Spring Creek Ranch, a design with water

Material Information

Spring Creek Ranch, a design with water
Van Gytenbeek, Richard P
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
101 pages : illustrations, charts, maps (some color) ; 28 cm +


Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape architecture -- Wyoming -- Jackson Hole ( lcsh )
Land use, Rural -- Planning -- Wyoming -- Jackson Hole ( lcsh )
Rivers -- Recreational use -- Wyoming -- Jackson Hole ( lcsh )
Land use, Rural -- Planning ( fast )
Landscape architecture ( fast )
Rivers -- Recreational use ( fast )
Wyoming -- Jackson Hole ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (pages 84-87).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard P. Van Gytenbeek.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15535055 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A77 1986 .V35 ( lcc )

Full Text

U1A700 bTb4fl04

This Thesis is Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for a
Master of Landscape Architecture Degree at
University of Colorado at Denver Graduate Program of Landscape Architecture
James fc.Y. Guo, Assistant Professor of Enqineerii
Wyoming Game an
es Biologist,
May 12, 1986
Date Due I

1 I.,

Richard p.
Van Gytenbeek

// 477

Thesis Statement Page 1
Symbiotic Relationships: Three Examples Page 4
Brandywine Creek Page 4
The Yakima River Page 6
North Creek Page 10
"Examples" Compared to Spring Creek Ranch (S.C.R.) Page 13
Previous Spring Creek Ranch Development Scenarios Page 17
Spring Creek Ranch Page 20
Introduction Page 20
Framework Plan Page 26
Spring Creek Ranch Water:
Focus and Process of Examination Page 28
Water Page 29
H20 Inventory Page 29
H20 Management Concept...Two Water Types Page 36
Design Recommendations Page 54
Riparian Page 62
Soil and Associated Plant/Animal Inventory Page 62
Riparian Areas Management Concept Page 64
Design Recommendations Page 67
Upland Areas Page 78
Conclusion Page 82
Foot Notes Page 83
Bibliography Page 84
Appendix Page 88

"Water is central to many planning problems concerned with natural and altered environments" (Dunn/Leopold, 1978)1. To the Landscape Architect, water frequently becomes the central focus upon which a program and consequential designs are fabricated. Whether the water is scarce or plentiful, moving or still, underground or surficial, it should be manipulated with regard for its physical and biological constraints and opportunities. Landscape Architects have recognized that ecologically responsible water design benefits all concerned or dependant parties. However, preservation and enhancement of aquatic/riparian systems are often compro mised. They are compromised because of economic constraints, ignorance of the system, and a pervasive attitude that these natural systems should assume secondary or subservient roles whenever man changes the land. This attitude has adjusted for the better since the environmental movements of the 1960's. The new posture has infiltrated the public and private sectors of the economy. These sectors look to the Landscape Architect (L.A.) as an interpreter: a landscape formgiver. Furthermore, the L.A. must act as coordinator of the relationship between this delicate and easily disturbed system and the more flexible design of built development.
This change of attitude can, perhaps, be better explained by using metaphorically the concept of mutualistic symbiosis and that of parasitic symbiosis.

Diagram A represents the aquatic/riparian system in a diminished role due to the parasitic relationship man has developed with water systems.
Diagram B represents a mutually symbiotic arrangement realized when man places built development in the ancillary role. The diagram represents the changing attitudes toward preservation and/or enhancement of aquatic/riparian systems.

To further illustrate the preservaticn and enhancement trends which have evolved since the 1960's, three examples will be used: the Brandywine Creek Plan, Chester County, PA. (1968), the Yakima River Greenway, City of Yakima, WA. (1977), and the North Creek development at Bothell, WA. (1985).
The section's conclusion will analyze a fourth example: this document's current case study, Spring Creek Ranch, its relation to the aforementioned three examples, and its relation to development scenarios previously proposed to, and subsequently modified by,
Spring Creek Ranch (S.C.R.). The ecological shortcomings of those first-proposed development scenarios then will be addressed.
New design will proceed from independent research, employing the concept of mutually symbiotic design (natural system and man-built system). Recommendations will follow.

The upper east branch of the Brandywine is a 37 square mile drainage situated 35 miles east of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and 25 miles north of Wilmington, Delaware. Rapid population growth

transformed the area from one of rural farming to one of heavily urbanized suburbs. Anticipating this change, a natural systems inventory and consequent development plans were initiated and generated by the Institute of Environmental Studies at the University of Pennsylvania during the years 1960-1968.2
Anne L. Strong, one of the plan's primary authors, isolated the hydrologic system as the most important element to be protected in this development. A quote from the plan's introduction emphasizes her concern. "Section III-B outlines the theories which constitute the underlying rationale of the plan. The most important are the hydrologic".3
Specifically, Strong felt that the development should be kept out of the floodplain and that 300 foot buffer strips should remain untouched on both banks. In addition, Strong insisted on strict regulation concerning erosion control during and after construction be instituted. Ecologically, this requirement would prevent the deterioration of the riparian system. This, in turn, would provide an investor with land accentuated by a healthy, clean waterway. The inherent aesthetic qualities would be preserved and possibly enhanced.
The financial rewards of such environmental protection would accrue in the future. Presently, however, monetary compensation to owners of land which contain one of the buffer strips could be realized through buy back plans (presently termed "conservation easements"). To do this, a landowner would simply sell the land to a protective
agency (in this case, the Chester County Water Resources Protection District) with the stipulation that it remain in a preserved state

in perpetuity. In turn, the owner would be allowed to specify, by contract, essential conditions such as public access, philosophy of use, and management standards and policy...both during the owner's lifetime and after his death. This general type of arrangement exists as an option for S.C.R. and will be considered as a design recommendation.

The Yakima River begins its descent from the crest of the Cascade Mountain Range in western Washington. Flowing on a southeasterly course toward the Columbia River, it passes through the city of Yakima. The Yakima River had suffered a long history of misuse followed by many years of neglect. The city of Yakima, recognizing a lost resource, engaged the Landscape Architecture firm of Jones and Jones to study the river and make suggestions about its future via programming and design.4
Since 1959, the city of Yakima, Washington has contemplated the development of a "river park" alongside the Yakima River. In 1964, a park plan was created but not implemented due to lack of funding.
During the next ten years new suburbs grew on the rural east side of the river. The river had become an obvious greenway candidate between two halves of a city. In 1974, the Army Corps of Engineers completed a floodway study of the Yakima in which the concept of a "freeway park" was presented for the riparian area. This concept evolved over the next year into a "regional greenway park" which was accepted into the Yakima County Plan. This acceptance made funds available for the Jones and Jones river study.
Jones and Jones immediately recognized the recreational and educational potential within the river corridor. Potential recreational uses included lake and river floating and fishing, as well as the construction of bicycle trails, foot trails and game fields. Educational opportunities were equally promising: a nature studies center, interpretive nature trails, viewing areas, and wildlife management

Like many "urban" waterways, the Yakima's "condition" precluded any significant recreational use. Riparian wetlands had been badly polluted, dumping of garbage was rampant, gravel mines destroyed habitat, and ever-present trailer parks were a visual problem. In addition to the ecological and visual problems, Jones and Jones recognized the Yakima's history of floods and channel changes which could threaten any permanent structure placed in the floodplain.

