Citation
The Center for the Performing Arts at Fiddler's Green

Material Information

Title:
The Center for the Performing Arts at Fiddler's Green
Alternate title:
Performing Arts Center at Fiddler's Green
Creator:
Heflin, Paul
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 250 leaves in various foliations : illustrations, charts, maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Englewood ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Englewood ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title: The Performing Arts Center at Fiddlers' [i.e. Fiddler's] Green.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
General Note:
Includes col. brochure (in pocket).
Statement of Responsibility:
Paul Gregory Heflin.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16734136 ( OCLC )
ocm16734136
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .H43 ( lcc )

Full Text
development stipulations
legal description
HOCKS 1.2.1 AND 4 Of GREENWOOO PLA/A SOUTH. FILING NO I IN SECTION 21..TOWNSHIP S SOUTH. HANOI 17 MIST, 6TH P M IN ARAPAHOE COuNTV.
COLORADO.
site data cr* %
truclural coverage, roads, parking.. _ .44.00 . 57
mass transit r.o.w.. . 3.60.. 4
open space! .45.00 58
total site-77.53*0.___________ ____ *
*fl)TA! IS HUM IHAN I (Mi J BECAUSE PROVISION I ON l)M N Si'ACt AMI IIS TO I ME TOTAL AMOUNT U OPEN SPACE IN TmE INTINE PI.U. HOST 01 WHICH IS ON GRADE AND A P0N1I0N 01 WHICH IS ON STRuCIURC.
uses permitted
700,000 SQUARE f£ET Of GROSS FlOON AREA (Gf.A.) IS Th[ MAXIMUM ALlOwIO FOR ANY MU Of THE USES PERMUTED
MAXIMUM S.F. Of MAXIMUM OF 1
USES PERMITTED PERMITTED USES ALLOWABLE G.F
commercial 3,700,000 100 %
ottlce .*3,700,000 100 %
retail!** . .151,000 4 %
hotel . 450,000 12 %
health club 75,000 2 %
residential . 75d.a
GROSS f l OUR ARIA EXCLUDING RE SIDE Nil Al. Mill BE L1HIU0 10 3,700,1)00 SQUARt FEET KlGAKUlESS Of Thl NUMUER Of bUJLUlNUS bulLl OR ImE SUE Of THE bull DING PADS.
USES INCLUDE GENERAL RETAIL SHOPPING. DAYCARE. RECREATION, RESlAukAMs. AND OTHER RETAIL AND SERVICE FACILITIES COMMON!Y ASSOCIATED wilt! fm GENtRAl PERMITTED US! S DESIGNED 10 SERVE (HE NEEDS Of EMPLOYEES. KESIOENIS. AND VISITORS.
parking
OfF'SIMILE PARKING................ ...... IO.SdS
IHIS PROVISION FOR PACKING APPLIES TO ftiE luIAE NUMBER OF FARHNu SPACLS MIIhIN THE ENTIRE P.U.D.
setbacks
36 FROM IIDOEEM'S GREEN CIRLll SOUTH ULSTER SIREEI SEE PLAN ADEN PARCEL SU PLAN O' ALONG AHPH|THEA*RE BOUNDARY 2S' ALONG All OTHER PROPERTY LINES
THE ABOVE SETBACKS SHALL BE MAINTAINED FOR ALL ABOVE GRADE SThuCI. MS CICEPT MHLRE SPECIFICALIV NOTEO ON THE PlAh SETBACKS SHAH Nul APPLY TO BEIOW-GRAOE STRUCTURES
maximum heights of structures
AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT SHOWN ON PLANS ARE "OfVElOPMENl ENVELOPES".
these envelopes indicate the minimum setbacks from property lines
DEFINE MAXIMUM HEIGHTS OF STRUCTURES. AND SET FLOOR AREA RADGES WITHIN THAT ENVELOPE. IT IS POSSIBLE THAI THERE WILL BE MULTIPLE STRUCTURES Of VARYING HEIGHTS WITh|N EACH ENVELOPE.
streets
MAJOR ARTfRIALS 90' PAVING MlOTH MAJOR COLLECTORS 90' PAVING WIDTH
signage
SIGNAGE WILL II OETERMINOEO ON SUBSEQUENT f.O.P.'l. GENERALLY. SIGN AGE WILL CONSIST Of PROJECT IDiNT 1F1 CAT ION AND INOIVIOUAE BUILDING IDENTIFICATION SIGNS THERE WILL BE A MINIMUM Of SU PROJECT IDENTIFICATION SIGNS AND SEVENTEEN BUILDING IDENTIFICATION SIGNS. FREE-STANOING SIGNS WILL HAVE A MAllMuM HEIGHT OP S'- 0*.
residential
the tb Dwelling units may be located partially or completely within
ANY DEVELOPMENT ENVELOPE SHOWN. DETAILS AND REFERENCE WILL Br INCLUDED ON ANY FINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN THAT CONTAINS RESIDENTIAL UNITS.
12-20-65 4- 7 06 6*10-86 7*16-86
WZK/H Qe^i wc
.
plan west.inc.
275$ touih loculi il lull* 117 N*nv*r coiwrto BO222 (303) 7SS-I4II ilulling pJ*nn*rt UrvJtcip* irchil*cil


Fiddler's Green. Visit it now, in the quiet of a warm day. Then come back for our many live performances on the amphitheatres stageeach summer season will offer a schedule of entertainment varied enough for almost any taste.
Join us.
From there, it will be no more than a hop, skip and jump" to the Brooklyn Bridgea zany, childrens sculpture by noted New York artist Red Grooms (until recently on loan to the widely-acclaimed Denver Childrens Museum).
s} V-oop)no Jo uinasr^/v aly.
11108 opejO|OQ poo0|6u3 U39J9 s,J0|ppy s 21-89
What you will see is a broad spectrum of art that ranges from what some would call merely decorative art, to that which most will acknowledge to be among the finest examples of high art.
What you will experience is art blended into an environment of several arts architecture and landscape architecture among them.
It is a place for picnics, for familiesfor children as well as for adultsfor purposeful walking, for leisurely strolling, or for just lying in the sun. In all, it is for experiencing the joys of art.
It is a place that exists because of generositybecause of thoughtful gifts from the John Madden Company and many other prominent area businessesa foundation created to assure continuity for the belief that art is as enhanced by being a full part of life as life is enriched by the accessible presence of art.
Welcome to The Museum of Outdoor Arts.
It is our hope that you will want to see all the Museums 31 pieces. If this is too much for a single tour, you can divide it into several. Complete auto routes, walking routes and key services are shown in this legend.
The central, foldout map shows the entirety of the Museum and the location of all its art.
The Museum of Outdoor Arts. It is yours to enjoy in whatever ways are comfortable to you at the momentor over many moments.
Groups, from school children to senior citizens, are cordially invited for tours with or without a personal tour guide. A simple telephone call is all thats needed to make the arrangements. Just call 303 741 3609 and ask for The Museum of Outdoor Arts.
Again, welcome.
TOUR LEGEND
RESTAURANTS
RESTROOMS
PUBLIC TELEPHONE
RTD BUS SERVICE
UPDATED BUS SCHEDULES CAN BE OBTAINED BY CONTACTING RTD.
RECOMMENDED
(CARS)
RECOMMENDED
(WALKING)
PARKING AREA
ROUTE
ROUTE
i


S. Quebec Street

m
E. Berry Avenue
cm
Plaza
Marin I
Lincoln
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The Triad
Quebec Court II
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Greenwood Plaza
William McKinley Carson Park
Greenwood Village Town Hall
laplewood Avenui
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REGIONAL MAP
Stapleton Inti. Airport
Colfax Ave.
Downtown
E. Peakview Ave.
Hampden Ave.
Belleview Ave.
Orchard Road
Arapahoe Road
Centennial
Airport
MAP OF ART PRESENTLY IN THE MUSEUM OF OUTDOOR ARTS
1. ITALIAN LIGHT FIXTUF^S Original cast by Michelangelo
2. GOSSIPSHarry Marinsky
3. ST. FRANCIS Harry Marinsky
4. ROMANESQUE LIONS ReproductionsOriginals 1100 AD
5. HIPPOPOTAMUS Giovanni Antonazzi
6. FOUNTANA DEI PUTTINI Mario Moschi
7. THREE CANVASSES Joe Snyder
8. MERCURY
Reproduction: Giovanni Da Bologna .9, ST. FRANCISunknown
10. TWO GREEK DOGSunknown
11. TWO MARZOCCO LIONS Reproductions: Donatello
12. LARGE SPINDLE PIECE Henry Moore
13. CHILD OF PEACE Lynn Tillery
14. THE PROCELLINO Pietro Tacca
15.SEVEN HARLEQUINS Harry Marinsky
16. AT HARLEQUIN PLAZA Michele Brower
17. BRONZE BEAR Giovanni Antonazzi
18. GOSLAR WARRIOR Henry Moore
19. BLACK SPRING Joseph Raffael
20. FROGGiovanni Antonazzi
21. RESISTANCELeslie Atkinson
22. HISTORIC BUILDING DIRECTO
23. PHILOSOPHERIvan Mestrovic
24. RESTING LIONS Giovanni Antonazzi
25. MOTHER BEAR AND CUBS Benjamino Bufano
26. SINE CERA
27 OF ONE HEART George Carlson
28. BROOKLYN BRIDGE Red Grooms
29. DEPARTURE George Lundeen
30. PRIMAVERA Emilio Martelli
31. BIRTH OF VENUS
. Emilio Martelli


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CONTOUR INTENTALI I1
ONLT THOSE UTILITIES WHICH WERE TISIILE AT THE TIIC OF THE FIELD IERIFICATION ARE SHOWN HEREON.
BENCHMARK*
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D. 9722.SS 9714.09 (NE.) 9714.13 ME.) 9714.29 (SM.) 9714.2) (8M.)
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY THE JOHN MADDEN COMPANY
ARAPAHOE COUNTY
STATE Of COLORADO JUNE 21. ISSS
WILSEY A HAMf INC.
ENGINEERS PLANNERS SURVETORS
2420 WEST 2STH AVENUE / PENTHOUSE 0 DENVER, COLORADO S02II (303) 4S8-S540


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THE CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS AT FIDDLERS GREEN
An Architectural Thesis presented to the School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Paul Gregory Heflin
Spring 1987


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Thesis & Project. Statement. .............
BACKGROUND
History of Theater Design ................
A Guide to the The Museum of Outdoor Arts
SITE
Description ..............................
Site Location ............................
Vicinity Map .............................
Context Plan .............................
Circulation ..............................
Topography ...............................
Slope and Drainage Analysis ..............
Existing Site Conditions .................
Setback Requirements .....................
Microclimate .............................
Site Photographs .........................
CLIMATE
Climate Analysis
PROGRAM
Space Requirements Adjacency Matrix ... Area Descriptions ....
CODES AND REGULATIONS
Building Code Analysis Zoning Regulations ...
DESIGN *
APPENDIX ... BIBLIOGRAPHY
be completed Spring Semester, 1987.


I. INTRODUCTION


1
Thesis Statement
" The design of a house for the arts is as important as the art it houses
- Michael John Pittas
Director, Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts
Witnessing of a live artistic performance, whether it be music, theatrical drama, or opera, is a very special event. It is an opportunity for people to open and expand their senses into an area not frequently encountered in the routine of day-to-day living. As Jo Mielziner, in The shapes of Our Theatres states: "people are drawn to the theatre, not merely to be observers, but essentially to share in a communal experience. When an audience is moved to laughter or tears, we act not only as individuals but as a group. What we have in common is not a creed, not a mutual faith, but kindred emotional and intellectual sympathies. When members of an audience are seated, shoulders almost touching and only separated from the surrounding rows, even the repressed individual infectiously responds to the reactions of his neighbors". It would follow then, that the setting for such a special event should complement and enhance the emotional response created by the event. Given that such a premise is acceptable, how does the designer achieve this objective with respect to a specific site?
Fiddlers Green Amphitheater is an 18,000 seat facility occupying 8 acres of scenically strategic land in the Greenwood


2
Plaza South Office Park in Englewood, Colorado. The amphitheater sits atop a knoll, commanding a sweeping view of the South Platte River Valley and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. In the words of its designer, San Francisco Landscape Architect George Hargreaves, Fiddlers Green "is a public space of tremendous visual drama, a place in which people can participate". The designer has, in this case, complemented and enhanced the emotional response felt by the user.
The Center for the Performing Arts will house a multi-use auditorium/theater, a lecture hall/theater, an exhibit area for The Museum of Outdoor Arts, and other attendant spaces. This facility will serve the dual purpose of providing a sheltered environment for the performing arts as well as serving as a gateway to the outdoor amphitheater.
This specific site and situation will provide an opportunity to study the relationship of architecture to the following concepts:
- Transition. The process of transition from an extreme man-made environment to the natural environment.
- Context. The integration of a new structure into a relationship with other structures, both urban and natural in context. This integration will be more difficult to achieve due to the strength and dominance
of the existing structures.
In Genius Loci, Towards A Phenomenology of Architecture. Norberg-Schulz states that "most modern buildings exist in a nowhere, they are not related to a landscape and not to a


3
coherent, urban whole, but live their abstract life in a kind of mathematical-technological space which hardly distinguishes between up and down". This statement adequately describes the character of many modern environments. We see and feel no attachment to nature. The structure exists in a vacuum.
1 believe this phenomenon is best illustrated in many of the new business and technology parks springing up throughout the United States.
At the opposite end of the spectrum we find nature. Many images surface when we contrast the modern, man-made environment referred to above, and nature. A very commonly used adjective in describing this environment is mechanical. Mechanization is perceived as cold, nature is warm. Mechanization is hard, nature is soft. Mechanization is dark, nature is light. Architecture has its roots in the natural. Many of mans
structures mimic structures found in nature. Both form and
function in architecture look to nature as an appropriate model. Examples are numerous; the Egyptian pyramids are "artificial mountains", elements of the prairie style complement the open, flat spaces of the gi-eat plains, and Aaltos use of native materials to recreate the sheltering scale of the Scandinavian forests. It has only been in this century that the art of building has attempted to move away from nature to the mathematical-technological state described by Noi-berg-Schulz.
As mentioned previously, the amphitheater at Fiddlers Green has attempted to bring man and nature together in an atmosphere


