- Permanent Link:
- Urban entries a program for evaluation and enhancement
- Hawkey, Thomas G
- Publication Date:
- Physical Description:
- v, 100 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Landscape architecture ( lcsh )
City planning ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Colorado -- Castle Rock ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado -- Castle Rock ( lcsh )
City planning ( fast )
Landscape architecture ( fast )
Colorado -- Castle Rock ( fast )
- bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
- Includes bibliographical references.
- General Note:
- Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
- Statement of Responsibility:
- by Thomas G. Hawkey.
- Source Institution:
- University of Colorado Denver
- Holding Location:
- Auraria Library
- Rights Management:
- All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
- Resource Identifier:
- 20844793 ( OCLC )
- LD1190.A77 1987 .H38 ( lcc )
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AN ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
SCHOOL OF ARCH. AND PLANNNG
MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
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AN ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
SCHOOL OF ARCH AND PLANNING
MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
THOMAS G HAWKEY
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AN ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
THES6 PROJECT MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
SCHOOL OF ARCH AND PLANNNG UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
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AN ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
THESE PROJECT MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
SCHOOL OF ARCH. AND PLANNNG UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
THOMAS O HAWKEY MAY 1987
A Program for Evaluation and Enhancement
THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
MAY 6, 1987
Laurie Johnson, Acting Director School of Architecture and Planning
Jerry Shapins, Professor
School of Architecture and Planning
Cathe Mitchell, Associate
Jane Silverstein Ries Landscape Architects
Leslie Ullman, Professor
School of Architecture and Planning
Carlie Wood, Owner
CW&H Graphics and Environmental Design
A PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION AND ENHANCEMENT
THOMAS G. HAWKEY
thesis is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture
The University of Colorado at Denver College of Architecture and Planning Graduate Division of Landscape Architecture
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ..................................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................ v
PART ONE: ENTRY TO CITIES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Hypothesis ............................................. 1
Problem Identification ................................. 2
Purpose of Thesis ...................................... 4
Methodology ............................................ 6
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH
The Image Elements.......................................9
Definition of Entry.....................................12
Scale of Entry..........................................12
Perspective of Entry ...................................15
CHAPTER 3 THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTRY
CHAPTER 4 PROGRAM CRITERIA
Goals and Criteria......................................39
Analysis and Improvement Goals..........................43
Model for Entry Analysis................................44
PART TWO: THE CASE STUDY
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CASTLE ROCK, COLORADO
History of Development..................................51
Goals and Objectives....................................53
CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION
Inventory and Analysis..................................55
CHAPTER 3 ENTRY IMPROVEMENTS
Entry Improvement Program
Signage System .........
APPENDIX ..................... ,
The cities we experience today have been evolving for more then five thousand years. This evolution provides the framework for urban life. The modern city of today has become the center of human activity, offering stimulation, diversity, and economic and cultural resources. The city is a representative collection of human activity that gives its look, feel, smell, and "image".
People rely on the city for its services and the city requires people to give it life and a sense of place. Since it is a two-way process, the true potential depends on the participators and their personal level of involvement. Yet the city needs to attract, and rouse its citizens to become involved. To achieve this, reinforcing its special and unique qualities is needed.
Reinforcing the image and identity of the city benefits everyone. A special and unique city can offer more active and diverse places. Aesthetics and positive image quality, can create a good business climate that has a beneficial impact on commercial and
Denver's Ibtti Street Kail
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business concerns. City government and public leaders stand to benefit through the creation of long-range planning that will create a desirable place for people to live and invest. It is such a city that offers a better quality of life and creates pride in its citizens.
Most cities have opportunities for aesthetic improvements that could reinforce their image and identity. This thesis, inspired by the importance of "sense of place" and visual communication, addresses the question of where a city can begin to make those improvements .
I found myself stepping farther out of the urban core of cities to begin my research on image and where it begins.
It became apparent that today's cities must take a look at the overall experience of the urban setting. As I became interested in the components of city image I realized that the first component of the city is its entries.
The challenge is to understand the visual experience in entry and can a city begin a program to improve its entries for a greater overall urban experience.
My interest in this project is the result of undergraduate pursuits in Graphic Design and my present discipline of Landscape Architecture. I have learned much, and I owe much to a few very talented and caring people who have been patient and who have shared many hours of their time. To them I say thank you for helping me find my purpose.
I own a great deal of thanks to several individuals who contributed their time and effort. I would particularly like to thank my committee members;
Cathe Mitchell, for her support, encouragement, and friendship.
Carlie Wood, for her insight, time, and urge to keep it simple.
Leslie Ullman, for her clarity, response, and interest.
I thank Joe Porter for his wisdom, advice, and guidance. Also, I thank Howard Hahn for his help and assistance in my learning the Lumena computer program.
I owe a special debt to friends whose positive attitude and support enabled me to get through the stressful times;
Dennis, Janet, Carol, Lin, Katty, and Bobbi.
entries to cities
chapter 1 introduction
Entries to cities which clarify the whole system of orientation and respond to a sequence of experiences can enrich the urban experience, strengthen city image, and create pride in the community. It is possible to develop a system for analyzing entries to facilitate a program for entry improvements.
Urban confusion is an important problem of the modern city. What leads to urban confusion is unplanned and unchecked growth and change. Sometimes growth and change are positive and often needed for economic vitality, but far too frequently it is an enemy to the original character of the city.
Urban confusion seriously affects the appearance of the city, thereby affecting the image of the communities that are an integral part of the whole system. Suburban communities, that develop their own individual identities, often fail to physically integrate into the larger urban community and add to urban confusion.
Urban confusion is often disturbing to the citizens emotionally. This confusion tends to disorganize their perceptual image, affecting their sense of orientation, their sense of involvement, and their sense of pride. Urban confusion can affect the very qualities that make the city liveable.
The systems of movement are a part of urban confusion. They effect the
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emotional and intellectual perceptions of the people who use them and effect the appearance and character of the city adjacent to them. Entry improvement offers an important first step in a program to integrate communities, en-city image, and create pride in
PURPOSE OF THESIS
Entry is an important image element in the structure of the city. Entry can give the individual a starting point and framework for the acquisition of information, presenting the city to the observer and enabling him to find his destination readily. It is the first introduction which the individual receives, and gives him important first impressions. Entry to a city can impart
a sense of orientation a sense of where we are and where things are in relation to us. A sense of orientation is basic to our understanding, familiarity, and well-being in a city.
Part I of this thesis is intended to establish criteria and develop a program that cities can use to identify and improve their entries for the
purpose of reinforcing city image. A clearly articulated entry begins a sequence of city experiences that
produce many benefits for its citizens and visitors, and creates pride in the community.
Part II of this work is the application of established principles
and criteria, based on research, on a case study. The case study demonstrates a methodology for analyzing entries based on principles of movement, orientation and communication. It is also intended to show how communities could be more aware of their entries in future planning efforts.