In light of these findings, Jones and Jones made the following proposals to allow ecoloqical recovery: severe restriction on mining operations (and perhaps the elimination thereof), on housing projects, and on dumping.5 Concurrently, the previously mentioned recreational and educational activities were proposed to increase resident awareness of, and use of this major resource, the river corridor. With regard for the river's tendency to flood and change channels, permanent structures (like the Nature Studies Center) would be located outside the floodway.
By rehabilitating the waterway, the city of Yakima has improved the aesthetic and recreational experience for visitor and resident alike. In turn, the city receives economic benefit because it is perceived as a beautiful, progressive area, ideal for attracting new investment and renewing the confidence of current investors.

North Creek, a small tributary of the Sammamish River, flows through the outskirts of Bothell, Washington. Earth Enterprises, a design/build Landscape Architecture firm in Seattle, was retained by the Koll Company to program, design, and manage the rehabilitation of North Creek on their newly acquired property.

In 1978. the Koll Company purchased the Vitulli dairy farm near Bothell, Washington. Koll planned to develop. Farmland would become a high tech office park. Two problems became apparent in the development scheme. First, North Creek had been channeled away from its original course, leaving an undevelopable peat bog in its place. Second, the town of Bothell required that Koll not exceed 27% impervious surface ( a surface that sheds water) at the project's completion.
Koll realized that conforming to the impervious surface requirement would require low density development thereby making the project economically not feasible. The company, however, was also aware that if it could provide an on-site public service or benefit to the town of Bothell, that a variance might be considered.
Addressing this dilemna, the president of Koll Northwest, Rodger Fagerholm, proposed a complete restoration of the creek to its original capacity as a salmon and steelhead spawning stream. The restoration would entail moving the creek from its present position back to its original course through the peat bog. This plan would accomplish two objectives. First, Koll would show good intent by providing a public service project which enhances local fish and wildlife habitat. Second, the company would increase the amount of buildable land on their site by routing the stream through the undevelopable bog. As previously mentioned, Earth Enterprises was retained to coordinate numerous consultants, community groups, and state agencies in formulating a program and design revolving around the rehabilitation of North Creek.6

Existing/Proposed Plan

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Primary development emphasis focused on the rehabilitation of North Creek in hopes of restoring its original capacity as a salmon and steel head spawning stream. Consequently, this emphasis provided project designers with a springboard from which they launched other programs and designs. The streamside areas afforded an ideal template upon which a jogging/workout trail, a wetland wildlife area, a salmon rearing pond, and a flycasting pond have been constructed. Since the completion of the stream corridjr, bird and small animal populations have increased and diversified, residents of Bothell are using the workout trail, and a group of school children has planted salmon eggs in hatching boxes near the rearing pond. (As the eggs hatch, the young salmon will be moved to the rearing pond where they will grow to a large enough size to be released to the ocean.) Finally, the developer will be able to market building sites already possessing developed amenities and a favorable reputation in the community: distinctions of a wise investment.7

The Brandywine Spring Creek Ranch
Buffer plan...foliage has helped to control sediment intrusion and keep water temperatures down, by filtering and shading.
Erosion control...settling ponds and building restrictions prevented large intrusions of sediment into the creek.
Buy back plan...encouraged streamside owners to preserve riparian areas without suffering economic hardship.
Water qua!ity...with a population of over 100,000 people by the late seventies, the creek was no longer able to dilute secondarily treated sewage effluent. The resultant high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus caused huge algal blooms which in turn lowered the aesthetic quality.
Control sediment intrusion by creating buffer strips along banks thereby checking erosion during and after the construction process.
Control water temperatures by increasing or maintaining water depth, planting shade trees, and minimizing water surface area whenever possible.
Utilize the "conservation easement" program offered by Jackson Hole Land Trust to
1. protect habitat
2. gain tux breaks for investors
3. improve public relations
4. gain density bonuses.
Spring Creek Ranch will
primarily by served by sewer lines; septic systems will only be used on the West Butte. Development on the north side of the East Butte, however, must be carefully

monitored by S.C.R., which does not own that contiguous property. (Septic in the Spring Creek headwater could cause excessive downslope leaching resulting in lowered water qua!ity.)

The Yakima River Spring Creek Ranch
Strengths Implications
"Education through Rec- Users who understand their
reation" Jones/Jones created resource will be much more
a plan which emphasized educa- likely to maintain and pro-
tion of river users to promote tect it. The siting of resi-
an understanding of and foster dential areas should establish
a protective spirit toward a closeness, even an intimacy,
the resource. between user/client and the natural resource. Thematic clubhouses similar in function
Weaknesses to the Yakima's Nature Study
Jones/Jones recommended Center building should be em-
against diking the river be- ployed, educating the ranch
cause of the fluvial conditions client/residents through lit-
of flood and channel change. erature, seminars and a full
However, the city of Yakima 1ibrary.
still considers that this S.C.R. must protect its
diking would increase build- spring creek at all costs, no
able bottom land. The fact changes in the protective rec-
that this still has not been ommendations of this document
done may imply that the edu- should be contemplated without
cation process is influencing careful consideration. If
Yakima residents. users understand and appreciate their resource they will pay whatever it takes to main-
tain it.

The North Creek Strengths
The apparent success of this development in terms of public acceptance and economic success is directly related to the restoration and enhancement of the stream and riparian system.
Increases in bird, animal and fish populations on the property are due to habitat improvement which caters to endemic animals.
Spring Creek Ranch Implications
The success of S.C.R. is directly linked to the preservation and enhancement of the spring creek and allied systems.
Final designs to realize the preservation and enhancement of this creek must accomodate the needs (food, cover, and breeding areas) of endemic animals. The design must also facilitate the interaction between man and animal.

Very early in the process, development plans created by a professional firm for S.C.R. exhibited an ignorance of the physical and biological requirements of Spring Creek.8
Two major problems with those initial plans became apparent as this study progressed.
Problem Area #1, the Northern Wetland- High density resi-
dential or condominiums were proposed for this area. Currently the area is a large spring seep supplying a minimum 2-3 cubic feet per second (c.f.s.) to Spring Creek during the dry period of late summer.
Substantial bird and small animal activity has been observed in this area. During the past summer, three broods of ducks were born and raised (Mallards, Blue Wing Teal, and Green Wing Teal) near the springs. A small Brook trout population and numerous muskrats were noted in the springs. Small mammals such as mice, voles, and ground squirrels populate the area, insuring a food supply for raptors and coyotes. Badger and porcupine were seen foraging on occasion.
The primary loss in building over this area would have been the spring water. The diminished critical late season base flow would result in some loss of aquatic habitat downstream due to exposure and drying of the channel (thereby killing aquatic insects and reducing

food supplies). These losses would be compounded by the direct loss of habitat and by probable seepage problems into the proposed structures.
Problem Area #2, the Central Wetland_____ Low density resi-
dential was proposed for this area. Two problems would have resulted frcm this approach. First, the soil underlying this area is very poorly drained, in addition to being associated with springs and high water tables. Second, one of the finest pieces of habitat on the ranch would be compromised with the presence of housing, roads, and associated activity.

