Citation
A method for optimizing recreation opportunities for flatwater recreation

Material Information

Title:
A method for optimizing recreation opportunities for flatwater recreation
Creator:
Frye, Debra S
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
112 leaves : illustrations (some color, some folded), charts, form, folded maps (some color) ; 28 cm +

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aquatic sports facilities -- Planning ( lcsh )
Aquatic sports facilities -- Case studies -- Powell, Lake (Utah and Ariz.) ( lcsh )
Recreation areas -- Planning ( lcsh )
Recreation areas -- Case studies -- Powell, Lake (Utah and Ariz.) ( lcsh )
Aquatic sports facilities ( fast )
Aquatic sports facilities -- Planning ( fast )
Recreation areas ( fast )
Recreation areas -- Planning ( fast )
United States -- Lake Powell ( fast )
Genre:
Case studies. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Case studies ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 93-100).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
presented by Debra S. Frye.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15564063 ( OCLC )
ocm15564063
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1986 .F78 ( lcc )

Full Text
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METHOD FOR
OPTIMIZING RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR FLATWATER RECREATION
A THESIS
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
DEBRA FRYE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO/DENVER
MAY 1986


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A METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR
FLATWATER RECREATION
Presented to:
Phil Flores Acting Director Lauri MacMillian-Johnson Professor Jerry Shapins Professor
Presented by:
Debra S. Frye Thesis Candidate May 15, 1986
Graduate School of Landscape Architecture College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
A THESIS


THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL
FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
ACCEPTED:
Program Director
FACULTY ADVISOR:
COMMITTEE MEMBER:
COMMITTEE MEMBER:
o. Am-l., Mat ^
v (Date)
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SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
DEDICATED TO
DADDY AND THE MOO


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
THESIS COMMITTEE
Phillip E. Flores Landscape Architect
Acting Director School of Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver
Mike Snyder Landscape Architect Rocky Mountain Regional Office National Park Service
Charles McConnell Recreation Planner and Forestor Rocky Mountain Regional Office United States Forest Service


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my thesis committee members:
Phillip E. Flores Mike Snyder Charles McConnell
Special thanks to the following people who gave me support encouragement and assistance:
Chris Frye support person Tania Fendel graphic assistance
Jean Thompson, Liz Frye and Jean Drake babysitting


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
"Understanding how people use and value the spatial environment is the key to planning sites that fit human purpose."
Kevin Lynch
"Recreation is a social experience.
Phillip E. Flores


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
Chapter 2 TOPIC SELECTION AND PROJECT PROCESS CHART
10
Chapter 3 INTRODUCTION 14
3.1 OBJECTIVES 16
3.2 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROFESSION OF LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE 17
Chapter 4 RECREATION BACKGROUND 18
4.1 FLATWATER RECREATION AND THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
18
Chapter 5 COMPREHENSIVE RECREATION PLANNING AND DESIGN
21
Chapter 6 SOCIAL FACTORS IN RECREATION DESIGN 24
Chapter 7 METHOD FOR DETERMINING SOCIAL FACTORS FOR
FLATWATER RECREATION 27
7.1 STEP ONE: USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION 28
7.1.1 Formal Survey 31
7.1.2 Informal Survey 31
7.1.3 Observation 32
7.2 STEP TWO: PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES 32
7.2.1 Inventory of Physiographic Influence
Factors 34
7.3 Step Three: CLASSIFY RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
36
7.3.1 Setting: 38
7.3.2 Experience: 39
7.3.3 Activities: 39
7.4 STEP FOUR: RECREATION OPPORTUNITY MAPPING 42
7.5 STEP FIVE: ESTABLISHMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND
DESIGN DECISION 43


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
7.6 STEP SIX: ESTABLISH DESIGN ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO
OPTIMUM DESIGN GUIDELINES 44
7.7 STEP SEVEN: MONITORING 45
7.8 APPLICATIONS 47
Chapter 8 CASE STUDY - LAKE POWELL 49
8.1 BACKGROUND 50
8.1.1 Natural History 52
8.1.2 Socioeconomic Factors 52
8.1.3 Recreation 53
8.2 LIMITS OF THE STUDY 54
8.3 PROPOSED ANTELOPE POINT MARINA SCENARIO 54
8.3.1 Present Use 54
8.3.2 Marina Proposal 56
Chapter 9 INVENTORY OF EXISTING RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
CASE STUDY - LAKE POWELL 59
9.1 Step One: USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION 59
9.1.1 Survey Results 61
9.2 Step Two: INVENTORY OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES
64
9.3 Step Three: CLASSIFICATION OF RECREATION
OPPORTUNITIES 67
9.4 Step Four: RECREATION OPPORTUNITY MAPPING 69
Chapter 10 ANTELOPE POINT MARINA CHANGES IN THE
RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES 71
10.1 Step One: USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION 71
10.2 Step Two: INVENTORY OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES
74
10.3 Step Three: CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANTELOPE
POINT
RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES 75
10.4 Step Four: RECREATION OPPORTUNITY MAPPING 78
10.5 Step Five: ESTABLISHMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND
DESIGN DECISIONS 78
10.6 Step Six: OPTIMUM DESIGN GUIDELINES 82
10.7 Step Seven: MONITORING 86
Chapter 11 CONCLUSION 88
Chapter 12 GRAPHIC INDEX 110


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
Chapter 13 SLIDE INDEX




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
1-7
Chapter 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
HYPOTHESIS
Designers need to understand and be able to evaluate the needs of users, and the ability of the resource to support those needs, in order to develop appropriate and useful design. A need exists for a method that can be used by managers/designers to determine social requirements as they apply to the management and design of flatwater recreation resources.
Recreational use of'flatwater resources is increasing. Development of reservoirs, and increasing use of natural flatwater resources, has created a demand for better methods of evaluating impacts that aid in better management and design related to flatwater recreation.
Presently, flatwater recreation areas are experiencing overuse problems from a social standpoint and an environmental standpoint. Comprehensive resource management requires that user satisfaction as well as environmental impacts be considered in development, design and planning of flatwater resource use.
Overcrowding effects user satisfaction and the quality of the recreation experience. Therefore, it is critical that the


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
1-8
manager/designer understand and be able to evaluate social factors that influence the "optimum recreation use" of a
particular resource. Only when the social factors have been considered along with environmental and the life, health, safety factors, can effective design and management decisions be established.
This thesis outlines a method which the landscape architect or recreation manager can use to determine the "optimum" recreation use in a framework which can be applied for refinement of planning, management and design for a variety of flatwater resources.
While methods for determining the influence of social factors for land based recreation have been established, a definitive method for determining the influences of social factors for flatwater resources has not been adequately developed to date.
The method outlined in this paper uses some of the techniques and components proven in land based evaluations. It then applies them to the unique requirements of flatwater recreation areas.
The method involves the study and evaluation of the user, user experience and needs, recreation activity type, physiographic influences and recreation settings. All of these components comprise recreation opportunities that can be applied to a particular flatwater resource to assist the manager/designer in making sound planning, management and design decisions for the


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
1-9
recreation user and the resource.
The method will be applied to a case study on Lake Powell in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The method will demostrate how to determine the present recreation opportunities; then demonstrate the change in the recreation opportunities as a result of a proposed marina developoment.
To properly design and manage a resource it is important to know and be able to evaluate all the factors that affect the total resource. This method provides a means for evaluation and determination of social factors with regard to management and design of flatwater resources.
Key words: social factors, user satisfaction, quality
recreation experience, optimum recreation use, flatwater recreation




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
2-10
Chapter 2
TOPIC SELECTION AND PROJECT PROCESS CHART
When considering a topic for my thesis I decided upon some specific criteria. These criteria were:
1. The topic had to be natural resource based.
2. The topic had to be related to water.
3. The topic had to exhibit the opportunity for some original research and thought.
4. The topic had to have a practical, real life application.
5. The topic had to be interesting, as well as bearable, to span the entire thesis year.
In searching for a topic I was introduced to a project that focused on the social factors and their influence to recreation planning and design for Lake Powell in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
I was familiar with the physical and biological environment from


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
2-11
my background in physical geography and environmental biology.
And as a landscape architect trained to study the physical space in order to arrange and design objects in space to create shape and form.
I always felt that social factors had a most important influence, because they dictated to the designer how the user will behave, function and use a space. By understanding the user, the designer can create shape and form that successfully fulfills the physical, as well as the social requirements of the desired space.
However, the social factors in many ways have been considered "soft", because there is no real way to quantify their importance or influence in creating shape and form. They have in the past been simply overlooked.
Realizing the importance and recognizing the need for the design professional to understand the social environment, I decided for my thesis, to develop a method that can quantify social factors. This method called, The Social Factor Method, had to integrate the physical and social factors and be able to be applied in design and planning for flatwater recreation. In addition, the project met all of my thesis topic criteria.
I felt Lake Powell offered an outstanding opportunity as a case study to apply the developed method. I will be applying the Method to the proposed Antelope Point marina. First the Method


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
2-12
will demostrate how it can be used to describe and inventory the existing social conditions and recreation opportunities within the study area. Secondly, the Method will then demostrate how a development, such as the proposed Antelope Point marina, can change the existing recreation opportunities. Finally, how the Method can document these changes and aid the manager/designer in making management and design decisions that are appropriate to the social, as well as the physical environment of the study area.
Portions of this thesis and the Social Factor Method will be presented at the Conference On Science In the National Parks -1986, to be held July 13th -18th at Colorado State University in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In addition, portions of this thesis and the Social Factor Method will be applied to the current carrying capacity study for Lake Powell by the National Park Service.
There is interest in modification of the Social Factor Method for application to river corridors.
The following process chart illustrates the path the thesis followed from beginning to end. See Chart #1 Project Process
Chart




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
3-14
Chapter 3 Introduction
Lakes, rivers and oceans have always been important to the fulfillment of man's physical, sociological and psychological needs. Because water oriented recreation is an important vehicle in fulfilling some of these needs, water bodies are increasingly valued for their recreation potential (Hammon 1974).
With the world a very complex and complicated place, the needs and wants of people have also become complex and complicated. As a result, more and more people are seeking to escape from their complicated lives. These escapes often take the form of recreation; and recreation has a multitude of activities, experiences and settings, all comprising a variety of recreation opportunities. The focus of this thesis will be on the recreation opportunities that occur on flatwater resources and how the designer can enhance or maintain those recreation opportunities through planning, management and design.
Good design is conceived in knowledge (Hiller, Musgrove and O'Sullivan). Today, manager/designers realize the importance of understanding and becoming sensitized not only to the biophysical


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
3-15
elements, but to the social elements as well.
Opportunities and constraints are so often limited to the physical landscape. Equally important in considering the opportunities and constraints are the social factors. It is important to integrate both the physical and the social aspect when developing complete and thoughtful design in order to maintain a healthy environment and a happy recreation user.
The designer is often called upon to evaluate the relationship between human behavior and experience with regard to the physical setting (Proshansky). Understanding the interrelationship between the experiences the recreation user is seeking and how the physical landscape and the manmade landscape can enhance those experiences will aid the designer in determining who to design for, what to design, in what dimension, quantity and location.
It a valuable tool in small scale site design, as well as large scale regional design and planning.
The purpose and intent of this thesis is to develop and demonstrate a quantifiable method that can be used in understanding and determining social factors and how they can be used in planning and design to optimize recreation opportunities and user experience for flatwater recreation resources.