In researching material for evaluating and formulating an entry improvement program, the methodology I used involved four main questions, which enabled me to define objectives and specific purposes.
Why is image/identity important for cities?
Purpose: Research theories of image/ identity and urban form to understand the elements that influence image/ identity, and to become aware of entry and its role in city image.
What is entry and its relationship to the city?
Purpose: Research entry in architecture and in the historic development of cities to define what entry to the city is and its importance to the modern city. Question Three:
What creates the entry experience? Purpose: Research concepts and principles of entry and examine research on human perception in movement to establish criteria and goals for entry improvement.
What is to be done in an entry improvement program to enhance the image of the city?
Purpose: To provide a method for evaluating and Testing criteria on a case study as a model for other cities and towns.
chapter 2- research
WHY IS IMAGE/IDENTITY IMPORTANT FOR CITIES?
Strong identity has great implications on the future potential of cities. To develop a strong image, the components of the city need reinforcement for it to be identified and understood. As George Banz says in his book Elements of Urban Form, "Gaining a sense of place means in essence that the individual can orient himself in his environment by what he sees, feels, hears, smells, and tastes. The sequence in which he perceives artifacts, and the elements of nature surrounding him, come into being and grow, similarly extending his sense of place in a sense of time." When the environment is visibly organized and sharply defined, the citizens, with their own personal meanings and relationships, perceive its "sense of place".
THE IMAGE ELEMENTS:
Kevin Lynch, in his book Image of the City has developed what has come to be one of the most widely accepted theories on image, in the aspect of urban form. Lynch classifies city image
in spreading nut and merging at their edges, cities nave lost their physical definition as focal points of human life.
Every community needs a symbol of its existence. Kuch of modern community frustration has come into being because a symbol of the visual meaning for its life is missing. Because no symbol is found, there is no center on which to focus life.
into physical forms that translate into five elements; Paths, Edges, Districts, Nodes, and Landmarks. These are the elements that determine the image of the urban habitat which comprise the focus of human activity, natural and man-made landmarks, boundaries, and the channels that connect the elements. A brief description will help to understand the general application of the elements for studying image:
1. Paths: The channels of movement from which people observe the city, such as streets, walkways, transit lines, waterways, railroads.
2. Edges: The linear boundaries that create a break in continuity. They may be barriers that close off one region from another, or they may be seams or lines along which two regions are related.
3. Districts: The sections of the city that have some identifying character. Districts are always identifiable from within.
4. Nodes: Points in a city which are the focus to and from where a person is traveling. Nodes may be breaks, junc-
ln the process ot ay-fmding, the strategic link is the environmental image, the generalized mental picture ot the exterior physical tond that is held by an individual. This image is the product both ot immediate sensation and of the memory of past experience, and it is used to interpret information and to guide action. The need to recognize and pattern our surroundings is so crucial, and has such long roots in the past, that this image has fide practical and emotional importance to the individual,
tions, crossings, or convergence of paths. Some nodes are the focus of a district and found in almost every image.
5. Landmarks: A type of point-reference: defined physical clues of identity and structure.
Though these elements are vital in understanding the potentials of image development, they ignore other specific elements of urban form one being the entry to the city. A perception of the identity and character of a place begins before the edge and is a continuous sequence of experience through the edge along the path to the districts, nodes, and landmarks.
Though Lynch's concept of urban form and image is sometimes criticized for not addressing cultural values, quality and character, his theories do begin to form a clear and legible basis for understanding the parts of urban form. Therefore, for the purpose of this thesis, references to urban elements will be based on Lynch's concepts.
A man id notion is acted upon by the physical environment through fhich he passes. It would seen, therefore, that a nan moving toward a goal could be prepared, by design, for that goal or moving toward an anticipated experience, could be prepared tor that experience.
John urmsbee Sinonds
WHAT IS ENTRY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE CITY?
DEFINITION OF ENTRY:
Entry is the arrangement of elements or spaces that has a point of beginning and a point of end that is usually, but not always, the terminus.
An entry may be a line or a plane of use, as a path, a street, or a broad avenue. It may be a line of sight or movement. It may be expressed as through a series of arches or gates, or between rows of equally spaced trees or pillars, or toward an object or space of special interest. Through its suggestion of motion, one feels compelled to move from the start of an entry sequence to its completion. This induced movement may have several points of terminus, each supporting the sequence from the start to its satisfying conclusion. It is not only an sequential experience of approach but that of exit.
SCALE OF ENTRY:
The scale of the entry influences ones ability to experience the sequence of elements and spaces. Scale of entry begins at the Global Scale, to the Regional Scale, to the Community Scale,
Real people are moving all the time as they constantly reorient themselves to changes in their environment. Movement is central to all aspects of liman design. Significantly, the sensory experience of movement, both from the essentially static position of driver or tram passenger and that of the office and apartment occupant m other fords the net both from the path and ot the path are entirely neglected, The conventional urban habitat contains a movement system then it should be a movement system.
George 6a nz
and to the Personal/Intimate Scale; as in the following examples:
Global Scale: As in the approach to the United States by the Statue of Liberty; it can be by plane, boat, even spaceship. The observer is somewhat detached from the physical reactions to the environment.
Regional Scale: As in the approach to a city or town. It can be by train, car, bus, etc. The observer begins to be affected by the sequence of the environment he is passing through. Speed of movement and the visual experience affect the physical and emotional responses.
Regional Bn try
Community Scale: As in the approach to a shopping district or neighborhood. The level of experience is affected by the means of travel, such as car, bus, or bike. The observer is able to sense his environment at greater detail, as in texture, color, smells. He can absorb and comprehend the entry sequence at a more personal level.
Personal/Intimate Scale: As in the pedestrian experience, that of entering a shopping mall, a office building, private residence, or a stroll through a garden. The pedestrian is affected by all of the human senses; sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. Minute details become important elements in the entry sequence. Involvement of the pedestrian in the entry experience is at a very personal level.
The research phase of my thesis focused on the components of entry on the regional scale. Understanding scale on the regional level is an important first step in determining the components involved in the urban entry experience.
PERSPECTIVE OF ENTRY:
The entry, as an important image element in cities, is deeply rooted in history. From the first permanent settlements through 5,000 years of development, all lasting settlements adhered to the common principles of identity, orientation, and organization.
I have chosen three periods in the history of city development that reflect strong principles of structural order, identity, and meaning; the Roman period, the Medieval period, and the Baroque period.
The Romans, primarily engineers, based their lives on discipline and order. Cities were designed for impressiveness with all the Roman genius for magnificence, law and order. The principles of axial integrated open and closed space-planning were constant in the entries. They developed the arch and incorporated it with great streets (paths) lined with columns terminated by peribolos (landmark) to create an entry
experience that connected the main gate (edge) with the temples (district).
