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Shorter A.M.E. Church

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Shorter A.M.E. Church
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Freeman, Douglas Jay ( author )
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English
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1 electronic file (154 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans) ;

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African American churches -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Church architecture -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
African American churches ( fast )
Church architecture ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
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Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152-153).
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Douglas Jay Freeman.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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on10153 ( NOTIS )
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on1015341916
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LD1190.A72 1987m .F717 ( lcc )

Full Text
EEro
<10 DOUGLAS JAY (JIT FREEMAN


An architectural thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture.


STATEMENT OF APPROVAL
The thesis of Douglas Jay Freeman is approved by the Thesis Committee.
John Prosser Committee Chairman
Thomas Reck Principal Advisor
College of Architecute and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
May, 1987


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have helped me to complete my education at the University of Colorado at Denver. Much appreciation goes to the faculty and staff of the College of Architecture and Design, thank you. Many thanks to Mr. Thomas Reck for volunteering as my professional advisor on this thesis. I will be forever grateful to Mr. Bertram A. Bruton,
A.I.A., for allowing me to work in his office while obtaining this degree.
Thank you to Mrs. Eleanor Dawkins for taking this total stranger into your home until I was able to stand on my own, I love you.
To my brother, "Rick and my sisters- Linda, Judy, "Kim", and Robin, thank you, you all have been an inspiration. Thank you all so much for the advice, guidance and just being yourselves. You have all been great role models and have helped to make my life a joy.
To my parents, the two people I admire the most, Thelma and Arthur, what
can I say? Without you this would not have been possible. I will be forever
grateful for all the sacrifices you made and hardships you endured to raise us all. There is no way possible to express how I feel for all you have done for us. Thank you and all my love.
To my loving wife Saundra, thank you for your support, encouragement and understanding. You have helped to supply me with the strength to make it through. Thank you also for all your typing, I will love you always.
Thank you Mr. and Mrs. Stanford for your support and for raising such a lovely daughter.
And finally I thank God for blessing me with the knowledge and skill necessary to attain this goal. Thank you for lifting me up and helping me to go on. Thank you for blessing me with all the wonderful people in my life who have helped me to "make it" and become what I am today. And thank you for giving your son so that I may be saved.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Part I Background
Chapter 1 - The Origins of Methodism
Chapter 2 - The Birth of the A.M.E. Church
Chapter 3 - This is Shorter A.M.E. Church
Chapter 4 - The Development of Church Architecture
Part II Thesis
Chapter 5 - Thesis Statement
Part III Site Constraints
Chapter 6 - Site Description
Chapter 7 - Soils Report
Chapter 8 - Climate Data
Chapter 9 - Code Searches
Part IV Program
Chapter 10 Building Program Chapter 11 Lighting Chapter 12 Acoustics Chapter 13 General Part V Design Approach
Chapter 14 Thesis Design Part VI Systems
Chapter 15 Civil and Structural Engineering Chapter 16 H.V.A.C.
Chapter 17 Cost Estimate
Bibliography


IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH.
GENESIS 1:1


INTRODUCTION
This thesis project proposal is for the design of a new worship facility for Shorter A.M.E Church. The congregration is currently worshipping in a small building located at Colorado Boulevard and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, where the church owns approximately six acres of land. On this property the church also maintains two other buildings, a 15,600 square foot education facility and a recently constructed 14,025 square foot elderly housing facility.
Shorter A.M.E. Church, once one of the most noteable churches in Denver, Colorado, moved from their former home into this smaller facility because of a decrease in their congregation. Due to the renewed growth in membership, the church is again in need of a larger facility. This new facility will be approximately 22,000 square feet and will contain the main worship area including congregational seating, the rostrum and choir area, a chapel and various other rooms to accomodate the operations of the church and its specific ceremonial functions.
With the building of the new facility the church would like to regain its prominence in the city of Denver. If possible, the church will keep the building they are currently using and incorporate it into the design of the new facility. They would also like the design to provide for a unity with the existing facilities, which is strongly lacking; the result being one complex and not three entirely different buildings as it is now.
In this thesis I will look at the origin of Methodism, the break from Methodism to form the A.M.E. Church, the history of Shorter A.M.E. Church and


the development of church architecture. I will also explore my beliefs on how a church should be designed, and more specifically how these beliefs relate to the design of Shorter A.M.E. Church. In doing so I will abide by the constraints put forth by the site, climate, code restrictions and the building
programs of this church.


PART I BACKGROUND


AND SO WERE THE CHURCHES ESTABLISHED IN THE FAITH, AND INCREASED IN NUMBER DAILY.
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 16:5
(


CHAPTER 1
THE ORIGINS OF METHODISM
John Benjamin Wesley was the founder of the Methodist Church. His younger brother, Charles, is closely associated with him. While at Christ Church College in the 1730's, both John and Charles were disturbed by the low moral level of life in the University. With fifteen other students they organized a "Holy Club, for mutual help and inspiration in their lives as well as the life of the Univeristy. In addition to their evening meetings they visited prisons, taught children the Scriptures, carried food and medicine to the sick and needy, and obtained clothing and funds for the poor. In reference to their methodical manner of life, they were tagged Methodists, alluding to the ancient school of physicians known by that name. It has become an appropriate title for the movement which Wesley founded.
In his journal for May 24, 1738, John writes:
In the evening, I went very unwillingly to a society in Aldersgate Street, where one was reading Luthers preface to the "Epistle to the Romans. About a quarter before nine, while he was describing the change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.
This personal experience of fellowship with God not only became the center and soul of his religion but the rock on which his personal faith was founded.


The force of his religious life was his consciousness of intimate, personal union with God.
John Wesley's "conversion" or religious experience became the archetype for the Methodist movement. It characterized Methodism not as a perfunctory, ritualistic faith, but as an experiential or experimental faith through which the member was brought into a redeeming conscious fellowship with God. The most regent task for the Methodist was to awaken this godly experience in others and to proclaim the message of salvation to the suffering and "dying" humanity caught in sin.
John and his father Charles, who had a similar conversion experience, preached this new pattern of faith and it message of salvation with such vigor that it was felt they aroused excessive emotional response and they were soon excluded from the churches. They then took to the open fields and streets, anywhere a crowd could come together. Many flocked to hear them and many were converted. With the growing following, John Wesley organized them into societies and had to appoint "lay preachers" to keep the members instructed and inspired.
Those to whom the Methodists preached were largely the poor and neglected masses. Though they became members of the Methodist societies, they still remained members of the Anglican Church, and looked to it for the Sacraments.
This soon became a problem when many Anglican priests refused to give communion to Methodists. Since Wesley's lay preachers were not ordained, they could not


administer the Sacraments, and Wesley appealed to Anglican bishops repeatedly for ordination of his preachers but was refused. Having no other recourse, and working out biblical ground for his actions, Wesley began to ordain his preachers in 1784.
The Methodist movement grew rapidly in spite of opposition from the Anglican church and the public. Gradually "meeting houses" were built and the preachers became an established clergy with rules and regulations for its orders.
Methodism became an established organization, and forms of worship were developed.
John Wesley had no desire to organize a new or separate church. He believed in the free and universal grace of God. Methodism under Wesley was a drive for holiness within the long established Church of England. Wesley himself lived and died a priest of the Anglican Church.
Thus you have, in barest outline the origin of the Wesleyan brand of Methodism which developed in England and was brought to America in the 1760's. A church of God and Christ in which "the pure word of God is preached and the Sacraments duly administered.


CHAPTER 2
THE BIRTH OF THE AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
It is not possible to understand any aspect of the Black experience without returning to slavery. Many Blacks insist on reviewing this tragic history because of this fact. However painful it may be for Blacks and Whites to look at that inhumane system, we Americans must review that history.
Most of the slaves who were brought to America came from the west coastal regions of Africa. Some of the Africans who were sold into slavery were captives in intertribal wars. Many others were the hapless victims of ruthless slave traders. Their typical method was to attack unsuspecting villages, kill off all who resisted, and then march the remainder of the population, men, women, and children, in chains to the sea. Here they were kept in pens or compounds without any regard to sex, family or tribal affiliation, until sold to slave traders with their waiting ships.
This period of dehumanization was followed by the "middle passage, the voyage across the Atlantic to the slave markets. Packed "spoon-fashion" again with no regard to sex, family or tribal affiliation, and forced to lie that way for weeks in the stinking hold of filthy ships. It is no wonder that many died from disease, heartbreak and the brutality of their captors.


This heartless brutality led John Wesley to write that slave traders were lower than brutes. He describes slavers as "the exercrable sum of all villainies. He writes:
It is impossible that it should ever be necessary for any reasonable creature to violate all the laws of justice, mercy and truth. No circumstances can make it necessary for a man to burst in suncer all ties to humanity. It can never be necessary for a rational being to sink below a brute ....
The Africans, now slaves, arrived in America devoid of everything but life, and this would hardly seem worth holding. People caught in such hopeless misery would always have before them the option of death, either in futile rebellion or in suicidal despair. The fact that the majority were able to live on in hope of a better day is evidence of their spiritual strength as well as their physical strength.
In this new environment, the slaves were kept almost like cattle, given minimum requirements for life and health such as food and clothing. They were deprived of all opportunities for development such as education. Marriages could only be made with the consent of masters and families could be broken up at any time for the sale of parents or children.
It is evident that the way in which the slaves were captured and enslaved tended to loosen all social and cultural bonds among them. Upon arrival to America the slaves were widely scattered which made it difficult for the African culture to survive. Cut off from his fellow Africans who spoke the same


language, the slave was forced to acquire the language and culture of his new environment. If by chance slaves who spoke the same language were together, it was the masters' policy to separate them and forbid them to speak their native tongue. It was a general rule that no group of five or more could assemble without the presence of a white man. This applied especially to religious gatherings.
It was into this system that the captive Africans were brought and others later born, and in this system that they fashioned a life. In this system slaves
tried to find a meaning and purpose for existence. It was in this system that
slaves tried to find God.
The slaves brought to America from West Africa had well developed religions.
Religion played a large and important part in their lives. Many African scholars
have clearly shown, as Professor Gayraund Wilmore says that "The African religions are not mere crude and unenlightened superstitions", but are mature enlightened beliefs and practices common to many religions and similar in many ways to contemporarty Christian faith.
. According to Harry Richardson, a leading specialist in Black religion, Africans believed in good spirits and evil spirits, and among them were the spirits of their ancestors. These spirits were associated with or controlled natural forces that affected human life, such as light, heat, air, water, fertility and health. The spirts dwelt in or were assocaited with certain


locations such as mountains, lakes and rivers. This African belief is much like that of the ancient Hebrews, who believed that Jehovah dwelt in Mt. Sinai; or like the modern Catholic belief in saints whose spirits may be met at certain shrines for healing and other blessings.
Over all the lesser spirits was one Supreme Spirit who was Creator and Father of all. In many ways this Supreme Spirit corresponded to the Christian concept of God. He was known by different names in different tribes, the name often indicating eternal or metaphysical attributes of God.
Tribes also had many beliefs about God's dealings with men, some of which
are surprisingly like beliefs in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. One such
example taken from John S. M'Bitis' concepts of God in Africa follows.
The Bambuti tell in another myth, that after creating the first man (Baatsi), God gave him and his children one rule. He said to them, 'From all the trees of the forest you may eat, except the Tahu tree'. The man had many children, he taught them God's command, and eventually he 'returned to God in the Heavens'. One day a pregnant womam developed an irresistible desire to eat the fruit of the Tahu tree and she asked her husband to fetch it for her. At first he refused, but she persisted until her husband secretly plucked the fruit of the Tahu, peeled it quickly, and hid the peel carefully in the foliage so that his act should not be discovered. But all the precaution was in vain. The moon had already seen him and had told what she had seen to God. 'The people which thou hast created has disobeyed thy command, and have eaten of the fruit of the Tahu tree.' God was so angry at the disobedience of his people that he sent death among them as punishment.
It was formerly thought that Africans practiced nature worship, worshipping


for example the sun. Thanks to African scholarship, we know that it was not so much nature worship as nature appreciation, looking upon the sun as an evidence to the power, majesty and omnipresence of the Supreme Creator Spirit. Christian parallels for this kind of thinking may be seen in Joseph Addision's majestic hymn of cosmic praise, "The Spacious Firmament on High"; or in the Swedish hymn "How Great Thou Art".
The African religions had elaborate moral and ethical systems. The Africans
saw life as a whole, it was unity. In addition to their purely religious
beliefs, Africans, like ancient Greeks and Romans, also had folk myths and
legends. Such are some of the salient features of the religion of the people who
came to America as slaves. It was an enlightened, sophisticated body of beliefs and practices.
Henry H. Mitchell, in his book "Black Belief", has provided significant
evidence which links the Black church tradition with West Africa. He is
concerned with the Black Christians' appropriations of this African-American
religious tradition. Mitchell writes:
The folk religion of the masses of Black Americans is clearly an adaptation of the African-traditional-religion base brought over by the various West Africans who were pressed into slavery.
Mitchell points out that slavery struck a terrible blow to the African world view and value systems. African influence has survived in spite of slavery and other forms of oppression Blacks have and are undergoing in America.


John Blassingame believes that the most important inheritance of Black Americans from Africa is in the nature of philosophy, world views and values; in a word, religion. He comments:
Cultural elements enabled the slave to continue to engage in many traditional activities or to create a synthesis of European and African cultures. In the process of acculturation the slaves made European forms serve African functions. An example of this is religion Christian forms were so similar to African religious patterns that it was relatively easy for the early slaves to incorporate them with their traditional practices and beliefs. In America, Jehovah replaced Creator, and Jesus replaced the Holy Ghost, and the saints replaced all the lesser gods After a few generations, the slaves forgot the African dieties represented by the Judeo-Christian gods, but in many other facets of their religious services they retained many African elements.
Slaves took the initiative to translate their African beliefs into English and Christian terms. They sorted through the Bible and selected the ideas useful to them in view of their slave experience. When the masters were finally willing to allow the slaves Christian worship, convinced that Christian faith could be used to enforce obedience and increase their market value, and when laws made it clear that slaves did not become free through the acceptance of Christian faith, the slaves had already established their
underground version of the faith. They had built their own "invisible institution".
Black Christianity is more than Euro-American Christianity plus a response
to racist oppression. Mitchell writes:
The belief system which had spread naturally across West Africa was characterized by a positive view of human experience, the


spirit world, and the wise and powerful and good God who created the whole business.
Mitchell also points to the manner in which Blacks were able to endure
hardships which broke the White endentured servants and Indian slaves. No other
explanation is adequate except that they brought with them a religious background
from Africa which helped them to pass through this adversity.
Blacks were able to take it, not because they were dumb and unaware, .
. but because they had a traditional pattern of trusting God and life and adapting their demands to the limits of reality. Needs which were still unmet, together with final interpretations of human experience, were trusted to the future action of a good God, creator of a benevolent universe.
I agree with Gayraud Wilmore when he says:
Blacks have used Christianity, not as it was delivered to them by segregated White churches, but as its truth was authenticated to them in the experience of suffering, to reinforce an ingrained religious temperament and to produce an indigious religion oriented to freedom and human welfare.
The slaves believed in a God who was good and just, who would reward righteousness and punish evil. They believed God would, in time, destroy slavery This faith served to give the slaves hope in their tormented lives and served to meet the psychological and spiritual daily need in their lives. The slave found this sustaining power in his own adaptation of the Christian gospel.
The Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians, aspiring to preach the Gospel to every creature, actively sought the slaves soul, but they were concerned for his body as well. They openly condemned slavery and called for its immediate


elimination. Large numbers of slaves were immediately attracted to this type of religious worship and many converted to join the Methodist and Baptist churches.
Why did slaves respond so enthusiastically to the Methodist and Baptist religions? Obviously because they were opposed to slavery. As Charles Nichols writes:
The Methodist and Baptist sects appealed to the slaves because they "preached deliverance to the captives". And in their own secret religious meetings they took comfort from the often repeated biblical stories which answered to their condition: Daniel in the lion's den, the children of Israel enslaved by Pharaoh, Christ crucified by the influential people about him. Slaves found in the fiery message of salvation a hope and prospect of escape from their earthly woes.
Another factor which drew slaves to the Methodist and Baptist religions was that some social solidarity, even if temporary, was achieved and they were drawn into a union with their fellow man. Later, common religious beliefs, practices and traditions tended to provide a new basis of social cohesion in an alien evironment.
Slaves responded to the Methodist appeal and shared in its promotion as much as they were able. The reasons for this response are as follows: the early preachers actively sought the Blacks; the Methodist message was understandable and consisted of three main elements, a conviction of sin, faith in Christ, and forgiveness by God which constituted salvation; the Gospel message itself the message of a just, living God who hated evil, and who would punish evildoers both here and hereafter; the attitude of the preachers, they were both opposed to


