The Thesis of Allyn Feinberg is approved.
John Prosser, Committee Chairman
""David 0. Tryba, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver May, 1987 fAL]
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning, University
of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Architecture.
Allyn Feinberg Spring, 1987
MORE THAN ENOUGH ROOM AT THE INN Responding With A New Kind Of Hotel
Downtown Hotel Boulder, Colorado
Allyn Feinberg December 2, 1986
THESIS SUMMARY ......................................i
THESIS STATEMENT.................................... 1
History of the Hotel............................ 2
The Program................................... 8
The Urban Design................................ 9
The Hotel As An Expression of the
Character of the Community................... 9
The Thesis Hotel................................10
Land Use Map................................... 3Q
Util ities Map...................................33
Cl imate Charts..................................34
List of Hotel Spaces.............................37
Publ ic Spaces...................................39
ZONING AND BUILDING CODE
Zoning ......................................... 46
MECHANICAL ......................................... 56
Thesis: Hotel development is becoming more and more specialized in
response to market pressures. This is effective in the short run only, and in the longer view, a hybrid type of hotel will be required that can effectively attract all segments of the traveling public. Attracting this desired cross section of the traveling public is, at least in part, an architectural problem. Looking beyond the scope of the individual building and into the community in which such a hotel might be located, the benefit of such a hotel to its community could be substantial. Large cities offer so many hotels within a relatively small area, that changes in the market can generally be accommodated quickly. This is not the case in smaller communities with limited hotel/motel space that must provide facilities for all
travelers, and where diverting any segment of the market may
have serious consequences. This becomes increasingly important as communities struggle with economic revitalization. This
hybrid hotel can become an important tool to smaller
communities. The location of the hotel is also significant. Most communities involved in economic revitalization are trying to bring life back to their downtowns. Locating a hotel
downtown can be an important key to this effort. Existing
downtowns have an established architectural and urban design
context into which the new hotel must fit. The community must perceive the hotel as being part of the community both
physically and psychologically. There are three key elements to the success of this architectural thesis: 1) the design of the new hotel type; 2) fitting the hotel into the existing urban pattern in such a way that it becomes a center of the community; and, 3) fitting the building design into the existing architectural context.
Hotel 300-350 rooms 120,000 sq. ft.
Retail 8,000 sq. ft.
Restaurant, Cafe, Bar 9,500 sq. ft.
Conference Facility 25,300 sq. ft.
Health Facility 35,000 sq. ft.
Total 197,718 sq. ft.
Total Site Area 116,305 sq. ft.
1.7 FAR 197,718 sq. ft.
An underground parking garage will be developed to provide both public and private parking.
Structure: Steel Frame with masonry cladding
Site: 1 block bounded by Canyon Boulevard, Walnut Street, Ninth
Street, and Tenth Street (now vacated), on the edge of the core commercial area of downtown Boulder, Colorado.
Located several blocks from the mouth of Boulder Canyon, the site has been identified as a location for a downtown hotel for at least five years.
Land Use: Surrounding land uses include: retail and office in three to five story buildings to the west, north and east; residential to the north east; the Boulder Mall to the north and northeast; and open space to the southwest, south, and southeast.
Views: There are excellent views along the front range to the
southwest and to the northwest. Above the second and third floor levels, there are excellent views in all directions.
Access: Vehicular access to the site is unrestricted on three sides, and is right in, right out on Canyon Boulevard. Vehicle traffic is heavy on Ninth Street, moderate on Canyon Boulevard, and light on Walnut Street. Pedestrian traffic is moderate across the site and north and south along Ninth Street, and almost non-existent along Canyon Boulevard.
Climate: Typical of the high plains life zone: arid; great diurnal
temperature variation; severe freeze/thaw cycles; extreme wind; and significant danger from flash floods. The site is somewhat protected from extreme west wind by a three story building across Ninth Street. Wind speeds rarely exceed 70 to 75 miles per hour at this location.
Utilities: located in Walnut Street, Ninth Street and Canyon
Constraints: parking open space
building height limitation: 35 feet by right; 55 feet by
1.7 FAR with available bonuses to develop to 2.5 FAR Downtown Urban Design Standards are applicable to this site.
Thesis Design: The Schematic Design was larger than originally
proposed. It was decided that in order to provide an urban
hotel that would be a community landmark befitting the importance of this site, the 55-foot height limit would be exceeded.
Total Site Area: 140,640
Parking Garage 140,388 square feet
14 Handicapped 207 Compact 211 Full
432 Parking Spaces
Site = 140,640 square feet
Parking Garage = 140,388 square feet total
14 Handicapped 207 Compact
__211 Full _____
432 Parking Spaces
325 square feet/parking space
First Floor 95,745 square feet
Retail 27,355 square feet
Lobby Elevator Lobbies Conference Lobbies Entries 15,120 square feet
Cafe 8,640 square feet
Restaurant 6,966 square feet
Cocktail Lounge 4,932 square feet
Administration Conference Center 3,710 square feet
Audi tori urn 4,000 square feet
Ballroom 4,560 square feet
Mechanical 2,146 square feet
Support Ki tchens Employees Toilet Storage, etc. 18,316 square feet
Second Floor 87,585 square feet
104 Guest Rooms 59,025 square feet, including corridors Conference Center 8,560 square feet
Meeting Rooms Service Hotel Laundry Housekeepi ng Employee Lounge Lockers Toilets 20,000 square feet
Storage Ice and Vending Public Roof Terraces Atrium 12,570 square feet 3,650 square feet
Third Floor 87,585 square feet
Identical to Second Floor, without Roof Terraces
Fourth Floor 87,585 square feet
Identical to Second and Third Floors except Health Facility
Health Facility Lockers Desk Lobby All-Purpose Court Equipment Room Storage Box Courts Pool and Deck 20,500 square feet
Fifth Floor 49,345 square feet
51 Rooms Cocktail Lounge Towers 4,200 square feet
Executive Lounge 3,594 square feet Seventh Floor
Board Room 3,200 square feet
ho*tel (ho-tel) n. a public house that provides lodging and usually board in a public lodging house; hotel; (2) a tavern or restaurant.
American Heritage Dictionary
The word hotel conjures up vivid and varied images of big cities, resorts, and romantic one-of-a-kind establishments that evoke their locations. There is a mighty leap from the dictionary definition of hotel to the reality of the Savoy in London, the Ritz and the Meurice in Paris, Biris Creek and the Bitter End side by side at the farthest extremity of Virgin Gorda, the paradors of Puerto Rico, or Frank LLoyd Wright's Biltmore in Phoenix. From the time that hotels provided "lodging and usually board in a public lodging house" to John Portman's extravaganzas of the late 1970's is several hundred years of development of this building type, the end result of which are the establishments we imagine when we hear the word hotel.
The development of this building type has been directed by the evolution of transportation, the post World War II economic boom, and by the leisure time and disposable income that this economic boom created. Most economists and political thinkers forsee the end of the 20th century as a time of tumultuous change and realignment of what we have come to regard as the world status quo. Some trends can already be discerned in the United States -- decentralization of manufacturing, more and more specialization in production in general, the integration of global markets, and the weakening of the economic base of Main Street, U.S.A.
How will the hotel as a building type respond to these influences? What will be the next step in its evolution? The historic pattern of the development of the hotel is toward more and more specialization as numbers of travelers have increased. Specialization is the nature of evolution, with the survival of the fittest determined by the criteria of the time. When events change these criteria, many specialized organisms
(and institutions) are eliminated when their specialization is no longer useful. This is essentially what will happen, for example, to hotels that have sprung up around airports that provide endless rooms for overnight stays as air travelers connect one route to another. These hotels provide almost nothing besides rooms and food service. As a building type, this kind of hotel will face extinction if fast and inexpensive air travel for the general public is threatened by rising prices, fuel crises, or overcrowded skies. Already, there are too many existing hotel rooms which has made hoteliers scurry in search of more specialized, profitable niches in the hotel market. Still speaking in terms of evolution, the survival of the fittest will favor hotels that can combine the features of specialized hotels effectively enough to attract patrons from all those establishments. This argues for the development of a new hotel type that gathers up the branches of hotel evolution into a hybrid type that creates a larger, stronger branch, closer to the original trunk. This is what this thesis proposes to do.
There is fertile ground for this new hotel type in smaller cities and towns across the country. These communities are neither transportation hubs, resorts, or business centers. They are, however, all struggling to bring more dollars to town, for example, by attracting new businesses, tourists and conferences. A hotel that can effectively combine the attributes of business, conference and resort hotels into one establishment located downtown can breathe life into the heart of the city. It can be not only a key to economic vitality, but can encourage that vitality in a location where it is needed -- downtown.
From Simple Inn to "Suites Only" The History of the Hotel
There is nothing which has yet been contrived by man by which so much happiness is produced as by a good tavern or inn.
Boswell (Life Of Johnson)
To identify the next step in the evolution of building type, it is usually instructive to trace the lines of development which have led to its present form. The history of the hotel begins with the English inn. The earliest recorded history of public overnight accommodations were medieval inns of the 1300's and 1400's both in England and on the continent. The form of the early inns must have been varied, but they included some form of tavern, a place to eat meals, a communal sleeping room, and separate sleeping rooms for important travelers. As inns became larger and more important to travelers in the 1500's and 1600's, they provided stables and coaching yards, usually at the rear of the establishment (Fig. 1). Hotel size was reached by several establishments in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Besides the number of sleeping rooms, one of the particular developments that heralded this transition was the addition of an assembly room to an existing inn.' The next step was the integration of the assembly room into the main floor of the public space of the inn. A common pattern for these inns was a coach yard surrounded by galleries which provided access to sleeping rooms. By the eighteenth century, the mention of hotels is common in guidebooks and traveler's journals.
