taken in, stored and retrieved by the right hemisphere of the brain, the passive-receptive side. It is done so then in an intuitive manner.


This figure is taken in, stored and retrieved in a perceptive manner by the left hemisphere, the active-reactional side and is an example of a form easily associated with a name.
Examples of other shapes and forms best processed by the right or left side of the brain;
Left side
Right side
Republic Plaza Denver.
Casa Mila Barcelona. Gaudi.
De Stijl Theo van Doesburg 'The Dance' Henry Matisse. Simultaneous Composition. 1909.
1929 .
Washington Monument Robert Mills. 1833.
'Recumbent Figure' Henry Moore. 1938.
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Building becomes architecture only when the designer understands the theories of the design and whar he wants the d-esign to say. The very essence of my design thesis is that ir exists at the delicate, ephemeral intersection between the curiosity of human nature and our appreciation of an environment that represents our chaotic as well as rationalist longings.
What distinguishes a building from architecture (the cathedral and the shed building) is that architecture speaks. Communication is the intent of this design thesis. I want my building to say something of the values and aspirations of its users and make significant connections with its cultural, historical and physical context.
The study has to do with the intracacy of relationships between subjective and objective decisions about the design and in particular, my concern for identifying physical forms which are handled better or more easily by a paradoxical mediation of synthetic and intuitive processes or through the left brain and its associated unequivocal system of mediating the analytic and rational.
This entanglement rather than clarity is the price of the richness of my design thesis, as against a building with little or no development through theory, of the Casa Mila as against the Republic Tower, of German Expressionism as against the De Stijl.
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Design Opportunities
The purpose of this building is about the preparation and dissemination of important information. It is to serve as an international center responsible for the investigation, creation and analysis of some impacts of social achievements and movements among people and societies.
Guided by the U.S. Government, industries of technology, telecommunications, transportation, media instruction, energy and data manipulation as well as fields of the social sciences, education, economics, medicine, the atmosphere, space and the future may be combined to conceive new procedures for studying events, interpreting problems and creating solutions in an effort to describe and improve the direction of human activity.
There is only one product this building will promote:
Information.
Generation of new and impacting information will provide the connection through which the building can relate to its cultural audience and the manipulation of this knowledge and intelligence using the following three parameters will guide the facility towards realizing its intentions.
1) Initiation of an international communications network for the transmission of news from any part of the world to this center.
To see a World in a Grain of sand, and Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an Hour
William Blake prophet and visionary
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Through communications media, goals like the ones Blake affirms can be achieved. Optical fibers of spun glass, made from silicon in sandn can bring to us the worlds of sight and sound. Laser beams for optical fiber transmissions can be matched with holograms to relay enough information in any part of its message to recreate an entire three-dimensional image. Using computer capabilities interactivity among users or between users and information is possible and can work towards the integration of a world-wide system of information transmission.
Microprocessors provide effecient ways of encoding, distributing and displaying information. New technology being applied to the fields of communications media transfer will enhance development of the global link which will collect information from people using mainframes or personal computers. "Humans are beginning to communicate in new ways."^
2) Provide a focal point upholding this building as the 'center' to which and from which all information and activities flow.
This is an important concept not only as it upholds the base of the network system but as the building itself is perceived by everyone. Accomplished thinkers and respected leaders in many different disciplines will converge at this building to correspond with their piers, to exchange or impose their ideas and to realize new ones. This facility will fuel itself through human interaction of the economist with the scientist, the layman with the professional, the child with the teacher, the politico with the artist.
3) Make available to people the issues being entertained at this facility.
This facility will thrive only as long as it continues to reinvolve itself with the human condition. It must then, be open to ideas from everyone and it must report its activities back to the people so the criticism, discussion and development process of problem solving can be accommodated.
-7-


Context
Researching my project I studied institutions and building types with programs or spaces similar to mine.
eg.
Rockefeller University, Rice Institute, The United Nations Building, consulates, embassies, think tanks,
The Aspen Institute, The Ford Foundation, Stanford Research Park.
In all of these buildings I found that their location and environment has great correlation to the foothold they maintain at the forefront of their particular fields. If my building is to be influential in its role as a high powered research center, it too must engage its L, physical context to involve the conditions around it.
} The progressive and high-tech orientation of the
West and Colorado in particular with development in energy, new industries in computer storage, applications and research (STC, NBI) Seri, NCAR, financial markets and the government communications and space network at Cheyenne Mountain, can act as the dynamic base which will infuse this center with resources and help provide the impetus it needs to impact important issues throughout the world.
The specific location of the building in the urban fabric of Denver then, must also promote significant connections with the historical, social, business, economic and educational language of that area. Some of these associations to be articulated during the design process are;
Cherry Creek and its historic role as the trail leading miners and settlers through the state to what is now the center of town, near the confluence of Cherry Creek and the Platte Rivers.
Lower downtown, Union Station and 17th Street-the financial institutions.
-8-


Larimer Square with its beginnings as a market place and trade center and continuing to fill that similar niche as an economic and social draw for the city.
The affects of urban renewell- 1970's, changing neighborhood districts, Auraria Campus- tauted as a model urban campus, masterplanned by Sasaki
........ so the land parcel selected for this building
straddles the territory between public and private sectors of the community and can act as a mediator and transition zone between the two worlds, as does Les Champs elysees in Paris
The Romer/Wirth agenda for revitalization of the state and Mayor Pena's efforts to stimulate the downtown area, Gary Harts association with Colorado politics and his bid for the 1988 presidency.
The passive and active nature of the program of this facility working in conjunction with special events at Larimer Square and The Denver Center For The Performing Arts.
-9-


Conclusion
I am now looking forward to the of my thesis project. The purpose I research and theoretical development design or sketchwork has for me been two levels.
'design' phase think, of the precursing any beneficial on
Firstly, In previous design studios, the parti of a project came from its site conditions and the program. Only after realizing these parameters graphically was a determination made about the configuration of the scheme. To be prepared now for the design process with specific precepts that will impact design decisions immediately is very encouraging for me in the method for making a building. I look forward now to the drawings which will realize the thoughts I have put forward in this document.
Secondly, although I am fascinated by the visual and utilitarian languages of architecture, I am equally concerned now, about the role of a building meaning beyond itself. Seeing architecture at the service of some larger set of ideals.
My research sessions allowed me to move from theoretical and pratical attributes of my project, to its image. A feeling I developed by focusing these issues in my mind (often simultaneously) was one for the people coming to this building. I decided the building should not only have meaning to the people in terms of its use, but should say something about their values and aspirations as well.
I want it to be a welcoming point at the entrance to the human spirit. To show the soft and hard sides of human nature. To reveal the responsibility, challenge, hope and enthusiasm people have with themselves and their environment. The building should project good, strong, safe attributes of society and should appear inviting and helpful to people. It should appear to boast the learning happening inside its walls and to have enough space for that knowledge to grow.
This Center For The Study Of Human Intervention is a celebration of the intrepidation of the human being, its architecture can in that sense constitute an exercise in the allegories of the mind and spirit, and the mystery of man and the environments he creates.
-10-


' t1'1 K
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229. Piet Mondrian. Composition with Two Lints. 1931. Oil on canvas, diagonal 44 7/8'. Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
230. Theo van Doesburo. Simuitantous Composition. ig2g.
Oil on canvas, 19 5/8 x 19 3/4'. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn. Collection Soci







i8i. Henri Matisse. The DanceStudy, igog. Oil on canvas,
8' 6 5/8' x 12' g $18'. The Museum of Modem Art, New York. Gift of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller in honor of Alfred H. Barr, Jr.


Footnotes
'Sperry,
') 7Jit'-' Ai'z.r. ,-r
T'-.o £ .j:
ft?*. . / tr.
^Juhasz, Joseph, Discussions,. October 1986 .
^Rice, Ronald, The New Media, (London: Sage Publications Inc, 1984) p. 34.
^Bowsley, Nicol, The Larimer, (Denver: Thesis, 1985). *
wheeler Neimann, Joanna, Cultural Center, (Denver: Thesis, 1986). *
* Used as supolemental information.
-11-


Bibliography
Arneli, Peter and Bickford, Ted. Aido Rossi-Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli Publications Inc., 1985.
Brill, Michael. The Management Of Change. Cleveland: Hauserman Inc., 1972.
Fishman, Robert. Urban Utopias In The Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, 1977
Fuller, Buckminster R. Operating Manual For Spaceship Earth. London: Feffer And Simons Inc., 1969.
Klima, George. Multi Media And Human Perception. New York: Meridian Press, 1974.
Lerup, Lars. Building The Unfinished. London: Sage Publications Inc., 1977.
McCue, Gerald N. Creating The Human Environment. Chicago University Of Illinois Press, 1970.
McLuhanr Marshall. From Cliche To Archetype. New York: The Viking Press Inc., 1970.
Rice, Ronald. The New Media. London: Sage Publications Inc., 1984
Stevens, Peter S. Patterns In Nature. Canada: Little, Brown And Company Ltd., 1974
Tuan, Yi Fu. Space And Place. St Paul: University Of Minnesota Press, 1977.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. Disappearing City. New York: William Farquhar Payson, 1932.
Zwaga, Harm. Information Design. New York: John Wiley And Sons Ltd., 1984.
-12-


SITE LOCATION
A.. Denser ( apnol Bunding N. Wrier Sqnrt
8 RTD Transport Tcrninil O. lath Slrrd Mil
C. Ok Crater P. 17th Street twain District
D. An Mwna 0- Cherry Creek Bike Path
L Dt*tr Mint K. Dearer Pabbr Library
F. Cmmfma Convention Center
G. Dcarrer Center lor lb< Prrforrainf Am
H. Awrarn Campos
J. Uwm Station /proposed C rratioo Center aod Hold
K. Or lord Hold
L. RTD Transport Terminal
M. Tabor Center


SITE AND EXISTING CONDITIONS
cx ^


STREETS FOR PEOPLE
03
.........PRIMARY PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION.
\ v'-l___PEDESTRIAN PATHS and OPEN SPACE.
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15 th ST.
14 th ST.


