Citation
Northwood IV Elementary School, Irvine, California

Material Information

Title:
Northwood IV Elementary School, Irvine, California
Creator:
Harrier, Donald L
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
67 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), chart, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
School buildings -- Designs and plans -- California -- Irvine ( lcsh )
School buildings ( fast )
California -- Irvine ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 60).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Donald L. Harrier.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13771573 ( OCLC )
ocm13771573
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .H3644 ( lcc )

Full Text
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
A72
1986
H3644
MASTERS THES DONALD L, HARRIS

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AIJRARIA LIBRARY

WMM


Northwood IV Elementary School Irvine, California
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Donald L. Harrier Spring 198^
Date Due







The Thesis of Donald L. Harrier is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver


I would like to thank my parents for their love and support during the past five years during which my goal to become an architect has been shared by them as well. To Jody, who left the sunny shores of Southern California to become my often needed and much relied upon crutch, I give all my love and thanks. To Paul Heath, who saw in me a talent that I Uxuu' t always believe v*as there, j. ^ive my thanks and most heart-felt respect.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Project Description Thesis Statement
Area Backround
Area History The Neighborhood
Considerations
Preliminary Design Considerations
Climate
Site Planning
Human Comfort
Thermal Comfort
Charts and Diagrams
Building Code Requirements
Zoning Requirements
Site
The School Site Site Characteristics Traffic and Pedestrian Flow The Outdoor Requirements
Education
History of Elementary Education Elementary School Curriculum Classroom Design Considerations
Program
Spaces and Square Footage Space Relationship Chart Space Adjacencies
Conclusion
Bibliography


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Irvine Unified School District has made plans to add a new elementary school in the village of Northwood in Irvine, California. This will be Northwood's forth elementary school and is the first to be built in the last four years. The school is to be called Northwood IV and has an anticipated opening date of Fall 1987.
It will be adjacent to a public park like many schools in the Irvine Company's developments. Approximate enrollment is targeted for 606 students ranging from kindergarten to the sixth grade.

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THESIS STATEMENT
The development of a child into an understanding, sensitive, and intelligent person begins at the early stages of his or her education. The elementary school is a child's first experience of the greater world outside the home. At this point, children begin a continuous sequence of learning at different levels of growth- emotionally, socially, physically, and intellectually. The physical form of the school is a major factor in the child's growth. It is often their first ongoing architectural experience of space that is public rather than private. An elementary school is a foundation upon which social relationships, educational theory, and culture are all built. It is essential that the elementary school meets the needs of youth as outlined below in a booklet called Planning for American
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1) All youth need to develop salable skills and those understandings and attitudes that make the worker an intelligent and productive participant in economic life. To this end, most youth need supervised work experience as well as education in the skills and knowledge of their occupations.
2) All youth need to develop and maintain good health and physical fitness and mental health.
3) All youth need to understand the rights and duties of the citizen of a democratic society, and to be diligent and competent in the performance of their obligations as members of the community and citizens of the state and nation, and to have an understanding of the nations and peoples of the world.
4) All youth need to understand the significance of the family for the individual and society and the conditions conducive to successful family life.


5) All youth need, to know how to purchase and use goods and services intelligently, understanding the economic consequences of their acts.
6) All youth need to understand the methods of science, the influence of science on human life, and the main scientific facts concerning the nature of the world and of man.
7) All youth need opportunities to develop their capacities to appreciate beauty, in literature, art, music, and nature.
8) All youth need to be able to use their leisure time well and to budget it wisely, balancing activities that yield satisfactions to the individual with those that are socially useful.
9) All youth need to develop respect for other persons, to grow in their insight into ethical values and principles, to be able to live and work cooperatively with others, and to grow in the moral and spiritual values of life.
10) All youth need to grow in their ability to think rationaly, to express their thoughts clearly, and to read and listen with understanding.
The experience away from the secure environment of home is monumental for many children. The intention of the elementary school is to foster a learning environment that offers comfortable and familiar surroundings which will in turn facilitate motivation to learn. It will allow the child to advance at an optimum rate, with the architecture enhancing the teaching process. By creating flexibility in the spaces, a more secure and less intimidating environment can encourage a student to use all his or her capabilities to learn and explore beyond what is required. These new and intimidating surroundings must be comfortable and familiar. A residential vernacular, as a means to alleviate anxiety, should be initiated in the architecture. Intimate, homelike qualities that can be expressed in terms


of scale, color, and texture in a traditional self-contained classroom setting can aid in the child's transition from private to public architecture and reduce the distraction of being outside the home. The recognizable features of the elementary school are a part of the child's everyday encounter with it; the entry, the corridors, and the classrooms should represent the scale and composition that the child is familiar with and can feel comfortable while learning. The important architectural contribution to the school should be in the planning of it for the child's comfort and security in an atmosphere that chiefly responds to the teacher-pupil relationship. The architecture should also respond to the image that the school building will project to the community. Features that are associated with an elementary school should be recognizable and familiar while in keeping with the residential vernacular; scale, color, and tecture that echo this theme are .important in the imagery of the elementary school building as seen by the community.
An important factor in today's classroom organization is the concept of multidimensionality. This concept is based on several different types of learning activities being evaluated as legitimate school work. For example, in a narrowly defined academic classroom, what is considered or perceived to be "school work" might only be the three Rereading, writing and arithmetic. On the other hand, a multi-dimensional structure allows athletics, art, and drama to become legitimate and appropriate measures of academic ability. In this case, multiple evaluation standards are used by teachers that take into account effort and improvement, as well as level of performance. This creates a learning environment that is likely to provide a larger number of alternative judgements and a greater freedom to avoid the most negative self-concepts of one's ability.
Incorporating this concept of multidimensional classroom structure into the architecture of the elementary school is