slavery and sympathetic to the suffering slaves. Slaves could also attend services without much of the discrimination usually imposed on Blacks.
Upon coversion the slaves were taken into the White churches. Segregation soon developed in the churches. Blacks were forced to sit in the balconies or in the back. This practice intensified after 1784 when Methodism became a church with an ordained ministry, a more diverse White membership, and a growing Black membership. Separate services were held for the slaves either before or after regular services.
In 1787 Richard Allen a "free" Negro, along with a few others, broke from the Methodist Episcopal Church and set out to organize what is now the African Methodist Episcopal Church. This took place in Philadelphia after Allen, along with two other Blacks were physically removed from the White section of St.
George Methodist Episcopal Church. Allen became an ordained preacher and held meetings in a storeroom. He later set out to build a separate house of worship. Needless to say Allen was met with much opposition. He, however, was successful but only after a court battle. The movement begun by Allen spread to other cijties where African Methodist Episcopal Churches were set up.
These churches met in Philadelphia in 1816 to formally establish the African
Methodist Episcopal Church. A resolution was adopted setting themselves apart as
a separate Methodist denomination.
Resolved, that the people of Philadelphia, Baltimore and other places who may unite with them shall become one body under the


name of the African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Next, Reverend Richard Allen was chosen and ordained the Bishop of the A.M.E. Church. They also adopted the Book of Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church as their book of discipline. This was the birth of th A.M.E. Church. This new church at once began to grow.
It is true that the A.M.E. Church patterned its creeds and orders of worship after the Methodist Episcopal Church. It is also true that the A.M.E. Church developed out of that "invisible institution" and soon produced a "Negro style" of devotion, something more than a facsimile of the White churches. It has been argued by James Cone that the creed for the A.M.E. Church differs from that of the White Methodist. The motto of the Black denomination is: "God our Father, Christ our Redeemer, Man our Brother". Cone contends that the origin of this Black church and the grounds for its continued separation indicate a different theology. This theology being that God is the Father of all, Christ is the Redeemer of all, and all people are brother and sister in faith. This not being the belief of the White church in that they did not believe that Blacks were Gods children, their brothers, or worthy of redemption, demonstrated their continued practices of discrimination.
Black religion began in Africa; it was adapted to Christianity in this country. It has always been concerned with the mystery of God and the freedom of man. Black religion is intrinsic to the Black struggle for liberation and inseparable for Black culture as a whole.


CHAPTER 3
THIS IS SHORTER A.M.E. CHURCH
t
Shorter Chapel was organized as the first Negro Church to be established in Colorado in July, 1868 by Bishop Thomas M.D. Ward. The first building was a log cabin erected on lots located at the corner of 19th and Holiday Streets. This property had been donated to the Church by a Major Fillmore who was a Union Officer in the Civil War. The church was dedicated with eighteen members by Rev. John M. Wilk-erson from Lawrence, Kansas, and was known at St. John A.M.E. Church. The first trustees of the church were Gilbert Phelps, Samuel Cook, Irving Williams, Gibble Burrel, Alvin Cummings, and Lewis Price. The Rev. John R. V. Morgan was installed as the first pastor of the new church in 1869. Rev. Morgan died shortly after coming to Denver, and was succeeded by:
Rev. Burl Mitchell Rev. James Madison Rev. James H. Hubbard Rev. James H. Braxton Rev. Benjamin F. Watson
Rev. B.F. Bates Rev. Joseph P. Howard
1870
1871-1872
1873
1874
1875 - Who became secretary of the Church Extension
1876
1877 - Who became a National Evangelist
In 1878 the first structure was sold and a large brick structure was built on the corner of 19th and Stout Streets at a cost of $2,000.00. The pastor at that time was Rev. Robert Seymour, who served the church from 1878 to 1880. Rev. Seymour remodeled the structure, and at the Annual Conference of that year a vote was taken to change the name to Shorter Chapel to honor the presiding Bishop, James A. Shorter. The Stout Street property is now the site of the U.S. Post Office.
In 1886, the property at 19th and Stout Sts. was sold for $15,000.00 cash, and a site at 24th and California Streets was purchased for $10,000.00. There was oppositon to a Negro church being built on this site, and that land was sold at a profit of $2,000.00. Brother Lewis Price,^ a trustee and a realtor, secured another site at 17th and Glenarm Street for $10,000.00 across the street from the wealthy Denver Club. Ground was broken and excavation was completed before, once again, the church body was confronted with powerful opposition, and the property was sold, at a profit of $4,000.00. The Midland Savings and Loan Company was built on that site. Brother Price was again instrumental in obtaining land at E. 19th Avenue and Lincoln Street, and, again, there was opposition, by the local wealthy white home owners in the area. That property was sold and, in the fall of 1887 three lots on the corner of 23rd and Washington Streets were purchased for $9,000.00. There were two houses on this property, and one was reserved for the church parsonage. The third Shorter was built on that site by the Rev. John Turner, who had come to Shorter in 1886. The structure was a commanding brick building along Gothic lines and cost $24,000.00. When it was completed, there was a small balance of $7,000.00 to be paid.
On September 24, 1887, the Colorado Conference was organized at Shorter Chapel, and the first Session was called to order by the Rev. John Turner who was the host pastor. The Rt. Rev. John M. Brown,


D.D.D.C.S., of Washington, D.C., was the presiding Bishop.
On March 15, 1888, the church was incorporated to conform with the laws of the state of Colorado, and the city of Denver, and Arapahoe County. By the time of the next conference in 1888 the Colorado Conference was changed to the Rocky Mountain Conference, and the Church continued to grow under the leadership of Rev. John Turner.
On August 5, 1889, the Denver Republic, a newspaper of that time reported on the formal dedication of the new church, the dedication ceremony took place on August 4, 1889 and was conducted by Bishop J.M. Ward of Washington D.C..*The dedicatory Sermon was preached by Rev. P.A. Hubbard of Omaha, Neb., one of the learned and prominent colored preachers of the country. The sermon was a scholarly deliverance from the 84th Psalms 'How Amiable are Thy Tabernacles, Oh Lord of Hosts' and alluded to the dignity, worth and influence of the institution of Worship". Rev. Hubbard became the 15th paster of Shorter at the 1889 Colorado Conference, and served until 1892.
In August, 1890, at the Rocky Mountain Conference of the A.M.E. Church, held in Leadville, Colorado, a resolution was entered into the records of that conference which reads as follows:
"Whereas it appears that in the building of the new church at Denver, the cornerstone laid by Bishop Ward on the corner of 19th and Stout Streets has been lost sight of and, whereas certain misleading representations were fixed in front of the new church in (the) shape of stones with names and dates calculated to convey the impression that Rev. John Turner organized the society in 1863.
Taerefore, be it resolved that the pastor, trustees and members are hereby requested to place the old cornerstone somewhere in the church so it can be seen, and be it further resolved the name on the stone in front of the church be so changed so it will make the organizing be by Rev. John M. Wilkerson"
(s) S. Rice
Another resolution entered into the munites of that Conference reads:
"Whereas the name of our church at Denver, Colorado through the order and by the council of the Rev. John Turner, has been changed from Shorter Chapel to the St. John A.M.E. Church, and whereas we hold the name of Bishop James A. Shorter dear to us as a church and conference and connection and that we condemn the action taken by Rev. John turner in having the change made, resolve further that this conference request the trustees and members at Denver to give Bishop Shorter's name the honor confered upon it by replacing his name upon the church. Resolve further that a copy of these resolutions be published in the Christian Recorder and the Southern Recorder, that the connection may fnow that we hold sacred the memory of our deceased Bishop."
(s) P.A. Hubbard J.H. Hubbard
S. Rice
By 1890, the membership had grown to 234 members. Rev. Hubbard was later to become the Financial Secretary of the A.M.E. Church.


Other ministers who pastored Shorter between the years of 1881 and 1890 were:
Rev. James W. Braxton Rev. James H. Hubbard Rev. I.N. Triplett Rev. John Turner
1881-1882
1883
1884-1885
1886-1888
In 1893, the Rev. J.W. Sexton was appointed as paster of Shorter Chapel and Shorter was the Banner church of the A.M-. E. Connection by-reporting Dollar Monies of $457.00 and a membership of 223. Rev. Sexton remained at Shorter until September, 1895, at which time the Rev. S.W. Byrd became paster of Shorter and the membership stood at 241 persons. Rev. Byrd served until 1896.
Other pasters were:
Rev. O.J.W. Scott Rev. F. Jesse Peck Rev. W.W.S. Dyett The Rev. A. Milton Ward The Rev. Robert L. Popr The Rev. C.A. Williamson The Rev. A. Milton Ward The Rev. William H. Thomas
1896-1900
1900-1903
1903-1907
1907-1912
1912-1916
1916-1918
1918- 1919
1919- 1924
In 1887, the third Shorter was erected at 23rd Street and Cleveland Place under the pastorage of Rev. John Turner, who had come to Shorter in 1886. This building stood until April 9, 1925, when it was complet-ly destroyed by fire set by the Klu KLux Klan.
On November 1, 1925, ground was broken on the same site for a new Shorter. The cornerstone was laid on December 6, 1925 and on Easter Sunday, April 4, 1926, the first service was held in the new Shorter. The Rev. A. Wayman Ward came to Shorter in 1924 and under his pastorage a week long program of dedication was held from May 23rd to May 30, 1926. During this period of celebration, 10 of the churches in the Black community, as well asmany Bishops, city and state officials and many prominent citizens in the community paid tribute to the leadership and members of Shorter for their perserverance during a very difficult time.
The Rev. J.M. Brown succeeded Rev. Ward in 1928 and led the church through the depression years, until 1933.
The Rev. Russell S. Brown, the brother of J.M. Brown, became the pastor of Shorter in 1933 and quickly became active in the community. He was a well known figure throughout the east Denver and an asset to Shorter. In 1935, the church celebrated its 10 year anniversary in the new building and began its effort to raise $ 25,000 to pay off its existing debt. By 1935 the membership had grown to 1,331 persons.
In 1938, Shorter Church celebrated its 70th Anniversary and Rev. Brown initiated a huge celebration in recognition of the liquidation of the debts owed by the church in the amount of $46,000. That event was attended by city, county and the state officials as well as the then presiding Bishop, Rev. Noah W. Williams.
Rev. Brown was succeeded in 1941 by Rev. L.P. Bryant who remained until 1943.
Other ministers who had served at Shorter were:


Rev. Daniel Hill Rev. Marcelus R. Dixon Rev. J. Russell Brown
1944-1945
1946-1947
1948-1952
In 1948, Rev. J. Russell Brown was instrumental in redesigning the chancel of the church and repair of the organ and the addition of several new instruments. In preparation for the dedication of the new chancel, Shorter presented the Southernaires in concert on April 22, 1948. Dedication services were held on August 2,1948.
Rev. E.B. Childress became the pastor of Shorter in 1952 and during his pastorage Shorter was host church during the "Feeding of the Five Thousand", a project planned by Bishop H. Thomas Primm. This event took place at the Red Rocks Amphitheater and was widely attended by churche from throughout the Fifth District. Rev. Childress also established the tradition of Honoring the Father and Mother of the year. At this time, Rev. Childress serves as our Presiding Elder.
Rev. Cecil W Howard was assigned to Shorter in 1962, succeeding Rev. Childress. The Shorter Credit Union was established during his pastorate and the church became landlords with the erection of forty-two housing units under the Federal Housing A uthority. These units made dispersed housing available to many who were in need of affordable housing, under the Rent Supplement Program. During the week of August 11-18, 1968, Shorter celebrated its ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PROGRESS.
Ministers succeeding Rev. Howard were:
Rev. J. Haskell Mayo 1971-1972
Rev. S.J. Holly 1972-1976
Rev. Albert L. Carter 1976-1978
During Rev. Carter's brief time at Shorter, many programs were initiated such as the 6 P.M. Vesper Hour; The Togetherness for Perfection Choir; Free dinner on the 2nd Sunday in September; Free breakfasts on Easter Sunday, Christmas Day and every 5th Sunday; A Musical presentation in place of a sermon on Easter Sunday; the clothing bank; Bereavement Committee to take care of ordering the flowers and furnishing the food at the time of funerals. He also began a taped ministry for the sick and shut-in.
Rev. Carter was at the forefront of the selling of the old build-< ^ The Denver Urban Renewal Authority of the City and County of Denver had offered to buy the present structure in December '75 or January '76. At a church meeting in February 1976, with Rev. S.J. Holly, the members present voted against the sale of the church.
It was also voted to establish a renovation fund, with the goal of $350,000. This was the estimate given by an engineering firm to bring the church up to standard. Many members who had not attended the church conference in February, and who had not had a voice in the decision against selling the church, did not contribute to this fund, and it did not appear that there was ever going to be the needed amount for the purpose of renovation.
The Colorado Conference hosted by Campbell A.M.E. Church met in September 1976, and at that time the Rev. Albert L. Carter was assigned as pastor of Shorter. He came to us with high credentials as a church builder. On the Sunday that closed the conference September 19, 1976, the Bishop, H.. Hartford Brookins asked that the


members of Shorter attend a special church conference at 8:00 P.M..
At that meeting, Bishop Brookins spoke at length about the problem of renovation versus the sale of Shorter. Many persons spoke against the sale, mostly with regard to sacrifices made by family members to build the church and the sentiment connected with the present structure. Many structural problems were pointed out at this meeting, and when the question was put to another vote, those present voted 66 to 39 against the sale of the church.
A committee was formed by Rev. Carter, which was to be known as The Relocation and Building Committee. This committee was composed of Omar Blair, Geraldine Brady, Ruby Kirk, James Gaskin, Lois White, Alfred Wood, Darryl Walker, Addye Lightner, Robert Hunn, Delores Black, Michael Johnson and Richard Jones. In the interim, the Urban Renewal twice declined to reconsider their previous offer of acquisition for $300,000. In February of 1977, DURA advised that they had turned funds over to the City Council which could be used for this purpose if the Council wi shed. This bromht about a favorable consideration of the purchase of the church. The Relocation and Building Committee was given the task of finding and submitting information on probable sites. A specially named Search Committee was to share this task.
When no information had been submitted after several months, the membership was asked to submit any information on desirable locations. Many people presented this information at a church conference on July 26, 1977. These locations included: East 38th & Olive, 35th & Dahlia, 38th & Monaco Parkway, Alameda and Grape, 38th & Colorado and 32nd & Jackson St.. Mr. Omar Blair presented information, including maps showing where the majority of the members lived in relationship to 32nd & Jackson. The majority live within a radious of two miles. He also presented figures for blacktopping the parking area and stated that the site, which is four and one half acres, could be purchased for $100,000.
Prior to this meeting, information was received that $5,000 had been deposited with the realtor handling the land at Alameda and Grape. This action caused some dissension within the Relocation and Building Committee, who questioned the wisdom of this transaction without the sanction of the majority of the membership. A letter signed by five members of the committee plus four others was sent to Bishop Brookins expressing their concern. At a meeting held on July 26,1977, Pastor Carter returned the cneck for $5,000 to keep the church unified. Although the present structure was officially sold to the City of Denver on February 28, 1977, we were faced with the hard fact of having no place to move.
Many legal problems arose in our efforts to acquire the land at 32nd and Jackson and progress seemed unrelievingly slow. The State Land Board advised that the land trade would have to be put on the Governor's Legislative Call; "it would have to survive the legislative process and then the church could seek the sale of the land"; the sale would have to be at auction. These and many other seemingly insurmountable circumstances made the acquisition of the land a remote possibility, at best.
On December 6, 1977, a formal offer was submitted for the purchase of the property at E. 32nd Avenue and Jackson Street to the Superintendent of Schools, Dr. Joseph Brzeinski. The reply received from him on December 13, 1977 left us with the feeling that it would not be


easily obtained. That letter reads as follow:
Dear Reverend Carter:
"This letter is to acknowledge your formal offer to purchase a parcel of School District land located in the vicinity of 32nd Avenue and Jackson Street in Denver. The property in which you are interested is currently included, with a number of other parcels, in a land exchange presently being negotiaged. The School District currently leases property to our East High School from the Colorado Board of Land Commissioners. The School District would like to gain title to this land.
The State Land Commissioners and members of the Board of Education Building Subcommittee have tentative agreement, mutually beneficial to all parties, and anticipate finalizing this matter after the first of next year.
With this transaction in progress, the Board of Education is not in a position to respond favorably to your offer. We shall retain your letter and apprise you should any discontinuity occur in our transactions with the State Land Board.
We empathize with the Shorter A.M.E. Church congregation, and extend sincere best wishes to you and your members in relocating your church."
Sincerely yours,
S/Joseph E. Brzeinski
On January 30, 1978, we were informed that the land site was on the agenda to be traded to the State by this School District. This information came from the Chairman of the Legislative Committee, Senator Regis Groff.
During the period between January and June 1978, the Church was progressing. There was a spirit of close fellowship and concern was demonstrated throughout. On March 6, 1978, Pastor Carter reported that the City of Denver was working on the final phase of the contract of purchase of Shorter Church. The trade between the State and the School Board was being finalized.
On June 11, 1978, Pastor Albert L.Carter died of a heart attack in San Bernardino, California. He had labored long and arduous hours; and felt the anxiety and led Shorter through some of its most trying times. He was with us to see some of the fruits of his labors, and we are truly grateful that he passedour way.
.On July 2, 1978, the Reverend Jesse Langston Boyd, Jr. assumed the duties of the pastor of Shorter A.M.E. Church. He brought with him administrative knowledge, having served as the administrative assistant to Bishop Brookins, and much needed energy to carry on the mammoth project begun by his predecessor; that of "relocating and building a greater Shorter."
Toward that goal, Reverend Boyd made many suggestions and presented ideas for consideration. It was generally agreed that a building be erected that would not only serve the Shorter congregation, but the community at large: a multi-purpose building, that would include a day care center, pre-school, classrooms and gymnasium.
In September 1978, Rev. Boyd and about 100 members and friends of Shorter were present at a meeting of the Denver School Board when a vote was taken to sell the land at 32nd Ave. and Jackson to Shorter Church. The vote was unanimous in favor of the sale,