4
of celebration. How does the user of such a facility reconcile the polar differences in the two neighboring environments? Reconciliation can be found only through the experience of transition from the man-made to the natural.
Transition is defined as "the process or an instance of changing from one form, state, activity, or place to another". Transition is a natural process. Water falling from a cloud to the earth, then flowing downriver to the ocean is engaged in the process of transition. Our lives, from birth to adolescence to adulthood to death is a process that can be defines as transition. It is clear from these examples that we are referring to a process "a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about an end or a result".
In arriving at a design solution, I am seeking to identify this series of actions, changes, or functions that lead to the
desired result, removing man from an -artifieia 1- he has created
TViWASif
and returning him to a natural environment.
Close-ly related to this concept of transition is context. A contextual relationship exists at the current site; the addition of a new structure will create a contextual relationship of its own. In using the term "architectural context", I am referring to that physical circumstance in which a structure is situated.
An alternate definition would be "the essential meaning of a given situation". It is clear from the earlier discussion that we have a natural context on-site and an urban, man-made context
\


5
immediately off-site. The solution for the design of the performing arts center should respond appropriately to both contexts.
It would be useful to further define "meaning" in order to get a clearer understanding of what an appropriate contextual solution to this problem might be. Meaning in its most basic sense, is defined as "that which is signified by something; what something represents". Norberg-Schulz, in Genius Loci. says that meaning is the fundamental human need. Man attaches meaning to all objects he comes into contact with. This is necessary in order to validate mans perceptions.
In examining the content of meanings found in the two distinct contexts at the site, we can find clues that will point to an appropriate response.
Several basic elements combine to define the meaning of the natural environment. Ancient mythologies defined these elements as heaven and earth. A number of "things" such as mountains, trees, and vegetation served as unifying elements. These elements, as was widely believed, held heaven and earth together as a single unit. Water was an element that gave identity to the earth; clouds, the sun, the moon, and the stars gave identity to the heavens. These elements interacted with one another to give the landscape, and specific locations within the landscape, meaning.
At Fiddlers Green Amphitheater we find an interaction among elements that occurs and brings meaning to the site. These


6
elements include the landscape, the sky, the horizon, the mountains, light, and weather. The broad, sweeping landscape
meets with the sky and spreads for miles before the viewer. This landscape is framed by the mountains in the distance. Lighting conditions vary throughout the day and combine with frequently changing weather conditions to create distinct characters.
This range of characters is complemented by the intimacy of the amphitheater itself. The landscape is sculpted to focus the visitor to the stage. Vegetation is employed to bring a sense of seclusion and to buffer the visitor from outside elements such as wind and noise. These elements serve to introduce the natural environment into the performance; the visitor sees the stars as he listens to a musical performance, he feels the wind, he loses his sense of time, he momentarily loses touch with the man-made world.
This natural context, albeit enhanced by man-made modification, lies in direct contrast to the context of the adjacent man-made environment. What distinguishes man-made context from natural context?
The man-made context visualizes, complements, and symbolizes mans understanding of his environment. In short, man-made context gives meaning to mans environment.
Man-made context is determined by concepts such as articulation and enclosure.
Articulation determines how a building stands and rises, and how it receives light. Articulation is mans way of applying


7
meaning, through symbolic forms, to his structures.
This symbolization occurs through both simple and complex articulation. The Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C. is an excellent example of mans symbolization demonstrated through minimal articulation. Conversely, the Gothic Cathedrals found in European cities such as Cologne and Strasburg accomplish symbolization with a highly detailed articulation.
Spatial definition and organization is achieved through enclosure. Enclosure determines the boundary between the natural and the man-made. Robert Venturi says of this inside-outside relationship, "Architecture occurs at the meeting of interior and exterior forces of use and space".
How are articulation and enclosure used in modern office parks such as the one found adjacent to the site? I believe that in many instances, minimal articulation and maximum enclosure are employed.
This minimal articulation is a product of the modernist movement. The so-called box symbolizes the efficiency of the industrial (and corporate) world. Perhaps this concept of efficiency has been overemphasized. Perhaps other human needs could also be symbolized in our commercial structures. At any rate, an efficiently articulated structure or group of structures immediately adjacent to a natural environment such as that found at Fiddlers Green poses a contextual contrast for this site.
Enclosure in this man-made environment is, in many cases,


8
absolute. The visitor/user enters through a door and is at once completely severed from the external environment. The building refuses to acknowledge the existence of the surrounding landscape or structures.
Yet, even the sterile, man-made environment such as the one described possesses context; the designer must address this context. A natural context and an urban context exist immediately adjacent to the site. To create a structure that responds to either context exclusively would be to ignore the contextual dilemma. The Performing Arts Center should appropriately respond to this difference in context.
The setting of this facility, as well as the particular purpose of this facility, will necessarily, I believe, call for a complex design solution. Anything less will rob the site of its special character and will rob the visitor of a unique experience.


II. BACKGROUND


9
THE HISTORY OF THEATER DESIGN
Western, or European, drama has its roots in three distinct time periods: in ancient Greece, in the eaily Middle Ages, and in the Renaissance. The form and function of the physical facilities for drama, the theatre, has been molded by the demands of the art itself. In each case, these physical settings generated conventions which the audience accepted but which in turn began to modify the event that they had come to witness. Imperceptibly they placed a gulf between the audience and the performer, in the sense that the stage increasingly became a world of its own. When a new form of drama, with a different physical setting, took the place of the old, the r-elationship between the audience and performer was re-established in a new way.
Early Greek theater originated through religious ritual. The great festival of Dionysus at Athens was essentially a religious ceremony. The ceremony lasted seven days with religious drama, both comedy and tragedy, occupying four days. As time passed, the people incorporated more mythological material and the dialogue and mime that carried the story along became more prominent.
The theater held a special place in Greek life. Drama festivals were held frequently, and the functions the city came to a halt; businesses closed, the city government closed, and women and children were allowed to enter the theaters (most public places were the province of men only during this period).


10
The Greek theaters were essentially outdoor auditoriums. The original acting and dancing area (the orchestra) was simply a circle cut into a hillside, surrounded on three sides by tiers of seats. As time passed, this circular area was probably reserved for the chorus, with the actors standing behind it on a slightly raised stage. The actors dressed and prepared for their performances in an area behind this raised stage. Originally, the actors used a tent (the root meaning of the word skene), then a small hut was built, with this area eventually evolving into a stone building. The best surviving example of this type of theater is at Epidaurus, dating from the 4th century B.C.. The plan of this theater is presented on the following page.
As time passed, the conventions of drama influenced changes in the design of the theater. The back wall, or skene, gradually became more important until it became an architectural element in its own right. It had three entries, each symbolizing a city or a country, a palace or a temple. Actors could stand on top of the skene as watchmen on towers, or could appear in the windows of the upper floors. This was the first use of backdrops as a part of the theatrical set.
Another interesting feature of this period was the use of the perioktoi. These were wooden posts, triangular in section, painted to represent three different physical environments (i.e., the seashore, mountains, the city). By rotating this object, the actors could inform the audience of the current setting of a particular scene.


Proskenion1
-Skene
Pis. 3, 4. The most complete Greek theatre, and the only one to preserve any real semblance of those used by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, is that of Epidauros, near Athens, built about 350 BC. The oldest feature is the orchestra, the round dancing foot of the chorus. There was probably some form of skene, but the present remains do not enable us to reconstruct it. The plan (left) shows the theatre as it looked in the second century BC with a permanent skene, a stage (proskenion, i.e. in front of the skene) and ramps leading up to it.


12
Hellenistic theater leads without a break into Roman. As the Romans conquered lands to the east they found themselves occupying countries with highly advanced theatrical techniques and these naturally percolated back to Italy. The performances were no longer directly related to a religious cult but they continued to coincide with religious festivals. However, plays were only a part of these festivals, which included races, wild beast fights and so on. It is in Rome that the theatrical businessman was first encountered, the impresario-producer who negotiated with the officials on one hand and dramatists on the other. Actors became professionals, organizing into companies.
Early Roman theaters were constructed of wood, often without seats for the majority of the audience, but they could nevertheless be extremely ornate. The general layout was very similar to the Hellenistic theater, except that the orchestra was smaller. The wooden stage was raised a few feet from the ground, and behind it was the skene, also of wood and painted, containing the three doors. Projecting side buildings, used as dressing rooms, also had a door, so that there were five doors altogether.
By the end of the first century B.C., the Roman theater was constructed of stone and had several characteristics which distinguished it from the Hellenistic theater: it was typically built on level ground in the city as opposed to hillsides in the country, the seats were raised on arches as opposed to being cut into the slope, the scenae frons, or front of the skene, had risen to the full height of the auditorium and was joined at the


13
corners so that the entire facility was enclosed, and the audience entered from the back of the auditorium as opposed to entering from the stage side.
As was typical with most building types constructed by the Romans, the scale of the new theaters tended to be monumental.
The theater occupied a place in Roman civic life not unlike that of the temple, or the forum, the public baths, or the amphitheater. The stage areas and the backdrop became grander and more ornate. Stages were often tiered, the scenae frons became miniature palaces or grand facades resembling the coliseum and other great public structures. The scale and magnificence of some of these structures lead us to question how the plays performed in those days could have competed with the settings.
With the decline of Romes power and influence came the decline of Roman culture and Roman theater. Christianity gradually came to dominate Roman culture by the 5th century A.D. The great theaters stood empty. The tradition of perfoi*-mances gradually disappeared. Between the 5th and 10th centuries a new form of drama developed; a drama based around learning and celebrating the Bible and the gospels of the apostles. Drama moved into the churches with priests and choristers serving as the actors. Latin was the accepted language of these plays.
The breakthrough came when the venacular replaced Latin and the plays emerged from the churches into the market squares. Lay people took control of the plays and organized into craft guilds. Gradually, the dramas expanded from the Gospel story to include


J 4


15
subjects such as the creation and world history.
As drama moved from the church into- the streets, different methods of staging were developed. In England they were performed in the streets on movable carts called pageants. These carts were pulled through the streets, stopping at strategic points to act a scene. Series of scenes, taking place over the length of a city street, were called cycles. These pageants were often
designed to reflect the subject matter of the scenes to be played in them. For example, a pageant was modeled after a boat to house the story of Noahs Ark.
Another notable staging method was that of the scaffold, or a series of stationary pageants with the audience in front of them. What makes these staging methods notable is the non--permanence of them. No longer was it necessary for there to be a formal structure housing the performers and audience. No distinction was made between stage and auditorium. This was to be the beginning of what is known as open theater or theater-in-the-round.
During the period from 1200 to 1500 a new variation of religious plays, the passion plays, became popular. These dealt with mans morality, basically an abstraction of good vs. evil. Many of these plays were staged in the town squares. Often, scaffolds were set up in one corner of the square to house the more important scenes. It was from this setting that drama began to once more appeal to the general populace on a larger scale.
The passion plays drew large audiences to the town square and,


16
eventually, portions of these plays were moved indoors. Theaters were well on the way to their modern form.
The sixteenth century marks the next great turning point in the history of the European theater. Two events led to the birth of the modern theater. In Italy, the Renaissance led to renewed interest in and a re-evaluation of classical literature and drama.
At the same time, the passion plays being performed in northern and western Europe developed to the point that the various scenes and scaffolds were brought together on one central stage.
Many of the classical plays of ancient Rome were being read once more in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries and a desire to see them performed again arose. All over Italy, rulers vied with one another in attracting humanist scholars who could adapt, stage and if required act in the classical plays. These performances were often staged in the halls or outdoor courtyards of noblemens estates. Many architects of this period tried their hand at constructing public theaters, usually with mixed results.
The most common form of theater was the teatro da sala, the converted hall with seats round three sides and scenery at one end. Often the action would be projected to the center of the room with the stage serving as an entry/exit. It was during this period that architects such as Buontalenti and Palladio began experimenting with the form of the classical Roman theatei-.
They attempted to create a livelier interpretation to the


17
classical forms. Ceiling and wall "trims were crafted with a much more ornate flair as was typical of this period. The complexity of the backdrop was increased. Gradually, the passion plays of medieval northern Europe found their way into the theater of Italy. Theaters were now being designed to acommodate both classical and passion plays.
The first half of the seventeenth century saw the formation of all the essential features of what one calls the modern theater the picture-frame stage and its horseshoe-shaped auditorium with tiers of galleries or boxes. The theater at this time was viewed as a place of illusion, a place where everyday events, as well as the supernatural could be dramatised. The creation of this illusion was obviously enhanced by appropriate scenery. This scenery created a picture and the picture needed to be framed. Hence., the creation of the proscenium arch.
The first proscenium stage is generally acknowledged as the Teatro Farnese at Parma, 1627 by Gian-Battista Aleotti. The stage was a composition of monumental Corinthian columns on pedestals, with niches between them holding allegorical statues. This arch framed a deep space where movable scenery could be housed. This stage was deep enough to acommodate up to 10 rows of sliding flats. This facility was built at the beginning of a boom in Italian theater construction. By 1650, almost every Italian court could boast a permanent theater. An interesting development during this period was the development of public theaters in Venice. These facilities were constructed as


18
for-profit enterprises by the noble families. This development ad an immediate effect on the architecture as the architect now had to concern himself with designing and building efficient, cost-effective facilities to acommodate the greatest number of paying customers possible.
At this point in history, all of the practical theater shapes had been tried. Given the artistic and commercial motives that had developed during the early 1600s, it was evident that the proscenium theater would set the standard for future facilities. By the end of the sixteenth century the proscenium theater and auditorium contained the following features: the procenium arch, a stage, a backstage area, a curtain to seperate the stage from the audience, and an auditorium. The seating in the auditorium was most frquently arranged in a horseshoe-shape. This facilitated the social interaction between the members of the audience. It was not until much later that technical issues such as line-of-sight came into play to influence the seating arrangements found in todays facilities.
The element that is lacking in almost every theater prior to the eighteenth century is a concern for ciculation and refreshment and any ambition to give the theaters impressive exteriors. This was to become the objective of theater design over the next 200 years. It is at this point that the design of theater became closely alligned with the practice of architecture in general. No longer was the theater a separate entity without architectural distinction. It was to become, in many instances, one of the



BT...V
.......nun 11 mi H1111 H.LL1,
> i m u~ it ii fWi ittfii in t
J*L\J M -
P/. 56. 77>e stage of the Teatro Farnese. In contrast to the Teatro Olimpico at Vicenza of
some forty years earlier, there is now a single proscenium arch framing a deep space where flats could be manoeuvred.
co


20
most notable architectural objects in the environment.
The one notable exception to this trend was the small, intimate theaters that continued to flourish in northern Europe, particularly England, through the 1600s. Playwrights such as Shakespeare wrote many plays for the open stage. But, as time passed into the 1700s, even these works were carried onto the large proscenium stages in the auditoriums of the larger cities.
Theater design during the next two centuries consisted of enhancing and improving the basic design as well as giving attention to the spaces surrounding the auditorium and stage areas. The coming of age of other art forms also had an impact on theater design. Classical music was in its infancy during this period. This was followed by the marriage of classical music to drama, the opera. These developments, of course, led to a redefinition of acoustical requirements for the theater.
As the societies supporting cultural events become more
sophisticated and affluential, the theater houses did likewise.
(
In Theatres. An Architectural and Cultural History, Simon Tidworth has appropriately titled the period of the late 1700s and the early 1800s as "The Age of Magnificence". This period reached its climax with the construction of the Paris Opera by Charles Gamier during the period 1848 - 1875. This impressive
structure is shown on the following pages.