THE SITE
The site is adjacent to historic Larimer Square. The land parcel for my project is located at the corner of 14th and Larimer Streets. Bordered to the west by Cherry Creek and Speer Boulevard, it is a triangular site consisting of primarily 33,000 sq. ft. and zoned B-5. Located at the western end of Larimer Square proper, it has landmark potential because it marks the end of the Square and the edge of the city. It presently is a small parking lot with some open space.
The property is presently controlled by Larimer Square Assoc., and is actually owned by the City of Denver.
The site offers a rich variety of contextual and urban constraints. Of major significance is historic Larimer Square of which the site is undeniably a major part. However, the site also acts independently from the Square, being also part of the new mid-rise construction taking place along Speer Boulevard, the edge of downtown Denver.
ZONING ISSUES
The site is zoned for B-5, the same zoning as a majority of downtown. The primary emphasis of this zoning is for maximum square footage, given the historical content of Larimer Sq. and the site's relationship to it, the zoning should entice a more sensitive response to this context, not maximum footage.
ZONING REGULATIONS: B-5
B-5
- Ten times square footage of site with incentive bonuses, plazas, atriums, arcades, etc.
- Possible Floor Area Ratio 15:1, with bonuses.


ZONING AND LAND USE- DENVER
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lfL%£ Applicable Allowable Uses
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side: _____________________________________________
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Maximum FAB kio^ ThAM 10 K 101" A^-CA
Available Bonuses __A TT/\ H £ M T A ~X
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^ TAK^aJ ^ori Z/fV' <^V or 1?£aA/,K z^OAiid^ OkpwaaJ Maximum Height_____________________________________
feet: _____________________________________________
stories: __________________________________________
Bulk Planes _________________________________
Offstreet Parking
rqd. spaces by use: -1 ^~>CAC4j___£0%.___D-AC'f-j_2. CO *->2.
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rqd spaces for project:______________________________________
parking permitted in setbacks?:_____________________________
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Other Special Requirements.
a// A
3


ZONINGB-5 DISTRICT
§ 59-362
Sec. 59-362. Permitted uses.
No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall be designed, erected, altered,
used or occupied except for either one or more of the following uses by right or for one or more of the following uses by temporary permit; provided, however, that a use by right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses and/or one or more of the following uses by-temporary permit:
(1) Uses by right. The following uses may be operated as uses by right:
a. Ambulance service;
a.5. Amusement center: shall be located no closer than one thousand il.OOOl feet from any elementary and or secondary school;
b. Amusement or entertainment on the payment of a fee or admission charge;
c. Amusement or entertainment on the payment of a fee or admission charge, adult;
d. Apparel and accessory store;
e. Appliance store;
f. Art gallery;
g. Assaying office and laboratory;
h. Assemolv, without fabrication: the assembly of competely fabricated parts;
i. Auctioneer;
j. Automobile gasoline filling station, service, repair, but no commercial wrecking, dismantling or junk yard; need not be enclosed, provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except the limitation against sale;
k. Automobile laundry, including steam cleaning, if visible 3team is not discharged directly into outside air. Need not have doors. Must comply with the following conditions:
1. A minimum of five (5) parking spaces is provided on the
Supp. No. 2
same zone lot for each washing stall;
2. All off-street parking areas shall be hard-surfaced and dust-free;
3. All waste water is discharged directly into the sewer;
4. All lights used to illuminate the area shall be directed away from adjacent residential properties.
1. Automobile sales, but no commercial wrecking, dismantling or junk yard; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space, except the limitation against sale;
m. Bakery;
n. Bank;
o. Barber shop;
p. Beauty shop;
q. Bicycle store;
r. Blacksmithing shop;
s. Blueprinting;
t. Boat sales or repair, not including dismantling or wrecking; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space, except the limitation against sales;
u. Book store;
v. Book store, adult;
w. Bowling alley and billiard parlor;
x. Business machines store;
y. Camera and photographic supply store;
z. Candy, nut and confectionery store: a candy, nut and confectionery store in which all manufacturing is permitted only as and subject to the limitations of an accessory use;
aa. Caterer;
bb. Church and parish house;
cc. Cleaning with nonflammable cleaning agents only;
4279


S 69-362
DENVER CODE
dd. Clinic, dental or medical; ee. Coal and wood for household use, sale at retail only, must be packaged, subject to the following
limitations:
1 Packaging of coal and cutting or splitting of wood is not conducted on the premises; and
2. Not more than two (2) tons of packaged coal and not more than five (5) cords of wood are stored on the premises at any time; need not be enclosed. fT. Reserved;
gg. Collection and distribution station for laundry and dry cleaner; gg.5. Computer data processing center; hh. Crating service;
ii. Dairy products store; jj. Dance studio, for private instruction;
kk. Delicatessen store;
11. Department store (sale limited to items which may be sold by any use in this list); mm. Diaper service; nn. Drug store;
oo. Dry goods store; pp. Dwelling unit and/or multiple unit dwelling;
qq. Eating place; need not be enclosed provided that any part of serving area located outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all of the specifications for maintenance for off-street parking space; rr. Eating place with adult amusement or entertainment;
S3. Egg and poultry store (no slaughtering, eviscerating, plucking or dressing):
tt. Electric substation; uu. Electric contractor; w. Exterminators;
ww. Fabrication: the fabrication only of the following articles: art
Supp. No. 2
goods, including church art goods, needlework and mannequins and figurines; awnings; bakery products; beverage bottling; bottling or packaging of prepared specialty food products, excluding processing of ingredients; brooms, brushes; buttons; cameras; cigars, custom; clocks; clothing, custom; cosmetics, excluding the manufacture of pigments and other basic raw materials, but including the compounding of the final product by mixing; costumes, custom; costume jewelry; dyeing, custom; engraving; fishing tackle; fur dyeing, finishing and apparel (no tanning); furniture, custom; glass products from glass stock; ink mixing and packaging (no pigment manufacture); instruments, professional, scientific controlling, musical and similar precision, and instrument equipment and parts; jewelry; lithography; millinery, custom; needlework; newspaper publishing; optical goods and equipment; orthopedic appliances; photographic supplies (no film); plastic products, but not involving casting or molding processes; religious art goods; taxidermy; toys; umbrellas; upholstery, custom; Venetian blinds or window shades, except preliminary milling of the wood or metal slats; watches;
xx. Fire station;
yy. Floral shop;
zz. Food locker plant: a food locker plant renting only individual lockere for home customer storage of food, including sale at retail, delivery of individual home orders and the cutting and packaging of meats or game, but not including slaughtering or eviscerating thereof;
4280


ZONINGB-5 DISTRICT
§ 59-362
atia. Fruit store; need not be enclosed to the extent that the unenclosed portion shall not exceed in area one-fourth the gross floor area of the structure containing the use by right;
bbb. Furniture store; ccc. Garage for commercial and public utility vehicles;
ddd. Garden supplies store need not be enclosed;
eee. Gas regulator station; fff. Grocery store;
ggg. Hall renting for meetings or social occasions; hhh. Hardware store;
iii. Health equipment and supply store;
jjj. Health treatment on the payment of a fee or admission charge; kkk. Hearing aids store;
111. Hobby supply store; mmm. Home building material store, limited to retail sales only: all outdoor storage shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such storage from adjacent property; nnn. Home furnishings store;
ooo. Hospital; ppp. Hotel, tourist home; qqq. Institution, excluding adult community corrections facility; rrr. Interior decorator; ss8. Jewelry store (including repairing of jewelry, watches end clocks); ttt. Koshering of poultry sold at retail on the premises, with no slaughtering, eviscerating or dressing of poultry conducted outside an enclosed structure and with all wastes deposited outdoors to be in completely enclosed containers;
uuu. Laboratory, dental or medical; m. Landing or take-off area for rotorcraft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities; wvrw. Laundry,
Supp. No. 5
XXX.
yyy.
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Library or reading room;
Linen supply;
Liquor store (sale by package
only);
Locksmith;
Luggage store;
Mail order house;
Meat, fish and seafood store; Metal sharpening;
Miniature golf or putting course; need not be enclosed;
Mirror silvering;
Monument and tombstone sales at retail; need not be enclosed; provided, however, that if the zone lot on which the use is conducted abuts a residential district or is separated from the residential district only by an alley, any outdoor display shall be screened from the residential district by means of some planting or a fence;
Mortuary;
Motel (not including a trailer camp or trailer court);
Motorcycle store;
Museum;
Music store;
Music, musical instruments and phonographic record store;
Music studio;
Newspaper distribution station; Office;
Optician;
Paint and wallpaper store; Painting and decorating contractor;
Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles, except that any surface or structure, excluding access ramps, for such use within one hundred twenty-five (125) feet of a pedestrian and/or transit mail shall not be constructed above a level which is five (5) feet below the street level; need not be enclosed, provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for main-
4281