Medieval form developed from an awareness of the total environment and a need for defensible design. The growth of the medieval town around either a monastery or castle (district) was a natural growth starting at gateways (edges), extending along roadways (paths) and then fanning out. Although a plan of a medieval town appears like a maze, the town layout was practical with a town center as the nucleus of an area which could be readily traversed.
The medieval entry offered a vastly richer mix of sensory stimulation than any modern city, having several objects and various viewpoints. The medieval town, was above all things, a stage for the ceremonies of the Church. The key to the city was in the moving pagaent or the procession.
The symbols of the baroque city are the Straight street (paths), the Baroque Entry structure
unbroken horizontal roof line, the round
arch, and the repetition of uniform elements (cornice, lintel, window, and column) on the facade. Clarity and simplicity was enhanced by sculptured fountains (landmarks) and squares which defined activity nodes (districts).
The baroque city entry was experienced as a simple continuity in time, based on an experience of simultaneous planes receding in space to single vanishing points. The structures in the entry created the line of force connecting the various landmarks and was the cohesive element in the single axis concept.
The past century in the USA has been one of transition. Too often American cities have evolved without any clear structural order, without any identity or orientation. Yet some American cities have successfully capitalized on the principles which have enriched cities of the past. Some examples are; Washington, D.C., St. Louis, Missouri, and the Rural Town.
Probably the most significant city design in terms of a sequence of entry experience is Washington, D.C. The replanning of the city, in the early 1900's, has resulted in a dynamism of radials and terminals. The entry is heightened by formal parkways leading to focal points, directing the observer inward to the city and forming visual linkages between nodes.
St. Louis, Missouri:
American cities often have no central focus. The framework for connecting the parts is weak or nonexistent. St. Louis, Missouri has attempted to alleviate their image problem by employing the simple design principle of the Landmark. The Arch has become the city's landmark; it is visible for miles and establishes a destination point for the entry experience. Though an analysis of the whole entry sequence would be appropriate, the Arch begins to orient the observer and offers an opportunity for organizing the region.
St. Louis, Hissoun
The Rural Town:
Even the humble little rural town has captlured the essence of image and identity in entry by focusing on their landmarks, such as the local grain elevator and/or the town water tower. They are often employed to proudly announce the name of the settlement. Landmarks are just as important to the image of the town as the parkways are to Washington, D.C. and the Arch is to St. Louis. It is comforting to see the symbols of a city or town. The knowledge that what lies ahead can satisfy the traveler for his needs and wants, orienting the approach making it more meaningful and heightening the anticipation of arrival.
When cities were smaller their entrances were clearly marked by a gate, statue, bridge, wall, or some other feature. The entrances to most cities today are more a progression of undifferentiated views rather than distinct movements of revelation.
The great difference between the cities of past centuries and the cities
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of today, is the application of mechanical power, accelerating the movement of man through space. Unchecked growth and change has created an entirely new set of problems for image development. The size of the modern city requires a new scale of image if the region is to hold together as an entity. The need for clarity in entrance is as strong as it ever was-even more so, since the city is more complex.
I suggest that an entry that is clear, understandable, accessible, and responds to a sequence of experiences offers the city or town an enhanced image. A well-designed entrance heightens anticipation, alerts acute powers of sight, aids orientation, and sharpens the eye for the full observation of the things ahead.
chapter 3 -
determinants of entry
WHAT CREATES THE ENTRY EXPERIENCE?
There are three influencing factors that work together to create the experience, for the observer, of entry; movement, orientation, and communication. It must be understood that they inter-relate to create the experience and that only in research, for greater understanding, are they seperable.
Entry is sensed in motion through the visual and kinetic senses. They are used to structure, identify, reinforce, and develop what an observer can do to interpret direction or distance and sense form in motion itself. The automobile imposes a filter between the observer and the world he is moving through, reducing the senses to the visual and kinetic.
The experience of entry, on the regional scale, is a sequence of views and vistas (see Appendix) played to the eyes of an audience while driving or riding in a vehicle sweeping along a plane of sight about four feet above the ground. Though the human eye has a
general field of view that is an irregular conical shape measuring about 30' up, 45' down, and 65' to each side, and the comfortable range of general vision is a cone of from 60 to 70 degrees, the vehicle limits this capacity. Vision is framed and directed forward.
Kinetics in entry is the apparent sense of motion and space. The experience of motion is based on the movement of the exterior environment in relation to the observer. Bodily sensations become strong at points of directional shift, changes of speed, or in climbing or decending. All the changes within the visual and kinetic experience are important to the cumulative effect of entry.
The ability of the observer to comprehend his moving environment is influenced by two categories of perception;
1. Space, Sequence and Continuity
2. Rate of Movement, Time and Change
space is not plastic, static, positive, projecting It is hollo*, negative, retiring. It is never complete and finite. It is in notion, connected to the next space and to the next and to the infinite space,,, we iwho have learned to move taster taster than anyone ever movld before) nave a new experience ot space: space in notion, space in flo*. And because e have this net experience *e are no longer concerned so nuch with the tiny detail, but rather *ith the greater unity of this ne and wonderful medium: the flowing space we try to mold.
Space, Sequence and Continuity:
Space is a basic element that creates form, volume, and scale. The visual experience of entry is interpreted not only as a series of views or objects in motion, but also as a space.
The sensations of space affect the experience of entry by modifying the forms or its proportions, and the volumes which the observer passes through. The concept of space must be understood as fully as possible because of the relationship of space to form, volume, and scale in entry.
Sequence, in terms of entry, may be defined as a succession of perceptions or experiences having continuity. It is the areas of transition that appear and disappear along the corridor. The entry sequence may be casual, disciplined, rambling or it may, to achieve purpose, be contrived with a high degree of order. It may be abrupt and shocking or connected and continuous.
Continuity is the thread that keeps the sequence of experience together. The path itself can be this thread but it
it can oe stated categorically, on the oasis oi our experience ot great architecture and great natural scenery, that the experience of being within tine three-dimensional spatial volumes is one of the great experiences of life,
must be supported by successions of space and motion. Color, texture, and light give greater depth and form to continuity, (see Appendix)
Tempo and rhythm are the essential elements of continuity and sequence. If a rhythm of attention is established along the entry, the observer could know when to expect major visual nodes and points of decision.
Rate of Movement, Time and Change:
Rate of Movement refers to the speed at which the the entry is experienced. As speed increases, the observers concentration increases and the peripheral vision decreases. Details begin to fade and perception of space and speed deteriorates. Judgment becomes more dependent on visual clues picked up along the path. Only the speed, scale, and grace of movement can compensate for these limitations.
Because of increased speed events must be predicted further ahead. Nodes, junctions, and areas in the entry that create concentrated attention can be call points of decision and are opportunities for visual emphasis.