21
f * t < t .4 .t .< .1 {.f.r.t .r '*-t t, .t.r.,r,A
ir +* +* tf >' >r ir+f *r irir+r+r+r+r+rirtrrrir^+r+f-tr+rrr-tr+r i
f>*r* ciir.
Imiiihmii
rfwaaBii
if &JIB
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Pis. 140, 141. Above: the fafade of the
Opera. Garniers critics, of whom there were many, complained that the base was too squat and the rest too rich, too highly coloured, and looked like a sideboard loaded with knick-knacks. The base is the same height as that of the Louvres east front, said Gamier, who complains about that? As for colour, living every day and every hour in a world full of colour, why should we deny it to architecture? Right: the auditorium, its form based closely on Louis Theatre National. The eyes begin to be gently charmed, then the imagination follows them into a sort of dream; one drifts off into a feeling of well-being.Gamier.
'irmirmr
t il **5.


22


23


24
It is at this point that we enter the subject of theater design in the 20th century, specifically, theater design in the United States.
The twentieth century brought an entirely new attitude toward shaping theaters. In the past, a consistent, developing production technique encouraged the development of the proscenium shape as the accepted form. The United States, as has been the case in many cultural areas, followed Europes lead faithfully. During the latter part of the 1800s and into the 1900s, historicism and scholarship into theater history encouraged the revival of earlier stage forms. It was during the early 1900s that many university groups in the United States began experimenting with the theater-in-the-round and the open-thrust forms. These forms are explained more fully in Appendix F Stage Forms. These forms continued to gain populai'ity during the first half of the twentieth century.
During the 1950s and 1960s technology became an important influence in the design of theaters. Technology allowed for the relatively fast transformation of one stage form into another.. No longer were we limited to a proscenium stage, or an open-thrust stage. We could now integrate two forms into one. In practice, however this has not been easy to do. Two examples in which the designer has achieved some degree of success are The Tyrone Guthrie Theater (proscenium open-thrust) in Minneapolis and Beaumont Theater in Lincoln Center (proscenium open--thrust). A discussion of recent developments in theater design,


such as Appendix
25
multi-form and multi-use facilities is contained in F Stage Analysis.


III. SITE


26
SITE DESCRIPTION
The II Campanile parcel (the site for the proposed facility) is located on East Caley Ave. approximately 400 feet due east of the intersection of East Caley Ave. and South Ulster Street. This parcel is a part of the Greenwood Plaza South Office Park. East Caley Avenue has recently been renamed Fiddlers Green Circle. The II Campanile parcel covers approximately 1.98 acres (86,250 square feet). The parcel contains 112 of street frontage on Fiddlers Green Circle and extends 460 south from the street (see topographic map, figure 5). A large open air amphitheater (Fiddlers Green) excavated approximately 40 into the ground is located immediately southwest of the parcel.
The majority of the site gently slopes down towards the north with a maximum difference in elevation across the site on the order of 14. This represents slopes in the range of 1% -5%. Drainage on the site is uniform with the exception of a slight swale running along the western edge of the parcel at the base of the walkway leading to the adjacent amphitheater (see figure 6).
Appendix A contains the soils report for the II Campanile parcel. A desciiption of materials encountered is presented below:
Man-made Fill: Man-made fill was found at several locations throughout the site varying in depth from 1 to 3 feet. The soils report did not determine the exact vertical and lateral coverage of this fill. The


27
man-made fill consisted of sandy to very sandy clay in a slightly moist to moist state. The fill appeared to be in an uncompacted to slightly compacted state.
Natural Clays: The natural overburden soils at the site consist of sandy to very sandy clay varying in depth between 6 and 16 feet. Swell-consolidation tests indicate that the overburden clays possess a nil to low swell potential upon being loaded and wetted.
Bedrock: Claystone and sandstone bedrock of the Denver B'ormation was encountered beneath the overburden soils at a depth of between 7 to 17 feet. At a depth of 80 feet, the sandstone bedrock changes to conglomeratic with volcanic rock fragments changing to extremely hard conditions. The unconfined strength of these bedrocks generally range from 4,950 to 65,180 psf. A sample of the cemented sandstone bedrock, obtained at a depth of 111 feet, indicated an extremely high unconfined compressive strength of 1,276,250 psf. These compressive strengths will be capable of supporting high vertical and lateral loads with minimal deformation. Specifics of the soils report and foundation recommendations are contained in Appendix A.
Existing vegetation on the site is limited, consisting of 3 rows of seedling pines planted along the periphery of the parcel at 10 on-center, and native prairie grasses covering the remainder of the parcel. Figure 7 provides the locations of


28
existing vegetation as well as the location of adjacent features to the site.
The views from the site are somewhat limited. An embankment exists along the western and southwestern boundaries of the parcel. This effectively cuts off the view of the Front Range. Locations at the northern portions of the parcel do have a limited view of the Front Range. Currently, users at the site have access to northerly and easterly views which consist of office buildings and parking structures. The preliminary development plan for the surrounding business park indicates the addition of several new office towers with heights ranging from 140 200. This will further impact the views. Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the described views.
Water and Sanitary Sewer mains are located below Fiddlers Green Circle. An existing 14 utility easement lies along Fiddlers Green Circle; this will be used to bring electrical and natural gas supplies to the site. Figure 5 provides the
exact locations of the utilities and easements described here.


FIGURE 1.


FIGURE 2
VICINITY MAP
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FIGURE 3.
_ omcz-vT% KECREATIOH K$sa FAFKIWa
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EXISTIN6 mivms
ADJ/mir TO SITE.
6£AL£: \"~ZOO'


FIGURE 4.
AUTOMOBILE.
pBpesraiAM wwsis *t//

CIRCULATION
5CAL&: \**200§


FIGURE 9.


m to
FIGURE 10


FIGURE 11
No. 1
No. 2


No. 3
No. 4


9 ON
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No. 7
No. 8


IV. CLIMATE


42
CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Denver is located on the South Platte River at the juncture of the Great Plains and the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The city enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region.
Four primary airmasses influence the weather in the region: Artie airmasses from Canada and the Northwest, Pacific airmasses modified by passing overland, warm dry air from Mexico and the Desert Southwest, and warm moist airmasses originating in the Gulf of Mexico.
Denvers pleasant climate results largely from the cities location on the east slope of the Rockies in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. This moderates temperatures, with averages ranging from 30 degrees in January to 73 degrees in
July. Summer high temperatures are generally 90 degrees or less. Occasionally, short periods of 95 - 100 degree tempera-
tures occur when winds aloft carry desert air from the southwest over Denver. In the winter, invasions of cold air from the north occur periodically; some of these invasions can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many artic airmasses that spread
southward from Canada over the plains are too shallow to reach
Denvers altitude and move off to the east. Winter airmasses
that originate in the Pacific Ocean are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains. In many instances these cold airmasses will push warmer air along in front of them. The resulting chinook winds can raise the


43
temperatures to far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the winter season.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, Denver typically enjoys a low relative humidity. Annual snowfall averages 63 inches, but continual snow cover is unusual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation averages a little more than 15.5 inches a year, with most of it falling from April through June. Thunderstorms occur fairly frequently on summer afternoons.
Denver has an average of 6283 Yearly Degree Days (based on 65 degrees F) with an average relative humidity ranging from 32% in July to 54% in November.
MICROCLIMATE
Several factors influence specific climatical conditions at the site. These are graphically summarised in figure 9.
The rows of evergreens planted along the western and southwestern edges of the parcel, coupled with the embankment leading into the amphitheater, shelter much of the site from westerly winds and northwesterly winds encountered in the winter. While the s site is open to winds from the north, the north-south orientation of the parcel will minimize exposure. The site is open to southerly winds with the exception of the area noted in figure 9.
In general, the site receives excellent solar exposure.
Once again, the trees planted along the western and southwestern boundaries of the parcel will effect the microclimate. These


44
trees will provide shading to the western portion of the site in the late afternoon.


TEMPERATURES F
Nofmii Eitr*m
E f E : >
x: % D >1 ~ i >1 : ; E r. 5 If V, & z o f w.
s Q E E , 5 X £ > x 5 >-
r-r
( ! i *4 4*
j *3.> 16.2 ! 29.9 72 193* -23 1963
F A 6 2 i.*! 32.1 76 1963 -30 1936
H 50. i 23.8 i 37.0 8* 1971 -U 19*3
A 61.0 3j.y ; *7.3 83 i960 .2 1973
N 70.i *3.6 ' 37.0 96 19*2 22 195*
J 80.1 51.9 1 *6.0 1C* 19J* 30 1951
J 87,* 58.6 | 73.0 106 l9J* *3 1972
A 85. 57.** 71.6 101 1938 41 1964
s 77.7 *7.8 i *2.8 97 1*60 20 1971
0 66.8 37.2 | 32.0 88 ^9*7 3 1969
N 53. J 25.* j 39.* 79 1 9 1 - 1950
0 46.2 H.9 ; 32.6 7* 1939 -I* 1972
*E8
Y* 6* 0 36.2 | 30.1 10* 1*39 hjo 1936
IMPORTANT:
The time period covered by this record is limited; see footnotes to Normals. Means & Extremes (next spread) for explanation and for additional history of the EXTREME HIGHS AND LOWS recorded in the general area.
Station: denve*/ c^n**oo
i 230*2
STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AP
Latitude: N
Longitude: io* 52 *
Elevation (ground): *2>3


Normals, Means, And Extremes
Monm Normal Degree days Rase 65 *F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity pet. Wind ! 1 ] I i i i if 8 2 > o I! Mean number of days Avaregy nation pressure mb.
Water equivalent Sno*. Ic* pellets 1 05 U § X 11 oca l X 17 tims i X 23 ) I c -f n Is £ x> Fastest mile Sunn tt to sunset a X c. if *3 r e a 5 1; II E S 1 K > f > 1 i > A 1 * Temper at Max ores *F Min.
? i X r l 1 Z ft n 1 > i > Jl i > If IN 2i i > E £ 11 E if w n 5 E l > 1! i 1 5 i > 6 u l! a. o i U (hi ll Si & o 11 bi Elev m.s.1.
a 44 44 44 44 44 16 It i* ! 90 13 29 19 24 10 44 44 44 44 44 ** 18 i* i* i* 6
JIN 10M 0 O.M 1.66 J 9 4 6 1952 1 .Of 29.7 1940 12. * 1061 61 43 0 63 9.1 03 N 1476 71 9.9 10 9 It 6 2 0 i 0 6 10 4 96.1
F F B *02 0 0.67 1.66 I960 0.01 1970 i.oi 1933 11.9 1960 0.3 19)9 66 43 2 64 9.1 64 NW 1999 71 9.9 0 9 n 2 2 0 4 *7 1 134.5
1*8 0 1.21 2.B7 194*. O.H 1943 1.40 1999 2 9.2 1961 16.1 1032 67 41 0 63 10.0 33 hw l9l 70 6,1 0 10 11 8 1 0 26 1 31,0
Aft 929 0 1.99 4.17 194^ 0.01 1961 1.23 1067 21.3 1933 17.1 193 7 60 30 93 39 10*4 16 NW I960 17 6,1 7 10 11 1 0 0 12 e ,92.9
mar 2D 0 2.64 7.11 195 t 0.06 1974 1.59 1073 13.6 1930 10,7 1950 70 36 36 60 9.6 14 SE 1470 63 6,1 6 12 11 10 6 i 1 e 0 t 0 834.0
JUN 0 110 i. 4.69 190 l 0.10 1940 1.16 i70 0.1 1931 0.1 1951 71 10 96 60 9.1 47 S 1996 71 i.i ! * 19 1 * 0 10 6 0 0 0 ,9,. 9
JJl 0 l* 1.91 6.41 196^ 0,17 199 2,42 1*63 0.0 0.0 70 36 13 37 8.3 36 w 1963 71 6.9 , 16 6 9 11 13 0 0 0 ,97.0
AiG 0 100 1.2. 4.47 1951 0.06 i960 1.4) 1031 0.0 0.0 69 36 93 50 0.2 62 N 1971 72 6.9 10 i* 7 0 0 8 i 10 0 0 0 9*.*
S'P 1*0 1% 1.11 4.67 1961 7 1944 2.44 21.3 1936 10,4 19.6 69 31 93 60 1.2 67 NM 1999 73 6.9 l> 10 7 6 1 1 2 0 1 0 ll 7
on 400 3 1.11 4.17 196V 0.09 1902 1.71 1047 11.2 1969 W.4 1969 64 33 93 30 1*2 63 NW 1931 73 6.4 1* 9 3 1 1 1 0 4 0 91.1
NPv 760 0 0.76 2.97 [1946 0.01 194 1.29 1075 19.1 1946 19.9 1946 61 44 44 66 0*7 68 W 1461 65 9. 11 9 10 3 2 1 0 2 2* 191.6
DFC 106* 0 0.61 2.1* lTi 0.09 1979 1.99 1973 90.* 1973 11. 1*79 68 44 >0 64 0*0 *1 Nf 199 9.1 1 10 10 3 2 0 1 0 1 >0 1 ll.*
SAV SEP MAY NQV Sfp JUl
Vf AS 0OU 613 19.91 T.Jl |l95' T 11044 1.35 1*79 99.1 1946 10.4 1936 67 40 *0 *i 0.0 3 16 !W 1769 70 9.9116 in 118 i i* ! *i 10 11 21 t 1>.
FOOTNOTES
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Highest temperature 105 in August 1078; maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in May 1876: minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 in December 1881; maximum precipitation in 24 hours 6.53 in May 1876: maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1913; maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885: fastest mils of wind 65 from West in May 1933.
() Length o< record, years, through the NORMALS Rased on record for the 1941-1970 period.
Current year unless otherwise noted, DATE OF AM EXTREME The most recent 1n cases of multiple
based on January data. occurrence.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
Less than one half.
T Trace.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Ntmwrals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed Is fastest observed 1-mlnute value when the direction Is 1n tens of degrees.
DENVER. COLORADO


