Citation
Proposal for a transitway-mall in downtown Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Material Information

Title:
Proposal for a transitway-mall in downtown Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Creator:
Ghandorah, Hamed M
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
102 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps (some color, some folded), plans (including 1 folded color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Central business districts -- Saudi Arabia -- Riyadh ( lcsh )
Shopping malls -- Designs and plans -- Saudi Arabia -- Riyadh ( lcsh )
Traffic engineering -- Saudi Arabia -- Riyadh ( lcsh )
Central business districts ( fast )
Shopping malls ( fast )
Traffic engineering ( fast )
Saudi Arabia -- Riyadh ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (pages 99-101).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Planning and Community Development, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
submitted by Hamed M. Ghandorah.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15582704 ( OCLC )
ocm15582704
Classification:
LD1190.A78 1986 .G514 ( lcc )

Full Text
r
SOURCE
ESCARPMENT
WADI
IRRIGABLE LAND
Socio-Economic Development Plon.Cer Region by SCET INTERNATIONAL


IV
GEOLOGY
Kgajgjjag
XX


NAJD SHIELD
MOUNTAINOUS AREAS
WADIS AND SANDY FLATS LIMESTONE PLATEAUS
ROLLING COUNTRY
LIMESTONE PLATEAUS WITH SAND COVERED AREAS
SANDY AREAS MAJOR ESCARPMENTS EXISTING MAJOR ROADS
MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERAL RESOURCES


TEMPERATURE
RAINFALL
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
CLIMATE
20
10
r "i I i


\
*
L *. V V k
\ \ V x X 1
"Vmf f
60


<
: J \\ u.. ... J
V J / 1 1 1 1 1 1 >- iaJ
%
100
90
80
70
-I--------U
10

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
-cl? -e'jj x-i* JCs.' My MM '*4
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUl AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
<)** 'r'u Jv.* MM jJ.* Uui^fuH
(SLUO
~vnr> YEAR \TAV 1967 VTA A 1968 1TAA 1969 irv 1970 uni 1971 \rAT 1972 tnr 1973
NUMBER OF RAINY DAYS 32 27 27 9 16 36 14
AMOUNT OF RAINFALL (mm) 216 2 107.4 172.5 014 8 131.7 229 7 069 3
40
30

20
10
0
-
r *. /
4 \ I g \ i
\ 1 1
\
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
-cy -CM3 o**4 Jt< Mu -MM j£*. M*-*-r-r{-*4m -rM^
,



/ / # #
/ / f
JAN FE MAR APR MAY JUN JUl AUG SEP OCX. NOV DEC
CW -£>* ***-*- Of-'- _#? SCX. M* ^ +*r~
Average mean
__ Average max JUMA^Asr- Average min
Absolute max. -ledbA' JU j'
Absolute min.
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC -it, -fir* Jt/r' jrx. s*M. -JH -Mr- xs*> MX
__ Average ipean .
VIJ
Absolute max. on 24 hours
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL
-mM fir* rz.\- JjK* -MfW
t - epiA'-fcr*
M Average mean Average max.
Average neST.
__ Absolute max. bsolute min.
v*
Ahsn
j I
-w
-*E
3
From
rom (desl
30
270
31
240
SSE VAR SSE N NNW N NNE NE NNE
Oil oil Ji^- * * dW Vtiru"
09 10 09 09 10 09 07 05 06
45 40 50 40 40 32 25 25 30
190 300 300 330 310 040 360 030 330
26
330


KING KRAL.ED INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
PHOPO & ROAD
AriMAM MOHAMAD 3iM.
SAt>{> i u*t *£*::
DIRIYAH TOWN
KING SAUD
UNIVERSITY
OIPLOMAtH
QUARTER
THANRAT LABN v
NEW Sh EMES!
Railway ) AMMAM
ALKH4RJ
LOW INCOME HOUSING
mVAOH
REFINERY
ED / *#:'j: v! Li* v- # 1' \
\ | SPECIAL. \ f; GOVERNMENTAL. >/T Af A \
A W / ij ; t KtiASH^ ALA^ > < ; I -v 1 -H


LEGEND
FREEWAY EXPRESSWAY ARTERIAL COLLECTOR LOCAL STREETS








liillili
ran
nn
LESS THAN 500 SR/M2
501 TO 1000 SR/M2
1001 TO 1500 SR/M2
1501 TO 2000 S R/M2
2001 TO 3000 SR/M2
3001 TO 4000 S R /M2
4001 TO 5000 S R/M2
5001 TO 6000 SR/M2
6001 TO 8000 S R/M2
OVER 8000 SR/M2
SOURCE Urboo iurvey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL-SE



BANKS
* EXISTING HOTELS
* PLANNED HOTELS
HH GENERAL COMMERCE SOUKS
MARKETS
WHOLESALE MARKET
RETAIL MARKETS
CENTRAL MARKET
OTHERS EXISTING
o OTHERS PLANNED
A MEAT MARKET
FISH MARKET
COLD STORAGE
UNDER 2000 TONS
OVER 2000 TONS
EXISTING
o PLANNED
SOURCE Urbon survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL SEDES


AA
~+J\
____ TQ MECCA. JfOOAH

COMMERCIAL AND
. 1 J-
OFFICE BUILDINGS
llUltL
&Aji
10 KHARJ

v
- rt.
t
it.
vV


% :*. H

OFFICE BULDMGS EXISTING
iiiiiliiii PROJECT OR UND CONSTRUCTION
USABLE FLOOR AREA
RESIDBMT1AL BLDGS USED AS
BANKS
HEAD OFFICE
BRANCH
A PROJECTED LOCATION
PUBLIC FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
SAMA HEAD OFFICE
* OTHERS
HOTELS
% EXISTING HOTELS
* PLANNED HOTELS
SOURCE Urbon survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL-SEDEJ




A
GOVERNMENT
KINDERGARTEN
PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS (M ol. EducJ PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS) DIRECTORATE) INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL FOR BOYS (Mof EducJ INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (Drect) SECObOARY SCHOOL FOR BOYSlM of.Educ.) SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (Drect.) SPECIAL SCHOOL COLLEGE VOCATIONAL SCHOOL .COLLEGE UNIVERSITY-FACULTY SPECIAL SCHOOLS
KINDERGARTEN
PRIMARY SCHOOL
A INTERMEDIATE
T SECONDARY
* SPECIAL SCHOOL
ADMMSTRATOM
MINISTRY Of EDUCATION
KlM BOYS DIRECTORATE (GOVERNMENT)
mm GlS DIRECTORATE INDEPENDENT
NOTE: . FIGURES WITH POINT ARE RENTED SCHOOLS
SOURCE Urban Survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL-


TO SAIBOUKH
\
GREEN SPACES
JL-i
N
OKm
k

<*V
' iw'jR^ V ,
v>'f J-
.'V
KNg
IP
JU
TO MANSOURIAN
.<*$m
mm
EXISTING PALM GROVES
?
DESTRUCTED PALM GROVES CULTIVATED AREAS PUBLIC GARDENS
BUILT UP AREAS WITH PLANTATIONS PLANTED AVENUES
N


SOURCE Urbon survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL-SEDES



r
1 2 3 STORIES HI 4 5 6 STORIES HI 78 9 STORIES H )0 AND OVER
i
SOURCE Urbon survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAL-SEDE!


AVERAGE
] FLOOR AREA RATIO UP TO 1.0
Elv&il far between i.o and 2.0
HI FAR BETWEEN 2.1 AND 4.0 HH FAR 4.1 AND ABOVE
OURCE IKxr Sur-y Cy SCET-fsITERNATIONAL-SEDeS




_____ UP TO 49 PERSONS/HA
1 50 TO 99fERSGNS / HA
l____] XX) TO J99 PERSONS / HA
l ] 200 TO 299PERSONS / HA
ll-l-l l-ll 300 TO 399PERSONS / HA
400 AND ABOVE PERSONS/HA
SOURCE Urbon survey by SCET-INTERNATIONAl-SEI


% OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS TO THE TOTAL OF BUILDINGS
0 TO 25 /o 25 TO 50 %
50 TO 75 /o
75 TO 100 /o
LIGHT PREFAB (STEEL)
HEAVY PREFAB (CONCRETE)
SOURCE Urban Survey by SCET-MTERNATIONAL-SEDES


J
1
LEGEND
SHACKS AND BARRACKS
TRADITIONAL
DWELLINGS
MODERN VILLAS AND AUXILIARY
APARTMENT BUILDINGS
OTHER NON RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
i
A
SOURCE : Urban Survey by SCET INTERNATIONAL SEDES


Fig. 9 v-
LEGEND
PERSON/ROOM
1 TO 1.3 1.4 TO 1.6 1.7 TO 1.9
2 TO 2.2
SOURCE : Urban Survey by SCET INTERNATIONAL SEDES


\ T- i v
'i
LAND MARKS O
O SCENIC AREAS HISTORIC BUILDINGS
ARCHITECTURAL LAND MARKS
1 ) HISTORIC AREA
f 1 PALM GROVES
SOURCE JrtxrS^^ybySCET-IMTfcRNATIONAl-SEDeS


{

AIRPORT
POLLUTION
;.v.v
111
*
v.v.y

ip:?:*;:
y.v.v


INDUSTRIAL USES
Hi polluting facilities
Q ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
CEMENT FACTORY AND QUARRY
0 SOLID WASTE TIP SITE
WATER TREATMENT PLANT
SUBSTANDARD INDUSTRIAL AREAS TRANSPORTATION
AREA AFFECTED BY NOISE OR DUST STREET SECTIONS
INTERSECTIONS
SUBJECT TO TRAFFIC CONGESTION
TEMPORARY LAND UTILISATION
11
MAIN SHACKS AREAS
WASTE DISPOSAL LAND (junked cars, garbage etc)
r W **, y set T*l''iThPNAfK X^Al-S£DS
MM
J


SOURCE:
ip wmai1'"
transportation
IllUr
/imvy
TO KHARJ

MINIBUS LINES 197 7
taxis lines i9rr
TAXIS LINES j'i6f CENTRAL TERMINAL AREA TAXIS LINES TERMINAL MMIBUS LINES TERMINAL
DOXIADIS ASSOCIATES


I


MAKKAH
33
o
>
o

PARKING LOT
GREAT MOSQUE
CANOPY STRUCTURE / TRANSITWAY VEHICLE STOP LIGHTS (POLE LUMINAIRES)
# LARGE PLANTING AREA $ QUIET SEATING
# OUTDOOR EATING LOC
# CHILDREN PLAY AREA WATPR nANCINC-
# STEPS t EDGES
PRELIMINARY MALL DESIGN
PARKING
STRUCTURE
I


GHAt/bOftAH
\
Proposal for a
(Trans ttiuap/ifiall
3n
ioumtoum Siga^f^ IKingbom of i>aubi Arabia



Hamcii m. (gijanboralj
______It
archives




PROPOSAL FOR A TRANSITWAY/MALL IN DOWNTOWN RIYADH, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
Submitted By: HAMED M. GHANDORAH
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning and Community Development University of Colorado at Denver
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
December, 1986


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
All grace is due to Allah, Creator and Sustainer of the universe. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammad is His servant, messenger and the seal of the prophets and messengers in history. May Allah's peace and blessing be upon them all.
I wish to acknowledge with warm thanks and appreciation the constant advice and support of this project by Dr. David Hill, the thesis/project advisor. Even with his sudden and serious illness, which forced him to stay in the hospital for several weeks, Dr. Hill kept his door widely open for me to come or call any time for advice or direction. Now, I thank Allah for his recovery and wish him a healthy and happy life.
My deep appreciation is also due to Dr. Daniel Schler, the director for the Department of Planning and Community Development, for his encouragement and understanding throughout my studying years, and to all the department faculty.
My love and great appreciation also go to my parents for their patience and support throughout the years, and to my wife, the wonderful mother of my children, for her constant encouragement and understanding in bringing our dream to realization.
Finally, I wish to thank Ms. Kelly Lombardi, the thesis typist and editor, for her help in completing this project.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
I. INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1
A. Problem.......................................8
B. Organization of the Study.....................9
C. Method and Evidence......................... 10
D. Scope and Limits............................ 10
II. SURVEY AND PRINCIPLES OF DOWNTOWN MALL PLANNING . 12
A. Mall Types.................................. 12
B. Examples From Europe........................ 12
1. Essen, Germany.......................... 12
2. Vienna, Austria ........................ 16
C. Examples From the U.S.A..................... 19
1. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ............. 19
2. Fresno, California ..................... 21
3. Minneapolis, Minnesota ................. 24
4. Scranton, Pennsylvania ................. 28
D. Design Details of the Denver Downtown Mall . 32
1. Setting and Background...................33
2. Summary of Project.......................36
3. Design Concept...........................41
4. The Plan.................................41
5. Plan Elements............................42
6. Traffic Circulation .................... 47