Size and elaborateness of the hotel and its services increased as time passed. Dining Rooms, salons, ballrooms, card rooms, theaters, and even that harbinger of modern-day hotels, the indoor bathroom were all added to the basic shelter provided by earlier inns. In the
Key: a courtyard b kitchen c dining rooms d sitting rooms e garden
f coach-house range and storerooms g stables
h harness room i passage and wood-store j rooms for women and men servants k ballroom 1 rittersaal m chapel n bedrooms
Fig. 1 Augsburg Drei Mohren 1722 Ignaz From Pevsner
early 1800's, the evolution of the hotel took great a great leap in the United States with the Tremont Hotel in Boston, and Astor House in New York, both of which were designed by Isaiah Rogers. Preceeding the Astor House by several years, and unlike the more utilitarian American hotel design that led up to it, the Tremont was built to be an architectural monument (Fig. 2). It has become the landmark in hotel development and the beginning of the hotel as a uniquely American building type. With entry through a Doric portico into a domed rotunda with Ionic columns, the Tremont had a variety of large rooms to the left and right, including a Reading Room, Gentlemen's Drawing Room, Ladies' Dining Room and Ladies' Drawing Room. In one of the two angled rear wings was a dining room for 200. The hotel had 170 rooms, eight privies at the rear which were connected to the chambers and parlors by a passageway, and eight bathrooms in the basement. The public rooms were lit by gas, soap was free, and an overnight stay cost $2.00. Followed shortly by the Astor House, a similar, if slightly larger and grander hotel, tjhe United States led the world in hotel building. The size and elaborateness of these hotels set the standard for new hotels in other U.S. cities, such as the St. Charles and St. Louis hotels in New Orleans, and the Charleston Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina.
The United States specialized in holiday hotels in the early 1800's. Since these were usually constructed of wood frame, there are relatively few that survived fire. This type of hotel exceeded in size any other hotels of their time. One such hotel, still in operation today, is the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, Michigan. This hotel was built to accommodate 1,000 guests. The culmination of this type of hotel was the Mount Vernon Hotel built in 1850-53 at Cape May, New Jersey. It had 482 rooms for 2,100 guests, with a dining room 425 |eet long, but it lasted only three years before burning.
Concurrently, European and British hotel development was tending toward what we think of now as the grand hotel, such as the Meurice in Paris, the Queens at Cheltenham, the Royal Daniel i in Venice, and the Baur en Vi lie in Zurich. Many hotels from this period have continued in use as deluxe hotels to the present day. These hotels emphasized quality over quantity, which distinquished them from American hotels of this time. Suites of rooms were prevalent over single rooms. Fine dining and excellent service were expected. In contrast to American hotels which were described as appearing more like penitentiaries than hotels and "of the ordinary barracks order," the architecture of these European hotels was very distinguished. The market for such accommodations was not the general public, as it was in most American hotels.
Away from major cities and resorts, the most important influence on hotel development was transportation. In England, the 1840s saw the beginning of the railway hotel. The railway hotel continued to develop as the extension of the rail network encouraged train travel. The culmination of this type was St. Pancras in London. Originally called the Midland Grand Hotel, St. Pancras dates from 1868-1876. It was designed by George Gilbert Scott and combined his favorite Franco-English High Gothic style with excellent planning and architecture.
In the United States the effect of transportation on hotel development was inextricably bound with the westward expansion. In the earliest days, travel was first by horseback, then by coach as trails were improved to rudimentary roads. Breaks in the terrain such as rivers or mountain passes, were natural locations for inns. Similarly, inns developed a day's journey by horseback apart. These inns were seldom more than rudimentary shelter with a saloon, and space for travelers to sleep on the owner's floor. As roads improved and as more and more people pushed westward, the quality of these inns was upgraded. Other businesses began to locate nearby to supply and service travelers, and thus many of our midwestern and western communities grew from such an original inn.
London St. Pancras 1868-76
Gilbert Scott From Pevsner
Just as mining created boom towns that sprang up and died as quickly, so too did transportation create boom towns and then abandon them. All weather road surfaces stretched the distance and speed between nightly stops, bypassing many communities organized around previous stopping places. Steam-powered river boats created cities of ports such as St. Louis, luring overland travelers to these points by the most direct routes. This intensified development along these corridors at the expense of previously-traveled routes. Where
communities were well enough established to be self-sustaining, they survived. Otherwise, they died like mining boom towns. The railroads concentrated development even further, and had a more pronounced 1ife-and-death effect on communities. The railroad's capacity to quickly move large quantitites of goods and people had a profound influence on settlement patterns of the western United States. For example, Cheyenne, Wyoming: this name evokes the image of the American frontier. In actuality, Cheyenne became a town suddenly. On July 4, 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad route survey selected a site on an otherwise unremarkable creek, as a division point for the transcontinental railroad. Several daj^ later, the town was surveyed and the townsite set out. Aside from the railroad, there was little to encourage people to settle in Cheyenne. The terrain is open plains with almost no water. Attempts at dry land farming were mostly failures, and although cattle ranching had reasonably good years, entire herds were wiped out in great plains blizzards. The railroad was the only real reason for Cheyenne.
As an influence on hotel development, the importance of transportation cannot be overestimated. The mobility of the society was unparalleled then, as it is now. By 1833, the Hotel Gazette reported more than 200,000 commercial travelers in the U.S.7 In Europe one could always travel from one inn of excellent, long-standing reputation to the next. In the United States, a network of excellent establishments did not exist. One very large hotel was apt to be built at the stopping points of journeys, rather that many smaller ones. Otherwise, large hotels tended to be concentrated in well-established cities.
Isaiah Rogers used restrained Grecian styling for the Tremont Hotel and the Astor House. After that, hotels were purely utilitarian in design, until the 1850's, when the architecture of hotels broke out of the utilitarian pattern and exuberantly used every available architectural style. Beginning with Italianate, French,
German Renaissance, Romanesque and limited numbers of Queen Anne and Gothic were all applied to hotels. The most serious stylistic expression was the Italian Renaissance of McKim, Mead & White. Suites were extremely important in 19th century hotels in the larger city hotels of the United States, a result of the American custom of living as residents in hotels. It was estimated that in 1885, there were 200,000 transients and 100,000 residents in hotels in New York alone. The luxury of a large hotel was hard for any but the wealthiest to match in a private home. Size
tended toward the ever-larger, both in city hotels and resort hotels, culminating in J.A. Holabird's 1927 Stevens Hotel in Chicago with 3,000 bedrooms. This
hotel was surpassed in size onlyqin 1967 by the Hotel Rossi a in Moscow with 3,128 rooms.
Another unique aspect of American hotel development were building systems, such as plumbing, heating, and elevators. Without question, American hotels forged the way in indoor plumbing. As hotels became larger and more impressive, baths, lavatories and wc's increased in numbers, making steady progress toward the separate bathroom with bath tub, sink and toilet in each room that we know today. In Europe, this development lagged noticeably, and really caught up only in luxury hotels. In many present-day European hotels, a full bathroom in each hotel room still is not considered a necessity. Similarly, central heating has not been considered a necessity in all European hotels, nor were elevators used as extensively as in American hotels. Electric lighting was generally introduced as soon as possible after the invention of the electric bulb in 1879-81, possibly because it lessened the risk of fire posed by gas illumination.
Modern American Hotel Development
The twentieth century hotel development has brought stylistic and functional changes. Historicism in style began to wane nearly at the turn of the century. Functionality and modern hygiene were regarded as of
great importance in hotel design. Functionally, changes in hotels date from the Second World War. Most of these changes are a result of the population's mobility through automobiles, buses, and airplanes. This has opened the whole world up to tourism and its consequent development. Automobile travel was, by itself, responsible for the development of an American hotel innovation, the motel.
American hotels dating from the turn of the century can be broadly categorized into three types: resident hotels; transient hotels; and resort hotels. Since World War II, the resident hotel has been nearly eliminated as a type. Condominium apartments and single family residences in the suburbs have satisfied the American middle class desire to own property, which might have previously been fulfilled by living in the elegance and convenience of a big city hotel. Today's resident hotels tend to provide cheap housing for those at the bottom of the economic ladder, rather than the affluent.
The Transient Hotel
During the period following World War II, the transient hotel developed into specialized types of hotels, in parallel with the postwar U.S. economic expansion. With more products manufactured and expanding markets in which to sell them, the traveling businessman and woman have made a potent impact on transient hotel development. As the national workforce increased, groups of workers in associated fields of work began to meet regularly to exchange information. As air travel made all areas of the country accessible, larger groups could gather at any place in the country in conventions. The one unchanging requirement for holding conventions has been hotel rooms. As the economic impact of conventions became clear, hoteliers and cities made every attempt to attract conventions to their communities by providing more and more specialized facilities. The convention hotel, a hotel specializing in hosting conventions is characterized by quantity.
These hotels have large lobbies where groups can congregate. They have large banquet facilities, ballrooms and auditoriums. There are many smaller meeting rooms, and the greatest quantity possible of basic guest rooms. The capacity to check in, feed, circulate and check out vast numbers of people quickly and efficiently is critical. Big city convention hotels provide few amenities, and depend upon the attractions downtown, such as shopping, sight seeing, theater, etc., to provide additional activities for their guests. The need for many hotel rooms and convention facilities for very large groups has restricted this hotel type to large cities, or unique areas such as Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada.