§ 69-3S2
DENVER CODE
tenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space; ww. Pawn shop; www. Pet store-
zxzx. Photographic studio or picture processing, or both; yyyy. Photostating;
zzzz. Photo studio, adult; aaaaa. Picture framing; bbbbb. Police station; ccccc. Post office;
ddddd. Pressing, altering and repairing of wearing apparel;
eeeee. Printing, publishing and allied industries;
fffff. Private club or lodge; ggggg. Public baths;
hhhhh. Radio and television broadcasting, (including transmitter);
iiiii. Radio and television store and repair shop;
jjjjj. Railway right-of-way; any existing railway right-of-way, but not including railway yards, maintenance or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed; kkkkk. Repair, rental and servicing: the repair, rental and servicing of any article the sale, warehousing, fabrication or assembly of which article is permitted in this district;
11111. Sale at retail, sale at wholesale and warehousing: the sale at retail, the sale at wholesale or the warehousing of any commodity the fabrication or assembly of which i3 a permitted use in this district, plus automobiles; automobile trailers; house trailers; trucks having a capacity of not more than one and one-half tons; automobile and truck parts, accessories, tires and tubes; beauty shop equipment and supplies; drugs; flowers; household furniture, furnishings and equipment; medical and hospital equipment and supplies; tobacco products;
Supp. No. 5
(automobile, truck and trailer sales need not be enclosed); mmmmm. Savings and loan association, state or federally chartered; nnnnn. School of any type; ooooo. Shoe repair shop; ppppp. Shoe store; qqqqq. Sign contractor; rrrrr. Special trades contractor: a contractor specializing in one or more trades of which the following are examples: plumbing, heating, refrigeration and air conditioning; painting, paper hanging and decorating; wiring and electrical work; glass and glazing work; damp proofing; fire proofing; tile, linoleum, floor laying and other floor work; insulation, asbestos and acoustical work; carpentry and cabinet making; excavating; well drilling; masonry and stone work; ornamental iron work. Trucks having a manufacturers capacity of more than two (2) tons shall not remain on the premises except as necessary to load and discharge contents;
sssss. Sporting goods store; ttttt. Stationery store; uuuuu. Swimming pool; need not be enclosed;
vww. Tattoo studio; wwwww. Telephone exchange;
xxxxx. Terminal for intra-city or intercity vehicles, including railroad passenger station, for movement of persons or freight; need not be enclosed; yyyyy. Theater; zzzzz. Theater, adult; aaaaaa. Theatrical studio; bbbbbb. Tire-recapping shop;
cccccc. Tobacco store; dddddd. Toy store;
eeeeee. Trampoline center; need not be enclosed; provided, however, such center may be enclosed by a fence
4282


<
ZONINGB-5 DISTRICT
§ 59-362

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not to exceed six (6) feet in height; Tropical fish hatchery;
Utility pumping station;
Variety store;
Vegetable store; need not be enclosed to the extent that the unenclosed portion shall not exceed in area one-fourth the gross floor area of the structure containing the use of right; Veterinarian, including observation kennels for household pets only, kennels need not be enclosed;
Water reservoir; need not be enclosed.
(2) Uses by temporary permit. Upon application to and issuance by the department of zoning administration of a permit therefor, the following uses may be operated as uses by temporary permit and need not be enclosed:
a. Bazaar and/or carnival; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than three (3) days and shall not be renewed for more than three (3) successive periods; and provided, further, that a period of at least ninety |'90) days shall intervene between the ter mination of one permit and the issuance of another permit for the same location; need not be enclosed;
b. Noncommercial concrete batching plant, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the plant and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two (2) miles from the plant. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than six (6) successive periods at the same location;
b.5. Outdoor retail sales within one hundred twenty-five (125) feet of a pedestrian and/or transit mall; notwithstanding the requirements of section 59-363(1), enclosure of uses, the outdoor retail sales of articles such as books, artwork, craftwork, food, flowers, clothing, newspapers and similar articles are permitted subject to the provisions of this section. Before issuing a Supp. No. 7
permit for such use the zoning administrator shall determine that the proposed use meets the following criteria:
1. That it will not obstruct the movement of pedestrians through plazas or other areas intended for public usage, or create congestion on adjoining public sidewalks;
2. That it will not generate an undue amount of noise, fumes, glare or other external effects; and
3. That it will not create a debris or litter problem.
Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months, and may be renewed, providing the hereinabove set forth criteria are satisfied;
c. Parking lot designated for a special event; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid only for the duration of the designated special event; and provided, further, that if the designated special event is a seasonable activity, the permit may be valid for the entire season but shall be restricted in use to designated dates and times during which the event is occurring; need not be enclosed;
d. Sale at retail of Christmas trees and wreaths; provided, however, that no permit shall be effective prior to the first day of November in each calendar year and no permit shall be valid for a period of more than sixty (60) days; need not be enclosed;
e. Temporary building or yard for construction materials, the storage of excavated materials and/or equipment, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the building or yard and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two (2) miles from the building or yard. Shall not maintain in storage more than six (6) cubic feet of excavated material for each square foot of zone lot area. Such material shall be piled no higher than eight (8) feet above grade and shall be protected
4283


} 39 "S2
DENVER CODE
by a seven-foot-high fence with controlled access. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than three (3) successive periods at the same location; need not be enclosed;
f. Emergency housing, which provides shelter for homeless or unemployed people. This use must be in an existing structure and operated by a governmental agency or by a private, nonprofit religious or charitable organization. It must have adequate off-street parking facilities for residents and staff, and must be at least one thousand (1,000) feet from any other such use.
It may have guest rooms and/or apartments for client occupancy which does not exceed sixty (60) days. Such housing shall be offered to homeless or unemployed people for no financial compensation. Permits for such housing shall only be issued after a finding by the zoning administrator that the proposed use shall not be detrimental to the use and enjoyment of adjacent conforming residential properties. The zoning administrator may impose additional restrictions if necessary to protect the value and enjoyment of adjacent conforming residential properties. At least fifteen (15) days prior to the issuance of a permit for such use, the zoning administrator shall notify all registered neighborhood associations whose boundaries encompass the subject property and shall see that a notice is posted on the property notifying the public about the proposed use and the decision approving such use. Such notice shall explain the rights of aggrieved parties to appeal the zoning administrators decision. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than twelve (12) calendar months and may be renewed.
(3) Accessory uses. Incidental only to a use by right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an accessory use and need not be enclosed:
Supp. No. 7
a. Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the use by right;
b. Is operated and maintained under the same ownership, or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same zone lot as the use by right;
c. Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the use by right;
d. Reserved;
e. The gross floor area utilized by all accessory uses of all uses by right in the same structure shall not be in excess of ten (10) per cent of the gross floor area utilized by all of the uses by right; provided, however:
1. There shall be no limitation on the area occupied by garages, loading docks and company dining rooms.
2. Reserved.
(4) Separation of certain uses:
a. None of the following permitted uses may be established, operated or maintained within five hundred (500) feet of a residential district, a dwelling unit (single or multiple), a church and/or a school meeting all the requirements of the compulsory education laws of the state, or within one hundred twenty-five (125) feet of a pedestrian and/or transit mall;
1. Amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge, adult;
2. Book store, adult;
3. Eating place with adult amusement or entertainment;
4. Photo studio, adult;
5. Theater, adult.
b. Not more than two (2) of the following permitted uses may be established, operated or maintained within one thousand (1,000) feet of each other:
0. 5. Amusement center:
1. Amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge, adult;
2. Billiard parlor;
3. Book store, adult;
4. Reserved:
4284


SITE ANALYSIS
TRAFFIC PATTERNS AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
The vacant site is surrounded on all 4 sides by both vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Any structure built on it becomes essentially a freestanding object. Consequently, the surrounding traffic patterns have a significant effect on the site. Fourteenth Street to the east has relatively moderate southbound, one-way traffic. Larimer Street to the south is one of the major traffic arteries during rush hour, especially in the afternoon. During the rest of the day, traffic is only moderately heavy. At present, there is also a bus stop located at this edge of the site, handling approximately 100 buses. Speer Boulevard to the west of the site accommodates a large quantity of rush hour traffic in the morning and afternoon. During the rest of the day it is moderately heavy. Speer Boulevard, fortunately, does not border the site, being buffered somewhat by the creek. However, there is still a strong visual problem along this edge of the site, as Speer is directly in the viewing line from the ground level. Market Street to the north is one-way eastbound, and has relatively light traffic throughout the day, being used primarily as a connector between Speer and the commercial areas along Market and Blake Streets.
Predominate pedestrian circulation to the site is along Larimer St. from the east and the 16th Street Mall, although some pedestrian approach is common from downtown and the DCPA along 14th St.
FUTURE TRAFFIC PLANS
Recently there has been much talk about re-routing traffic from Larimer St. (especially during rush hour) and the possibility of closing traffic in the Square proper (14th-15th block), making it a pedestrian street. While this is most ideal, more realistically the Traffic Planning Dept, is planning to re-route major traffic arteries to Arapahoe and Lawrence as inbound and outbound routes respectively. Consequently, the traffic along Larimer would be greatly reduced, especially during evening rush hour. This would allow the opportunity to reduce Larimer from 4 lanes to 2 lanes and as planned by Larimer Square Assoc., provide parking along either side. Future plans also include moving Speer Blvd. approximately 100 feet to the west of its current location in an effort to be more compatible with the network reconfigurations at the viaduct area. 4