The
and those present were elated. We had crossed one more river, mountains were yet to be climbed.
On September 10, 1978 Shorter celebrated its 110th birthday and members were asked to pledge an amount on a daily basis, such as $1,000 for 110 days from September 10th through December 28th, as a commitment to our heritage, and a show of faith to our future, the building of a new church. This was a successful venture and our Building and Relocation funds continued to increase. Rev. Boyd continued to institute the program begun by Pastor Carter, and the distribution of the miniature shovels to all persons who first paid $100 to the Building and Relocation Fund was accomplished on September 10, 1978.
Rev. Boyd and his chairpersons were at work on Shorter's Annual Revival which was held Monday, February 5, 1979 thru Friday, February 9, 1979. The Rev. T.L. Kirkland, pastor of the Brookins Community
A.M.E. Church in Los Angeles, California was the evangelist, and the week was most inspiring. The theme for the week was "Lord, Prepare Us--We Are Working on a Building." All monies from collections during' the Revival became a part of the Building and Relocation Fund.
The architects presented diagrammatic sketches which consisted of three phases known as Plans A, B, and C, and the members decided that Plan B would be the 1st phase of construction.
At the time, plans were being formulated for Pioneer Day on April 1, 1979. Attempts were made to get Rev. Russell S. Brown to be the speaker for the day, but because his health would not permit travel, the Rev. J. Russell Brown consented to substitute. Both of these men had made a considerable contribution to Shorter, and the day was an inspiring one.
The planning had been set into motion for the crowning event of the year, that was THE GROUNDBREAKING! Rev. Boyd and a committee of diligent workers took on the monumental task of putting together a week-long revival of celebration. Mr. Wallace Sam was chairman of the Steering Committee for this event and the theme was "Pioneers in Progress." The ground was prepared, a tent was erected and after weeks of planning, on June 24, 1979 a cavalcade of cars bearing Reverend Boyd, Bishop Brookins, visiting ministers and associate ministers, other dignitaries and members travelled from the church to the site of our future church. These persons were joined by the choir and other members and friends for the march from E. 32nd Avenue and Colorado Blvd. to the tent site at East 32nd and Jackson Street.
Many visiting ministers and city officials were on hand to offer prayers, greetings, and congratulations to Rev. Boyd and Shorter Church. The Groundbreaking address was delivered by the Rt. Rev. H. Hartford Brookins. The entire week of June 24 through 29 was one of Revival, which featured visiting ministers and choirs. Attendance was good and each service was rewarding.
Rev. Boyd's watch word had been "The church is moving on with me or without me." This has continued to be his challenge to us.
The year 1980 brought to Shorter a flurry of activities beginning with Revival Week from February 11th thru February 15th, which brought us the Rev. Tom Brown from Jackson, Missippi. Rev. Brown generated much excitement and was enjoyed by all who heard him.
Shorter joined with Macedonia Baptist Church for the "Dedication March" on February 10, 1980, which celebrated the renaming of East 32nd Avenue to Martin Luther King Boulevard.
During the 94th Session of the Colorado Annual Conference, the entire Conference took time out on Saturday, September 13th to join


with Shorterites in celebration of its 112th Anniversary. Friends and members of Shorter had attended a meeting of the Denver City Council on September 9th in support of the proposed name change of Jackson Street from East 29th Avenue to Martin Luther King Boulevard to that of Richard Allen Court, in honor of the founder of the A.M.E. Church.
The vote was unanimous in favor of the change and on the fifth day of the conference, delegates and Shorterites were led to our new location by Bishop H. Hartford Brookins, as the Grand Marshall of the 1st Annual Richard Allen Parade. Richard Allen Court, Street sign in place,became a reality. The New Shorter is now located at "Freedom Crossroads" and the impact is overwhelming.
Our own Rev. J. Langston Boyd, Jr. was elected the 1st President of the newly formed Methodist Ministers Fellowship which was formed October 29, 1980.
On December 21, 1980, the Combined Choirs of Shorter, under the direction of Brother Carl Jackson, our Minister of Music and Mr. Raoul Tayon, conducting member of the Denver Symphony Orchestra and the Choir, presented "The Messiah" by George Fredrick Handel. This program was presented in celebration of our 112th Anniversary as an organized society and was dedicated to the memory of Brother George Morrison, Sr., one of our distinguished pioneers.
In 1981, the construction of the Shorter Educational Center began to take shape and the concept of a new Shorter was becoming a reality for many who felt it might not happen. Through the efforts of many, we constructed a beautiful building at the cost of more than $500,000 and had a mortgage remaining in the amount of only $319,000.
Cornerstone and Bricklaying ceremonies marked the further resolution of our ..iembers to build the new Shorter, and to liquicate the existing mortgage.
The Couples Club of Shorter hosted their Fifth Annual "Honoring Our Roots" day on September 20, 1982.
The Shorter Girl Scout program began September, 1981 under the Christian love and leadership of Sister Carolyn Holloway and Sister Rosalyn Peterson. Their first year the membership reached 37, consisting of 20 Brownies and 17 Junior Girl Scouts. Now, Shorters Girl Scouts program has three troops consisting of approximately 71 girls, 3 Scout leaders, 7 Scout co-leaders, and other helpers.
The liquidation drive started officially on October 4, 1981, although, we had only been in the building since July, 1981. To that end, a mammoth program was begun with the appearance of Bishop J. Haskell Mayo on October 4, 1981 as the featured speaker at the 10:45 service.
The Stewardship Revival and Workshop was held from October 27th thru October 29th and the featured speaker was Rev. Grady Ray Brown, pastor of Ebenezer A.M.E. in Kansas City.
On October 31, 1981, the Albert L. Carter Memorial Garden, which was conceived and designed by Shorterite, Brother John Gaskin, which was formally dedicated by Bishop H.H. Brookins. Bishop Brookins' presence at Shorter was in conjunction with the liquidation of the $319,000 mortgage on the Educational Center, and he was the featured speaker at the pledge dinner. Indivduals were asked to pledge their commitment to the liquidation of the current mortgage through their prayers, time and money. The liquidation committee planned and executed a delicious barbeque dinner; the tables were beautifully set and the Educational Center was filled to capacity to hear our Bishop pledge his support to our effort by promising to share monies to be received from the sale of property in Boulder.


In 1982, our 114th year as an organization, saw the coming together of all adult choirs and the formation of the Shorter Mass Choir, under the very able direction of Brother Carl W. Jackson, our Minister of Music. Rehearsals for our most inspired presentation started in January, 1982 and culminated in a concert on May 30,1982 at the Houston Fine Arts Center, with special guests, the Austin All-Male Mass Choir from Austin, Texas, under the direction of Mr. Jimmy Hunter. The excitement of that day will be long remembered.
In July, 1982, thirty-four (34) choir members travelled to Los Angeles, California to take part in the Fifth District Music Institute and to support our Minister of Music, Carl Jackson, who was a key presenter of contemporary gospel music. Our minister, Rev. J. Langston Boyd was the guest speaker at Ward Chapel A.M.E. Church at the 8:00
A.M. service and at First A.M.E. Church at the 10:45 A.M. service.
Our choir was well received at both services.
July, 1982 saw a successful effort on the part of our minister to thwart the intent of Wendy's Inc. to purchase land for the erection of yet another fast food franchise on Colorado Boulevard.
November, 1982, the Richard Allen Pre-School was established.
The pre-school's purpose is to provide Christian education to preschool children in the Shorter congregation and to the Denver community at large. The school's first director is Mrs. Rebecca Miller.
1982 also saw the establishment of the school tutoring program, designed to provide an upgrading of learning skills for school aged children. This program was started under the tutelage of Sister Linda Bryson.
Our Radio Ministry aired its first program over Radio Station KJJZ, 1390 A.M. April, 1982. This program was part of our Outreach program and has continued under the supervision of Brother Nicholas Walker.
In September of 1982, the Rev. Frank M. Reed, III, of Ward Chapel A.M.E Church, Los Angeles, California came to Denver for an Evangelistic Revival and presented a most inspiring week of messages.
Nine persons united with the church and many others recedicated their lives to Christ. Shorter's Theme became "First The Kingdom In Stewardship" -Matt.6:33.
During the period from November 1982 thru January 1983 a general mortgage bond drive was presented to the members of Shorter.
Their acceptance of this plan resulted in a 50% reduction in interest payments on the monthy mortgage payments on our building. Eighty-Five (85) families invested nearly $100,000.00 from Novenber 1982 thru January 30, 1983.
December, 1982 saw the city paralyzed by "The Blizzard of '82" and as a result, Christmas activities at Shorter were curtailed.
In spite of that, 40 YPDers braved the storm and sang Christmas carols to the sick and shut-ins. Sister Jeanette McCrary and Sister Mary Davis are to be commended for the dedication and direction of this fine group of young people.
The Key Member Training Conference was held from January 24th thru January 27, 1983 and the theme was "The Mission of the Church".
Our special guest was the Rev. Ronald Williams, pastor of Caine Memorial A.M.E. Church, Bakersfield, California. Rev. Williams preac^au on Sunday, January 23rd, a very powerful message entitled "Belshazzar's Party: Can You Read The Writing On The Wall?" Sermons for the remainder of the conference were exciting and thought provoking.
The YPD held a Tasting Tea and prepared many tasty dishes from the cookbook that was compiled from recipes submitted by members and


friends of Shorter and the YPD. This affair was held on Saturday,
March 26, 1983. Again the YPDer and Richard Allen Pre-Schoolers combined their efforts and presented their 1st Concert and Fashion Show on Sunday April 17, 1983.
The Methodist Ministers Fellowship sponsored the Montbello High School--100 voice choir under the direction of our own Brother Carl Jackson. This fine event took place at Campbell Chapel A.M.E. Church and funds were used to alleviate travelling expenses for this group, who were nominated to take part in the Heritage Memorial Festival in Washington, D.C., April 28th thru May 1, 1983.
As Shorter celebrated its 115th Anniversary. The Anniversary Committee was composed of Winnie Johnson, Sheila Stewart and Larry Clayton. This Committee had the goal of raising $25,000.00 and they began their efforts on March 25th, Palm Sumday. This effort ended on May 8, 1983,
Mothers Day, and it coincided with the "First The Kingdom in Stewardship" (5) five year pledge committment, which was directed toward reducing the mortgage and beginning the building of the New Shorter.
About Our Buildings
Historically, Shorter has always built its houses of worship and never occupied a previously owned building. This tradition continues as our new building will one day be completed.
Shorter was organized in April 1868 and built its first church in that year at 19th and Holliday Streets (now Market Street) on land donated by Major Fillmore. Shorter occupied that building for ten years
It was sold in 1878; and a larger, brick structure was built at 19th and Stout Streets.
In 1886, the property at 19th and Stout Streets was sold for $15,000, and a site at 24th and California Streets was purchased for $10,000. There was opposition to a Black church being built at that site and it, too, was sold at a profit of $2,000.
Another site was secured at 17th and Glenarm Streets for $10,000. This site was across from the Denver Club. Ground was broken and excavation completed before the church again was faced with powerful opposition to a Black church, and the property was sold at a profit of $4,000. The Midland Savings and Loan Co. was built on that same land
The third Shorter was erected at 23rd and Cleveland Place in 1886, 'ind it stood until 1925, when it was burned to the ground after being ;et afire by the Klu Klux Klan.
After this very sad event, Shorter worshipped at the Peoples Presbyterian Church for almost a year.
In November 1925, ground was broken on the same site for a new Shorter, and the first service was held in the new building on Easter Sunday morning, April 4, 1926. Shorter, our church, accupied that building for 55 years.
The acquisition of the land for our present structure took long hours of searching, planing, praying by Reverend Boyd and the Relocation and Building Committee, and the influence of Brother Omar Blair. The land was finally ours in 1978 for the amount of $255,000--paid in full. Groundbreaking ceremonies were held on June 24, 1979, followed by a week-long celebration in the form of a revival, which was held in a tent on our land.
On October 22, 1980, the construction contract was signed with the Butler Construction Company. Construction of the Shorter Educational Center began in March 1981, after a bricklaying ceremony in January


1981, and later that year, a cornerstone-laying ceremony.
Through the efforts of many, we constructed a beautiful building at the cost of more than $500,000 with a remaining mortgage of only $319,000.
Our first service in the new facility was held on July 11, 1981. Shorter began its drive to liquidate the existing mortgage on October 4, 1981, with a target amount of $133,000 per year, and as of December 12, 1984 less than $98,000.
Bishop Richard Allen Center
The Lord continued to bless us. The Richard Allen Center Corporation was formed in September 1983, after representatives from the O.S. Housing and Development Agency presented Shorter with the opportunity to provide land for senior citizens housing. This project, to be known a the "Bishop Richard Allen Center" has a promise of monetary guarantees including rent subsidies, contract guarantees, and land purchase by the federal government of $6,723,000.
The much-welcomed addition of the proposed Bishop Richard Allen lenter came into being through a set of quite extraordinary circumstances which we regard as an expression of God's presence. The center located at 3050 Richard Allen Court was not included in the original building and relocation plans. The acquisition of the adjacent 1.8 acres on which the 15,6000 square foot school facility rests came as the result of the church's efforts in meeting conditional requirements for construction of Allen Gardens, a 50 unit HUD Senior Citizen Housing Project 202. The 1.4 acres site on which the housing was to be built proved inadequate in size as a result of project-related zoning changes. This left us to face a land shortage of approximately 14,000 square feet. The church approached the Denver School Board concerning the purchase of much needed-land in the form of an access road 60 feet wide and 200 feet long. While the School Board responded unfavorably to Shorter's proposal to purchase the the access road, the Board was in favor of the purchase of the entire parcel.
Through the long process of negotiation, we were made aware that the Diagnostic Teaching Center, which was built with Federal Title I Educational Funds, could not be sold by any other means than through a process of competitive bid. Shorter was the only bidder and was awarded the bid for the purchase price of $50,000. Shortly, thereafter, the Board of Education accepted a purchase price of $129,000.
The co-st of the land was offset by the amount we received for the land on which the senior citizens center is to be built.
Today we celebrate another milestone in our illustrious history with a groundbreaking ceremony for the Richard Allen Gardens, the senior housing unit on our property. Today, therefore,is a most historic day. We meet together to worship, to celebrate yet another chapter in the glorious history of our beloved church--Shorter Community AME Church. As we thank God for his blessing on us, on our beloved church--now 117 years old, let us promise solemnly to walk together as we continue to build our church history in His name.