In addition to creating water seepage problems in and around the foundations, the greater loss in this section would have been the wildlife habitat. The area is curious in that a prime wetland exists adjacent to a pristine Douglas Fir/Aspen stand. Many of the animals present depend both on the wetland and the tree stand for forage, cover, and breeding areas.
Reduction of habitat and thus wildlife would not be in the best interest of S.C.R.. If the developers pursue a rural, simple, clean 'Western' image, then preservation and enhancement of the natural systems must be the central concern. S.C.R. developers have recognized this need and have been very conscientious in their design and development with regard to conservation. To further contribute to their knowledge, this study will educate with regard to the on site water and its interdependent plants and wildlife.

Spring Creek Ranch is located in Jackson Hole, a high mountain valley in northwestern Wyoming. The valley carries the name of Mr. Jackson, a frontier days beaver trapper (beaver trappers' hunting grounds were termed "holes").
Jackson's Hole has become an internationally known destination resort offering a wide choice of recreational opportunities in a still relatively pristine setting.

For ajproximately 100 years, Spring Creek Ranch (S.C.R.) and most of the ranches in this valley have been "working" cattle and hay operations. Throughout the historical period, a way of life evolved, that of the American cowboy...that way of life marks and expresses aspects of our culture today.
Each summer, the land on the valley floor is used to grow hay while cows, calfs, and steers graze in the surrounding high country. As the first snows of winter touch the landscape, the cattle are brought back into the valley. Some will winter here, sustained by the previous summers hay crop, while surplus animals and hay will be will be sold at market. In the late winter and early spring, the cows give birth, marking the beginning of another annual cycle.
As the valley economy has become more recreation oriented, however, the life style has begun to disappear. Aware of this trend, the developers at S.C.R. hope to retain some vestige of the ranching way of life through their program and design.
S.C.R. and similar facilities exist in Jackson Hole primarily because of the recreation potential and the incomparable and awesome beauty of the local and regional area. S.C.R. is surrounded by the Greater Yellowstone Region. Comprised of 18 million acres in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, the region represents the largest pristine ecosystem in the lower forty-eight states. The area includes Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park and numerous other national forests.9

Locally, S.C.R. lies close to the town of Jackson. Skiing is minutes away at Jackson Hole and Snow King ski areas, fishing and white water rafting are at hand on the Snake River. The list of physical assets and recreation potential lengthens as the ranch property is inventoried.
Two buttes, the East Gros Ventre Butte and the West Gros Ventre Butte, border the Spring Creek valley. The Buttes parallel one another from north to south, leaving a beautiful valley floor between them. Each butte, approximately 4.5 miles long and 1.5 miles wide, rises roughly 700 feet from this valley floor, and is comprised of rock originally part of the Gros Ventre Mountains situated to the east. (As an analogy, it may be helpful to think of the Buttes as icebergs broken away from a glacier and left to drift in a sea of glacial till.) Each winter the Buttes are critical winter habitat for the mule deer herds which migrate from the surrounding mountains. Each summer the Buttes are lifegiver and haven for small birds and animals as well as a diverse raptor population (birds of prey)1.0

Rising through the valley floor is one of the ranch's finest assets, a spring creek. Spring Creek proper originates on the north end of the east butte, flows along the east side of the valley, and finally cuts across the valley floor and exits the property under Wyoming Highway 22. As the creek runs across the valley, it is joined by a tributary which originates in rock formations to the west, near the northern property line.

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The spring creek is an asset for three reasons. First, spring fed creeks and rivers are quite rare in the western U.S.. Second, spring fed creeks are very productive biologically, producing large numbers of aquatic plant life, insects, fish, and associated riparian birds (ducks, cranes, geese, etc.) as well as animals (beaver, muskrat, etc.) Third, the creek resource has economic value/investor appeal. Some of the southern parts of the property at S.C.R. have minimal views of the Tetons, and in order to make these sites in this area attractive to investors, the wildlife presence will compensate for the lesser views of the Tetons.
Spring Creek Ranch has built numerous condominiums, a restaurant, and a conference center on the east butte. Amenities include tennis courts, pool, riding stable, and a spectacular view of the Tetons and valley floor. Continued condominium construction is planned for
the east butte.

The crest of the west butte is also being developed into low density residential housing. The owners of this area have recently entered into a partnership with S.C.R., enlarging the planned area to over 3000 acres.
The valley floor is currently undeveloped. To make the valley project financially feasible, housing density will have to be high. This creates a dilemna for the developer; on one hand, high density is required to realize a return on investments...on the other hand, maintenance of wildlife and its associated habitat is required as a major selling point. High density housing and the activity levels usually related to it are not conducive to the maintenance of wildlife habitat.
Fortunately, developments like S.C.R. can create design that preserves and enhances the existing, on-site wildlife habitat. To accomplish this, the project goals, constraints, and opportunities must be understood. This project framework can then be adjusted to acommodate the needs of the natural systems.

The goal of this development is to provide recreation and housing which are permeated by the western ranching lifestyle. Spring Creek Ranch must convey to the prospective investor ideas of sensitive ecologic design, which is permanent and self maintaining thereby realizing a profit for developer and buyer alike.
Theme: The gentleman cowboy, a meld of ranching and recreation into a lifestyle.
Economic/Management Goals:
- offset initial high land cost maximize returns
- create a low maintenance to self maintaining system

Recreation and Activities:
- polo fields/stabling barns
- riding trails
- hiking trails
- fishing
- bird watching
- ranching
- cross country skiing
- skating
Specific Requirements:
- handicap access
- range of accessibility/difficulty
- range of experiences from socially interactive to solitary
- provide water for domestic use
- screen dwellings from one another
- maintain views of Teton range and open space as possible
- security
- vehicular access to all structures
- basic services to all structures

Water at S.C.R. is considered to be the primary factor in the design equation, consequently, its physical nature and inter-relations with natural systems become the study's focus.
Each of these areas was examined by the following organization.
It should be noted, however, that this is a general form diagram only.
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CONCEPT A CONCEPT CT OfZ £KHWC&^KTOF WATUIOM- SrST&-lS ^n-the- scfc t^va^ri^Kr


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The water which flows through Spring Gulch comes from underground springs throughout the year. During the spring and summer, the spring water is diluted by snowmelt and irrigation water from the Gros Ventre River. Without the influence of irrigation sources,
the amount of flow is as follows:

The amount of irrigation water fluctuates greacly during the irrigation season.
Spring Creek increases in size almost six times from the time it enters the property to the time it leaves. Irrigation water entering the S.C.R. property is primarily funneled into a number of irrigation ditches, with the remainder flowing into the creek channel. The majority of ditch water returns to the West Fork channel.
Irrigation Water
Water which has flowed through the pastures has the following characteristics:
Average Temp. = 70F Average Ph = 7.9 Dissolved Oxygen = Low PO4 and N = Very High Suspended Sediment = Very High
Spring Water
The spring water has the following characteristics:
Average Temp. = 49F Average Ph = 7.1 Dissolved Oxygen = High PO4 and N = Very Low Suspended Sediment = Very Low
All factors are conducive to maintaining a healthy aquatic system (insects, plants, and fish) except for the low level of organic matter.