NOISE AND VIEW
As previously indicated, the majority of traffic noise is from Larimer Street to the south and Speer Boulevard to the west. This occurs primarily during rush hour periods. Of course, re-routing rush hour traffic from Larimer would make this much less of a problem. Fourteenth St. to the east and Market St. to the north present little noise problems on a regular basis.
As is common to Denver, the predominant view from the site is of the mountains to the west. This, of course, is the distant view; the foreground view, unfortunately, is dominated by Speer Boulevard, the viaduct (to be removed in the near future), and the Auraria campus parking lots. In the immediate forefront, below eye level, is Cherry Creek, which borders the edge of the site and buffers it from Speer Boulevard.
To the southwest is a view of Auraria Campus, the visual landmarks being the Tivoli and St. Cajetan's, both of which project vertically amidst the relatively flat context. To the southeast is both a view of downtown and the Skyline Urban Renewal Project in the background, and Larimer Square in the foreground. The view and orientation to Larimer is of particular importance since proximity serves as a strong visual/ contextual connection. There is little of interest presently for view to the north, except possibly of the continuation of Cherry Creek.


CHERRY CREEK
The degree to which Cherry Creek can be incorporated in the design is primarily a product of its 100-year flood level, which studies have shown can raise the level of the stream to 5196 feet. The average height of the stream, under non-flooded conditions, is approximately 5182 feet, 18 feet below the top of the retaining wall. Reports from soil engineers and water drainage people claim that, under proper waterproofing conditions and construction practices (underdraining, etc.), the lower levels could be 19-20 feet below the 100-year flood level due to the relatively short duration of flooding time.
Discussion with Wayland Walker of the Denver Planning Office, their specialist in Flood Plain Zoning, indicates that, provided conditions of the Flood Plain Zoning codes are not violated, it would be possible to remove a major portion of the retaining wall and terrace outdoor spaces down to within several feet of the bike path level. Of course, this area would flood occasionally, however, as long as this did not obstruct the flow capacity of the creek nor affect the erosion in the area, it would be permissible.
FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
Denver zoning codes specify specific Flood Plain conditions. A summary of some of the conditions immediately pertinent to this project study include, but are not limited to the following:
Limitations of Use:
No development, use, fill, construction or alteration within the Flood Plain district shall be permitted which, acting alone or in combination with or future uses, would cause or result in any of the following:
1. Destruction of human occupation of structures, either fixed or mobile.
2. An obstruction or deposition of any* material which would impair the flow capacity of a Flood Plain or increase the flood water depths or velocities so as to cause probable damage to others, wherever located.
3. A substantial increase in sedimentation and/or erosion.


Uses by Right:
1. Private or Public Recreation Areas.
Excavation or Fill:
No land excavation or fill operation shall be conducted in the Flood Plain District unless a permit is issued by the zoning administrator based upon a statement from the Director of Waste-water Management Div. showing that the requested land excavation or fill wili-snot adversely affect the probably behavior of the water flows


SERVICES AND UTILITIES
Services and utilities to the site seem to pose no particular problems, however, one condition worth notina is the existence of a large (7) sewage line under 14th Street
SOIL CONDITIONS
A soil analysis and report on the site was done by Chen and Associates, Engineers, Denver, CO. A conclusion of their anlaysis is as follows:
1. Subsurface conditions at the site consisted of 9.5-13 ft. of silty sand fill with some debris overlaying 2 to 20 ft. of medium dense, clayey sand. Hard claystone-sandstone was encountered at depths of 15-34 ft.
2. Free groundwater was encountered at depths between 15.5 to 26 ft.
3.
The proposed structure should be founded on straight shaft piers drilled into bedrock and designed for end bearing pressures of 70,000psf and skin friction values of 7,000psf.
4


Cl i.mat i c An a3 s i s
f'e n v e- r C o 3. a r a d o
i_. f ; t. li d e " 39 B 43 r |
i . ongitude: 104.52 LI
A 11. tu£:er. 5,230 ft
A ' ~ V y p r e c i p i t a t i o n s 14.53 1 n
. (4 / ff? ,/ c% C; V '£* {is! 1 y temper artu re: 50.2 d egret
r. t Hu mi d i t v: *T 0 /
F> s q"" e e D a y s:
heat : no: cooling:
percent possible sunshine: 53%
Denver is located along the South Flatte River on the eastern slope at the Rocky mountains in Colorado. It is characterized climatically by low relative humidity, mooerate winds, average temperatures and a high degree of solar radi Temperature swings vary from a July average of 73 degrees, Januarys average of 34 degrees. Annual snowfal 1 averages 42,:, however, persistant snoweever is unusual.
Dj. £? to the i nversi n factor f ronri the mountains. Den v cai/-
frequent 1 y e cosr iencesi s evere poll li t i on, a result of r.he 1 a r g s.
i r> r*. + i *f* w t-j C.I w / of t r a f f i C CC f7"i 2. ng in and out of the c1ty. Thi s i ncrease
; n A.ir nn. a i ij t i on h a s a .11 ered Denve r 7 e c 1 i mate, ef f sc: r rn .n both
t e-mper stu \r- m a n d quality of solar r ad i ation.
With its high degree of solar radiation, Denver offers e: ce.iier£ opportunuti es for solar heating. With its, relatively mild cl i |ii a 1 e, it also offers e;: c e 1 1 e n t o p p o r t u n i ti es for c u t d o o r spaces, such as terraces, cafes, parks, etc. Attention should be given to the strong northwest winds, which affect both the s t r u c t u r e a n d t! *e de a i r e a Dili t y o f n o r t h w e s t o r i ca n t e d s p a c a a .
r-j -M