Page
7. Parking and Parking Solution ............. 48
8. A Mall Success.............................51
E. Common Principles of Downtown Mall Design . 52
1. Transportation.............................52
2. Engineering................................52
3. Landscaping................................52
4. Graphics...................................53
5. Street Furniture ......................... 53
F. Additional Options to the Basic Mall
Design Principles .......................... 54
III. BACKGROUND FOR THE CITY OF RIYADH..................55
A. History of the City..............................55
B. Natural Setting..................................57
1. Geology and Soil.............................58
2. Climate....................................58
3. Hydrography..................................60
4. Flora........................................60
C. Riyadh Metropolitan Area.........................61
D. New Development Features.........................62
E. Demography.....................................6 3
IV. RIYADH'S CENTRAL AREA..............................70
A. Description......................................70
B. Traffic and Parking..............................72
V. RIYADH CENTRAL TRANSIT MALL ....................... 84
A. The Project Setting..............................84
B. Design Objectives .............................. 85


Page
C. The Project Area................................86
D. Design and Location Alternatives .............. 87
E. Mall Plan.......................................88
F. Plan Elements...................................89
VI. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ..................... 93
A. Traffic Circulation ..................... 93
B. Service and Emergency Areas ................... 93
VII. SUMMARY.............................................95
ENDNOTES.............................................. 9 7
SELECTED REFERENCES .................................. 99
INTERVIEWS
102


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Comparative Analysis of Transportation Modes ........... 3
Annual Growth Rate of Population and Private
Automobiles in Selected Cities: 1960-1970 .... 3
Increased Pedestrian Flow in Traff-Free Zones .... 4
Retail Sales Increase in European and North
American Pedestrian Districts ......................... 4
Air Pollution Levels Before and After the Banning of Vehicular Traffic
from City Streets...................................... 4
Noise Pollution Levels Before and After the Banning of Vehicular Traffic
from City Streets...................................... 4
Parking Strategy (Essen) ................................ 15
Limbecker Strasse and Kettwiger Strasse (Essen) ... 15
Key to Mall Plan (Vienna) ................................18
Kaerntner Strasse (Vienna) .............................. 18
Urban Renewal Plan (Fresno) ..............................22
Mall Location Plan (Minneapolis) ........................ 26
Mall Location Plan (Scranton) ............................29
Wyoming Avenue Semi Mall..................................31
Central Business District (Denver) ...................... 34
Sixteenth Street Mall (Denver) .......................... 35
Contextual Systems Diagram .............................. 37
Downtown Denver Public Services ......................... 38
Typical Block Sixteenth Street Mall .................. 40
Master Plan
45


Page
Phase I...................................................49
Ultimate Phase .......................................... 49
Climate (Riyadh) ............................. 59
Age Pyramid of Permanent Residents ..................... 68
Traffic Variation Batha Street ....................... 73
Traffic Variation - Wazir Street ................... 74
Traffic Variation - Khazzan Street .................... 75
Traffic Variation - A1 Hellah Street ................... 76
Traffic Variation Old Shimessi Street ................ 77
Traffic Variation New Shimessi Street ................ 78
Parking Survey in Central Area........................81
On-Street Parking Supply In Central Area ....... 82
Pre-Mall Proposal .............................91
Mall Section..............................................92
Makkah Road Aerial View from the South.................94


LIST OF MAPS
Riyadh and the Kingdom .... following Table of Contents National Traffic Flow .... following Table of Contents City Schematic Land Use following Table of Contents
Map of Arabian Peninsula ..............
Map of Old Riyadh .....................
Historical Development of Riyadh City (1929 1978)..........................
Topography ............................
Geology ...............................
Metropolitan Area Land Use ............
Road Network Evolution After 1973 . .
Proposed Road Network .................
City Land Use .........................
Land Prices ...........................
City Commercial .......................
Commercial and Office Buildings . . .
Education ........................... .
Green Spaces ..........................
Building Heights ......................
Floor Area Ratio ......................
Residential Density ................. .
Building Materials ....................
Building Typology ................... .
Person Per Room..................... .
following page 55 following page 55
following following following following following following following following following following following following following following following following following following
page 56 page 57 page 58 page 61 page 61 page 62 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70 page 70


Land Marks
Pollution ..............
Transportation .........
Land Use #1 ............
Land Use #2 ..........
Traffic Capacity Ratio
and Traffic Network
following page 70 following page 70 following page 72 following page 84 following page 84
following page 93


LIST OF TABLES
Page
Distribution of Resident Population by Age and Sex . 67
Floor Area Distribution per Category
In Riyadh Commercial Areas ......................... 71




INTRODUCTION
I .
History has given a long list of reasons for the founding and functioning of cities. But whatever the reasons, they have functioned throughout the ages in specific ways and for specific purposes. One of the primary purposes is to bring together many people so that, through direct communication with each other, they may exchange goods and ideas without unnecessary and excessive loss of energy and time.
If one were to try to reduce to three the qualities or characteristics that make a city, they might be:
1) Compactness
2) Intensity of public life
3) A small-grained pattern in which all types of human activities are intermingled in close proximity.^"
In recent years, because of the many symptoms of urban disease, there have been many predictions about the imminent death of the cities, and today there is little doubt that cities are in serious trouble. Yet, despite constant fiscal and social problems, the cities have not died, though many of their fundamental problems remain unsolved.
Perhaps this is part of the fascination of urban pedestrian malls*; they represent a positive response to
* Traditionally, the word "mall" has meant an area usually lined with shade trees and used as a public walk or promenade. As used today, "mall" denotes a new kind of street or plaza in central city business areas oriented toward pedestrians and served by public transit.
1


urban problems. They bring up fantasies of outdoor cafes with parasols, play areas filled with laughing children, busy shop activities, and an oasis of trees, grass, flowers, and fountains in the middle of the urban city life.
There is a reality of the pedestrian mall, however, and it is quite different than fantasies. Pedestrian malls are not urban idylls created in an artist's eye; rather, they are practical solutions to some serious and urgent urban problems. A mall can be successful as long as it can cope with the problems facing it, which include deteriorating economic and physical conditions, a declining quality of life, pollution, congestion, and movement of people to the suburbs. In addition to alleviating these problems, a pedestrian mall can bring liveliness to the downtown area, so that people will come to the mall for what it offers, not because there are no other alternatives.
A pedestrian mall is often the key instrument for solution in relation to urban economics, environmental quality, and social well-being. In the area of economics, pedestrianization will improve the business of local merchants and the livelihood of local residents by drawing more people from all over the city into the downtown area.
The city's environmental quality has the potential for improvement when reducing the number of motor vehicles in central districts. Creating traffic-free zones will lead to reduced street levels of noise and air pollution, the preservation of historic districts, and restoration of
2


WALK r
BIKE 3' r 1 >
PUBLIC P ! : V
TRANSPORTATION
ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION AND PRIVATE AUTOMOBILES IN SELECTED CITIES: 1960-1970
Setting goals for the implementation of a traffic ban requires the recognition of existing trends in car ownership. During the past 10 years, private automobile ownership in large cities has increased far more rapidly than the population. The number of private cars has risen an average of 10 percent a year, with even higher peaks in developing countries. Data obtained from World Bank Sector Policy Paper, Urban Transport (Washington: World Bank, May 1975).
A comparative analysis of transportation modes used in journeys to work shows that accessibility to American and Canadian downtowns depends almost totally on cars. This explains the emphasis on providing better access to and parking facilities in North American city centers.
3


COPENHAGEN
KALAMAZOO
INCREASED PEDESTRIAN FLOW IN TRAFFIC-FREE ZONES
Data obtained trom Laurence A. Alex ander, Downtown Malls: An Annual Review, vol. 1 (New York: Downtown Research and Development Center,
1975); and Pedestrian Streets (London: Greater London Council, 1973).
JACKSON
FRESNO
DUSSELDORF
MINNEAPOLIS
ROUEN
KALAMAZOO
VIENNA
LEEDS
RETAIL SALES INCREASE IN EUROPEAN AND NORTH AMERICAN PEDESTRIAN DISTRICTS
Data obtained trom Laurence A. Alexander, Downtown Malls: An Annual Review, Vol. 1 (New York: Downtown Research and Development Center,
1975); and Streets for People (Paris: OECD, 1974).
AIR POLLUTION LEVELS BEFORE AND AFTER THE BANNING OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FROM CITY STREETS
Data obtained from Pedestrian Streets (London: Greater London Council,
1973). Streets lor People (Paris: OECD, 1974).
NOISE POLLUTION LEVELS BEFORE AND AFTER THE BANNING OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FROM CITY STREETS
Data obtained from Pedestrian Streets (London: Greater London Council, 1973). Streets lor People (Paris: OECD, 1974).
4


landmarks. At the same time it provides incentives for building owners and operators to improve the physical appearance of their stores, homes, and offices. Even the safety in downtown areas increases, since pedestrian zones eliminate dangerous confrontations between cars and people.
A mall can have a great social impact, drawing all ages and different social statuses, tourists and residents alike, into these areas where they spend longer and more enjoyable time.
To support building a mall, we must consider some problems and questions that have to be understood and answered. Is the timing right? Is a pedestrian street the answer to the nature and scope of the particular problem?
Is it possible to generate the necessary monetary, administrative and popular support? We must know what an urban mall is and how it works in order to deal with the problem and answer these questions.
Pedestrian zones are both physical and institutional entities, and they both must be understood and developed.
The physical aspects of a mall are the visible and the invisible characteristics. In fact, the greatest costs of a mall are usually the things we do not see, such as rebuilt or relocated underground utilities.
What we do see is a repaired and reproportioned street without cars, or with limited vehicular access. Sidewalks may have diseappeared as they merged into what was formerly the street. Often the space will have patterns of different colors and materials. The storefronts may have been renovated.
5


A pedestrian mall often features special amenities for relaxation, entertainment, or intimate communication. The mall may be landscaped with trees, flowers and water. Fountains can draw the attention and interest of children as well as adults. Street lighting is usually proportioned to human scale. Benches and tables provide places for socializing. The location of physical amenities will determine their use and whether or not they will be used in the first place. Different arrangements for benches will attract different people.
Nonphysical factors also give a mall identity. The operation of public space will affect those who frequent a pedestrian zone and the reasons why.
A mall also represents a series of policy decisions about zoning, building, health and safety codes, traffic regulations, taxes and assessments, and other maintenance and operation practices. These policy decisions can vary from country to country and city to city, but they are a growing necessity.
Following the destruction of World War II, European cities had the chance to carry out extensive renovation of inner-city areas as part of reconstruction programs. This is where the idea of pedestrian streets was introduced. It started with the idea of the acceptance and accommodation of the city center to increased traffic and new construction. Streets were widened and entire blocks demolished. As a result, the character of many historic city cores was lost.
6


At the same time, some traffic-free experiments were being conducted.
At that time, however, it was impossible to predict the explosion of private motor traffic which became characteristic of European cities after the war. Within a short time, it became apparent that even the most drastic measures taken by planners to modernize core areas were not sufficient to contend with the problem. The radial pattern of European cities made the conditions even more difficult.
By the late 1950s, the condition reached alarming proportions. It was clear that private cars had to be restricted in historic cores if they were to survive.
Traffic restriction became a widely adopted policy in European cities, and by 1975 nearly every major city had banned cars from downtown historic district and retail areas.
This idea of traffic-free zones was not introduced in North America until the early 1960s. People had been steadily deserting cities for the suburbs, and after World War II, more and more moved out as the number of cars and highways increased. In the suburbs, land was cheap, population density was low, and the lifestyle was more homogeneous .
City cores suffered a great loss of vitality. Streets became congested with commuter cars during the day, while at night these same streets were deserted and somewhat scary. Pollution, accidents, and crime increased as a result.
7


Suburban shopping centers also played a great role in increasing the loss of the downtown vitality by offering convenient and more attractive alternatives. Ironically, the design of these centers, which maximized the benefits of traffic-free environments, became the basis for downtown revitalization.
By the mid-1960s, following the example of different projects such as Kalamazoo, Michigan, and Pomona, California, the process of banning cars from central commercial streets was well on its way.
As American cities were beginning to realize the potential of traffic-free zoning, and as environmental awareness increased, the suburban dream was starting to crumble. Furthermore, many of the social problems that had driven people from the cities and its downtowns had followed them, but the excitement and richness of urban life had failed to be a real part of suburbia. As a result, people took a new look at their downtowns and recognized not only their physical and economic assets, but also their human potential.
A. Problem
As Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, has experienced a period of rapid growth in the last fifteen years, the city government has faced many crucial issues and problems that had to be dealt with very seriously. As the suburbs around the city began to emerge, community shopping demands began to increase and there was somewhat of a shift
8


from the far downtown to the near shopping areas and to the new, more attractive and convenient shopping centers. As a result of this, slowly but surely, the downtown area began to lose the historically-known shopping and retail area and the core of the whole city, and what is a city without an identifiable core that can hold it together and bring people's attention to the center as their prime shopping area and center for outdoor activities?
I feel that there is an urgent need for a complete study of the downtown area of Riyadh, as there are some alarming signs of deteriorating economic and physical conditions, a declining quality of life, pollution, congestion, and a movement of people to the suburbs. I see great potential for a pedestrian transitway/mal1 in downtown Riyadh as one practical solution to the current urban problems facing the city.
B. Organization of the Study
My strategy is to understand fully the needs and problems of downtown malls in todays urban city life, how other cities in the United States and Europe have dealt with similar problems, and key points which made some of these malls become successful. Examples of different cities are given. My next step is to introduce a general understanding of the urban layout of the city of Riyadh with a focus on its downtown area as of today. My final step, based on understanding and identifying the problem(s), is to put forward a plan for a mall and its surroundings.
9