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
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3.1 OBJECTIVES
1. To develop a method that can quantitatively identify the social factors in flatwater recreation design, planning and management.
2. To educate the manager/designer to the importance of social factors in comprehensive recreation planning and design.
3. To understand the recreation user's needs, and by identification of those needs, how the manager/designer can design and plan to provide a quality recreation experience and a satisfied user.
4. To demonstrate the influence and importance of social factors in small scale design and planning, as well as large scale comprehensive design and planning.
5. To establish design guidelines that optimize specific recreation opportunities, facility development and mix of experiences and activities.
6. To apply the Method using a real life case study.


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3.2 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROFESSION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
The definition of Landscape Architecture according the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is:
"The art of design, planning or management of the land, arrangement of natural and man-made elements thereon -through application of cultural and scientific knowledge, with concern for resource conservation and stewardship, to the end that the resultant environment serves a useful and enjoyable purpose."
The profession has many broad applications and meanings. The contribution of this thesis to the field of landscape architecture is to further the understanding of the social factor regarding recreation design and planning. Also to give the profession a quantifiable method that can be used as a design and planning tool for measuring, understanding and applying social factors for establishing optimum recreation opportunities for flatwater resources.




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Chapter 4
RECREATION BACKGROUND
4.1 FLATWATER RECREATION AND THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
People have always had an attraction to water for it's refreshing and pleasurable qualities. Water has been incorporated in landscape design for centuries having spiritual and symbolic meaning throughout time (Jellicoe and Jellicoe 1984). Water has been used for aesthetic accents in the landscape, has been developed for the purpose for water storage and, in recent times been developed to provided recreation.
PHOTO # 1 TAJ MAHAL
Frederick Law Olmstead, a pioneer landscape architect in the mid-


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1800 's, considered water an essential element for aesthetic as well as for recreation purposes in his park designs (Wurman,
Levy, Katz 1972) He believed in setting aside areas for specific types of active and passive uses. He also set aside areas that provided for specific types of experiences, such as tranquil and quiet or crowded and noisy. His design for Central Park is an example of separate spaces for specific types of recreation opportunities and specific types of users. It has been proven to be one of the most successful large metropolitan parks because of the designation of separate areas. These separate areas are strongly linked together by pathways that function successfully to form a comprehensive park design.
Since World War II, the development of reservoirs by such entities as the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corp Of Engineers has increased tremendously. The increase in leisure time, more disposable income, better accessibility to the areas and the greater development of facilities, newly formed reservoirs soon beqan to
PHOTO *2 OLMSTEAD-1885


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feel the effects of an everdemanding, water recreation loving public (Greenwood and Edwards 1973). Whenever or wherever there is a body of water that can be used for recreation, the demand almost always will exceed the supply.
This overzealous love for the flatwater recreation resource has created problems such as overcrowding, conflicts among the different recreation users, deterioration of the resource, and jeopordization of safety. In many cases poor recreation quality has been the result, and the recreation user has become unsatisfied (Schreyer and Knopf no date, Lime and Lucas 1976).
The manager/designer must address these types of problems when planning and designing for the recreation resource.




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Chapter 5
COMPREHENSIVE RECREATION PLANNING AND DESIGN
There are many components in comprehensive recreation planning and design. The manager/designer must be able to evaluate, understand and make sound decisions concerning the recreation resource (Lime and Peterson 1979). Comprehensive recreation planning and design becomes like a puzzle with the many different components or pieces of that puzzle.
DIA. 1
These pieces are interconnected and equally important


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When the pieces are put together they form a complete puzzle or in this case, a comprehensive plan.
It is important to recognize that there is not a single piece or component that can be considered exclusive. It is important to study each piece and understand how it interrelates to the whole picture. However, for the purpose of this thesis we will concentrate on the social component.


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Kevin Lynch, a contemporary landscape architect (Lynch 1971), emphasized the importance of the social component when he said:
"Understanding how people use and value the spatial environment is the key to planning sites that fit human purpose."




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Chapter 6
Social Factors In Recreation Design
"While recreation must have a physical base of land or water, the product recreation experience is a personal or social phenomenon. Although the management is resource based, the actual recreation activities are a result of people, their perceptions, wants and behaviors."
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum
U.S. Forest Service
Recreation is a social phenomenon that is comprised of many
social factors. Social factors are derived from people, and it
is people that give value and meaning to the physical environment
and to design (Jellicoe and Jellicoe 1982). There are many
social factors that influence recreation. This thesis has boiled
down the most essential and the most influential in flatwater
recreation design. The following is a list of these important social factors.
User Conflicts
Conflicts can be undesireable impacts on the physical resource, such as pollution. Or conflicts can be between users with different activities and recreation goals, such as motorized and non-motorized users. By understanding
these conflicts the manager/designer can plan and design for groups of similiar goals, perpetuate a range of recreational


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opportunities and mimimize negative impacts to the physical environment (Lime and Stankey no date, Scheyer 1984,
Shelby and Heberlein 1984, Schomaker 1979).
User Density and Crowding
Density refers to the number of individuals in a particular setting. Crowding is the negative evaluation of a certain density. The perception of crowding is a subjective judgement. Through the measurement of the user's perceptions, the manager/designer can determine at what point the crowding becomes negative. The manager/designer can limit numbers through limiting size and numbers of facilities and through management restrictions (Stankey, Lucas and Lime 1976,
Vroom, 1964, Driver and Tocher, 1970).
User Behavior
Is defined as how the user participates in recreation and what are the motivations. Behavior also includes the user's attitudes and values and what the user preceieves as acceptable or not acceptable with regard to settings, experiences and activities. By understanding the user's behavior the designer can plan and design for specific types of use with regard to density, distribution and function. As well as, define appropriate mix and type of opportunities (Knopf and Lime 1984, Lime and Stankey no date, Graefe, Vaske and Kuss 1984, Peterson and Lime 1979).
User Experience and Expectation
People engage in recreation activities with the expectation that their action will lead to certain rewarding experiences.
When these expectations and experiences are shared by many people, it is called a "social norm." By knowing what the user expects from a recreation experience, setting or activity, and being able to measure and determine what the social norm is, the manager/designer has the ability to enhance and maintain a plan or design to fulfill those experiences and expectations (Knopf and Lime 1984, Graefe, Vaske and Kuss 1984, McConnell no date, Schreyer, Lime and Williams 1984).
User Activities
Compatible activities result in acompatible users. It is important to know the activities the recreation user wants and if they are appropriate to the resource setting. The manager/designer can accommodate the activity needs into design of facilities and sites (Graefe, Vaske and Kuss 1984, Stankey and Clark 1979) .
Spatial Requirements
Understanding spatial reguirements of activities and for specific type of experiences is important in design and planning of settings (Shelby and Heberlein 1984, Hammon,
Cordell, Moncrief, Warren, Cyrsdale and Graham 1974,


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Peterson and Lime 1984).
User Satisfaction
By understanding and knowing the user, the manager/designer is able to design and plan for experiences, activities and settings that provide specific recreation opportunities that are in tune with what the user wants in order to achieve satisfaction (Lime and Stankey no date, Graefe, Vaske and Kuss 1984, Shelby and Heberlein 1984, McCool and Stankey 1984).
Recreation Quality
Is best achieved by providing a dynamic balance for a diverse system of recreation opportunities, environmental settings, activity types, experience levels, management settings and design parameters. This enables the user to choose alternatives in order to achieve a guality recreation experience (Chilman 1982, McConnell 1986, Stankey no date, Shelby and Heberlein 1984, Schreyer 1984).




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Chapter 7
METHOD FOR DETERMINING SOCIAL FACTORS FOR FLATWATER RECREATION
The Social Factor Method developed in this thesis is derived, in part, from a technique developed and applied by the U.S. Forest Service in land based recreation management. This technique is known as the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS). Some of the basic components proven to be effective in the ROS have been integrated into the Method outlined in this thesis, while other portions of the Method have been created based on research and adaptation for flatwater recreation.
There are 7 steps in applying this Method in a given flatwater recreation area. They are:
Step One: Step Two: Step Three: Step Four: Step Five: Step Six:
Step Seven:
User Survey and Information
Inventory of Physiographic Influences
Classification of Recreation Opportunities
Mapping of Recreation Opportunities
Establishment of Management and Design Decisions
Establish design elements according to Optimum Design Guidelines
Monitoring


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Please see Chart #2 The Social Factor Method Chart.
7.1 STEP ONE: USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION
Knowledge and information about the user is the key component in the Social Factor Method. This information is gathered through a user survey. It tells the manager/designer directly about users and their relationship to the physical and social environments. Because the manager/designer is not a professional sociologist or psychologist trained in gathering information, it is advisable that a sociologist be consulted. The manager/designer can solicit the professional's assistance in developing the user survey, or develop a survey independently. However, it is critical that the survey provide the designer with the following information about the user:
1. Basic information such as age, party size, length of stay and points of origin, launch point.
2. Type of activities that the user is engaged in and type of water craft being used.
i
3. Where the user goes within the recreational area (distribution).
4. Why the user is going to a particular area. What type setting is the user seeking (i.e. primitive urban etc.)