Monthly Range of Average Temperatures
JAN MAR MAY JUL SEP NOV
FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC
Month


AVERAGE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
O
O
<:
tz
Cl
o
LxJ
oc
CL
JAN MAR MAY JUL SEP NOV
FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC
MONTH
LEGEND
PRECiP IN
INCHES


AVERAGE MONTHLY SNOWFALL
00
LlJ
m
o
FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC
MONTH
LEGEND
SNOWFALL


V. PROGRAM


50
SPACE REQUIREMENTS (in Sq. Ft.)
Reception/Entry 200
Eox Office 600
Lobby-Auditorium 3,000
Theater 2,000
Museum 1,000
Offices 1,000
Total: 8,000
Cloak Rooms (2) 1,750
Restrooms 2,000
Admin. Offices-P.A.C. 4,850
Museum 1,950
Total: 6,800
Conference Room 750
Museum/Exhibit Space 2,200
Refreshment Bar 800
Auditorium 1,000 seats 8,000
Auditorium Stage (proscenium) 2,600
Theater/Lecture Hall 750 seats 6,000
Theater Stage (open) 1,000
Catering Pantry 1,000
Green Rooms (2) 1,200
Individual Practice Cubicles (6-8) 450
Dressing Rooms (10) 1,200
Wardrobe/Costume Shop 1,400
Scenery Workshop 2,000
Storage Rooms (2) 1,800
Shipping & Receiving 800
Maintenance/Mechanical 1,000
Circulation + 15% 7,670
Total Required Square Footage
60,820 Sq.
Ft.


51
LEGEND:
PRIMARY ADJACENCY
SECONDARY ADJACENCY
%
NO ADJACENCY COMPLETE SEPARATION
RECEPTION/ENTRY
BOX OFFICE___________
LOBBY-AUDITORIUM
LOBBY-THEATER________
LOBBY-MUSEUM_________
LOBBY-OFFICES________
CLOAK ROOMS__________
RESTROOMS____________
OFFICES-MUSEUM_______
OFFICES-P.A.C._______
CONFERENCE ROOM
MUSEUM GALLERY_______
REFRESHMENT BAR
AUDITORIUM___________
AUDITORIUM STAGE
THEATER______________
THEATER STAGE________
CATERING PANTRY
GREEN ROOM A_________
GREEN ROOM B_________
REHEARSAL ROOM_______
PRACTICE ROOMS_______
DRESSING ROOMS_______
COSTUME/WARDROBE SCENERY WORKSHOP STORAGE-AUDITORIUM STORAGE-THEATER SHIPPING & RECEIVING MAINTENANCE/JANITORIAL MECHANICAL




ACTIVITIES:
THE. PRIMARY PURPOSE cf THE.
EcK office is to zm-Tiqc£[S.
EMPLOYEES UIU.ALSO CCOZOT Tlaas FDR SOME. EVEN15.
this office. will also Handle. T1CLETS FOR. THE AfTfUtTWEATER. THIS AREA LULL E£ USED MOST
mwuncf e-y fxircws wep/A
PRIOR. TO AN Ha/EMT.
SQUARE FEET:
(e £3
USERS:
VISIT EM PUTT EES
DESIGN NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS: 3-4 TICKET UiiMCDLJS
LOCATED AT ENTRY, BUT SHOULD HOT INTERFERE WITH THE FLOW OF TRAFFIC.
ONE ENTRT/EXIT
e& CLEARLY IDENTIFIED,
EASILY LOCATED
INCLUDE AHY AMENITIES? TreaetE TO W£ SIMJDI.US IN UNES ECLPA6Lg.
PAIUNSSTO CONTPOLUNES
SAFE FACILITIES
COMPUTER. HCDE-UF5
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
SHOULD COMMUNICATE EFFICIENCY LIGHT, FRIENDLY
ADJACENCIES:
53
SPACE: W cmcz-


ACTIVITIES:
The lobbies serve, as tie *GATUERtfJ& flACE^ FOR PEOPI4E ENTERING THE Pfl^UTY. FrORTHE Logies ACUoiNlKte PERFORMANCE-Areas, pm Use will be ANDAfTEf2- PERFORMANCES/ AMD £UfclN6 |NTERMie>^ONS.TH£ LPeeiES ADJACENT TO fWE noSBJ* AMD OFflCE$ WILD EXPEQBbJCE.
tvm CONTINUAL USE. THESE SPA$U UlLt serve, AS A PLACE TO RESf.
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
- use TO m=|sE ^RXJLATlOKi
OTAR AND ADEQUATE eMT^ into pepeornance
SOUND BARRIERS NEEDS)
detueen lom c pcrf spaces
SQUARE FEET:
AUDlfPRUn theater MUSEUM of pices
SCOD Zooo 2000 igeo
TOTALS SPED 13
USERS:
ALL VISITT^S
EMPLOYEES
* |T^TORMERE)(c^5I0^NjLv{)
NEEDS:
seating
PUBLIC PHONES
ARTWORK., tbCJULPPJRES
INFCRrlAT/oN EOApDS
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
STRONG FaAT/ONsM IP TD ENTW "RAOE OF APRJVAL"
VISUAUY SEPARATE FROM &ATHERJN6 PLACE.
PEFPDRM|ANC£. area.
ADJACE
EkTFT
PERFOBMAU ARE-AS
AUDiTtffclUM THEATCfc
MU5EDM
LOPFIceE-
5*f


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THESE. AREAS LULL Be USED ID SJCRE- COATS, 6iaj£S,ck.
AUDITORIUM
THEATER.
POP. LAPSE NUMBERS <3F PATPOJ3 DUPING fWOFMAMCES ftAR ua^e HILL OCCUR
TOTAL:
USERS:
looo
15Q
\150 0
FX&&- AMD AfW> EVEUT5
* VISITORS TO EVEKJJ5
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
* eeO)RA&LE-
* EASX TO FIND/ACCESSIBLE-
NEEDS:
£OAT 4 GfiftfDJT STORAGE. fA^UTItS
SeaJRlTY Uarplwe.
ODuMreps attendants
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
.SEOURE-
ADJACENCIES:_
FZtFoizn t^ct


1
55
SPACE: 2LOAR fZOCTlS (2)


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
PUHX P-ESrpccrls. THESE.
etvuLP ee ajuviEMU-Y legated R9P- THE USERS. TWCr SHOULP
Y7TIFLY WITH HAWPILAP AiXes/plUTY &UP&UKIES,
6&K. pUILDIkJa EOPt AAlALYSts)
1,753 tpOO 0
USERS:
* ALL USER'S cp THE EAEJUTY
DESIGN
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
NMJOICAR AOESbl&Lt
CLEARLY MARKED
< PEOTY, AMPLE- aPCOLATICW 3T^E.
EEMTEALL.Y LOCATED, NEAR PEPH9PMAM£ AUt> UOeeY AREAS
PER EUILPINJ6 CODE. MEM> <\ UATEP- OPSE1S 10 URIUALS 7 LAVATOPIES
uoirao 22 water ELceers
7 LAVATORI ES
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
CLEAAJ
* BPI6HT


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS Ata£A MILL SE^e THE 6TAPE (6) OF TME. MUSEUM
FECEPTIok} DIRECTORS CFfICE. SECgETAR/
STUDIO
TOTAL____________
MOD
509
509
750
M6Q g
MAMAGEP/lDl PtCT&Ps EXeUTlV/fe SECRETARY 3 GRAPHICS PEFSOMMEL gECEPT/OKllST
USERS:
'EM PUT/EES fcJSIKJESS ASSOCIATES
DESIGN
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
m^FTlONJ AP£A
' ADEQUATE VIEU5 To THE OUTSIDE.
SEOUREP AFTTR business HOOPS
5MALL STUDIO Af^A fOR GRAPHICS PEPSOMMEL
SEATIKJG
'5HEU/1NJ6 4 RUMS AREAS GRAPHICS AREA SMALL KlTCLlEM AREA
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
' EXTERlOR U6KTIK& 10 /KJSIjPEL "CLEANf, CTOJ, nOD£PM
ADJACENCIES:
FOR EFFICIENT, THE CUEAfT UiCOLD UYZ THIS AREA ADJAOEMT TO 0FFICE5 fWTML P.A.C. STUDIO
Areas could ee shaped.
SPACE: AmiMISimiVE. 6FFICE5 THt I1U5E0H FOJWDATfOJ


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
4 rUMASERS OFFICES
THIS AREA WILL SERVE THE STAFF (ICO OF THE PERFORM IUS APTS CEEJTE£ (p.A.C.)
SeCFETARJAL
STUDIO
ReCEPTlDNJ
ICTAl ____
| (c&O
\ooo
1500
750
M35Q 0
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
* 5E£ PREVIOUS PA6E
USERS:
- mpuxtes 0 Bust MESS ASSOCIATES PEfZWfzriEPS
NEEDS:
couputzk um£ ui/pd* omce. posrpwn polities see. previous pase. p^otmbps
* SHCULD 5E EXPAMCmE-
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
*"CfcE&nv/e" ATMCSpMEgE-
o^KJ/ mocp^kj
ADJACENCIES:_
see devious Ffcse.
56
SPACE: ADMINISTRATIVE- OFFICES-THE FEPFofzm^ ARTS


ACTIVITIES:
THIS AREA LULL Cfc USED FOR
SQUARE FEET:
SWF MEETINSS, eo*PP nmiWSS 75? P
MEPTIW5S WITH PUSfWESS
ASSOCIATES, PEpfOPMEBS, MEDIA.--------------------
VEAlPO^ek.. USERS:
tt
c
m
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
TRADTOOMAL F=URMISiM<3S? MODERN FUFMSHiWGS?
. view to oueside
easy Access fpot u*Y
EMPLOYEES
* BUSINESS ASSOCIATES
BOARD MEMBERS
NEEDS:
AUDIWISUAL KWHTIPUT/fAEIUTIES
SMALL COFFEE. EAR
STORASE. SPACE-
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
PRIVATE
EFFICIENT ."COM FE£[ALE'
ADJACENCIES:.
]p (1
nospuKi f A
offices II 0fFlC£S
<|4 l^
u_ .. f
I \(per\c.)
EST


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
£XUie>IT5 REUTIKJ6 ID THE MUSEUM Or OUTDOOR A&CS
lull ee displayed here.
MILL ALSO SfKVp AS iMfmiATCKl OENTEP (see DESCRIPTION (OF v
The- museum of amxmp&s)
EXW5fT5 RJiLL A(SO BE STORED AND PPePAgED WERE.
EXHIBIT AREA
UJOfWOI
5IDRA6E
TOTAL
USERS:
VISITORS
EMPLOYEES
1200 5 CO 500
2.7.CO 0
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
SMOOTH TFAfftCRaa
VERSATILE, EYPAl^tmE
SHOULD NOT COD PETE LHTH
ex Hi errs
NEEDS:
APPROPRIATE SfCTUG^TlKJ^
display spaces c panels
OPAP^lOS/OARppNTPY WOPJCAREA
INPOPMATIOM DESK,DISPLAYS
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
&UIET
"communioative"
ADJACENCIES:
60
-33vys n-aiHya/urocnH :3QVdS


ACTIVITIES:
THE. EAR SHOULD BE. AkJ AREA WHERE PATPOJS MAT RELAX AMP MIW&LE BEFORE AND AFTER PERFORMANCES AMD DURING INTERMISSIONS. AlEOHOUE BEVERAGES, COFFEE, AHD =MAU- SMACKS WILL ec SERVED.
SQUARE FEET:
0CO 0
USERS:
audiences
PERFORMANCES
CATERING FEpSONMEL
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
'THE S1CRA3E AHD SERVING CF RXP shcud EE FACILITATED
5PATIAN DIFFERENTIATION FROM ClRLUATicN AHP LOBBY AREAS
NEEDS:
BAR AND VENDCRAFEA
* LIMITED SEATING
APPROPRIATE LIGHTING
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
AM IMTIMATE,RELAXED __ _
ATMOSPHERE 3AC0LD BE CRESTED
ADJACENCIES:
* auditorium LoeeT' M ' | mm i
- !
FEFWEUmJT
lt T^&ATE-P. r f=w==if] £ATE.£IK&
' L0W5< PWfzy r
(A
SPACE: REFRESHMENT EAR


SPACE: AliPITOglUM
Hi
..
1*11*1 Prills*
^ ^ "TpE
J£^l$

[Z Q>
(f)
Jill
im
eg
3 j2
2

111
t i
o 0


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS AREA WILL SERVE AS A SECONPftfEf PERFORMANCE AREA IM THE. FACILITY. THIS
theater/hall lull, contain
AN OPEW-THTCCT STAGE (SEE APPENDIX r). THIS SPACE SHOOP BE OF A HOPE INTIMATE NATURE THAN THE LAR5EF-AUDITORIUM- FERRDRMANCE TffK WILL RANGE FROM LECTURES ID CHAMFER MUSIC TP PRAHA.
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
EASE CF TRAFFIC FLOW
PROVIDE NAWDlGAP SEATING
5EATIWG Fop. 750 (* & 0 F/PepsCKl CjOX? E)
USERS:
AUDIENCE
* Enpicrees
NEEDS:
ADEQUATE ACCUSTICAL DESIGN
adequate line OF SIGHT
AUDIOVISUAL EflUIPMENT/paclUlleS SFmJGUTINS
AISLE LIGHTING
SEE THE FOUOLHN5 FOR DESIGN GUfDEUUES'. APPENDIX C SEATING APPENDIX D ACOUSTICS
Appendix e lighting
APPENDIX F STAGE SHAPES
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
INTIMATE
INWARD FOCUSING
ADJACENCIES:.
C/)
5
o
m