BUILDING AND RELOCATION COMMITTEE
Rosa Walker-Chair Joretta Harris- Finance Pledges Publicity
Design
Memorials
Historical
A.R. Slack-Chair Addye Ljghtner-Qo Ch. 3aaila Bownan. .
Ada,.firaff ........
Mi.r.haH iTnhnsnn .., Rabarrt Williams
William E, Miller-Qu. Rosetta nnhois-c^son-Ch^RnHart-, Alfrfifl. Haoda-rfhai r
rtalocoa Black-Go -Ch.
She.mwn Gray______
Rarhara Too
Frances Williama JLirria Williams..
Pnryl...BaUoaBQp Ch.
Cara! natri g
fieaia Gmff______
Jackie Holmes
Raymond Grizzard . Nirnni^Q i k-or*- Prank Rnrun


Etigpnp Porter Lois-Wiato
tThstina Cr-i-r-^ Jo Ann Rahh-O
-Elorpnon ,T. M
Imani PacniPB Kathy Rowell
R.V. Roundtra


CHAPTER 4
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHURCH ARCHITECTURE
Upon researching church architecture I have discovered, and not too surprisingly, that Black Church architecture is merely a reflection of White Church architecture. I believe this is true because of the fact that the slaves were not allowed to practice their religious beliefs and thus lost touch with the physical forms of their African religion. By the time the masters allowed the slave to openly worship, many generations had passed and the link to the physical forms not being able to be passed on, were lost.
Slaves then adapted their beliefs to those of White Christianity. Their orders of worship were modeled after those of their White masters. It follows that their churches would be modeled after those of their White masters. This, along with the fact that early Black churches were designed by Whites, due to the fact that Blacks did not have the access to nor the education for architecture, provides the reasons why there is no link between Black Church architecture in America and the African heritage.
Therefore, I find it necessary to consider the "Development of the Christian Church as a Building Type" as researched by Candyce E. Roberts in looking for precedents in Black Church architecture.


^
O'
o.
)h M*
The Apostolic Christian church had two examples of houses of worship.
Both were drawn from Judaism, out of which most of the early Christians came. The Temple in Jerusalem was the most obvious example of religious architecture, but the Temple services no longer held any meaning for the new Christians and the spaces it provided were not appropriate for the simple worship of the new church.
The synagogue, the second example of Jewish worship places, was a better space for use by the Christians. The synagogue placed more emphasis on the local community and served more as a meeting place than a place of ritual and ceremony as did the Temple.
Using the synagogue services as reference, the Early Christian church began meeting in the private homes of individual members. Lack of funds for construction and opposition from the local population kept the church from building their own places of worship. Instead, the Christians met in the upper level dining rooms of member's houses. Fellowship, study, prayer, and the celebration of the Lord's Supper all took place around the dining room table.
As Christianity spread and finances became better, buildings were erected for the sole purpose of housing Christian worship. These initial church structures were built similar to the ordinary houses that had been used up to that time. The upper level housed the meeting room and the lower level rooms, equivalent to the sleeping and living quarters of a family, were used as classrooms or for the storage of church supplies.
in 313 A.D., the Edict of Milan, instigated by the Roman Emperor, Constantine, gave official religious status to Christianity. As a result, the church expanded at an amazing rate. The "home church" model was no longer adequate for the needs of the congregations or of the developing clergy. The public basilica, the town meeting hall, became the new model for church worship spaces.
The basilica was a long, timber-roofed hall with a semi-circular "apse" at one end. The long open space provided the necessary room for the large congregations that attended the services. The apse area formed a natural focal point for the clergy that were performing the service.
The service was conducted with the congregation standing and they moved forward around the communion table, the alter, for the celebration of the Eucharist.


By the beginning of the 6th century, churches were commonly oriented with the congregation facing east toward Jerusalem. The apse became the special habitation of the clergy who stood between God and the people, and was screened from the public portions of the church. The nave and side aisles began to take on the recognizable lineal forms of the medieval cathedral.
Romanesque architecture emerged throughout Europe during the late 11th and the 12th centuries. While Roman architecture is the obvious source for these buildings, there are many details which are clearly not Roman. Some of the detailing has been traced to sources as varied as the Byzantine, Islamic and Celtic cultures.
There had been a wide spread belief among the Christian church that the second coming of Christ would occur during the year 1000 A.D. When it did not happen, it would seem that the Advent enthusiasm was replaced with enthusiasm for the building of new places to worship. Churches began springing up all over Europe.
The Romanesque churches were still basically of the basilica type. The most obvious change was to the roof. The common timbered roof of the Roman basilica was replaced by the stone barrel-vault which eventually developed into the rib-vault of the Gothic era. Characteristic of Romanesque churches are massive walls and columns needed to support the roof and very small windows. Combined together, these two features created large interior spaces that were, for the most part, very dark. Late Romanesque sculptural work was intricate and extensive, particularly on the west front of the buildings.
The Gothic Cathedrals of Europe, built during the 12th and 13th centuries are the high period of Gothic church architecture. Designed with a system of geometry which expressed mystical philosophical hierarchies, the cathedrals are a study in symbolic proportions.
Spurred on by the competition of the developing merchant class, the Gothic cathedrals are incredible in size and detail. The period is characterized by the development of the rib-vault, pointed arches, and an emphasis on the vertical. The development of the flying buttress allowed for not only added height but also the addition of massive amounts of windows in the exterior walls.
The Renaissance, beginning in the 15th century, placed new emphasis on the nobility of man instead of the mysticalness of God. Balanced


proportions were of ultimate concern in the design of buildings, with each building trying to be more perfectly balanced than the last.
During the Reformation, churches were adapted or built to shift the focus of the liturgy from the clergy dominated service to services where the congregation could participate in the worship of God. The mass was rejected in favor of a sermon format service. Icons, choir screens and alters were removed, symbolizing God's approachabi1ity for the general publi c.
The Gothic cathedrals had been built to express the mystery of God and did not adapt well for the spoken sermon and the liturgy of protestantism. As a result, new buildings showed a lot of experimentation in plan and materials as the congregations tried to find a physical form that would support their new form of worship.
The Catholic church of this time developed into the Baroque period of architecture. The Church placed importance on the mass as a dramatic re-inactment of the death of Christ and the mysteries of God. The churches built during this time responded to the emotional and symbolic meaning of the liturgy.
The interior of the Baroque church was theatrical in content. The worshipper was to be caught up in the habitat of the Almighty. The church was a place to transcend earthly life. The exterior of the churches was relatively plain, putting the focus on the interior of the church and what happened there.
The 181h century brought the Age of Enlightenment. Political upheavals, such as the American and French revolutions, and the Industrial Revolution all made their mark on organized religion. Protestant revivals were common and the scores of new churches built rejected the Baroque styles of the Catholic church and instead began to show a more austere Neo-classical style. Roman columns, capitals, and pediments were carefully analyzed and applied along with quoining and heavy cornices. A central plan that favored the protestant service was typically used.
During the 19th century, church architecture faced something of an identity crisis. The philosophical problems of society caused confusion in the Christian Church. The 181h century interest in classical architecture was not meeting the needs of the changing liturgy. Church organizations were restructuring themselves to give more responsibility


to the laity. But there was not a new "style" that could meet the rapidly changing requirements of the congregations.
Present day congregations are faced with not only the practical problems of organizing and financing a new structure, but they must also identify their goals, their form of liturgy, and the physical expression of their sense of self. The postwar emphasis on functionalism solved some of the problems of housing new liturgical forms but in the process lost much of the emotional enjoyment. Historical forms, on the other hand, appeal to the senses but deny the service of worship now used in most churches. It is important to study the examples of the past and then to build for the future.


PART II THESIS


SEEK YE THE KINGDOM OF GOD.
ST. LUKE 12s31


CHAPTER 5
THESIS STATEMENT
The word "church" can have three different meanings: a body of people; an institution or organization; or a building for Christian worship. In the first instance, "church is viewed as a fellowship of believers in Christ who take upon themselves the lifestyle and mission of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is the Christian community associated with the revelation of God in Christ, a congregation.
Secondly, as stated, "church" is an institution or organization. It is the instrument of the Christian community. It is the life of the fellowship, a denomination.
And finally, "church" is the building in which the congregation meets. The physical structure which houses the fellowship. This being an architectural thesis, I am mainly concerned with the church as a physical structure or building. One must also be concerned with the congregation and how they are to use the building as well as the denomination and the belief of the denomination the building is to express.
In order to produce a well designed church building, one must have a clear understanding of that church as a congregation and its denomination. One must be


clear as to what the church is for, or what the role of the church is. Let us now look at the role of Shorter A.M.E. Church.
The most obvious role of Shorter A.M.E. Church is to provide a place for its congregation to come together to worship God and practice their religious beliefs. In seeking a meaningful relationship with God, the members of this Church require a place in which these relationships can be nurtured through worship, learning, sharing and participating in a common mission. In this place the congregation mutually benefits in their worship and in their personal growth through a fellowship of people with the same beliefs. It is a place where people gather as a visible community in order to prepare for the tasks to which God has called them.
The role of Shorter A.M.E. Church as a building is to express the identity of its memebers as an institution. The building should make a statement about the congregations' faiths, beliefs and mission. It should be an obvious physical reminder of their religion and of God. The building should also serve as a source of pride for its congregation, a place for them to enjoy and enjoy showing to.others. The building will be the physical representation of the congregations' religion.
Of all the beliefs held by Shorter A.M.E. Church, or any other A.M.E.
Church, there are two which are most important and make the A.M.E. religion unique. The first is the belief that God is the Father of all, Christ is the


Redeemer of all and all people are brothers and sisters in the eyes of the Lord.
Included with this is the belief that God is good and just. He hates evil and will punish evildoers, but will reward those who are righteous.
The second doctrine is that of an experiential or "experimental" faith through which one is brought into a redeeming conscious fellowship or unity with God, thus achieving salvation. It includes, first, a conviction of sin and a sense of guilt; secondly, faith in the possibility of divine forgiveness through the merits and death of Jesus Christ, who died that men might be saved; and thirdly, a feeling of justification of forgiveness to come as a joyous, transporting experience that signified the sinner was forgiven, and therefore was an heir to eternal life.
Shorter A.M.E. Church, as with all Black churches, has been the center of life in the Black commnity. The Black church is without a doubt, the single most important institution among Blacks. The Black Church has taken on many roles other than just those of religion. The Black Church is a cultural institution.
It embodies the cultural traditions of Blacks more than any other institution.
The Black Church also serves a very important role socially. It sets forth the moral standards it members are to live by. In some cases it can be viewed as a form of extended family. The Black Church provides for a unity among Black people. It provides an opportunity for Blacks to come together and organize socially; to be together and grow in this hostile environment. The Black Church


has also played a very important role economically in the lives of Blacks. By the formation of mutual aid societies the Church has supported its members in sickness, in death, and in times of financial need.
The first real educators of Blacks in America were the clergymen. They taught slaves how to read by using the Bible. Many churches, including Shorter A.M.E., have established and supported schools for the education of Blacks. The Black Church has affected the intellectual development of Blacks. This is due to the influence of the Black Church which has permeated into every phase of the lives of Blacks.
It was inevitable that preachers who played such an important role in the leadership and organization of the life of Blacks should become political leaders. Blacks looked to their preachers for guidance in all aspects of their lives, including politics; and many Blacks still look to the Church for this guidance. This is evident by the list of Black preachers who so strongly influenced politics in this country, from Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., to Reverend Jessie Jackson.
. It is my contention that the role of architecture when it comes to designing a church facility, is to reinforce the roles of the church it is being built for. In order to accomplish this, the architect must possess more than a superficial acquaintance with the history, religious beliefs and liturgy of the church he is designing. He must understand the true meaning of the traditions, beliefs and


orders of worship of the church and design his facility in a sensitive and contemporary fashion. The architecture should fill the requirement of the church to worship efficiently and effectively, as well as provide for an emotional, and psychological religious experience. The architecture of a church should also enable one to have a visually spiritual and uplifting experience. One should be able to feel the presence of God.
It is my intention in this thesis project to express through its architecture the beliefs and traditions of Shorter A.M.E. Church. Also, to express and relate to the liturgy of its congregation through its design. And finally to provide for a spiritual feeling and "look" in which the doctrine of an experiential or "experimental" faith can be experienced and nurtured. The building for Shorter A.M.E. Church should reinforce the aspects of its religion which gives its congregation their uniqueness.


PART III
SITE CONSTRAINTS


UPON THIS ROCK I WILL BUILD MY CHURCH.
ST. MATTHEW 16:18


CHAPTER 6
SITE DESCRIPTION
The site to be used for the new facility of Shorter A.M.E. Church is located near Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Colorado Boulevard in northeast Denver. The address is 3100 Richard Allen Court. The site is surrounded by residences on all sides except the north, where Clayton College is located.
This site is fairly flat; it has about a 1% slope upward from its southwest corner to it northeast corner. It is void of any notable vegetation other than some native grass. The introduction of landscaping would greatly benefit the site and neighborhood. The entire site is suitable to build on, however, due to the desired visibility, the structure will be limited to the northeast corner of the site.
Traffic access is from the west, off Richard Allen Court. Parking facilities should be located near here. Consideration must be given to the east and north perimeter of the site. Located here are Colorado Boulevard and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, a source of traffic noise, in addition to being the
most visible areas of the site.










30TH AVE.
4 NOISE* TRAFFIC l>


CHAPTER 7
SOILS REPORT
This report presents the results of a geotechnical engineering study conducted at the site of a proposed addition to the Shorter African Methodist Episcopal Church, located southeast of the intersection of Martin Luther King Boulevard and Richard Allen Court, Denver, Colorado. The study was made to determine the best types and depths of foundations, allowable soils bearing pressures, ground-water conditions, and any special precautions which should be taken in the design or construction of the structure due to soil and ground-water conditions.
The conclusions and recommendations presented are based on the data gathered during the site exploration, on the results of the laboratory testing, and on our experience with similar soil conditions. Factual data gathered during the field and laboratory work are summarized on Figure 2 and Table 1. Project Description
The proposed addition will be a one-story, slab-on-grade church building approximately 25,000 square feet in plan, supported on a reinforced concrete foundation. Maximum column loads anticipated are on the order of 150 to 200 kips. Topographic information was not available at the time of this study; however, we anticipate that significant site grading will not be performed and the proposed slab-on-grade will be near existing grade.
Site Conditions
The proposed building addition location, to the north of the existing building, is presently vacant. Several underground utilities cross the site at various locations. Topographically, the ground surface is fairly level, sloping towards the northwest with a maximum difference in elevation across the


property on the order of 10 feet. Located to the east of the property is an abandoned reservoir. The reservoir is approximately 6 feet deep with a 4-foot high embankment. The existing building is a one-story, masonry block building.
SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS
Three test holes were drilled to depths of 20 feet within the proposed building footprint, as shown on the Test Hole Location Plan, Figure 1.
Soil conditions varied laterally and with depth. In particular, the upper profile appeared to be an interbedded system of eolian (wind deposited) soils with variable gradational transitions within, and between soil layers.
A 6-inch thick topsoil horizon was encountered at the surface. Underlying the topsoil in Test Holes 1 and 2, silt, very clayey, sandy to clay, very silty, sandy was encountered to depths of 7 to 10 feet. This material is medium stiff to stiff, slightly moist to moist, and tan. Underlying the silt to clay in Test Holes 2 and 3, and the topsoil in Test Hole 1, was sand, silty, slightly clayey, medium dense to dense, moist to medium moist, brown. All test holes terminated in the sand at depths of 19 to 20 feet.
No free water was encountered in the test holes at the time of drilling, nor when checked one day after drilling.
A review of the laboratory testing performed during the referenced, previous studies, indicate that the overlying silt to clay may consolidate appreciably under load, particularly when wetted. These soils are considered very low to non-expansive. The underlying sand is competent to support the anticipated loads and is considered non-expansive.