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5. What type of experience is the user seeking (ie primitive -urban, etc.).
6. Are the expectation of the user being met in the area under current conditons.
7. Is the user having a satisfying recreation experience.
8. What conflicts does the user perceive with other users.
9. What are the user perceptions of environmental deterioration.
10. What facilities does the user want, and what facilities are they currently using.
The survey should be structured to provide data which can be integrated into the three major categories described by the Method in the Spectrum of Opportunities: experience, activity and setting.
The type of information gathered can tell the manager/designer who the users are, their behavior, expectations and needs. Information on use, density, distribution patterns as well as specifics such as number and type of boats, location and number of launches, party size, camping information, areas of interest and length of stay should also be included. The survey identifies conflicts, impacts and problems. And, helps in determining when the user perceives environmental degradation,


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and aids in setting capacity levels. It also will provide information about what the user thinks regarding proposed development or changes.
The three suggested methods of gathering user information are:
1. Formal Survey
2. Informal Survey
3. Observation
7.1.1 Forma1 Survey
The formal survey involves extensive, direct contact with the user and is conducted by a formal data gathering process Generally the information is gathered from a specific number of people, at specific times and dates, under specific conditions, at specific areas. In a formal survey this information is scientifically gathered through a user questionnaire and data gathered is statistically analyzed. The margin of error is relatively low.
7.1.2 Informal Survey
The informal survey is a direct contact method that is conducted in a more casual manner where time, dates, conditions, number of people and areas may not be consistent. The information has a higher degree of error and may not be as statistically sound as a


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formal survey.
7.1.3 Observation
Observation requires no direct contact with the user, only onsite observation. The observer may have specific areas to monitor at specific times and may be required to observe a specific number of people. Since there is no direct contact it is difficult to gather knowledge about a user's actual perceptions, expectations and experiences. Observation is best used for inventory.
This knowledge tells what the user desires and expects, when the quality of the recreation experience deteriorates and when the user becomes unsatisfied. This in turn gives the manager/designer information which will facilitate establishment of: appropriate levels of use, standards and capacities for various activities, settings and experiences within a recreation opportunity. The end result is the definition of management and design guidelines. See Chart #3 User Knowledge and Information.
7.2 STEP TWO: PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES
Because recreation is tied to the resource base, it is necessary to consider the influences exerted by physiographic factors on


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USER KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION
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the recreation opportunities and on the siting and development of facilities. The second step in the Method is the inventory of Physiographic Influence factors and the mapping of their location in the resource area. To map the Physiographic Influences it may be necessary to conduct several on site visits to the resource area to observe the landscape. Also, topographic maps and aerial photographs are helpful in inventorying the Physiographic Influencing factors that lead to defining the recreation opportunities.
7.2.1 Inventory of Physiographic Influence Factors
The primary Physiographic Influence in a flatwater recreational setting is the water/shoreline interface. This interface can be characterized by several factors. They are:
1. Exposure the degree of visibility. Exposure describes the visibility the user has from the shore to objects on the water or from the water to objects on the shore. It also defines what a user can see on open water or what he can see from shoreline to shoreline.
2. Shoreline Configuration Refers to the degree of change of the shoreline (straight or curvalinear).
3. Landscape Variation Refers to the topographic relief as


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well as the geographic type, i.e. sand dunes, cliffs, flat.
4. Vegetation Variation Refers to the size, shape, density and degree of screening the vegetation can provide.
These Physiographic Influences give shape and form to space and provide areas for specific types of recreation to occur. All of these factors can determine the degree of isolation a user may experience, the visibility of other parties, and thus the ability of the resource to accommodate certain types of activity and numbers of users.
The Method establishes the following categories describing the exposure, shoreline configuration, landscape variation and vegetation variation of a given area or site.
1. Open High degree of exposure, no shoreline influences. Shoreline is a backdrop. No landscape and/or vegetation influences. Open water is the greatest influence.
2. Semi-Open Moderately high degree of exposure, shoreline has little significant influence. Shoreline is a backdrop. No landscape and/or vegetation influences. Open water is greatest influence.
3. Semi-Enclosed Moderate degree of exposure, shoreline begins to create definition of space. Shoreline becomes middleground. Landscape and/or vegetation becomes a


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significant influence. Shoreline becomes an influence.
4. Enclosed Low degree of exposure, shoreline has
significant influence. Shoreline is foreground. Landscape and/or vegetation are strong influences. Shore line is very influential.
After the Physiographic Influences are inventoried and mapped, they can be correlated using to the Physiographic Matrix (see matrix #1) to help in determine the recreation opportunity. This data is then combined, using the overlay technique, with the information maps from the user survey to begin to define areas that are appropriate for a specific recreation opportunity. See Matrix #1 Physiographic Matrix and Chart #4 Physiographic Influence Chart.
7.3 Step Three: CLASSIFY RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
Recreation Opportunity is described as, "the availability of a real choice for a user to participate in preferred setting in order to realize those satisfying experiences which are desired (ROS)."
The recreation opportunities are classified by the use of a chart that can be easily read and understood. The Spectrum of


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Opportunities chart, see chart #5, defines 5 recreation opportunities that are likely to occur on any particular flatwater resource. This does not mean that each flatwater resource contains all 5 recreation opportunities. Each flatwater resource has it's own unique and intrinsic characteristics and each flatwater resource may have a variety of these. The Spectrum of Opportunities chart is designed to serve as a template for the manager/designer so that evaluation and classification of recreation opportunities can be made concerning individual flatwater resources.
The Method describes 5 recreation opportunities. They are:
A. Primitive
B. Semi-primitive
C. Rural/Natural
D. Urban/Natural
E. Urban
There are three catagories that describe each of the 5 Recreation Opportunities. They are:
1. Setting
2. Experience
3. Activity
7.3.1 Setting:
The catagories refer to the of evidence of other people on the


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water or on the shoreline. Setting also describes the physical characteristics of the shoreline. The setting characteristics can strongly influence the type of recreation opportunity. They also strongly influence the activities and the experiences. By understanding the setting or by designing the setting, the manager/designer can provide for specific types of experiences and activities for a specific type of users. For example, as we can see from the Spectrum Of Opportunities Chart, a primitive setting is one where ather are no modifications of the landscape. There is no evidence of human occupation.
7.3.2 Experience:
This catagory describes the type of experience the recreation user is seeking in a give setting. It also desribes the degree of interaction with other people and exposure to man made elements. It is important that the manager/designer match the experiences the user seeks with the best suited setting. For example, as we can see from the Spectrum of Opportunities Chart, page a primitive experience is one where the user is seeking isolation from man and has opportunities to experiences solitude and quiet.
7.3.3 Activities:


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The activity catagory refers to the type of appropriate recreation activity that can occur in a given setting. It is important to inventory and identify existing and potential activities. The manager/designer should evaluate the appropriateness of each activity and select which activities may be better suited for a particular setting and experience opportunity. For example, as we can see from the Spectrum Of Opportunities Chart, non-motorized activities would be most appropriate in a primitive recreation opportunity.
The 5 Recreation Opportunity categories are designed to optimized the experience a user is seeking when engaged in a particular activity within a particular setting. It is important to maintain and provide for a "diverse system of environmental settings,"(ROS), that will provide for variety of satisfied recreation users, excellent opportunities for activity fulfillment, protection of the physical environment and high recreation quality.
The evaluation and designation of the Recreation Opportunities is the results of the analysis and mapping of the information from the User Survey and inventory the Physiographic Influences. The Spectrum of Opportunities Chart gives definition to the information that has been complied and can now give it form in the context of a map or maps. See Chart #5 Spectrum Of Opportunities.


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7.4 STEP FOUR: RECREATION OPPORTUNITY MAPPING
Using the information from the User Information Survey, inventory of the Physiographic Influences and the Spectrum Of Opportunities Chart, the manager/designer is now able to map the existing recreation opportunities and zone them into primitive, semi-primitive, rural/natural, urban/natural and urban.
Recreation Opportunity mapping can also provide a basis from which future changes can be evaluated.
The best technique for mapping the information required for analysis and inventory is the overlay technique developed by landscape architect, Phillip Lewis and perfected by landscape architect, Ian McHarg. The information is then layered over a base map of the resource. Examples of overlays:
1. boat type and number
2. user type and number
3. areas and type of camping
4. areas of interest (scenic, geologic, archeo-anthro.)
5. existing type and capacities of facilities
6. use, density and distribution patterns


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7. areas of impacts and conflicts
8. physiographic influences
9. recreation activities
10. user experience
With the application of the layers of information over the base map, the zones begin to define themselves into the various Recreation Opportunity. The Recreation Opportunities are now geographically and visually documented on a map for the particular flatwater resource.
7.5 STEP FIVE: ESTABLISHMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN DECISION
In this step a comprehensive evaluation of the information from the Recreation Opportunity Map and information from the User Survey is needed. The manager/designer from this evaluation can determined if there is a need to maintain, enhance or change the current Recreation Opportunities, to achieve user satisfaction and a quality recreation experience.


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7.6 STEP SIX: ESTABLISH DESIGN ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO OPTIMUM DESIGN GUIDELINES
Because people have expectations with their recreation experience they expect a certain degree of predictability. For example, when a backpacker hikes 20 miles into the wilderness he would
VP
expect a primitive, natural landscape, not a man modified landscape. On the other hand, people travel miles and miles to areas that are completely man modified and would be disappointed if they found anything but all the comforts of home.
Step Six describes Optimum Design Guidelines for each of the 5 recreation opportunities. These guidelines are designed to aid the manager/designer in determining appropriate levels of design and development that will enhance or maintain specific recreation opportunities. See Chart #6 Optimum Design Guidelines.
There are 7 design criteria that comprise the Optimum Design Guidelines. The 7 design criteria are:
1. Signage refers to the type, use and material of the signs.
2. Access refers to the type and the degree of accessibility to an area.
3. Shoreline Facilities refers to the development of man made structures for support or service facilities.


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4. Landscape Modification refers to the degree of man made modification on the landscape, i.e. use of exotic plant materials, grading etc.
5. Social- refers to the number and evidence of people in a particular area.
6. Management refers to suggested management practices.
7. Activities refers to appropriate activities.
The Optimum Design Guidelines Chart describes the progression of the 7 criteria in each of the 5 Recreation Opportunities. By using the Optimum Guidelines the manager/designer can develop and design sites and facilities that accommodate the majority of the user's needs and expectations for a particular Recreation Opportunity. See Chart #6 Optimum Design Guidelines.
7.7 STEP SEVEN: MONITORING
After the manager/designer has gone through all the steps of the Method and has implemented any management or design decisions and developments, it is important to monitor for change and to evaluate the success or failure of management decisions and/or the appropriateness of designs. The monitioring indicates if the


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user is satisfied with the recreation experience and opportunities the resource is offering. The best way to monitor is to conduct follow up surveys of the user and to evaluate present management and design policies. It is important to monitor, because the attitudes and demands of the user change from time to time. Monitoring should be conducted on a regular basis and should be consistent from year to year. It is important to respond to changes in order to achieve user satisfaction and recreation quality.
7.8 APPLICATIONS
Applications of the Social Factor Method can be used to determine existing Recreation Opportunities. The Method can be used to describe changes that may occur in the physical and social environment by increasing or decreasing the size of the water surface. A change in facilities, such as eliminating or adding facilities. Or a change in the social environment, such as an increase or decrease the numbers and types of users. In Chapters 8, 9 and 10, the Social Factor Method will demostrate how it can be used to determine existing Recreation Opportunities and how


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those existing Recreation Opportunities change as a result of a proposed marina called Antelope Point.