Anle of Vision
Things that will be seen or experienced from a moving car must, by all logic, be planned or designed for this specific and highly specialized impact.
Time and Change refers to elements sensed over time, in a sequence of item-by-item linkage. This series of linkages in time create a melodic rhythm that is important in developing an intensity in arrival. It can be expressed in the simple sequence of a uniformly planted row of trees along the path, to the more dynamic and sophisticated sequence of moving patterns and opposing melodies or rhythms which is often found in the natural environment.
Beyond the visual and kinetic senses, the observer is constantly orienting himself in the environment. Way-finding is a demanding task and depends on the intricacies of the environmental character and the entry structure.
Awareness ot space goes tar beyond me cerebral activity. It encases the full range of senses and feelings, requiring involvement of the whole self to maKe a lull response to it possible.
Every city is built on a piece of land. The form of this land and its regional features are the foremost determinants of entry character. The character of the entry is influenced by three environmental categories; landform and topography, vegetation, and sky and horizon. Recognizing and understanding the environmental character of the entry can aid in the process of analysis for an improvement program.
Landform and topography involves the natural landscape forms, features, and forces that influence the experience of entry. Mountain ranges, river valleys, cliffs, plains, lakes, oceans, and other dominant topographical components landform, Topography, and Vegetation
can contribute much to the visual image/quality. These are accenting land-
scape features which can be employed actively as sites or passively as vistas, supplementing architectural and urban form. They can be used as major vista objectives from points along the entry, landmarks for orientation, or as special sites for entry enhancement.
There are also minor natural landscape elements such as hills, woods, streams, and swamps. They offer great opportunities for enhancing the entry experience within these minor landscapes but it is vital to consider both the negative and the positive factors in modifying any landscape.
Vegetation adds regional character to the experience of entry. Characteristic stands of trees, shrubs, flowers, groundcovers produce a the "look" of the entry and can be used to embellish, screen, and even create an architectural quality. A working knowledge of the local flora and its suitability in various needs is essential in establishing the environmental character.
Landuse and zoning is political in nature but affects the look and harmony of the entry corridor. The view from the
path is a qualitative issue, therefore, landuse and zoning decisions should be thoughtful and sensitive to the entry experience. Those decisions may entail future planning efforts, and strick
Landuse and Zoning
regulations governing the type and quality of land development (or redevelopment) adjacent to the corridor.
The sky and horizon is a subtle part of the environmental character. This union of element and air adds dynamic qualities of sky tints, cloud shadows, and early evening silhouettes that can be emphasized in the entry. These qual-
Sky and Horizon 4
ities must be recognized and treated sympathetically. For examlple; the
skyline of the city has long been a ^
dominant element in urban design and should be recognized as a major visual
component in an entry improvement ^
Entry is a total system of orienta- *
tion. It is a succession of approaches to a goal or focal point. The observer
is engaged in building a locational *
image of the environment, and orienting within this image. The structure of the
entry can add clarity and a sense of meaning to the experience. Entry consists of; path systems, boundaries and edges, nodes, and landmarks.
Path Systems are the predominant element of entry into the city. They are the most potent means by which the whole urban complex can be ordered. Clarity of the paths aid in the observer's orientation and pleasure in the entry.
Paths are the key lines of movement along which important features are assembled. They generate the experience through the line of movement of the observer. The views and movement along the entry path must be regarded as an experience of transition, culminating at points of decision, areas of junction, or at the terminus.
Paths have negative, and positive effects on landscape elements within their field of influence. Sometimes the relationship between objects and the path suffer, because the interest is less in the things themselves than in the thing-path relationship. Sometimes however, because of their relationship to the path, plan elements gain interest
Boundaries and edges, like paths have directional qualities. Boundaries are legal limits to a city and reinforce it's identity, whereas edges physically define the spaces of the city entry.
In the experience of entry there are various kinds of edges. Some are hard, definite, precise. Other edges may be sort of uncertain, such as the limit between downtown shopping and the office district. Edges are the strongest when they are not only visually prominent, but also continuous in form and impenetrable to cross- movement. They are often paths and can unite districts as well.
Nodes are points along the sequence that are intentionally established to draw attention. Nodes become condensation points that have the ability to
organize large districts around themselves. They may be passive, giving little direction. The principal locational sensation on arrival is simply "here I am." They may be active, drawing one off the road and into its environs for a greater understanding of the arrival to take place. Directions are
explained, and connections are made clear to the user.
Landmarks are significant reference points in the orientation of entry. They are key physical focal points that have unique or memorable aspects. Easily identifiable landmarks can be relied on for their ability to guide the observer and are very effective in marking the goal point or area in the entry experience.
The landmark feature on which the observer focuses sets the theme to be developed. It is more memorable if it is visible over an extended range of distance or time. The distant object makes the observer feel more secure and can create a greater awareness of the yet dynamic spatial sequence of the entry. Other elements, that support the landmark feature, can aid the observer in the experience of entry to it full and final satisfying destination point.
When an element such as a sign or a monument is introduced into the entry sequence at points of decision, spatial changes, or places of intensified perception, special meaning is attached
to it and its value as a landmark rises. Daily recognition of a landmark at these points increases awareness therefore increasing importance.
Entry is communicated to the observer on many different levels. Because of the complexity of needs and functions which are translated into visual communication problems, solutions can often be sought through a systematic approach that can result in practical and functional effects.
Road signs, store signs, building signs, and symbolic objects are messages to us which convey purpose. They are clues to the organization of the city. Since image development is a two-way process between observer and observed, it is possible to strengthen the image by symbolic devices.
Signs are a communication medium that convey a visual message from a sender to a receiver. They exist in our environment and can subtly convey a message while creating a mood or atmosphere. It is not necessary for a person to give full attention to a sign in order to derive some degree of meaning from its presence.
One of the functions of signage is to offset the handicap of the observer
in unfamiliar territory. Signs warn, prepare, and inform the observer of his present location and to the desired destination.
There are three basic rules that are of foremost importance. They are:
1. Signage must be visible and the graphic quality should allow the observer to distinguish it from its surroundings.
2. Signage must be legible; the character of the letters or numbers should be easily differentiated from one another.
3. Signage should be readable, quickly comprehensible, and the observer should be able to correctly perceive the information content.
Studies show that color has a significant effect on the legibility of signage. Brightness and contrast of the message-to-background, and of the amount of the message are of primary importance for visibility and readability. The type and amount of light affect the visibility as well. Backlighting or spot lighting can be beneficial in problem situations. There are a variety of
Si^ns establish Character
materials that can be employed to the construction of the sign program.
The style of type affect the read-abilty as well. It should be both visually interesting and instantly readable. The distance of the signage from the road and the speed at which the observer is traveling effects the size of the letters and the amount of information that can be applied to the sign. It is a rule of thumb that for a legible message, a letter height of one inch for every 50 feet of viewing distance. The speed of the vehicle creates additional height requirements.