The aquatic plants present in the system have been divided into two categories. "Category one" plants appear to thrive in warmer silt laden water, whereas "category two" plants exist in the colder, cleaner stretches of water. This is a general trend and not meant to imply that no overlap of range occurs.

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Aquatic insects exhibit stratification in the system similar to the plants. Caddisflies. diving beetles, and midge larvae predominate in the West Fork, while stoneflies and mayflies remain in the cleaner, colder water of the Spring Creek mainstem.

The fish named prefer different water velocities and temperatures. The dace species and the Redside Shiner prefer the quiet warmer back waters, they predominate in the West Fork. The sculpin and the native Cutthroat trout prefer the cooler, faster moving sections of the Spring Creek mainstem. The Brook trout (introduced, not native to the American West) does not appear to compete well with the cutthroat and thus is relegated to the upper reaches of the system. (Only 5 Brook trout were observed by the author during the summer of 1985).


Two distinct water types exist at S.C.R., irrigation water and spring water. Each is conducive to the support of different species of flora and fauna. Presently the two types are mixed and as such are diluting one anothers potential. Therefore, it is recommended that the two types of water be separated. This separation process will take place gradually thus allowing endemic organisms time to adjust to the new water conditions. It must be acknowledged that the system is reasonably productive and has adjusted to 100 years of cattle grazing, irrigation, and hay production. However, to fully realize the physical, biological, and thus recreational potential, past land and water practices must be changed.

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This section will discuss the concept for total utilization of irrigation water. As an aid to understanding, the water's flow pattern will be examined from its entry point at the northern property line to its reabsorption or exit at the south end of the property. The following diagram illustrates how both spring water and the irrigation water will be divided and utilized.

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1. Equestrian Area/Irriqation Water
The equestrian center, the first use----- The primary demand
on irrigation water in this area will be from the polo fields. The fields are large (300 yards by 140 yards) and will need continual irrigation during the summer. The following diagram illustrates how the fields will be irrigated.
Side ditches shall have two functions settling sediment and providing irrigation water. These ditches shall be four to five feet deep to provide enough depth for pumping, without roiling the water and re-suspending sediment.
The equestrian center's location was determined before this study was initiated. Its placement is advantageous in terms of providing well-drained soils for playing fields. The placement strongly benefits wildlife as it becomes a migration corridor each year for mule deer moving to their East Butte winter range.

2. Residential and Hotel Grounds/Irrigation Water
Residential and hotel grounds, the second use----- The second
downstream use for the irrigation water will be to water residential and hotel grounds. The delivery ditches will parallel the road and/or
path systems throughout the ranch.
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The parallel ditch system will require that each driveway have a culvert to pass the irrigation water downstream to the next residence. Two problems arise when the culvert is placed in the ditch and covered by dirt and asphalt.

Problem 1: Culvert constricts flow and causes erosion on either side of mouth. Problem 2: Aesthetically this may be unappealing because it looks unfinished.
The solution, although an added expense, is to place concrete wing walls and an apron on the upstream side of the culvert. It may be advantageous to incorporate irrigation headgates in one of the concrete wings, thereby creating a dual function structure.

These parallel ditch systems will also be used to collect storm runoff, bypassing it harmlessly into the pastures.
A similar type of system was used in the design of Woodland Texas, a P.U.D., north of Houston, Texas. In this particular instance, the design centered around the hydrologic system of the site. Rather than install a huge storm drain system, it was determined that runoff could be retained and/or detained on site. Consequently, runoff would discharge at historic rates or recharge the aquifer. Elim-

ination of the storm drain system saved over 14 million dollars.11
As in Woodland, creation of this type of drainage system at S.C.R. would negate the need for storm drains. Additionally, this irrigation system will lower the amount of water drawn from the S.C.R. aquifer while actually increasing recharge.
3. Ranching/Irrigation Water
Irrigation and ranching, the third use----- After the irrigation
water has passed through the residential yards it will either sheet drain into adjacent hay pastures or be picked up by lateral ditches to be carried to other residential areas or pastures.
It is recommended that the application process for residential homes be very simple and effective, such as the gravity feed systems shown in the schematic.

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Irrigation of pasture areas could be accomplished in the same manner, however, use of standard canvas or plastic check dams would lend an historic quality thus enhancing the western ranch experience.
The effect of running water along the roadways and around homes will lend a special quality to the S.C.R. experience. As mentioned, it is the historic method of watering at the ranch, and one that is used successfully in some western towns (i.e. Gunnison, Colorado).
It pleases the senses and adds to the rural quality of the development.
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4.Mild1ife/Irrigation Water
Irrigation and the wildlife wetlands, the fourth use_____ Ir-
rigation water, after leaving the pastures, will be concentrated in two wetland wildlife areas. The design of these wetland wildlife areas will ensure that incoming irrigation water will not pour directly back into the stream channel after it has run the course from residential home, through pasture, and through wetland area. The wetland will be dammed at the downstream end to prevent the soil laden irrigation water from reaching the cooler, cleaner spring water in the stream channels. If grass species requiring less water are used in the pas-

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ture area, overflow will not be a problem from the wetland to spring channel. Instead of overflowing, water collected in the wetland will infiltrate the soil. This design controls the intrusion of sediment, warm water, and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen (from manure). However, water with these characteristics will produce large amounts of algae and other undesirable plant growth. Three design attributes will minimize this problem: maintaining average water depth at greater than 4 feet, shading the water from the sun, and

^rgkmg^u Llg-TLAMC?- LOCKJUS WOfSTHUAKiP ILHO ThC CP£Ai WAH^e. >2A. -THIS CRSMI UlXTEK /*2£-X 15 10-12. FtLE-T J5Ed^ PfSO/IPlWG GIVING PUCK HAemacT AMP AP£QLVCT&- T/*K£L Cf=P ICOOM fOC. UNCG^- WKPCx occasionally flushing the wetland. This flushing should take place early in the morning (4:00 A.M. to 8:00 A.M.) when the water is cooler. Further design specifications for these areas will be covered in the riparian section.
The designs which revolve around the spring water will be examined according to three physical systems: first, the Spring Creek mainstem, second. West Fork of Spring Creek and third, the unconfined aquifer from which both streams derive their water.