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Chapter 8
CASE STUDY LAKE POWELL
To demonstrate the application of the Social Factor Method, a case study was chosen. I chose Lake Powell as the case study because of its wide variety of recreation opportunities, its attraction to diverse types of users, and because proposed development of a marina in the Antelope Point area of Lake Powell provides an opportunity for actual application of the Method.
Antelope Point is an ideal, real-life situation which provides an opportunity to demonstrate the application of the Social Factor Method in evaluating current conditions in a flatwater recreational resource. In addition, during the development process, the opportunity exists to actually apply and refine the Method by putting it to work as a part of the ongoing design and planning process being implemented for Antelope Point.
The case study will begin by using the first four steps in the Social Factor Method to demonstrate the evaluation and documentation of existing recreation opportunities on Lake Powell. Then, using all seven steps, the Method will document the changes in the recreation opportunities as the result of the


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proposed Antelope Point Marina. Finally, design elements will be established for various sections of the study area through application of the Method's Optimum Design Guidelines.
Portions of the Social Factor Method will be presented at the conference for Science In The National Parks, to be held July 13th July 18th, in Ft. Collins, Colorado. Some aspects are also being used in the social section of the Environmental Assessment on Lake Powell currently being conducted by the National Park Service. Interest has also been expressed in adaptation of the Social Factor Method for river recreation.
8.1 BACKGROUND
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (NRA) is located in northeast Arizona and southeast Utah in an area called the Colorado Plateau. See Map #1 Regional Map. Glen Canyon NRA is comprised of Lake Powell and the surrounding canyon country. It occupies approximately 1,225,000 acres. The reservoir can impound up to 27,000,000 acre-feet of water and stretches 180 miles. Lake Powell was formed as a result of the damming of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1964.
8.1.1 Natural History


map 1
Regional Map
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area / Navajo Nation
United States Department of the Interior National Park Service


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The physiography is comprised mainly of slick-rock canyons, steep cliffs and sandy shelved terraces as well as stretches of flat desert land. The area is noted for its spectacular scenic and geologic features. It is a desert climate, with an average annual rainfall of seven inches. Vegetation is classified as Great Basin Desert Type, which is mainly comprised of Blackbush (Coleogyne ramosissimia), Yucca (Yucca angustissima), Sand Sagebrush (Artemisia filigolia), Prickly Pear (Opuntia erinacea), and various grasses. There are approximately 80 species of mammals, 32 species of reptiles and amphibians, 200 species of birds, and 20 species of fish. There are numerous and prominent archaeological sites, some dating back as late as 6500 B.C..
8.1.2 Socioeconomic Factors
The closest and largest town to Lake Powell is Page, Arizona.
Page began as a town to house the workers building Glen Canyon Dam. Today it is a busy population center with a permanent population of approximately 6,210 people. The local economy is primarily oriented toward serving the tourists that come to Lake Powell and the other surrounding vacation areas.
Adjacent to Page, and adjoining Glen Canyon NRA, is the Navajo Indian Nation. The Navajo Indian lives mainly in small, scattered, rural, nonfarm communities. They practice traditional


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land uses, such as sheep herding, and are economically poor. The Navajo Tribal Council is now seeking to benefit from the recreation goldmine of Lake Powell. They are currently interested in developing a marina on Navajo land on a point on the southeast lakeshore called Antelope Point. It is hoped by the Navajo Tribal Council that the new Antelope Point Marina will provide jobs and much needed income to the Navajo Tribe.
8.1.3 Recreation
Glen Canyon NRA is an increasingly popular destination recreation resource that has year round use. It is unique because of its size, varied physiography and variety of recreation opportunities.
The most popular activities include a wide variety of motorized and nonmotorized boating. These include speedboating, waterskiing, houseboating, fishing, sailing, canoeing and others. Shoreline camping, fishing and touring, as well as back packing and day-hiking are also popular.
There are four main access points to Lake Powell that provide user facilities such as boat launches, campgrounds, stores, restaurants and marina facilities. They are Wahweap, Bullfrog, Hall's Crossing and Hite. See Map #2 Study Area and Existing Facilities Map. The most heavily developed and heavily used is


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Wahweap, located in the southeast section of the lake.
The proposed marina development at Antelope Point, and the changes it will bring to the recreation opportunities of Lake Powell, are the focus of this case study.
8.2 LIMITS OF THE STUDY
This case study will primarily concern itself with the southern section of Lake Powell, because the primary impacts of the proposed Antelope Point Marina will be in the area between Glen Canyon Dam and Dangling Rope Marina.
8.3 PROPOSED ANTELOPE POINT MARINA SCENARIO 8.3.1 Present Use
The present use on Antelope Point consists of:
1. Water intake facility for the Navajo Power Station; An open gravel quarry;
2. Unstructured day-use and shoreline camping;


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3. A small homesite;
4. A gravel road from Page to the tip of Antelope Point;
5. Some grazing.
8.3.2 Marina Proposal
The proposal for Antelope Point is the development of a commercial marina and associated facilities. The proposed development would include:
1. A 200 225 unit lodge with a 250/acre parking lot, swimming pool, tennis and health facilities, restaurant, lounge/gril1, coffee shop, a day-use beach and tourboat dock;
2. Cultural center with an artisan/retail shop and a 250 car parking lot;
3. A 250 300 slip marina with fuel, pumpout station, docking facilities, marina and other associated retail shops;
4. Boat rentals;
5. Maintenance area;
6. Dry dock for boats;


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7. Picnic and day-use area;
8. Campground and RV hookups;
9. A five lane public launch ramp with 100 car parking lot capable of launching an average of 300 boats per day;
10. Employee housing;
11. Administration building;
12. Sanitation facilities.
The Antelope Point Marina has the potential to launch up to 520 boats per day during peak season: 300 from the public launch ramp, 100 from the marina, 60 houseboat rentals, and 60 small-boat rentals. By comparison Wahweap Marina has the capacity to launch 1,175 boats per day during peak season: 600 boats per day from the public launch ramp, 250 from the marina, 175 houseboat rentals and 150 small boats. The combined daily launches at Wahweap and Antelope Point would be approximately 1,695 boats. (Antelope Point Conceptual Plan/Environmental Assessment)
Presently Antelope Point is undeveloped with few factors affecting its natural character or the surrounding landscapes. With the development of Antelope Point Marina, the change in the physical and social landscape at the marina site will be great. In addition, the potential for change and impact to the


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surrounding landscape is very likely. Through the Social Factor Method, the designer/manager can see the potential change in the distribution and use of an area, the change in the recreation opportunities in a wide geographic region and determine the type and number of facilities needed to maintain a satisfied user and a quality recreation experience.
\




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Chapter 9
INVENTORY OF EXISTING RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES CASE STUDY LAKE POWELL
The first part of the case study will demonstrate, using the first four steps of the Social Factor Method, the inventory and documentation of the existing recreation opportunities in the study area on Lake Powell.
9.1 Step One; USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION
The information on the present use, the user and the present recreation opportunities comes in part from a formal user survey that was conducted on Lake Powell. The survey was written by a National Park Service team comprised of a landscape architect, a recreation sociologist, a statistician and a resource management specialist. The survey was developed as a part of the Environmental Assessment on Lake Powell prior to the development of the Social Factor Method. The existing survey correlates


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relatively well with the parameters established in the Social Factor survey described in the previous chapter. These parameters are how the user interacts with the lake environment, interaction with other users, perceptions of environmental irritations, preferred activities, distribution and density, as well as destination and camping areas. However, the existing survey lacks exact questions about user experience, setting and user satisfaction. For the purpose of this case study, data about user experience, setting and user satisfaction are extrapolated from the existing user survey. See Appendix #1 -Visitor Use Survey.
The survey was conducted on eight separate days during the 1985 summer season. The dates were July 4, 7, 16, 20 and August 1, 4, 20, 24. These dates were chosen by the National Park Service statistician to give a cross section of use on the weekdays, weekends and a holiday. The survey was administered by Glen Canyon NRA personnel at the three marina sites of Wahweap, Bullfrog and Hite. The survey was conducted as an exit interview of people coming off the lake. A total of 15 interviews were conducted per day. There were a total of 320 interviews conducted over the interview period.
The information from the surveys were then keypunched into the LOTUS 1, 2, 3 spread sheet matrix program on the Data Point Computer. The information gathered covers the entire lake. Information used in this study pertains only to the southern end


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of the lake, between Glen Canyon Dam and Dangling Rope Marina. See Appendix #2 Visitor Use Survey Results.
9.1.1 Survey Results
The information from the user survey was then complied into the Present Use Matrix. See Matrix #2 Present Use Survey. From the user survey the manager/designer can delineate preferred distribution and use patterns within the study area. He can define areas with good camping, compatibility of activities, users seeking similar experiences and settings, as well as boat type, environmental irritations and user conflicts. The survey results indicate that the main environmental irritations are noise in Zones 1 and 6, trash in Zones 3 and 6, user conflicts at launch areas in Zone 1, and lack of campsite availability in Zones 1 and 4. The areas of heaviest use are Zones 1, 3 and 6.
See Map #3 Existing Boat Distribution Map. The Existing Boat Distribution Map was compiled from information from the Present Use Matrix referring to number of boats and people in an area, the availability of campsites, proximity to marinas and the length of overnight stay. Through the Existing Boat Distribution Map and the Present Use Matrix, the manager/designer can extrapolate the type of experience the user is likely to be having in a particular area. The data begins to delineate the study areas into 6 use zones, which contribute to the designation


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of the existing recreation opportunities.
9.2 Step Two: INVENTORY OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES
The physiographic influence inventory of the study area was conducted by using the United States Geologic Survey topographic map of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, 1969. The scale is 1:250,000 at 200 foot intervals. See Map #4 Topographic Map. The physiographic influences are then mapped in the study area based on the criteria in the Physiographic Influences Chart. See Chart #4 Physiographic Influences Chart. The criteria relate to factors such as exposure, shoreline configuration, landscape and vegetation variation that influence the degree of openness and enclosure of an area. In this particular study, vegetation variation has limited influence because of the high desert climate and the lack of rainfall which limits extensive vegetation growth. These criteria in turn influence the type of setting that is most appropriate for certain types of experiences and activities. For example, from Map #4A Physiographic Influences Map, areas that are open and exposed with little influence of landscape or vegetation variation are the areas in and around Wahweap Bay and Warm Creek Bay; also areas between Glen Canyon Dam and to the mouth of Labyrinth Canyon. Examples of


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Chapter 10
ANTELOPE POINT MARINA CHANGES IN THE RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
At this point the proposed Antelope Point Marina will be introduced. Using all seven steps, the Social Factor Method will demonstrate and document the changes in the existing recreation opportunities, how management can determine if the changes are appropriate and what level of design is indicated by the Optimum Design Guidelines.
10.1 Step One; USER SURVEY AND INFORMATION
While time and financial resources did not allow for the actual surveying of users, information about projected use patterns, density and boat distribution for the purposes of the case study were utilized from 2 existing studies:
1. Carrying Capacity Study Lake Powell, Antelope Point Marina Concept


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2. Plan/Environmental Assessment (see bibliography).
As noted above, these two studies were lacking in certain data on user needs, expectations and satisfaction. Prior to the formulation of management and design decisions, it is recommended that additional study be conducted to evaluate user needs and expectations, especially as it relates to need for semi-primitive use areas.
Information from the studies which indicate changes in the use patterns and boat distribution on the lake can be mapped. See Map #6 Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map. By comparing Map #3 Existing Boat Distribution Map, with Map #6 Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map, one can begin to see possible changes in the recreation opportunities. From these changes one can begin to extrapolate not only changes in the setting, but changes in the user's experience and changes in the activities too.
For example, between Glen Canyon Dam and the mouth of Navajo Canyon the existing setting changes from a non-man influenced, undeveloped environment, to a man influenced, developed environment. While existing opportunities to experience isolation, quiet and tranquility are now very likely and encounters with other people are now seldom; with the development of Antelope Point Marina, these types of experiences would change. Encounters with other people would be frequent and the opportunity to experience isolation, quiet and solitude would be