SPACE: AUPITOftlUM STAGE.
tj-
IfpiiiL
00 srsS&Sfc-^
wl<
fcggS
CO
s.
o
i r
Cv-
i= O
O to ak
M Z
LLI O w-- ^ r-
Q O ^<3 gi P
x
S uJ
M
^ ^ U-
7<0 U"
5. y.
Q
3


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THE OPEN-THRUST STAGE RW WILL ee EMPLOTCP IN THE THEATER/LEOURE HAIL. THE STAGE WILL BE PM PCD (WTO
a razestage anp a bace-
i,a 0
STAGE. THE TWO AREAS SHOULD ee SCfARAetZ THIS STAGE. klILL BE USED TO AfiOMMOPATE GUEST SPEALEfs/LECTURERS AWD SFlALLpR husical/CRat'Tatic.
USERS:
PEmmefs
DIRECTORS
STAGE OPERATORS
PERFORMANCES
DESIGN
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
fiTFESTASE AMD BAOSTAGE SHOULD BE SEFARABLE-. AUOW ROR EAST ACCESS To THE SCR/ICE. AREAS.
FOR ADDITIONAL DESIGN GUIDELINES, SEE
APPENDIX E- STAGE ITJpns
ACOUSTICAL A LIGHTING EGOlfMENT
CURTAIN OR DIVIDERS TO 005E PEP PORTION OF STAGE
ORE TRAP AREA
PARTIAL FLYING STS1EH
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
back-stage
SERVICE
AREAS

SPACE: THEATER tTAJL


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS AREA will SERVE- AS A ROD PPEFAPATICW Am. THIS ROD WIU. BE SERVED AT THE-REFRESHMENT EAR AS WELL AS
at tARsER RecepnoNs IH the
10BBIE, OFFICES, CR GREEN ROOM:. THIS AREA MILL BE USED FRMariu BEFORE AND AFTER. EVENB.
DESIGN
I000 0
USERS:
'CATERING PERSONNEL OTHER EHFU7TEES
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
* KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
UU. HAVE. A UNITED KITCHEN AREA.
SERVICE POORS TO DCTER.IOR APPROPRIATE. VENTILATION AMD MECHANICAL equipment
EASE. OF "TRAFFIC. PI
' REFRIGERATION SKRASE
* UAsrt Disposal ST5TEM
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:
SCRJICE
-EWTKf
£ATE.PIN3
TAKiTPt
f
REFKRHfl
£AtZ.
OTHfclz.
POPE^ SNTEPTAMU^
APEAS
66?
SPACE: CATERING


ACTIVITIES:
TWS AREA WILL ee A PLACE- OF RELAXATION fi?R PERFORMERS paCPE., DURING, AMD AFTER ftFJDRMAUCES. OCCASIONAL RECEPTIONS AND NELLS CONFERENCES lull EC meld Mere.
SQUARE FEET:
Z<3 600 = |2 0
USERS:
PERfUFMERS
directors
. MAKE-UP, STAatCRELLS
* FRIEND5, FELA7WES 0r
PERFQFMEF5_________
0)
5
o
m
Pi
7^3
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
CCtlfORTAPLE FURNI34lN6S,TV, RADIO
PHYSICALLY, ACOUSTICALLY PEfWED FROM STAGE AND AUDIENCE
NEEDS:
restrooms
' EAR,-SMALL KlTCHEPl FACILITIES
N>
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
PLEASANT RELAy.lMS 'SECLUDED
ADJACENCIES:
6>7


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS SPACE WILL SER/E. THE
Rehearsal MEeps for. musical.
DRAMATIC, AND QMLE <3fiCUf5.
THIS TYPE CF SRIC& IS TYPICALLY USED FDR PRELIMINARY F0ttAf3Sl; apCUPS WILL MOVE TV THE SME. FDR PRESS REHEARSALS.
1600 0
USERS:
PERFORMERS
DIRECTORS
C/5
5
o
73
rn
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
> FLAT FLC0RIW6 SHOULD PE COWEPTIELE ID TIERED RCCWM5 FDR MUSICAL 6RCUP5.
NEEDS:
PECDPDIMa EQUIPMEWT
BLACKBOARDS, BOLLETIW BOARDS
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT TO AWUST FLcor LEVELS
ACOUSTICAL SEPARATION FROM SORRCUMDlSia AFEAS/Sf*CES
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
'SHOULD PFOVIDC ftRADBGUATE SOUMD FERRODUCnCN
ADJACENCIES:
iudivipual
fpACTICt FDOrtS
QHn
REWCApeAL . L.
tzoon n
6b


ACTIVITIES:
THESE 5R&CE5 PFOVIDE A PRACTICE AREA. POP. THE.
individual p exporter to
PFACTICE. INI FRVATE-. ACOUSTICAL AMD VISUAL FPIVAOf ARE IMRWAUT.
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
6000 U6HTINKT
acoustical separation) from
SOPRCUNDfNfi SPACES
SQUARE FEET:
CO-70 0 each
TCTAL 45 USERS:
PERFORMERS
NEEDS:
PIANOS IN AT LEAST 75% CFTHECmCLES
MIRRORS
MUSIC STANP/LBCIURJ^fc. AVAILABLE. TO USER.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:
practice
uduh
pcoH


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
PERTOPMERS LJILL USE THESE SPALLS i oPRESS .APPLY MAKE-UP, eke-, BEFPFE-, DURING, AND AFTER PERFORMANCES. THIS SFAGE [JILL ALSO SPRUE AS A PLACE OF
refuge and seclusion tor,
THE PERTOWEP..
|0i5 120 0 = 12000
USERS:
PEPfCRMERS
MAKE-UP PERSCNMEL-
DESIGN
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
DRESSING TABLE.
'SHOULD EE AT STAGE, LEVEL
A TOm'-Tl'PE BUFFER. SHOULD PC EMPLOYED EETUEEM THE CPEssins Boons and the "STAGE..
LIGHTING CONDITIONS SHOULD ee SIMIUAP. TO THCSE-EKmjNTTEBEP OKI THE STAGE.
'CLOTHES RACB FULL LENGTH MIFFOR.
LAVATORY
. chairs, amaits,
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
doMTOPTAPLe
' FAMILIAR, INTIMATE, HOMR-UKE
DRESSING ROOMS SHOULD BE. CENTRALLY LOCATED.
PLENTY Or CIRCULATION "SPACE-SHOULD BE PROVIDED.
ADJACENCIES:

7 SPACE: DPES3N6 pLCMS


ACTIVITIES:
TVt SRVE. IS USED FOR THE. SORTING AND 0R3ANIZATI0W Or COSTUMES FOP. THE. MWW i. THIS SPAGE WILL- ALSD SERVE
as a communal cpeaMG. asb\ -
IP NEEDED. MINOR ALTEBMWS AND REPAIRS OF COSTUMES WILE ge COME HERE.
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
EASE Or CIRCULATION
GOOD LIGHTING t VENTILATION
SQUARE FEET:
1400 0
USERS:
PERFORMERS
STAGE CREW
MAKE-UP PERSONNEL
NEEDS:
ADEQUATE STORAGE SFÂ¥CE
equipment v repair <^unviiKig with
MIRRORS
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:
71
jam ^un&cv/'xxtiama = 30VdS


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS AREA UIU. BE USED FOR THE STORAGE OF PROPS AMD SCEKJEC.Y (UJHEM NOT |M (JS&). UGUT OOJSTRJCnCM, PA1WTIM6,
Awd repair. umc to ee
COMPLETED HERE. A SMALL CESIGU STUDIO AND office. AREA SHOULD Ee FRO/IDEP.
2£C><9 0
USERS:
* STAGE OPERATORS
STAGE CREWS
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
NEEDS:
< FRAMING, U0C0UCWU5 GSUIFW LAYOUT TABLES
* PLOPS AMD CEIUNGS SHOULD
BE LARGE ENOUGH ffltJDST'
LARGE OBJECTS
AMPLE CIRCULATION AROUND EQUIPMENT
< CONSIDER EASE OF FLOW OF SOeWEPT RECES BETWEEN RKEIV/ING ,tCmm SHOP, AMD THE STAGE AP6A.
LIMITED STUDIO SfACE
ADEQUATE. 5TORASE AND VENTILATION FDR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS PAINTS, dk-.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:
sHIfTiMG
£££-£l\/lU6
72.
SPACE: SCENEPf UCW5HOP


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
TUg£ STORAGE- ARB'S WILL- BE-THE PRIMARY STGRflflt AMD H0LDIM6 AREAS RYOTHE FACILITY. SCEMERY, 1200 AUDITORIUM 600 THEATER
TOTAL: l BOO 0 USERS:
STAGE (OPERATORS
DESIGN
STAGE SPEWS
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
* ADEQUATE OTIUNG HEIGHT
PROVIDE EAST ACCE5S AMD
cipojLA-noK eeiuiEEKi storase.
AMD SHIPPING ERE-EIVING
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:,
73
SPACE: STORAGE


ACTIVITIES:
SQUARE FEET:
THIS SPACE WILL ee THE-CaOTRAL PEEEIVIKJ6 APEA fiSR THE. FACILITY. Tie APEA WILL SER/E- EOTH THE. fEmwiMS APB CEMTER AMD THE MUSEUM
USERS:
WO 0
#
6TA3E- OWT5
STAGE £PEW5
CELWEPT FEPSOHITEL
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS:
HEED Om\ AMD OEAP DIFOJLATIOM
NEEDS:
APK2UATE- SeoJRTY EOJlfMEWT
6000 USHTIH5
SAFETY EQUIPMEKIT
RjsH CARS, PWLIES, d&.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:.
"3 S>HIWWIHS = 30VdS


ACTIVITIES:
IBIS SEACE- WllC Hose THE.
SQUARE FEET:
mechanical DauipnEMT f£R
THE- FACILITY- THIS SPACE kllU. ALSO PROVIDE- S|CRA(9it FCR JANITORIAL EQUIPMENT AMD MAINTENANCE TECLS AMD SHIPMENT.
103? 12
USERS:
EUILPINC. MAINTENANCE. FEfECNNfl.
DESIGN
NEEDS:
CONSIDERATIONS:
VENTILATION 10 0UT3DE.
AWAY FROM PUBLIC VlQJ
BALERS CHILLERS
FANS
ELECTRICAL STORAGE AMP CONTROL UNITS
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
ADJACENCIES:.
NQNE..
eepARfcriCN frar
SPACES IS DESIRED.
75
SPACE S MAIHTBHAMCE-/ ME£HAWIO\L


VI. CODES & REGULATIONS


76
BUILDING CODE ANALYSIS
The Center for the Performing Arts at Fiddlers Green Fiddlers Green Circle at South Ulster Street, Englewood, Colorado.
Governing Jurisdiction: Arapahoe County (unincorporated) Applicable Building Code: Uniform Building Code, 1985 Edition
Fire Zone:
Occupancy Classification(s): Table No. 5-A
The proposed facility falls under the following classifications :
Principle Use:
A-l, Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 100 or more in the building.
Other Uses:
A-2, Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage.
B-2, Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using material not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling.
Construction Type: Table No. 5-C
The proposed facility, due to occupant loads of more than 1000 and a required floor area of approximately
60,000 square feet, will be constructed according to guidelines under Type I, Fire-Resistive Buildings.
Occupancy Separations Required: Table No. 5-B
A-l to A-2 No Requirements
A-l to B-2 3 Hours
A-2 to B-2 1 Hour
Changes in Occupancy: Section 502
No change shall be made in the character of occupancies or use of any building which would place the building in a different division of the same group of occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such building is made to comply with the requirements of this code for such division or group of occupancy.


78
be located on a public street or on the access way.
The main assembly floor of Division 1 occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level.
Use of Public Property: Chapter 45
No part of any structure or any appendage thereto shall project onto public property or into an alley. Footings located more than 8 feet below grade may project not more than 12 inches.
Space Below Sidewalk: The city maintains the right to revoke any use of space below a sidewalk on public property. Footings located at least 8 feet below grade may project not more than 12 inches.
Balconies, Sun-Control Devices, etc.: These devices and appendages may project according to the following conditions:
Clearance above grade less than 8 feet-no projection permitted.
Clearance above grade over 8 feet-1 inch of projection is permitted for each additional inch of clearance, provided that no such projection shall exceed a distance of 4 feet.
Marquees: The horizontal clearance between a marquee and the curb line shall not be less than 2 feet.
A marquee projecting more than two thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line shall be not less than 12 feet above the ground or pavement below.
A marquee projecting less than two thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line shall be not less than 8 feet above the ground or pavement below.
Length. A marquee projecting more than two thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line shall not exceed 25 feet in length along the direction of the street.
Thickness. The maximum height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall not exceed 3 feet when the marquee projects more than two thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line and shall not exceed 9 feet when the marquee is less than two thirds of the distance


82
Maximum Allowable Travel Distance to Exits: Section 3303(d)
Not greater than 150 feet, or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
These distances may be increased by 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor.
Exits Through Adjoining Rooms: Section 3303(e)
Rooms may have one exit through an adjoining or intervening room which provides a direct, obvious and unobstructed means of travel to an exit corridox1, exit enclosure or until egress is provided from the building, provided the total distance of travel does not exceed that permitted by other provisions in the code (see previous item). In other than dwelling units, exits shall not pass through kitchens, store rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes. Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Exit Doors: Section 3304
Minimum Width = 36" Minimum Height = 6 8"
Maximum Leaf Width = 48
Swing: Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving an occupant load of more than 50.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits when any of the following conditions exist:
1. The occupant load served by the door is greater than 100.
2. The door is part of a fire assembly.
3. The door is part of a smoke and draft control assembly.
4. Panic Hardware is required or provided on the door.
Change in Floor Level at the Door: Section 3304(h)
Not more than 1/2" for handicapped accessible exits.
Not more than 1" for all other exits.
Exit Corridors: Section 3305
Required Width >= 44"
Required Height >= 7 0"
Dead-end corridors shall not exceed 20 in length


84
Handrails are required on each side of stairway.
Intermediate handrails are required for stairways greater than 88" in width.
Intermediate handrails are required for each additional 88" width of stairway. Intermediate handrails should be placed equally across the width of the stairway.
Handrails should be greater than 34 inches and not less than 30 inches above the nose of the tread.
Handrails should be continuous over the length of the stairway and shall extend a minimum of 6 inches beyond the bottom and the top riser.
Handrails shall not be less than 1-1/4" nor more than 2 in cross-sectional dimension or the shape shall provide an adequate gripping surface.
Handrails shall project a minimum of 1-1/2 inches from the supporting wall.
Horizontal Exit Requirements: Section 3308
Horizontal exits shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and when two or more exits are required, not more than one half of the total number of exits or total exit width may be horizontal exits.
All openings in the two-hour fire-resistive wall which provide a horizontal exit shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire protection rating of not less than 1-1/2 hours.
A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having capacity for an occupancy load not less than the occupant load served by such exit.
Ramps: Section 3307
Ramp widths shall be the same as for exit stairways.
Ramps designated as handicapped accessible shall have a slope not steeper than 1:12. The slopes of other ramps shall not be steeper than 1:8. When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room of a Group A, Divisions 1 or 2 Occupancy may have a slope not steeper than 1:5.