accomplished through the understanding that self-contained classroom space must accommodate formal seating, work in groups, use of visual aids, art projects, and special activities. The notion that teaching takes place as a one way line of communication, from teacher to student, is no longer valid in todays methods of teaching. The lines of communication are opened up to include student to student as well as teacher to student. The classroom becomes a dynamic learning space as teacher and students interact on a much broader range of subjects that the architecture should react to. The learning process then becomes the architectural form giver and organizer, arranged and equipped to meet the needs of the student so they may work among each other and communicate freely.
Attaining a classroom structure such as this with assistance from the architecture will ultimately aid in the child's acceptance of school. The environment of an elementary school must revolve closely around mulitple performance variables. Early school education provides rules for behavior, as well as the definition of what school is about and how to act during important tasks. Teachers and peers have great influence on a students's self assessment, their perception of others and their perception of school. If students have a larger number of value performance dimensions, the chances of a student being narrowly defined in his or her academic ability are significantly reduced. There is a higher probability for a student to like school if the architecture is consistent with this type of instructional philosophy and meets the criteria for implementing such an educational program. Spaces must be flexible to become whatever use the teaching method asks it to be; yet, at the same time, the space must allow the child to sense comfort in his or her surroundings. In meeting these needs, the learning process in elementary school becomes a responsible force in the early growth and education of children.


AREA HISTORY
The history of the City of Irvine has its roots back to the 18th century when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portola first scouted the California shores. The area is rich in its history with links in the chain of title back to the king of Spain. The land that became the Irvine Ranch was nine miles wide, 22 miles long, from the mountains near Riverside County to the Pacific Ocean, from Newport Beach to Laguna Beach.
In 1866, a Scots-Irishman named James Irvine and three other men formed a partnership and bought the lands known as the Rancho San Joaquin and the Rancho
T.orna and prices for land went up in the region and Irvine had bought his partners out. For the next one hundred years, ownership of this land remained under the James Irvine Foundation which was run by family members who were the majority stockholders of the Irvine Company.
The uniqueness of this area stems from the far-sighted and careful development of small sections of the ranch. In 1960, the Irvine Company donated 1000 acres of land to the University of California and the State purchased another 500 acres to be included in the development of the University of California at Irvine. A master plan was drawn up to guide the development of the University and the communities adjacent to the site.
The Irvine Company's success in the early development of the ranch led to plans to guide development of the remainder and forsaw creation of an ambitious attempt to take undeveloped land and consciously and carefully turn it into a completely master-planned city. In 1971, the residents voted overwhelmingly for cityhood, and the Irvine Company continued to build residential neighborhoods, commercial, and industrial areas that have become popular to live and work in.


The future of Irvine calls for continued development in all facets of community living. A 2,200 acre master-planned center for technology, research, and business will become and urban core for the city, attracting more corporate businesses to the area as well as a greater need for housing and schools. The philosophy of this plan is to create a better place for people to live, work, learn and play through a careful balance of land uses, thoughtful concern for balanced growth, energy conservation, a good road system, and a comprehensive response to the population's needs.
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THE NEIGHBORHOOD
The primary goals of the Irvine Company in developing the communities of the general plan is to provide housing, schools, parks and recreation areas, industrial parks shopping facilities and a network of biking and walking paths that make one's lifestyle more convenient. These goals have been realized in several community developments in the City of Irvine and have been successful in attracting a broad base of people who feel these amenities are essential to their way of life. The community of Northwood is such a development offering a range of housing in a new and f^esh setting.
The neighborhood of the Northwood IV Elementary School consists of three unfinished residential parcels of land. Scheduled for completion by 1383, the neighborhood will include single family homes, high-density townhomes and apartments. The attraction to Irvine and a community such as Northwood is the planned livability. Convenience and a family orientation towards development in the planned villages bring families looking for healthy and pleasant environments. A blend of families in a residential setting offering the many opportunities as Northwood, will promote the community's identity.


The architecture of the community of Northwood is that of a Spanish Mediterranean style. The Irvine area has incorporated this style in much of its residential and commercial architecture. The homes around the school\park site are one and two storey houses of stucco and concrete tile roofs. The color varies from house to house and some are accentuated with board siding. Similarity is maintained through materials, structure, and detailing. California's connection to the architecture of Spain and the Mediterranean is evident in the rich history of its Hispanic revivals. Northwood is embracing this architectural theme and is attempting to create a romantic illusion to the early history of the Irvine ranch that was first scouted by the 18th century Spanish explorer Gaspar do Tortola.


PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Climate, site planning, and human comfort are all essential considerations for choosing the design strategy that best suits the site and creates a comfortable environment within the buildings envelop.
The buildings heating and cooling loads will be affected by these influences and can determine the success or failure of the HVAC system.
Climate
The coastal plain of California is probably the most impressive region of the state in which to live. The days are typically warm and sunny and the nights are cool, while offering a comfortable year round environment to live and work. The traditionally wet season even offers many sunny days and allows for comfortable outdoor activity.
Irvine is forty miles south of Los Angeles and is located approximately 10 miles from the coast and it is in this area of the state that climatic conditions are so impressive. The sameness of temperature as seen through the diurnal range is 17 F and the average annual range of monthly mean temperature is 16 F. Although maximum temperatures can reach into the 100's, the summer maxima average is 73 F and the winter maxima average is 64 F.
The one negative aspect of this area is the smog. Smog is a combination of fog, smoke, dust, fumes, gases, nitrogen oxides, and many other particles that are small enough to be carried in the air for hours, even days. The worst days are during temperature inversions when the temperature increases with elevation and a deep, warm layer of air covers the cooler mass of air near the ground, thus trapping the air mass and causing the polluted skies. Fortunately, this condition only occures a few times a year in this region.


Overall, the climate in this region represents the State's mildest conditions where yearly average rainfall amounts are less than 12 inches. This aspect of Irvine and the Southern California region reflects the desire of many people to live in this area. The following charts and graphs compile a climate profile for the site that will assist in making appropriate design strategies.
Site Planning
Effective site planning will ultimately lead to lower levels of energy consumption. Site planning strategies can aid in curbing the affects of solar radiation and wind on a buildings energy consumption.
Deciduous trees planted on the southern side of a building reduces solar radiation during the summer months, and in the winter the trees shed their leaves and allow solar radiation to heat the building.
The vegetation can also be useful as a solar screen on the east and west sides of the building where overhangs do not adaquately block the low-angle morning and afternoon sun. Trees with a high canopy make the best solution, reducing solar exposure on the roof and walls by blocking the direct sunlight, yet they also allow reflected daylight to enter a


building through windows underneath the canopy.
The following charts show how to find the position of the sun at different times during the season, as well as to implement shading strategies that are effective. The chart showing the fraction of solar radiation absorbed by various materials will also lend in finding paving material that will reduce glare and hot surfaces temeratures.
Wind increases the rate of transfer to and from buildings and can be detrimental if the correct wind control methods aren't implemented in design strategies. In an area such as Irvine that has a mild climate, wind passing through operable windows serve as a natural ventilator. During the hot temperatures, wind funnels can cool buildings by directing wind against them.
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Human Comfort
Physiological comfort in a school building is affected by the following factors:
Air temperature
Surrounding surface temperatures
Humidity levels
Activity levels
Air movement
Clothing
Non-thermal factors which affect comfort are:
Light quality Air quality
These factors listed work in conjunction with each ^ther to create a perception of comfort or discomfort by the occupant of the building. A balance within the
factors must be achieved for the body to be in thermal equilibrium with the
surrounding environment and not have to generate or reject heat by means of sweating or shivering.
Thermal Comfort
Radiative heat exchange is a function of a body being able to emit and absorb heat. The rate at which a body radiates heat depends upon its surface temperature and ablility to emit radiation. The rate at which this heat is accepted by an adjacent body depends on its orientation to the heat source and how much it can absorb. Surfaces which have high emissivity and are warmer than the surrounding surfaces experience a net heat loss because they emit more heat than they can absorb. Surfaces which are cooler draw heat, experiencing a net heat gain.
Often this exchange takes place next to windows that are of single pane in a space that is fairly warm. A person standing near a window that is exposed to cold temperatures radiates more heat to the window then radiates back and thus feels cooler because of the lack of balance. Therefore, it is important that


windows be oriented to the south or in the case of north facing windows be of double pane.
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FRACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION ABSORBED
Material Ahsorbtivity
Sand, white powder Granite, reddish Concrete Brick, common red Grass Desert ground surfaces Asphalt pavement .45 .55 .60 .68 .67 .75 .93
PERCENTAGE REFLECTED
Nature of Surface Reflectance %
Dark forest Bare ground, wet Rock Asphalt Bare ground, dry Green vegetation Brick Snow 5 8-9 12-15 15 10-25 25-32 23-48 66-88


CLIMATE PROFILE CHART
Avg. Avg. Dry-Bulb Daily Temp Temp. Range ( F) ( F) Heating Degree-Days ( F-Day) Cooling Relative Degree- Humidity Days ( F-Day) 10am 4pm Wind Spd (mph) Rain (in. )
Jan. 50.6 63-45 331 5 53 58 6.7w 2.52
Mar. 54.7 64-48 267 0 61 65 8. Ow 1.71
July 69.1 75-62 9 127 68 68 7.6wsw .03
Sept. 69.5 76-62 23 134 68 69 7.4w .02
Yearly
Avg/Total 60.9 69-54 1819 615 62 65 7.4w 11.59
Note: The 65'F base temperature commonly used to ] perform degree day
accumulations for residents is not suitable for classrooms because of
differing occupancy levels. In the stand alone classroom, where
students and lights generate far more internal heat than residences,
the base temperature is much lower, typically 50'F.
The number of degree days accumulated per year also varies widely between residences and schools. Classrooms typically operate on a 9-month, 5 days a week, 6-8 hours a day schedule, with several additional weeks of vacation. The base for calculations is 50' F, 8
hrs/day (8-4) 258 days/year.