In the 1970's and early 1980's, there were regional booms associated with the population shift to the sun belt, the expansion of the oil and gas industry, and the intensification of high technology manufacturing. Prosperous business people traveled a great deal, held conventions, and vacationed in unprecedented numbers. These booms created ripples of intense hotel building, since hotels were seen as excellent investment opportunities. The number of hotel rooms in the market increased dramatically, producing a glut. With this, the nature of the industry began to change. The search for profitable niches in the market was intensified. Underutilized rooms were converted to take advantage of any market opportunity presented. Many older transient hotels with very low room occupancies, brought about by poor management and shabby facilities, nevertheless had excellent locations. They were located near highways, downtown in big cities, or near airports. They served an undifferentiated market of travelers who usually checked in late in the afternoon and checked out the next morning. Renovation of these hotels has been significant, including historic properties qualifying for Investment Tax Credits for the rehabilitation of historic buildings. Such renovations have been attempts to take advantage of identified opportunities in the hotel market. Many of these hotels have been turned into business hotels or hotels that can attract
conventioneers. Business travel has been the general focus of most recent hotel development, and specialized facilities for the various corporate strata have generated specialized hotels. The conference hotel and the business hotel are examples of such specialized hotels.
The Conference Hotel
The conference hotel is a refinement of the convention hotel. The functions and services remain essentially the same as in a convention hotel, but the scale is much smaller. While these hotels do not have the capacity to compete in the large convention market, they can accommodate groups of 300 to 500 which constitutes a considerable segment of the meetings market.
The Business Hotel
There is a lack of consensus on what constitutes a business hotel, but two distinctive types have emerged recently. One is an executive business hotel which offers quality and service in order to become an office away from the office, with the kind of service an executive is used to in his own office. Often described by the hotel industry as an "executive conference hotel," the public spaces are relatively small, but the finishes are of high quality. The guest rooms are frequently suites, giving a more residential character, and providing work space. There are facilities for small conferences, secretarial services and
communications. There is frequently some kind of health facility which may included exercise equipment, jogging track, sauna, lockers and showers. The dining facilities are of high quality, including room service. While there are few additional amenities, the service must be excellent.
Another type of business hotel is a "rooms only" or "suites only" hotel. This hotel type has both economy and luxury varieties. The economy variety has guest
rooms or suites only, with minimal staff to support
reservations, check in and check out, and to clean up rooms. There are no restaurants or room service, no health facilities, conference rooms or lounges. The point of this type of hotel is to provide business travelers with a place to stay at rock bottom prices, since hotel overhead costs have been pared to the minimum, as has service. The luxury variety includes food service and some public spaces such as a lobby and maybe a pool or health club.
The Resort Hotel
Air travel has also led to the expansion and refinement of resort hotels as a type. With the world easily accessible at relatively low cost, the market for vacation travelers expanded exponentially. Instead of renting rooms at the local seaside resort, a middle class American could stay on the Costa Brava or in Hawaii. World wide resort development has been intense since air travel became fast and inexpensive. Resort hotels have traditionally been "stand alone" structures, in locations where they could not depend upon the support and activities of a local community. These hotels might be in a ski area near a small and unsophisticated mountain community, on an unspoiled beach far from a community of any kind, or near a community where the seasonal impact of a resort hotel causes many conflicts with the local population. In any case, resort hotels are characterized by many on-site amenities such as swimming pools, golf courses, health spas, excellent dining facilities with first rate cuisine, car and bicycle rentals, transportation to and from the airport, and many organized activities for guests. The length of stay at a resort hotel is generally longer than at other types of hotels and families are frequent patrons. Because of this, many resort hotels have larger, nicer guest rooms, and suites with living rooms and kitchenettes. Lounges intended as spaces for guests to relax and socialize in, game rooms, ballrooms or discos are all common to resort hotels. These hotels require a great deal of service which means many employees, and usually experience significant seasonal fluctuation in room occupancies.
The Hotel As A Meeting Place As An Office...As A Vacation
Identifying the elements of a conference hotel, a business hotel and a resort hotel, then integrating them into a new kind of hotel is the thesis program. The elements and their relationships are described in detail in a following section. However, the important considerations are:
- To make a business executive at a meeting of the regional management of his company, a member of the state Chamber of Commerce attending the annual conference, and the family of four traveling by automobile to see the U.S.A. all enjoy the experience of staying in this hotel at the same time.
- In the size community most appropriate for the location of this hotel, conferences of 300 to 500 people are most likely to use this facility. Thi-^ requires between 300 to 350 guest rooms. The configuration of the guest rooms must offer the greatest flexibility possible so that, depending upon demand, a guest could have a simple room, or a suite with living rooms and kitchenette. The rooms must be zoned to separate business travelers from families with children.
- There will be a ballroom/auditori urn for 500 to 1000 people, of flexible configuration that may be broken into two large conference rooms, or possibly four smaller ones. There will be a variety of smaller meeting rooms, and small public lounges.
- An audio visual support facility will be adjacent to the conference space.
- There will be several small conference rooms with access to the audio visual room and secretarial and support services, such
as word processors, copiers, communications equipment, etc.
The hotel kitchen must be able to provide efficient service to the conference space. The main lobby must be large enough to accommodate large groups.
The restaurant will seat 150 to 180 persons, and will offer a variety of di ning.
The cocktail lounge will accommodate 150 to 180 persons, and will feature cabaret entertai nment.
There will be a cafe that will have both indoor space and outdoor space. The location of this element will be very important to creating a sense of lively activity and interest at the hotel. The cafe will fill the role of the more traditional coffee shop.
Support services associated with hotels, such as news and tobacco stands, hair salons, gift shops, cleaners, car and bicycle rentals, photo finishing, ticket outlets, etc., will be located in the ground floor retail space. These businesses will be independent of the hotel, and will lease space from the hotel. The arrangement of the retail spaces must make them accessible from the exterior and to hotel guests. There must be a variety of spaces which must be inexpensive enough to make small support businesses viable. There will be a health facility of a limited size for hotel patrons. This may be expanded to included community memberships. This facility will include a swimming pool and sun deck that can be open in warm weather and enclosed in cold weather. There will be a jogging track, exercise equipment, sauna, lockers and showers.
There will be a game room and lounge with a 1ibrary.
The access to downtown and community
The Hotel As The Heart Of The City
The Urban Design
Smaller American cities and towns have been bypassed by many of the influences that shaped transient hotels in large cities. While almost every town has had its downtown hotel, several forces have combined to hasten their demise. Most small cities are a destination for only a limited number of people, such as relatives and some business travelers. Most people who stop and stay overnight are on their way to somewhere else. Travelers who pass through are usually traveling by automobile, and are staying in motor hotels. As a matter of convenience, these hotels were located near the highway, away from the downtown. This, along with the general shift of shopping plazas and regional shopping centers to the periphery of the community have made the downtown hotel a thing of the past.
The economic health of smaller communities is a significant issue of the 1980's, which will have profound effects on the economic health of the United States. Smaller communities are like small businesses in their significance to the economic structure of the country. Taken one by one, they are likely to be overlooked, but when aggregated their significance is enormous. There are very few communities that are not struggling with ways to improve the economic vitality of their town -- with enticing life back to Main Street. Strategies for doing this include attracting new businesses, actively seeking tourists, and strengthening commercial activity downtown. These strategies would be well-served by a new kind of hotel designed to accommodate a tourist family in their station wagon as easily as a traveling business team. David W. Beer commented in a recent article on hotels that "few commercial structures contribute as much to the activity of a downtown area, to the safety of the surrounding streets and to the viability of office and retail space. Hotels also provide an economic tj^se for the survival and revival of many city centers."
While drawing people to the community will be important to the success of the hotel, attracting residents of the community will be equally important. Having the community support the bar and restaurants, conference facilities and retail shops will help to smooth out peaks and valleys of room occupancies. If the hotel can, by virtue of its urban design, architecture, and facilities, become a center of downtown activity, special events that the hotel sponsors or hosts will be well attended. This will reinforce the hotel as a center of community activity. The design of many modern hotels turns the building in on itself, making it self-sufficient and free standing even in an urban context. In order to involve the community in a downtown hotel, and the hotel guests in the community, the urban design must create strong linkages that draw people to and through the public spaces. For example, the entries should be oriented to encourage pedestrians to flow through the public and retail spaces. The bar/cocktail lounge and restaurants should be destinations themselves, with cabaret entertainment and fine food. A cafe that is open in the warm weather and enclosed in the cold should be located so that its patrons can see and be seen. The activity of the hotel and the street should both be easily visible from the cafe. The retail space should be visible and accessible from the street. Businesses that are more and more infrequently found downtown should be encouraged to locate small facilities here. Hotel parking should be integrated with underground public parking, and should lead the patrons of public parking through the public and retail spaces. Pedestrian traffic should be managed in such a way that it creates life without interfering with hotel functions.
The Hotel As An Expression Of The Character Of The Community
To accept a new building as a community center, and to support and use it, the local population must perceive the hotel as being a part of the existing downtown as fitting in. If the elements that give the community its
individual character, that distinquish it from any other community, are integrated into the design of the new building, not only will it be perceived as part of the community, but people staying at the hotel will see the hotel as especially appropriate to its location. At the same time that the building must fit into the architectural and urban design context of the community, the design of the hotel must focus on creating a memorable building that stands out from other hotels in the traveler's memory. Since efficiency and functionalism have been most important in the evolution of modern hotel design, this has produced many hotels that look alike. In an Architectural Record building types study of hotels, Herbert U. Smith notes that "somehow, since the advent of the jet age, and the subsequent quick transport of masses of people, the big boom in hotel construction has spawned a brood of astonishing similarity. Many are, indeed, near marvels of planning efficiency, personnel utilization, of sophisticated economics, administration, structure, mechanical systems and often great, if impersonal comfort. Yet^within their walls, one could be almost
anywhere___" There is nothing that distinguishes one
community from another a hotel in Wichita is the same as one in Orlando. Imbuing the hotel with a strong sense of place, of uniqueness, can make it an intriguing destination in and of itself. If this can be accomplished, it makes the hotel very strongly competitive in any market.