85
Landings:
Ramps with slopes steeper than 1:15 shall have landings at the top and the bottom, with intermediate landings provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. The landing at the bottom of the ramp shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6 feet.
Handrails:
Ramps having slopes steeper than 1:15 shall have handrails as required for stairways, except that intermediate handrails are not required. Ramped aisles need not have handrails on the sides serving fixed seating.
Exit signs shall be required where necessary to clearly indicate the direction of egress.
Seat Spacing: Section 3316
With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a space of not less than 12 inches form the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
Continental Seating: Section 3316(b)
The number of seats per row of seats for continental seating may be increased subject to all of the following conditions:
1. The spacing of unoccupied seats shall provide a clear width between rows of seats measured horizontally as follows:
18 inches between rows for 1 to 18 seats
20 inches between rows for 19 to 35 seats
21 inches between rows for 36 to 45 seats
22 inches between rows for 45 to 59 seats
24 inches between rows for 60 seats or more
2. Exit doors shall be provided along each side aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair of doors for each five rows of seats.
3. Each pair of exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66 inches discharging into a foyer, lobby or the exterior of the building.
4. There should not be more than five seat pairs of doors.
rows between


86
Special Requirements for Group A, Division 1 Occupancies: Section 3317.
Main Exits: Section 3317(a)
Every Group A, Division 1 Occupancy shall be provided with a main exit. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one half of the total occupant load but shall not be less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and staii-ways leading thereto and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
Side Exits: Section 3317(b)
Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one third of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way.
Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
Balcony Exits: Section 3317(c)
Every balcony having an occupant load of eleven or more shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly to an exterior stairway or other approved stairway or ramp. Balconies exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
Aisles: Section 3315
In assembly occupancies with fixed seats, aisles serving seats on both sides shall be a minimum of 42 inches.
Distances to the nearest exits should use guidelines for corridors.
Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit.
The slope portion of aisles shall not be steeper than 1:8. Steps shall not be used when the change in elevation can be achieved by a slope conforming to the 1:8 guideline. A single step or riser shall not be used in any aisle. Steps in aisles shall extend across the full width of the aisle and shall be illuminated.
Toilet Requirements: Appendix C, Minimum Plumbing Facilities, 1985 Uniform Plumbing Code.
The occupancy load can be broken down into the load for assembly spaces for public use 4290 people and the load for office and public buildings 68 people. Minimum toilet requirements will be calculated using these


occupancy loads, with 50% alloted to each sex.
Men:
Assembly places for public use: 2145 persons
Water Closets: 3 for the first 400 people, add 1 for each additional 500 people - 4 in
this case.
Total: 7 w.c.
Urinals: 4 for the first 600 people, add 1 for each additional 300 males 5 in this
case.
Total: 9 Urinals
Lavatories: 3 for the first 750 people, add 1 for each additional 500 persons - 3 in this
case.
Total: 6 lavatories
Office or Public Buildings for Employee Use: 34 persons
Water Closets: 2 for the first 35 persons.
Urinals: 1 per 50 Lavatories: 1 per 40
Women:
Assembly places for public use: 2145 persons
Water Closets: 8 for the first 400 people, add 2 for each additional 300 people - 12 in
this case.
Total: 20 w.c.
Lavatories: 3 for the first 750 people, add 1 for each additional 500 persons - 3 in this
case.
Total: 6 lavatories
Office or Public Buildings for Employee Use: 34 persons
Water Closets: 2 for the first 34 persons. Lavatories: 1 per 40
Drinking Fountains:


88
Assembly places' for public use: 4290 persons 1 per first 75, 1 per additional 150, total of 9.
Office or Public Buildings for Employee Use: 68 persons must have at least 1.
Handicap Accessibility:
Building Access: Sections 3301(e), 3304(e)
Portions of buildings shall be accessible to the physically handicapped as required by Table 33-A (see figure 1), and at least one primary entrance to a building which is required to be accessible shall be usable by the physically handicapped and be on a level that would provide accessibility to the elevators where provided. The width and height of exit doorways shall be the same as noted previously in this analysis.
Accessible Routes: Section 3305(a)
Every exit corridor shall be a minimum of 44 inches in width and 7 feet in height.
Access to Toilet and Other Facilities: Sections 511(a), 511(b)
Facilities shall comply with the guidelines set forth in figure 2.


33-A
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
TABLE NO. 33-AMINIMUM EGRESS AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS
USE1 MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST OCCU- PANT LOAD FACTOR2 (Sq.Ft.) ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED3
1. Aircraft Hangars (no repair) 10 500 Yes
2. Auction Rooms 30 7 Yes
3. Assembly Areas, Concentrated Use (without fixed seats) Auditoriums Bowling Alleys (Assembly areas) Churches and Chapels Dance Floors Lobby Accessory to Assembly Occupancy Lodge Rooms Reviewing Stands Stadiums 50 7 Yes4 5
4. Assembly Areas, Less-concentrated Use Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Drinking Establishments Exhibit Rooms Gymnasiums Lounges Stages 50 15 Yes4 6
5. Childrens Homes and Homes for the Aged 6 80 Yes?
6. Classrooms 50 20 Yes8
7. Dormitories 10 50 Yes?
8. Dwellings 10 300 No
9. Garage, Parking 30 200 Yes?
10. Hospitals and Sanitariums Nursing Homes 6 80 Yes
11. Hotels and Apartments 10 200 Yesio
12. KitchenCommercial 30 200 No
13. Library Reading Room 50 50 Yes4
14. Locker Rooms 30 50 Yes
15. Malls (see Appendix Chapter 7)
16. Manufacturing Areas 30 200 Yes7
582
(Continued)
1985 EDITION
33-A
USE1 MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST OCCU- PANT LOAD FACTOR2 (Sq. Ft.) ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED3
I7. Mechanical Equipment Room 30 300 No
18. Nurseries for Children
(Day-care) 7 35 Yes
19. Offices 30 100 Yes?
20. School Shops and Vocational
Rooms 50 50 Yes
21. Skating Rinks 50 50 on the skating area; 15 on the Yes4
deck
22. Storage and Stock Rooms 30 300 No
23. StoresRetail Sales Rooms
Basement 11 20 Yes
Ground Floor 50 30 Yes
Upper Floors 10 50 Yes
24. Swimming Pools 50 50 for the pool Yes4
area;
15 on the
deck
25. Warehouses 30 500 No
26. All others 50 100
IFor additional provisions on number of exits from Group H and I Occupancies and from rooms containing fuel-fired equipment or cellulose nitrate, see Sections 3320. 3321 and 3322, respectively.
2This table shall not be used to determine working space requirements per person.
'Elevators shall not be construed as providing a required exit.
4 Access to secondary areas on balconies or mezzanines may be by stairs only, except when such secondary areas contain the only available toilet facilities.
5Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers need not comply.
6Access requirements for conference rooms, dining rooms, lounges and exhibit rooms that are part of an office use shall be the same as required for the office use.
? Access to floors other than that closest to grade may be by stairs only, except when the only M
available toilet facilities are on other levels.
8When the floor closest to the grade offers the same programs and activities available on other floors, access to the other floors may be by stairs only, except when the only available toilet facilities are on other levels.
^Access to floors other than that closest to grade and to garages used in connection with apartment houses may be by stairs only.
lOSee Section 1213 for access to buildings and facilities in hotels and apartments.
HSee Sectinii 33t: t tor ba mentexit requirements. 533
FIGURE


511-513
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
is installed in a stall. Grab bars shall have an outside diameter of not less than 1 'U inch nor more than 1 'I2 inches and shall provide a clearance of 1 V2 inches between the grab bar and adjacent surface. Grab bars need not be provided in Group R. Division 1 apartment houses.
5. When it can be established that the facilities are usable by a person in a wheelchair, dimensions other than those above shall be acceptable.
(b) Access to Lavatories, Mirrors and Towel Fixtures. In other than Group R, Division 3; Group M; Group R, Division 1 apartment houses and Group B, Divisions 2 and 4 storage occupancies, toilet room facilities shall be as follows:
1. Except for the projection of bowls and waste piping, a clear unobstructed space 30 inches in width, 29 inches in height and 17 inches in depth shall be provided under at least one lavatory.
2. Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the bottom of the mirror is within 40 inches of the floor.
3. Where towel and disposal fixtures are provided, they shall be accessible to the physically handicapped and at least one shall be within 40 inches of the floor.
(c) Water Fountains. Where water fountains are provided, at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front, hand-operated controls. When fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
(d) Telephones. Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within-12 inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall be not less than 30 inches in width.
Compressed Gases
Sec. 512. The storage and handling of compressed gases shall comply with the Fire Code.
Premises Identification
Sec. 513. Approved numbers or addresses shall be provided for all new buildings in such a position as to be plainly visible and legible from the street or road fronting the property.
36
1985 EDITION
510-511
surface such as portland cement, concrete, ceramic tile or other approved material which extends upward onto the walls at least 5 inches. Walls within water closet compartments and walls within 2 feet of the front and sides of urinals shall be similarly finished to a height of 4 feet and, except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
In all occupancies, accessories such as grab bars, towel bars, paper dispensers and soap dishes, etc., provided on or within walls, shall be installed and sealed to protect structural elements from moisture.
Showers in all occupancies shall be finished as specified above to a height of not less than 70 inches above the drain inlet. Materials other than structural elements used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
Access to Toilets and Other Facilities
Sec. 511. (a) Access to Water Closets. Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in width and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required by Table No. 33-A, at least one such facility for each sex or a separate facility usable by either sex shall comply with the requirement of this section. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, such facilities must be available to all occupants and both sexes. All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed width of not less than 32 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms. This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position. Not more than one door may encroach into the 44-inch space.
2. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped. When such water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 32 inches when located at the end and a clear width of 34 inches when located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the water closet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructed access not less than 48 inches in width shall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the handicapped.
4. Grab bars near each side or one side and the back of the toilet stool securely attached 33 inches to 36 inches above and parallel to the floor. Grab bars at the side shall be 42 inches long with the front end positioned 24 inches in front of the water closet stool. Grab bars at the back shall be not less than 24 inches long for room installations and 36 inches long where the water closet
FIGURE


91
ZONING REGULATIONS
The site is located in the Greenwood Plaza South Office Park at South Ulster St. and Fiddlers Green Circle in unincorporated Arapahoe County. This office park is a Planned Unit Development (P.U.D.) with existing zoning designated as a Mixed-Use District. Hence, the development is referred to as an M.U.-P.U.D. on Arapahoe County Zoning Plans. Article W of the 1981 Arapahoe County Zoning Code specifies standards for the Mixed-Use District (see exhibit 1). The approved preliminary development plan has also been included (see exhibit 2). This development plan contains development stipulations for the site, specifying items such as permitted uses, off-street parking, setbacks, maximum size and height of structures, and signage. This plan, with three filed amendments, has been approved by the planning staff and the planning commission and will become final in the near future.
The specific proposed use of this project is defined as "a quasi-public building and/or use of an administrative, educational, religious, cultural, or public service nature" (see Item 2, District Regulations, contained in exhibit 3). As such, this use is permitted in all districts so long as said use complies with the requirements of said districts.
Since this use is not explicitly permitted in the approved preliminary development plan, it would be necessary to file a


92
fourth amendment to the plan. This amendment would basically request a change in permitted uses, allowing the location of a quasi-public educational and cultural facility as noted above. I would be requesting that 61,000 square feet be exchanged with the commercial/office zoning total of 3,700,000 square feet. The amendment process is outlined in exhibit 4.
The current development plan proposes a 121,000 square foot, 275 high, office tower for the IL Campanile Site. I believe the proposed facility would have minimal additional impact, when compared with the office tower, on traffic patterns, parking, or circulation at the site. The amphitheater currently draws 15,000 18,000 people for major events. The proposed performing arts center would only draw maximum crowds of 2,000 people. I would propose that the current parking arrangements employed for the amphitheater, both on-street parking and the use of the four story parking structure across the street at the Tuscany Building, would be sufficient to handle the traffic created by the performing arts center.