C. Methods and Evidence
Different methods and evidence based on maps, charts, and numbers from secondary data are used in the study. I will also use as reference materials different books and reports written about the subject of downtown malls, and several interviews with planners as well as non-planners whom I felt could be of assistance to the study.
D. Scope and Limits
It is necessary to keep in mind that a downtown mall is usually a practical solution to some urgent urban problems, yet it is a very broad subject that involves many planners, architects, lawyers, government officials, traffic planners, merchants, and the community in general, among others. As this is the case, it is not expected for this study to be so comprehensive for it to be implemented, but I hope that it will mark the beginning of serious consideration for a traffic-free zone in the downtown area of Riyadh before it is too late.
Another limitation is the time frame of the study, given the great distance between the place where the study is being done (Denver, Colorado) and the place for which it is being done (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), and the question of how current the available information and data, mainly concerning Riyadh, are.
E. Conclusion
Whether or not a mall is going to be implemented in downtown Riyadh is not really my main concern here; rather,
10


my consideration is whether or not it could be a step toward a renaissance of the urban center of the city. Is the idea going to be accepted or rejected by the people? That depends, in part, on the government's policies. But it also depends on the willingness of the citizens to take action on behalf of themselves. This can happen only through increased awareness of the complex interrelation of urban issues and an understanding of what a downtown mall could mean to them.
11


II. SURVEY AND PRINCIPLES OF DOWNTOWN MALL PLANNING
A. Mall Types
There are three major types of downtown malls: the full mall, the transit mall, and the semimall. These malls offer and can have a wide variety of designs.
1. Full Mall: A full mall is obtained by closing a street that was originally used for vehicular traffic and then improving the pedestrian street or plaza with new paving, trees, benches, lighting and other amenities such as sculpture and fountains.
2. Transit Mall: A transitway mall is obtained by removing automobile and truck traffic on an existing street and allowing only public transit such as buses and taxis in the area. Walks are widened, and other amenities are added.
3. Semimall: In the semimall the amount of traffic and parking is reduced. The expanded pedestrian areas that result are provided with new trees and planting, benches, lighting, and other amenities.
B. Examples from Europe
1. Essen, Germany
Essen is located in the Ruhr region and is home of the vast Krupp empire. It is largely a product of the 19th. and 20th. centuries. Throughout history, the city has been radically transformed so that today there is very little of
12


the mix of commercial and residential structures usually found in most European cities.
City Profile
Although the city is thoroughly modern, it was originally founded in the 9th. century.* The medieval town grew and was defined by a ring of fortified walls. Today, the walls have been replaced by a road, and the city's border has expanded far beyond its original quarter.
Most of the city was destroyed during the Second World War, but it was reconstructed afterward. Even though planners retained the original layout of its medieval center, they had to adapt the area to the contemporary needs of a big city.
An Accessible City
Post-war planning strategies for the Ruhr aimed at improving the polluted environment, and a major goal was to improve accessibility to the city. By promoting and improving public transportation, and by provision of ample parking, this goal was successfully achieved. From radial roads, private cars enter the ring around the central business district, where numerous parking lots and multistory garages are provided. From this point, drivers can either take public transportation or use the pedestrian system which extends to most parking areas. Driving in
* The cathedral dates from 852 A.D. when Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim laid the foundations for it and the Convent of Asnidi. About 1,100 years later, this is still the heart of the city.
13


the central business district is discouraged by the use of traffic diversions and one-way streets.
The upgrading of the rail service into the city and extending the pedestrian system to include the railroad stations on the northern and southern edges of the central business district were also important elements in improving accessibility.* Thus, after the war, the pedestrianized core of the city became the focus of every transportation mode, both public and private, entering the city.
The Pedestrian Mall System
The system is based on two major streets that cross in the heart of the city, Limbecker Strasse (1,800 feet) and Kettwiger Strasse (3,000 feet). Every point within the central business district can be conveniently reached on foot.
Grey slabs in different shades and patterns replaced the old paving on both streets, as sidewalks have also been eliminated. The new paving, however, was not done properly to inhibit the pedestrian, as there are no steps, curbstones or other impediments done.
The two streets differ sharply in appearance and character.^ The wider street, Limbecker, allows for street furniture, including showcases, benches, flower boxes, fountains and pavilions. It is lined with fashionable shops,
* At the south station alone, some 80,000 people enter the city each day.
14


PARKING STRATEGY
In many German cities, postwar reconstruction ottered an opportunity to create parking facilities close to the city center. Essen has 6,000 spaces in garages, inside and outside the ring, and 2,000 on-street spaces. The inner-city garages serve pedestrian areas, and walking distance between the car and city garages is generally less than 1,200 feet/400 meters. Ga-ragesoutsidetheringareintendedfor all-dayparkingandformpartofapark-and-ride system.
The city reserves the right to control tees and policy. Long-term on-street parking is discouraged in favor of short-term off-street parking in garages, where fees are rebated according to customers' purchases.
Essen's pedestrian system extends over the downtown two major axes, Limbecker Strasse and Kettwiger Strasse, linking the center of the city with all major transportation terminals and parking facilities. Key to the plan: (1) Limbecker Strasse, (2) Kettwiger Strasse, (P) Parking.
Kettwiger Strasse.


restaurants and cinemas. Kettwiger is the main way between the new town hall and the central railroad stations. Street vendors, lottery kiosks and children's amusements are also part of the mall.*
2. Vienna, Austria
It is impossible to define a clear-cut commercial district in the core of the city, as residences, shops and offices are mixed together to a high degree. In addition, the core layout is so fragmented that pedestrian zoning would create an impossible traffic jam on surrounding streets.
As there was a great need and demand for a pedestrian zone in the heart of Vienna, the city decided to experiment with a temporary closing of its most famous shopping street, Karntner Strasse, for Christmas season of 1971, using "street happenings," temporary furniture and other low-cost devices. Subsequently, this street was permanently repaved and furnished. Later, other streets followed.
City Profile4
Two main boulevards surround Vienna today. In 1860 the medieval fortified walls surrounding the city were torn down and replaced by the inner boulevard. In 1890, the second ring was constructed. As part of this belt, a rapid transit
* Service and deliveries to the shops and office buildings on both streets are handled from parallel streets. Where rear servicing is impossible, deliveries are permitted on streets between 7:00 p.m. and 10:00 a.m.
16


system was then constructed to connect the railroad stations. The surrounding area was rapdily built up as a dense residential zone.
In the 1960s, as the city started to get saturated with vehicles, the government realized that something would have to be done to correct the situation.
The Idea
In 1971, a study and recommendations for saving Vienna from the attack of automobile traffic were completed. The study suggested banning vehicular traffic from the entire central core as defined by the Ring. For more than one reason, the study argued that a partial traffic ban would not work at all.
Rather than relying on buses for rapid transit, the city has decided to build a new subway system to successfully implement a complete pedestrian zone in central Vienna. The subway is to be linked with an expanded regional transportation system. By the use of this combination, it is expected that automobile traffic in the downtown area will be greatly reduced.
From Experiment to Reality
Since it started as an idea, it was not certain whether or not the pedestrian zone was going to work.6 Merchants in the area were divided in their opinions about it, and the government was not so sure either. After taking a poll, it was a slight victory for those merchants who thought it was a good idea.
17


Right: Key to the plan: (1) Kaerntner Strasse, (2) Graben, (3) Kohlmarkt, (4) Stephansplatz, (P) Parking.
PARKING
Finding a parking space in central Vienna is so difficult that commuters arrive as early as 7 a.m. if they start work at 8:30. The city has recently adopted a policy of keeping the number of parking spaces as small as possible to discourage driving into Vienna. At the same time, garage space has been increased; 25,000 spaces in downtown Vienna is considered optimum. People employed within the inner city require 15,000 parking spaces, to which must be added another 7,000 spaces for residents and an additional 3,000 for visitors and tourists. At present, there are eight parking garages with 5,600 spaces, and a additional garage with a 2,500-car capacity is scheduled to open in 1977.
Kaerntner Strasse.
1 8


A series of streets went under the experiment, transforming the previously congested vehicular streets into exciting pedestrian walkways. As it went progressed, nearby merchants wanted their streets included in the pedestrian system a clear indication of its success.
The pedestrian streets of Vienna have gained the reputation as the most elegant shopping streets in Europe. The design of the streets' paving contrasts very nicely with the shop windows and with the benches arranged in circles. New lighting, trees and planters have been added. Close by, opera houses, hotels, cafes and tea rooms continue the activity during the evening.
C. Examples from the U.S.A.
1. Chestnut Street Transitway: Phildelphia, Pennsylvania
Description
The Chestnut Street Transitway is a transit mall. It is located along one of Phildelphia's busiest downtown shopping streets. The mall is twelve blocks long, stretching from 6th. to 18th. Streets. Generally, the mall is 60 feet in width, but between 9th. and 10th. Streets it is wider because of the setback of federal buildings.7
Traffic on the mall is limited to buses on a 20-foot-wide roadway. After 6:00 p.m. taxicabs are allowed. The mall is a shopping promenade and features expanded sidewalks with new paving, pedestrian crosswalks at midblock,
19


specially designed lighting, bus shelters, raised planters, and some seating.
Design Features
PAVING: Walks have been increased to 20 feet in width on
each side of the roadway. Sidewalk areas are paved in brick, with concrete adjacent to building facades and in the crosswalk pattern at midblock. Curbs fade out at crosswalk areas for ease of pedestrian use.
LIGHTING: Night lighting was specially designed for the mall. Clusters of eight luminous globes of smoky gray acrylic plastic are placed on 14-foot-high anodized bronze aluminum poles. Bicentennial elements were also attached to the tops of the poles.
Other illumination is provided by high-level lights on 28-foot poles. There are also lights included in the pedestrian signals at midblock areas.
BUS SHELTERS: Large, transparent, roofed bus shelters are provided. They are free-standing and take up minimal space, physically and visually.
PLANTING: Trees are planted both directly in the sidewalk
areas and in raised tree planters. Grates are used around the trees placed in walk areas.
SEATING: Benches in a small sitting area are provided in
conjunction with the midblock crosswalk area. These benches are limited to about four per block. Trash receptacles are placed near the benches, as well as in other locations.
20


Overall
The transitway has improved pedestrian circulation on Chestnut Street, and merchants seem to feel happy with the results of the mall.
Since the street is only 60 feet in width for most of its length, a few wider spaces adjacent to the mall would provide added room for feature use.
2. Fulton Mall: Fresno, California Description
Fulton Mall is a full mall. It is located in Fresno, California. The mall is six blocks in length and creates a pedestrian area free of automobile traffic. Traffic is also banned from two streets crossing the mall, providing pedestrians with a half mile of uninterrupted walks.
The mall features concrete paving with red pebbled bands, fountain reflecting pools, arbors, sitting areas, children's play areas, sculpture, night lighting, and adjacent parking facilities.
Planning Considerations
The major planning objectives for revitalizing the retail district were the following:
1. To treat the center city as a core superblock that is pedestrian-oriented.
2. To provide peripheral parking in multistory garages surrounding the superblock.
3. To study freeway routes and circulation around core
Q
areas.
21


3 Uti
The urban renewal plan for downtown Fresno has transformed the center of the city into a core. Parking places for 4,200 cars have also been provided in the vicinity of the pedestrian area.
22


Design Features
FREEWAY ROUTES: Freeway routes were established 20 years ahead of their construction, and the triangular freeway system was designed to provide a loop around the 2000-acre core.
PAVING: The paving is formed of concrete with curvilinear
bands of red pebbles. The concrete was sandblasted and treated with an epoxy coating.
FOUNTAINS: The mall was designed with many water features,
including cascades, pools, and jets. Sculptures are also part of some of the fountains.
PLANTING: Plant materials include 162 trees and 19,000
plants, giving much variety. The trees provide canopies of shade along the mall.
SITTING AREAS: Seating is provided on benches, as well as under trellised areas and around fountains.
SCULPTURE: Sculpturs are numerous throughout the mall. An
element that serves as a landmark is a large sculptural clock toward the center of the mall.
LIGHTING: Lighting is provided by round globes on metal
standards. Some outdoor cafes and children's play areas are also features of the design which add a variety of activities .
Overall
Many building facades were rehabilitated, and the mall gained a national reputation for its planning and design. When the mall was completed, it also appeared to be a
23


success financially, as it drew a good percentage of the retail market.
3. Nicollet Mall: Minneapolis, Minnesota Description
Nicollet Mall is a transit mall. It is located on Nicollet Avenue, the main street on the shopping district in downtown Minneapolis. The first phase of the mall was eight blocks in length with an 80-foot right-of-way. An additional four blocks were added in the second phase.
Traffic is limited to buses, taxicabs, and minibuses, which carry shoppers the length of the shopping district for ten cents.
The mall has a curvilinear or serpentine alignment, with a road width of 24 feet. The alignment provides changing motion and a variety of views as one progresses through the mall. The sizes of spaces also change, with some pedestrian areas as wide as 36 feet. The mall has four fountains, several sculptures, special clocks, a weather station, specially-designed lights, and places to sit.
Street furnishings have been designed to act as unifying elements for the mall. Additional elements such as bus shelters, a self service post office, kiosks, traffic signals, paving, and flower pots have also been provided, as well as snow melting equipment. The mall has a strong visual terminus to the north at Washington Avenue: the Northwestern National Life Insurance Building.
24