The Thesis Hotel
A Downtown Hotel in Boulder, Colorado
One community where need meets opportunity is in Boulder, Colorado. Boulder has long recognized the need for another downtown hotel. There are relatively few hotel rooms in the whole community, and with the exception of the Hotel Boulderado, they are located on the periphery of town, far from services and amenities such as shopping and restaurants. At the same time, Boulder's downtown is suffering from the same problems
that are afflicting many downtowns increased competition from suburban malls, relocation of businesses such as drugstores, cleaners, hardware stores, etc., that used to be the backbone of the downtown, because specialized shopping has made the commercial space downtown increasingly expensive. Since Boulder is the destination of significant numbers of visitors, a downtown hotel would fill a recognized need in the market, and do so in a location that would be most advantageous for the downtown economy.
The Boulder Mall is considered an outstanding example of urban design, and has increased peripheral redevelopment in most adjacent areas. The linkage from the Mall to the west end of Pearl Street and Ninth Street has always been weak, and has been identified by the recently-completed "Downtown Plan" as a transitional area of great significance that needs strengthening. A critical part of this planning area is the block bounded by Canyon Boulevard, Ninth Street, Walnut Street and Tenth Street (now vacated). This block is the southewest corner of the downtown, and is one of the major entries to downtown. For at least five years, this has been identified as the site for another downtown hotel. The entire site is presently a parking lot, with one half paved and owned by the City of Boulder, and the other half unpaved, and owned by Glacier Park, the development corporation of the Burlington Northern Railroad. An adjacent parcel, approximately 1/6th of the block to the east, owned by the Chamber of Commerce, could also be included in the overall site.
This will be the location for the hotel to be developed by this thesis. The location raises several issues in addition to the development of the building type which must also be resolved by the thesis. To have an entire undeveloped city block in a downtown commercial core is very rare. Because what happens to this block is of such importance to the future of Boulder's downtown, the development of this site must relate positively and directly to the surrounding area. The urban design must encourage the hotel to function as a center of downtown
activity, even though it is not physically located at the center of downtown, the site and building must face outward and interact wth the public. The site development and building must fit into the architectural context of downtown Boulder in a way that is understandable to everyone. This is an excellent site for this thesis since it is large enough for an appropriate hotel development, it is in a highly-visible location that is a gateway to downtown, it has already been identified as the best location for a new downtown hotel, and a hotel use is generally perceived as the best means of strengthening the downtown economy. May hotel developments turn inward to become self-contained making a total area of approximately 124,494 square feet. The by-right F.A.R. for this site is 1.7 to 1. The maximum allowable F.A.R. is 3 to 1, and to achieve this requires the provision of substantial urban amenities. There is a height limit of 55 feet which is an issue of significant community concern, and any building approaching this height encounters strong community opposition. The site is in the flood plain; however, with certain constraints, it has been approved for hotel use by the Planning Board and City Council. The major constraint to this development will be parking. The present parking on this site will have to be accommodated in an underground parking garage. This will require approximately 340 spaces, 165 for the hotel and 175 for the public.
This thesis is not intended to be an exhaustive study of existing hotels. It is intended to identify general trends in recent hotel design. There are certainly many hotels that combine elements of different hotel types, and for this reason resist categorizing. The idea of designing hotels to accommodate business travelers and tourists together is not new. However, the design is focused on the portion of the market for which the hotel is intended. The fact that other segments of the traveling public could stay in the hotel is nice but incidental. The intent of this thesis is the design of a hotel wich identifies and intentionally blends the most significant elements of three kinds of hotels --the business hotel, the conference hotel, and the resort hotel. The blending will be done so that business travelers, conference-goers, and tourists will all feel that the hotel was designed just for them. The hotel must become an integral part of the downtown urban fabric to make it a center of community activity, and it must have enough individual character that travelers will always associate it with Boulder, Colorado.
List of Hotel Spaces
Back of the House
Front of the House
Delivery Area Delivery Supervisor Food Checker Timekeeper Freight elevator Employees cafeteria/lounge Employees lockers Housekeeper Housekeeping storage Furniture storage Linen storage Maintenance General storage Mechanical Ki tchen Garbage/trash Soiled Laundry Laundry Of fi ces
Bookkeeping Sales and Marketing ]aqer
)0# ajtf Manager
Bar/Cocktail Lounge Main Lobby Retai1
Guest Registration Cashier
Guest Rooms and Suites
Pantry kitchen for Conference
Health Facility Pool
Box Courts Lounge
Exerci se Room Weights Locker Rooms Basket/Equipment Administrative Office
The site is at the southwest corner of what is now downtown Boulder, Colorado. It is close to Boulder Creek and lies partially within the 100 year floodway. The mouth of Boulder Canyon is approximately one mile to the west. The neighborhood surrounding the site has had varied uses historically. To the northwest has always been an area of modest residences. The west end of Pearl Street was the rougher end of town with taverns and boarding houses, and the local newspaper, The Boulder Daily Camera has always been located here. Machine shops, moving and storage companies, and automobile sales lots were all common either on or around the site of the new hotel. The site is bounded on the south by Canyon Boulevard, which was originally called Water Street, and with railroad tracks down the center, was naturally the dividing line between the right and wrong side of Boulder's tracks. The public depot was located on Water Street and 14th Street, five blocks from the site. The rail lines continued west and a spur went through the southern half of the site. According to the Sanborn Maps from 1895 through 1916 the tracks belonged to the Colorado Central Railroad. This half of the site has always been owned by this railroad or the Burlington Northern, and has never been developed. It is presently owned by the development corporation of the Burlington Northern. The northern half of the site has historically been residential, with individual frame dwellings and boarding houses. The City Directory shows the Northern Colorado Wholesale Grocery Company on the northeast corner of the site in 1913. This company changed names and owners, becoming the Rocky Mountain Mercantile Company in 1916, and the Morey Mercantile Company Grocery Wholesale Company in 1936. The 1964 City Directory shows residences and a Pontiac dealership on this site, with a storage and transfer company and a moving company replacing the grocery wholesale company at the northeast corner. The entire block has been a parking lot for the past 15 years or so, without any structures.
The adjacent blocks have been developed quite extensively since the completion of the downtown mall, and the hotel site is now in the transitional area adjacent to the downtown commercial area. For at least 5 years, this site has been identified as the best location for a new downtown hotel and conference center. Glacier Park, the development corporation of the Burlington Northern Railroad and the owners of the southern half of the site, have been negotiating during this period with various hotel operators. They have not been able to come to mutually satisfactory arrangements, and they have decided to sell their property. An option to buy was purchased by Sinco International in 1985.
Boulder has been an attractive destination for travelers for many years. It is located in a picturesque setting at the edge of the Rocky Mountains. It is the location of a major university with highly-regarded research departments and institutes. Many businesses, government research-oriented agencies, and private research and development companies have located here. The emphasis on planning and controlled growth have made the community an exceptionally attractive one, with excellent cultural opportunities. All of this attracts tourists, business travelers, and conference-goers. The project site has been recognized as a prime location for a downtown hotel for many years, and several developers have made proposals to Glacier Park to develop such a hotel. The economic feasibility of developing various types of hotels in different locations in Boulder has been evaluated by several consultants. Naturally enough, the results have been mixed, with recommendations for hotel locations varying with the type and the consultant. There are areas of general agreement however, and these provide the background for this project.
The Hotel Market In Boulder
Boulder hotels and motels have located along major highways, following the national pattern. There is only one hotel remaining downtown, and all other hotels are located beyond walking distance of the core commercial area. There are 1,384 hotel rooms in eighteen hotels, motels, and bread and breakfast inns. Only five hotel^ have 100 or more rooms, and the largest hae 270 rooms.1 The occupancy level of 83.8 percent in 1978 has decreased to less that 65 percent in 1985. The occupancy rate for the first three quarters of 1986 was 62 percent compared to 70 percent for the same period in 1985. All the decline in occupancy rates occurred during the months of January through June, with occupancy^ate near 80 percent from July through September. During the period of 1978 to 1985 there was an increase of 440, rooms which had a role in the decreased room occupancy rates. However, hotel and motel operators attribute the weak current market to sluggishness in the Boulder economy and increased competition in Boulder and the Denver Metropolitan area.
The area of weakness that has been identified in Boulder's hotel market for at least five years is the need for adequate conference facilities. The existing facilities range from the University of Colorado Events Center which seats 11,000 to small banquet and meeting rooms at local hotels. There are several auditoriums and conference rooms available at the University of Colorado and at federal buildings such as the National Center For Atmospheric Research and the National Bureau of Standards. Conferences in Boulder are generally organized by the Boulder Bureau of Conference Services and Cultural Affairs, the University of Colorado Office of Conference Services, the Events Center or local hotels. It is estimated that the University and Bureau of Conference Services attracted 28,000 people to 250
events in 1980, and that by 1-^35 they had increased to 35,000 people at 400 events. University conference activity is particularly heavy in the summer when inexpensive accommodations are available in dormitories, so the numbers of people the University brings to Boulder for conferences should be viewed with caution in relationship to potential hotel room demand. Several local hotels market conference facilities; however, only two hotels, The Broker Inn and the Hilton Harvest House can accommodate large groups. According to the Boulder Bureau of Conferences, 58 conferences were held during the first six months of 1986. 54 of those conferences werre held at either the Broker Inn or the Hilton Harvest House, but any conference with more than 100 participants was held at the Hilton Harvest House. The membership of groups using local hotel facilities range from local corporations to national associations. Approximately one-third of the activity is related to the University, one-third to local business, and one-third to a mix of professional societies, national and regional associations, and government agency groups.