SOLAR ANGLES
LOCATION = LOS ANGELESSOLAR TIME
ORIENTATION = 160
LATITUDE = 33. 56 LONGITUDE = .1 IS. 24
MONTH = 3 DAY =21
HR AL AZ VSA HSA
6 = SUNRISE
/ 12. 2 98. S 24.2 61.;
a 24.4 108. 1 36.3 -5 .1. a
9 35. S 119. T 43. 6 -40.
10 45. 9 134. 1 40 O T'-J a / 4- i ..
11 53 a 2 154. 4 53.4 "
12 J L.. .180 . J / /
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15 35. 8 ; ' 77. 4 On "J LJ J a /
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18 = SUNSET
LOCATION = LOS ANGELESSOt AR TIME ORIENTATION = 160
LATITUDE = 33. 56 LONGITUDE = 118.24
MONTH = 6 DAY = 21
HR AL AZ VSA HSA
4. 8 = SUNRISE
5 1.3 62.4 0 o
6) 12.7 70. 1 89.4 -39. 9
7 24.7 7 *7.3 74.6 -82. 7
8 77 / 34. 4 71.8 -75.6
9 49.5 92. 4 / 2 -67.6
10 61.9 103.2 7 r ~7 / -2* a / -56.8
11 73. 4 123. 7 76. 5 36 a 3
12 79.9 180 30. 5 20
13 73. 4 2.0'UJ a 86 / UJ a
14 61.9 256.8 0 0
15 49.5 267'. 6 0 0
16 T7 2* / r> "7 = 2. .4- / Ji '-J 0 o
17 24. 7 OOO 7 jl_ U..1 u / 0 o
18 12.7 289. 9 0 o
19 1.3 297. 6 0 0
19.2 = SUNSET


SOLAR ANGLES
LOCATION = L OS AN6ELESS OLAR TIME
ORIENTATION = 160
LAT ITUDE = 3 3.56 LONGITUDE = 11! 3.24
MON TH = 9 DAY = 21
HR AL AZ VSA HSA
6 SUNRISE
7 12. 3 98.6 24.6 --61.4
3 24.5 107.9 36.6 -52. 1
9 36 1 19. 1 43. 3 -40. 9
10 46 133.9 49. 1 -26. 1
11 53. 4 154.3 53. 6 -5. 7
12 56.2 130 57. 9 20
i vJ-_ a A 205. 7 62.6 43. 7
14 46 HOL 1 .u_ _1 a X 68. 6 66.1
15 36 240. 9 77. 7 80. 9
16 24.5 '-y cr XUX a A o o
17 12. 3 261.4 0 0
13 1 269. 3 .3 o
IS = SUNSET
T LOCATION = ORIENTATION LATITUDE = MONTH = 12 HR AL LOS ANGE = 160 33. 56 AZ LESSOLAR T LONGITUDE DAY = 21 VSA I ME = 113.24 HSA
7. 1 = SUNRI SE
8 9. 3 126. 4 11.2 -33. 6
9 13. 7 136. 8 20. 2 "T '7
10 26. 2 149. 2 26.6 -10. S
1.1 31.2 163. O f 31.3 T Q
12 7 7 180 34.6 20
13 31.2 196. 1 36. 9 36. 1
14 26. 2 210. 8 37.9 50.8
15 13.7 '~y ~f 36.9 u 2
16 9. 3 6 30.3 7 3. 6
16.9 = SUNSET


SHADING ANGLES
jb-ALTiTLip& PATH
^-azimuth
V&MICAL ^MAPir^


BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS
UBC
Occupancy type(s)
E-l
Basic allowable area 20,200 s.f.,
1) a building may be tripled in one story buildings and doubled in buildings more than one story if provided with a approved automatic sprinkler system. 2) if separation on more than two sides, floor areas may be increased 5%, 2 1/2%, 1 1/4%/ft by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet- increase not to exceed 100 percent.
Height limitations 2,
increase of one story if building is
sprinklered.
Occupancy separations
fire resistive
one-hour
Construction type
III-1HR
Exit requirements:
1) Occupant load (allowable)
Classrooms 20
Library 50
Assembly 15
2) Number of exits required: when number of occupants exceeds
50,
3) Minimum distance between exits 150'
or 200' if sprinklers.
4) Stair shafts-required fire rating 2HR
5) Exits width required 44"
6) Minimum corridor width 44"
7) Corridor-required fire rating 1HR
Additional requirements
1) Shafts-required fire rating 1HR
2) Doors-fire ratings Stair: 1HR
Corridor: 20Min
3) Special requirements for light, ventilation and sanitation: See sec. 605
Water closets provided Boys 1:100
Girls 1:35
Urnials 1:30
4) Special hazards: Where liquids,
combustible dust or similar hazardous materials are used, stored, developed or handled shall be separated from other