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1. Mainstem
The primary function of the Spring Creek mainstem will be to preserve and enhance the Cutthroat trout fishery at Spring Creek Ranch. The reason for this is twofold: first, to improve the stream as basic habitat and as a spawning area, and second, to provide
S.C.R. users with a fishing resource. Two major tasks must be accomplished to realize these goals: flushing the stream of accumulated sediment and, minimizing the influx of warm manure and sediment-laden irrigation water.
The accumulation of fine grained sediment on the bottom of Spring Creek is due in large part to cattle grazing near the stream-bank. Each time the cattle drink from the creek, their hooves sink into the soft banks, crushing the vegetation thereby releasing fine sediment. Each time the rain or irrigation water runs over these scars, more sediment enters the stream. The result:
1. Widening
2. Shallow
3. Warmer
4. No bank cover
5. Filling of interstitial spaces

Unfortunately for spring creeks, very little of this grazing activity causes substantial damage to the stream. Ths damaging accumulation of sediment occurs in the absence of water runoff (which flushes most streams clean each spring).
Sedimentation problems can be corrected by the installation of instream structure, dredging, replacement of spawning gravels, and providing silt catch basins.
a. Instream Structures The purpose of instream structure is to reverse the aforementioned processes. Resulting beneficial changes include narrowing and deepening the channel, increasing water velocities, keeping the water temperature cooler, and providing the adequate water depth and overhead cover which trout require.


b. Dredging and Silt Basins Dredging deeper channels and pools during the initial installation of instream structures speeds recovery by enhancing and reinforcing the action of these structures. Dredging will also be a part of future Spring Creek management.
As sediment is resuspended and moved downstream, it must be collected
and removed to avoid damaging downstream areas. To accomplish this, the stream will be dammed at specific points on the property. The quiet water behind the dam will serve to collect silt, increase trout wintering areas, and provide fishermen with a different type of water to fish. These dams, however, must meet certain requirements:
1. An access point for a crane with a drag line
2. A configuration not too wide or shallow (depth greater than 8 feet)
3. Dam structures not blocking fish passage12
In addition to providing instream silt collection utilizing check dams, use of sediment ponds should be mandatory during construction. Many material and design variations exist for the construction of sediment 'ponds. However, the process and purpose are always similar.

The dike can be constructed from compacted earth, sand bags, or hay bales covered by plastic sheets?3
The soils at S.C.R. contain some clays. Clays tend to remain in solution for long periods of time because of the extremely small size and weight of the clay particles. Commercially available chemicals are available for speeding the precipitation process of suspended clay particles. No environmental problems have been related to the use of these products.14
c. Spawning Gravels After the stream improvement measures have been in place for 2-3 years, introduction of spawning gravel may be considered. Since large quantities of washed gravel (V 3") are required to have an appreciable impact, it is suggested that the gravel be concentrated in a few areas rather than evenly distributing it.

2. West Fork
The West Fork of Spring Creek has suffered from the siltation process to a much greater extent than the mainstem. This problem has been accentuated by the presence of beaver and their habit of building dams. The dams have acted as silt catch-basins. Because of the large quantity of silt (high cost to remove) and the fact that beaver are a highly visible, popular wildlife attraction, it is recommended that the beaver populations be allowed to remain while under a strict management program.
Two problems exist where beaver are present in trout streams: yearling beaver will build dams close to their place of birth, and they will continually try to enlarge their backwater pools.
Yearling beaver are forced to leave their place of birth by their parents. Usually they will swim downstream until they locate an appropriate spot for a new dam. S.C.R. cannot afford to sacrifice more stream area to young beaver. Therefore, it is recommended that a trapping/relocation program be implemented for them. This program could be coordinated through the Wyoming Fish and Game.
The second area of concern is caused by the beaver's constant attention to maintaining a certain water level behind their dams. To insure that these animals do not become overzealous in this practice and severely reduce water flow during dry periods, the following plan is recommended.
This system insures a constant water flow to downstream areas without the animals perceiving that water is draining from the dam.

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The design of these dams means that fish will not be able to pass upstream. It is possible that if the beaver dam pools remain deep enough to over-winter fish, and if the stream flowing into the pools has enough clean gravel, then natural spawning of trout could take place upstream. This population may have to be periodically restocked. Regardless of whether the system is self supporting or stocked, fishing piers will be installed.
3. The Underground Source/The Unconfined Aquifer
The entire S.C.R. development will depend on the unconfined aquifer which exists between the buttes for domestic water supplies.

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When water is pumped from an unconfined aquifer, it forms a cone of depression around the intake point. As the rate of withdrawal increases, so does the size of the cone.
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A potential problem exists for S.C.R. if they pump enough water to enlarge the cone of depression to the width of the valley. If this happens, Spring Creek could be dewatered causing an insect, plant, and fish kill. To- minimize this possibility, different pumping rates, numbers of wells, and distribution of wells will be modeled on a com-
puter program.

The purpose of a detailed consideration of stream preservation and enhancement is to provide fishermen (and fish) with a healthy fishery. The requirements of fishing and the impacts which this form of recreation places on a fishery will be reviewed. Design solutions which enhance the sport and mitigate its ecological impacts will be explored.
Two types of fishermen will be present at S.C.R.. Type one
profile----serious, avid fly fishermen, characterized by a knowledge
of the art, as well as a knowledge of the stream. (It is anticipated that many of these fishermen will own one of the valley floor lots
adjacent to the Spring Creek mainstem.) Type two profile------ those
fishermen staying at the hotel complex, representing many skill levels and different fish-take expectations.
As a resort, S.C.R. must offer to fishermen in this group the opportunity to catch and to kill fish. The latter activity is not conducive to maintaining a healthy trout population because the population's small size will not tolerate high mortality levels.
For this reason, fish will be stocked to maintain the fishery (termed a 'put and take' fishery), ensuring activity for the less skilled angler.
Stocking fish, however, in a system which already supports an endemic trout population is frowned upon by biologists. Such stocking causes undue competition for space and food, and is now suspected of being detrimental to the gene pool. Therefore, S.C.R. must create a "closed system" adjacent to the hotel complex. A closed system simply means that stocked fish are confined to a certain stretch of river. This prevents their intermingling with the endemic population.