Planning Considerations
The major planning principle was to improve the retail of the street.
The planning objectives were as follows:
1. To improve pedestrian circulation.
2. To improve access and encourage mass transportation .
3. To strengthen the identity and image of Nicolett Avenue, thereby creating new opportunities for retail promotion .
4. To encourage private investment by creating a stable environment for retail sales.
5. To develop a transit mall of high aesthetic quality that would link neighborhoods with Nicollet Avenue. All bus routes were to use the mall, cross the mall, or be within
g
one block of the mall.
Design Features
The mall is of high quality and has elegant detailing. Durable materials are used for the mall.
Street furnishings are coordinated to provide unity in the overall design, and each block has its own features. FOUNTAINS: The mall has four types of fountains. One is
made of gray granite and covers an area 12 feet wide by 32 feet long. It gives a sculptural effect with the use of water complementing it. Another type of fountain has a bowl effect with water flowing at the center.
25


Mall location plan.
alignment.
2 6


SCULPTURE: The mall features an 18-foot Calder Stabile
donated to the city for the mall.
PAVING: The paving on the mall is done by the use of brick
and aggregate concrete. Granite is used in sitting areas.
A snow-melting system is incorporated in the paving. Tree grates are part of the paving pattern. Seventy-five 3.5-foot-high granite bollards with chains between them are used on the mall.
RAISED PLANTERS: Thirty-three concrete planters capped with granite have several shapes. Trees are planted in these raised planters, as well as directly in the sidewalk areas.
Eighty small concrete pots are also used for flowers, which add color in summer months.
PLANTING: About 96 trees of different types are planted
along the mall.
LIGHTING: Lighting on the mall has been carefully designed.
The 150 incandescent lights with clear acrylic hoods and clear traffic bulbs provide a warm glow. The use of both two- and four-globe types gives a feeling of movement through the mall and adds more variety to what is in there. BUS SHELTERS: There are 16 specially-designed bus shelters on the mall, two on each block on alternate sides of the street. These shelters are well designed and are heated for use in the winter. They are sectional at each end and also contain electrical switching gear and transformers.
Overall
Nicolett Mall is regarded as very successful. Pedestrian traffic has increased, and there is less congestion.
27


Retail sales have risen about 14 percent, with much benefit to smaller shops. There also has been more than $225 million in new construction and rehabilitation along the mall.
The mall has also helped to strengthen other areas of downtown. The impact of the mall has spread beyond its immediate area to improve the regional center, thereby gaining a national image.
A system of skyway links at the second-story level of buildings was developed to form a second pedestrian system for winter use.
4. Wyoming Avenue Mini-Mall: Scranton, Pennsylvania
Wyoming Avenue Mini-Mall is a semimall. It is located in the 100 Block of Wyoming Avenue in downtown Scranton, Pennsylvania. The mall was planned to facilitate pedestrian use along Wyoming Avenue, where the two major department stores in the downtown area are located. The mall is 650 feet in length and has a general width of 100 feet between opposite building facades.
Wyoming Avenue, which is a two-way street, had four lanes of traffic and two parking lanes. In the final semimall concept, on-street parking is removed and the street narrowed from 62 to 40 feet. This allows for much wider pedestrian walk areas and related amenities. Bus pull-off areas are also provided to facilitate transit use.
The mall has a clock tower, sculpture, children's play area, concrete brick pavers, and pedestrian walk lighting as
28


\Y
LACKAWANNA
AVENUE
r"' i
1
L.J B 3RUC L E
III
am*
METER
r .... ..... _jl_n_

LIMITED NO PARKING BUS STOP TAXI STAND TRUCK LOADING
MULBERRY
LOCATION MAP
DOWNTOWN SCRANTON
rill


well as street lighting. Raised planters, seating kiosks, new traffic poles, drinking fountains, flower pots, bollards, and much new planting are also provided.
Design Features
The mall has many design features that create an interesting environment in which to shop, stroll, eat lunch, and have special events.
PAVING: The entire mall is paved with concrete pavers.
Walk areas are in rustic colored concrete bands to give rhythm to the design. The roadway has granite curbs and is paved with a thicker concrete brick paver, as are the crosswalk areas at Spruce and at Lackawanna Avenue.
Three-foot-high granite bollards provide interest and additional safety at bus drop-off areas.
SCULPTURE: Two sculptures are proposed on the mall to
act as feature elements and to provide cultural amenities in the downtown area.
CLOCK TOWER: A clock tower, which has lighted faces that are for nighttime viewing, is provided near the intersection of Wyoming and Lackawanna Avenue.
KIOSKS: Two kiosks are located on the mall. Both are of
duranodic bronze aluminum and have night lighting. One serves as a directory while the other encloses electrical equipment.
PLAY AREA: A small play area with wooden play equipment is provided for children.
30


View of raised concrete planters with random board finish forming sitting areas.
31


NIGHT LIGHTING: Lighting is provided on 30-foot duranodic bronze aluminum poles for the roadway and on 12-foot-high duranodic poles for pedestrian areas. Uplights are used to illuminate the sculptures and trees in raised planters. SEATING: Double benches are provided facing in two direc-
tions for views along the mall as well as singly in other sitting areas. Seating is also available in raised concrete planters with granite tables for eating and other uses. PLANTING: Shade trees are used to form a canopy along both
sides of the mall. They are planted in both sidewalk areas and in raised planters. Evergreen shrubs are also planted in the raised planters as well as in some granite pots.
Overall
The mall has acted as a catalyst for downtown revitalization. It has sparked an interest in the downtown area and has inspired those interested in improving it to work together.
The city is reviewing ways of adding badly-needed parking in the downtown area.
Funding for an extension of two additional blocks to the mall along Lackawanna Avenue and renewing other blocks is being sought.
D. Design Details of the Denver Downtown Mall
Since the 1890s, Denver's Sixteenth Street has been the premier retail shopping corridor. But beginning in the 1960s, downtown businesses began feeling the increased competition from the rapidly expanding suburban shopping parks
32


and malls. The downtown area had deteriorating storefronts and building facades, few pedestrian amenities, and an increasing number of empty spots along Sixteenth Street. Short-term parking was a problem and large diesel buses clogged downtown streets during peak hours.
By 1970, as many businesses continued to see a decline in their share of expanding regional sales, it became clear that something dramatic was required to save the street and downtown's economic vitality.
In 1977, a model for a 13-block Sixteenth Street Mall with bus transfer centers at each end was unveiled.
1. Setting and Background
It is now called the Sixteenth Street Transitway/Mal 1, and it is centered on 16th. Street, the principle commercial spine for the Denver Central Business District. It runs a total of 13 blocks, about 1 mile, from Broadway to Larimer Street.
The core of downtown Denver must serve not only the 500,000 residents of the city proper but the other 1.2 million who live on Downtown's metro fringe. Half of the people in the whole state of Colorado live within an easy commute of Downtown. And for most people, Downtown is "the city."10
As the commercial development in the Denver metropolitan region became more diversified, shopping experience started to shift away from the downtown shopping area. New merchandising techniques, new consumer attitudes, a new
33


Central Business District Major Shopping Centers
Cherry Creek
2 Aurora Mall .
3 Buckingham Square
4 Greater University Hills
5 Southglenn
6 Cinderella City
7 Bear Valley
8 Villa Italia
9 Westland
10 Lakeside
11 Westminister Plaza
12 North Valley
13 Northglenn
34


35


concern for quality of life, and a growing population base led to the creation of local and regional shopping centers with their architecturally attractive malls, their easy access, and their variety of merchandise.
The shopping experience had become a social event for many forms of recreational activity such as displays, exhibits, theater, and carnivals. The Sixteenth Street Mall offered a perfect outdoor environment for this kind of social experience. It provided for a variety of urban activities involving shopping, business and commerce, transportation, culture and education.
The mall has special qualities that no shopping center can offer: the historic randomness of the architecture, the distinctive differences in merchandising techniques (lighting, signing, window display, graphics), and the variety of people who use the street.
With all that in mind, we can see that planning for the Sixteenth Street Mall was for much more than a remodeled street. In a larger sense, the project encompassed the entire Central Business District and its immediate environs. Some vital components of the Master Plan were public transportation planning, parking, and access to 16th. Street.
The design concepts of the mall were integrated with other planned projects in the area.
2. Summary of Project
The Transitway/Mal1 is a major transportation project in the Central Business District of metropolitan Denver.
Its main goals are:^
36


NOTE:
civic/ government
This "Systems Diagram" illustrates ho The 16th Street Mall acts as the majc pedestrian public space connecting other land uses in downtown Denver.
commercial
commercial
DOWNTOWN DENVER PUBLIC SPACES
CONTEXTUAL SYSTEMS DIAGRAM


[OWN DENVER SPACES
h'm
ISE DISTRICTS
lustrates the location of ver's public spaces, onship to each other, ther land uses within the
300 BOO
spaces
ntiaJ
core
ttensity office nment
downtown/ mixed use/ preservation
r*1 ''Tter


1. To lessen traffic congestion in the downtown area.
2. To provide more efficient bus service to city and suburban neighborhoods.
3. To create a new pedestrian environment in the downtown area a place for people.
Sixteenth Street between Broadway and Larimer is now transformed into a tree-lined pedestrian space. Diesel shuttle buses the only vehicles allowed on the mall -carry passengers to and from transportation transfer facilities located at each end of the mall. Express commuter buses enter the transfer facilities at below-street concourses where riders transfer to transitway vehicles waiting at ground level. The system is working very well, since the idea is to reduce the number of buses on downtown streets and therefore substantially reduce traffic congestion.
Also, commuter buses are more productive in making additional trips during rush hours as there is less traffic in the downtown area.
Some of the basic elements of the Sixteenth Street Mall include:
A double row of mature honey locust trees in the center of the street.
Two 10-foot-wide transitway paths on either side of the central zone.
Widened sidewalks along storefronts.
Patterned paving over the entire street surface in varying tones of muted grays and red.
39


Typical Block
4 0


- A combination light fixture creating a variety of lighting levels at dusk, during the evening, and for late-night security.
Shelters, benches, fountains, places for displays and special events, and sidewalk cafes.
3. Design Concept
The guality of urban spaces in a city is the key to knowing and remembering that city. The city of Denver created that memorable urban space immediately after the Sixteenth Street Mall was opened. Making downtown more accessible to the entire region was a dream that came true for the city of Denver.
4. The Plan
The design process started with the issue of landscape; specifically, whether or not to have trees on the mall.
Those against the idea of trees argued that some of Europe's most handsome and successful urban plazas and pedestrian streets consist only of paving, boulevards and benches.*
The other side argued for the trees, especially for a city like Denver, as they would provide protection from wind, sun and rain, and their use was the best means of creating a unifying theme for the many elements of the street.
It was decided to place the trees at the center of the street, since placing them too close to the structures would block visibility and accessibility to shops and obscure the
* Examples: 1) Munich, Germany; 2) Rouen, France; 3)Amsterdam, Holland.
41


image of the street wall. The plan proposed an offset double row spaced diagonally 32 feet apart.
On either side of this central zone are two 10-foot-wide transit pathways. These lanes are slightly depressed and are paved with the same material as the rest of the mall.* At the edges, the existing sidewalk spaces were widened from 15 to 19 feet.
The center of the mall can be thought of as a dilation zone of new public open space, as opposed to sidewalk areas which are more semi-private spaces. The plan provided new lighting, benches, fountains, shelters and other amenities. The space also provided for sidewalk cafes, kiosks, vending carts and displays which can change as different needs emerge.
5. Plan Elements
The essential elements of the mall were paving, planting, lighting, street furniture and transitway vehicles. These elements alone transformed 16th. Street into a handsome, functional pedestrian environment.
Paving
More than any single element, the paving material establishes the character of the mall. For this important reason, a varied and intricate pattern for paving was selected.
* The objective is to define the vehicle paths for safety in the least obtrusive way.
42


It is a 45-degree diagonal grid corresponding to 16th. Street's 45-degree juncture with Broadway and the surrounding city street system. The design also encouraged diagonal movement within the mall.
Visually, there is a progression of color, shape and
size. Three tones were used: two of gray and a muted red.
Along the street wall is a field of gray paving block which
gradually increases in size as it reaches the center of the
mall. To avoid competition with the varied dimensions of
the storefronts and doorways, edges were done in a natural
pattern. As one approaches the center zone, the pattern
1 ?
becomes more colorful and dominant.
Planting
As an appropriate tree for the Sixteenth Street Mall, the honey locust was selected after a complete study and analysis of some 72 species evaluated in terms of many criteria. These included height and diameter; trunk, branch, leaf and root form; shade characteristics; sun, water and maintenance needs; disease and insect susceptibility; wind and pollution tolerance; availability; and cost. After all, the honey locust was already familiar on the streets of downtown Denver. Its characteristics made it a desirable urban street or mall tree.
Lighting-1-^
Lighting the mall employed a variety of techniques and fixtures for illuminating sidewalks, transit paths, center zone and intersections.
43