THE SCHOOL SITE
The nature of the neighborhood surrounding Northwood IV Elementary School is characterized by middle income families whose median age is 30-34 years old. The area is free from any business distractions of commercial centers or shops and generally free from noise and traffic. The adjacent park on the site of the school will act as a buffer between the highly traveled Bryan Avenue. The neighborhood is master planned and the conservation of a continued attractive community setting is assured.
The master planned community of Northwood also assures that the elementary school
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contribute to the community in being readily available to adult use as well. The ideal location of the school adjacent to the park allows for the provision that the school building and the play areas can be expanded. The site is flat and accessible for the general public, being free from approach or exits hazards and dangerous gradients.
The travel distances for the children attending the school should be no farther than one-half mile. The time on a bus should be no longer than 45 minutes and the actual bus rides will be much shorter due to the school district's planning of elementary schools. Approaches to the school are convenient for students on bikes and walking. The area has a network of bike paths leading into the park and school site from all around the neighborhood. The benefits of master planned communities are that feasibility studies have been made for the area in question, and in the case of the school, traffic and routes affecting the school have been planned for the least congestion possible.
The advantages of a school location such as Northwood IV are helping make the transition from home to school an easier one. The close proximity within the neighborhood and the network of bike


paths, help ensure a safer travel for the child as well as reinforce that home is not far away. Children will also benefit from the adjacent park and a greater area to play. Overall, student and parent will benefit from the selection of this site for the school and the master planned conveniences that add comfort and security to the neighborhood.
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SITE CHARACTERISTICS
Vegetation
Existing vegetation on the site is solely a row of trees that divide the site beginning at Westwood Avenue and continuing to the property line on the northwest side of the site. The row of trees correlate to a similar situation that exists across Westwood and align a bike path that traverses through the residential neighborhood. The row of 24 trees are mature and stand approxiamately 40 feet tall. The assumption should be made that these trees represent the northern property line for the school site.
The remainder cf landscaping is along Westwood Avenue adjacent to the sidewalk. These trees are in a grass field and are young and require supports in order co stand. Their heights range from 10 to 15 feet tall.
Views
The best views are towards the northeast at the Anahiem Hills and Saddleback Mountain and to the north at the Angeles Crest Mountains and Mount Baldy. During the winter months the mountains can be snow capped and provide a nice vista.
Solar
The morning sun is very intense and shines directly across the site from Westwood Avenue. The low sun angle will call for shading along the east facade of the school building.
The position of the sun swings around to the intersection of Westwood and Adams Avenue during its highest point in the sky. The sun's radiation will be extreme during this time of the day and outdoor shade should be provided.
The western sun will set at the southwest corner of the site where Adams Avenue ends. Shading the late afternoon sun


will be essential in keeping down cooling costs.
Surroundings
The school\park site is surrounded on all four sides with detached single family homes. Only along the northwest property line are the houses not separated by a street; but instead, an 8 foot high wood fence defines the property line.
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TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN FLOW
The automobile traffic is heaviest along Bryan Avenue which is an artery that connects Culver Drive and Jeffery Road to oneanother and they serve as on and off ramps for the Santa Ana Freeway (5). The intersection at Bryan and Westwood Avenue is controlled by a four way stop and a supervised crosswalk will no doubt be added during school operation. Bike lanes to the far right of the traffic travel in both directions on the four laned avenue.


The automobile traffic along Westwood Avenue is much lighter and serves the major subdivisions of Northwood. There are also bike lanes traveling in each direction of traffic. Westwood is divided by a landscaped island with a break at the intersection of Adams Avenue. The entrance into the school parking lot will be from this intersection.
Adams Avenue is the least used of the three streets. Adams enters a residential subdivision and serves other smaller streets. School parking will be entered and exited from Adams and a three way stop will be recommended for the intersection once the school is operational.
Pedestrian use is relatively high with much cf the traffic attributed tc joggers, walkers, and bikers. Ages range from the young to the old and the users take full advantage of the Southern California climate by being cut at all times of the day.


THE OUTDOOR REQUIREMENTS
The minimum of one acre for each 100 students for outdoor play area is required; the present site, including the park, allows for this requirement. The play area should he broken into hard court surfaces and turf play fields, as well as, three defined recreation areas kindergarten and special education, lower grade groupings, and upper grade groupings.
The kindergarten/special education play area is a shared yard with a hard court surface and turf/sand area. This area should be isolated from the rest of the school play areas and fenced to define and protect the area.
The main school yard should be divided into to areas of recreation, one for and adjacent to the lower grade grouping, and the other for and adjacent to the upper grade grouping. The play areas should compose the following areas:
-3 Basketball courts 40'x60' -4 Tetherball courts 10'circle -2 Handball courts 18'x26' -6 Four-square courts 10'xlO' -6 Hopscotch areas 12' long
-3 Softball fields 210'x210' -2 Soccer fields 190'x330'
Included in the outdoor area is an outdoor assembly area that will be across from the indoor assembly's stage. The stage will have the ability to orient to the outdoor assemblty for school meetings and productions. Approximate size is 6400 square feet.


HISTORY OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
Prior to 1900, the basic structure for elementary education was a unit of grades one through eight, followed by a senior high school of four years. At the time, educators believed that the elementary program was to long and the secondary program was to short. A committee of elementary education, The Committee of Ten, recommended that senior high school courses be introduced in grades seven and eight while maintaining the continuation years for the elementary It wasn't until 1910 that the Berkeley, California, and Ohio, developed program of grades one through six, :gh nine, and ten through twelve. These were considered to be the first towns to introduce junior high school programs.
of eight structure. towns of Columbus, structures
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educational structure was adopted in many large city school districts. The separation of the developing adolescent from the younger elementary child was seen as an advantage, providing the early childhood age groups with a more suitable environment and social atmosphere in which to learn. A reduced grade span in the elementary structure brings into focus more clearly the need to provide an individualized approach towards instruction. The learning process is not a continuous sequence, nor is it equal for all children. The need for an adjustment in structuring of the elementary system was necessary as well as inevitable.