EXHIBIT 1.
ARTICLE W. M.U. MIXED USE DISTRICT
(1) GENERAL STANDARDS
a. All utility lines shall be underground unless
the Board of County Corrmlssloners permits an exception.
(2) PRINCIPAL PERMITTED USES:
Any combination of commercial, Industrial, or residential uses permitted by the P.U.D. Plan.
(3) NAMEPLATES AND SIGNS:
As permitted by the Planned Unit Development Plan
(4) FENCING AND SCREENING REQUIREMENTS:
As set by the Planned Unit Development Plan
(5) MAXIMUM BUILDING HEIGHT:
As set by Planned Unit Development Plan (5) YARD REQUIREMENTS:
As set by Planned Unit Development Plan
(7) AIRPORT REGULATIONS:
This zoning category may be affected by the special height restrictions and performance regulations as set forth In this Resolution.
(8) SPECIAL AREA AND ACTIVITY REGULATIONS
This zone district classification may be affected by special area and activity regulations as set forth 1n this Zoning Resolution.
-2.40-


EXHIBIT 3.
CHAPTER II
DISTRICT REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF REGULATIONS
Except as hereinafter provided:
1. No structure or land snail hereafter be used or occupied and no structure or part thereof shall be erected, moved or altered unless in conformity with the regulations herein specified for the District in which it is located.
2. The following uses are permitted in all districts so long as said uses comply with the requirements of said district:
a. Public and quasi-public buildings and/or uses of administration, educational, religious, cultural, or public service nature.
b. Public utility transformer and gas regulator station necessary for useful service for the local area, (provided, however, that such installation meant to serve other than local areas shall be located in industrial districts only.) The above utilities may be located on tracts smaller than that required by the district in which it is located provided that all such structures maintain a minimum setback of ten feet (10') from all property lines and provided that in any division of a lot for utility purposes the remaining portion of said lot, tract or parcel shall meet the
area requirements of said district.
3. No part of a lot designated for any use or uses or structure or structures for the purpose of complying with the provisions of this resolution shall be designated as a part of a lot similarly required for another use or uses or structure or structures.
4. Land zoned prior to the adoption of the amendment of December 17, 1973 (Commissioners' Resolution #771-73) may be developed under the P.U.D. procedures outlined in said Resolution #771-73 (where applicable) or may be developed in conformance with the requirements outlined in each zone district or in conformance with a previously approved Planned Unit Development Plan.
All applications for amending the Zoning Map after the adoption of said Resolution #771-73 shall follow the procedure outlined herein.
-2.1-


EXHIBIT X.
ARTICLE C. AMENDMENTS TO PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT PLAN (FINAL & PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT PLAN)
SECTION (1) Application for amendment(s) of the Planned Unit Development Plan shall be filed with the Arapahoe County Planning Office. The Planning Commission shall hear all testimony and evidence concerning the amendment(s) and shall make recommendations 1n the form of a Resolution to the County Commissioners concerning the proposed amendment(s).
SECTION (2) The Board of County Commissioners shall hold a
public hearing concerning the proposed amendment(s) and shall require notice of said public hearing to be given in accordance with the appropriate provisions of Chapter IV, Article A, Section 3 of this Resolution. Wording of the sign shall be specified by the Arapahoe County Planning Department. After the public hearing referred to 1n Section (3) above, the Board of County Commissioners may amend the Planned Unit Development Plan and 1f any amendment 1s so allowed, the applicants and the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners shall execute the amended Planned Unit Development Plan and shall file the amended plan 1n the Commissioners' Office with the original plan.
SECTION (3) FINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN REQUIREMENTS:
a. This Plan may be filed 1n stages, but must agree with the Preliminary Development Plan; however, deviations of a minor or engineering nature may be approved administratively after review and approval by the Board of County Commissioners.
-4.7-


N9IS3Q IIA


STRUCTURE
LEGEND1
- ' Concrete bearing wall
Concrete framing
Long-span steel truss


MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
This -facility is one that is open to the public and to employees for a wide range of activities during a wide range of hours. It will be necessary to design a mechanical system that has a great, deal of flexibility.
The facility can be zoned into six primary areas: the theater, the amphitheater, the lobby, office areas, the lobby and museum areas along the southern and western walls, and the backstage area. An HVAC system will be installed to service each of these zones. There are several reasons to do this:
o With differing schedules, individually. Areas not in use
each area could be serviced could be shut down.
o The types of activities(public meetings, performances, etc.) require a system that can respond immediately to a condition in one particular place. With 900 people in the auditorium, for instance, the HVAC must service that one area to a high degree of precision.
o Requirements in each area are basically different. Variable-air-volume is perfectly appropriate for the office spaces, but would not be useful for a large-scale cooling role such as the system needed in the auditorium. Acoustical conditions must also be considered. Low velocity distribution systems must be used in the performance spaces. This delivery system would not be the most efficient for the office or backstage areas.
The mechanical equipment and offices will be located on the third level of the service core(see balcony level plan). This will allow five of the six systems to be centrally located for ease of operation and maintenance. The sixth system will be located along the curved lobby wall. This will provide quick distribution to those glazed lobby and museum areas most susceptible to rapid heat gain.
The four systems servicing the public areas will be designed for low-velocity fan systems dispersing air into a large area. The return air network will use the plenum spaces below the floor decks and return air chases below the stages in the performance areas. These will feed to the service core and return up chases to the intake fans for reuse. Cooling towers will be housed atop the service core.
The mechanical floor will also house other mechanical services including a telephone swithching box, security and fire control functions, an electrical station/transformer area, and facilities for the production and storage of domestic hot water.
See the attached mechanical diagram.