A double row of specially-designed 11-foot-high pole luminaires were placed along the center zone. These provided glare control and correct lighting angles to compliment and illuminate trees, pedestrians and street pavement. The fixture, a clear plastic globe with aluminum reflector and bronze standard, creates several distinctive lighting effects. The reflectors up-light undersides of trees and illuminate the center mall beneath. Late at night, security lamps placed on the standards just below the main luminaire globe are switched on to light store fronts and pedestrian areas.
Store display lighting is used to illuminate sidewalk areas, and street crossings are lit by waist-high bollards to softly illuminate pavement areas where trees are absent. Placed in the center of the transit vehicle lanes are small "runway" lights embedded in the pavement to serve as a guide for the vehicles, a reminder to crossing pedestrians, and to bring the pavement to life at night.*
Street Furniture
The plan provided a full complement of street furniture and reorganized the old array of sidewalk elements into a more coherent pattern with more uniform design. These new elements included benches and chairs, shelters, planters,
* There was a recommendation that lighting for all crossstreet approaches between 16th. and 17th. Streets be modified to allow a graceful transition to the new soft ambiance of 16th. Street.
44


Master Plan
16th. street mall mall mini-bus traffic volume street priority of use 'DART' vehicle pedestrian access
activity center parking lot 0
Dus transit transit stop p.r.t. transit transit stop (bus)
(p.r.t.)
4 5


fountains, intersection banners, bike racks and miscellaneous .
Transitway Vehicles
A specially-designed battery-powered vehicle system was built for the transitway.* Three main reasons were behind the idea:
1. To collect and distribute express bus passengers between the two transfer facilities and various stops along the mall.
2. To serve as a general mall circulation system.
3. To serve passengers from the local bus routes that intersect the mall at California and Stout Streets.
The vehicle fleet can carry up to 10,000 passengers per hour. Throughout the day they maintain 70-second intervals in both directions. Stopping at each block, a round trip takes fifteen minutes on this free-fare shuttle system.
The vehicles are 39.5 feet long, 98 inches wide and 100 inches high. The floor height is only 10 inches high, and doors are wide for short boarding time and easy entry and exit. Large glass areas provide passengers with views of the mall and minimize the visual impact of the vehicle on the mall.^
* These battery-powered transit vehicles were later transformed into a diesel powered vehicle as the original system proved to be unsuccessful and had many problems.
46


6. Traffic Circulation
An extensive technical effort was made by many different agencies to come up with a workable traffic plan for downtown Denver to:
1. Accommodate private automobile movement.
2. Maintain overall circulation within the Central Business District.
3. Meet the operational requirements of the transitway.
The plan provided for the use of 16th. Street by transit shuttle vehicles, pedestrians, and emergency vehicles only, and permitted all the named streets to intersect and cross as they originally had. Fifteenth Street, which was one-way to the southeast, became one-way to the northwest. Fourteenth Street was also reversed from its original flow, and 13th. Street became two-way.
Cleveland Place was deemphasized and Court Place was reversed to provide flow to the northeast. Tremont Place was reversed to provide flow to the southwest, and Glenarm Place became a two-way street under the traffic plan.
Around the Civic Center, traffic flow was to occur
along East Colfax Avenue, leading to 15th. Street for those
travelers headed northwest. Fourteenth Street was to flow
into Bannock, which became one-way southbound between Colfax
and 14th. Avenue, and led into 14th. Avenue eastbound.*
Cherokee Street became one-way northbound.
* That was to make it possible and easy for those moving from the central district to the east and south.
47


Through this traffic circulation system, adequate capacity was maintained for private vehicle movement. Access to the parking garages, hotels and other buildings which required direct service was also assured.
7. Parking and Parking SolutionXJ
A study by the Central Area Development Group entitled Parking Availability Within the Denver Central Business District and Peripheral Areas and Implications for the Sixteenth Street Mall provided a basic parking inventory of the area.
The report concluded that the existing supply of parking appeared to be adequate as to both amount and location. However, there seemed to be a disproportionate amount of parking in scattered lots rather than larger consolidated locations, and a deficiency as to rate structure relating to the availability of short-term parking spaces.
It was a situation where short-term parking rates were generally high as compared to all-day rates for the same facility. This resulted in the heavy utilization of close-in parking spaces by all-day parkers, and a consequent lack of parking spaces available to short-term parkers.
The report concluded that the development of the Sixteenth Street Mall would increase the numbers of shoppers from outside the work force. With this in mind, the need for a significant increase in downtown area off-street parking in the future would be strongly affected by the success of the public transit system. Any significant
48


16th. street mall
existing parking lots
pedestrian link to mall
minibus
automobile access routes
parking ring
intercept parking structures
16th. street mall short term parking
supplemental parking
auto-service circulation route
visual significance
automobile access routes
parking ring
intercept parking structures


increase in downtown peak-hour traffic would tend to result in additional congestion and attendant environmental deterioration.
Using the report as background information, a phased approach to the situation was proposed. In the schematic plan an internal ring of existing parking is utilized to serve the short-term parker on a preferential basis. Ultimately, several alternate parking structure locations were indicated to consolidate the surface lots. These locations were selected as examples on the basis of vacant land availability only, and did not represent the only alternatives. Any potential site, either private or public, within the inner ring could successfully serve the mall, as this ring represented a. five-m.inute maximum walking distance from any point on the ring to the mall.
Beyond this internal ring, several hypothetical locations for parking were indicated. These locations were selected to coincide with the priority automobile routes. They were designed to serve the long-term commuter.*
The proposal study included a three-ring parking strategy. Beyond the internal sort-term parking ring, and the secondary long-term commuter ring, several additional structures were indicated. These supplemental structures were not directly related to downtown, but would likely be constructed for particular needs such as the Auraria Higher
* The idea, which was never put into practice, was to link those long-term parkers to the mall by mini-bus.
50


Education Center, or the east-side hospital area. They were designed to serve the area for which they were built and to provide supplemental intercept parking for the Central Business District. A third ring of the parking hierarchy involves the use of satellite park-and-ride facilities at outlying shopping centers such as Cherry Creek or Villa Italia.
8. A Mall Success
There is no question that the Sixteenth Street Mall has contributed greatly to the revitalization and improvement of Denver's downtown area. Retail sales have increased dramatically since the opening of the mall. More than 90,000 people a day come to the mall to shop, dine, stroll and enjoy. The mall has become a model for traffic officials as they come from around the world to Denver to study the innovative shuttle-bus and transfer system.
It is now certain that the benefits of the mall extend beyond the borders of downtown to the entire Denver area: "Energy savings, reduced traffic congestion, reduced air pollution, a more effective transport system, and a strengthened revitalized downtown area affect all Denver metropolitan residents, businesses, employees, shoppers and visitors."
The great success does not mean the mall has been without its problems. Nor is the mall a finished project yet. Plans for improvements and enhancements are continually being assessed and implemented.
51


E. Common Principles of Downtown Mall Design
Although the implementation of downtown pedestrian malls in the United States has focused primarily on downtown economic revitalization, a close look at the European situation reveals a greater number of reasons for traffic-free zoning. The goals sought by European planners have ranged from strictly functional ones dealing with traffic control strategies to humanistic ones dealing with conservation of the urban fabric and improvement of residential conditions in central areas.^ Yet, transportation, engineering, landscaping, graphics, street furniture and lighting can be stated as a summary of findings for the common principles of downtown mall design for both the United States and Europe.
1. Transportation
Transportation is one of the most important principles of downtown mall design. The common intention is to improve existing traffic systems so that the area is accessible and parking is close to it.
2. Engineering
To support recommendations for technical repairs, modifications, and innovations in the structural components of the area as well as in the utility system.
3. Landscaping
This involves the selection and arrangement of various plantings, grassy areas, and water. This area of design is given great attention in many of the malls around the United
52


States, whereas in Europe many malls and plazas have been created without thinking of this as an important principle of design.
4. Graphics
This includes treatment of street pavements, walls, store signs, window displays, and building entrances, as well as directional and informational systems.
5. Street Furniture
Benches, outdoor seating, telephone booths, children's play equipment, trash receptables, display and exhibition structures, book and newspaper kiosks, fast food vendors, game and cafe facilities, information signs, planters and tree grids, bus shelters, fountains, amphitheaters, and lighting are all elements of street furnishings.* *
This design principle is also more widely used in the United States than in Europe.
Lighting
Lighting has been used to accentuate important pedestrian features such as crosswalks, bus stops, turns, steps, and ramps. In most pedestrian zones, a mainstream of light indicates circulation routes, signs, window displays, etc.
* There are two basic approaches to street furnishings: they can be distributed throughout the entire mall to enhance the overall interest of the area, or they can be concentrated into multipurpose groups.
53


F. Additional Options to the Basic Mall Design Principles
Two major options clearly stand out when considering a downtown pedestrian mall:
1. A transit system, where transitways are pedestrian precincts that restrict, but do not totally ban, vehicles. Private cars are usually prohibited, but buses, trams, and taxis are often allowed, subject to pedestrian priorities. Motor routes are narrowed to one or two lanes or roadways at the maximum, while the rest of the street and sidewalk area is paved and furnished for the pedestrian.* This design principle is very much practiced in different malls around the United States, while it is rarely used around Europe.
2. Trees, where they provide protection from wind, sun and rain, and create a unifying theme for the whole street. Although some of Europe's most handsome and successful urban malls and plazas consist of no trees, many, if not all, the malls in the United States are using this as a major design principle. After all, the historical background and need of the European cities are somewhat different than those of the United States.
* An example is the Sixteenth Street Transitway/Mal1 in downtown Denver, Colorado.
54


Ill
BACKGROUND FOR THE CITY OF RIYADH
A. History of the City
The growth of Riyadh closely parallels the rise to prominence of the Kindgom of Saudi Arabia. Originally but one link in a chain of small settlements situated along the cultivable Wadi Hanifah, Riyadh gained importance due to its location at the crossroads of the peninsula and the rise of the Al-Sauds.
The earliest historical reference to the area where Riyadh is located dates back to 715 B.C. Then, mention of a town called "Hijr" is made in reference to the capital of a number of settlements in the Yamamah region. "Hijr" was described by the Persian Traveller Nasir Khurso in the 11th. century as a fortified city with a beautiful mosque and a large market area.
Specific reference to Riyadh was made in the early 18th. century by the Arab historian of the Najd, Othman bin Bishr, in his great work on the region.^ He mentions that the city, governed by Dhima bin Dawas, was annexed to the territory of the Al-Sauds and became its capital.
The Al-Sauds controlled Makkah and Medina until the second half of the 17th. century, when they moved their capital to Dari'yah. When Dari'yah was invaded and destroyed by the army of Mohamed Ali Pasha of Egypt at the end of the 17th. century, the Sauds retreated north to Hail and both Riyadh and Dari'yah lost their importance. In 1900, King Abdul Aziz ibn Al Saud conquered the region and made Al-
55


Source: R. Bayly Winder: Saudi Arabia in the 19th Century New York, 1965.
EARLY PLAN OF RIYADH
55


Riyadh his capital. Following World War I, Riyadh became the official capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Physical Growth Pattern
Physically, the old village of Riyadh is clearly the nucleus around which the city has expanded. Before 1950, Riyadh was rectangular in plan and measured 1125 meters from north to south, and 750 meters from east to west. The perimeter walls were pierced by bastioned gates opening into walled palm groves encircling the town.
The process of change began in 1930 as a result of peace, unification and security brought about by the end of King Abdul Aziz's military campaigns. The town grew by concentric rings around the core. The large gardens surrounding the town, with names such as A1 Wusaita, A1 Shamsiyah, A1 Hautah, A1 Badia and A1 Fanyan, were taken over by urbanization and gave their names to districts of the modern city.
The year 1950 marked the beginning of the oil era which supplied the new resources which established Riyadh as the acknowledged capital of the Kingdom. The King and the royal family moved from the city center to the Nasriyah area and built palaces on higher ground. In 1953, most government offices were transferred from Jeddah to Riyadh.
In the beginning of the 1960s, two significant moves took place outside the densely populated central part of the city: the residential community of Malaz was established to
house high-ranking government officials, and the airport was
56


HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RIYADH CITY 1929-1978


opened. However, in spite of new wealth, only the very wealthy could afford motor cars. Consequently, living outside the central city, where urban services did not exist, was not feasible.
During the 1970s and especially after the oil price
readjustment of 1973, the new lifestyle, which previously
was available only to the high-income group, suddenly spread
to the middle class. Phenomenal changes in both city size
and structure began to take place.
In 1968, only 30% of the population was living outside
the central area. By 1978, this percentage had increased to
50%. By 1983 it was over 70% and people had settled on land
extending as far as 25-30 kilometers from the center of the 1 ft
old city. The tradtional concentric growth pattern was broken with new communities developing along major arteries and around new growth poles, such as the airport, Malaz, the industrial area, the Wadi Hanifah, Ulaya.
B. Natural Setting
Geographic Location and Topography
Riyadh is almost exactly in the center of the Kingdom, at 24 42' latitude and 46 44' longitude. It is situated at the confluence of three major wadis, whose waters have given the city its name, A1 Riyadh, "The Gardens."
The city is on a generally flat, funnel-shaped plateau, about 25 kilometers wide, which has been deeply eroded by a network of wadis.
57