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unlikely. The challange for the manager/designer is to preserve those areas that have high semi-primitive value, while accommodating the needs of users seeking Natural/Urban experiences.
Activities will be likely to change from passive forms, such as fishing and sailing to more active forms, such as waterskiing and power boating. However, as is evident in the next step of the Method, there are portions of the study area which have high semi-primitive value because of their location and physiography.
10.2 Step Two: INVENTORY OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES
Because of the projected changes in the use and distribution patterns, some areas will experience more visitation, some areas, less visitation. By knowing the existing physiographic influences of the area, it is possible to determine if those areas will be able to accommodate the increase or decrease in use. By taking Map #6 The Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map and overlaying it onto Map #4A the Physiographic Influences Map, the changes in the use and distribution can be seen and environmental impacts can be evaluated.
For example, Navajo Canyon physiography is comprised of steep


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walls and is very narrow and enclosed. It is best suited for a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity. The changes, as a result of the proposed Antelope Point Marina, may negatively affect the Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity. Increase in the number of boats and people generated from the proposed Antelope Point Marina in the enclosed physiography of Navajo Canyon would create congestion and conflicts. This would make the opportunity for experiencing quiet and solitude nearly impossible. A change in the existing recreation opportunity may be inappropriate.
The area of Antelope Point that will be the site for the proposed marina is presently classified as Semi-Primitive because of the low use. The physiography is open and has the ability to accommodate a greater number of people, facilities and boats. A change in the existing recreation opportunity may be appropriate, because of the wider, more open water and physiography.
10.3 step Three: CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANTELOPE POINT RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
Information from Map #6 Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map, Map #4A Physiographic Influences Map and the information from the two studies are then correlated with Chart #5 The Spectrum of Opportunities Chart. The changes, if any, in the


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classification of areas is then determined and documented.
Changes in the recreation opportunities, caused by the proposed Antelope Point Marina, are the result of additional boats and people in some areas as well as the presence of man-influenced built environments.
For example, the change in the existing Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity to the new Rural/Natural recreation opportunity of Last Change Bay, is a result of the increase in numbers of people and boats. The experience of the user would change, because the sights and sounds of people would be more frequent. Campsites may become less available and facilities may be needed to accommodate the increased use.
Another example in the change in the recreation opportunity resulting from the influence of a man-built facility would be Navajo Canyon. The existing Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity changes in the lower part of the canyon because of the increase of people and boats, also the physical proximity of the marina and the associated facilities have an affect as well. The recreation opportunity changes to Rural/Natural. The upper end of the canyon stays as a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity. The impact from the increase in boats and people have less of an affect in the upper end, because the canyon physiography becomes too narrow for a number of water activities and safe boat maneuverability. This would attract people that are seeking a quiet, more isolated experience.


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Other areas within the study area would experience change on a more subdued level such as the Wahweap Bay area. The existing recreation opportunity is Urban/Natural. Even though the proposed Antelope Point Marina would increase the number of people and boats, the recreation opportunity remains the same because the influence of man, his facilities and activities which are already present. Limitations in facilities to accommodate increased use from Antelope Point traffic may indicate a need for revision of intramarina traffic regulation.
Perhaps the greatest change in the recreation opportunity is the area between Glen Canyon Dam and the mouth of Navajo Canyon. Currently, the existing recreation opportunity is classified as Semi-Primitive. With the development of the proposed Antelope Point Marina the area between Glen Canyon Dam and the mouth of Navajo Canyon becomes classified as Urban/Natural. The sights and sounds of man become a strong influencing factor. The increase of boats, people and activities would be greatest in the channel between the proposed Antelope Point Marina and Wahweap Bay Marina. The onshore facilities of Antelope Point Marina provides another place close to Page to rent and launch boats, but also attracts people and boats from other parts of the lake that may be traveling from the other marinas such as Wahweap, Bullfrog, Hall's Crossing or Hite.


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10.4 Step Four: RECREATION OPPORTUNITY MAPPING
By correlating Map #6 Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map, with the information from the two studies and with Chart #5 The Spectrum of Opportunities Chart, the change in recreation opportunities that have been determined can be mapped into an Antelope Point Recreation Opportunities Map. See Map #7 -Antelope Point Recreation Opportunities Map. The Antelope Point Recreation Opportunities Map when compared with Map #5 Existing Recreation Opportunities Map, documents the changes in the recreation opportunities as a result of the proposed Antelope Point Marina.
10.5 Step Five: ESTABLISHMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN DECISIONS
From the comparison between Map #7 Antelope Point Recreation Opportunity Map and Map #5 Existing Recreation Opportunities Map, one can see the changes and evaluate those changes with regard to management and design decisions. For example, there are several areas that will be greatly affected by the proposed Antelope Point Marina. The greatest areas of change will be the


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Antelope Point area and the Navajo Canyon. Other areas that would be affected are Last Chance Bay and Rock Creek Bay.
Comparing information from the two studies about the Antelope Point Marina site with the information gathered in Step One: User Survey and Information, one may assume that the user desires more opportunities for motorized recreation activities. Relatively few people are seeking primitive recreation experiences because of the great distances between areas. The greatest conflicts seem to be in boat launch areas. Another marina facility may alleviate current crowding conflicts. However, it is important that areas that have high semi-primitive value be maintained as much as possible. One of the unique characteristics of Lake Powell is that it can provide opportunities for the user to explore the lake in motorized crafts and experience quiet and solitude. Management and design decisions need to be guided by a policy which enhances that unique characteristic of the area.
The greatest existing impacts are in Zone 2 and in Zone 5. These two zones are the located in the Antelope Point/Navajo Canyon area and the Last Chance Bay. The greatest conflict in the two zones was campsite availibility and overcrowding on the lake.
With the addition of more boats resulting from the development of Antelope Point Marina, these two zones would likely experience a greater degree of conflict. Management and Design decisions should be focused on mitigating the impacts and reducing conflicts in those areas. Because of the physiography of the


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Navajo Canyon area and the lower use density presently in that area, management decisions and design elements which preserve the Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity in the upper canyon may be indicated. This may involve limiting the type and number of boats in the upper Navajo Canyon area. As seen in Map #7 the Antelope Point Recreation Opportunities Map, lower Navajo Canyon, lower Last Chance Bay and Rock Creek Bay becomes Rural/Natural. Because of the increase in use, management may want to establish designated campsites that would have facilities, such as outhouses and firerings to contain and mitigate impacts to the environment, as well as limiting party size and length of stay.
The area between the mouth of Navajo Canyon and Glen Canyon Dam becomes Urban/Natural. The designer should consult the Design Guidelines established in the method to design appropriate facilities, site layout and design criteria to "fit" with the surrounding landscape. To limit conflicts on launch ramps and in areas close to the proposed marina, it is recommended that number of launches a day and the type of boat that would be launched be regulated. Safety and functional traffic flow are critical design and management considerations, as are well designed parking areas. Designers and managers should consider separating facilities for motorized boaters from those for nonmotorized craft to mitigate conflicts and enhance user experience. It may
also be desireable to provide seperate areas for RV campers and tent or car campers because of the heavy volume of RV traffic.


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The proposed marina at Antelope Point allows for a certain number of launches and a certain level of use, described in Chapter 8. Based on management parameters established there, the designer should consult the Optimum Design Guidelines Chart to establish consistent and appropriate design elements in various areas.
10.6 Step Six; OPTIMUM DESIGN GUIDELINES
It is important that the manager/designer provide facilities and sites that fit the setting and the activity, as well as the type of recreation experience the users are expecting. Chart #6 -Optimum Design Guidelines enables the manager/designer to use established design criteria that are appropriate for a particular recreation opportunity.
For example, a management decision was made to maintain a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity in the upper Navajo Canyon. The physiography, according to the physiographic Influence Matrix, is conducive to provide a semi-primitive experience and setting. In compliance with this management decision, the designer would follow the the design guidelines for a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity in the Optimum Design
Guidelines Chart


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These guidelines say the use of signage in a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity should be made of only native or natural materials, using only natural colors. The sign can give directions, information or warning only. Designated campsites with firepits and primitive outhouse facilities may be developed only when needed to contain impacts to the environment.
Campsites are isolated from one another to maintain a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity. Since the only access to Navajo Canyon is from the water, no road development or landscape modification is recommended or necessary. Encounters with other parties would be occasional and limited to not more than 12 watercraft per day. There would no more that 12 people in an average party. The guidelines state that passive activities, such as fishing and limiting the number and size of motorized boats may be more appropriate to eliminate noise and disturbance that may negatively affect with a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity.
Lower Navajo Canyon changes from a Semi-Primitive recreation opportunity to a Rural/Natural recreation opportunity. The physiography does not change significantly from the lower part of the canyon. However, accessibility, increase in motorized boating and proximity to the proposed Antelope Point Marina are the main causes for the change in the recreation opportunity.
The guidelines in Chart #6 Optimum Design Guidelines say that signage becomes more obvious, but is still made of natural


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materials, using natural colors. The signs would still give direction, warning and information, but now signage may also be interpretive. Facilities would be small and limited. Campsites would have facilities such as firerings and outhouses and in some areas, where possible, running water from a simple spigot. There would be other facilities, such as simple gravel launch ramps and small boat docks that would accommodate a limited number and type of boats. Architecture for shelters, if necessary, and other support facilities would be simple and insignificant. By using indigenous design elements, such as natural color, shape and form, the architecture would blend and "fit" into the natural setting. Landscape modification may be evident as a result of providing land access in the form of roads and parking facilities, as well as modification for architecture and launch facilities. Landscape modification may also be introduced in the form of vegetation screening and earth berming to provide protection from the wind and sun, as well as create separate areas and provide privacy for different groups. All landscape modifications would use native soil and rock and would be revegetated with native plant material. Encounters with other parties would be frequent. Encounters with other boats would be limited to no more that 30 watercraft a day. The average party size would be limited to 20 people. Active activities, like waterskiing that are primarily centered around motorized boating,
would be dominant


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The Antelope Point area changes from Semi-Primitive to an Urban/ Natural recreation opportunity. This change in the recreation opportunity is a result of the location of the proposed marina on Antelope Point. The proposed marina would modify the existing Semi-Primitive setting by introducing a large man-modified landscape. The physiography of Antelope Point, according to the Matrix #1 Physiographic Matrix, is able to accommodate a large man modified environment. Chart #6 Optimum Design Guidelines Chart say that signage would be obvious and could be made of both native and non native materials. A variety of native and non native colors may used and lighting may be added to the signs.
The signs would still provide direction, warnings, information and interpretation, but would also be used for stating rules and regulation, as well as advertising. Access to the water would be via improved paved roadways that would accommodate all sizes and types of vehicles. There would be areas for parking and storage of boats, trailers and vehicles. The numerous support facilities are obvious and are able to accommodate large numbers of people. Campgrounds become high density, with many individual party sites. Campground facilities, such as a constructed cooking grills, built shelters, bathroom facilities with running water, trash receptacles are standard. There are other support and service facilities such as restaurants, grocery stores, motels/hotels and camping and boating supply stores. There are full service marina facilities that include a multi-lane concrete or asphalt launch ramp, with large docking facilities, wet slips


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and dry docking facilities. These architectural structures would be dominant elements on the landscape, but would still meet indigenous design criteria that requires the structures and facilities to be suited and blend with the background setting. Landscape modifications are obvious. There is graded sitework to accommodate the service and support facilities. Native and non-native vegetation, as well as earth berming may be used to enhance and provide screening to the landscape around structures, parking areas and campsites. The vegetation, in some areas, may need to be maintained. Encounters with other parties are constant. Any number of watercraft and people may be encountered each day. There are no limits to party size. Seperation of active activities, which are dominant, from the passive activities are recommended. There are no limits to size and type of watercraft.
10.7 Step Seven: MONITORING
It is very important to establish a scheduled monitoring program to see if management and design plans have been successful. It is important to monitor for change in the recreation opportunity, environment and in the user. The manager/designer can adapt management and design strategies to the changes in order to


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maintain a quality recreation opportunity and a satisfied user.
Monitoring and evaluation of success of design and management decisions, as indicated by user satisfaction, is accomplished through follow-up user surveys and evaluation of environmental impacts as described in Step One of the Method. The monitoring process brings the method full-circle, making it an ongoing tool the manager/designer may use to respond to changing use patterns, environmental pressures and user demands.