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM
The curriculum of the Northwood IV Elementary School is based on a team teaching concept. Teachers with a strong backround in certain subjects such as art, science, physical education, drama or history will be asked to teach that subject apart from their standard "home room" class. The team teaching concept involves cooperation and planning on the parts of each teacher and their knowledge in the subjects they teach will enrich the multi-dimensionallity of the elementary school structure.
The organization of such a program is dependent upon the principal's ablility to structure it and to allow the teaching staff to utilize their specialties. The curriculum is organized with the students being assigned to "home room" teachers by whom they are taught the basics--the three R's, reading, writing, and arithmetic. Students are grouped according to grade level and meet every day of the week in the morning until lunch. The team teaching concept becomes apart of the afternoon sessions during three of the five days of the week for two class periods each of the three days. During these afternoon sessions the "home room" teacher remains in his or her room and students rotate to their assigned classes. The teacher is responsible for a subject for two class periods and then they meet with their original "home room" students before the end of the day.
This structure allows the student the opportunity to receive specialized instruction that might not be afforded in a uni-dimensional program. Rotation to different classrooms and teachers expose the student to different teachers and teaching techniques while also maintaining the security of the "home room."
The school's hours are from 8:30 am to 3:00 pm with a 20 minute recess in the morning and in the afternoon. Lunchis an hour long and is in two shifts, with


the younger children taking lunch first and the older children second. Bus drop off is begun a half hour before school and bus pick up is immediately after the last bell.
The operation and structure of the elementary school revolves around the principal and the teaching staff. The team teaching concept will allow the teachers the opportunity to utilize their special talents and to teach different groups of students. The principal has the responsibility of organizing the curriculum and can lend his experience to the staff in an effort to enhance the overall instruction.


CLASSROOM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
General Functional Dimensions
1) Describes properties of a comfortable, orderly work environment.
uncrowded
quiet and free of unnecessary distraction physically attractive neatly and clearly organized Deals with the environment as it impinges on the individual-Comfort-it describes environmental qualities that would help ensure the personal well being of users.
2) Describes the users ability to make choices and actively modify the environment to fit their need3.
to choose where they sit
to help decide how the room
will be arranged
to add things to the room
to fix up their own places the
way they want them
Deals with Autonomy-an environment that encourages the exercise of the individual's will.
3) Describes the availability of spatial options.
places to work
private places
comfortable places
variety of interesting
activities
By providing a variety of spaces and things to do, the user's sense of what is possible is expanded, opening up Opportunities for growth.
4) Describes personal identification with a setting or a "sense of place."
encourage users to "possess" their space
space that affirms the self Deals with a more personalized institutional setting-Sense of personal meaning.


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
No. of Sq.Ft.Per No. of Total Total
Department Space Students Station Stations Students Sq.Ft. Total
Administration
Principal Off. 150 1 150
Conf. Room 100 1 100
Receptionist 75 1 75
Clerk 75 1 75
Public Area 200 1 200
Nurse w/Toilet 200 1 200
Work Room 250 1 250
Lounge 300 1 300
Restrooms 100 2 200 1150
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Classrooms 55 1150 2 110 2300
Restrooms 100 2 200
Storage 100 1 100
Paint Area 144 1 144 O A A £* / -t *
1st,2nd,3rd Grades
Classrooms 29 984 8 232 7872
Restrooms 100 4 400
Storage 100 3 300 8572
4th,5th,6th Grades
Classrooms 33 984 8 264 7872
Restrooms 100 4 400
Storage 100 3 300 8572
Special Education
Physical Ther. 12 600 2 24 1200
Sensory Ther. 100 1 100
Testing 100 1 100
Speech 100 1 100
Office 100 2 200
Conf. 100 1 100
Storage 200 1 200
Hydro 75 1 75
Restrooms 100 2 200 2275


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
No. of Sq.Ft.Per No. of Total Total
Department Space Students Station Stations Students Sq.Ft. Total
Media Center
Stack Area 940 1 940
Reading 940 1 940
Catalog 100 1 100
Study Carrels 40 5 200
Computer Alcove 300 1 300
Computer Storage 120 1 120
Resource Spec. 250 1 250
Checkout 150 1 150 3000
Multi-Purpose
Assembly 100 1600 1 100 1600
Music 300 1 300
Storage 200 1 200 2100
Other Areas
Custodian 200 1 200
Food Service 400 1 400
Mechanical 400 1 400
Circulation (20% net to gross) 6163 7163
TOTAL 36,973


SPACE RELATIONSHIP CHART
c A A 0 A K M S
1 d s u s i e P
a m s t s n d e
s i e - e d i c
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o s 1 o 1 g C 1
o t y r y a e
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a t t d
t e e u
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Should have a public entrance
Should have outside exits
Should be near a parking lot
Should be connected to other
elements by indoor or outdoor corridors
Should have a service entrance
Should have preference to best exposure
Should be in a quiet zone
Should be in a moderately quite
zone
Should be in a noisy zone
Should have direct access to play areas
Should be located where it can be easily recognizable
Should be an isolated unit


SPACE ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Receptionist and Clerk/Typist
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
75 Sq. Ft. eachLocated at the entry to the school and adjacent to the Principal's office.
Public waiting area should be near and reception should be an information aid for students, teachers, and parents.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Open with low partitions and work spaces to ensure ease of access.