Potential of Boulder's Conference Market
In a recent study, Hammer, Siler George and Associates, economic and market analysts, evaluated the Colorado conference and convention market. Nearly 85 percent of the conferences surveyed involved groups of less than 1,000, which is generally recognized as the range of size groups that can be accommodated by a community the size of Boulder if facilities were available. At the present time, conferences in Boulder are limited to groups of no more than 300, which eliminates Boulder from about one-half the potential conference market that exists in Colorado. This is borne out by the data on Boulder Conferences which showed no groups over 300 at local hotels and only eight events out of 30 conferences at the University with groups larger than 300. Of conference activity in the state, Boulder conferences represented only 5 percent of the statewide market. This compares with 22 percent for Colorado Springs, 7
percent for Aspen-Snowmass, and over 6 percent for Yail-Beaver Creek. All these locations have better hotel and conference facilities than Boulder.
Seasonal patterns indicate the peak months for conferences along the Front Range are March, May and October. Since these are months when the University is in full session, facilities for large groups are either unavailable or difficult to schedule. Summer is a period of relative inactivity in conferences around the nation, and along the Front Range. Summer, however is a moderately active time for Colorado as a whole, since off-season rates are in effect in mountain resorts. This provides deluxe accommodations, conference facilities, and recreation at relatively low cost.
Hammer, Siler George and Associates evaluated the components of Boulder's hotel/conference facility market, including the University of Colorado, businesses in general, and state and regional associations. They concluded that conferences at the University benefitted from low-cost facilities. Expansion would probably result in increased cost and might conflict with the University's mission and academic use of the University facilities. They found no great demand for first class business hotels. The existing hotels seem to have filled that need. There have been six new hotels proposed in Boulder within the past year. Several have been strongly business-oriented, and it is felt that the general economic slowdown in Boulder, and the competitive hotel market caused by high room vacancy rates have been responsible for the failure to attract hotel operators for these hotels. Local businesses have used hotel meeting and conference facilities less and less, opting for in-house facilities. This indicates that the market for conferences of state and regional associations shows the most potential.
The conclusion of the study is that a hotel should be developed which is aimed at the state and regional association conference market, and that the facility could well be located at the east edge of Boulder in the
University of Colorado research park. This would mean a stand-alone facility, far from any existing restaurants, shopping, or activities. This study is an excellent example of how market feasibility analysis is used to identify potential opportunities. Such studies develop good current data, and focus and refine it to illuminate the best current market niche. However, it doesn't require much analysis to see the fate of this hotel if, for example, teleconferencing makes a significant impact on the conference market, as many people in the hotel industry feel it will. Analyzing business trends in the state might lead to a more positive evaluation of business hotels. For example, Brown, Bortz & Coddington, Inc., prepared a study in October of 1986 for the Colorado Housing Finance Authority, titled "A Study Of Small Business In The Colorado Economy." Their study shows that the key factors in Colorado's economic growth have been electronics manufacturing, business services, communications, instruments manufacturing, and printing and publishing. In the Suburban Denver region small business establishments accounted for 60 percent of 1985 jobs and 67 percent of 1981 through 1985 growth. 31 percent of job growth was in branch offices and 53 percent o^ggrowth was attributed to independently owned business. This represents an underlying change in Colorado's economic base, away from basic industries of agriculture, oil and gas and other mining. This change in the economic base might be a trend to Colorado's future business structure, and analysis might paint a more optimistic picture for business-oriented hotels. Likewise, an evaluation of Colorado's and Boulder's tourist market might put some flesh on the bones of the steady attraction Boulder has for travelers. There are no existing studies that distinguish tourists from business travelers, but the Colorado Bureau of Tourism estimated that 24 million tourists visited Colorado in 1984, and Boulder has historically received 2 percent of those visits, or 480,000 tourists, according to the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. The point of this broader analysis is that the narrower the focus of a hotel, the more it is at the mercy of changes in the market. Because of the unknown impact of broadly changing global economics, a hotel that can attract any and all segments of the market is most likely to succeed.
The greatest operating cost associated with hotels are payroll and related expenses. Hotels that provide service to all types of patrons require more personnel than more limited service hotels. Land acquisition costs of downtown property are much higher than in more remote areas of the community. To overcome these obstacles to providing a full-service downtown hotel, the design must be as efficient as possible to allow the hotel to provide service with as few employees as possible. An example of how this might be handled would be to include special floor that is not open to the general public where a special degree of service is provided to those who wish it. This extra level of service is provided with many fewer employees than would be required to provide that level of service throughout the hotel. The design must strike a balance between a building which has character and style, and keeping construction costs under close control. The challenge of this project will be in the design in the archi tecture.
A business partnership will purchase 4 parcels of land, one from Glacier Park Development Corporation, one from the Central Area General Improvement District (CAGID) of the City of Boulder, and the balance from the City of Boulder in a street vacation. The owners of the land will develop the hotel facility. They will also build the underground parking garage with approximately 340 spaces. The developers will then condominiumize the project, selling the parking garage back to CAGID, who will operate it as part of their parking operation. 165 spaces will be leased for the use of the hotel. A hotel operator will lease the hotel from the owners. The
hotel operator will help to determine the program and space adjacencies for efficient operation. The exact organizational chart may vary from hotel operator to hotel operator, but will generally be organized in the following way:
The l .S. I.odj>inj> Industry Dollar
Where ll Went*
When* It Cime From*
.91 Guest Room Rental!
Minor Operated Departments
Rentals and Other Income
jOj Payroll and Related Expenses
A\ Departmental Expenses
jSj Food Cost
f.9j Rent. Property Taxes and Insurance
Depreciation Energy Costs
fj Administrative and General )J Marketing
Property Operation and Maintenance
From U.S. Lodging Industry 1984 Laventhol & Horwath
GENERAL MANAGER HOTEL OPERATIONS
SALES & MARKETING
HOUSEKEEPING ASSISTANT MANAGER FOOD & BEVERAGE
Front Desk Reservations Bookkeeping Secretary Business Guest Services Parking
Executive Chef Engineers
Sous Chefs Janitors
Owners: responsible for construction, financing, leasing and managing retail space and negotiating parking lease with CAGID.
General Manager responsible for all phases of the management of the hotel.
Assistant Manager manages day to day business of the hotel office, including reservations, front desk and bookkeeping. Also manages health facility, business support services and parking.
Sales and Marketing responsible for marketing hotel facilities for conferences, weddings, etc.
Housekeeping responsible for all guest rooms, cleaning and supplies for guest rooms and guest room corridors.
Food and Beverage responsible for restaurants, room service, cocktail lounge, cafe, and banquets. Most complicated and important hotel di vi si on.
Maintenance Engineers are responsible for maintaining all building systems, and repair of equipment. Janitorial is responsible for cleaning and maintaining all spaces but guest rooms and corridors.
The client will own the building when it is completed. The client will be a two-person partnership. One partner is responsible for financing, and the other is responsible for hotel construction and management of the partnership. The partnership has done the market research, the preliminary programming, negotiating for purchase of land, for city approvals, and for parking.
Location Maps pp. 12, 13 Land Use Map p. 30 Photographs of Site pp. 22-29 Traffic Map p. 32
Groups that will affect this project include:
West Pearl Street Neighborhood Association one of Boulder's most effective neighborhood associations. Formed to protect the interests of residents at the west end of Pearl Street, this group carefully monitors any development on the edges of their residential area. They perceive the neighborhood as under a great deal of pressure from transitional parts of the core commercial area. The hotel site is on the southeast edge of the association's area of concern.
Downtown Partnership organized to promote the interests of the downtown, with a paid executive director. This group is strongly in favor of a downtown hotel.
Chamber of Commerce the Chamber has identified a downtown hotel and conference facility as of great importance to Boulder. Along with the Boulder Bureau of Conference Services and Cultural Affairs, funded by a 1/2 cent accommodations tax, they will be interested in and support this project.
The site is surrounded by retail/office uses on the east, west, and north sides. The Boulder Mall and core commercial area is one block north and two blocks east. To the northwest is an older residential area. To the south is the Boulder Public Library, the Municipal Building/Library mall, and Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has recently been upgraded with the addition of a bicycle/jogging trail which extends from the park at the mouth of Boulder Canyon, which is approximately one mile west of the hotel site, to 28th street on the east side of Boulder. Associated with the bicycle/jogging path development was the improvement of fish habitat in Boulder Creek by Boulder's Trout Unlimited group, and the upgrading of parks and stream banks along the creek. This entire area is now used very heavily. The University of Colorado is within easy walking distance to the southeast. One long block to the east is Boulder's Central Park, planned as an entry point to a bicycle and pedestrian trail linking downtown Boulder to the University of Colorado Campus. The main transfer facility for RTD is one block beyond Central Park to the east.
Canyon Boulevard at the south of the site is a main east-west arterial carying heavy traffic further east, but only moderate amounts at this location. Canyon
Boulevard continues up into Boulder Canyon to the west. Ninth Street at the west of the site is the main north-south linkage at the west side of Boulder and carries very heavy traffic. Walnut Street to the north of the site is a lightly-traveled local street. All of these streets are two way; however, Canyon Boulevard is divided, limiting access to right in, right out.
SE 1/4 SE 1/4 of Section 25 TIN, R71 W of 6th PM
SW 1/4 SW 1/4 of Section 30 TIN, R70 W of 6th PM
City of Boulder, County of Boulder, State of Colorado.