SITE DEVELOPMENT
Excavations
Excavations on the order of 5 to 10 feet are anticipated in the building area to complete the overexcavation and replacement for foundation support, as outlined in the "Foundation Recommendations" section of this report. The excavations will extend into the silt to clay, and underlying sand. Conventional excavation equipment should be adequate for excavation purposes in these overburden soils. All excavations should be sloped or shored in the interest of safety. Where sloped excavations are used, we recommend that, as a minimum, they conform to current OSHA regulations and applicable safety codes. These regulations require side slopes of 1:1 (horizontal to vertical) for most soil conditions, decreasing to 2:1 slopes where caving soils are encountered.
No free water was encountered during this study. If perched water is encountered, it should be possible to dewater the excavation using gravity ditches and sumps.
If soft, wet, unstable conditions are encountered in the base of excavations a working platform may be established by placing a layer of coarse gravel or crushed rock.
Fill Placement
All fill should be placed in lifts not exceeding 8 inches loose or 6 inches compacted, moisture conditioned and compacted to the required specifications. Fill should be free of trash, frozen material, organics or particles over eight inches in diameter. The subgrade for structural fill should be stripped, scarified to a minimum depth of six inches, moisture conditioned and


compacted to structural fill specifications. Recommended site grading procedures, and compaction and moisture content specifications, are presented in the Appendix of this report.
The contractor should be made aware that the silty soils present on this site are typically sensitive to moisture content and compaction techniques, and that suitable equipment, particularly to mix and distribute moisture within the fill being placed, will be required.
Density-compaction testing and observations of fill placement should be performed by the geotechnical engineer to evaluate the quality of the contractor's work and to give the owner a greater degree of confidence that the work was performed correctly.
FOUNDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS
We recommend the proposed structure be supported on a conventional spread footing foundation system. Due to the variable density of the soils at anticipated foundation depth, we recommend that these soils be removed and replaced as structural fill to provide uniform support for the foundation system and minimize potential differential movements.
The zone of removal and replacement with structural fill should extend to a depth below the base of footings equal to either one-half the footing width or 3 feet, whichever is greater. The zone of removal and replacement should also extend the same distance horizontally beyond the footing perimeter. The existing soils should be suitable for re-use as structural fill. Structural fill should be placed and compacted as outlined in the Appendix.


Footings bearing on structural fill, as described above, may be designed based upon an allowable bearing pressure of 2,500 pounds per square foot (psf) Exterior footings should be a minimum of 36 inches below grade for frost protection.
INTERIOR FLOOR SLAB CONSTRUCTION
The on-site soils are considered very low to non-expansive. Where slabs-on-grade are used, the details outlined below should be carefully followed during construction.
1. The slab should be poured directly on native soils or structural fill. Native soils supporting slabs should be scarified a minimum depth of 6 inches and moisture conditioned and recompacted as outlined in the Appendix.
2. Separate the slab from all bearing members and utility lines to allow independent movement (i.e., construct a "floating" slab). Provide positive control joints at the junction of the slab with foundation walls, and for all interior columns and other slab projections extending through the slab.
3. Joints should be scored in the slab at maximum 400 square foot areas.
4. Backfill in all interior and exterior water and sewer line trenches should be carefully compacted. In addition, good backfill and surface drainage should be provided as discussed below.
DRAIN.SYSTEMS
Free water was not encountered during this study; however, due to the low permeability of the upper soils, the potential exists for the development of a perched water table within these soils or in the backfill zone.
If habitable space (floor slabs or crawlspace areas) are constructed below final exterior grade, a drain system should be provided around the foundation


as detailed on Figure 3. To discharge the drain system, a sump should be provided at the low point of the drain. As an alternative, it may be possible to discharge the system to a positive gravity outfall on the lower topographic portions of the site. The outfall should be protected from becoming frozen or covered.
If habitable slabs do not extend below exterior grades, then installation of a moisture barrier, as detailed on Figure 4, should be performed.
In addition to the above recommendations, backfill materials should be compacted and landscape irrigation minimized as discussed below.
BACKFILL AND SURFACE DRAINAGE
The foundation soils should be prevented from being wetted after construction. Generally, this can be accomplished by insuring that the backfill placed around the foundation walls will not settle after the completion of construction, and that the backfill material is relatively impervious. The backfill material should be free of trash and it should be moistened and compacted as specified in the Appendix of this report. Care should be taken during backfilling to insure that walls are adequately braced and that the concrete has obtained sufficient strength. The final grade of the backfill should have a positive slope away from the exterior walls on all sides. A minimum fall of 12 inches in the first 10 feet away from the foundation is recommended. Downspouts and sill cocks should discharge into splash blocks that extend beyond
the limits of the backfill areas.


If a sprinkler system is installed, the sprinkler heads should be placed so that the spray from the heads, under full pressure, does not fall within five feet of the building area or exterior slabs. Lawn, flower and shrub irrigation around the building must be carefully controlled. It is recommended that irrigation within five feet be limited to hand watering and this watering should be minimized. Recommended landscaping procedures are presented on Figure 5.
DESIGN CONSULTATION AND CONSTRUCTION OBSERVATIONS
This report has been prepared for the exclusive use of providing geotechnical design criteria for the proposed project in accordance with generally accepted soil and foundation engineering practices. No other warranty, expressed or implied, is made. In the event that any changes in the nature or design of the project are planned, the conclusions and recommendations contained in this report shall not be considered valid unless the changes are reviewed and conclusions of this report modified or verified in writing.
It is recommended that the geotechnical engineer be provided the opportunity for a general review of the final design and specifications in order that earthwork and foundation recommendations may be properly interpreted and implemented in the design and specifications.
In any geotechnical study, it is necessary to assume that subsoil conditions do not vary from those encountered in the test holes. Our experience has shown that these variations exist and that they become apparent in the foundation excavation. For this reason, we should be called to observe the soil related aspects of the project.


We are available to discuss the details of this report with you. Please call when further consultation or observations are required.
Respectfully submitted,
RECK7189.mgg





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Q\) Consulting Engineers and Geologists Date. 11/10/86
Figure 1


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SILT, very clayey, sandy to CLAY, very silty, sandy, very fine to medium grained, medium stiff to stiff, slightly moist to medium moist, tan (ML-CL)
SAND, silty, slightly clayey, poorly graded, fine grained to coarse grained, medium dense to dense, slightly moist to medium moist,brown (SP-SC)
NOTES
1. Test holes were drilled on November 3, 1986, with 4-inch diameter, continuous flight augers.
2. (11/12) location of modified California barrel sample; indicates that 11 blows with a 140 pound hammer, falling 30 inches, were required to drive a 2.5-inch diameter sampler 12 inches.
3. No free water was found in test holes at the time of drilling, nor one day later.
4. ' The stratification lines represent the approximate boundary between soil
types, and the transition may be gradual.
5. The locations ef the test holes were approximately determined by tape and compass measurement from known property corners.
6. Water level readings have been made in the test holes at times and under conditions stated on the logs. This data has been reviewed and interpretations made in the text of this report. However, it must be noted that fluctuations in the level of the ground water may occur due to variations in rainfall, temperature, and other factors at the time measurements were made.
LOGS Of TEST HOLES Job No: 1-1215-7189-00
< 53 1 Consulting Engineers and Geologists Date: 11/10/86
Figure 2




Backfill moistened and compacted
Polyethylene Moisture Barrier
DETAILS OF LINING BOTTOM OF EXCAVATION AROUND EXTERIOR FOOTINGS WITH A MOISTURE BARRIER Not to Scale
Consulting Engineers and Geologists
Figure 4


6 Mi] Polyethylene sloped away from foundation under edging and on top of grass
Wood or metal edging above top of sod with weep holes in bottom to allow release of water
Maintain minimum slope of 10* away from foundation
Frame Wall
Foundation
Wall
RECOMMENDED LANDSCAPING PROCEDURES Not to Scale
(m?) Consulting Engineers and Geologists
Figure 5




Appendix
SITE GRADING SPECIFICATION
GENERAL
A geotechnical engineer shall be the owner's representative to provide control tests of the earthwork placement, moisture content and compaction. The geotechnical engineer shall judge the materials and the methods of placing and compaction and shall provide a written report of the completed fill. The purpose of this report will be to provide the Owner with a greater degree of confidence concerning the suitability of the fill; however, this report, and/or any observations by the geotechnical engineer, shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for proper construction of the fill.
CLEARING AREA TO BE FILLED
All timber, logs, trees, brush and rubbish shall be removed, piled or burned or otherwise disposed of. Frozen materials shall be removed and stockpiled until thawed when directed by the owner or his representative.
SCARIFYING AND COMPACTING THE AREA TO BE FILLED
All vegetable matter and frozen material shall be removed from the surface upon which the fill is to be placed and the surface shall then be plowed or scarified to a depth of at least six (6) inches, and smoothed until the surface is free from ruts, hummocks or other uneven features which would tend to prevent uniform compaction by the equipment to be used.
After the foundation for the fill has been cleared, any frozen material removed and plowed or scarified where necessary, it shall be disced or bladed until it is uniform and free from large clods, brought to the proper moisture content and compacted to a density and moisture content as specified below for the placement of acceptable fill layers.
FILL MATERIAL
Material for the fill will consist of materials selected or judged acceptable by the geotechnical engineer for the type of construction involved. The materials used shall be free from vegetable matter, frozen material and other deleterious substance and shall not contain rocks or lumps having a diameter of more than six (6) inches.
DEPTH AND MIXING OF FILL LAYERS
The selected fill material shall be placed in layers, which when compacted shall not exceed six inches, or eight inches loose. Each layer shall be spaced evenly and shall be thoroughly blade mixed during the spreading to insure uniformity of material in each layer.


MOISTURE CONTENT
The contractor may be required to add the necessary moisture to the fill material in the excavation if, in the opinion of the geotechnical engineer, it is not possible to obtain uniform moisture content by adding water to the fill surface. Additionally, the contractor shall not place fill material which exceeds the maximum moisture content specifications, unless the material is left to aerate or is blended with drier material to achieve the specified moisture content. Moisture content specifications are outlined below. Optimum moisture content is defined as the moisture content corresponding to the maximum density of a laboratory compacted sample performed according to the applicable proctor method, either Standard Proctor (ASTM D-698) or Modified Proctor (ASTM D-1557).
DENSITY CONTROL
After each layer has been placed, mixed and spread evenly at the specified moisture content, it shall be thoroughly compacted to the following recommended minimum densities and moisture contents:
Cohesive
Granular
Structural
Non-Structural
92% Modified 85% Modified
95% Modified 85% Modified
Moisture
Content -3% to +1% -3% to +3%
(from optimum)
Structural fill specifications should apply where the fill will support floor slab, foundations, pavements, sidewalks or exterior slabs, etc.. Non-struc-tural fill is considered landscaping areas and backfill in landscaped areas. Where slabs or pavement overlie backfill zones the compaction specifications for structural fill should govern.
The contractor may be required to scarify and re-compact fill material which has been compacted greater than specification for cohesive soils.
COMPACTION OF FILL LAYERS
Compaction shall be by sheepsfoot rollers, segmented steel wheeled rollers, pneumatic tired rollers, smooth drum steel rollers, vibratory rollers, or other types of suitable compaction equipment. We recommend a smooth drum or pneumatic tire roller for granular soils and a sheepsfoot or segmented roller for cohesive soils. Compaction shall be accomplished while the material is at the specified moisture content. Compaction of each layer shall be continuous over its entire area and the compaction equipment shall make sufficient trips to insure that the required density has been obtained.


FIELD TESTING OF DENSITY AND MOISTURE CONTENT
Field density and moisture content tests shall be made by the geotechnical engineer of each layer of fill. Sufficient tests will be made to determine the adequacy of the fill. The frequency of testing will be determined by the geotechnical engineer in the field, depending on the conditions encountered. Density and moisture content tests shall be performed in accordance with ASTM D-1556 utilizing a four or six inch sand cone, or ASTM D-2922 and D-3017 with nuclear density devices and methods.
OBSERVATION
Observation by the geotechnical engineer shall be continuous during the fill and compacting operations so that he can observe whether the fill was placed in accordance with these specifications.
SEASONAL LIMITS
No fill material shall be placed upon frozen subgrade, nor placed, spread or rolled while it is frozen or thawing or during unfavorable weather conditions. When work is interrupted by heavy rain, snow, or frost penetration, fill operations shall not be resumed until the geotechnical engineer indicates that the moisture content and density of the previously placed fill are as specified.


CHAPTER 8
CLIMATE DATA
DENVER CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Denver is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with an elevation of 5,183 feet. The semi-arid climate is characterized by light precipitation, surprisingly mild temperatures, and light winds punctuated by occasional strong Chinook winds. The average monthly temperature varies from 30.^ degrees Fahrenheit in January to 73.3 degrees Fahrenheit in July. Denver averages more than 62 inches of snow annually, but prolonged snowcover is unusual due to exceptionally clear and sunny skies in the winter. The average annual precipitation is about 15-5 inches, with frequent afternoon thunderstorms occurring in the late spring and summer.
The following data' summarizes significant climatic Tactors and information specific to this area.
The climatic data is from the National Cooperative Observer Records.
Weather Service


MONTH
CLIMATE
j JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
80* F 60* F 40* F 20* F
TEMPATURE
MEAN MAX.--
MEAN MIN.--
ANNUAL MEAN MAX. 87 9 ANNUAL MEAN MIN. 21.4
2 IN 1 IN
RAINFALL
18.39 IN.
14 IN. 10 IN 8 IN 2 IN.
SNOWFALL
ANNUAL 84 9 IN.
AM X PM %
HUMIDITY
SW UPH
HEATING
COOLING
8 9 9.2 9.9 10 3 r 9.5 9 0 8.5 8 2 8 1 8 1 8.5 8.8
992 826 809 482 236 88 6 0 139 36/ 690 905
0 0 0 8 29 154 282 234 109 26 0 0
WIND
DEGREE DAYS
TOTAL HEATING 5540
TOTAL COOLING 842


40' NL
SOLAR
SPRlHG/f^
summer^-
aftitude angles
JUN 21 SUMMER
MAR/SEP 21 SPRING/FALL
DEC 21
WINTER


CLIMATE TABLE
DENVER, COLORADO
TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY WIND R. SUNSHINE
FASTEST
Daily Max. Daily Min. C 03 42.1 14.8 28.5 65 -25 0.55 1.44 0.01 48.7 45.7 9.6 S 41 NW 2470 194 64
44.6 18.3 31.5 76 -18 0.69 1.66 0.03 52.3 45.7 9.7 s 49 NW 2894 213 69
49.9 22.8 36.4 83 -4 1.21 2.89 0.13 50.7 41.3 10.3 s 53 NW 3218 249 67
60.5 32.3 46.4 84 13 2.11 4.17 0.03 45.0 32.3 10.6 s 56 NW 3392 298 75
70.5 41.8 56.2 91 26 2.70 7.31 0.34 47.3 36.3 9.8 s 43 SW 3438 313 70
82.0 51.0 66.5 96 40 1.44 4.69 0.10 53.0 40.7 9.3 s 47 S 3448 390 87
P.8.4 57.4 72.9 99 48 1.53 6.41 0.17 47.7 36.0 8.7 s 56 SW 3332 369 81
86.8 56.2 71.5 100 41 1.28 4.47 0.06 47.7 36.3 8.5 s 42 SW 3186 337 79
79.0 47.0 63.0 97 29 1.13 4.67 0.00 50.3 37.3 8.4 s 47 NW 2996 319 85
66.6 36.2 51.4 87 19 1.01 3.41 0.05 39.7 30.0 8.3 s 45 NW 2742 269 78
51.7 23.6 37.7 74 -2 0.69 2.97 0.01 50.3 46.0 8.9 s 48 W 2410 172 57
45.2 18.0 31.6 71 -16 0.47 1.50 0.04 51.0 48.7 9.3 s 51 NE 2258 157 54


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CLIMATE GRAPH
DENVER, COLORADO
NOTES:
i
1. Precipitation data compiled from maximum and minimum monthly values. The average monthly values correspond to the monthly normal totals. Maximum and minimum values are taken from individually recorded highs and 1ows for each specific month. See End Note 1 for complete reference.
2. Relative humidity percentages found by interpolating between monthly average percentages recorded for S AM, 11 AM, 5 PM, and 11 PM. See End Note 1 for complete reference.
3. Temperature profile compiled from daily maximum and minimum values for the month indicated. The mean values were taken from monthly normal values. Extreme values were taken from individually recorded highs and lows for each month. See End Note 1 for complete reference.
4. Radiation daily values found by adding up hourly data taken for sunlit hours on the 21st of each month for the 40 Degree North Latitude. See End Note 4 for complete reference.
5. Monthly hours of sunlight compiled from recorded monthly quantities. See End Note 8 for complete reference.