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Chapter 11 Conclusion
Landscape Architects are people that design spaces for people.
The spaces have both physical and social characteristics. The physical environment affects the social environment and the social environment affects the physical environment. To design and plan without considering both of these important factors is to design and plan carelessly. This concept applies to any scale, large or small, to any type of planning and design; interior, architecture and in this case recreation planning and design.
Recreation is a social phenomenon. It is important to understand the people who will be using the recreation space and how they will be functioning in the space. By knowing the users' role it enables the designer to create spaces and facilities that are functional, creative and purposeful that "fit" the user's needs and values.
Each physical environment has it's own unique and intrinsic characteristics. These characteristics attract a variety of users for a variety of reasons. Man himself is a part of nature,


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and the landscape architect gives human purpose to the physical environment.
This thesis has demonstrated the influence of social factors on the physical environment. By defining the social factors the design and planning of the physical space can create a better overall purpose and function, while maintaining a quality recreation experience resulting in a satisfied user.
This thesis has shown how necessary it is to understand and analyze the social factors. This thesis, through the Social Factor Method, shows how to analyze these components and put them in a measureable format so the manager/designer has quantifiable information that can be used in the planning process for flatwater recreation. The Method is a framework that has establishes a consistent standard of measure that can be integrated with other systems within comprehensive recreation design and planning. The method clearly:
1. Applies to both large scale and small scale sites.
2. Guides site and facility design by allowing the designer to know who will be using the facilities and how.
3. Establishes a set of Optimum Design Guidelines that introduces a theme and appropriate levels of development for particular recreation opportunities.
4. Describes a Spectrum of Opportunities that matches


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recreation settings with appropriate experiences and mix of activities.
5. Describes a Spectrum of Opportunities that the manager/designer can use as a guide for inventory of recreation resources.
6. Inventories the physiographic features and documents their influence on the user.
7. Inventories the physiographic features and documents their influence on site and facility placement.
8. Directs the manager/designer in several methods of gathering information about the user.
9. Establishes a method that can measure user satisfaction and recreation quality.
10. Inventories and documents the function of the recreation user.
11. Establishes a method for gathering quantifiable information that can be measured about the recreation user regarding user attitudes, expectations, values and experiences.
12. Gathers information about the user that is objective and unbiased.
13. Aids in identifying and solving user conflicts.


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14. Documents change in the social environment as a result of physical or social change.
15. Directs the manager/designer into planning and developing strategies for the recreation resource.
16. Directs the allocation of recreation opportunities within the resource.
17. Is useful in developing and choosing alternatives for the recreation resource.
18. Provides the manager/designer with a method for monitoring the recreation resource.
19. Provides information to the manager/designer to make better, well informed decisions about planning and design within the flatwater recreation resource.
20. Enables the designer to begin from a concept, to the theme of a site or area, to actual site or area design and planning criteria, to implimentation, to monitoring the the design and plan; all within a consistent framework.
21. Establishes a consistency of design throughout an entire recreation resource.
The Social Factor Method can be used by any land or water government agency from local to federal government, any private consulting firm contracted to study recreation and water, and,


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any individual who is interested in knowing about social factors and flatwater recreation. The Social Factor Method developed in this thesis is composed of research,, analysis, design, planning, implimentation, management and monitoring of flatwater recreation resources. It can be applied universally, because it has established consistent standards of measure for recreation opportunities. The social environment integrates with the physiographic environment to influence appropriate and optimum design and planning. The appropriate and optimum designs support human behavior that establishes quality and satisfaction in flatwater recreation resource.




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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Antelope Point Development Concept Plan/Environmental Assessment Glen Canyon National Recreation Area/Navajo Nation, Arizona
Proposed development plans for marina development at Antelope Point Lake Powell
Baldwin, Donald N. 1972
"The Quiet Revolution: Grass Roots of Today's Wilderness Preservation Movement" Pruett Publishing Co. Boulder, Colorado 1972
Arthur Carhart's influence on the wilderness movement.
Breen, James L., Driver, B.L., Rosenthal, D.H. 1982
"Measuring And Improving Effectiveness Of Public Outdoor Recreation Programs" Report of the workshop on Recreation Output Measures USDA/USDI Bur. Of Land Management and George Washington University
A workshop that was to aid recreation managers in understanding how to evaluate outdoor recreation and the user.
Brown,P.J., B.L. Driver, Donald H. Bruns and Charles McConnell 1979 "The Outdoor Recreation Opportunity Spectrum In Wildland Recreation Planning: Development and Applicaton Paper presented at the First Annual National Conference on Recreation Planning and Development Vol. 2 American Society of Civil Engineers New York, New York
An outdoor recreation planning system that can be used in muliple use land planning and management.
Chilman, Kenneth and Glenn Hampton 1982
"A New Recreation Resource Inventory System for Managers of Wildland Areas" Dept. Of Forestry, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois
Proceedure for gathering recreation data relating to quality of user experience.
Doell, E. Charles and Gerald B. Fitzgerald 1954
"A Brief History of Parks and Recreation in the United States"
The Athletic Institute Press Chicago, 111.


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Historical tracing of the parks and recreation movement in the United States.
Driver, B.C. and P. Brown 1978
"The Outdoor Recreation Spectrum And Behavior Information in Outdoor Recreation Supply Inventory"
USDA/USFS Gen. Tech Report RM-55:24-31 Rocky Mountain Forest Experimental Station Ft. Collins, Colorado
A study on people and their behavior with regard to limited recreation resource as a result of overcrowding.
Driver, B.C. and Tocher,S.R. 1970
"Toward A Behavioral Interpretation of Recreation, With Implications For Planning"
Articule in "Elements of Outdoor Recreation Planning" pp 9-31 The University of Michigan Press,
Ann Arbor, Michigan
How behavior can influence recreation planning decisions.
Field, Donald K. and Kristen S. Martinson 1985
"People, Human Behavior and Water Based Recreation: A Working Bibliography" Cooperative Park Studies Oregon State Press Corvalis, Oregon
A working bibliography on carrying capacity literature pretaining to water-based recreation.
Glen Canyon Carrying Capacity Study/Lake Powell
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area Utah and Arizona Denver Service Center November 1982
Study on the Carrying Capacity of Lake Powell
Gilbert, Gorman C., Peterson, George L. and Lime, David W. 1972 "Toward A Model Of Travel Behavior In The Boundary Waters Canoe Area" Environment and Behavior Magazine 1972 vo1. 4 no.2 pp.131-157
An overview of travel in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area and how management can influence travel.
Greenwood, Ned H. and Edwards,J.M.B. 1973
"Human Environments and Natural Systems, A Conflict of Dominion" Duxbury Press North Scituate, Massacheusetts
An environmental textbook
Gold, Seymour M. 1980
"Recreation Planning and Design" McGraw-Hill Book Co.
New York, New York


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Basic concepts, measures, methodologies used in recreation planning and design.
Graefe, Alan R., Jerry J. Vaske, Fred R. Kuss 1984 "Social Carrying Capacity: An Intergration and Synthesis of Twenty Years of Research"
Leisure Sciences Magazine, Vol.6 No. 4 Crane, Russak and Co., Inc.
Review of literature and research conducted over the past twenty years on social carrying capacity.
Hammon,G.A., H.C. Cordell, W.L. Moncrief, R.M. Warren, and R.A. Crysdale 1974
"Capacity of Water Based Recreation Systems Part 1:
The State of the Art-A Literature Review"
North Carolina State University Raliegh, North Carolina
Reviews five categories of factors which influence capacity
Hendee, J.C., G.H. Stankey, R.C. Lucas 1978
"Wilderness Management" USDA/USFS Misc. Publications #1365
An overview of the concept of social carrying capacity and what it means with regard to the natural and recreation resource.
Jackson, R.S., Waring M.R., Hodgson R.W., 1985
"A Multiple-Survey Evaluation Of Boating Conditions At Berlin Lake" RECNOTES Natural Resources Research Program vol. R-85-2 August 1985 U.S. Army Corp of Engineers
Implimentation of a survey to gather information about user perceptions of crowding and behavior modification resulting from crowding.
Jellicoe, Geoffery and Susan 1982
"The Landscape Of Man" Van Nostrand, Reinhold Co.
New York, New York
History of Landscape Architecture from prehistory to present day.
Kerlinger, Fred N. 1973
"Foundations Of Behavioral Research" second edition Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. New York, New York
Is a primer on scientific behavioral research.
Knopf, Richard C. and Lime, David W. 1984
"A Recreation Manager's Guide to Understanding River Use


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and Users" USDA/USFS North Central Forest Experiment Station General Technical Report WO-38
Describes standardized procedures for assessing the characteristics and management preferences of river recreation.
Kuss, Fred, Jerry Vaske, Alan Graefe 1982
"Review and Synthesis of Recreational Carrying Capacity Literature" Dept. Of Recreation University of Maryland University of Maryland Press
Summarizes results of previous studies regarding recreational use levels, impact relationships and implementation of social carrying capacity
Lime, D.W., and George H. Stankey no date
"Carrying Capacity: Maintaining Outdoor Recreation Quality" USDA/USFS North Central Forest Experiment Station, St.
Paul, Minn., Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Missoula, Mont.
Definition of carrying capacity how the resource and the user experience is affected by recreational use and how administrators can manage for both resources and visitor capacity.
Lime, D.W. 1982
"When The Wilderness Gets Crowded...?" USDA/USFS North Central Forest Experiment Station St. Paul, Minnesota
Visitor perception study conducted in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area
Lime, D.W. 1979
"Carrying Capacity" TRENDS in Rivers and Trails Vol. 16, No 2, pp. 37-40
Basic principles and methods for evaluating social carrying capacity
Lime, David W. 1979
"Managing Visitor Use On Whitewater Rivers" Trends In River and Trail Magazine 1979, Vol. 16 No. 2 pp.24-27
Articule refers to the protection of the natural resource and the experience of the user.
Lynch, Kevin 1979
"Site Planning" 2nd. edition, 7th printing, The M.I.T. Press Cambridge. Massachusetts
An introduction to the art, principles and technical reference of site planning