Parcel A: SE corner of Lot 1, Block 45, WEST BOULDER;
from the point of beginning; thence westerly along the southerly line a distance of 320.25 feet to a point on the easterly line of 9th Street; said point of beginning being the NE corner of the tract; thence southerly along the easterly line of 9th Street a distance of 160 feet to a point; thence, easterly along the southerly line of Block 43 and 44 a distance of 320.25 feet to a point on the westerly line of 10th street a distance of 160 feet to the point of beginning;
and, 80 feet of 10th street (vacated) from the northerly line of Canyon Boulevard to the westerly extension of the southerly line of the alley;
and, the southerly 20 feet of westerly 10 feet of 10th Street (vacated January 10, 1968);
Parcel B: Owned by the City of Boulder Central Area
General Improvement District.
Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of Block 45 and the northerly 140 feet of the westerly 10 feet of 10th Street (vacated January 10, 1968);
Parcel C: Lot 7 of Block 44 and a portion of Lot 8;
Beginning at the SW corner of Lot 8, thence
easterly along the southerly boundary of Lot 8 a distance of 25 feet; thence parallel
northerly a distance of 140 feet to the northerly boundary of Lot 8; thence southerly along the westerly boundary of Lot 8 to the point of beginning.
Parcel D: 10th Street Right of Way (the portion of 10th Street not previously vacated); Beginning at the NE corner of Lot 1, Block 45; thence easterly along northerly line of Block 45 to easterly extension of northerly line of Block 45 a distance of 10 feet to the NE corner of the westerly 10 feet of 10th Street; thence southerly parallel to the easterly boundary of Lot 1 a distance of 160 feet; thence easterly 60 feet along the westerly extension of the southerly alley line of Block 44 to a point on the southerly extension of the westerly line of the easterly 10 feet of 10th Street; thence, northerly along the southerly extension and the westerly line a distance of 160 feet; thence, 60 feet more or less to the point of beginning.
X ( cs CD n DDD
o ^-1 C3 p L T=l v=\
/* PHOTOGRAPHER LOCATION
^8 mncu i iuw NUMBER ur OF rnuiuonrn PHOTOGRAPH
The project site is essentially flat with a possible change in elevation of two feet across the site from northwest to southeast.
The prevailing wind during the summer months comes from the southeast. Winter snow storms come from the north or from the northeast during upslope conditions, and from the northwest during normal winter storm track conditions. Boulder experiences very high winds during the winter months, and these winds come from the west. Wind speeds of 150 miles per hour have been recorded by NCAR, but wind speeds in the downtown area rarely exceed 80 to 85 miles per hour. There is a 55 foot high building directly to the west of the site which will provide some protection from west winds.
The site has no existing vegetation aside from a few weeds.
One half the site is paved and the other half is dirt and gravel. The site is bordered by sidewalks without planting strips to the west and north.
Out of the Site: The view of the front range will be excellent from the south and southwest exposure. There is no way that future building can block this view, even from the ground level. The view to the west is obscured for the first two floors approximately, but above that
there are views over the city in all directions except directly to the east. That view is obscured by 55 foot high buildings.
Into the Site: The southwest corner of the site acts as a gateway into the downtown. The whole building will be seen in perspective from this vantage. The whole south elevation can be seen from the Municipal Bui 1ding/Library Mall across Canyon Boulevard. Most of the building can be seen from northwest of the site, but this entire block may be redeveloped in the near future. Whether or not the building could be seen from that vantage point after development remains to be seen. From all other locations, only portions of the building would be vi sible.
Vehicular there is vehicular access to the site on all sides. Since Canyon Boulevard is a right-in, right-out access, Ninth Street, Walnut Street, and the service alley will be used for vehicular access. In addition, a portion of the site along Canyon Boulevard is in the 100 year floodway, so berms along that edge will be developed.
Pedestrian most pedestrian traffic comes from along Ninth Street to and from residential areas to the south and southwest and retail areas to the northeast. This traffic cuts diagonally across the site to Walnut, or continues along Ninth Street. There is very little pedestrian traffic along Canyon Boulevard from either direction, since traffic lights are located two blocks apart at Ninth Street and east at Broadway.
The greatest amount of noise will be from vehicular traffic, and will be heaviest along Ninth Street. Canyon Boulevard will also generate some noise, and increasingly as it begins to carry a full volume of traffic. There may be some noise from special events on the Municipal Building/Library Mall, and from a night
club located one block to the east of the site.
Existing Structure There are no existing structures.
Utilities are in place in Canyon Boulevard, Ninth Street, and Walnut Street. There should be no problem in providing utilities to this site.
Positive: This site is a gateway to the city and
located very near the center of the commercial core. The views of the mountains are excellent, vehicular and pedestrian access is excellent and there are strong linkages to community activity areas and open space. The site is large enough to accommodate a hotel development appropriate to the intent of this thesis.
Negative: A 38 foot strip along the south boundary of this site is in the 100 year floodway, which will require extra measures to protect the building and parking garage.
Boulder is located at Latitude 40 N and Longitude 105 W at an elevation of 5,445 feet, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is semi-arid, typical of the high plains, with generally mild temperatures, and extreme diurnal temperature variation. The average annual precipitation is 18 inches with frequent summer thundershowers and over 80 inches of snow. Clear and sunny skies in the winter clear the snowfall, so prolonged snow cover is rare. During the winter months strong Chinook winds are common, with gusts ranging from 70 to 150 miles per hour. The hotel site has no existing streams or vegetation to affect temperatures, but the force of the wind will be mitigated somewhat by a large building located directly to the west.
p i 1-=L-
1 j^p JMul yT^fTr f) *j -| L
<'.u M f.rrTT m in?
1 ,M 1 1 1 1 1
a J V-:---
m? ) ) )
VEHICLES heavy PEDESTRIANS heavy PUBLIC TRANSIT
MODERATE in mi mi MODERATE
TEMPERATURE 1985 1986
SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG
Av Max 100 F I
60 F 40 F <
Av Min 20 F zr=r.T' rj
DEGREE DAYS SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG
Heating Cooling 238 402 1002 1021 707 762 496 423 248 16 1 Q
46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 151 21 CO CO
RAINFALL SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG
SNOWFALL SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG
25 20 15 10 5 0
ll.O 6.0 22.8 16.0 2.0 7.8 3.0 13.5 0 0 0 0
HUMIDITY 125 year av. in %] 5 Time 11 of 17 Meas. 23 SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG
68 64 69 64 64 66 67 67 70 69 68 69
38 36 44 45 46 43 42 38 39 37 35 36
34 35 49 51 49 43 41 35 38 35 34 35
59 59 65 63 63 64 62^ 58 61 59 56 58
157 days clear 24 days cloudy 184 days parly cloudy
43 percent 7 percent 50 percent
SOURCES: NOA Monthly Weather Data Publications; National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Records; Boulder Weather Log; Colorado Climatological Service.
List of Hotel Spaces
Back of the House Front of the House
Sales and Marketing
Assi stant Manager
Food and Beverage Manager
Reservations Safe Deposit Linen/trash chutes Toilets
Bar/Cocktail Lounge Main Lobby Retail
Guest Registration Cashier
Guest Rooms and Suites
Health Facility Pool
Box Courts Lounge
Exercise Room Weights Locker Rooms Basket/Equipment Administrative Office Storage Room Toilets Jogging Track
X Near Far
Freight Elevator Employee Caf./Lounge Housekeeper Housekeeper Storage Furniture Storage Linen Storage Maintenance General Storage Mechanical Kitchen
Soiled Laundry Laundry Bookkeeping Sales & Marketing Manager
Assist. Manager Food & Beverage Secretary Mall
Reservations Llnen/Trash Chutes Toilets Restaurant Bar/Lounge Cafe
Main Lobby Retail
Guest Registration Cashier Guest Rooms and Suites^ Large Conf. Ballroom Pantry Kitchen Meeting Rooms Corridors Lounge/Library Coat Room Audio Visual Service Corridor Health Facility Office Pool
Box Courts Lounge
Exercise Room Weights Locker Rooms Basket/Equipment Storage Room jogging Track
The large conference room should have a distinctive character that creates more than just a large volume. The character and proportion should remain intact when the whole space is divided in half or in fourths. The large space will be used as an auditorium with dais/stage, and as a banquet room/ballroom. This large space will be surrounded by small- and medium-sized conference rooms that connect in various ways to offer the greatest flexibility. A medium-sized conference room at the dais/stage end of the large space can be used as behind-the-stage space and access. Additional medium- and small-sized conference rooms will be located nearby but not connected, so more than one conference could take place at the same time.
The audio visual facility will be oriented to the large conference room. It will be able to provide projection to either the whole space or to each half when the space is made smaller. It will also be oriented to the medium-sized conference room in the opposite direction. There is a service corridor to an adjacent pantry/kitchen, to the freight elevator and to toilet rooms. The pantry-kitchen will be used for layout and service space for food prepared in the main kitchen to be served in the conference facilities. A widening of the public corridor will make lounge areas with views to the mountains. These will be used for breaks, gathering before conferences start, etc. As much as possible, light and views will be part of the conference spaces. This will help participants remember they are in Boulder, Colorado.
Conference Facility 25,300 sq. ft.
Large Conference Space 4,500 sq. ft.
Meeting Rooms 6 @ 1,000 4 @ 1,500 12,000
Breakout Rooms 5 0 750 3,750
Audio Visual 200
Pub!ic Lounge 2,000
Pantry Kitchen 750
Service Corridor 1,000
The lobby will be a grand space with a strong enough axis to draw the public in, but not so strong that is is too formal and uncomfortable a place in which to see and be seen. The focal point will be the front desk. Public elevators will be adjacent to the front desk. The cocktail lounge will be adjacent to the lobby so the lobby could be used for pre-conference gatherings.
The cafe will have both indoor and outdoor seating and the cocktail lounge and lobby can open into the cafe seating. Outdoor seating will be open in warm weather and enclosed in cold weather. This area will be partially surrounded by the lobby, the cocktail lounge, the cafe and the restaurant. The remaining side will be open to the street and hotel entry. This will allow the activity to be viewed from many vantage points -- some very public and some very private. Lounges on upper floors will overlook this area.