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The presence of beaver dams on the West Fork makes its upstream area a closed system. Considering this, it is recommended that the closed system required at the hotel complex be separated from the main channel of Spring Creek. In other words, utilize some of the creek's water to fill and replenish a large pond which could be stocked with trout. Thereby satiating the needs of some users while preventing closure of the upper areas of Spring Creek.
In addition to being ecologically responsive, this design has an added benefit. Unlike the main channel, this pond will freeze

during winter providing an excellent outdoor ice rink. In addition, its location in front of the hotel omplex will enhance the visual qualities of the hotel entry, and provide a year round living advertisement.
Whether the fisherman is an expert or beginner, S.C.R. owner or visitor, the requirements of fishing are the same, as are the impacts on the resource.
Requirements of Fishing
Presentation of the fly to the fish must be made from an upstream position. Fishing experiences during the summer of 1986 proved this technique to be the only consistent method of catching fish.
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The second requirement for fly fishermen is to position them-
selves so that backcasts are not caught on obstructions.

Fisherman's feet, like cattle's hooves, sink into the soft banks causing the same problems of bank break down and consequential silt-ation. Equally detrimental to the stream is the practice of wading in the water. Wading disturbs and kills aquatic insects and plants in addition to resuspending silt.
To prevent the consequences of high traffic along the banks of the stream, casting points and fish landing areas created with gabions will be employed.
Casting points are stream bank vantages from which the fisherman can cast to fish without having to step into the stream. Wing deflectors provide excellent casting points as well as increasing water velocity and cleaning sediment from bottom gravels.

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If a wing deflector is not available, a cast point must be created. An outstanding hybrid of the box type gabion which will have application potential at S.C.R., is the tube type.15
Although wire gabions are not very attractive when initially installed, they have the advantages of being porous, flexible, and long lived (up to 75 years). If gabions are covered with Marafi liner, soil, and grasses, they become visually undetectable within two to three years. These attributes are well adapted to improving the physical and thus biological systems of Spring Creek.

To further aid in the control of bank erosion and riparian degradation due to large amounts of foot traffic, the following trail system is recommended.

The figure eight system has two advantages over a single trail. First, non-fishermen walking the stream will be able to bypass anglers by walking along the outside of the river curve. Second, the bypass trails keep people away from eroding banks, while allowing closer contact on the less vulnerable inside curve (bank of deposition).
This fishing trail system will begin at the future fishing clubhouse (currently Mary H. Meads home) and will stretch southward to Wyoming Highway 22 and northward approximately one quarter mile.
The northern reach of the trail will be paved and relatively flat to accomodate fishermen who are wheelchair bound, elderly, or inexperienced. The southern reach will have a dirt or gravel path. At the confluence of the West Fork, a spur trail will access the reaches below the beaver dam. The trail will continue upstream, but access in this area will only be allowed after the end of the water fowl nesting season to prevent any disturbances.
Concern about these impacts must be strong, for in high traffic areas along streams, human foot traffic has caused extensive damage.16

This section will examine soils, plants, and animals inhabiting the valley floor. Special consideration will be given to discussions on recreation and its relationship with riparian wildlife habitat.
Three major soil types are present on the valley floor at Spring Creek Ranch: Cryaquolls-Cryofibrists Complex, Leavitt Variant Loam, and Newfork Fine Sandy Loam. Plant and animal communities can also be divided according to these three soil types.
1. General locations usually found in spring seep areas
2. Permeability moderate to slow
3. Water table at or near surface all year
4. Hay production very poor
5. Associated plants rushes, sedges, and willows
6. Associated animals moose, waterfowl, beaver, and muskrat
7. Building potential poor

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General locations usually found along major streams throughout the valley
Permeability moderate
Water table high, 2 to 3 feet from surface during summer months
Hay production 2 ton/acre, potentially good pasture
Plants Garrison Creeping Foxtail, Reed Canary Grass, and Red Clover
Animals small mammals/birds
Building potential Feasible but high water table will present problems
General locations river bottom lands and terraces along Snake River
Permeability moderately rapid
Water table high, h to 4 feet from surface during summer months
Hay production 2 ton/acre, potentially good pasture
Plants Garrison Creeping Foxtail, Reed Canary Grass, Red Clover, sedges, and willows
Animals waterfowl, beaver, and muskrat
Building potential poor

The primary management objective of riparian lands will be to preserve and enhance the critical habitat for wildlife. Location of housing and recreational activities will be consistent with this objective.
Cryaquolls-Cryofibrists Complex
The most critical riparian habitat currently existing at S.C.R. is in the "Cryaquolls-Cryofibrists Complex" area. This area provides forage and nesting habitat for ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Greenwing Teal, Bluewing Teal, Gadwalls, Mallards), and shorebirds (Killdeer, Snipe, and Western Sandpiper). It is also a migration stopover point or occasional forage area for Canada Geese, Sandhill Cranes and Long Billed Curlew.
Additionally, it is home for one pair of beaver, and numerous muskrat. This abundance of wildlife and associated habitat implies the possibility for a wetland wildlife refuge.
To further substantiate this proposal, the soil and high water table eliminate this area as a prospective building area.
Leavitt Variant Loam
The land underlain by the Leavitt Variant Loam offers S.C.R. the best building sites in the valley while having the least impact on wildlife habitat. Most all building locations proposed in this study are sited on the above mentioned type of soil. These areas will also be used for hay and pasture production.

Newfork Fine Sandy Loam
The Newfork Fine Sandy Loam soil type parallels both sides of the Spring Creek mainstem and the West Fork. Bird species using the Cryaquoll-Cryofibrists soil area are also found in this area, particularly where the willows have been allowed to reestablish.
Soil type and high water table make building over this area an unwise decision. This recommendation is reinforced by a Teton County regulation requiring a 50 foot setback from streambanks (Teton County Comprehensive Plan, 1977). Considering the money and time that will be invested in improving the stream and adjacent banks, building in the area would be goal defeating.
The Cryaquolls-Cryofibrists and Newfork soil types pose several building constraints, are associated with good wildlife habitat, and thus are better suited for open space. Consequently, S.C.R. may choose to relinquish this land to the conditions of a "conservation easement". Conservation easements in Jackson Hole are simply contracts drawn between the owner of a parcel of land and the Jackson Hole Land Trust. The contract usually stipulates that the land in question remain in its present condition, or that a predetermined development, or other land alteration protect views and wildlife habitat. The owner of the land retains ownership and is free to use, sell, or will the land to heirs, provided the contract agreements are honored. The easement is a legal deed restriction.

The easement also qualifies S.C.R. to claim a substantial charitable tax deduction (Sec.l70h, Internal Revenue Code.Revised Dec.'80). This would help to offset the original purchase price of the land.

Equestrian Center
The Equestrian Center will provide the following facilities (and associated activities): stables, riding rings (one indoor/one outdoor), polo fields, and food/drink service. Buildings will be re quired for these activities and will form the center of the complex. Peripheral to this area will be the polo fields, outdoor riding ring and corrals for staging daily trail rides.
To accomodate mule deer migration between buttes, an unfenced buffer strip will traverse the north side of the equestrian center.
Polo "the sport of kings" has already established itself in Jackson Hole. To further enhance the valley's role in this international sport, S.C.R. contemplates the construction of three polo fields. The fields are large, having the following dimensions.