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Public Waiting Area
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
200 Sq. Ft.--Located at the school's entry and near administration area. Located so that parents and students may wait for each other.
Focal point for reception and transition in and out of the school.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Open and recognizable by means of seating and low partitions to define the space.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Principal's Office
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
150 Sq. Ft.--Located with the teacher's lounge and workroom where accessibility is convenient to ensure the development of curriculum and the improvement of teaching techniques.
Public accessiblity is vital and therefore should dictate that the principal's office locate close to the school's entry and parking. Conference room, reception and clerk, and public area should all be adjacent for efficiency.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
The office should be open and inviting in order to welcome students, teachers, and parents. Glass partitions and access from the main circulation spine of the school will facilitate a comfortable interaction with those who use the school.


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Conference Room
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
100 Sq. Ft.Adjacent to the Principal's office as well as the teachers workroom and lounge; will allow for interaction between teachers, students, parents, and the Principal.
Ease of access from the public waiting area and entry can be accommodated by its location off the ms.in spine.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Privacy, as well as a non-indimidating atmosphere is essential. The space should be self-contained and screened from on-lookers.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Teacher's Lounge
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
300 Sq. Ft.--Located next to the workroom and Principal's office in order to ensure ease of accessiblity.
A place for lunch and meetings with parents and teachers, the space should have access from the main spine.
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SPATIAL QUALITIES
Open, ventilated, and natural light should all be aspects of the space.
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Teacher's Workroom
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
250 Sq. Ft.Interaction with the Principal is important in maintaining a successful curriculum and therefore the room should be located adjacent to the Principal's office.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Work spaces or desks should be provided against the walls and the room should have an open quality that is perceived as spacious and roomy. Windows and skylights will help obtain that quality.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Nurse w/toilet
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
200 Sq. Ft.Located within the
admininstration grouping and adjacent to the reception and public waiting area.
Ease of access to the school's entry and to parking.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Open and bright with good sun exposure to ensure a comfortable and friendly rest.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Restrooms (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
100 Sq. Ft. each--Located adjacent to the teacher's lounge.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Natural light by means of skylight or access to exterior of building.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Classrooms Kindergarten (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
1150 Sq. Ft. eachLocated separate from the other classroom groupings with access directly to play area and parking.
Restrooms, storage, and paint area should all be within the kindergarten grouping.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Scale and textures that are of a residential vernacular are essential in these spaces.
Low ceilings, doors heights, and window sills are important scale relationships to ensure that the space is comfortable and usable for the small child.
Brightness, openness, and comfort should be reflected in the textures and compostion of the spaces.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Classrooms Grades 1-6 (16)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
9S4 Sq. Ft. each--Located around the Media Center in groupings of grades 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, 5th, 6th.
Classroom groupings to share "common areas" that will include storage and restroom facilities.
Adjacent classrooms will he separated hy a moveable partition for large group learning.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Lower grade grouping classrooms should reflect the residential vernacular that will aid in the child's transition from home to school.
Higher grade grouping classrooms can begin to orientate the scale and composition to the older and maturing child. Key heights and characteristics should adjust accordingly.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Common Areas
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Part of circulation area--Located between each grade grouping of classrooms.
To act as an organizing and collecting element before entering or leaving the classroom.
Storage ana restrooms to be accessible from this space.
Should be an exit to the exterior where possible.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Natural light and open by means of a skylight or clerestory.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINEr CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Restrooms (12)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
100 Sq. Ft. each--Located within "common areas" of the grade groupings of classrooms.
Four of the facilities are to have access from the exterior play areas as well as from the interior.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Natural light hy means of a skylight.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Storage (8)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
100 Sq. Ft. eachLocated within "common areas" and in between the restrooms.
Facility to store supplies for art, science, p.e., and miscellaneous
functions.
SPATIAL QUALITIES Shelves along the walls.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Classrooms
Special Education (2)
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
600 Sq. Ft. each--Located near the school entry, the classrooms should be grouped separately from the other classrooms.
Direct access to parking and a separate play area is essential.
Centered around two physical therapy classrooms are support spaces of testing, speech, sensory therapy, offices, conference room and hydro bath.
Special Education will share Media Center facilities as well as the Multi-Purpose room. Mainstreaming these
children with the rest of the school will be the general aim of the program.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Spaces should be sensitive to the fears of these children in being away from home. Scale and textures should reflect the home-like qualities most familiar to these children.
Open and bright learning spaces should be expressed through comfortable work areas that allow the child to interact with the environment.