When the entry has many points of decision, junctions, or breaks in environmental character, signage can aid in orientation. The sign system should be consistent in it's character and message and located to take advantage of the environmental character as well as the structure of the entry.
Rather than a single comprehensive image for the entire entry experience, there exists a sequence of images, which
overlap and interrelate. Images differ not only by the scale of the area involved, but by viewpoint, time of day, or season. They are influenced by the character of the region and the structure of the entry.
The visual and kinetic senses in the experience of regional entry are greatly affected by the sequence and continuity of spaces. The rate of movement creates a greater need for clarity. Decisions along the entry corridor have to be well-marked and designed to allow the traveler to comprehend the surroundings of the entry.
Movement along the path creates a continuity of experiences derived from the nature and form of the spaces. This gives the key to the concept of a movement system as a dominant organizing force in entry design. One can analyze, plan, and design the area adjacent to it to produce an entry that emphasizes the positive image features, clarifies the approach, and creates a continuous flow of harmonious experiences.
All of the factors discussed are abstract models for the development of
The final Mission of the city is to turiher man's conscious participation in the cosmic and the historic process. Through its own complex and enduring structure, the city vastly augments man's ability to interpret these processes and take an active, formative part in them so that every phase of the drama it stages shall have, to the highest degree possible, the illumination of consciousness, the stamp 01 purpose, the color of love.
criteria that can be applied to a program for entry enhancement. The most powerful experiences occur when all
are working in unison.
chapter 4 -program criteria
WHAT IS TO BE DONE IN AN ENTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM TO ENHANCE THE IMAGE OF THE CITY?
CRITERIA FOR ENTRY ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT:
The components of entry must work together to create an effective, and enriching experience. The image and quality of the entry experience is dependent upon the total sequence of movement, orientation, and communication. An entry enhancement program calls for criteria that can build a framework for the analysis and design development of the entry.
The goal of movement is to reinforce the observers aesthetic and spatial experience of the entry surroundings.
1. Spaces along the entry should have contin uity in their interpretation, expression, and elements.
2. Views and vistas of local and regional quality should be recognized and protected.
3. Points of decision must be planned and/or designed for the rate of movement and character of the region.
The goal of orientation is to clarify
the task of way-finding for the traveler/
observer, to create a greater sense of
meaning in the experience of entry.
1. Nullify the negative environmental factors and feature the best landscape and urban elements.
2. Introduced vegetation should reflect local character and exploit natural and urban features to their fullest.
3. Sky and horizon should be recognized as an entry element and featured.
4. Land adjacent to and in view from the path should preserve and/or create a landscape character that is pleasing and in harmony with the various elements of parts that must be retained or developed.
5. Paths must have clear directional quality, image and identity and present the traveler with a minimum number of decisions.
6. Boundaries and edges must reinforce the identity of the city or town.
7. Nodes should be made to coincide with points of decision and designed to reinforce the continuity of the entry.
8. Landmarks must intensify the continuity of the entry, reflect the theme to be implemented, and capture the character of the district or region.
The goal of communication is to warn, prepare, and inform the traveler/observer of his present location and to the desired destination point and to support the theme and character of the city or town.
1. Signage must be visible and the graphic quality should allow the traveler to distinguish it from its surroundings.
2. Signage must be legible; the character of the letters or numbers should be easily differentiated from one another.
3. Signage should be readable, quickly comprehensible, and the observer should be able to correctly perceive the information content.
4. Placement of signage should be located to clarify the task of way-finding and take best advantage of the environmental character and entry structure.
5. Special features such as entry monuments should reflect the materials of the
landscape and reinforce the continuity of the corridor and express the qualities of the site location.
GOALS FOR ENTRY ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT:
In anlyzing entries, for an improvement
program, I have established a set of goals
based on the established criteria. Entries to
cities, towns, and communities should:
1. Clarify the path system.
2. Express a receptive quality.
3. Be planned to the horizon.
4. Become a sequence of pleasant transitions.
5. Give the theme and set up the sign or symbol that explains.
6. Be planned as an experience of arrival and departure.
7. Be developed as a complete and satisfying element of design.
ANALYSIS MODEL FOR ENTRY IDENTIFICATION Goal of Analysis:
1. To explore and study the character of the entries to the city, town, or community.
2. To identify those entries most suitable for a entry enhancement program.
3. To determine opportunities for enhancement as well as define problem areas.
Step 1: Study of Entry for Identification;
The broad investigation of all environmental urban factors potentially related to the specific field of inquiry.
A. Determine Goal or Destination Point
B. Define Path Approachs to Goal or Destination Point
1. Determine amount of use and exposure
2. Clarity of goal approach
C. Select Entries Best Suited for Enhancement
Step 2: Analysis of Chosen Entries;
Specific problems and their possible solutions are investigated. Relevant elements are isolated and the relations between them and their environment quanitified wherever possible. With the problem defined,
concrete objectives can be selected; this permits the assembly of alternative systems
within which these objectives can be met. The best system is finally selected after analysis of all alternatives.
A. Analysis of Movement
1. Identify views and vistas
a. spatial characteristics
b. sequence and continuity
B. Analysis of Orientation
1. Identify the environmental factors
a. landform and topography
b. significant vegetation
c. impacts of sky and horizon
2. Define the structure of the entry
a. clarity of path
c. nodes/points of decision
C. Analysis of Communication
1. Clarity of signage and symbol
2. Landuse and zoning impacts
Step 3: Entry Formulation;
The selected entry is adapted to existing constraints, ie., time, cost, landuse and right of way limitations, and existing artifacts.
Step 4: Entry Design and Development;
Once a system is formulated, the direction of the process is set, and the remaining detail problems of design and development,and of feedback work on conventional methods.
While moving along the path, entering a community the observer is exposed to the kinesthesia of constantly changing relationships with all the visual elements that comprise that spatial sequence. Movement enhances the sensory variations that combine to produce the total human perception of spatial movement. The focal points along the path are the intersecting junctions of paths, also nodes become important points to characterize a well-defined system. Landmarks are statements or points of reference that provide the observer with a continual sense of orientation and relationship with the sequential space. It is this system of path, focal point, and landmark that comprise the basic structure of the entry experience.
The application of the goals and criteria is not limited to large urban areas, but extends to towns and small rural areas.
In assessing the entry for enhancement two important factors must be kept in mind.
First, we must know the total estimated traffic that travels on these entry paths coming into the city, town, or community. Secondly, we must determine the most effectual location or situation for entry enhancement .