Retail shops will be in a series of small spaces, maybe like a market with booths. The intent is to provide lots of interest in an area where shoppers can circulate without having to go in and out of each shop. A stroll around the hotel facilities should lead hotel guests and the public past all the retail spaces.
Administrative Offices will accommodate the office of the General Manager, the Assistant Manager, the Food and Beverage Manager, the Sales and Marketing Manager, and the Bookkeeping Department. The front desk is the public part of the adminstrative offices, and reservations, mail, cashier, and communications should be directly adjacent to the front desk. There will be additional space for a secretary and normal business office equipment. There will be a small safe deposit room, and a toilet room. This area needs direct access to the kitchen and delivery area.
Public Lobby 2,000 sq. ft.
Administrative Offices 2,500 sq. ft.
Cocktail Lounge 3,000 sq. ft.
Cafe 3,000 sq. ft.
Restaurant 3,500 sq. ft.
Retail 8,000 sq. ft.
Efficiency and security are most important in this area. All deliveries should come through one point. Food and bar deliveries should be checked in by delivery supervisor and either stored in a secure area or delivered to the kitchen or bar. There should be only one point of entry other than deliveries. The Food and Beverage Manager's office should be directly adjacent to delivery and kitchen.
There is a general storage area for non-food and beverage deliveries.
There is one point of pedestrian service access and one service corridor. The employee cafeteria/lounge and lockers are close to this entry and adjacent to the kitchen. This area will be on an exterior wall for light and view, but it needs to be secure.
The freight elevator is adjacent to the kitchen and will be used for moving furniture, housekeeping supplies, employees, food for conferences, banquets, and room service.
The circulation in the kitchen is critical. Food prep must be closest to the restaurant, cafe and elevator. Cross circulation will be a problem. Delivery, distribution, and storage should be away from food prep and feed into the prep line efficiently. Dish cleaning noise must be buffered from the dining areas, and must stay out of the food circulation. The Executive Chef will have an office adjacent to the Food and Beverage Managers office, but in the kitchen.
Kitchen-Delivery 6,500 sq. ft.
Kitchen 2,000 sq. ft.
Employee Cafe./Lounge/lockers 2,000 Delivery/Storage 2,000
Guest Room Floors
120,000 sq. ft.
Guest rooms will vary from simple single rooms to suites. There may be an executive floor with extra service and better rooms. Corridors will open up to views in lounge areas to relieve the tunnel quality of double-loaded corridors, and to remind guests that they are in Boulder, Colorado.
Housekeeping will be centrally located in guest floors, with an office for the Head Housekeeper, supply storage, and maybe a laundry facility. Linen and trash chutes will be located here. The game room and 1ibrary/lounge will be convenient to rooms for traveling families.
The Health Facility will be limited in size so it can function without much public membership. However, there may be some good local support for a noon-time exercise facility, particularly directly across the street from the new bicycle/jogging path along Boulder Creek. The facility needs to attract this kind of use.
^Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976, p. 170.
2Ibid., p. 175.
31bid., p. 176.
41bid., p. 177.
51bid., p. 179.
Community Services Collaborative, "Cheyenne's Historic Architecture," 1 983, p. 1.
^End, Henry, Interiors 2nd Book of Hotels, New York, Whitney Library of Design, 1978, p. 11.
Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976, p. 180.
91bid., p. 186.
101bid., p. 192.
^Hammer, Siler George and Associates, "Hotel and Conference Center Potential," October, 1986, p. 95.
Beer, David W., "Fantasy and Convenience: Every Hotel Needs Both," Architectural Record, June, 1984, p. 122.
Smith, Herbert L., Jr., "Special Hotels for Special Places," Architectural Record, June, 1984.
Boulder Hotel and Motel Association.
Boulder Hotel and Motel Association.
^Hammer, Siler George and Associates, "Hotel and Conference Center Potential," October, 1986, p. 78.
171bid., p. 83.
181bid., p. 87.
Brown, Bortz & Coddington, Inc., "A Study of Small Business in the Colorado Economy," October, 1986, p. 19.
Alexander, Christopher, S. Ishikama, M. Silverstein, A Pattern Language, New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Beer, David W., "Fantasy and Convenience: Every Hotel Needs Both," Architectural Record, June 1984.
__________, Boulder City Directory, Colorado Springs, CO: R.L. Polk
Directory Company, 1913-1964.
Brolin, Brent, Architecture In Context Fitting New Buildings With Old, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.
Brown, Bortz & Coddington, Inc., "A Study of Small Business in the Colorado Economy," October 1986.
Callender, John Hancock, (ed.), Time Saver Standards For Architectural Data, (5th ed.), New York: McGraw Hill Book CoVT'TW:--------------------------------
DeChiara, Joseph, and Lee E. Koppleman, Site Planning Standards, New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 197$7
DeChiara, Joseph, and John Hancock Callender (eds.), Time Saver Standards For Building Types, New York: McGraw Hi 11 Book Â£5:7T57?7 ----------
End, Henry, Interiors 2nd Book of Hotels, New York: Whitney Library of TfesTgn7"T97F7--------------------------
Evans, Benjamin H., Daylighting in Architecture, New York: McGraw Hill Book Co,'"1981.
Gosling, David, and Barry Mailland, Concepts of Urban Design, New York: St. Martins Press, 1984.
Hammer, Siler George and Associates, "Hotel and Conference Center Potential," October 1986.
Hanson, Douglas D., "A City Center Hotel," Masters Thesis in Architecture, University of Colorado, 1981.
Kampe, Geoff, "Civic Center Hotel," Masters Thesis in Architecture, University of Colorado, 1979.
Kaufman, John E. (ed.), IES Lighting Handbook The Standard Lighting Guide (5th Ed.), New York: 111 uminating Engineering
"Land Use Regulations," City of Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, 1981.
Laventhol & Horwath, "1986 U.S. Lodging Industry 54th Annual Report on Hotel and Motor Hotel Operations," Philadelphia, PA,
Laventhol & Horwath, "1985 U.S. Lodging Industry 53rd Annual Report on Hotel and Motor Hotel Operations," Philadelphia. PA,
Laventhol & Horwath, "1984 U.S. Lodging Industry - 52nd Annual Report
on Hotel and Motor Hotel Operations," Philadelphia, PA,
McGuiness, W.J., Benjamin Stein, J.S. Reynolds, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment For Buildings, (6th Ed.TI New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.
Motels, Hotels, Restaurants, and Bars (2nd ed.), New York: McGraw
Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Smith, Herbert L., Jr., "Special Hotels For Special Places," Architectural Record, June 1984.
Uniform Building Code (1982 ed), Whittier, CA: International Conference of Building Officials, 1982.
Watkins, D., H. Montgomery-Massinberd, P. Remy, F. Grendel, Grand Hotel The Golden Age of Palace Hotels; An Architectural and Social History, New York: Vendome Press, 1984.
Whyte, William H., The Last Landscape, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1968.
Chapter 33 EXITS
NOTE: This chapter has been revised in its entirety.
3301. (a) General. Every building or portion thereof shall be provided cuts as required by this chapter.
, Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter, certain terms are defined as
ONY, EXTERIOR EXIT, is a landing or porch projecting from the of a building, and which serves as a required exit. The long side shall be at 50 percent open, and the open area above the guardrail shall be so distributed prevent the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
CONTINENTAL SEATING is the configuration of fixed seating where the of seats per row exceeds 14 and required exits from the seating area are exits.
DOT is a continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way and include intervening aisles, doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit bal-ramps, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, horizontal exits, exit passage-51. exit courts and yards.
EXIT COURT is a yard or court providing access to a public way for one or _m required exits.
EXIT PASSAGEWAY is an enclosed exit connecting a required exit or exit amrt with a public way.
HORIZONTAL EXIT is an exit from one building into another building on q^roximately the same level, or through or around a wall constructed as required fpr a two-hour occupancy separation and which completely divides a floor into l*t> or more separate areas so as to establish an area of refuge affording safety Inn fire or smoke coming from the area from which escape is made.
PANIC HARDWARE is a door-latching assembly incorporating an unlatch-hf device, the activating portion of which extends across at least one half the idth of the door leaf on which it is installed.
PRIVATE STAIRWAY is a stairway serving one tenant only.
PUBLIC WAY is any street, alley or similar parcel of land essentially unob ted from the ground to the sky which is deeded, dedicated or otherwr propriated to the public for public use and having a clear width
y having a closed circular form in its aped treads attached to and radiating ab< ciJSinn Th*fie!fiWftead is delineated 1 nter iVc of rnngBu^tRe overlap
Project Name: Downtown Hotel____________________________________________
Location: Block bounded by Canyon Blvd., Walnut St. 9th Street, and 10th
Street (now vacated); in Boulder, Colorado Central Business District
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 of Title 9, Land Use
Regulations, BRC, Boulder, Colorado
Zoning Check By: Allyn Feinberq______________________ Date: 1/15/87
Section Page Item
__________ _______ Proposed uses Hotel; Restaurant/Bar; Conference Facility;
Retail Stores; Health Club; Parking Garage._______
Zoning District Map present Zoning Classification ____________________________
9-3-1 (b) 5 Applicable Allowable Uses By right: Hotel, Restaurant/
Bar, Conference Facility, Retail Stores, Health Club.