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Media Center PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
3000 Sq. Ft.--Central resource to the school and therefore centrally located.
Entry should be from main spine of the school and ease of access should be accommodated by a flow of circulation from all the classroom groupings.
Individual study and group learning should be planned for by providing study carrels and clusters of table seating for 6 to 8 students.
Open stacks with reading tables in between.
Computer facilities with separate storage.
Resource specialist's office should be located near the entry and checkout counter inorder to manage and aid the students.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
The center should be a place of display and browsing to encourage the student to read and learn. Shelves and partitions should be low to allow for an open and accessible layout.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Multi-Purpose Room
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
1600 Sq. Ft.--Second in importance to the Media Center and should also be centrally-located.
Entry off main spine and near to the school's entry.
Size is reflected in the learning process- amateur presentations at the young age calls for intimacy.
Stage has dual purpose- to house productions from the interior as well as the exterior. Storage should be adjacent to the stage.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Seating plan should reflect the intimate quality and therefore a semi-circular plan is desirable.
Space should be enclosed and able to accommodate all types of productions.
ADJACENCIES
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NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Food Service
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
400 Sq. Ft.Located adjacent to the Multi-Purpose room and have service to the outdoor assembly.
Facility to house large cooler for drinks and parishables and an oven for warming up snacks.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Space primarily to act as a prep area for snacks to served during special school functions.
ADJACENCIES


NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
SPACE
Custodian
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
200 Sq. Ft.Located adjacent to food service and with access to the circulation flow of the school.
Room to house cleaning goods and toiletry-items as well as containing an industrial floor sink.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
Natural light by means of a skylight.
ADJACENCIES
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CONCLUSION
The impact that architecture and the learning process has on the young child can be one of the most influential experiences in the early growth stages of their life. If the elementary school as the child's first on-going experience of public architecture does not respond to the needs and fears of the child, then the opportunities for the learning process to assist the child to grow socially, mentally and physically might not be fully realized.
The aim of my elementary school design was to demonstrate how architecture, in terms of a residential vernacular, and the learning process as seen by a multidimensional curriculum could enhance the child's exploration of his or herself uU^oiub ui the home. The site cOiid^.L^.oiiS influenced the design process and established an organization that allowed architecture, the learning process and the Southern California climate all to play an important role.
The central outdoor assembly area became the major organizing element along with the linear aspect of the eucalyptus trees. The existing neighborhood fabric shows these trees to define circulation corridors and it was by this existing condition that the student's entrance and major axis was established. The outdoor assembly was designated as being the one true social, all school gathering spot and about this courtyard, classrooms, media center and indoor assembly are organized.
The uniqueness of the trees allowed for several different social and learning activities to be planned. Small to medium size groups can take advantage of the outdoor settings underneath the trees while less active participation is achieved by using garage doors in the media center and assembly to open up and allow visual access out to the trees in a passive manner. The learning and social processes are allowed to open out


and invite both active and passive learning to take place. Passers-by are encouraged to listen, watch or participate in whatever activity is being taught.
The classrooms are designed as square spaces which are non-directional and allows for a more flexible learning space. Depending on the particular teaching method, many different opportunities for classroom organization can easily be achieved. The space inside each of the two classroom clusters is a program addition, the spin-off from the original program requirement of a "common space." These areas have been termed learning labs and are spaces that encourage larger group activity or small, more individual types of activities. Children are multi-sensory and learn and explore using all of their senses. The purpose of these spaces is to allow many different types of learning to occur. A more hands on approach is encouraged where activities can support the dirferent subjects being taught. Art, science, dance, math, history, and all the other subjects can be further explored in these labs.
The objectives and goals stated in the Thesis Statement have been realized through the design of this elementary school. The architecture is senstive to the child by means of the scale, proportions, and the massing of the buildings. The architecture also encourages active and passive experiences with the different teaching methods and takes full advantage of the site conditions and the mild climate of Irvine. The overall goals for the design of the school was to create a learning environment where children would want to participate. The child was always my client and it is for the child and their growth into an understanding, sensitive, and intelligent person that this school was designed.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Caudill, William. Toward Better School Design. New York, N.Y.. Dodge Corp., 1954
Constantine, Eleni M.. "Four Schools with Thought." Architectural Record. August 1980 PP 102-107.
David, Thomas G.. "Functional Dimensions of
Classroom Environments." Mind_____________Child
Architecture. John C. Baird and Anthony D. Lutkus, editors. Hanover, United Press of New England, 1982.
Deringer, Joseph and Misuriello, Harry. "Energy: A Class by Itself." Progressive Architecture. March 1983 pp 150-153.
Doubilet, Susan. "Childs Play." Progressive Architecture December 1983 pp 58-63.
Englehardt, Nickolaus. Complete Guide for Planning New Schools. West Nyack, N.Y.. Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1970
Fabersunne, Mikos; Gates, David; Mogavero, David and Wilcox, Joe. Cookbook for Energy Efficient Classroom Design. Sacramento, Calif.. State of California, Sept. 1984
Murphy, Jim. "Taking Sun." Progressive Architecture. Feb. 1983 pp 120-124
Rosenholtz, Susan and Simpson, Carl.
"Classroom Organization and Student
Stratification." The Elementary School
Journal. Sept. 1984 pp21-35.
Smith, Herbert. "Schools: Is a New Type of Facility Emerging?" Architectural Record. Aug. 1978 pll3
Woodbridge, Sally. "School Safety Down to Earth." Progressive Architecture. Feb. 1979 pp 73-79
Solair Computer Program, prepared by Donald Wollard.


INTERVIEWS
Thank you to: Judy Turner, Early Childhood Education, Julie Turner, 4th/5th Grade Teacher, Jody Turner Harrier, Kindergarten Teacher and Carrie Clark, Early Childhood Education.


SITE
MASTERS THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING
DONALD L. HARRIER MAY 7, 1986
NORTHWOOD IV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL I
IRVINE, CALIFORNIA I


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