To the west, the Wadi Hanifah runs in a northwest-southeast direction, with many smaller tributary wadis. Dry most of the year, they may suddenly fill with rainwater; dams provide protection against floods and store some water for irrigation. To the east, an escarpment extends from the Dhahran Road south to the A1 Kharj Road. Within these boundaries a few hilly areas have a minimum elevation of thirty meters. The main ones are north of Riyadh along the Salboukh Road and in the eastern part of the city.
1. Geology and Soil
The Central Region of the Arabian Peninsula is made up of the Arabian Shield to the west, and the sedimentary area to the east; Riyadh is located in the latter.
Near Riyadh are hilly plateaus of jurassic and triassic limestone, which provide lime for cement, sandstone for building, and aggregate for concrete. In the Riyadh metropolitan area the limestone subsoil makes a good foundation for buildings. The soil is generally homogeneous and earthquakes are unlikely.
2. Climate
The continental climate tends to be uniform throughout the central region; it is dry and hot in summer and cool and sunny from November to April. Temperatures reach their maximum (over 45 C) in June or August, and their minimum (below freezing) in December or January. Daily fluctuation is appreciable, and nights are generally cool, even in summer.
58


Relative humidity is very low, about 25% during the summer and 50% during the rest of the year. Increased water consumption and newly-planted areas in Riyadh have succeeded in slightly increasing humidity.
From December through March, the wind blows mostly from the southeast; in April the wind direction is variable, and from June to December the wind blows with diminished force from the north to northeast.
3. Hydrography
Rainfall is slight, with a dry period from June to October. The maximum rainfall is in April, with the amount varying year to year.
Riyadh is provided with water by deep aguifers under sedimentary deposits in the southwestern part of the Central Region. The level of the water table is falling, partially as a result of natural hydrogeological conditions, but also because reserves are being used faster than they can be replenished.*
4. Flora
As rainfall is limited, relatively few species of trees are found in and around Riyadh. Among those that can be enumerated are the tamarisc aphyalla (which supplies most of the wood used in the area), the acacias, the eucalyptus and the date palm. Pines and cypresses, as well as orange,
*Water supply is now sufficient to meet the needs of the city's present and future population. It is provided with about 1 million cubic meters of water per day from wells, as well as desalinated water from Jubail.
60


lemon, pomegranate, mimosa and casuarina can be found in private gardens, as can brilliant-colored bougainvillea, oleanders, sunflowers, roses, verbena and other flowering plants.
There are few physical constraints to the spatial development of Riyadh. The land is relatively flat with only a few hills, and soil conditions do not impede drainage. There are no alternative uses for land around the city, except in the wadis where agriculture is still pursued. Nor do natural features provide obstacles to the development of the city: The Wadi Hanifah has been crossed and the area beyond the eastern hills has been colonized up the cliffs between the Dammam and Al Kharj Roads (Khashm A1 A' an).
C. Riyadh Metropolitan Area
With the advent of the private automobile, the zone of direct influence of Riyadh has grown from the city proper to a zone extending to the north to the new airport (King Khaled International Airport), to the south to the escarpment on the Jeddah Road, to the east up to the Khashm Al A'an Military Camp, and to the west to Muzahmiyyah. This area measures about 60 kilometers from east to west and 80 kilometers from north to south. It is structured by a network of regional access roads as follows:
the Dammam-Dahahran Road to the northeast
the Al-Khanj Road to the southeast
the Jeddah-Makkah Road to the southwest
61




the Salboukh Road to the northwest
Although several villages maintain an administrative independence, the Riyadh metropolitan area is both economically and physically a hinterland of these villages. Subdivisions are progressively advancing outwards along the main roads, taking advantage of good access to Riyadh. Most agricultural and other economic resources are either sold or used in Riyadh. In fact, as in most rapidly expanding capital cities, urbanization is changing the city into an ex-urbia with pockets of development amid vast empty expanses.
D. New Development Features
This includes all the important elements that are already completed or currently under completion in the Riyadh metropolitan area which are necessary to complete the city's function as the capital of Saudi Arabia: the diplomatic quarters, the government center, King Saud University, Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University,
Riyadh International Airport, the Kasr-el-Hokm (The Ruling Palace) project,* the Industrial Estate and others.
The current growth of the city is taking place around two major urban arterials. Makkah Road is becoming the focus for all new central city developments, linking a revitalized city center and proposed development centers
*The Kasr-el-Hokm project is now under construction in the heart of the city in the middle of the commercial area in downtown Riyadh.
62


along the alignment. Khurais Road and Islam Road now structure the eastern part of the metropolitan area and concentrate service activities linked to imports, warehousing, manufacturing and wholesale.
An outer ring road is under completion to link regional highways coming from Dammam, Kharj, Jeddah and Qassim. An efficient rapid transit system is proposed to be studied for the future.
To the east, a utility corridor is now proposed which would contain several utilities including high-tension electricity lines, and oil and water pipelines. This corridor would form the eastern boundary of the city.
To the west a major green belt is proposed along Wadi Hanifah. This park would be incorporated into a city-wide system which is linked to a regional park network.
E. Demography
Saudi Population Forecasts
In projecting the future Saudi population of Riyadh, the following factors are taken into consideration: the total population of the Kindgom, the natural growth rate, the attraction of large cities, and the share of Riyadh among the large cities.
63


Total Saudi Population in Kingdom (1394-1397) (in thousands)
Item 1974 1977
Total(1) Population 7(1) Saudis Number of Saudis Rate of Growth 1394-97 Number of Saudis
Rural areas 2,650 95 2,500 3,220
0
Small cities 900 80 720
Large cities 1,870 75 1,400 +20 1,681
Total(thousands) 5,420 4,620 4,901
(1) Population Census, Ministry of Planning.
Saudi Population (in thousands) in RIYADH
Saudis 1977 1978 1979 1980 1985 1990
In Kingdom H 4,901 5,048 5,190 5,356 6,209 7,198
L 5,024 5,150 5,279 5,973 6,758
In large H 1,681 1,828 1,979 2,136 2,989 3,978
cities L 1,804 1,930 2,059 2,753 3,538
Riyadh's share of large city 28.9 29.3 29.7 30 32 33
population :%
In Riyadh high fore :ast 485 536 588 641 956 1,313
- low forecast 529 573 618 881 1,168
High forecast is based on a 3% natural growth rate; low forecast is based on a 2.5% natural growth rate.
64


1. Foreign Population Forecasts
Foreigners include permanent residents who stay for long stretches of time and transients.* The number of foreigners is a direct function of the rate of economic growth desired by the government and of the rate at which the labor force can be Saudized. According to estimates from the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, the percentage of foreigners in the total population of Riyadh in 1977 was about 30 percent. The present rate of growth of the foreign population is 17 percent per annum.
Total Foreign Population in Riyadh 1397-1410 (in thousands)
Item 1977 1978 1979 1980 1985 1990
High Forecast Annual Growth rate % 17 17 17 10 5
Total 205 241 280 325 520 668
Low Forecast Annual growth rate % 15 12 10 3 -3 -
Total 205 237 265 290 345 317
transients may be either Saudis or foreigners and include students in dormitories, military personnel in barracks, businessmen on visits, etc.
65


2. Total Population Forecast for 1990
The two high forecasts for the Saudi and foreign populations in Riyadh were added to obtain a high forecast of the total Riyadh population in 1990. Similarly, the two low forecasts were combined into a low forecast for the total population of Riyadh. The mean of the high and low forecasts was retained for the total population of Riyadh.
On the basis of this calculation, the total population of Riyadh is estimated to be 1,750,000 in 1990.
The percentage of transients in 1990 is estimated at 10 percent. The total resident population is thus estimated at
1.600.000 in 1990, of whom 1,150,000 will be Saudis and
450.000 will be foreigners.
66
POPULATION FORECAST


Distribution of the Resident Population by Age and Sex
Males Females Males and Females
Age Group Number % Number % Number % Sex Ratio
1397 1388 1397 1388 % (1)
0-4 46,149 7.7 9.3 44,382 7.4 8.9 90,531 15.1 104
5-9 41,178 6.9 9.2 40,007 6.7 8.1 81,185 13.6 103
10 14 40,825 6.8 6.0 37,129 - 6.2 4.8 77,954 13.0 110
15 19 37,106 6.2 4.7 29,185 4.5 3.5 66,291 11.1 127
20 24 40,315 6.7 5.9 20,452 3.4 3.6 60,767 10.1 197
25 29 34,690 5.8 6.2 19,746 3.3 3.4 54,436 9.1 176
30 34 78,099 4.7 4.5 16,882 2,8 2.9 44,981 7.5 166
35 39 23,913 4.1 ( 6.0 13,839 2.4 ] 3.7 37,752 6.5 173
40 44 18,890 3.2. / 10,078 1.7 28,968 4.9 187
45 49 13,043 2.2 S 2.8 5,762 1.0 ' ] 2,1 18,805 3.2 226
50 54 9,024 1.5 / 5,327 .9 14,351 2.4 169 .
55 59 4,968 .8 ' 2,047 .3 S i.o 7,015 1.1 243
60 64 3,830 .6 2,670 .4 ' / 6,500 1.0 143
64 and over 4,318 .7 1.1 4,385 .7 1.0 8,703 1.4 98
Total 346,348 57.9 57.0 251,891 42.1 43.0 598,239 100.0 138
Source: 1388 Doxiadis, 1397 RAMP Socio-Economic Survey
The age distribution is as follows:
less than 15 years old : 41.7% less than 20 years old : 52.8%
20 to 54 years old : 43.7%
55 years old and over : 3.5%
(1) Sex ratio = number of men per 100 women.
67


AGE PYRAMID OF THE PERMANENT RESIDENTS
irrr RAMP
DOXIADIS
68


3. Job Forecasts
Jobs are equated with the labor force since unemployment has been neglibigle since 1976 and it is assumed that it will remain so until 1990. The inference is that the government will provide employment or income to all Saudis throughout this period regardless of the absence of skills required by today's economy.
A decrease in the proportion of Saudis in the labor force is forecast until 1990, since it is assumed that larger numbers of youth will attend school for longer periods of time. This ratio will begin to increase after 1990, as the size of the school-age population decreases and more women are employed in education and health services. A different foreign labor force is predicted as operation and maintenance jobs replace construction jobs.
The total number of jobs in Riyadh forecast for 1990 is
467,000, or 2-1/2 times the 1977 figure of 182,000.
Job Forecasts for Saudis and Foreigners (in thousands)
Item 1977 1980 1985 1990
:k Resident population
Saudis 446 585 850 1,150
Foreigners 174 265 365 450
Total 620 850 1,215 1,600
Participation rates (%)*
Saudis 19.0 20.0 20.0 21.0
Foreigners 56.0 52.0 51,0 50.0
Employment
Saudis 85 117 170 242
Foreigners 97 138 186 225
Total 182 255 356 467
Participation rate (total)% 29.3 30.0 29.3 29.2
*Participation rate: Total employed/total resident population. Source: 1977. RAMP Socio-Economic Survey.
69


IV. RIYADH'S CENTRAL AREA
A. Description
Commercial and business activities concentrated in the central area attract people from the entire city. The Great Mosque was the nucleus for the development of the Dirah souq and the Mugebra Market; the Kuwaiti souq grew outside of the old city for the trade of imported goods. Commercial activity then spread around these two points until they merged. More recently, banks and offices have been opened there.
Shops are almost continuous along the streets, ending approximately;
to the south along A1 Medina Monawarah Street to the east with Qassim Street to the west with Mecca Road
to the north, before King Abdul Aziz Square, the commercial center of A1 Amal is independent from the central area.
The eastern and western boundaries are less precise than the northern and southern ones; the lines of shops become increasingly broken along the main arteries.
The central area has many unbuilt areas such as cemeteries, parking lots, green spaces and empty lots.
Batha and Dirah sougs are the strong points, with King Abdul Aziz (Batha) and King Faisal (Wazir) Streets next. Many areas are specialized: food in Mugebra, and along Al Medina Al Monawarah Street, and Al Qaseem Street (food shops are
70