Underlying soil will provide adequate drainage for these playing fields. Blue grass will provide the most durable field surface. Irrigation will be done by wheel-line sprinkler systems drawing water from the settling canals.
Pasture/Hay Production
Pasture at S.C.R. will be necessary to graze the ranch's horses and any cattle which remain at the ranch during the summer months. For two reasons, it is highly recotrcnended that horses be grazed together as a large herd. Reason one, the concensus among horse owners is that the animals, being herd animals, are better tempered and more easily managed if so kept. Reason two,' pasture management (rotation time and watering schedule) will be more effectual if most of the horses and cattle are in one large group rather than many small ones of course, some provision for pasturing individual or small groups (perhaps a string of polo ponies) of
horses will be made.

The pasture locations will coincide with dwellings as much as possible. Having grazing horses and some cattle in view will add to the rural pastoral quality of the S.C.R. experience. This design concept implies the need for fencing between pastures and dwellings. Although more expensive, the "buck and pole" (option #1) would add an authentic touch to the ranching character of S.C.R..

Water for the animals will be supplied through the ditch system. When necessary, animals' access to the spring water for drinking will be accomplished by use of a 'water gap'. A water gap is simply a point at which the animals are allowed controlled access to the water This management objective can be accomplished by two designs, one to preserve ditch banks and the second to preserve stream banks.17

The hay land will supply the winter feeding needs for S.C.R. animals. The design objective for hay field layout was two fold. First, the fields needed to be as large and contiguous as possible. This was done to facilitate easy hay cutting regardless of the type of equipment used in the future. The design's second criterion was to place the hayfields adjacent to the equestrian center so that moving and storing bales could be accomplished efficiently without disturbing traffic circulation. The haying operation will be in plain view for many at the ranch, without inconveniencing the daily ranching routine.
Three wetland areas are proposed, each for slightly different reasons. The central wetland will be located and defined by the borders of Cryoaquolls-Cryofibrists soil complex. The next wetland area will be located along the southern edge of the property. The third wetland area is positioned between the north and central entry points.

Central Wetland
The central wetland will be approximately 50 acres in size. Irrigation water will be used as a water source. Depth shall vary from 10 feet to 2-3 inches. Most of the area will be 12-18 inches in depth to encourage use by puddle ducks and wading birds (Blue Heron). Islands and peninsulas will encourage nesting. A large open water area will be provided in hopes of attracting Trumpetor Swans, and endangered species.

User/resource interaction in this area will be severely restricted. The primary wetland function will be to provide cover and food for waterfowl and other bird species. In turn, this should encourage nesting and stopovers from migrating birds.
Three vantage points will be provided around the wetland area to facilitate observation. Two of these points will be located on the West Butte. These vantages shall each be equipped with a lean-to. The lean-to should be screened on the front side to prevent birds from detecting disturbing movements.
The third vantage point will be located at ground level, on the north side of the wetland. It will provide the handicapped, the very young, or the less energetic bird watching enthusiasts with a prime viewpoint within easy reach of the fishing clubhouse. It, too, will be equipped with a lean-to and ample screening.

Southern Wetland
The southern wetland's primary function is to prevent south pasture irrigation water from entering Spring Creek. It is anticipated that this area will cover 15 acres and have approximately the same depth and configuration as the central wetland. The close proximity to the road may not be conducive to nesting acitvity.
However, waterfowl will use roadside areas, exemplified by the pond near the Skyline development on Wyoming Highway 22.
The presence of grazing animals, waterfowl, and water will create a beautiful foreground scene, thus enhancing the driving experience for passersby on the highway.
The Northern Wetland
The northern wetland area's primary function will be to protect one of the major spring seep areas on the ranch. No user amenities are planned, due to the small size and ecological delicacy of this area. It is recommended that this area become a 'forgotten corner', insulating the residential area to the north from the hotel. By managing the area in this manner, animals will utilize it and occasionally make their presence known. Thus, unexpected wildlife sightings, appreciated by residents and guests, will have been allowed by design.
The final consideration in the section on riparian design development will look at the major trail system. The streamside trail system has already been discussed, however, it should be noted that short riparian loop trails are recommended at the hotel complex and between the northern residential area and the equestrian center.

The main trail will begin at the equestrian center. It will accommodate both foot and horse traffic and will be dirt. Leaving the equestrian center, the trail hugs the western edge of the valley. Just north of the West Fork Springs, it is joined by a lateral trail coming from the hotel complex. Proceeding south, the trail is sandwiched between the West Fork and the West Butte until it is again intersected from the east by a lateral which originates at the fishing club.
This lateral trail will be the longest paved trail on the valley floor. It will be paved to accommodate wheelchair bound and elderly persons wishing to use the special blind at the central wetland.

After the paved lateral intersects the main trail, the main trail climbs to the first wetland overlook. Traversing the side hill the next stop is the second wetland overlook. From this

overlook, the trail user will climb to the top of the south end of the West Butte. Seven hundred forty feet above the valley floor, a spectacular view of Jackson Hole can be experienced. This promontory provides an excellent destination point for the trail system. It is recommended that a lean-to be constructed and equipped with a fire pit and grill.
The return trail takes a different course until it closes the
loop near the intersection with the paved trail.

The buttes are related to the valley floor in many ways.
Many animals that inhabit the buttes utilize the valley during season al or diurnal migrations. Pollution (sewage or sediment) produced on either butte will eventually migrate downward to the floor.
The buttes themselves have some important habitat which S.C.R. can protect and enhance. One of the most interesting habitats is the Douglas Fir/Aspen stand on the West Butte directly above the proposed "central wetland". The stand's presence was noted in a baseline plant/wildlife study done for S.C.R. in 1980-81. The study states that this stand appears to have received very little grazing and is therefore, in very good shape. This study upholds that evalua tion. Some interesting animal presences and inter-relationships were noted during the present study. For instance, a doe Mule Deer and her fawn spent the summer in the stand. Another curious activity was noted during periodic observation of the beaver living in the West Fork. Late in the summer, the beaver were seen climbing to the ridge lines (500 feet above their ponds) presumably to graze stunted
Aspen trees growing there. This area is unique------very special and
important to the S.C.R. total inventory, and should be preserved.

The continued development on both buttes should be monitored in terms of septic systems downhill leaching and controlling sediment losses from new construction areas. The West Butte will not have enough density to create a downslope sewage problem, however, future development at the north end of the East Butte should be monitored.
Sediment erosion can easily be controlled by reseeding and or
the use of sediment ponds.