INTER WEATHER DATA AND DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
STATE or 'POviNCE CITY LATITUDE ('1 LONGITUDE 1 ') ELEVATION IFT) WINTER DESIGN TEMP * A VE AVERAGE MONTHLY HEATING DEGREE DAYS}
TEMP 1 SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY TOTAL
4 Birmingham 33 3 86 5 61 21 54 2 6 93 363 555 592 4G2 363 108 9 2551
Mobile 30 4 88 1 119 29 53 9 0 22 213 357 415 300 211 42 0 1560
- jika Fan banks 64 5 147 5 436 -47 6.7 642 1203 1833 2254 2359 1901 1739 1063 555 14 279
Juneau 58 2 134 4 17 1 32 1 483 725 921 1135 1237 1070 1073 810 601 9075
Vu. Flagstaff 35 1 1114 6973 4 35.6 201 658 867 1073 1169 991 911 651 437 7152
T ucson 32 1 1110 2584 32 58.1 0 25 231 406 471 344 242 75 6 1800
K. Little Rock 34 4 92 1 257 20 50.5 9 127 465 716 756 577 434 126 9 3219
I.f Bakersfield 35 2 1190 495 32 55.4 0 37 282 502 546 364 267 105 19 2122
Sacramento 38 3 121 3 17 32 54.4 0 62 312 533 561 392 310 173 76 2419
San Diego 32 4 117 1 19 44 59.5 21 43 135 236 293 253 214 135 90 1458
San Francisco 37 5 122 3 52 40 55.1 102 118 231 388 443 336 319 279 239 3001
'0. Alamosa 37 3 105 5 7536 6 29.7 279 639 1065 1420 1476 1162 1020 596 440 8529
Denver 39 5 .} T04 5 5283 t 376 117 428 819 1035 1132 936 887 558 288 62831s
-onn. Hartford 41 1 73 1 7 9 37 3 117 394 714 1101 1190 1042 908 519 205 6235
'el Wilmington 39 4 75 3 78 14 42.5 51 270 588 927 980 874 735 387 112 4930
oc. Washington 38 5 770 14 17 45.7 33 217 519 834 871 762 626 288 74 4224
i Miami 25 5 80 2 7 47 711 0 0 0 65 74 56 19 0 0 214
Tallahassee 30 2 84 2 58 30 60.1 0 28 198 360 375 286 202 36 0 1485
Atlanta 33 4 84 3 1005 22 517 18 124 417 643 636 518 428 147 25 2961
Savannah 32 1 81 1 52 27 57.8 0 47 246 437 437 353 254 45 0 1819
Hawaii Honolulu 21 2 158 0 7 63 74.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ho Boise 43 3 116 1 2842 10 39.7 132 415 792 1017 1113 854 722 438 245 5809
Chicago 42 0 87 5 658 -4 35 8 117 381 807 1166 1265 1086 939 534 260 6639
Springfield 39 5 89 4 587 2 40.6 72 291 696 1023 1135 935 769 354 136 5429
si. Indianapolis 39 4 86 2 793 2 39 6 90 316 723 1051 1113 949 809 432 177 5699
Des Moines 41 3 93 4 948 -5 35 5 96 363 828 1225 1370 1187 915 438 180 6588
Topeka 39 0 95 4 877 4 41.7 57 270 672 980 1122 893 722 330 124 5182
Lexington 38 0 84 4 979 8 43.8 54 239 609 902 946 818 685 325 105 4683
New Orleans 30 0 90 2 3 33 61 8 0 12 165 291 344 241 177 24 0 1254
Shreveport 32 3 93 5 252 25 56.2 0 47 297 477 552 426 304 81 0 2184
*. Portland 43 4 70 2 61 -1 33 0 195 508 807 1215 1339 1182 1042 675 372 7511
Baltimore 39 1 76 4 146 13 43.7 48 264 585 905 936 820 679 327 90 4654
si Boston 42 2 71 0 15 9 40,0 60 316 603 983 1088 972 846 513 208 5634
Detroit 42 2 83 0 633 6 37 2 87 360 738 1088 1181 1058 936 522 220 6232
Escanaba 45 4 87 0 594 -7 29.6 243 539 924 1293 1445 1296 1203 777 456 8481
Mmn. Duluth 46 5 92 1 1426 -16 23.4 330 632 1131 1581 1745 1518 1355 840 490 10,000
Minneapolis 44 5 93 1 822 -12 28.3 189 505 1014 1454 1631 1380 1166 621 288 8322
s. Jackson 32 2 90 1 330 25 55.7 0 65 315 502 546 414 310 87 0 2239
Columbia 39 0 92 2 778 4 42.3 54 251 651 967 1076 875 716 324 121 5046
L.nt. Billings 45 5 108 3 3367 -10 34.5 186 487 897 1135 1296 1100 970 570 285 7049
Missoula 46 5 114 1 3200 -6 31.5 303 651 1035 1287 1420 1120 970 621 391 8125
Neb. North Platte 41 1 100 4 2779 -4 35.5 123 440 835 1166 1271 1039 930 519 248 6684
T Omaha 41 2 95 5 978 -3 35.6 105 357 823 1175 1355 1126 939 465 208 6612
Las Vegas 36 1 115 1 2162 28 53.5 0 78 387 617 688 487 335 111 6 2709
. Reno 39 3 119 5 4404 10 39.3 204 490 801 1026 1073 823 729 510 357 6332
Vh Concord 43 1 71 3 339 -3 33.0 177 505 822 1240 1358 1184 1032 636 298 7383
N J. Trenton 40 1 74 5 144 14 42.4 57 264 576 924 989 885 753 399 121 4980
N W. Albuquerque 35 0 106 4 5310 16 12 0 12 229 642 368 930 703 595 288 81 4348
Buffalo 43 0 78 4 705 6 34 5 141 440 777 1156 1256 1145 1039 645 329 7062
New York 40 5 74 0 132 15 42.8 30 233 540 902 986 885 760 408 118 4871
I, Charlotte 35 0 81 0 735 22 50.4 6 124 438 691 691 582 481 156 22 3191
Wilmington 34 2 78 0 30 26 54.6 0 74 291 521 546 462 357 96 0 234 7
i 0. Bismarck 46 5 100 5 1647 -19 26.6 222 577 1038 1463 1708 1442 1203 645 329 8851
" 0 Cleveland 41 2 81 5 777 5 37 2 105 384 738 1088 1159 1047 913 552 260 6351
Columbus 40 0 82 5 812 5 39 7 84 347 714 1039 1088 949 809 426 171 5660
a. Oklahoma City 35 2 97 4 1280 13 48 3 15 164 498 766 868 664 527 189 34 3725
Tulsa 36 1 95 5 650 13 47.7 18 158 522 787 893 683 539 213 47 3860
Ore. Salem 45 0 1230 195 23 45.4 111 338 594 729 822 647 611 417 273 4754
Pittsburgh 40 3 80 1 1137 5 38.4 105 375 726 1C63 1119 1002 874 480 195 5987
Williamsport 41 1 77 0 527 7 38 5 111 375 717 1073 1122 1002 856 468 177 5934
Providence 41 4 71 3 55 9 38 8 96 372 660 1023 1110 988 868 534 236 5954
Columbia 34 0 81 1 217 24 54.0 0 84 345 577 570 470 357 81 0 2484
;o. Rapid City 44 0 103 0 3165 7 33 4 165 481 897 1172 1333 1145 1051 615 326 7345
Tenn. Nashville 36 1 86 4 577 14 48 9 30 158 495 732 778 644 512 189 40 3578
as Brownsville 25 5 97 3 16 39 67.6 0 0 56 149 205 106 74 0 0 600
Dallas 32 5 96 5 481 22 55 3 0 62 321 524 601 440 319 90 6 2363
El Paso 31 5 106 2 3918 24 52.9 0 84 414 548 685 445 319 105 0 2700
Houston 29 4 95 2 50 32 61 0 0 6 183 307 384 288 192 36 0 1396
J:ah Salt Lake City 40 5 112 0 4220 8 38 4 81 419 849 1.182 1172 910 763 459 233 6052
VI bw.fington 44 3 73 1 331 7 29 4 207 539 891 i3-:9 1513 1333 1187 714 353 8269
Lynchburg 37 2 79 1 947 16 46 0 51 223 540 822 849 731 605 267 78 4166
.h. Seattle 47 4 122 2 14 27 46 9 129 329 543 657 738 599 577 396 242 4424
Va. Charleston 38 2 81 4 939 11 44.8 63 254 591 865 880 770 648 300 96 4476
Vise. Green Bay 44 3 38 1 683 -9 30.3 174 484 924 1333 1494 1313 1141 654 305 8029
NADA i
1. Edmonton 53 34 113 31 2219 -25 _ 411 738 1215 1603 1810 1520 1330 765 400 10,268
3 U. Vancouver 49 11 123 10 16 19 219 456 657 787 362 723 676 501 310 5515
^an. Winnipeg 49 54 97 14 786 -27 322 683 1251 1757 2008 1719 1465 813 405 10,679
NS. Halifax 44 39 63 34 83 5 - 80 457 710 1074 1213 1122 1030 742 487 7361
Toronto 43 41 79 38 578 -1 151 439 760 1111 1233 1119 1013 616 298 6827
Montreal 45 28 73 45 98 -10 - 165 521 882 1392 1566 1381 11 75 684 316 8203
8ased on 97 5% Design Dry Bulb values found in ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 1977. :tober-April, inclusive. ASHRAE Systems Handbook, 1976.
sed on the period 1931-1960, inclusive. ASHRAE Systems Handbook, 1976.


CLIMATIC CHART-DENVER
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE l F
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION | Inchesl
AVERAGE SNOWFALL finches)
j fmamj jasond
% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 1%]
jfmamj ja60nd
mm




TOTAL-70%


HEATING DEGREE DAYS, BASE 85* F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
250
DATA SOURCE: US. WEATHER BUREAU 1941*1970, DENVER
DEGREE DAY DATA
SUN ANOLE


HEATING DD | BASE 65 I COOLING DD
HEATING AND COOLING
C. | IM Ann


p.ont y Dally Man tr.ur Dal 1 v hinlaur Monthly hi-an Pecord HI ph Aaror d Low Nt>nl Depree Day* fr3"f 9Cr and abnvr j:r and below
(Heat 1np' (Cool 1np)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 joaa 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 l*.i 32.8 76 -30 02 0 0 27
Hat 30.1 23.* 37.0 84 -11 869 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33. 47.5 83 - 2 525 0 , 0 1 3
Kav 70. 3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 a 2
Jun *0.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 *0 110 5 0
Jul e 7.4 5 A.6 73.0 104 43 n 24 8 15 0
Auf 85.5 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 ?oa 9 0 ;
s*r 77.7 47. A 62.8 7 20 120 54 2 i
Oc t 66. A 37.2 52.0 88 3 40A 5 n 9
Nov 53.3 23.4 39.4 79 . * * f A n n 25
nc 48.: 1*. 9 32.6 74 -3 R 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 30.1 104 -V enj* 625 32 162
* Lea* than one half.
DENVER TEMPERATURE DATA
Month Total Precipitation Mean Nunher of Davs with Precipitation >, .01 inch Snow Mean Nuaber of Days with Snow 1.0 Inch
Mean Month!v Max lr.ua Monthly MinltPun Maximua 24-hour Monthly Mean Max lfBnB Month 1 >*
Jan .61 1.44 o.oj 1.02 A 8.4 23.7 2
Fb .67 1.66 0.03 1.01 6 A.O 16.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 A 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1 5 13.6 6
Jun 1.93 4.69 o.io 3.16 9 T O.l 0
Jul 1 78 6.41 0 17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
6.6 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.41 8 O.0 0.0 0
Sap 1.13 4.67 T 2.44 6 i. 21.1
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.6 11.2 1
Nov 0. 76 2.97 n.nj 1.29 3 7.6 19.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1 1* 5 6.5 30. A 2
Total 15.51 7.71 T 1.55 M 5*5.9 19.1 1A \
cnthlv totals in round.d to Ui nrit whol* d.
b.n.not.. 1... th.n ono-holf. SOU*CI: U. S. Oep.rto.ru of f.'..rce. 197?
DENVER PRECIPITATION DATA


he __.s
The fallowing sequence is a description of how a sun chart is developed. It is included here to provide you with a visual understanding of the sun's movement across the skydome.
Two coordinates are needed to locate the position of the sun in the sky. They are called the altitude and azimuth (also called the bearing angle).
Fig. V-2: Altitude and azimuth angles.
269



The Tools
"easterly variation." Similarly, if you are located to the east of the line, your compass needle will point to the west of true north. This is called a "westerly variation." For example, the map shows a deviation of 14V20 west for Boston. This means that the compass is pointing 14V2 to the west of true north, or true north is 14'/2 to the east of compass-indicated north (true south is then 14V20 west of compass south). Due to "local attraction," magnetic variation may be slightly different for your locality. The map is accurate for most uses of the sun chart; for more exact information, consult a surveyor.
The sun chart enables you to locate the position of the sun at any time of day, during any month, for any location within the United States (excluding Alaska) and southern Canada.
Fig. V-12: Completed sun chart.