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 97
Martin, Erik J. no date
"Arthur H. Carhart, The First National Forest Landscape Architect" Articule written for the dedication of the Arthur H.
Carhart trail, Trapper's Lake, Colorado White River National Forest
Biography of Arthur Carhart and his contributions to recreation and wilderness management.
McConnell, Charles E. 1986
"The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum... The Key To Assuring Quality Outdoor Recreation Opportunities."
Arguements for the use of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum in recreation management and planning.
McConnell, Charles E. and Bacon, Warren R. no date
"The Spectrum Of Forest Settings For Recreation"
Articule recieved in photocopy form with no acknowledge of date or publisher.
Addresses user preferences for different types of recreation settin< McHarg, Ian L. 1969
"Design With Nature" The American Museum of Natural History, Doubleday/Natural History Press Doubleday and Co.,Inc. Garden City, New York
Introduced and set the standards for environmental planning as it is known today.
Odum, E.P. 1969
"Fundamentals of Ecology" W.B. Saunders, Co.
2nd. Edition Philadelphia, Penn.
Explains and establishes the basic principles of ecology.
Peterson, George L. and David W. Lime 1979
"People and Their Behavior: A Challenge for Recreation Management" Journal of Forestry Society of American Foresters
Analysis of behavior of recreation users in forest recreation areas and how that behavior can be modified.
Peterson, George L. and David W. Lime 1980
"How Does Travel Distance To The Boundary Waters Influence Use?" Naturalist Magazine (winter) pp. 22-27
Why people go to the Boundary Waters and how far are they traveling to get there.


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 98
Proshansky H.M. 1976
"Environmental Psychology: People and Their Physical Settings" Holt, Rinehart and Winston New York, New York
Observation of how people act to their physical environment and how they react to other people.
Rutledge, Albert J. 1971
"Anatomy Of A Park, The Essentials Of Recreation Area Planning and Design" McGraw-Hill Co.
New York, New York
A foundation on basic park design and development Schomaker, John H. 1978
"Measurments of Preferences for Proposed Landscape Modifications College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences,
University of Idaho Landscape Research Magazine vol. 3 pp. 5-9
Measuring peoples preferences and perceptions to landscape modifications for use in resource modification.
Schreyer, R. 1979
"Principles of Recreational Carrying Capacity"
Dept, of Forestry and Outdoor Recreation Utah State University Logan, Utah
Describes the relationship between ecological and social parameters and lays out a framework for determining social psychological inputs.
Schreyer, R., Lime, David W. and Williams Daniel R. 1984 "Characterizing The Influence Of Past Experience On Recreation Behavior"
Journal of Liesure Research, 1984 Vol. 16, No. 1
Perceptions and expectations from the recreation user and their influence on management decisions.
Schreyer, R., Knopf, R.C. no date
"The Dynamics Of Change In Outdoor Recreation Environments Some Equity Issues" Articule recieved in photocopy form with no acknowledgement of orgin.
Refers to the change of patterns of the recreation user
and how it may affect user satisfaction and recreation quality
Shelby B. and Thomas Heberlin 1984


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 99
"How Many Is Too Many?"
Dept.Of Recreation Oregon State University Corvalis, Oregon
A slide presentation using the Rouge River in Oregon as an example for implimentation of their conceptual framework model for determining social carrying capacity.
Shelby, B. and Thomas A. Heberlin 1984
"A Conceptual Framework for Carrying Capacity Determination" Leisure Sciences Magazine, Vol. 6, No.4 Crane, Russak and Co., Inc.
Describing a framework that can be applied to a recreation resource to determine social carrying capacity.
Stankey, G.H. ,D.N. Cole, R.C. Lucas, M.E. Peterson, S.S. Frissell 1985
"Limits Of Acceptable Change (LAC) Systems For Wilderness Planning USDA/USFS Gen. Tech. Report INT-176 Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station Odgen, Utah
Stankey, G.H.and R.C. Clark 1979
"Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Framework For Planning, Management and Research" USDA/USFS Gen. Tech. Report PNW-98 Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Seattle, Wash.
Framework for determining social carrying capacity based on opportunities for recreation and recreation settings.
Stankey, G.H. no date
"Part IV A Sociologist Amoung The Economist, Some Social Concepts For Outdoor Recreation Planning" The Articule recieved in photocopy form with no acknowledgement of orgin.
Measuring recreation values to justify recreation funding.
Stankey,G.H., David N. Cole, Robert C. Lucas, Margaret E. Peterson and Sidney S. Frissell 1985
"The Limits Of Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning" USDA/USFS Gen. Tech. Report INT-176 Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Ogden, Ut.
A system that decides how much change in the physical and social environments is acceptable and how to maintain the changes at an acceptable level.
Urban Research Development Corp. 1977
"Guidelines For Understanding and Determining Optimum Recreation Carrying Capacity" Prepared For: Bur. of


11 100
SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
Outdoor Recreation U.S. Dept, of Interior
Recommends capacity guidelines for creating and maintaining quality recreation experience and optimum recreation use.
Urban Research Development Corp. 1980
"Recreation Carrying Capacity Handbook: Methods and Techniques For Planning, Design and Management"
Prepared For: Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army Washington D.C.
Presents a methodology for determining recreation carrying capacity levels based on manager interviews, user surveys and site analyses.
Vroom, V.H. 1964
"Work And Motivation" John Wiley and Sons New York, New York Addresses what motivates people in the work place.
Wagar, J.A. 1964
"The Carrying Capacity of Wildlands For Recreation" USDA/USFS Forest Service Monograph #7 U.S. Government Printing Office Washington D.C.
Introduction of the social carrying concept principle and how it can be used in backcountry settings.
Whitaker, Ben and Kenneth Brown 1971
"Parks for People" Winchester Press New York, New York
Brief history of parks, also incorporates design concepts and philosophies for creating parks for people.
Wurman, R.S., Levy, A.,and Katz, J. 1972
"The Nature Of Recreation, A Handbook In Honor Of Fredrick Law Olmstead, Using Examples Of His Work" Group for Environmental Education Inc. MIT Press Cambridge, Mass. 1972
"We have attempted a meeting and an embrace between the performances of recreation and the physical places and spaces such performances desire to occupy."




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
LAKE POWELL CARRYING CAPACITY STUDY VISITOR USE SURVEY
11
101
1. DATE OF SURVEY: J_____________________(la) LOCATION: _____________________________________________(lb)
2. PARTY SIZE: ________________{2)_
persons
3. DATE LAUNCHED: (3a), (3b)
persons a.m. or p.m.
4. MAIN AREAS OF DAY USE: (4a), (4b), (4c), (4d), , (4e)
1st day 2nd day 3rd day 4th day 5th day
(4f). (4k), (4h), (41), , (4.1)
6th day 7th day 8th day 9th day 10th day
(Show visitor map of Lake Powell, put zone number in blanks above and place name, in known.)
5. AREAS OF OVERNIGHT USE: (5a), (5b), (5c), (5d), (5e)
1st night 2nd night 3rd night 4th night 5th night
(5f), (5g), (5h), (51), (in
6th night 7th night 8th night 9th night 10 night
(Show visitor map of Lake Powell, put zone number in blanks above and place name, if known.)
6. HOW DID YOU OVERNIGHT: _________(6)_ where: B in boat
S on shore BT in boat on shore
7. DAY USE ACTIVITIES:
YOUR ACTIVITY TIME RANKING:
YOUR PREFERENCE LEVEL
CONCERNING OTHER USERS YOUR PREFERENCE CONCERNING
IN YOUR ACTIVITY AREA: NPS RANGERS IN THE AREA:
FISHING (7a) (7b) (7c)
TOURING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
CAMPING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
WATER SKIING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
HIKING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
SWIMMING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
JET SKIING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
CLIMBING ___________ _______________________ _______________________________
SHORELINE DAY-USE ___________
(Rank 1-9 where 1 equals most time spent in an activity.)
(Where L low density only; M moderate density accepted.)
(Where L low presence of NPS Rangers;
M moderate presence of NPS Rangers.)
8. OVERNIGHT STAYS: Your preference level concerning other users within visible/audible
range: ________(8) where: L lowest possible density preferred, M moderate density acceptable,
H high density acceptable.
9. MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL IRRITATIONS:
DAY or DAY or DAY or
ZONE 9 NIGHT (n) ZONE # NIGHT (n) ZONE # NIGHT (n) ZONE 9
NOISE OF
OTHER USERS (9a) (9b) (9a) (9b) (9a) (9b) (9a)
HUMAN WASTE
ON BEACHES ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _________ ________
CAMPGROUND
SPACE
UNSUITABLE
OVERNIGHT
ANCHORAGE
UNSUITABLE
10. BOAT TYPE: HOUSEBOAT. ______________ (10)
CABIN CRUISER _________
RUNABOUT __________
NON-MOTORIZED _________
on
(specify_______________)
11. REFUELING POINTS: HITE
BULLFROG BASIN HALLS CROSSING DANGLING ROPE WAHWEAP OTHER NONE USED
DAY or DAY or DAY or
NIGHT (n) ZONE 9 NIGHT (n) ZONE 9 NIGHT (n)
(9b) (9a) (9b) (9a) (9b)
APPENDIX *1


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
VISITOR USE SURVEY RESULTS*
11 102
AVERAGE PARTY SIZE BY ZONE OF OVERNIGHT USE:
Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6
7.2 7.0 . B. 3 8.8 7.6 8.0
TOTAL DAYUSE BY ZONE / PT. OF ORIGIN (TOTDAYUS): Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data
Zone WA
1 34
2 25
3 68
4 74
5 51
6 57
DAY-USE VS. OVERNIGHT BY PT. OF ORIGIN: Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data
PT. OF TOTAL DAY-USE ORIGIN USE ONLY
OVER-7. NIGHT
WAHWEAP
140
8 67. 132 947.
OVERNIGHT DENSITY PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE:
L
M
H
TOTAL:
Zone 1
Zone2
Zone3
Zone4
18 397. 10 567. 21 557. 29 717.
21 467. 8 447. 14 377. 12 297.
7 157. O 07. 3 87. 0 07.