The problem for the designer in entry enhancement is to deal simultaneously with the different speeds of movement and different rates of perception, to create forms which are as satisfying to those in an automobile as they are to those who travel by other means. In the long run the designer can stimulate in individuals new areas of awareness by the force of the product. Alternately, through the articulation of the entry, the designer can channel the movement of people through purposeful routes of movement and points of interest, influencing the nature of their response.
the case study
chapter 1 -introduction
INTRODUCTION TO CASTLE ROCK, COLORADO
Located south of Denver, Colorado, Castle Rock is a community of 4,500 that has a feeling of a small town. It is a community caught between the expansion of two metropolitan areas, Denver and Colorado Springs, and is therefore experiencing some of the most intensive growth pressures in the nation. With its unique setting, among mesas and along the 1-25 corridor, opportunities existed for the town of Castle Rock to establish its image and identity at a time when growth impacts could still be mitigated These opportunities required city planners and landowners to approach their problem with sensitivity and an eye to the future. Castle Rock has set a positive example for other communities experiencing the pressure of growth.
In 1978, citizens of Castle Rock agreed to take steps to avoid mistakes other towns have made, resulting in endless sprawl and the sacrifice of their small community feeling. Working with planners, they realized that much of Castle Rock and the surrounding area is located in an open, highly visible
"bowl" so the visual character of the community is extremely vulnerable to any future development that takes place.
What resulted from their efforts is a master plan which uses techniques to establish limits to growth. The boundaries and size of the allowable growth areas have been determined based on natural geographic and manmade boundaries, including major drainages, topographic conditions, regional highways, existing communities, incorporated towns and existing municipal service districts of communities and developments outside of Castle Rock.
A fundamental objective of the master plan has been to create a community that is as efficient as possible.
The plan determined that to accomplish this, the first step is to create a landuse pattern where people can live within walking distance to educational and community facilities. The extent and depth of the master plan can provide a sound basis for inventory and analysis. It also provides a good example of a community facing pressure of growth, change, and identity to deal with their
future efforts now.
History of Development:
Long before there was settlement or town, nature erected a tremendous landmark, a rock standing up in bold relief, several hundred feet in height and visible for miles. In 1859, it was considered a thing of beauty and named Castle Rock because of its fortress-like appearance. The people of the county recognized its symbolic importance in the landscape and chose Castle Rock as the Douglas County seat.
Major factors in the prominence of Castle Rock were its proximity to stone quarries, the development of the railroad, and numerous ranching and farming settlements. By 1872, the Denver and Rio Grande Railway Company had completed a set of tracks from Denver to Colorado Springs. The coming of the railroad gave a boost to Castle Rock's industry and the stone quarry business. By 1874 the town of Castle Rock was plotted on 120 donated acres in the area of the Rock.
By 1900, the quarry industry was booming and the Rio Grande Railroad came from Denver every day to pick up loads of Rhyolite stone to be shipped far beyond
Colorado. The success of the quarries brought the another major railroad, the Santa Fe. The two railroads opened up travel to and from Castle Rock in many directions.
Today, the town of Castle Rock still shows the influence of its history in the many stone houses and civic structures. It maintains the look and feel of the little settlement plotted back in 1874.
There are three basic issues that are
problems unique to the town of Castle Rock;
1. Growth pressure: The growth pressures will ultimately affect the urban fabric surrounding Castle Rock as well as the system of services. The Land Use Master Plan has also determined this to be an issue. Therefore, for purpose of this thesis, the Plan will be accepted with the assumption that it is open to change.
2. Impacts of surrounding growth: Due to
the form of the land area around Castle Rock, new development could have a significant impact on the community
image and its environment. The surrounding area is located in a "bowl" which makes the area visible, therefore the image is vulnerable to development.
3. Community image: The town of Castle Rock would like to avoid the urban sprawl and maintain its small community feeling. The problem is to mitigate impacts of growth and change and reinforce the image of the town.
Castle Rock, Colorado presents a unique opportunity as a case study for entry analysis and enhancement. Its location next to a highly visible natural landmark, and a major freeway (1-25), as well as the problem issues stated above, make it a strong candidate for an entry improvement program for image reinforcement.
Goals and Objectives:
The primary goals and objectives of an improvement program for entries to Castle Rock are to provide a long range vision for Entry Improvement and Image Development.
The objectives were developed to accomplish the two major goals of the study:
1. Establish a long range framework for entry improvement.
2. Develop an "image" through the use of signage and provide the framework for location.
The purpose of the goals and objectives are to provide a design framework so that all future beautification construction projects tie together and reinforce the overall theme and image for Castle Rock. This study describes the various elements of continuity and diversity throughout the entry corridor. It is meant to identify those areas to be enhanced, improved, redeveloped, and protected. Signage is recommended and should be considered as a supplementary message to confirm the visual statements expressed by the legibility of the entry design itself. It is important to understand that this is not a design that is ready for construction, rather it is a set of guidelines for future design and construction. This entry improvement program is to be considered the beginning step in an overall program of image continuity.
chapter 2. analysis
INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS:
The first step entailed a broad investigation of the general environmental and urban factors potentially related to the entries into Castle Rock. Based on amount of use and exposure and the clarity of the approaches, the 1-25 approach was chosen because of the opportunities to develop the process and apply criteria formulated in the research phase of the project.
Case Study Location: (Entry Context Map)
The case study area encompasses the 1-25 corridor from the Happy Canyon exit to the Castle Rock turn-off.
Step 2, (Entry Conditions Analysis Map) investigates specific problems and opportunities based on the movement, orientation, and communication criteria formulated in the research. Early in this analysis, I was able to define changes in the spatial and environmental characcter, breaks in continuity, points of decision, and the entry structure. Taking a clue from the findings, I determined that the entry could be divided into five segments according to it's general conditions. In doing this I found that it was much easier and clearer to defind the specific assets and liabilities of each segment.
SEGMENT A: The Happy Canyon Exit to Forest Edge
The character of this segment is rural, forested, with framed views, and strong land edge. The assets of this segment are; the vegetation which creates a strong edge and provides a sense of beginning, the views which are framed and controlled, aiding in orientation, and setting the stage for a feature area, and the path which is curving and hilly, making the kinetic experience rich. The point of spatial and environmental change can provide a significant opportunity as an introduction to the town of Castle Rock. The liabilities in this segment are few, the path median is a visually significant element due to height changes and should be addressed.
SEGMENT B: Forest Edge to Town Limits
The character of this segment is rural with some residential, open vistas and open lands. The assets of this segment are; the open lands which offer new site development planning and improvement for setting theme and image, the views which are vistas across the open lands to buttes and mountains, and the "Castle Rock" creating a stage for the approach, and the town limits interchange (point of decision) which provides an opportunity to improve the continuity of the approach. The liability of this segment is the encroachment of the Silverheights development onto the 1-25 edge which has low visual quality and needs screening.