I
Table 4.4. Floor Area Distribution per Category in Riyadh Commercial Areas
mmercial oor Area (m2) % of Total Floor Area Number of Shops Percentage of the Floor Area A\ Si c
Retail Food-stuf f s, Snacks Household Appliances and Equipment Personal Goods Personal Services Other Services Auto- motive Goods Vacant Storage (*)
60,630 37.1 5,396 20.37 21.27 30.40 4.24 5.27 7.28 6.76 4.41
52,650 12.1 1,432 11.81 26.08 5.72 7.33 5.52 23.81 10.34 9.39
17,460 4.0 775 41.64 5.61 13.20 6.12 12.17 1.39 14.37 5.50
17,090 3.9 371 1 j 33.37 23.32 9.62 5.78 11.24 9.34 4.69 1.78
05,930 24.4 1,364 i o.98 20.28 3.51 L.90 28.20 25.77 6.96 6.30
79,700 L8.4 1,439 27.54 6.91 2.70 0.59 12.60 44.45 5.21 -
33,460 100 10,777 18.76 18.47 14.23 3.51 12.76 20.49 7.18 4.6
10,777 2,656 1,269 2,818 665 598 834 1,211 726
30.62 63.09 21.89 22.88 92.50 106.49 25.70 27.46
RAMP Project Census Survey
The large storage facilities appear Ln the Industrial survey. This category Includes areas detaclu from the shop Itself, but located Ln its vicinity; usually small shops used for storage.
71


also located on the fringe of the central commercial area close to low-income districts, providing easy access for customers); personal goods in Dirah and Batha souqs and along Al Suweilem Street; household appliances between King Faisal and King Abdul Aziz Streets and along Al Imam Saud bin Abdul Aziz bin Mohamed Street. Elsewhere merchandise is more mixed, but shops are in homogeneous rows.
Categories of Shops
Five categories of shops have been used; foodstuffs and snacks;
household appliances and equipment including plumbing items, paint, electrical equipment, carpets, blankets, sheets, construction materials for maintenance and small repair shops; personal goods including clothing, shoes, watches and jewelry, perfumes, drugs, toys, photo equipment, books and sporting equipment;
personal services including barbers, laundries, shoe repairs and photographers;
other services including travel agencies, office services, insurance, banks, money changers, real estate agencies and commercial agents.
B. Traffic and Parking 1. Traffic
The peak traffic hours through the cordon are as follows:
72


I nAT r IL/ VHnimi
KING ABDUL AZIZ ST (Botha)
4000
1800
1800
1400
1200
1000
2800
3
0
£
J 2800 A
3 2400
6
A
^ 2200
U
J
u
5 2000 UJ >
o "OO
o
A
1800
1400
1200
1000
00
soo
400
200
6
9 10 II 12
13 14 13 16 17 16 19 20 21 22
73
HOUR


NO OF VEHICLES (R C.U ) PER L HOUR
marrio ymrimiiwi^
KING FAISAL ST (Wazir)
74
HOUR


4000
3oo
3600
3400
3200
3000
2600
2600
2400
2200
2000
1600
1600
1400
1200
1000
00
600
400
200
ircMrriu VAKIAI ION
AL IMAM FAISAL BIN TURK I ST. (Khazzan st. )
i
6 7 6 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 IS 19 20 21
HOUR


4000
3800
3800
3400
3200
3000
2800
2 600
2400
22 00
2000
16 00
1800
140 0
1200
IOGO
8 0C
6 00
401
20
TRAFFIC VANIA I IUN
MEDINA ST (Al Hellah st.)
|i
i!
;l
!l
/ a 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
76
HOUR


4000
saoo
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2800
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
600
600
400
200
IMAM MOHAMED BIN SAUD ST (Old Shimessi)
6 7 a to II 12 I 3 14 I 5 16 *7 18 18 20 21 22
HOUR
77


000
3000
3600
3400
3200
3000
2000
2600
2400
2200
2000
1600
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
AL IMAM IUKKI fcJIN AbUULLAM SI. (New Shemessi st.)
8 7 6 9 10 tl 12 13
14 19
HOUR
18 17 18 19 20 21 22
78


for inbound traffic the peak occurs between 10 and 11 a.m., and again between 4 and 5 p.m. for outbound traffic the peak occurs between noon and 1 p.m. and again between 8 and 9 p.m.
As these hours are not work hours, it has to be assumed that the predominating attraction of the city center is commercial .
Movement of People
A study was done in 19 78 indicating that the hourly passage of people through the central cordon was estimated on the basis of the average car occupancy rate. The prominence of the evening commercial peak was very much noticed.
Hours Total Flow of People (Inbound and Outbound)
10.00 11.00 A.M. 41,000
2.00 3.00 P.M. 46,000
6.00 7.00 P.M. .56,000
8.00 9.00 P.M. 48,000
79


2. Parking
a. Parking Supply
The number of parking spaces in the central area of Riyadh was estimated from a tabulation of the number of available off-street parking spaces in organized parking areas, and an inventory of curbside parking spaces. The combination of these two categories totaled 3,500 parking spaces. An estimation of the number of parking spaces available in the small or dead-end streets and vacant lots of the old quarter cannot be tabulated systematically. However, since the present state of these streets precludes their more intensive use for parking, it has been assumed that the occupied spaces there represent a total supply of 2,900. Finally, the number of spaces available in the city center totals 6,000.* This represents only 40 parking spaces per hectare and is obviously inadequate. In comparison, European cities contain between 60 and 80 parking
o n
spaces per hectare.
b. Parking Occupancy
Parking occupancy indicates that maximum occupancy of parking in the city center is reached during the evenings.
The composition of parked vehicles during the day is as follows:
*Three parking structures have been recently built in the central area of Riyadh, yet there seems to be a demand for more as population and cars keep increasing.
80




ON STREET PARKING SUPPLY IN THE CENTRAL AREA
I


Automobiles
63%
Taxis 9%
Pick-up trucks 25%
Trucks and buses 3%
A comparison between the available spaces and their occupancy rate emphasizes the parking problem in the center of Riyadh: the occupation rate is more than 100%. This rate of occupancy unfortunately encourages parking where it is forbidden. Obviously, this way of parking on any important arteries in the city center will reduce their capacity by hindering traffic flow.
The parking situation has changed markedly since 1968. The curbside occupation rate has increased from 60% to more than 100%, and vacant lots, dead-end streets, etc., are used far more intensively.
c. Parking Duration Survey
The survey of parking duration was conducted on a weekday in several locations in the central area. It was found that 53% of the vehicles park for less than an hour; that 71% park less than an hour and a half; and that the average parking time is a relatively low one hour and twenty minutes.
83


V. RIYADH CENTRAL TRANSIT MALL
A. The Project Setting
The city of Riyadh as a whole, as well as its downtown area, is very representative of the renewed vitality and growth that is taking place in many of the progressive and large cities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Central Business Disrict is mixed and surrounded by stable residential areas. Riyadh has a strong historical heritage, a diversified economic base, and great potential of becoming a model for other cities.
The Riyadh Transit Mall can certainly reinforce an already strong urban framework and activity and link together the major spaces and shopping areas that identify the Central Business District Al-Bat-Ha Souks, Al-Wazir Street, Al-Masmak Fortress, Al-Thumairy Street, The Great Central Mosque, the Justice Square, Al-Dierah Souks, and the new Ruling Palace Project. If this mall project is adopted in the city of Riyadh, it will have a network of separated pedestrian and vehicular travel routes (except for the transit shuttle buses) that will rival any shopping center around the city for business, cultural opportunity and other exciting activities.
The Riyadh Transit Mall (New Shimaisi Street Mall) will be special. A1 Masmak Fortress, with its unique location, architecture, and historic perspective, can provide an exciting place for the activity of the mall. The true human
84


L.MIAJU USE
cm StNQLS FAMILY RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL
cm industrial cm government
cm HEALTH FACILITY
parking structure parking lot
PROPOSED PARKING STRUCTURE
GREEN AREA I PARK
mosque GREAT MOSQUE



-----1 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
m COM**ERCial Z industrial - 1 GOVERNMENT
malth facility
9 "MMMO STRUCTURE
MARKING LOT
| PROPOSED PARKING STRUCTURE
I GREEN area
PARK
MOSOUE GREAT MOSOUE
^SR AL-HC ghandorah
Fol


scale and the architecturally nice buildings can offer an appropriate setting for pedestrian-oriented activity.
I strongly believe that there is a unique opportunity for the Riyadh Central Transit Mall to create an environment that will not only be pleasing for the whole community, but will also stimulate business and enhance the potential for a continued successful and vital core city. The mall can add one more amenity for the downtown area that will reinforce residential and business development close to the urban center, and will help in clearing some of the congested traffic conditions now existing in the downtown area, and that can be very important for the future of Riyadh.
B. Design Objectives
As my proposal and argument is in favor of the Central Transit Mall in the city of Riyadh, I feel that I can be persuasive in my argument by demonstrating that this proposal is a direct response to the specific needs of the local community and the city as a whole. The following is a series of goals and objectives for the creation of the traffic-free zone (The Riyadh Mall).
1. To stimulate continued economic growth in the Central Business Disrict and to encourage increased commercial and business activity.
2. To decrease the number of motor-vehicle-related accidents, saving lives, police work, and judicial time.
3. To reduce noise and air pollution.
85


4. To improve the visual environment. Signs, lights, spaces, colors and textures can be designed to relate to the person on foot, rather than to the person on wheels.
5. To promote urban conservation, environmental preservation, building restoration and renewal.
6. To provide a safe and attractive environment in which children can play and senior citizens can meet and rest.
7. To provide a sense of place that strengthens community identity and community pride. This improves community relations and reduces feelings of alientation.
8. To link and connect the major spaces and shopping areas that identify the Central Business District.
9. To help clear some of the congested traffic conditions that are usually associated with downtown areas of cities and return the street to the public for its prime purpose.
10. To promote citizens' participation in the inception, management, monitoring, and improvement of the pedestrian area. Thus the project will become a lively instrument for public education in urban life.
C. The Project Area
The project occupies about 30% of the length of Imam Turkey Bin Abdullah (New Shimaisi) Street from its eastern
86


end, and runs a total of about 1.2 kilometers from Mecca Road to Al-Bat-Ha Road, where it crosses and runs behind going north to stop at Abdul-Rahman Bin Faisal Street.
As an urban design solution, the Mall is more than a remodeled street, In a larger sense, the project encompasses the entire Central Business District and its immediate environs. The design concepts of the Mall take into consideration the new planned Ruling Palace Project* which borders most of the southern edge of the proposed mall.
D. Design and Location Alternatives
Based on previously stated goals and objectives of the project, two alternative solutions were evaluated: a transit and non-transit mall. Based on my study and analysis, I strongly recommend a transit pedestrian mall.
The idea of the transit system is mainly to link and bring closer the different shopping areas of the central district, and to make it easy for people to park their cars in the built parking structures, then use the transit system (shuttle bus) for their movement in and out so they can reach most areas without the need of moving their cars.
As for location of the mall, two other locations were considered. The first was Al-Bat-Ha Road starting from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Street and ending at Al-Khazan Street. The second was a loop that goes around Al-Wazeer Street to
*Now under construction.
87


the New Shimaisi Street to Al-Dhehaira Street to Al-Khazan
Street and back to Al-Wazeer Street.
E. Mall Plan
An 8.5-meter-wide central landscaped zone is proposed as one of the dominant features of the mall. This pedestrian promenade will host a full complement of trees, plants, lighting, benches, fountains, sculpture, shelters and other amenities.
On either side of this central zone are two 3.5 meterwide transit pathways. These vehicle lanes are slightly depressed and are paved with the same, yet darker material as the rest of the mall. The objective is to define the vehicle paths for safety and for maintenance in the least obtrusive way. At the edges, the existing sidewalk spaces are widened to be 7 meters wide for each sidewalk.
In order not to block visibility and accessibility to shops and obscure the image of the street mall, trees and lighting must be placed at the center of the mall. It is only in two locations that trees are placed on the sidewalk rather than at the center (the block between Al Suwylin and Al Dhahirah streets, and at the tail-end of the mall from Al Wazeer Street). The objective here is to give a sense of variety to the length of the mall by merging the two transit pathways to run next to each other, and to create an ample sidewalk space that could be used immediately or in the future for cafes, kiosks, vending carts and displays, or any new and interesting idea.
88


F. Plan Elements
The essential elements of the mall are paving, planting, lighting, street furniture and transitway vehicles. These elements alone will transform New Al-Shamisi Street into a handsome, memorable pedestrian environment.
1. ) Paving; More than any single element, the paving material will establish the character of the mall. Simple, yet very appealing and pleasing, two tones of grays and a muted red are proposed. The paving begins along the street wall as a field of patterned, light-gray-color paving. In the center zone are two transit pathways done in the same patterned gray color, but in a darker tone. These transit paths are depressed slightly, and clearly delineated by a muted red color and pattern.
2. Lighting; The lighting concept for Riyadh's central mall will employ a variety of techniques for illuminating sidewalks, transit paths, the center zone and intersections.
Specially-designed 3.5-meter-high pole luminaires will be placed along the center zone. These will provide correct lighting amounts to flatteringly illuminate trees, pedestrians and pavement.
Store display lighting will be used to illuminate sidewalk areas, and street crossings will be lit by waist-high bollards to softly illuminate pavement where trees are absent. Small "runway" lights embedded in the pavement will be placed in the center of the transit vehicle lanes as a
89


guide for the vehicles, a reminder to crossing pedestrians, and to bring the pavement to life at night.
4. Street Furniture: The plan provides a full complement of street furniture. This includes benches, canopy structures, planters, fountains, sculptures, intersection banners and miscellaneous.
5. Transitway Vehicle: A specially-designed gasoline-powered vehicle system is proposed for the transitway. Its main purpose is to serve as a general mall circulation system to collect and distribute passengers between the various stops along the mall. The vehicles are 6.5 meters long, 2.5 meters wide, and 2.4 meters high. The floor height is low (25 centimeters) and doors are wide for short boarding time and easy entry. Large glass areas will provide passengers with a view of the mall and will minimize the impact of the vehicle on the mall visually.
90