Mon :h Percent of Poielble Sutiahlne Number of* Clear Days Number of* Partly Cloudy Day* Number of* Cloudv Davs Mean Sky Cover (Te-irha)
January 72 10 10 u 5.5
February 71 3 9 a 5.8
March 70 3 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
*T 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 3 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4 .4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 63 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Monthly totals ire rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
ZCMITH
SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA


SOLAR CHART


SONf/M


BTU/HOUR/SQ FT
Solar Time A.M. So 1 ar Po 11 1 c*n TUt act Noma 1 1rrad 1al1 on, P.tuh/aa ft Solar Heat Cain ractora, It uh/aq fi So) ar 7la F.M.
Alt . A* itnut h K Hr F sr S $V V MV Hor .
S rfcdwT. R 5 4.2 117.3 21 in 21 20 6 1 i i 1 2 7
A 14. A 10P.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 i? 17 39 6
June 21 7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 70 ?o 20 97 5
A 37.4 90.7 2 46 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 76 153 4
9 44.8 80.2 262 33 1J 3 192 36] 45 31 31 31 201 3
10 59 A 65. A 272 35 67 145 1 4 A 6? 36 35 35 237 2
11 64.2 41 .9 2 76 37 AO 80 1 )4 *6 41 37 17 260 1
12 73.5 0.0 279 3*. ir 41 71 95 73 41 38 257 12
Half Da v Total a 242 714 1019 810 311 197 ii 180 3 3 2 3
VINTER P 5. 5 53.0 PP 2 7 67 "3 49 3 2 2 6 4
9 14.0 41 .9 217 9 10 1 35 ?0 5 J 51 12 9 9 39 3
ni :i JO 20.7 29.4 261 14 14 113 ? 3 ? 710 55 U 14 77
11 25.0 15.2 779 14 16 56 :i7 747 1 20 if. 16 103 1
12 26.' n.o 744 17 1 7 1 177 253 377 16 17 1 1 3 12
Half Da v Totals 49 34 3AM 31 7*1 ?7 3 30 49 267
*lr*;al sclat heal gain* for DS ( 1 / ft in.) sheet glafc*. Baaed on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Jtfrrlnte'4 f r or ASH' Af "Handbook of fundamental*. 1Q,2
FACING EAST
FACING WEST
FACING SOUTH
40* NORTH LAX
BMBBHEAT GAIN ON UNSHADED WINDOWS
-----HEAT GAIN WITH SHADES
IIIIIIIIII HEAT BLOCKED
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR 40 N LAT.


FACADE ORIENTATIONS INSOLATION ON WALL (Btu/dy)
a b c d Told
i * * 118 B4 168 118 236 508 722 381 1016 508 1630 1160 2320 1630 3260 508 722 361 1016 508 2764 2668 3210 3780 4612
<1 A c * d C d C ft ** C OOUBLE 8 DOUBLE C
- / O $ X?- oou.J DOUBLE C 123 87 174 123 246 828 1180 590 1656 828 1490 1060 2120 1490 2980 265 376 138 530 265 2406 2703 3072 3799 4319
- , ^ Al A XX XX y\ X \ V < A \CX c / V' *\S '\X OOUBLE B DOUBLE C 127 90 180 127 2S4 1 1 74 1670 835 2348 1174 11 74 835 1670 1174 2348 127 180 90 254 127 2602 2775 2775 3903 3903
J k X Xs X \ 'VX DOUBLE B 8 DOUBLE C 265 188 376 265 530 1490 2120 1060 2980 1490 828 590 1 180 828 1656 123 174 87 246 123 2406 3072 2703 4319 3799
auiLOiNa sizes relative mall ano floor area*.
Variation or C Variation douMa & doub C
Relative irradiation on buildings of different shape and orientation January 21, 40N latitude. Listed values represent the irradiation on walls of a hypothetical building with w 1 square foot. To get the daily irradiation on a building of similar shape with w 100 square feet, multiply these numbers by 100
INSOLATION ON WALLS


INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
RAOIANT
WINTER MEATINQ
CONVECTEO
SUMMED CONOlTiONINO CEmuM.OiPiEO AIR COOLED air CIRCULATED AIR
HOUSEHOLD ODORS
VIEW (VISION OUT)
ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
PRODUCTIVE SOUND
INHABITANTS
WASTE WATER
electricity
WALL
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
4
WINTER INSOLATION
WINTER AIR TEMPERATURE (STILL AIR)
WINTER WINOS ^
2
a
w
Summer insolation £
Summer air temperatures (Still air) SUMMER BREEZE
summer humioity
PRECIPITATION (RAIN SNOW ETC ) <
PLEASANT
UNPLEASANT
DUST
PRIVACY (VISION IN)
3 winter sunshine (VISIBLE wave BANO) V) 3 O
2* OayliGhT z 2 D
2* SNOWGLARE
ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
2 NOISE U i

4 VISITORS FRiENOS
V EMPLOYEES <
2* Customers intruders thieves o 3 O
2 o s vermin insects pollens m.cro-organisms
3 WUCLEAB OU.\jTION
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO CONSIOER


COLORADO SPRINGS / CO
SOLAR SAVINGS TABLE (7.) CF TABLE
LCR 200 100 67 50 40 33 ^>CT 20 17 10 SOLAR SAVINGS
10'X'/LCR c J 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 100 107. 507. 807.
LAI DG 9 17 24 30 36 41 51 58 63 74 1.2 1.5 4.1
38.8 DGNI 12 23 33 43 51 59 71 80 85 94 1 1. 1 1.4
ELEV TWV 11 19 26 ji. 38 43 CO Ji. 59 65 81 1. 1 1.5 n
fcl /I r wnv 8 16 A. A- 29 34 39 47 55 61 77 1.2 1.6 2. 1
HDDoL LIU 11 21 29 36 43 48 58 65 71 86 1 1.4 1.8
64 73 wwSS 11 26 38 48 56 62 73 80 85 96 .9 1. 1 1.4
T J WWNI 11 ~~7 A. / 39 49 57 64 74 82 87 96 .8 1. 1 1.4
28.6 SSA 13 21 27 33 38 42 50 56 61 77 1. 1 1.6 o o 4.
LCKM SSB 16 25 71 38 44 48 56 63 68 82 1 1.5 n
15 SSSE 1 7 29 38 46 52 57 66 73 78 90 .9 1.2 1.6
DENVER /
COLORADO
SOLAR SAVINGS TABLE(7.)
CF TABLE
LCR 200 100 67 50 40 33 25 20 17 10 SOLAR : SAVINGS
10'X>/LCR 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 100 107. 507. 807.
LAT DG 9 17 25 31 37 43 52 59 64 75 1.2 1.5 3. 7
39.7 DGNI 13 24 34 43 52 60 72 80 85 94 1 1. 1 1.4
ELEV TWV 11 19 27 33 39 44 wJ-C 60 66 81 1.1 1.5 2
5331 TWNV 3 16 23 29 35 40 48 55 62 78 1.2 1.6 2. 1
HDD65 WW 11 21 30 37 44 49 59 66 72 87 1 1.4 1.8
>16 WWSS 12 27 39 49 57 63 73 81 86 96 .8 1.1 1.4
, AN WWN I 11 27 40 50 58 65 75 82 87 96 .8 1. 1 1.4
29.9 SSA 13 21 27 33 38 42 50 56 62 76 1.1 1.6
LCRM SSB 16 'vc A-U "T O -'4. 38 44 48 56 63 68 82 1 1.5 n
16 SSSE 18 29 38 46 52 57 66 73 78 40 .9 1.2 1.7
GRAND JUNCT H 0 z ! / COLORADO
SOLAR SAVINGS TABLE(7.) CF TABLE
LCR 200 100 .67 50 40 33 25 20 17 10 SOLAR : SAVINGS
1000/LCR 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 100 107. 507. 807.
LAT DG 9 17 23 29 35 39 47 54 58 69 1.2 1.7 0
39. 1 DGNI 12 7T 4. 33 42 50 57 68 76 82 92 1 1.2 1.5
ELEV TWV 11 19 oe 4. U 31 37 41 49 56 62 77 1. 1 1.6 2.2
48-39 TWNV 8 15 07 4. 28 33 37 45 52 58 73 1.2 1.7 2.3
nuDeS Ww 11 20 26 T ~ 41 46 62 68 82 1.1 1.5 O
5605 WWSS 11 26 37 46 54 60 70 77 83 94 .9 1.2 1.5
TJAN WWN I 11 26 38 47 55 61 72 79 84 95 .9 1. 1 1.4
26.6 SSA 13 20 26 31 35 39 46 52 57 71 1.1 1.8 2.5
LCRM SSB 16 24 30 36 41 45 52 58 63 77 1 1.6 O O 4. ^
14 SSSE 17 27 36 42 48 53 61 68 73 0D LI .9 1.3 1.9