SEGMENT C: Town Limits to HWY 85 Overpass
The character is rural with commercial landuse, open vistas, and rolling landforms. The assets are; the open lands which add interest to the approach and provide opportunities for planned development, the views which are panoramic, the town limits which can create a strong identity of boundary and reinforce the character of Castle Rock, and the nodes of the two overpasses which can provide continuity. The liabilities are; the off-road signage of other community developments which interrupt Castle Rock identity, the industrial area wh;ich is of low visual quality and needs screening, and the power lines which break the line of vision.
SEGMENT D: HWY 85 Overpass to Town Turn-off
The character is commercial, views are limited, and Plum Creek becomes a significant element. The assets are; Plum Creek particularly on the town turnoff which is an environmental feature, the railroad bridge overpass which has potential as a feature and has historic significance. Development is both an asset and liability. The gravel yard is visually unattractive and encroaches on the 1-25 edge and the commercial development to the west is of low visual quality, yet there exists redevelopment potential that can allow for implementation of new site and sign codes. Another liability is the visual clutter in the amount and location of signage, and power lines.
SEGMENT E: Town Turn-off to Arrival Point
The character is commercial, views are limited, Plum Creek and "Castle Rock" are significant landforms. The assets are; Plum Creek and "Castle Rock" providing theme feature areas and can set the stage for the introduction of "Old Town" in Castle Rock, and the potential for redevelopment at the base of the "Rock". The liabilities are; the visual clutter of directional and informational signage, power lines, the commercial area to the west needs improvements and screening, turns to the arrival point need clarity and image development.
chapter 3 improvements
ENTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM:
Step 3 takes the findings from the analysis and adapts the entry to existing conditions and provides a framework for the design and development phase. The key to providing the framework for improvements is to develop continuity and image.
It is necessary to create a sense of image and identity for the entire town and apply this theme or "look" throughout the entry corridor. To accomplish this, the opportunities described in the analysis phase are taken advantage of. These opportunites have been translated into feature areas and image continuity areas. These series of opportunities provide design areas that can create a sense of identity and continuity for the entire entry corridor.
Feature Areas are at locations of unique landform character areas such as the Forest Edge, Plum Creek, and "Castle Rock". These areas introduce built features that reinforce those images which are critical identity elements for the town of Castle Rock. The design of Feature Areas is to provide a sense of the history and culture of the town and reflect the rural character. They are to incorporate the natural materials indigenous to the region (ie. Rhyolite stone) and create a continuity of those materials through the corridor.
Image Continuity Areas are located at nodes along the entry corridor, to capitalize on the high visibility of those points. They set the image and
character of the town of Castle Rock and are landscaped for visual emphasis. The design of the Continuity Areas is to be composed of the same indigenous materials as the Feature Areas to reinforce the continuity of the entry.
The Entry Improvement Concept Plan utilizes the the philosophy of feature and continuity areas to develop a framework for improvements in the entry to create a cohesive and quality image for Castle Rock.
The framework plan addresses six critical issues affecting improvements:
1. Feature Areas
2. Image Continuity Areas
3. Town Entrance Point
4. Landuse Development
5. Visual Buffer Areas
SUGGESTIONS AND PURPOSE:
Based on the Entry Improvement Concept Plan, suggestions and purpose for each segment are brought forward to base the design and development of the entry on.
Suggested improvements for Segment A are; preserve views through strict zoning regulations, improve conditions of the median with a wildflower and native grasses mix, and introduce an entry monument at Forest Edge to take advantage of the Feature Area.
Suggested improvements for Segment B are; emphasize the town boundaries with signage, remove powerlines and screen Silverheights development, develop the interchange as a Image Continuity Area.
Suggested improvements for Segment C are; screen industrial area and school, develop overpasses as Image Continuity Areas, develop strict landuse planning decisions to protect the highly visible quality of the open lands.
Suggested improvements for Segment D are; take advantage of the Railroad Bridge as a Feature Area (accenting it with a Rhyolite stone facing),
Rehabilitate Plum Creek for pedestrian amenity, remove power lines, screen gravel yard or redevelop for higher quality landuse, simplify and install signage that reinforces the character of "Old Town".
Suggested improvements for Segment E are; screen1 commercial areas that are visually unattractive or redevelop for higher quality landuse, focus on "Castle Rock" as the major image feature by revegetating with indigenous plantings and possible incorporating evening lighting for greater visual impact, redevelop the arrival point at the base of the "Rock" as a acitivity node for direction into "Old Town" (possible long-range planning could include a transit stop for the 1-25, Wolfensburger Road, and Miller Blvd. junction), introduce directional signage with "Old Town" character, and begin the streetscape program into "Old Town".
The suggested improvements have been applied on the sequence of images with the aid of a computer. The images produced are intended to express the spatial character and the general image quality. They are meant to be a reference for development of an improvement program.
THE SIGNAGE SYSTEM:
There are points along the entry corridor that need to communicated more effectively. A system must be developed to give direction as well as information. The system must provide a continuity of theme and be developed to allow for flexibility of use on all potential sign types. The following sign types are suggested for the entry corridor:
1. Entry Monument; the "gateway" feature
2. Town Limits; boundary markers
3. Directional Signs; facilitates "Old Town" location
4. Street Signs; city-wide street identification
Guidelines for a signage system should be implemented to establish a unified program of identification and information that is distinct and aesthetically pleasing. An established signage character creates a significant "image" and has great meaning to the development of identity. Once a logo or visual theme is established it must be consistent to create the overall impact. Therefore, the signage system should be a major factor in creating and preserving the "character" of the town of Castle Rock.
Castle Rock has unique character specific to its location and its structure. I must stress that this program is meant to be a starting point for a program that continues this process into the town center and even into the various communities surrounding the town of Castle Rock, Colorado.
The tools I have used for analysis of the entry have led to conclusions specific to the Castle Rock entry situation. I believe that this program can be applied to other entries in other towns or cities with positive results. A program for entry analysis and improvement can reinforce city image. By defining, evaluating and improving the character and identity of entries into cities or town, it is possible to create a richer experience that can strengthen their image and create pride in community.
To quote Kevin Lynch in his book Image of the City "In the development of the image, education in seeing will be quite as important as the reshaping of what is seen, indeed, they together form a circular, or hopefully a spiral, process: visual education impelling the citizen to act upon his visual world, and this action causing him to see even more acutely. A highly developed art of urban design is linked to the creation of a critical and attentive audience. If art and audience grow together, than our cities will be a source of daily enjoyment to millions of their inhabitants "
Views: The view is a scene observed from a given vantage point, a constantly changing picture to be framed. It is a dominant landscape feature, a panorama, or segment of a panorama. It can impell, draw one from one position to another. Views can direct, frame, or unfold a scene in new ways until, finally the scene is complete.