By Special Review: Parking Garage_______________________
Zone Change Required? ilQ_ Minimum Lot Size
Minimum Yard Requirements
Revised 1/87 by
allowances for overhangs:
Design Standards (1
DDS provide bonuses to increase
Maximum FAR to 2.5. However, height limit and open space requirements make it unlikely that this project can be developed beyond 1 .7
Maximum Height _______________________________
feet- ^5 feet ky right. 55 feet by Special Review
Side Setback 12' if any sideyard is provided
O' if no sideyard is provided Rear Setback 15'
Front Setback O'
Setback From Major arterial-4 lane- 78' from C;25' from lot line/ROW, whichever is greater Setback from major collector- 65.5' from C; 25' from lot line/ROW, whichever is greater.
rqd. spaces by use: _
1 space per 600 ft
This project is in the Central Area General Improvement
Parking District no of spaces to be negotiated with City, rqd spaces for project: unknown exactly about 350____
parking permitted in setbacks?:
25' to 35' height: 10%;
Open Space Requirements
35' to 45' height: 15%; 45' up to 55' height: 20% of
9-3-10(b) 20 around area as useable open space__________________
1-3-22______21 Landscaping Sqmts. rnu.s.t_ c.Q.nf.Qrm ,to 9-.3-23___
landscaping adjacent to street must conform to approved streetscape program. Trash must be screened.________
3-3-26___ ___27__ Fences __________________________________________________
Boulder Si on Code sign Restrictions All signs must conform to Boulder
Sign Code and be approved.____________________________
Other Special Requirements
aiMLSIEJ SsM-S S5E3SS
Project w Downtown Hotel_______________________________________________________
Block bounded by 9th St., 10th St., Walnut St. and Canyon Blvd. in
Applicable Cede We..- Un1form Building Code, 1982_________________________________
Cede Check Ry fll1*n ^inberg________________________ n.t. 10/?8/86_______________
Section Ptfc Item
__________ ________ Fire zone n/,a_____________________________________________n/a
Tlb1e., ,5~A _5J___ Occupancy classification
__________ ________ Principle Hote1 ___________________________________________
__________ ________ nthrreltprrifVI Restaurant/Bar B-2___________________fl/>
Retail B-2 Meeting Rooms A-3
Table 5-C 63 Cctroctio. type Type II 1 hour
Table 5-B 62 Occupancy separations required n/a
to ' B-2 1 hmiN
to A-3 1 hours
tn A-3 N hours
in m hours
to m hours
---------- --------- Changes in occupancy N/A__________________________________n/a
5Hfi_____ _______ Maximum allowable floor area________________________________n/a
If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides Publ ic space or -/a street more than 20' : 5%/ft. over 20' not to exceed 100%
If over one story total combined area may be twice that n/a permitted in Table 5-C
If sprinkiered FI oor area. ma.y-iiÂ£-^o,u.b.le.d_________n/a
Increases for fire separations_____________________________n/a
Boulder City Ordina limits building heights to 55' with exception.
Table 5-A 59 & 6
1 hour throughout
for R-l B' -2, and
Table 5-A 59 & 61
Maximum illovible height
FppI 160 feet_______________
Towers, spires, steeples
Fire resistance of exterior wills (see occupancy & construction
bver 20 feet to centerline of street
North South East West .
over 20 feet to centerline of street abandoned street R.O.W. over 20' to nearest building over 20' to centerline of street
Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior wails
Not permitted less than 5'; protected less than 10'
Location within city/ location on property
shall adjoin or
have access to public space, yd, or street on not less than
Use of Public Property
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? ,,yÂ£S
Restrictions on marquees, conopies, etc. regulated bv City of RmilHer- pnrnuraged hy Downtown Urban. D_e-S.iqn Guidelines.
Otherpmjprfinnc shall not extend beyone 1/3 the distance
to the property line, and shal be non-combustible.
Yindows required in rooms ...yes________________________n/a
winH/warpa B-2: 1/10 of total floor area; R-l : below 4th floor
1 escape window, operable; 5ft opening
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd. assume pmpprty 1 i ne between and observe requirements in Table 5-A
15 ftZ per occupant_____________________________________
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
1207 Table 17-A
Chapter 33 Table 33-A
150 ft :1 room. Other 2-----------------------
Minimum floor are* of roo
rooms except kitchen no less than 70 ft Fire resistive requirements_Type II 1 Hr
Exterior bearing vails Interior bearing vails
Exterior non-bearing vails Structural frame________
Exit corridor vails___
Frit Hnrtr* frame* 1 _ hrs
Inner court vails 1 _ hrs
105 Mezzanine floors (area alloved) closed 1/3 of floor area, unen-1 hr . hrs
Roof coverings 1 _ hrs
Boiler room enclosure
A-3 under 300
B-2: 15 ft per occupant 2
R-l : 200 ft per occupant
T-i?7dumber of exits required A"3:_
any portion with no. o
500 to 1 ,000: 3 exits_______1_J___
1001 +: 4 exits D n 0
w .... r in feet not less than total
Minimum width of exits______________________________
occupant load/50 width divided equally among exits
546 r . . separated by 1/2 length of
_____ Exit separation arrangement____________i__:_____:_______n/a
maximum overall diagonal dimension of building
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas)______n/a
1 exit through room which provides direct exit if it
conforms to other requirements of Chapter 33
Minimum width & height
Maximum leaf width__
to allow 3' 0" x 6'
8" door 32"clear
Width required for number of occupants total less than
total occupant load/ 50 divided among exits_________
_ In direction of travel with 0L of plus 50 Swing 1,1 ________________________________________
Change in floor level at door no more than 1/2" below threshol d
landing: no less than 5" 0"
Required width no less than 44 inches. R-l no less than 36"
Required height no less than 7' 0"______________________
Dead end corridors length no longer than 201____________
551 Openings Doors ; Type 11-1 Hr = 20 min, fixed wireqlass shall not exceed 25% of area of corridor wall _______ Stairs_________________________________________________________n/a
Mia. width 44"_______________0cc. load of___50 or more_______
______________________________occ. load of___________________
______________________________occ. load of___________________
______________________________occ. load of___________________
Maximum riser allowed 7.5" n/a
Minimum tread allowed 10" n/a
Winding, circular, spiral stairs GrouP R n/a
Minimum width rqd dimension in direction of travel equal to stair width
Maximum width rqd.____________41 Q"_______________________
Vertical distance between landings nP_-T.2LP..t.han. 1 ll_
_ . in fire stairs
Handicap refuge space_____________________________________
Stair to roof rqd.? 4 stories or more 1 stairway n/a
Stair to basement restrictions Barrier to separate from other Rories
Stair enclosure rqd.? yes______________________n/a
Stair headroom ______________________n/a
Rqd. at each side? ~yes______________________________________
. . ... .. . 0 approx, equally across if more than 88" wide
Intermediate rails rqd.? __LL_____1____i_____________________
Max. width between interior rails____________________________
Max. openings in rails__________________________________
Height above nosing no less than 30" nor more that 34"
Extension of railing
extension: 6'' beyond
Projection from vail
_ .. Group R
Horizontal exit requirements
shall not serve as only
exit. When 2 or more are required, shall not be more than 1/2 the ________________________________________________________n/a
Width same as stairs
Maximum slope Reo'd by Table 33-A- 1-12; nthprs- 1-8
Run:5'-Top; Run:6'-Bottom at 1:15. Intermediate at 5' rise,
over 1"15 req's as for stair; no intermediate rail.
Exit signs rqd.
exit signs at exits for occupant load of + to
PP,^n.d 1x c 151 ~53 Toilet room requirements (code utilized?) UPC 1982
_________ ________ Fixture requirements (basis?) ^,ee attached, chart__
_________ ________ Drinking fountains____________________________________n/a
_________ ________ Shovers_______________________________________________n/a
Table 33-A 560
Site portions of building must be accessible as required in Table 33-A
3301 (e) 544 Accessible Routes 1 primary entrance must be accessible and
provide access to elevators
511(a,b) 57 & 58 Accessible bathrooms as required in Table 33-A
Accessible housing '_____________________________________n/a
Number of units__________________________________________
Special rqmts. not listed
PLUMBING FIXTURE REQUIREMENTS
WC Urinals Lavs Fountains
M F M M F
A-3 1:1-100 2:1-100 2:101-200 3:101 -200 3:201 -400 4:201-400 1 :1-1 00 3:201-400 1 r>o o o 1 :1-200 1 :75
B-2 1:1-50 1:1-50 1 :1 -1 50 1 :1 -150 1 :1 -150
First Floor and Site Plan
Second, Third and Fourth Floor
/Fourth Floor Health Club Plan
6U66T -PCCH V
Fifth Floor Plan
Canyon Boulevard Elevation
P|t,irn Pr?i .JfJLii-
BBS 55 53
Hm m imi go
Ninth Street Elevation
s y s
Jtli t !**. Vk>C\ \ l***t \\ / JYV-C'l
First Floor and Site Plan
Second, Third and Fourth Floor
First Floor 95,745 square feet
Retail 27,355 square feet
Lobbies 15,120 square feet
Cafe 8,640 square feet
Restaurant 6,966 square feet
Admini stration 3,710 square feet
Conference Center 8,560 square feet
Audi tori urn 4,000 square feet
Ball room 4,560 square feet
Second Floor 87,585 square feet
104 Guest Rooms 59,025 square feet, including corridors Conference Center 8,560 square feet
Conference Rooms Meeting Rooms
Public Roof Terraces 12,570 square feet
Atrium 3,650 square feet
Third Floor 87,585 square feet
Identical to Second Floor, without Roof Terraces
Fourth Floor 87,585 square feet
Identical to Second and Third Floors except Health Facility replaces Conference Center
Health Facility 20,500 square feet
Exercise and Equipment Room Box Courts Pool and Deck
Fifth Floor 49,345 square feet
51 Rooms Cocktail Lounge 4,200 square feet
Executive Lounge 3,594 square feet Seventh Floor
Board Room 3,200 square feet