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Throughout the process of designing the S.C.R. valley, a premise
has been the guide. The premise is.......that natural systems, their
biological and physical requirements, can be preserved and enhanced within built-environment developments and that natural systems can be preserved and enhanced to the degree that nature and development function in a mutually symbiotic relationship.
In this case, involving the examination and study of a given water resource, and the resultant systems design, water establishes itself as the matrix of both natural system and built environment.
Ultimately, the only test of the premise and its design validity is to build the project and compare it to similar situations where such guidelines were not employed. Past projects which have utilized variations of this design premise do indicate that it is a viable alternative.
Spring Creek Ranch will soon begin to cut roads, dig foundations, and build their resort. Whether this particular design is employed is not the issue, rather it is the attitude, the goals, the philosophy used to approach the project.
Spring Creek Ranch is graced with a beautiful living system, and as the developers choose to change it, they have a responsibility to place the needs of that system at the forefront of design criteria.
A resort which depends upon natural amenities as a saleable commodity must assume the role of protection and benefactor. Mutualistic symbiosis benefits both parties involved, it is the best option for such mutually dependent entities.
Spring Creek defines its valley, names the ranch, and shapes
this project.

1. Leopold, Luna B. and Dunne, Thomas. Water in Environmental
2. Strong, Anne. The Plan and the Program for the Brandywine.
3. Ibid.
4. Jones and Jones. The Yakima River, Regional Greenway.
5. Ibid.
6. Elliot, Steve and Mason, P.K. Landscape Architecture.
7. Suhadolnik, Matthew L. Personal communication.
8. Spring Creek Ranch. Company documents.
9. Hocker, Jean and Clark, Story. Jackson Hole: Protecting Public
Values on Private Lands.
10. Campbell, Thom and Clark, Tim. Botanical and Wildlife Data
for the Spring Creek Ranch, East Gros Ventre Butte, Teton County, Wyoming.
11. McHarg, Ian and Sutton, Jonathon. Landscape Architecture.
12. Kiefling, John. Personal communication.
13. Colorado Department of Highways. 1-70: A Mountain Environment,
Vail Pass, Colorado.
14. Ibid.
15. Westamacott, Richard. Landscape Architecture.
16. Swan, Bill. Forum: Grazing and Riparian/Stream Ecosystems.
17. Busby, Frank E. Forum: Grazing and Riparian/Stream Ecosystems.

Bagenal, T. Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978.
Bond, Carl. The Biology of Fishes. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, Co., 1979.
Briggs, Peter. The Story of Disastrous Floods, Broken Dams and Human Fallibility. New York, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1973.
Busby, Frank E. "Riparian and Stream Ecosystems, Livestock Grazing, and Multiple Use Management", Forum: Grazing and Riparian/Stream Ecosystems. Denver: Trout Unlimited, 1979.
Campbell, Judith. The World of Horses. London: The Hamlyn Publishing Group, Ltd., 1969.
Campbell, Thom and Clark, Tim. Botanical and Wildlife Data for the Spring Creek Ranch, East Gros' Ventre Butte, Teton County, Wy..
Los Angeles: Company documents, Spring Creek Ranch, 1981.
Caucci, A1 and Nastasi, Bob. Instant Mayfly Identification Guide. Henryville, Pa.: Comparahatch Ltd., 1984.
Colorado Department of Highways. 1-70: A Mountain Environment, Vail Pass, Colorado. Publishing # FHWA TS 78 208, 1978.
Eddy, Samuel and Underhill, James C. How to Know the Freshwater Fishes. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1980.
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Kiefling, John W. Studied on the Ecology of the Snake River Cutthroat Trout. Cheyenne, Wyoming: Wyoming Game and Fish Dept., 1978.
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McHarg, Ian and Sutton, Jonathon. "Ecological Plumbing for the Texas Coastal Plain", Landscape Architecture. January, 1975.
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Spring Creek Ranch. Company Documents. Los Angeles, California.
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Jackson, Wyoming.
Strong, Ann. Institute for Environmental Studies, The Plan and the Program for the Brandywine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1968.
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Thomas, Bill. American Rivers, a Natural History. W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1978.

Tourbier, Toby J. and Westmacott, Richard. Water Resources Protection Technology: A Handbook of Measures to Protect Water Resources in Land Development. Washington: the Urban Land Institute. 1981.
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Ward, Roy. Floods: A Geographical Perspective. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
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White, Ray J. and Brynildson, Oscar M. Guidelines for Management of Trout Stream Habitat in Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin #39, 1967.
Wyoming Game and Fish. "Special Fish Habitat Issue", Wyoming Wildlife, November, 1978.

Physical Variables
The following is a list of major factors which govern a river's behavior. Each is discussed in terms of general applications to design and direct application to S.C.R..
1. Geology The nature of channel substrate
2. Precipitation Amount, intensity, and duration of
storm events
3. Annual Cycles Flood duration, size, and peak flow
(cubic feet per second)
4. Sediment Load The size and amount of material
5. Slope Gradient of streambed
6. Lateral Movement The amount of movement back and
forth across a floodplain
7. Channel Cross Sections Width vs. depth ratio
It is important for the planner to recognize that highly unconsolidated bed and bank material indicate a high likelihood of severe erosion. This can seriously effect any building that takes place near a stream having this type of bed/bank material.
Geology and Soil
Spring Creek's bed historically cut through glacial till. Irrigation of hay and ranching practices have covered the old river bed with finer loams. The nature of Spring Creek soils reinforced with plant root structure makes banks less erosive than the glacial till-

Although Spring Creek does not receive large amounts of runoff, current bank composition will remain intact as instream structures increase water velocity.
Preci pi tation
The planner should be aware of the type of precipitation (orographic, convective, or cyclonic) since each implies varying durations and intensities. This, of course, relates to the timing and size of flood waves in a channel which, in turn, may effect placement of development on a floodplain or size and configuration of instream structures.
Spring Creek Application
The primary concern at S.C.R. will be whether or not sediment ponds built during construction will retain a large precipitation event. It is recommended that the 50 year 24 storm be accommodated in the design of these ponds. Cost will be high, however the cost of washing a large amount of sediment back into the recovering spring creek will be higher.
Annual Cycles
In order to design streams, ponds, or any water body, the planner must be aware of how much water can be expected at different times of the year. It is also advantageous to know the length of flood or low water periods.

Spring Creek Applications
Since the creek does not receive large amounts of runoff or have the capacity to flood, determinations were not made. However, low flow situations do exist during late summer. Thus it is important to aquatic plants and animals that the channel be configured to supply appropriate depth and cover to sustain them during low water situations.
Sediment Load
Every river alters itself to carry its own discrete sediment load. If man increases or decreases the amount of sediment the river carries, the river must adjust morphologically.
Reduce Sediment Increase Sediment
1. Degradation, or down cutting 1. Aggregation
2. Channel becomes narrower and deeper 2. Channel becomes wider and shallower
Spring Creek Applications
- Decreasing sediment loads is desirable
- Use small check dams to catch silt
- Use sediment ponds to prevent intrusion during construction
- Separate irrigation from spring water
- Install instream structure