Vistas: Unlike views, vistas are confined views usually toward a terminal or dominant element or feature. It has a viewing station (or lines of approach), an object or objects to be seen, and intermediate ground. Any vista may be staged in an infinite variety of ways and it is only necessary that the line of approach is visually pleasing.
Symmetrical Entry: The symetrical entry may be absolute, or it may be as loose and be casually implied as in the balanced order of fence rows and haystacks along a country road. Symmetry in the natural landscape is a rarity. Where it is observed, therefore, it generally indicates a system of order imposed by man. The symmetrical entry plan creates a need for fulfillment, a fulfillment that can only be achieved by its opposite number. This plan subjects plan elements to a rigid or formalized pattern. Sometimes a symmetrical entry plan may give added emphasis to objects. Such an object, for instance, might be featured as the landmark of a major or minor path.
Asymmetrical Entry: A symmetrical entry plan subjects a landscape to control. It systematizes the landscape. It organizes the landscape into rigid patterns. It subjects man to plan conformity by controlling his vision. He is consciously stirred or lulled by developing cadences and balanced repetitions. The asymmetrical entry plan emphasizes the plastic qualities of structures and the landscape. In nature, we can seldom, if ever, find the elements of a landscape symmetrically balanced on either side of a line of sight. But, because equilibrium is required of all visual images, it is possible to have balance without bilateral symmetry. This is called "occult" balance. The mind demands that the eye compose a visual image that is complete and in equilibrium. Each individual creates out of optical impressions visual images that are for him in equilibrium and that are therefore complete.
The asymmetric approach to entry enhancement requires less disturbance of nature and the natural or man-made landscape. It is therefore more economical. It is also, as a rule, less disruptive and better integrated with the total extensional landscape. Asymmetric treatment to the path preserves the good features of the path, yet allows more plan flexibility and relieves the monotony. It is always appropriate where direction, orientation, or a dominant idea or theme are to be expressed and where plan freedom and interest are desired and where the landscape character of an area is
to be preserved or accentuated. It is well suited to large-scale entry enhancement.
Color: One of the elements which can be used to give continuity and form to the experience of entry is color. The purpose use of color in a sequential sense is almost unknown in contemporary practice. The use of color in the landscape is a significant aspect of beauty of entry.
Texture: Texture on the scale that is appropriate in
the city entry plays a part only on the more coarse or grand scale. If the texture is fine, it is often lost in the experience of movement especially at the high rates of speed in a vehicle.
Light: Another visual factor is the particular quality of natural light. Light can intensify or mute differences in color and texture, as well as emphasize silhouette. Artificial light is a resource for directing attention, for changing apparent spatial form, for producing visual sequences. Night lighting, on familiar landmarks and nodes, can give a reassuring sense of continuity. Understanding the quality of light can offer up design choices that indicate considerable esthetic sensitivity.
Alexander, Christopher. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press. 1977
A good resource book that providesa practical approach to problem solving through a pattern language.
Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John R. Myer, The View from the Road. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press. 1964.
An early attempt to analyse movement for highway systems that involve the visual experience, motion, space, and view.
Bacon, Edmund N. Design of Cities. New York: The Viking Press. 1967.
An excellent overview on the historic development of cities. Includes insights into space and movement systems.
Banz, George. Elememts of Urban Form. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1970.
This book focuses on urban planning and design theory and the set of problems that relate to them. It attempts to relate man's needs to the process of urban development.
Cullen, Gordon. The Concise Townscape. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1961.
A source book for seeing the procession of spaces in urban areas and the forms, surfaces and views that make them memorable and aesthetic principles.
Claus, Karen, Ph.D, R.M. Oliphant, and James Claus, Ph.D. Signs. Legal Rights and Aesthetic Considerations Cincinnati, Ohio: Signs of the Times Publishing Co. 1972.
Claus, Karen E. Ph.D, and James R. Claus, Ph.D. Signage: Planning Environmental Visual
Communication. Palo Alto, California: The Institute Of Signage Research. 1976.
Claus, Karen E. and James R. Claus. Visual Communication through Signage, Volume One: Perception of the Message. Cincinnati, Ohio: Signs of the Times Publishing Co. 1974.
Visual Communication through Signage; Volume Two: Sign Evaluation.
Visual Communication through Signage; Volume Three: Design of the Message.
Three books of a series that deal with: I. The technical considerations in achieving legibility, information processing from the viewer's standpoint, and facts concerned with signage and
II. Communication values both on and off-premise signs and their replacement.
III. Components contributing to quality design in signage, including shape, color, lettering, lighting and architectural harmony.
Dubos, Rene. A God Within. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1972.
A philosophical discussion on the hidden forces that create uniqueness in cities, landscapes, regions, and places.
Ewald, William R. Street Graphics: A Concept and a System. McLean, Virginia: The Landscape Architecture Foundation. 1971.
Based on assessing the potential contribution of street graphics to easy and pleasant communication and proposes a system to help in communication.
Gallion, Arthur B. and Simon Eisner. The Urban Pattern: City Planning and Design. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 1963.
This book was designed to serve the student and professional in instruction in the planning field.
Garnham, Harry Launce. Maintaining the Spirit of Place. Mesa, Arizona: PDA Publishers Corporation. 1985.
A good book that organizes perceptions into a process designed to maintain the character and spirit of small towns.
Halprin, Lawrence. Cities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1972.
A good source book for the examination of the elements of the city.
Lynch, Kevin. Managing the Sense of a Region.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 1976.
A discussion on issues affecting quality of life in the urban region and planning or managing the sensory quality of the region.
Lynch, Kevin and Gary Hack. Site Planning. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1984.
An introduction into site planning,its principles, ciples, and technical reference for students and professionals.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1960.
An excellent discussion on imageability of the city and an attempt to develop criteria for
reinforcing urban form and its image.
Lynch, Kevin. Theory of Good City Form. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1981.
An excellent source for criteria for a good
Lynch, Kevin. What Time is this Place?. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1972.
A good exposition on how the environment might communicate the sense of past, present, and future. It discusses how a desirable image becomes a life-enhancing one.
McLendon, Charles B. and Mick Blackistone. Signage: Graphic Communication in the Built World. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1982.
A resultant report with the purpose as a guide and reference
Simonds, John 0. Landscape Architecture: The Shaping of Man1s Natural Environment. New York: McGraw- Hill. 1961.
One of the best books on the field of landscape design and a good resource for pedestrian movement.
Spreiregen, Paul D. Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities. San Francisco, California: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1965.
An excellent study on the basic principles and techniques of urban design that are rooted in the history of cities and directed to all design professions.
Spirn, Anne Whiston, The Granite Garden.New York: Basic Books. 1984.
The city as a natural landscape and how it should 4
Tuan, Yi-Fu, Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974.
Terry Harkness, Professor, University of Illinois-Urbana
Dr. Ray Weisenburger, Professor, Regional and Community Planning, Kansas State University