CONSERVATION MEASURES
-Proper site orientation
-Sun controls: balance need for winter gains with summer cooling (with special attention to overheating problem in summer)
-insulated for maximum efficiency
-Optimum shapes: ratios for height, width and length based on 40 latitude
a. South receives twice as much irradiation in winter as in summer
b. East and West walls receive 2 l/2 times more irradiation in summer than winter
c. optimum form for latitude is elongated along eastwest axis -Careful placement and size of aperatures based on orintaion and function -Strive to warm and cool room surfaces (radiant temperatures)
-Impact of ground refectance on building -Impact landscaping
-Exterior color related to heating and cooling needs -Use of berming
-Use of thermal mass to control temperature swings
-Airlock entries
-Baylighting
-Control of interior air flows and infiltration -Retailing


WIND CHART
ANNUAL FREQUENCES OF WtNOS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES AT STAPLETON AIRPORT,DENVER COLORADO
legend


Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direc tIon Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.A S A9 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.A s 56 NW
May 9.6 s A3 sw
Jun 9.2 s A7 s
Jul 8.5 s 56 sw
Aug 8.2 s A2 sw
Sep 8.2 s A7 NW
Oct 8.2 s A5 NW
Nov 8.7 s A8 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Coartrce, 1977
Mountain
Standard
Tim*

j or 2.0 3:0C
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FEB
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7 2 7 2 7 2 7 ? 7 3 7 7 S
7 7 7.7 ( 0
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5 ; t 9
6 0 6 E C. 7
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t 8
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7.6
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MAR
APR
6 9
6.9 6 8 6 8 6.8 6 8 C 9 7.0
7 5
8 0
8 7
9 5
A C
a *
9 4
MAY
6 4
6 3 6 : 5 8
6 8
7.6 3
C.S
JVN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV
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6 3 5 L 1 5 6 ? J (-.3 5 t 7 S 7.0
c fc.l 5 6 I 5 c r. s 6..- c 6 5 5 7 :
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M 9 f. O.C .1 4 1 L P 1 l fj 7
J.f 10.2 .9 9 3 h 7 E 4 i 9 0 6.6
4 10 5 f. 9 6 9 1 u 0 .C b 8 *2 8 5
10 5 M 9 ? 9 3 it P 7 /.I 6 5 7 7
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WIND DATA


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Moderate
4- None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
4# None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
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ILLUMINATION Bright
\t-JiffC.. ''<(. ,V Moderate
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VENTILATION/ High
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NOTES


Appendix


Plug-in University Node 1965
Peter Cook
The University Node was an exercise to discover what happened to the various notions of gradual infill, replacement and regeneration of parts on to a Plug-in City megastructure: but with a specific kind of activity.
Peter Cook was at this time working with a group of students who were also looking at the future of universities as institutions and at new ways of teaching. The sequence below anticipates the loosening-up of parts. The 'always complete but never -finished' nature of Archigram projects continues from now (1965) onwards.
The main enclosures are simply tensioned skins slung on trays which collectively create the 'node'. Each student can have a standard metal box and can choose to have it located anywhere on the decking. In a sense, this anticipates the 'nomad' nature of subsequent projects.
The nature of Plug-in City involving the replacement of one function by another (though occupying the same location) could be demonstrated and a more intense glimpse of the likely detail of rooms, lift-tuoes. skins and even hand-rails be disclosed.
Plan at approximately stage 10
NODE WILL INTER-ACT WITH OTHER UNIVERSITY UNITS & STUDENT HOMES VIA PATHS> NODE iS ALSO CENTRE mOM WMiru
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PIPED
6 SECOND GROUP GETS UNDER WAY
7 BOTH GROUPS OPERATING 8 AND UNIV. NODE IS ESTAB.D
IDEA OF THE 'UNIVERSITY' AS SUCH MAY GO BUT PLUG-IN SYSTEM ALLOWS FOR PHYSICAL CHANGE
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2 SILO DECKS 0 SILO ESTABLISHED A LIFT TUBESrn HAULED UP ESTABLISHED
5 TEACHING ROOMS PLUGGED IN
9 MORE TEACHING ROOMS 10 MAX. TEACHING ROOMS PI URGED IN +SILQ OUTCROPS
11 SILO EXPANDS
BY THIS TIME TREND IS TOWARDS DISPERSAL OF STUDY INTO HOMEiWORKPOINT. FUN CENTRE, ETC.
BRAIN SILO IS NOW
'BROADCASTING*
CENTRE
12
42


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12 Technology/The Motorized Carrel
A mobile study carrel, controlled by computer and incorporated with a central system to form one aspect of the public transportation for a new town, was proposed by architect Paul Kennon.
Each resident of a new town, from age three up, would be issued a motorized carrel.
These mobile units would dock at individual homes, plugging into specially designed outlets so that they would form extra study rooms at the home.
The Carrel Car is a proposal for the year 2000. American inventors and developers are now working to perfect electric vehicles whose speed, entry, and exit is controlled by the system. This type of transit system is expected to be in effect within the next 25 years, forming a new evolutionary step in urban transportation.
While in transit, the carrels would run along electrical tracks, and would require no attention from the occupant, once the destination was indicated. Thus, all commuting time could be study time, and the carrel would be equipped for individual study, data retrieval, thought, and rest. Because it is computerized, the carrel could also be programmed for trips to the Learning Resource Center, to the shopping center, and on other errands around the new town.
The carrel unit, above, is designed for personal study, and is computer-directed for carefree transit. The unit is designed for one person and includes a chair which reclines to form a couch.
iM v




4 Foreword
The Rice Design Fete is an arena for the exploration of new planning and architectural ideas. It brings together a group of practicing architects, specialists from other fields, and architectural students who during two weeks of concentrated effort try to develop new concepts. This year's Fete, "New Schools for New Towns," dealt with the opportunity that new towns present as laboratories for approaching educational and school building problems in better ways. Ideas are the proper business of a foundation and consequently EFL, concerned with research and development of new school building concepts,was pleased to join The School of Architecture at Rice University in organizing and financing this Design Fete.
Six teams, each headed by a practicing architect, were given programs for new towns and for their education systems.
These programs were drawn up by professional educators specifically for the Fete and reflect different climatic, economic, geographic, and social conditions as well as the differing educational ideas of the various consultants. The programs range from the renewing of a town within an older city to the creation of a new town around a major university campus.
,..,v towns have fewer traditions to bind them convention, but none to date, either in the mted States or in Europe, have been radical .. even particularly venturesome or experimental in their educational planning.
A new town presents an unmatched opportunity to explore new educational Approaches and new ways of housing education without the constraints of continuity. If these approaches succeed, they can stimulate new school planning answers lor cider communities which may be more inhibited in seeking answers to their problems.
The work of the architects and educators wno contributed to the Design Fete ranges from the possible to the exotic, but cutting through the differences in their work were two underlying themes:
1. While the influence of technology on education and sthool building is increasing, in the next few decades, this influence will explode. Technology will exert an influence on education out of all proportion to the influence it presently exerts. Indeed, one of the major issues with which education is now grappling is learning to use the existing technology of our society for building, for communications, and for serving its other purposes.
2. The schools cannot go it alonethe lines between education and life, like the chain link fences between the school and its community, are too sharp today. A new kind of intermix between education and the community is long overdue.
Design Fete participants showed surprisingly little Beaux Arts resistance to accepting, indeed, embracing the automobile, billboards, the transistor, and industrialized building systems. All the participants were more than ready to utilize contemporary technology and communication techniques to serve the public purposes of education.
This report is an effort to communicate some of the concepts and some of the excitement of the Design Fete.
Educational Facilities Laboratories
A proiect sponsored by Educational Facilities Laboratories. Inc. Rice Design Fete IV Director: William Cannady, AIA, Architect


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Change is the most consistent factor in American education today.
From modern mathematics to modular scheduling, the curriculum, content, staff, organization, methodology, and buildings of education are all undergoing reappraisal, experimentation and change. A mere listing of innovations reveals the magnitude, if not the quality, of this educational ferment.
Many of these innovations imply radical modifications in the planning and design of schools; some of the innovations are themselves new ways to create the educational environment. In any case, those responsible for building schools boards of education, superintendents, programmers, planners, consultants, architects, engineers and contractors all need advice and guidance in providing schools which not only meet basic educational needs, but which respect appropriate current innovations, and, to some degree, anticipate the future.
This report is intended to offer such guidance in the planning of facilities which reflect two very significant innovations:
the introduction of large group instruction as a significant part of the educational process
the expanded use of instructional aids and media films, slides, tapes, television, etc. in many kinds of learning situations.
The design criteria and the planning studies that follow were developed to assist in arriving at appropriate large group instructional facilities for effective and efficient use of instructional aids and media.
Before discussing "aids and media" and "facilities", however, it would be appropriate to first consider., by way of background, "the urgencies", "the problem", and "the premises".