CL I MAT
LOCATION DENVER
LONGITUDE 104.52
LATITUDE 39.45
ALTITUDE 5280
MONTH MAX TABLE 1 CLIMATIC DATA (DEG C) MIN RANGE
JAN 5.6 -9.6 15.1
FEB 6.9 -7.7 14.6
MAR 9.9 -5.2 15
APR 15.8 .1 15.6
MAY 21.3 5.4 15.9
JUN 27.7 10.5 17.2
JUL 31.3 14.1 17.2
AUG 30.4 13.4 17
SEP 26.1 8.3 17.7
OCT 19.2 2.3 16.8
NOV 10.9 -4.7 15.6
DEC 7.3 -7.8 15.1
HIGH = 31.3 LOW = -9.6
AMT = 10.8 AMR 40.8
TABLE 2
CLIMATIC DATA (RH, PRECIP, WIND)
MONTH MAX MIN
JAN 49 46
. FEB 52 46
MAR 51 41
APR 45 32
MAY 47 36
JUN 53 41
JUL 48 36
AUG 48 36
SEP 50 37
OCT 40 30
NOV 50 46
DEC 51 49
TOTAL
AVE G RAIN WP ws
47.5 2 .6 S NW
49 2 .7 S NW
46 2 1.2 s NW
38.5 2 2.1 s NW
41.5 2 2.7 s SW
47 2 1.4 s S
42 2 l.b s SW
42 2 1.3 s SW
43.5 2 1.1 s NW
35 2 1 s NW
48 2 .7 s W
50 2 .5 s NE
14.8


TABLE 3 DIAGNOSIS
DAY ( -NIGHT ) STRESS
MAX UP LOW MIN UP LOW D N
JAN S. 5 27 20 -9.7 20 C c
FEB 6.9 27 20 -7.7 20 c c
MAR 9.8 27 20 -5.2 20 c c
APR 15.8 27 20 .1 20 c c
MAY 21.2 27 20 5.4 2U 0 c
JUN 27.7 27 20 10.5 20 H c
JUL 31.2 27 20 14.1 20 H 0
AUG 30.3 27 20 13.3 20 H 0
SEP 26.1 27 20 8.3 20 0 c
OCT 19.2 27 20 2.2 20 c c
NOV 10.8 27 20 -4.7 20 c c
DEC 7.3 27 20 -7.9 20 c c
TABLE -1 INDICATORS
MONTH HI H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
JAN 0 0 0 1 0 1
FEB 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAR 0 0 0 1 0 1
APR 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAY 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUN 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUL 0 0 0 1 1 0
AUG 0 0 0 1 1 0
SEP n 0 0 1 0 0
OCT 0 0 0 1 0 1
NOV 0 0 0 1 0 1
DEC n 0 n 1 0 1
TOTAL 0 0 0 12 2 7
LAYOUT: Buildings should be orientated on an east-west axis, the long elevations facing north and south to reduce exposure to the sun.
SPACING: Compact planning is recommended if the air movement requirement is significant.
AIR MOVEMENT: If air movement is never essential, and is desirable for not more than a month, rooms can be double banked as there is not much need for cross ventilation.
OPENINGS:
Very small,11 less than 20% of the wall.


WALLS: Both external and internal walls should be massive.
ROOFS: A heavy roof, with substantial thermal capacity, giving a time lag of at least 8 hours.
OUTDOOR SLEEPING: It should be provided on roofs, balconies or in patios, so that sleepers are exposed to the coldest part of the night sky (the zenith) to increase heat loss by outgoing radiation.
RAIN PROTECTION:
TABLE 4
DETAIL RECOMMENDATIONS SIZE OF OPENINGS: Medium 25-40%
POSITION OF OPENINGS:
PROTECTION OF OPENINGS:
WALLS AND FLOORS: Heavy, over 8 hours time-lag.
ROOFS: Heavy, over 8 hours time-lag.
EXTERNAL FEATURES: Space for outdoor sleeping required.


Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
1982
DENVER, COLORADO
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: Arctic air from
Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only 33 days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air
from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
* IV-/CJC4 ATMOSPHERIC aovin siha l(>N
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and
invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief.
Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has the least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER ASHE VILLf M
* NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATtLLHf OAT A AND INFORMATION Si H VIC*


Meteorological Data For The
Current Year
COIOPO T*ltION wd: "0U1I ' 1 l-m*..*
7 3C42.. T.monmm Precipitation In Inches Pel iv. n< 1 W--l l i
Av-em Rase AS *f a Wmm Muhtlmt Snow. Ie* pellet* 5 5 5 ? flrntllxnl tm 4 9 t £ h
* f f t l t a
J .) i f r r }f 3 \t 03 1 1 1 1 7 3 i. 1: fc K 1 V. R 1. * fi 6.
i : r i: \ -V I f 3 n i 3 *- is J 5 j x 5 llnre I'm# 1 > ./t ' r .A I .! j i J
J.rj l s m. 3 7 3 74 ~5 7 I07| f 0. 37 6.7 0 11-17 4 .a 7 * 11-1; 41 41 * ' 44 7 8 1 ... N , *.e 4.0
1 t e *6.71 1 .4 3 7. [J 71 77 4 . 4 1 4 r n.04 0.04 1-7 1 4 0 N 3-4 47 71 Jf 48 .* * 1 1.* 1 '4 4.4
7 1.1 41.1 4 a 74 1 7 7 7 3 3 r 0. 1 8 0.11 4 7 1 1 4 44 341 3! 33 74 :. o *. 1 38 4 1 4 P 4 4
ip J J 1 * 7 v ao 11 70 7 1 577 r 0. 34 0.17 4-5 7.a P N 14-70 4 3 7 7 7 4 4 74 1 .* in.? V 7 J 4 1
" * 4 .a J 1 44. t * 77 37 4 304 3.41 1 .7* 17-1 t T 1 3 44 * 4 ? 4 3 74 0.1 .4 1 4 3 7 1
Jill t 3.3 40.7 43.1 43 74 4 1 4 47 47 7.74 1.74 17-18 r o.c o.r 771 4 * 1 44 1 1 1.1 ... ,c T 4 4.7
4 44.4 77.7 It1 73 50 IP 3 74V 0.47 0.48 JO- 1 0.0 o.n 4 T 3 4 7 3? 1 7 0. J ... > . 1 4 4 4 7
44. a 73. 1 3 1 5* 74 C 757 1.14 0.34 1-1 r o.c o.n 74 38 3 6 4 1 1 7 . * ?s * 74 *7 4.4
41.7 4* * 34 3P 141 4 4 1 31 0.44 17-13 0.0 o.a 73 4 4 4*. 44 1 4 0.7 * 30 7 *? 4 *
OC 4? .4 34.0 *4.0 art 7 77 1 4 *87 ( 1.51 0.50 6 1.7 1.7 14 44 3 7 37 4 1 7 U.7 4 .* 31 * 77 0 4.1
NO V a .4 72. 7 34.7 7! 4 1 1 7 4 75 C C. 7 0.77 1 1 1.8 0. 77 77 * 48 1 3 1 7 4. A 37 1 0 4 7
ct c 43.1 14. T 30.4 44 17 - 1 30 1050 n 7.3* 7.no 74 77.1 7 3.4 74 44 44 53 4 1 0. 37 1 7* ' 3 6.4
JUV. rtf occ OCC J IN
vf ie 47.4 34.7 44. J 44 -14 * 4708 All 14.45 ?.no 7* 40.8 7 3.4 74 44 40 40 71 0.4 7.4 * * N W * 10 4.1
! *.} w Fini'rfi* '*'
N,e -f W\ * r *hw
V- |i. . ., - -nw
: f r u. -** *" V ..
l* . p .! v * I
} .. y ,; 4 .
V ,1 y - W
. .. t *> V * ' l
v a 1 * s - 1 .- \ 1 4
1 1 * 1 * * 1 r 1 4 1* 1
1 1 * W - 1 I 1 r> 1 SP. 4
4 1 1 ir 0 1 r t *4.4
. 1 l 1 i* 0 . * - 1 * J .4
Kl * 1 3 11 c ~ J JS.t
1 7 1 4 * 1 * - - 1 M.S
1 If- 1; 1 * - 1 l - J *r. 4
7 4 1- 11 z * I 3 ? : 4 3 *.
1: 11 a 1 > e 3 ? s J
1 1 3 1 z 0 i * 1 7* 3 S 34 .1
4 1 11 c r J 4.4
44 ... ** 71 7 4 S 7 11 4 3 3 .I
DATA COARFCTTD AFTTR PUBLICATION Or THT MONTHLY I5SUF.
Normals, Means, And Extremes
9 Wind* uidi r Fa-:tr*t 1 -HI nut I nd with
Mile h.-.'l v
d { r % v t I :
Fa
T ami >er a litres *F Norms' Precipitation In Inches Relative homtrlity pet. Wind , 3Van e*t d4 *>rroe

i
Non. Bw SS F Water equivalent Snovr. Ice p"ftl f *sl-st n*le i Sun. * in w.nvt 3*JS 1 ' W
i z i 1 1 i > > ! 6 ? 1 ;f \ -
1 t § i 5 l\\ 0 fWw
C i > t f r 1 1 £ _>? n t > c l it f J > S3 ^ M r 0 k > r $ z T 3 1 E O 7 ft f f 3 jl J i 1 > 1! 17 1 If i i! k > 1! 17 k >- 03 it 1 V. 1 7 tlnv 73 6) I r? U IS I! 5 i n k A c j; k u . i } -5 " : c'S t: ? < f - 5 t V 1 , t i 1 i i > 1 1 i t ; 1 3 3 32 W* ~ 1'.
(a) 4 8 48 48 46 48 48 48 7? 7? 72 7? 34 15 31 10
J 4 3.3 14.7 74.4 73 1487 -2 4 1 743 1081 0 0.61 1748 0.01 1 3? 1.07 176? 73. J 174 f 17.4 146? 6 3 4 63 8.7 3 33 M 1776 3.6 IP J 6. c 1 0 t - 4 1)3.8
r *6.7 14.4 37 .a 74 1 74 5 30 17)4 407 0 0.6 7 1.46 1760 0.01 1770 1 .01 1 43 3 18.3 1 46 r 4 3 1 43 J 63 4 : 4? 64 7.1 3 4 NW 1753 ir 3 *| 4 l * r * ?: ** .*
m 30.1 7 3.1 37.0 84 I7?| -1 1 174) 861 0 1.71 7.84 1744 0.1 J 1744 1 .48 1454 77.7 146 1 16.3 143? 6 r 4; 4r 6? 7.7 3 3 J NW 14 3? M 6 1 6 1 -V 1 * 1 0 1 * 1 8)1.)
a 41.0 33.7 4 7.4 3 1 740 -7 1773 575 0 1.43 1447 0.0 3 1443 3.73 1447 78 3 I4J5 1 7 J 1437 a 7 3 34 37 10. J 3 36 NW 1 46T 68, 6 .f 11 1: * 1 1 1 1 * 8*3.4
a 70. J 4 3.4 57.0 4fc 1 4*7 7? 1754 73) 11 7.64 1747 0.06 141* 3.53 1473 13.6 I43r 10.7 i4sq 70 3i la 61 7.4 5 3 * St 14 7 8 64 6 3 6 1 .* ' ' * 1 6 1 7 p* 8 13.4
J ao. 1 31.4 44.0 104 1 4J4 jn 1731 80 1 3* 1.43 1767 0.04 1480 3.16 1470 0.3 1451 0.3 1431 64 3 33 3 7.0 3 t 3 1436 T7 'I 1 ? ** IP; 6 ?t 8*6.)
J a 7 . 38.4 73.0 1 04 17 34 4 J 1777 0 761 1 .78 4.43 763 0.17 17)4 7.47 1443 o.a 0.0 68 3' 34 36 6.4 3 36 IV 1465 7? J 1 a . J 'i * il J rj 8)8.4
a a3 .a 5.4 71 .4 1 ni 14J8 4 1 1 744 0 70 3 1 .74 1 4 74 0.06 1 460 3.41 1431 o.c 0 .0 6ii 3h 3 3. 36 8 7 3 4 7 h 1478 7? 4.0 IP P 10 ? 8 *8.
5 7 T 7 4 7. a 47.8 41 1 460 70 1771 170 6 1 1.13 1 461 t 1 44* 7.44 1436 71.3 1436 14 .* 1436 3 I 34 34 6 1 3 4 7 NW 1*53 7 S 4 4 1 f 3i 1 ? ? 1 C" 1*8.6
0 46.1 37.7 37.0 81 1 44 7 J 1764 408 8 1.13 4.17 1 464 0.03 1467 1. n 1447 31.7 1464 12.4 146* 64 3 J 3l 36 6.1 3 43 NW 1*36 7 3 4 4 l 4 * 3 1 1 1 e 4 7 1*7.6
h 53.3 75.4 34.4 74 17*1 - 1450 768 0 0. 4 7.77 1444 0.01 1 4*4 1 .77 14 7 3 37.1 1 4 4 N 13.3 17*6. 68 4 * # 63 6.3 3 4 6 W 1*6? 13 3.4 1 1 i" * ? 1 r ? rv1 613.4
0 *8.7 18. 4 17.4 73 148 0 -1 1477 1 004 0 0.4 3 177 J n.o J 1477 7.00 1 *8? 30.8 147 3 73.6 171? 6* 4 *| 30 63 6 8 3 3 1 Nl 1 5 J 64 ... " 7 c % ? 6 34.6
JUL f C8 a v 3CP war MOV OCC JUL 1
va 6*.0 34.7 50.1 1 04 1 4 J4 -30 14J4 6016 680 15.31 7.31 174 T 14*4 3.35 1773 37.1 14*6 73.6 178? .. n 37 60 8.7 3 36 3* 1*65 7n 3.4 1 1 * 174. 1 :z 6 * * 1' ir 3 * fit 15 * e- 8)5.6
NORMALS. MEANS AND EXTRAS TABLE NOTF.(S): l. Extreme wind dot* l* through 1 9M .
() Lerqth of record, years, throw* the current year unless otherwise noted, bated on January data.
(b) 70* ind above *t AlasVan stations.
lets than one half.
T trace.
NORMALS Rated on record for the 1741-1770 period.
DATl Of AN {JTR{H| The "oit recent In cates of Multiple OCCurrenre.
PREVAILING WIND D!RFCTION Record throw* 963.
KINO 01 C11 on NtxneraH Indicate ten* of degrees clocbrist from true north. 00 Indicate! cal*. fAStrs? Mil r Winn Speed is fattest observed i-einute value when fhe dlrerflon Is In tens of degrees.
Mean* and extrmei above err from existing and c^rnrahli Annual extreme* have been exrrrdcd at other *ltr* In f olIowa
Free 1pt tat ion
Trnpera Cure
Mi ghp* t 105 In Aug. IR7R.
Maximum rmrnth 1 y Mlnlmim monthly Maximum In h'-nr*
|. nl 1 1 t v a
V In Mav
00 In OfC . l*i
'1 tn 1R?6
, In (Vc . 1011


Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Vear" p-' Ft Ma* Apf May Jun JuFy Auf Sept Oct Nov D.c Annual Seaton^July AugjSept' Oct Nov! Dec Jan Feb Marl Apr M.y June! Total
M* * j*. j* .7 S?M I'M 7 S 4 1*. t M,1 S * *n. 3*.7 MM 1 / : 1 7 1 17 IS? 1 *1 1 i*u t* * *7 1*1 MH
i * 1 .7 7. t\. 1 . 77.* 1. *1 s*. 7 *C. 7 3 7 7 1 J * 7 ?l 77 47S 117 V ICS* 1 '* ? *17
m* 3. M * ss.s i:.* 77.* 71.5 1 7 7 .... * * 7. * 17 *. 1 ?: 3*.. 7* 31 * : 711 I n* v 1 1 n* 1 1 /*. 1 \ *' 1*
;..* .... * 1 .* *. .f 7. I 7 1.7 il.i ..7 >1.- 3 7.* M.7 1 7* 5 f 7*1 ?3?j 1 *s' */ 11 7? 1 '! 1* 1 10* 7"*
i , 1* 3 SS.l 1.- 77.s 77.* !* .7 ss 31.C 11.1 * 1 1 7 0 7 * 1 j711 1 77 :ri* *5* *3? 4 7 > *t 3*4
i ** * >* .* ?*.* 1*.7 .... 77.* 77.4 4*.. 7 M 7 1*. ;*.i *7.7 I7* 7s * 11 1' ! j7 : 7 7 7 i lit* l(j*t 7 S 1 1SS 3* 3 l* Ilf
i' *' i* t j ..i : .* > 17.* 7? 7 1.* 43.7 *. * l?. * 1 7 s 7 1 J* 1*5- :**. i| in*1 * 7 S *2 1 ICli 374 ?n* 1** 4*5*
*. !* .. SI.* 4 * 44.* 44 .* 40.5 S* M 3*. 1 3*. 7 S-.l l 7 V \ s 1 -cj M7i 77 1 C4 1 73* *4* 13? 73C its*
' * ?.* 3 3.7 :.* 17.3 4 * 11.5 70.7 4 1.'. *.7 31. 1 7* .0 .1 17 7 -7; J 1*8 ..J T1C| *7 1| 1 014 S 1 1 7 SOI 37* 75
mm 3*.. 33.* > S*. 7 7.3 7 3. 1 77.7 41.4 S 7. 1 37. 3 37.* S 1 7;77 7* c - 7 7 3! *7V| )l 101 1 Ot 3 *37 171 41 7i
J-..7 ;.* .. . 7. S3.* 47.7 * .- 7 1.7 14.0 s* .* 13.1 31.* SIM 1 7 7 * / ' 1 ? 3**| *tc j 17 3* 114? *?n 7 71 1*1 ?*C SI 4 *. *
ms* I* v 3.7 : S3.* 1. 7 * 3 7 4 77M IS.7 5? .* **.7 3-.7 Sl.S m 7 j -1. " 1*1 171 7 S 4 | 1C?7 1777 *31 !1 SO? 1 37 4 5?
7 ?7.: ss.s * ' 1 *. " 7',.* 73.1 43.* s*.- 34.7 IS.* S'..? 17'* 1 Ml, 111 < 42 3! 1 '* 3 1 C7* *5 1 s? 47) 337 s 1* .
1* V j..r 77.7 *..* 11. * 7 t. 77. ? 4* 7 4 S S SS.* 37.7 35.7 5 1.5 I* *5 r 1 *5' 111! 1*:' * ! 1 001 *c 5* 4* 7 S .i 51 *
MS7 r .* *'.7 i-.: ... 17. * 4 7 3. 77.1 41 .* SI .* 34.1 3*.s S' 7 c 7- 1*2, Si* 1 7SV' 7C 7 1 ICS * 771 * 1 * 137 n 1
MS* j;. * 17. : ?. .... *1 7 1 1 7C. 7 7 3 t 4* * S 7 * * C 4 ISM SI.* 7 1 3* JS* ' 7?7: *7 2 1 7 0t, *1* US * 3 S 3 3 S 1
M'M : *. :*.? :7.t 11.7 7 M 7 * 7 3.* 11.1 **.l 37.* 34.5 S'.' 1 7 7 7 7 7' 7l' lit n > 1 7* : 1 SO s* 7 S 1 * 7 3 11 3 1 1
1 7 7 l 2 *. 1 .: I'M. 17.7 4 7 7 3.? 7 3.* 1S.0 S7.0 3 *. S 74.5 * *. 7 !*> : 7! s* % j; *1 v|17 0* 74 74 S 1 * 7 7 *1 S 4 *
.: 3 1 7 ! 3'.? 3 * -I.7 11.7 4* 1 71 . 77.7 S 4.3 SO.C 3*. 2 7.7 *8 !* : 4 St* 38* 1*3! 7||j S3 *C1 777 740 7*3 a T
i *t ? 1 * 4 7 3*.* ! 7 1*. 1 *. s 77 .* 17.S 47.* S3 .* *1.7 37.4 **.7 M* 1 -7 1 1 7 1 * m s;: **5119 71 11 7 33 S 7 7 191 * 1
i 7 i *.: I7.7 I7.? : t'.* 1-.7 7. * 14.7 4 S * S 7 * *1.7 7 S SIM E 1 : tat 1 7*, ' MS'
Mi* J" .* 77. 3 .: . 1. t 11 1*.* 7 S * 70.* t 7.S S7.7 *C -C 12.7 ** 7
Ml ;. * :.* 7-..: 1 :.7 !*.! 4 7 * ?. 7 C 7 SS.7 SS.l 3.3 15.0 *. 1 1 1
1*48 ? .* j*.i 7*. -*. 3 : .7.* .t *.7 1? 7 1 7 t 4*.4 t -4 7* 4*. 1 70.4 14.7 45.0 47.1 S7.7 S?. 1 .s O.S 31 M 74.5 * Cooling Degree Days
* 3*.7 *-.1 . J S3.* 4 7. 71.7 17.1 7 2.* 7 3.* 40. * SIM 3* 0 *SM 3S.7 * Yaar Jan 1 Feb i Mar) Apr iMayUunej Jutyl Aug lSept j Oct Nov Dec Total
1*79 3' . 3*.* 33.t *3.7 SI 1 1.7 77.r s* .s 3* 1 33.3 .5 Ml* rj Cj '1 ?5 * 317 71* 1 C 0 0] *71
1*71 tl z = 1 11 * 1 22 7 7I 7 C c 0 0 45?
i?i 3;.:, 3C. 3* *. 7. 1*.2| 41. r 7 0.* 77.4 S7.S ** .* 3*. 1 31.* *.S
m j; 3 S , 3 7 **.t . 1 7. C 4*.3 7 C ? 71.C 47.1 S7.1 32 * 7* M * M mi: - c z C 1*5 703 ?*f S3 0 0 0 453
1*1: 2'. 3 3S.S 35 M * 3. 2 SS.l 4 7 S 71.0 73.S J*.S 31.4 ** * M>i r c *1 4 11 c 7 1 C 707 74 1 0 0 54?
1*7- ? 71 3 S 7 *3.7 * 7. 11. 4 * 7*.7 4* S s*.* S 7 * 34.0 31.7 S9M l*7! c c rl 7 134 1 ** 770 71 1 0 0 4 31
i*i* i:-| 3 .. 1 2 7 ; **.! S*. 3 4*.3 72.7 7 C t 34.( 31.5 *. 1*7* 0 c rl 34 111 397 1 S 7 3* c 0 0 US
c r c =1 3 4* 2*1 M7 31 s 0 0 ss*
1*7 37.3, 3*.3 J7.J SI. 7 41.3 7 S. 3 70.7 * 4 * 3S.S
M?* M.2 3 t.' 3*.* 11.1 It.7 71.* 7*. 2 70.7 *0.3 35.1 S7.S M7t 0 c c c 3 117 37* Ml S? 0 0 0 447
1*78 ? s. 31... *3.3 -. 4* .* 7* 7 4* .* **.7 M77 c 0 c 7 1 1 71 * 7*7 147 *3 0 0 0
1*7* 1 f .c, 3*.; *:.s 1*. 4*. 7 73.7 4 S 3 S * 5 1 7 1 0 0 c c 1? 1S 7 304 171 191 7 0 0 1*1
1*4' 2*.5 3*M. 3t.t 7. 7, 5 7.1 7 1.* 7fc.* 73.7 S2 * * 1.4 1.7 37.7 1*7* c 0 c c 2 11 7 7 7 S 113 102 0 0 441
MIC C c c 7 10 22* 3 S 4 713 4 1 0 0 *1
1*8 1 3'. 3, 31.; *1.2 St.* S 7 1 7 r 7 S * 72.C 35.1 S* 1
i'*: 3:.3 3i.* *1.1 *7.* SS.l 4 7. 1 72.7 7 3. 1 41.7 JSM *.? M*1 c c c 7 4 MS 3*6 731 121 1 c 0 *1?
c 11-c 1*87 c c 0 c 4 *7 7*7 7S7 S* 0 0 0 411
"* | 3- 37.* 3f 7 ?.t SI. 7 4 t. 7 77.* 71.3 47.4 SI .4 3*.4 37.* SC.3
-* *?. 7> * 1 S1. 3 4 c. ? 1*. 4 fc.l as. c 77.0 1S.S S 7 4 S. I 43.5
M.;j 2'..!. 2*.: 3..* * .0 s.7.* S 4 * S 7.4 *4.4 37.7 24.4 1 7 37.9
Precipitation Snowfall
Year | Jan Feb j Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Season | July Aug Sept Oct I Nov D.c Jan j Feb Mar Apr May June Total
1**3 C.23 c.: r 0. 3 *3* 7 l 1.77 0.77 l .7f 0.07 0.77 0.*1 C. J7 . 12 i**i-** 1 0.0 0.9 c.c 1.0 2.1 3.0 17.1 3. 3 74.1 23.4 7.1 0.0 1.1
m** 1 .Cl 1.21. M* SM7 1.73 0.*? 3.3* 0 4 1 C.01 0 S 7 0.37 1S.S* I*** -*S 0.0 0.0 c.c C.9 s.s S. 12.2 4.7 3.0 73.0 1 0.0 SS.l
i**s 0.7C Cm*! S.13 7 .c? 7.1* 2.SS 1.11 0.74 0.*0 0.0* IS.3* 1 S 4 c.o 0.0 1 2.3 3.4 0. 10.7 *.4 3.7 7 0.4 0.0 2SM
M*t 0.1* C.S2 2.0* l.*S c. a 7 1 .40 1.34 1.14 0.44 2M7 0.0* M. J* l**4-*7 c.o 0.0 0.* 3.8 31.1 C. 7 7. 1 7-3 12.0 * 7 1.3 7 1 .4
M*1 C 3 7 c.e*; i.c* i.ir *.41 2.71 1.52 1 .27 0 1 3. 1 0.73 0.77 1* 04 l**-*l 0.0 C.C 0.0 3.1 4 * 4 23.7 7. 3 77.0 s.s T 0.0 7* .*
M8 1 0. *; a. t 2 ?.s? 1 * 1 .** o.ao 0.* 1 o.*s 0. 11 0.4 S 0.74 17.4? 1**4-** c.o 0.0 0.0 CM 4.7 *. 1 70.S 0. * 1*.7 17.7 1 0.0 40.1
1*** 1.17 0C 31 7.7* 1 .* 2.31 .77 1-35 0. 7 0.74 1.31 0.01 0.13 14.74 i**-s: 0.0 c.o o.c 1.7 C.O 4. 4.4 7M SM *.0 13.4 0.0 S7M
ms? C. 7 c.7:; c.31 2.*r 2. ao 3.3? 0 S 4 0.77 1 .SB 0. 1 7 1.00 0.37 1 3 3 MSC-51 C.C c.o c.o o.c 1 1 M S. 1 S. 7 1 O.S 1 7.4 17.* 0.0 0.3 1* .1
MS! 0-13 0.7*1 J..7 7.31 1.71 2 .77 0.13 * .*7 0 7 7.11 1.17 0.4* 1 3 MSI -57 C.C o.c *.l 7.1 1 S 11.7 0.3 1 0.7 ? S 7 11.2 1 0.0 *.S
MS? 0.01 C.4| 2.1? 7.7* 3.01 0.1 7 1 .04 1 .*1 O.S* 0.14 1.31 0.1* 13. *2 1*57 -S 3 C.C 0.0 c.o 1.7 M.S 3. 7.* 1 4.S 11.4 12.0 l.T 0.0 44.7
MS! 0.3* 1.5*, 1.15 1.7* 7.11 1 .*1 1 .* 1.7S 0.20 0. * 1 .00 1.07 1 72 1*53-5* C.C o.c c.o C.l 1.2 1*. * 7.7 0.4 4.3 1.4 2.4 0.0 *1 .5
MS* 0.73 C.C*| c.* * c* 0.10 0 .11 1 .** 0.S1 0.77 0.01 0 S 7 CMl 7.51 MS* -SS 0.0 0.0 c.o CM 3. * 4. 3. S 1 7.7 M.S * * 0.0 0.0 51. C
MSS 0.23 c... 1 .3* 7.** 2 1 7.77 o.ll 0.S4 0. IS 14.OS MSS -Si C.C c.o c.o *.l 1.3 7. 4.3 1 C.S 13.0 3.7 1 0.0 17.1
1* S 8 0.3* 0.77 C.l* c.77 7.34 0 .* *.17 1.43 0.01 0.77 1.75 0.47 13.72 1*54-51 o.c 0.0 C.C O.C 7 C.t 71.3 4. 5.3 1.4 M 75.S .4 0.0 74.1
MS7 0.3? C.7!1 I.C* *.l 3 7.31 1 .0* 1 .7* 2.03 0 2 7.17 0.** 0.04 71.54 1*57-51 0.0 3.* 1.0 0. M 1 7. C 1*M 1 1 0.0 0.0 S 7 |
MS* 0.73 1.::! i.* 1.7? .... 1 .*7 3.SO 1.17 I .SI 0.37 0.7* 0.4* 14.40 1*54-5* , C.C c.o T 2.8 *.l 7. 17.1 l J.S 74.4 11.4 7 0.0 **.3
MS* 1.2* 1.21; 7.1* 1.21 3.33 0 .** 0.13 0.7S 1.47 2.*4 o.o 0.74 14.S* l**-4C 1 C.OI 0.0 12.* 1 1.8 5.3 7. 10. 7 1 *. 3 * .0 *.3 T 0.0 C.C
1*4? C.77 l.tft C.l* 2.St 2.77 0.13 1.31 0.04 0.34 2.*1 0.** 1 .SO 1* .*4 1 1
1 1C 4 l: C.C c.o o.c .8 S.l 17. 1 .0 7. * 7*.7 4.4 4.1 o.c C.t
l*6l C.O C.t* 2.SI 1 .21 *.17 1.11 1 .40 1.71 * 47 0.77 OM 3 0.39 1 0 1 Mil -17 c.o! 0.0! s.* 8.71 11.* 3. M.i 11.3 4 .4 1P.C 0.0 0.0 72.5
Me-7 1.33 i.n. c.s: 1 .1C C.t* 1 .S? O.S* 0. *4 0. M 0.0s 0.41 0.17 4 S 1*17-43, C.01 0.0 c.7 C.9 s.c 1.7- *.l 7.1 11.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 34. ?
Mt 3 0.7 1 0.2: 1. 7 C.33 c.ia 3 .S* c.ss 2 S 7 1 ?S 0.31 CMS O.S 1 17.73 1*43-1* C.C. 0.01 C.C 1.11 3.5 SM 7.4 1 7M 18.* 17.1 1.0 0.0 S7. ?
M4* 0.21 I.C* 1.3C 1 .7S 7.S3 0 -a? 0.77 0.77 o.*i 0. 14 0.44 o.*o 10. I* Ml* -1*. I C.C 0.0 o.c T ..0 ... :.2 1 7.1 1* .* 0. 3 0.0 SS.*
1 *t * 1.30 1.:7 1.2: 1 .3* 1.47 * .1* 4.* 1 1 .04 7.S4 o.*s 0.34 0.S3 71.47 1*15-18 C.O C.C .o r.r s.s S. 4 3.4 1 *.4 7.4 4 2M 0.0 *4.*
Mt 0.30 1.2* C.37 1 .*t 3.3* 1 .*1 1 .0* 7.04 1 .IS 0M1 0. 37 0.17 10.81 1 8 4 8 7 C.C C.c: 7 3.0 1 * * * *.* 4.4 3.4 3.0 0.0 10.*
Mi* o.i* .0.3* C.7 3.*S * 7 T * .4* J.2*> 0.4 3 0.40 1.13 1 .01 1 .Cl 23. 31 l*47-t8 c.o C.Oi o.c . * M 1 3. 1 1.0 7.3 9.2 IS 1 1 0.0 SI. 1
M*r C.M C.7. c.l* 2.3* C. 71 C.S0 I 3* 7.S3 O.S* 0.75 0.71 0.S1 17.13 Mi* -t* C.OI 0.0 o.c CM S.l 4. 7.4 *.7 13.2 1 0.0 0.0 33.*
M** C. M om? i.r 1.3? 1.17 7.** 1 .41 0.7* 1 .47 *. 17 0.47 0.3? 21.57 1 *8 7? 0.0! c.o c.o II.7 S.l 1.11 CM n.3 20.S *.l 1 0.0 45.r
Mtr 0.1C c.:: 1.3* C .* 7 C.l* 3.13 1 .47 O.S* 7.*7 0.44 1.1* 0.0* 1 JM3 1*7C-71 C.C c.c * .1 I.. *.? C. 4.4 11.* * .1 4.0 1 0.0 54 .*
M 7 l 0.1S 0.7* C.12 1 .*8 1.3* C.73 1 .20 o.as 7.45 0.** 0.14 0.7S 1 0 *4 1*71-7? C.C C.0| 17.2 1.1 1 .* a. 10.* *. 1 1.1 17.7 0.0 0.0 7* .
mt: C.38 c.** o.s: 3.12 c.** 7 ** 0.43 2.71 2.07 0.17 1 .4* C.70 11.47 1*12-73 C.C o.c c.o *.* I7.* *.B 17.1 1.0 1S.1 ? .4 1.0 0.0 *1.5
i*: 1.31 O.lt l.T* 3.T? S.Ct c 2 r 7.*7 1.74 ?.as 0M7 0.13 7.4* 7 7. *4 1*73-7. c.o. c.o! o.c 2.3 *.3 3C. f 4.7 1 J 12.4 17.4 c.o T *1 .5
1*74. i.:s c. 1: 1.:: :.7* z. Cl 2.01 7.3* 0.11 0 8 1.48 1 .Cl C.7* 1* .03 1*7* O.c c.o I.C 2.1 3.4 *.0 1 3 1C.* 4.1 0.0 SS .*
mi: C.?3 :. 1 2.ac 2.11 7.7 2.00 0.7* C. 30 1 .41 C 7 IS. Si
1*7S- 7l C.C c.c c.c ?.i IS. 7 7.: 3.7 8 * 14.7 1.7 0.0 0.0 s. 7
M'l C.M C.S 1.3* i .:7 C .13 2.31 1 B 0M3 0.37 0.1* 1 1. 1 1*71-77 , C.C c.c c.c 7.7 S 3. s 2M 3. 1 * .4 7 0.0 0.0 3i.t
MT C. It c.:7 1.: - ? :. 3* 2.** 1 .03 c. 10 0 f C.S* C.CI 10. 3* M77-7| I.C C.Oi 0.9 !.! *.i| r. S.l 4.2 1.1 * 4 1 3.S o.c 4.5
1*7 !.i; 3. 1.n O.S* C. 0 7 l.*s o.so 0.8 7 11.70 1*74-71 0.0 o.c 7 1. * 1 *. ? *.! S.8 14.7 4. 1 .2 0.0 73.:
M 7 C. 3* c. *: 1.; 1 ; .* 1 3. S3 o.a 1 S.4S C 31 1 .?* 1 .*1 I .Cl 7C. 31 i*7*-: . --C 0.0 c.c, 7.7 .-2.1 It. S; 17.1 *.4 17.1 10.0 1 0.0 SM
m : 2.4. 7.73 0.1C 0.44 11.87
l**c-i: . C.C C.Oi o.c 1.5 7.1 .? *.l *. 3 7* .C 2 M 7 0.0 s.:
Mr 1 c.: c.* : 3.7* : .13 0.*n 1.11 0. 3S 0.7* 0. 7 C.11 17.S* 1**1 -s: C.C c.o c.: 3.3 . * 1.8 2.1 2.0 7 0.0 78.7
M* : 0.1J c.: c.11 j. J. e CM? 1.11 1.34 1 .SI 0 7 7.3* 1* MS 1**?-*: C.C o.r c.: i.?: i.B 27. J
*t c**( trr*r 1
-f c.*7 a.s7 1.1: 2.*? I .** 1 .4* 1 .*? 1. 1C 1 .cc 0.47 0.13 1*.S5 1 0.0 1 C.C, 1.4 ... 1.4 2.0 7.S 17.4 *. 1 1.4 1 s*.:
* In ..a tv m t.l iltl rt>Vl r1locattun i>! in*! rurnti t S<< Ma :or. Loolum t
Mt O r; -* wla - -I- '< aft .cans thr i*uri> t * turn nt i-af f.T t 1. pr tod brfctnnir.
lf'2 for temper tur* end pr rr ip 11 t ion 1*JJ (or tnowf11. Tezpenture and prec1 pitettur re l rcr Cl tv Ol(lc* location throuch 19J-. Haatinr degree dav* are (rots Clt'- Offict locations throuc^ Jmr l*Jt. Snowfall if f ror Citv Office location* through Jcne 1*?-. Otherwi** the data are from Airport location*.