46 18 38 41
Zone5 Zone6
27 687. 24 517.
12 307. 21 457.
1 37. 2 47.
47
40
APPENDIX +2


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
USER DENSITY PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE: Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized from UDF'LBZ 1 ,UDPLBZ2,UDPLBZ3
ZONE 1 ZONE 2
More Same Less More Same Less
4 45 8 3 26 5
77. 797. 147. 97. 767. 15
- 103
ZONE 3
More Same Less
3 46 3
67. 887. 67.
TOTAL! 57 87.
34
57.
52
77.
ZONE 4
More Same Less
3 44 7
67. 817. 137.
ZONE 5
More Same Less
7 39 2
157. 817. 47.
ZONE 6
More Same Less
10 76 10
107. 797. 107.
54 48
77. 6V-
AVERAGE LENGTH OF STA. BY ZONE; Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized -from AL0SBZ1 b ALOSBZz.
96
137.
ZONE!"
TOTUSE:
TOTNITE:
1 2
4
48 20
205 76
42 45 43
195 211 241
6
51
278
AVG LEN OF STAY
3.8 4.6 4.7
ACTIVITY COMPOSITION BY ZONE (ACBZSUM)i Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized from ACBZ1-7
ZONE BOAT FISH TOUR CAMP SKI HIKE SWIM
1 32 27 26 30 45 10 45
137. 117. 107. 127. 187. 47. 187.
2 23 15 14 13 32 10 27
157. 107. 97. 97. 217. 77. 187.
3 23 27 17 21 38 11 41
117. 137. 87. 107. 1B7. 57. 197.
4 27 27 23 15 45 15 39
127. 127. 107. 67. 197. 67. 177.
5 25 30 19 23 41 15 36
117. 137. B7. 107. 187. 77. 167.
6 56 54 65 41 77 33 76
127. 127. 147. 97. 177. 77. 177.
5.5


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 104
BOAT TYPE COMPOSITION BY ZONE:
Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized -from BTCBZ1 it BTCBZ2
ZONE: 1 n jl 3 4 5 6
Houseboat 18 12 30 32 34 66
237. 277. 467. 397. 467. 387.
C. Cruiser 13 7 7 8 4 1 1
167. 167. 117. 107. 57. 67.
Runabout&Ski 47 25 25 42 32 83
597. 567. 387. 517. 437. 477.
Non-motor 1 1 3 0 4 16
17. 27. 57. 07. 57. 97.
MGMT SETTING PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE: Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized From MSPLBZ1,MSPLBZ2,MSPLBZ3
ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3
More Same Less More Same Less More Same
27 28 2 16 17 1 27 25
477. 497. 47. 477. 507. 37. 527. 487.
TOTAL: 57 34 52
87. 57. 77.
ZONE 4 ZONE 5 ZONE 6
More Same Less More Same Less More Same Less
18 34 2 17 30 1 42 53 1
337. 637. 47. 357. 637. 27. 447. 557. 17.
54 48 96
77. 67. 137.


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
II 105
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL IRRITATIONS BY ZONE (MEIBZ1): Summarized from VISUSE1, Summer 'B5 Data
No. Surveyed Identifying Problemss
Total
Zone Noise Trash Waste Space Anchor Visits
1 12 5 3 0 0 115
107. 47. 37. 07. 07.
2 3 3 3 1 0 51
67. 67. 67. 27. 07.
3 5 10 6 1 1 98
57. 107. 67. 17. 17.
4 6 4 4 0 0 107
67. 47. 47. 07. 07.
5 3 6 6 2 2 92
37. 77. 77. 27. 27.
6 10 13 8 0 3 13B
77. 97. 67. 07. 27.


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
VISITOR USE SURVEY RESULTS
11
106
AVERAGE PARTY SIZE BY ZONE OP OVERNIGHT USE:
Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer 85 Data
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6
7.2
7.0 8.3 8.8
7.6 B.O
TOTAL DAYUSE BY ZONE / PT. OF ORIGIN (TOTDAYUS): Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data
Zone WA
1 34
2 25
3 68
4 74
5 51
6 57
DAY-USE VS. OVERNIGHT BY PT. OF ORIGIN:
Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer 85 Data
PT. OF TOTAL DAY-USE OVER-
ORIGIN USE ONLY 7. NIGHT
WAHWEAP 140 8 67. 132
OVERNIGHT DENSITY PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE:
L
M
H
TOTAL:
Zonel
18 397. 10
21 467. 8
7 157. 0
46 18
Zone5
Zone3
567. 21 557.
447. 14 377.
07. 3 B7.
38
Zone6
Zone2
27 687. 24 517.
12 307. 21 457.
1 40 37. 2 47 47.
APPENDIX *2
Zone4
29 717.
12 297.
0 07.
41


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD DEBRA S. FRYE
USER DENSITY PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE: Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized -from UDPLBZ 1 ,UDPLBZ2 ,UDPLBZ
ZONE 1 Z0NE 2
More Same Less More Same Less
4 45 8 T w 26 5
77. 797. 147. 97. 767. 15
11 107
ZONE 3
More Same Less
3 46
67. 887.
TOTAL:
57
87.
34
>7.
AVERAGE LENGTH OF STA. BY ZONE: Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized -from AL0SBZ1 ALOSBZ^
52
77.
ZONE 4 ZONE 5 ZONE 6
More Same Less More Same Less More Same Less
x ... ____
3 44 7 7 39 2 10 76 10
67. 817. 137. 157. 817. 47. 107. 797. 107.
54 48 96
77. 67. 1 /
ZONE:^
TOTUSE:
TOTN1TE:
1
48
205
20
76
42
195
45 21 1
43
>41
51
278
AVG LEN OF STAY:
4.3
3.8
4.6
4.7
i.6
J J
ACTIVITY COMPOSITION BY ZONE (ACBZSUM): Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized from ACBZ1-7
ZONE BOAT FISH TOUR CAMP SKI HIKE SWIM
1 32 27 26
137. 117. 107.
2 23 15 14
157. 107. 97.
3 23 27 17
117. 137. B7.
4 27 27 23
127. 127. 107.
5 25 30 19
117. 137. 87.
6 56 54 65
127. 127. 147.
30 45 10 45
127. 187. 47. 187.
13 32 10 27
97. 217. 77. 187.
21 38 11 41
107. 187. 57. 197.
15 45 15 39
67. 197. 67. 177.
23 41 15 36
107. 187. 77. 167.
41 77 33 76
97. 177. 77. 177.
M >0


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 108
BOAT TYPE COMPOSITION BY ZONE:
Compiled -from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized from BTCBZ1 & BTCBZ2
ZONE: 1 n JL 3 4 5 6
Houseboat 18 12 30 32 34 66
23% 27% 46% 39% 46% 38%
C. Cruiser 13 7 7 8 4 1 1
16% 16% 11% 10% 5% 6%
Runabout ? 59% 56% 38% 51% 43% 47%
Non-motor 1 1 *T 0 4 16
1% 2% 5% 0% 5% 9%
MGMT SETTING PREFERENCE LEVEL BY ZONE: Compiled from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data Summarized from MSPLBZ1,MSPLBZ2,MSPLBZ3
ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3
More Same Less More Same Less More Same Less
27 28 16 17 1 27 25 0
' 47% 49% 4% 47% 50% 3% 52% 48% 0%
TOTAL: 57 34 52
8% 5% 7%
ZONE 4 ZONE 5 ZONE 6
More Same Less More Same Less More Same Less
18 34 2 17 30 1 42 53 1
33% 63% 4% 35% 63% 2% 44% 55% 1%
54 48 96
7% 6% 13%


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
11 109
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL IRRITATIONS BY ZONE (MEIBZ1): Summarized from VISUSE1, Summer '85 Data
No. Surveyed Identifying Problems:
Total
Zone Noise Trash 1 Waste ! Space i Anchor Visit
1 12 5 3 0 0 115
107. 47. 37. 07. 07.
2 3 3 3 1 0 51
67. 67. 67. 27. 07.
3 5 10 6 1 1 98
57. 107. 67. 17. 17.
4 6 4 4 0 0 107
67. 47. 47. 07. 07.
5 3 6 6 2 2 92
37. 77. 77. 27. 27.
6 10 13 8 0 3 138
77. 97. 67. 07. 27.




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
110
Chapter 12 GRAPHIC INDEX
APPENDIX
Appendix #1 Visitor User Survey............................ 102
Appendix #2 Visitor Use Survey Results..................103-111
CHARTS
Chart #1 - Project Process Chart..............................13
Chart #2 - The Social Factor Method Chart.....................29
Chart #3 - User Knowledge and Information.....................33
Chart #4 - Physiographic Influences Chart.....................37
Chart #5 - Spectrum of Opportunities Chart....................41
Chart #6 - Optimum Design Guidelines..........................46
DIAGRAMS
Dia. #1 - Scattered Puzzle Pieces.............................21
Dia. #2 - Puzzle Pieces Together..............................22
Dia. #3 - Comprehensive Recreation Planning and Design........22
Dia. #4 - Social Component....................................23


SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD
DEBRA S. FRYE
111
MAPS
Map #1 - Regional Map..........................................51
Map #2 - Study Area and Existing Facitilites...................55
Map #3 - Existing Boat Distribution Map........................63
Map #4 - Topographic Map.......................................65
Map #4A Physiographic Influences Map..........................66
Map #5 - Existing Recreation Opportunities Map................70A
Map #6 - Antelope Point Boat Distribution Map.................73A
Map #7 - Antelope Point Recreation Opportunities Map..........80A
MATRIX
Matrix #1 Physiographic Matrix................................37
Matrix #2 Present Use Survey..................................62
PHOTOGRAPHS
Photo #1 - Taj Mahal..........................................18
Photo #2 - Frederick Law Olmstead.............................19
Photo #3 - Rowboaters.........................................20




SOCIAL FACTOR METHOD 112
DEBRA S. FRYE
SLIDE INDEX
Photo #1 Title Slide Photo #2 Hypothesis
Photo #3 Water Recreation Background
Photo #4 Frederick Law Olmstead
Photo #5 Swimmers, circa 1915
Photo #6 Lake with boats, circa 1920
Photo #7 Social Parameters
Photo #8 Social Factors in Design
Photo #9 Social Factor Puzzle
Photo #10 Comprehensive Recreation Design
Photo #11 Social Factor Method Flow Chart
Photo #12 Recreation Opportunities
Photo #13 - Settings
Photo #14 - Primitive Lake Setting
Photo #15 Rural/Natural Lake Setting
Photo #16 Urban Lake Setting
Photo #17 Experience
Photo #18 Primitive Experience
Photo #19 Rural/Natural Experience
Photo #20 Urban Experience
Photo #21 Activities
Photo #22 Primitive Activity
Photo #23 Rural/Natural Activity
Photo #24 Urban Activity
Photo #25 Recreation User
Photo #26 Young Boy
Photo #27 Mix Age of Men
Photo #28 Mix Age of Men and Women
Photo #29 Case Study Lake Powell
Photo #30 Topo Map of Study Area on Lake Powell
Photo #31 Enclosed Area
Photo #32 Semi-Enclosed Area
Photo #33 - Semi-Open Area
Photo #34 - Open Area
Photo #35 - Boat With Fishermen
Photo #36 - Houseboat