INTRODUCTION
Grouping Students
Frequent regrouping Variations in grouping Independent study and projects Small-group study and projects Large groups in single lecture spaces Large groups in multiple spaces Large groups via radio and television Flexible groupings
Multi-age and multi-class groupings Stay-at-home learning Pyramidal groupings
Little schools and schools-within-schools Redeployment plans Educational parks Middle schbols
Designing Curricula
Homogeneous and heterogeneous tracking Independent learning Elective sequences 3- and 4-track plans Core curricula Enrichment programs Nongrading and continuous progress methods
Home study and correspondence courses Job retraining
Special programs for the gifted, disabled, handicapped, and culturally-deprived Continuing or broadening education Pre-school programs Learning systems analysis Cooperative "work-learn" programs Regional curriculum development projects Curriculum study groups (PSSC, SMSG, etc.)
Organizing Time
Accommodating variable groupings Individualized scheduling New scheduling cycles Extended and modular class periods Frequent or continuous rescheduling Student-planned class periods Extended school day and week Evening courses
Summer school remedial and enrichment programs Full school year
Trimester and quartermester plans Co-operative "work-learn" plans
INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION
2
i
Utilizing Staff
Team planning and teaching
Discipline-oriented teacher teams
Multi-discipline teacher teams
Teacher cycling
In-service training programs
Echelon organizations
New teacher types and specialists
Teacher aids and assistants
Regional adjunct or supplementary staff
Improving Administration
Computer-based scheduling and registration Automated data processing for routine work Tracking and evaluation techniques Automated test-scoring Simulation models and techniques Systems design of school administration Regional administrative assistance Space and resource utilization studies Library mechanization
Computer-based requisitioning and inventory
Expanding Resources and Media
Systems approaches to using media
New types of printed and graphic materials
Programmed textbooks
New "write-on" surfaces
Audio and video recording equipment
Local, regional, international radio
Telephone and Tele-Lecture communication
Language and audio laboratories
Sound slides and filmstrips
Single-concept films
Film cartridge projectors
Overhead, opaque and micro-projectors
Systems of audio and projection components
School and regional distribution systems
Miniaturized aids
Student response systems
Commercial educational television
Closed-circuit and 2500 me television
Airborne distribution systems
Teaching kits
Computer-assisted instruction Simulation techniques
Computer-based resource listing and handling Regional resource collections Regional production of instructional aids Regional broadcast origination Information Storage and Retrieval
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THE DESIGN APPROACH
It is no easy task to design spaces that effectively bring a number of students together with several methods of displaying and presenting information. With so many interrelated and interdependent factors to be considered, it is no wonder that design "errors" are often made.
These are some of the more important points which the designer should always keep in mind when undertaking such a problem:
The basic function of the large-group room is to bring students and information together to effect learning.
Much of the information presented in these spaces is visual, a great deal of it mechanically projected. Every student in the room must be able to see, and see well, all information presented. It is essential, therefore, that the designer not only be acquainted with projection methods and how to properly provide for them, but he must also be aware of all the factors thut influence viewing and perception.
Much of the information presented in these spaces is auditory, some spoken by the instructor arid members of the class, some reproduced mechanically. Every student in the room must be able to hear well. To this end, the designer must be aware of what constitutes good hearing and must know how to design for it.
33


cUM-C^Aj sdil\dlLLs
DESIGN CRITERIA A SUMMARY
The design studies that follow are presented as possible solutions for a rather wide range of situations. All have one general concept in common: the spaces are designed to support and enhance a teaching-learning process which includes, to a greater or lesser degree, the use of instructional aids and media.
The studies are not plans ready for direct application to a particular building program but are intended, together with the accompanying text, to serve as "guidelines". For any individual institution, the design of such facilities must be based on the educational philosophies and curricula of that institution, and must grow out of a clear statement of educational requirements and needs. These considerations are basic to architectural programming.
All of the designs presented reflect certain principles evolving from the thesis that "optimum use of instructional aids and media requires new concepts of space types and their design". While many of these principles will become apparent on examination of the drawings, a brief statement of the more important ones is given below to summarize the conclusions resulting from this study:
1. An optimum viewing area, as defined by the various images to be viewed, will determine the most effective room shape. The optimum area is not a fixed function of the screen or monitor size alone, but will vary with the type of material being viewed, the duration of the presentation, the quality of projection equipment, the type of screen, and factors of environment.
75


NEW BUILDING ON CAMPUS
SIX DESIGNS FOR A COLLEGE COMMUNICATIONS CENTER
A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories


New Buildin
Television and tape recordings are last becoming as much a part of the teacher's tool kit as books and blackboards. The instructional aids and media that began to come into their own after World War IIslides, films, overhead projection, television, audio and video recordings, and the resthave by now found their way into classrooms at everv educational level, and since the pressures that brought them show no signs of abating, there is every reason to believe they are there to stay.
Yet most classrooms do little to make them at home. Even new schools, ostensibly designed to take full advantage of the latest teaching methods, perpetuate the old classroom, with all its built-in deterrents to the effective use of audio-visual devices and similar instructional resources. Too often, "visual aids" still conjures up the twilit gloom of a room whose oilcloth-blinded windows let in too much light and too little air, and whose seating arrangement guarantees most students a clearer view of the silhouetted crew-cut in the row ahead than of the screen.
Makeshift surroundings or no, the new accoutrements of classroom instruction have proved successful enough to hint at the far greater educational potential that might be realized if they were used in spaces built to their specifications. But what are these specifications? What kinds of spaces and facilities are needed to provide a more hospitable setting for the new teaching tools and the new teaching methods they demand?
This report presents graphic interpretations by six architectural firms of the answers Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute proposed after a long and exhaustive inquiry into just these questions. As entries in the invitational competition through which Rensselaer selected the architect for the instructional research and communications center that will be the focal point of a new science complex, the designs are first of all imaginative solutions to a specific architectural problem, archetypal examples of a specialized building unknown a few years ago. But because the proposals grew directly out of Rensselaer's efforts to define the optimum physical environment for advanced instructional techniques, the spaces and facilities they weave together also embody general principles whose implications extend to the single
n Campus
classroom as well as the full-fledged communications center, the lower schools as well as the colleges.
The Mother of Invention
Fitting as it is for the products of technology to help produce technologists, Rensselaer had motives more compelling than a sense of propriety for its interest in improved instructional equipment and techniques. The urgent need for more and better-trained scientists and engineers; the flood of new information in science and technology; the blurring of long-standing boundaries between classic scientific disciplines and the consequent emergence of interdisciplinary programsall add up to a ferment in engineering education.
The threat of obsolescence that hangs over so many time-honored pedagogical practices, prompting close and critical scrutiny of matter and method alike, is not, of course, confined to technical education. Nor are the other problems raised by the accelerating demand for more and better education. In its main contours at least, an outline of the task ahead would look much the same whether it were drafted by the smallest of our liberal arts colleges or the most sprawling of our universities. Rensselaer (a middle-sized but fastgrowing polytechnic school) sums it up this way:
1) To teach more studentsprobably, thanks to the epidemic teacher shortage, with relatively fewer faculty members.
2) To teach them more effectivelyin spite of the growing complexity of subject matter in many academic disciplines.
3) To build the new facilities needed to accomplish these goals.
4) To do all this while reducing the over-all cost of education.
Ways and Means
To Rensselaer, the most promising key to the eventual solution of these interlocking problemsand the best hope of coping with the most pressing in the meantimeseemed to be a concerted effort to increase the efficiency of the total educational process, largely by taking advantage of the full spectrum of audio-visual devices and other communications instruments.


be confined to the new facilities. The communications center's support facilities will also serve conventional classrooms, which are rapidly being remodeled to permit the effective use of the various teaching devices. (This is in line with the DASFEE staff's conclusion that, tor an institution like RP1, providing a variety 01 spaces, each equipped with the full range of aids and media, and moving students from one to another by careful scheduling is a more practical approach to the worthy but elusive goal of flexibility than shuffling equipment and furniture to change the function of a space, or using movable partitions to make large rooms out of small ones and vice versa.)
Blueprint for Planning
The specific space requirements spelled out in the competition program were broken down into the eight groups represented by the accompanying diagrams, which show schematically the relative sizes and relationships of the spaces within each functional area:
I. General Public Spacesthe main lobby and exhibition area.
II. Instructional Spacefour 150-student lecture rooms and one 450-student lecture room, plus projection rooms and spaces for storing and preparing instructional materials.
III. Television Productionstudios and support facilities for the origination and control of televised lectures and other broadcasts.
IV. Motion Picture Materials Productionstudios and support facilities for making films.
V. Communications research.
VI. Administrationstaff offices, and facilities for storing and distributing instructional materials and equipment.
VII. General Service Facilitiesstudios and support facilities for preparing artwork and photographic material used in classroom teaching and television and film production.
VIII. Maintenance Spaces.
In addition to the program of space requirements, the architects participating in the competition worked from the DASFEE report," which augmented the terse list of "what" with information on "how" and "why." In the case of the production and support facilities, whose requirements are more technical than architectural, the planning guide contents itself with
I. PUBLIC SPACE
VEST I BULE
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