Possible Applications for Climatic Data


1 r
BUILDING LOCATION
Care must be taken in placing the building on the site. To take advantage of the sun in Denver, where heating is needed during the winter, the building should be placed in the northern portion of the site. This insures that the outdoor areas placed to the south will have adequate winter sun and it will minimize the possibility of shading the building in the future by off-site developments. People enjoy warm sunny spaces.
BUILDING SHAPE AND ORIENTATION
The rough shape of the building will be defined with consideration for admitting sunlight into the building. A building elongated along the east-west axis will expose more surface area to the south during the winter for collection of solar radiation. This is also the most efficient shape for minimizing heating requirements in the winter and cooling in the summer.
The north side of the building is coldest and darkest. The north side of the market will receive westerly afternoon sun. The auditorium, which does not require natural light will be located to the north in the cultural center.

ENTRANCE
An air lock entrance prevents large quantities of warmed or cooled air from leaving the building each time the door is opened, since only the air within the enclosed space can escape. The infiltration of cold air that normally occurs around exterior doors will be virtually eliminated because the entry creates a stf11-air space between the interior and exterior doors. The entrance should be oriented away from the prevailing winter winds or provide a windbreak to reduce the wind's velocity against the entrance.


6v^EZC<

A ]A*
i\l o eTt+&2-LV W/WT70U^>
VJI blX?0Ute %fcC&£££> AMT7 £>£D6b£
WINDOW LOCATION
Windows are located to the southeast, south and southwest, according to the requirements of the internal spaces. Windows on the north side of the building are kept small. Wherever possible windows are recessed to reduce heat loss. For safety and security reasons, exterior glazing on the first level is plexiglass. Double glazing reduces heat loss.
THERMAL MASS WALLS
Either water or masonry can be used for a thermal mass wall, water being slightly more efficient than masonry. Both require that the predominant architectural expression of the building is south facing glass, which functions as a collecting surface. It admits no natural light, however, windows can be included in the wall to admit heat, natural light and also permit a view. Water tubes accommodate these qualities more readily.
k;4T££
-tt>LL£ WINDOW/WALL RATIO
Provide between 0.19 and 0.3 8 square feet of south-facing glass for each one square foot of space floor area. This amount of glazing will admit enough sunlight to keep the space at an average temperature of 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit during much of the winter here In Denver. Locating a thermal mass within each space will prevent daytime overheating and large temperature fluctuations as heat will be absorbed during the day and released at night. Splaying the wall will Increase heat gain in the winter.


CLERESTORIES AND SKYLIGHTS
South-facing clerestories and skylights distribute sunlight over a space or can be used to direct it to a particular interior surface. The ceiling of the clerestory is finished in a light color and shading devices are used to control summer sun. A fan directs heat downward.
SUMMER COOLING
Because Denver is a hot dry climate in the summer, cooling becomes an important issue. Recommendations include making the roof a light color or reflective material, opening the building up to prevailing summer breezes during the day, and arranging inlets and outlets, making the area of the outlets slightly larger than the inlets, and using shading devices and landscaping. The "time lag" of the exterior skin as well as Insulating materials also have an effect on how much cooling is needed.
The information in this section was adapted from Edward Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book (Emmaus, PA:Rodale Press 1979), PP. 73-253


Bi bliography
1. ASHRAE (1976) Climate Data for Air Conditioning Design Rocky Mountain Chapter Region Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Environs, First Edition.
2. Community Resource Development, County Information Service, Cooperative Extension Service, Colorado State University, 1974, Denver County, Colorado, Office of the Director, Community Resource Development, Ft. Collins, Colorado.
3. Koenigsberger, O.H., Ingersoll, T.A., Mayhew, A., Szokolay, S.V., 1974, Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part One: Climatic Design, Longman; London.
4. McGuinness, Stein, Reynolds, 1980, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, Sixth Edition, John Wiley & Sons; New York.
6. Ruffner, J.A., 1974, The Weather Almanac, Book Tower; Detroit.
6. Szokolay, S.V., 1980, Environmental Science Handbook.
7. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1980, Climates of the States, Second Edition, Volume 1, Book Tower; Detroit.
8. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1980, Climatological Data National Summary, Volume 31, Number 13, National Climatic Center; Asheville, NC.
9. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1981, Climatological Data Annual Summary, Volume 86, Number 13, National Climatic Center; Asheville, NC.


CHAPTER 9
CODE SEARCHES
Project Name: SHORTER A.M.E. CHURCH Location: 3100 Richard Allen Court
Denver, Colorado____________
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: Denver
Zoning Check By: Douglas Jay Freeman
Date: ._9-?-5.-.8fi
Section Page
59-161 4189
59-16? 4189
*

59-164 4193
Item
Proposed uses Church
Present Zoning Classification R~?A Applicable Allowable Uses _____Ohnrrh
Zone Change Required? ^ Minimum Lot Size
area: ____________________
width: NZ^__________________
Minimum Yard Requirements
front: ?0: for oblong 5' if face longer dimensions ..
10 if facer shorter dimension


rear:
Detached 5', others 20
side: _10.!____________________________________________
both sides: _121_______________________________________
allowances for overhangs: 3 front; 5 rear and 3 side
Maximum FAR N/A________________________________________
Available Bonuses ^/A__________________________________
59 164___ 4197 Maximum Height ____________________________________________
feeL. IIP1 maximum____________________________________
stories: __________________________________________
59-164 4196-97 Bui* punes Starting 10 above midpoint of lot lines
and center line of abutting streets and alleys sloping at 45
Offstreet Parking
rqd. spaces by use: .
See Article IV and VI Loading Sec. 59-588 = 1/4 of lot P 4349 Class 3
rqd spaces for project: _______________________________________
parking permitted in setbacks?: --------------------------
Compact not to exceed 50% of total


Open Space Requirements N/A
59-164----- -412.4....- Landscaping Kqmts. Front, and sidp set backs to be
4195
used for landscaping and access_________________________________
59-164 4195 Fences 48" maximum height front, 72" rear and sides
_________ _______ Sign Restrictions 2 per lot, 6 square maximum'
6" high maximum_____________________________________
Other Special Requirement* N/A


IMMMS tS0S3 MSS
ProjectSHORTER fl.H.E. CHURCH Location* ^100 Richard Allen Court Denver, Colorado
Applicable Code Name*___Denver___________________________________
Code Check Ry* D-d- Freeman______________________ 10-14-86
Section
Page
511 5-11
511 5-11

2001 20-1
TBUT 18-1 "
511 5-13
502 5-1
505/5C 5-3/5-1
Item
Fire zone __3_____________________________________________
Occupancy classification B-2
Principle An asspmhly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more Others (specify)_Ll/A_____________________________________
Construction type 111
Occupancy separations required___H/A
to m hours
to m hours
to m hours
to m hours
. to m hours
Changes in occupancy N/A______________
Maximum ailoarable floor area 13.596
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides_-----------------n/a
If over one story ^____________________________________________n/a
If sprinklered N/A
n/a
Increases for fire separations
N/A
n/a


506/5-D
506
1803
types)
54/5-15 Huiaufl allowable height
Feet_____65;________________
5-5
Stories
n/a
n/a
n/a
18-1
Towers, spires, steeples Limited only by structural design
if noncombustible; 20' above table 5-D if combustible
Fire resistance of exterior walls (see occupancy U construction
North ______2_______________________________________________
South ______2_______________________________________________
East________2_______________________________________________
Vest________2_______________________________________________
1701/17-C 17-15 Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior vails n/a
North _____20J______________________________________________
South _____20J______________________________________________
East_______20f______________________________________________
Vest_______20;______________________________________________
603______ 6-1 Location vithin city/ location on property City no limit/ a/a
Property 201_______________________________________________
1 _________ Use of Public Property _____________________________________ n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property7----------
Restrictions on marquees, conopies. etc.____________________
605
Other projections__________________________________
6-1 Yindows required in rooms Natural or artificial liahtn/a.
in all of building
Vindow area_____________________________________________
5222
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd.----------
52-23 Ventilation requirements As required in ASHRAE___________n/a
Standard 62-73
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
n/a


17-A
2001
17-12
20-1
Minimum floor ire* of rooms Fire resistive requirements____
Exterior bearing walls_____2
Interior bearing walls_
1
Exterior non-bearing walls _2_____________
Structural frame ___________1 hr. or H.T.
Permanent partitions
Exit corridor walls___
Vertical openings_____
Floors _______________
Roofs ________________
1 hr. or H.T.
1 or H.T.
1 or H.T.
1 or H.T.
Exterior doors
Exit doors & frames Inner court walls _
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) Roof coverings______________
Boiler room enclosure
n/a
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
n/a
Structural requirements Any mater,iaLjerm.it.t.pri hy this
code.
Framework 1 hr. or H.T. r structural stppl niaqnnry, hrs reinforced concrete
Stairs Wood at. 1 past ?" think nr as rnnstrimtpH flnnr hrs
decks. Floors 1 hr. or H.T. hrs
Roofs 1 hr. or H.T. hrs
Partitions 1 hr. or H.T. hrs
3302 _ 33-3 Exits At. least 3
Occupancy 500-999
Basis
Actual Load


Number of exits required
n/a
3302 33-4
3302 33-4
Minimum width of exits Total occupancy load/50 which is divided equally among the exits______________________
Exit separation arrangement__________________________n/a
3302 33-4
nn? 33-5
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit____________________n/a
With sprinklers______________________________________________
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas)_________n/a
3303 33-5 Exit doors__________________________________________________ n/a
Minimum width & height W 3' -0" H 6' -8"___________
Maximum leaf width 4'_________________________________
Width required for number of occupants_________________
Swing Direction of travel exit_________________________
Change in floor level at door 1" lower maximum_________
3304 33-7 Exit Corridors____________________________________________n/a
Required width 44"_____________________________________
Required height _ZJ____________________________________
i
Dead end corridors length not over 20'_______________


3305
22=1
Openings Nnt. over ?5i nf corridor arpa________________
Stairs__________________________________________________ n/a
Min width 44" ncc load nf more than Rfl
36" ncc Inadnf 50 or less
30" occ lnadnf less than 10
occ.load of
3305 33-9
3305 33-9
3305 33-9
3305 33-9
Maximum riser allowed 7 1 /?"________________________n/a
Minimum tread allowed 10"____________________________ n/a
Winding, circular, spiral stairs not al 1 owed_______ n/a
Landings equal to width of stair_____________________ n/a
Minimum width rqd. 3'_______________________________
Maximum width rqd. LI_______________________________
Vertical distance between landings 13' -6"___________
Handicap refuge space _______________________________
3305
3305
3305
33-11 stair to roof rqd.? If over 4 stories______________________ n/a
______ Stair to basement restrictions ____________________________ n/a
______ Stair enclosure rqd.?______________________________________ n/a
33-10 Stair headroom LL minimum__________________________________ n/a
33-13 Handrails__________________________________________________ n/a
Rqd. at each side? Yes_____________________________________
Intermediate rails rqd.? Every 88" of width___________
Max. width between interior rails_______§8^___________
Rqd. height Hof less than 30" or greater than 34"
Max. openings in rails________________________________
Height above nosing __________________________________


Extension of railing 6" at least
Projection from vail 1 l/2"
Exceptions__________________________
3307
3306
509
509
5-E-l
6401
6401
33-12
33-12
5-6
5-6
5-16
64-1
64-1
Horizontal exit requirements Openings protected by n/a
1 hr. rating discharge areas 3 square feet per occupant.
Ramps _________________________________________________n/a
Width Same as stairs_________________________________
Maximum slope 1 t0 8 £1:_____________________________
Landings 1-15; top &- bottom: 1 per 5' rise, minimum 5' Handrails At least 1 side; 32" high minimum; 1' extension
Exit signs rqd. _____________________________________
Toilet room requirements (code utilized?) Yes__________n/a
Fixture requirements (basis?) _________________________n/a
^omen Minimum of 1 w.c. and lavatory 1-75____________
MeQ Minimum of 1 w.c. and lavatory 1-100; urinals 1 w.c. per urinal
Drinking fountains 1 Per floor________________________n/a
Shovers
Handicapped Requirements
See zoning ordinance
n/a
CH.
6403
64-8 Accessible Routes At 1 east one


6403
Accessible bathrooms
64-31
Accessible housing ______________________________________ n/a
Number of units__________________________________________
Minimum requirements_____________________________________
Special rqmts. not listed
n/a


PART IV PROGRAM


ASK, AND IT SHALL BE GIVEN YOU; SEEK, AND YE SHALL FIND;
KNOCK, AND IT SHALL BE OPENED UNTO YOU.
ST. LUKE 11:9