NOIX33S 1TVK
i


VI. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
A. Traffic Circulation
The traffic concept provides for the use of the Riyadh Central Mall by transit shuttle vehicles, pedestrians, and emergency vehicles only, and permits all the named streets to intersect and cross as at present. Al-Madina Al-Munawarah Road from Al-Wazeer Street up to Al-Ulama Square, which is now one-way to the northeast, wll become one-way to the southwest. No other street traffic seems to have to change its direction at this point.
Through this traffic circulation system, adequate capacity will be maintained for private vehicle movements. Access is also assured to parking garages, hotels, and other buildings which require direct service.
B. Service and Emergency Access
The servicing of stores and office buildings will take place in alleys and delivery trucks will be permitted to cross the mall. In those few cases where alleys do not allow for such a use, or there is no alley, the transit path to the nearest named street will be used. Specified hours will be enforced to minimize disruption of transit vehicle schedules along the mall, especially during the evening's peak hours of shopping.
Ambulance, fire trucks and similar vehicles will utilize the transit paths for emergency access to buildings on the Riyadh Central Mall.
93




KHAZZAN STREET
SHEMESSI STREET
SHEWtSSi
*mecca"
MAKKAH ROAD AERIAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTH
(alternative)
94


VII
SUMMARY
The goal of traffic-free zoning may vary from situation to situation, but the intentions, problems, and aspirations behind it (which include four major categories: traffic management, economic revitalization, environmental improvements, and social benefits) are all interconnected.
The open spaces that the mall provides will have important behavioral and psychological implications for all the people in the city for whom walking restores a sense of scale and community involvement. By reversing the city dweller's reliance on the automobile and improving the physical, social, and economic conditions of daily life, pedestrian malls are a crucial step in helping restore urban centers to their traditional roles as the axes of civilizations, providing unique opportunities for human communication, growth, and a range of experiences.
The pedestrian mall will support the commercial, historic, and residential districts of Riyadh by linking them together. It is an idea with many good opportunities for the city of Riyadh to solve many of its existing problems and avoid possible future ones usually associated with rapidly-expanding cities.
I believe that such a project, as it will affect the whole image of the city as well as its dwellers, will have its own unique problems, but I also believe that those problems can be overcome with a continuous and current data
95


analysis about the city in general and the downtown area specifically.
I can see great potential for this project proposal to be implemented in the city of Riyadh; yet, it is obviously lacking some important economic and social studies, which will have to be done by professionals in the field. Also, some refinement of the whole plan might become necessary.
Ultimately, it is by and for people that malls exist and cities prosper. This is a mall plan that is not 100% complete, but it is definitely a plan that makes 100% sense.
96


ENDNOTES
^ Victor Gruen, The Heart of Our Cities (New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1964), p. 28.
9 ...
Harvey M. Rubenstem, Central City Malls (United
States of America: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978), p. 3.
Roberto Brambilla and Gianni Longo, For Pedestrians Only (New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1977), p. 105.
4 Brambilla and Long, p. 114.
^ Department of Housing and Urban Development, The Rediscovery of the Pedestrian, Twelve European Cities (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977), p. 119.
Brambilla and Longo, p. 116.
7
Klaus Uhlig, Pedestrian Areas (New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., Inc., 1979), p. 120.
O
Rubenstein, p. 106.
Q
Brambilla and Long, p. 130.
"A Plan for the Future of Downtown Denver," The Denver Post, Special Supplement, 16 May 1986.
11 C. F. Murphy Associates, Sixteenth Street Mall (Denver, Colorado, 1974), p. 8.
12 Ibid., p. 35.
12 Ibid., p. 43.
14 Regional Transportation District, The Transitway/Mal1: Design Criteria Manual (Denver, Colorado, 1979), p. 33.
^ C. F. Murphy Associates, p. 19.
Brambilla and Longo, p. 64.
17 Othman Bin Bishr, Onwan A_1 Majd f i Tareekh Najd (The Guide of Pride in the History of the Najd). A1 Riyahd, 1950, Vol. I., p. 69.
97


1 8
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Deputy for Physical Planning, Riyadh Revised Master Plan (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1984), p. 10.
IQ.,
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Deputy for Physical Planning, Riyadh Existing Conditions: Land Use (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1979), p. 39.
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Deputy for Physical Planning, Riyahd Existing Conditions: Traffic Survey (Riyahd, Saudi Arabia, 1979), p. 11.
Ibid. p. 13.
98


SELECTED REFERENCES
"Al-Riyadh: A Modern City With Roots From the Past." A1
Haras Al Watani, March 1986, pp. 156-177.
"A1 Riyadh Between the Past, the Present and the Future."
Al Baladiyat, April 1985, pp. 54-73.
"Al Riyadh: A Long Journey in Less Than 25 Years." Ahlan Wasahlan, June 1986, pp. 8-15.
"A Plan for the Future of Downtown Denver." The Denver Post, Special Supplement, 16 May 1986.
Arabian American Oil Company. Aramco and Its World: Arabia and the Middle East. Washington, D.C., 1980.
Brambilla, Roberto and Longo, Gianni. For Pedestrians Only. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1977.
Brambilla, Roberto and Longo, Gianni. The Rediscovery of the Pedestrian: Twelve European Cities. Columbia University Center for Advanced Research in Urban Environmental Affairs, 1976.
C. F. Murphy Associates. Sixteenth Street Mall: Planning and Preliminary Design. Denver, Colorado, 1974.
Denver Planning Office. A Program for the Beautification of Denver, 1966.
Denver Planning Office. 16th. Street: Design Guidelines for Building Facades, Storefronts and New Development on the Transitway Mall. Denver, Colorado, 1980.
Downtown Denver Master Plan Committee. Development Guide for Downtown Denver. 1963.
Downtown Denver Public Spaces Project. Improvements Handbook for Downtown Public Spaces, 1983.
Gosling, David and Maitland, Barry. Design and Planning of Retail Systems. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1976 .
Gruen, Victor. The Heart of Our Cities. 1965.
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1961.
99


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Information. The Kindgom of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, S.A. (no date).
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Information. Ongoing Development. Riyadh, S.A., (no date).
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Information. Features From Saudi Arabia.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Information. Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia: A Century of Progress. Jeddah, S.A., 1983.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Minstry of Municipal and Rural
Affairs, Deputy Ministry for Physical Planning. Riyadh Existing Conditions: Land Use. Riyadh, S.A., 1979.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Municipal and Rural
Affairs, Deputy Ministry for Physical Planning. Riyadh Existing Conditions: Transportation and Uti1ities. Riyadh, S.A., 1979.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Municipal and Rural
Affairs, Deputy Ministry for Physical Planning. Riyadh Existing Conditions: Traffic Survey. Riyadh, S.A., 1979 .
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Municipal and Rural
Affairs, Deputy Ministry for Physical Planning. Riyadh Existing Conditions: Physical Development. Riyadh, S.A., 1979.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Municipal and Rural
Affairs, Deputy Ministry for Physical Planning. Riyadh Revised Master Plan. Riyadh, S.A., 1982.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1971.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.:
MIT Press, 1960.
Mahler, Reinhold. "Pedestrian Malls: Symbols of Citizen-
Oriented Planning." (Proceedings: Fifth Annual Pedestrian Conference, Boulder, CO, 1984).
Mumford, Lewis. The City in History. Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1961.
Regional Transportation District. 16th. Street Transitway/ Mall: Bus Operational Plan. Denver, Colorado, 1979.
100


Regional Transportation District. The Transitway/Mai 1: Design Criteria Manual. Denver, Colorado, 1979.
Rubenstein, Harvey M. Central City Malls. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978.
The Arabic Institute for Urban Development. Al_ Riyadh: The Future City. Riyadh, King Saud University, 1984.
The Downtown Research and Development Center. Strategies for Stopping Shopping Centers. New York: Alexander Research and Communications, Inc., 1980.
The Urban Design Forum. The Great Ideas: Great City Symposium '84. Denver, Colorado, 1984.
Uhling, Klaus. Pedestrian Areas. New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co. Inc., 1979.
Unterman, Richard K. Accommodating the Pedestrian. New York; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1984.
101


INTERVIEWS
Al-Massari, Muhammad A., Director for Saudi Arabian Educational Mission, Denver Office. Personal Interview, Aug. 1986.
Jorgensen, William C., Manager, Design and Construction,
Regional Transportation District. Personal Interview, July 1986.
Senani, Ahmed H., Dean of the University Center for
Community Service, University of Imam, Mohammad Bin Saud. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. August 1986.
102


ABSTRACT
A. Problem
As Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, has experienced a period of rapid growth in the last fifteen years, the city government has faced many crucial issues and problems that had to be dealt with very seriously. As the suburbs around the city began to emerge, community shopping demands began to increase and there was somewhat of a shift from the far downtown to the near shopping areas and to the new, more
this, slowly but surely, the downtown area began to lose the historically-known shopping and retail area and the core of the whole city, and what is a city without an identifiable core that can hold it together and bring people's attention to the center as their prime shopping area and center for outdoor activities?
I feel that there is an urgent need for a complete study of the downtown area of Riyadh, as there are some alarming signs of deteriorating economic and physical conditions, a declining quality of life, pollution, congestion, and a movement of people to the suburbs. I see great potential for a
pedestrian transitway/mal1 in downtown Riyadh as one practical
< \ r 4 i
solution to the current urban problems facing the city.
__.-------asT.r
B Organization "of'the Shddy
My strategy is to understand fully the needs and problems of downtown malls in today's urban city life, how other cities
in the United States and Europe have dealt with similar
*
problems, and key points which made some of these malls become
1


successful. Examples of different cities are given. My next step is to introduce a general understanding of the urban layout of the city of Riyadh with a focus on its downtown area as of today. My final step, based on understanding and identifying the problem(s), is to put forward a plan for a mall and its surroundings.
C. Methods and Evidence
Different methods and evidence based on maps, charts, and numbers from secondary data are used in the study. I will also use as reference materials different books and reports written about the subject of downtown malls, and several interviews with planners as well as non-planners whom I felt could be of assistance to the study.
D. Design Objectives
As my proposal and argument is in favor of the Central Transit Mall in the city of Riyadh, I feel that I can be persuasive in my argument by demonstrating that this proposal is a direct response to the specific needs of the local community and the city as a whole. The following is a series of goals and objectives for the creation of the traffic-free zone (The Riyadh Mall).
1. To stimulate continued economic growth in the Central Business Disrict and to encourage increased commercial and business activity.
2


2. To decrease the number of motor-vehicle-related accidents, saving lives, police work, and judicial time.
3. To reduce noise and air pollution.
4. To improve the visual environment. Signs, lights, spaces, colors and textures can be designed to relate to the person on foot, rather than to the person on wheels.
5. To promote urban conservation, environmental preservation, building restoration and renewal.
6. To provide a safe and attractive environment in which children can play and senior citizens can meet and rest.
7. To provide a sense of place that strengthens community identity and community pride. This improves community relations and reduces feelings of alientation.
j|C 8. To link and connect the major spaces and shopping areas that identify the Central Business District.
9. To help clear some of the congested traffic
conditions that are usually associated with downtown areas of cities and return the street to the public for its prime purpose.
10. To promote citizens' participation in the inception, management, monitoring, and improvement of the pedestrian area. Thus the project will become a lively instrument for public education in urban life.
3


E Scope and Limits
It is necessary to keep in mind that a downtown mall is usually a practical solution to some urgent urban problems, yet it is a very broad subject that involves many planners, architects, lawyers, government officials, traffic planners, merchants, and the community in general, among others. As this is the case, it is not expected for this study to be so comprehensive for it to be implemented, but I hope that it will mark the beginning of serious consideration for a traffic-free zone in the downtown area of Riyadh before it is too late.
Another limitation is the time frame of the study, given the great distance between the place where the study is being done (Denver, Colorado) and the place for which it is being done (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), and the question of how current the available information and data, mainly concerning Riyadh, are.
F. Conclusion
Whether or not a mall is going to be implemented in downtown Riyadh is not really my main concern here; rather, my consideration is whether or not it could be a step toward a renaissance of the urban center of the city. Is the idea going to be accepted or rejected by the people? That depends, in part, on the government's policies. But it also depends on the willingness of the citizens to take action on behalf of themselves. This can happen only through increased awareness of the complex interrelation of urban issues and an understanding of what a downtown mall could mean to them.
4


INTERNATIONAL
AIRPQRT.
M mi%
;
UNIVERSITY
OlPLO*iiXffl
QUARTER
NEW St-
DIR'IVAH TOWN

15
20
SPECIAL.
GOveniUMENTAA.
AREA
Railway
to
DAMMAM
ROAD NETWORK EVOLUTION AFTER 1973
tWXttTWAt
V Cm
mvAOH
REFINERY



n
LEGEND
ROAD NETWORK FOR MASTER PLAN 1393
GRIO EXTENSION OF APPROVED SUBDIVISIONS



f


[=
TOWNS
LIMITS OF THE KINGDOM MAIN ROADS RAIL ROAD OIL PIPELINES OIL FIELD
MINERAL DEPOSITS SEA
SHIPPING lines FISHING ZONES AGRICULTURAL ZONES MOUNTAINS SAND DESERT
SOURCE The kingdom of Saudi Arabia SCET- INTERNATIONAL / SEDES


I
/
EGYPT
r..
::oKm