MECHANICAL FLAM
eunpLt Mf^
f^TUpU MR


IX. APPENDIX


APPENDIX A SOILS REPORT


Chen & Associates
Consulting Geotechnical Engineers
96 South Zuni
Denver, Colorado 80223
303/744-7105
Casper Cheyenne Colorado Springs Glenwood Springs Rock Springs Salt Lake City
io65
SOIL AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION PROPOSED IL CAMPANILE PROJECT FIDDLER'S GREEN CIRCLE EAST OF SOOTH ULSTER STREET ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO
PREPARED FOR:
JOHN MADDEN COMPANY 7800 EAST ORCHARD ROAD, SUITE 300 ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO 80111
ATTENTION: JOHN A. MADDEN
JOB NO. 1 601 85
AUGUST 8, 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONCLUSIONS 1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF STUDY 2
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION 2
SITE CONDITIONS 3
SEISMICITY 4
FIELD INVESTIGATION 5
LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 6
Index Properties 7
Swell-Consolidation Tests 7
Triaxial Shear Tests 8
Uniaxial Compressive Strength 8
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS 9
Man-made Fill 9
Natural Clays 9
Bedrock 9
Groundwater 10
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS 11
FLOOR SLABS 14
FOUNDATION WALLS AND RETAINING STRUCTURES 16
WATER SOLUBLE SULFATES 18
UNDERDRAIN SYSTEM 18
SURFACE DRAINAGE 19
EXCAVATION CONSIDERATIONS 20
Temporary Retaining Structures 20
LIMITATIONS 22
FIG. 1 LOCATION OF EXPLORATORY HOIES
FIGS 2 THROUGH 5 LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
FIG. 6 LEGEND AND NOTES
FIG. 7 IL CAMPANIIE CORE LOG HOLE 5
FIGS. 8 THROUGH 12 SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued
FIGS 13 THROUGH 16 TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST RESULTS TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS TABI£ II WATER SOLUBLE SULFATES
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CONCLUSIONS
(1) The general subsoil conditions at the site consist of an occasional thin veneer of sandy clay fill and 6 to 15 feet of stiff to very stiff, sandy to very sandy clay overlying hard to very hard claystone and sandstone bedrock. Free water was encountered at depths between 63 to 67 feet in three test holes four days after drilling.
(2) The preposed structures should be founded on straight-shaft piers drilled into bedrock designed for an allowable end bearing pressure of 45,000 psf and a skin friction of 4,500 psf for the portion of pier in bedrock. Piers extending below elevation 5 feet (project elevation 5,637 feet) may be designed for a maximum end bearing pressure of 60,000 psf and a skin friction of 6,000 psf.
(3) Below grade areas should be protected by an adequately designed underdrain system.
(4) Design detail construction considerations related to the subsoil features at the site are discussed in the report.
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PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF STUDY
This report presents the results of a soil and foundation investigation for the proposed II Campanile project to be located on Fiddler's Green Circle east of South Ulster Street, Arapahoe County, Colorado. The proposed building layout is shown on Fig. 1. The study was conducted in accordance with our proposal to John Madden Company, dated May 10, 1985. We previously conducted a preliminary soil and foundation investigation for this area under our Job No. 27,452, dated December 1, 1983. The results of the previous investigation have been considered in arriving at the conclusions presented in this report.
A field exploration program was conducted to obtain information on subsurface conditions. Material samples obtained during the subsurface investigation were tested in the laboratory to provide data on the classification and engineering characteristics of the on-site soil and rock. The results of the field and laboratory investigations are presented herein.
This report has been prepared to summarize the data obtained and to present our conclusions and recommendations based on the proposed construction and the subsurface conditions encountered. Design parameters and a discussion of geotechnical engineering considerations related to construction of the proposed facility are included.
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
We understand that the proposed project consists of a 20-story office tower, a two-level parking structure and a 1-story museum. The tower will have a two-level basement for a mechanical/electrical room with a lower floor
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elevation of 5,726 feet. The west bay of the tower will not be excavated and will have a slab-on-grade floor at the lobby level (elevation 5,746 feet.). The structural framing for the tower had not been finalized at the time this report was prepared. We understand that it may be constructed either of structural steel or concrete with bay spacing on the order of 22' x 22'. Assuming concrete framing, the maximum column loads will be on the order of
2,000 kips.
A parking structure with two-levels of below grade parking and a parking deck will be constructed immediately east of the tower. The parking structure will be constructed of cast-in-place concrete walls, columns and beams. The entry into the parking structure will be via a ramp sloping down from Fiddler's Green Circle. The ground surface east of the entry ramp will be retained by a concrete retaining wall with a maximum height of 20 feet. The maximum column loads in the parking garage will be on the order of 800 kips. A 1-story museum structure will be constructed north of the tower. Masonry load bearing wall construction is expected with relatively light foundation loadings.
If loadings or conditions are significantly different from those described above, we should be notified to reevaluate the recommendations contained in this report.
SITE CONDITIONS
The proposed construction site was vacant at the time of our investigation. The site has been previously graded with some cmt and fill.
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Immediately prior to drilling, an approximate 20-foot high stockpile of fill material was removed from the site. Some excavation by a front-end loader was performed subsequent to drilling of the test holes and prior to the water check of the test holes.
The majority of the site gently slopes down towards the north with a maximum difference in elevation across the site on the order of 14 feet. A large open air amphitheater excavated approximately 40 feet into the ground is located immediately southwest of the proposed structure. The asphalt paved Fiddler's Green Circle is located north of the preposed site.
SEISMICITY
The closest fault to the site which has evidence of Quarternary displacement is the Golden Fault located about 15 miles to the west. Recent studies done by Colorado Geologic Survey, which included surface trenching, indicate that the fault has probably been inactive for the last 200,000 years (Kirkham and Rogers, 19811). Considering the type of construction preposed, it is our opinion that the Golden Fault does not show sufficient recent activity to warrant being classified as a capable fault. Other potentially capable faults in the region are sufficiently far frcm the site as not to be a source of damaging earthquake motion.
Historic earthquake activity in Colorado has been relatively low. Between 1882 and 1981, about 80 earthquakes with intensities between 2 and 7 have been reported within 200 miles of the site. In general, historic earthquake activity has been located in the mountainous region to the west of the
1Kirkham, R.M. and Rogers, P.R., 1981, Earthquake Potential in Colorado: A Preliminary Evaluation, Colorado Geologic Survey, Bulletin 43.
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site. An exception to this general trend is a relatively high concentration of small earthquakes in the northeastern area of Denver. Many of these earthquakes are apparently associated with a disposal well at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. However, it should be noted that earthquakes were recorded in the area prior to and after operation of the arsenal well. In our opinion, considering the proximity of faults and historic seismicity to the site, structures on the property should be designed to resist potential earthquake forces in accordance with Seismic Zone 1 of the Uniform Building Code.
Based on the Uniform Building Code Standard No. 23-1, we have calculated a characteristic site period of 0.5 seconds. In addition, considering the subsurface conditions and potential earthquake forces at the site, we do not feel the soil at the site is susceptible to liquefaction.
FIELD INVESTIGATION
The field investigation for the project was conducted during June, 1985. Thirteen test holes were drilled at the approximate locations shown on Fig. 1 to explore the subsurface conditions. Locations of the test holes were measured approximately by pacing frcxti the features shown on the site plan provided. The elevations were determined by an instrument and refer to benchmarks shown on Fig. 1.
The test holes were advanced through the overburden and underlying bedrock with a 4-inch diameter continuous flight auger. Test holes were logged by a representative of Chen & Associates, Inc.
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Samples of the subsurface materials were taken with a 2-inch I.D. spoon sampler. Ihe sampler was driven into the various strata with blows frctn a 140-pound hammer falling 30 inches. This test is similar to the standard penetration test described by ASTM Method D-1586. Penetration resistance values, when properly evaluated, indicate the relative density or consistency of the soils. Diamond coring to obtain relatively undisturbed samples of the bedrock was performed in Hole 5. Depths at which the samples were taken and the penetration resistance values along with the percentage of core recovery and Rock Quality Designation (RQD) are shown on the Logs of Exploratory Holes, Figs. 2 through 7.
Measurements of the water level were made in the test holes by lowering a weighted plumbline into the open hole shortly after completion of drilling and within a few days subsequent to drilling. The location of the water levels measured and the number of days subsequent to drilling are shown on the Logs of Exploratory Holes.
LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
Samples obtained from our exploratory holes were examined and classified in the laboratory by the project engineer. Laboratory testing was performed on these samples to determine their classification, moisture content, dry density, swell-consolidation characteristics, and strength. Results of the laboratory testing are shown on Figs. 8 through 16 and in Tables I and II. A discussion of the laboratory testing procedures is presented below. Ihe
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testing was conducted in general accordance with recognized test procedures, primarily those of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
Index Properties: In order to identify soils and classify than into categories of similar engineering properties, the Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D-2487) was used. This system is based on index property tests, including the determination of natural water content (ASTM D-2216), liquid limit (ASTM D-423), plastic limit (ASTM D-424) and grain size distribution (ASTM D-422). Results of the moisture content, dry density, Atterberg limits and the percent of soil passing the U.S. No. 200 sieve are presented in Table I.
Swell-Consolidation Tests; Swell-consolidation tests were conducted on samples of soils and bedrock frcm the site in order to determine their compressibility or swell characteristics under loading and wetting. Each sample was prepared and placed in an odometer ring between porous discs. An initial seating load of 1,000 psf was placed on the sample. Water was added to the sample and the percent change in sample height was measured with a dial gauge. Samples which swelled subsequent to the water addition and were loaded incrementally until returning to their original height; the sample height was monitored until deformation practically ceased under each load increment. Samples which did not swell vhen saturated were loaded incrementally until a straight line relationship between load and strain was obtained.
The consolidation test procedures described are similar to ASTM method D-2435. Results of the consolidation tests are plotted as a curve of the final strain at each increment of pressure against the log of the accumulated
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pressure. Swell-consolidation test results are presented on Figs. 8 through 12.
Triaxial Shear Tests; Triaxial shear testing was performed on relatively undisturbed rock core samples. The test consisted of subjecting a cylindrical specimen to an all-around pressure and an axial load varied independently of the all-around pressure. The all-around pressure was applied in a fluid-filled chamber and the axial load was applied by means of a piston passing through the chamber top.
Unconsolidated, undrained triaxial shear tests (Q-test) were performed on the rock core samples at their natural moisture contents. The specimens were tested after triaxial chamber pressures were increased to the desired confining pressure without allowing drainage and consolidation. Axial load and sanple strain were monitored as the axial load was increased to failure. The rate of stain selected for sample failure was dependent upon the material's consolidation characteristics. Results of the unconsolidated, undrained triaxial test are presented on Figs. 13 through 16.
Uniaxial Compressive Strength: Unconfined compressive strength testing was conducted on samples of rock core (ASTM D-2938). Each sample was prepared by cutting the ends of the specimen parallel to each other and at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the core. load was applied continuously and without shock to produce a constant rate of deformation so failure occurred within 5 to 15 minutes of loading. Results of the unconfined compressive strength testing are summarized in Table I.
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SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
The subsoil conditions at the site were investigated by drilling thirteen test holes at the approximate locations shown on Fig. 1. Logs of exploratory holes are shown on Figs. 2 through 5 with legend and notes on Fig. 6. The core log for Hole 5 is shown on Fig. 7. The subsoil conditions vary somewhat across the site due to previous construction activity. Generally, they consist of occasional fill and natural sandy clay overlying claystone and sandstone bedrock. A discussion of the materials encountered is presented below.
Man-made Fill: Man-made fill was encountered in Holes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 varying in depths between 1 to 3 feet. The exact vertical and lateral extent of the fill was not determined during this investigation. The man-made fill consisted of sandy to very sandy clay in a slightly moist to moist state. The fill appeared to be in an uncompacted to slightly compacted state.
Natural Clays: The natural overburden soils at the site consist of sandy to very sandy clay varying in depth between 6 to 15 feet. The blow counts indicate the material varies between stiff to very stiff in consistency. The laboratory tests indicate this material has a medium to high plasticity and a percent passing the No. 200 varying between 63% to 88%. Swell-consolidation tests indicate that the overburden clays possess a nil to low swell potential upon being loaded and wetted.
Bedrock; Claystone and sandstone bedrock of the Denver Formation was encountered beneath the overburden soils at a depth between 7 to 17 feet. The claystone bedrock is sandy in nature with scattered thin lenses of
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sandstone. The bedrock consists of clay and silt size particles. The sandstone bedrock is silty to clayey in nature and is uncemented to cemented. The bedrock at the site appears to have been highly overconsolidated by a combination of desiccation and a considerable depth of overburden which has subsequently been removed by geologic action. At a depth of 80 feet, the sandstone bedrock changes to conglomeratic with volcanic rock fragments changing to extremely hard conditions. The blow counts taken in the bedrock indicated it to be in a hard to very hard state. The swell-consolidation tests on samples of the claystone bedrock indicate that the bedrock possesses a low to moderate swell potential upon being loaded and wetted.
The unconfined strength of the bedrock generally varies between 4,940 to 65,180 psf. The unconsolidated, undrained triaxial shear strength indicates that bedrock has an undrained shear strength between 6,400 to 46,600 psf. A sample of the cemented sandstone bedrock, obtained at a depth of 111 feet, indicated an extremely high unconfined compressive strength of 1,276,250 psf. This may be due to high cementation in this zone. Laboratory and field testing indicate the bedrock is capable of supporting high vertical and lateral loads with a relatively small amount of deformation.
Groundwater: Free water was not encountered in any of the test holes at the time of drilling. Vhen measured four to six days subsequent to drilling, free water was encountered in Holes 2, 5 and 12 at depths between 63 to 67 feet. Holes 3, 4, 8, 9 and 12 could not be checked for water due to the grading
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operations subsequent to drilling which made it impossible to locate these holes.
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the data obtained during the field and laboratory investigation, we believe straight-shaft piers drilled into the bedrock beneath the site should be utilized to support the proposed structures.
Utilizing this type of foundation, each column is supported on a single drilled pier and the building walls are founded on a grade beam supported by a series of piers. Load applied to the piers is transmitted to the bedrock partially through peripheral shear stresses which develop on the sides of the piers and partially through end bearing pressure.
Construction of straight-shaft drilled piers for support of the structure has the advantage of providing a single high capacity pier for transferring the building loads. The piers can be constructed quickly and will experience a relatively minor amount of movement. The ability of the bedrock to carry a load has been based on an analysis of the standard penetration tests, the confined compressive strength tests and our experience with the design and performance of similar structures.
The design and construction criteria presented below should be observed for a straight-shaft pier foundation system. The construction details should be considered when preparing project documents.
(1) Piers should be designed for an allowable end bearing pressure of
45,000 psf and a skin friction of 4,500 psf for the portion of the pier
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in bedrock. Below elevation 5 feet (project elevation 5,637 feet), an allowable end bearing pressure of 60,000 psf and a skin friction of
6.000 psf may be used. The upper 4 feet of pier penetration into bedrock should be ignored in all load calculations but can be utilized to fulfill minimum penetration requirements. Uplift on the piers can be resisted by utilizing 50% of the allowable skin friction value plus the weight of the pier.
(2) Piers should also be designed for a minimum dead load pressure of
20.000 psf based on pier end area only. If the minimum dead load requirement cannot be achieved, the pier length should be extended beyond the minimum penetration to make up the dead load deficit. This can be accomplished by assuming one-half the skin friction given above acts in the direction to resist uplift.
(3) Piers should penetrate at least three pier diameters into the bedrock. A minimum pier length of 14 feet is recommended.
(4) Piers should be designed to resist lateral loads assuming a modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction in the clay soils of 40 tcf and a modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction of 300 tcf in the bedrock. A modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction of 400 tcf may be used in the bedrock below elevation 5 feet (project elevation 5,636 feet). The modulus value given is for a long 1 foot wide pier and must be corrected for pier size.
(5) Piers should be reinforced their full length with one #5 reinforcing rod for each 18 inches of pier perimeter to resist tension created by the swelling materials.
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(6) A 4-inch void should be provided beneath grade beams to prevent the
swelling soil and rock frcm exerting uplift forces on the grade beams and
to concentrate pier loadings. A void should be provided beneath necessary pier caps.
(7) Hie minimum spacing requirements between piers should be three diameters frcm center to center. At this spacing, no reduction in axial or horizontal soil modulus values is required. Piers grouped less than three diameters center to center should be studied on an individual basis to determine the appropriate reduction in both lateral and axial capacity.
(8) Concrete utilized in the piers should be a fluid mix with sufficient
slump so it will fill the void between reinforcing steel and the pier
hole.
(9) Rock penetration in all pier holes should be roughened artificially to assist the development of peripheral shear between the pier and the bedrock. The roughening should be installed with a grooving tool in a pattern approved by the soil engineer.
Hie specifications should allow the soil engineer to eliminate the requirements for pier roughening if it appears the roughening procedure is not beneficial. His could occur if the pier hole is sufficiently roughened by the drilling process or if the presence of water results in a degradation of the pier hole during the roughening procedure.
(10) Pier holes should be properly cleaned prior to the placement of concrete.
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(11) The presence of water in some of the exploratory holes indicates the use of casing in the pier holes may be required to reduce water infiltration. The requirements for casing can sometimes be reduced by placing concrete immediately upon cleaning and observing the pier hole. In no case should concrete be placed in more than 3 inches of water.
(12) The pier drilling contractor should mobilize equipment of sufficient size and operating condition to achieve the required bedrock penetration.
(13) Care should be taken to prevent forming mushrooms at the tops of the piers since this can increase uplift pressures on the piers.
(14) A representative of the soil engineer should observe pier drilling operations on a full-time basis.
FLOOR SIABS
Floor slabs present a difficult problem where low to moderate swelling materials are present near floor slab elevation because sufficient dead load cannot be imposed on them to resist the uplift pressure generated when the materials are wetted and expand. Based on the moisture-volume change characteristics of the materials encountered, we believe slab-on-ground construction may be used, provided the risk of distress resulting fran slab movement is recognized. The following measures should be taken to reduce the damage which could result fran movement should the underslab materials be subjected to moisture changes.
(1) Floor slabs should be separated from all bearing walls and columns with an expansion joint which allows unrestrained vertical movement.
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(2) Interior nonbearing partitions resting on floor slabs should be provided with a slip joint at the bottom so that, if the slabs move, the movement cannot be transmitted to the upper structure. This detail is also important for wallboards and door frames. A slip joint which will allow at least 2 inches of vertical movement is recommended.
(3) Floor slabs should be provided with control joints to reduce damage due to shrinkage cracking and should be adequately reinforced. We suggest joints be provided on the order of 15 feet on centers.
(4) A minimum 6-inch layer of free-draining gravel should be placed beneath the slabs. This material should contain less than 5% passing the No. 200 sieve and more than 50% retained on the No. 4 sieve. The granular layer will aid in drainage.
(5) All fill below floor slabs should be nonexpansive impervious material. As a minimum, floor slabs should be placed on at least 3 feet of nonexpansive impervious fill. If final grading plans cannot accommodate this requirement, we recommend the removal of the natural bedrock and/or natural soil beneath floor slabs to a depth of 3 feet and replacement with a nonexpansive fill.
(6) The natural soil and claystone bedrock encountered during this investigation will be expansive when placed in a compacted condition. Consequently, it should not be used as fill beneath floor slabs. The natural soil and bedrock can be used for fill near the bottom of fills outside building areas.
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Scme of the natural soil and sandstone bedrock encountered near the surface of the site are suitable for use in compacted fills beneath floor slabs. Some mixing of the natural soils with off-site granular soils may be required to produce nonexpansive fill for use in these areas.
(7) All plumbing lines should be carefully tested before operation. Where plumbing lines enter through the floor, a positive bond break should be provided. Flexible connections should be provided for slab-bearing mechanical equipment.
The precautions and recommendations itemized above will not prevent the movement of floor slabs if the underlying expansive materials are subjected to alternate wetting and drying cycles. However, the precautions will reduce the damage if such movement occurs. The only way to eliminate damage as a result of floor slab movement would be to construct a structural floor above a well-vented crawl space. The floor would be supported on grade beams and piers the same as the main structure.
FOUNDATION WALLS AND RETAINING STRUCTURES
Foundation walls and retaining structures which are laterally supported and can be expected to undergo only a moderate amount of deflection may be designed for an at-rest lateral earth pressure computed on the basis of an equivalent fluid unit weight of 45 p>cf for granular backfill and 55 p>cf for fine grained backfill.
Cantilevered retaining structures on the site can be expected to deflect sufficiently to rrobilize the full active earth pressure condition. Therefore,
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cant ileve red structures may be designed for a lateral earth pressure computed on the basis of an equivalent fluid unit weight of 35 pcf for granular backfill and 45 pcf for fine grained backfill.
All foundation and retaining structures should be designed for appropriate hydrostatic and surcharge pressures such as adjacent buildings, traffic and construction materials. An upward sloping backfill surface also increases the earth pressures on foundation walls and retaining structures.
The lateral resistance of retaining wall foundations placed on undisturbed natural soils at the site will be a combination of the sliding resistance of the footing on the foundation materials and the passive pressure against the side of the footing. Sliding friction at the bottom of the footing can be taken as 0.4 tines the vertical dead load. Passive pressure against the sides of the footing can be calculated using an equivalent fluid unit weight of 175 pcf in the soil and 250 pcf in the bedrock.
We recommend inported granular soils be used for backfilling foundation walls and retaining structures because their use results in lower lateral earth pressures. Free-draining gravel and drain lines should be used behind the walls to prevent buildup of hydrostatic pressure. Imported granular foundation backfill should contain less than 15% passing the No. 200 sieve. Granular materials should be placed to within 3 feet of the ground surface. The granular soil behind foundation and retaining walls should be sloped from the base of the wall at an angle of at least 30 frcm the vertical. The upper 3 feet of the wall backfill should be a relatively iirpervious on-site clay soil to prevent surface water infiltration into the backfill.
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Backfill should be carefully placed in uniform lifts and compacted to between 90% and 95% of the maximum standard Proctor density, near optimum moisture. Care should be taken not to overcompact the backfill since this could cause excessive lateral pressure on the walls.
WATER SOLUBLE SULFATES
The concentration of water soluble sulfates measured in samples obtained from the exploratory holes ranges fran less than 0.001% to approximately
0.072%. The measured concentration of water soluble sulfates represents a negligible degree of sulfate attack on concrete exposed to these materials. The degree of attack is based on the information presented in the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Concrete Manual. However, our experience in the general area indicate that these soils will occasionally have pockets of water soluble sulfates ranging between negligible to considerable degree of sulfate attack on the concrete exposed to these materials. We, therefore, recommend that all concrete exposed to on-site soils contain a Type II sulfate resistant cement containing less than 8% tri-calcium aluminate. Concrete should a relatively rich mix and should be air entrained.
UNDERDRAIN SYSTEM
An underdrain system is recommended for below grade structures. Even though free water was measured only in three of the thirteen test holes drilled at the site, it has been our experience that perched groundwater develops above relatively shallow bedrock subsequent to the development due to lawn irrigation and other water uses in the area. We, therefore, recommend
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that the lower level of the tower and the parking structure should be protected by adequately designed underdrain systems.
Ihe underdrain systems should consist of a layer of free-draining granular material beneath the floor slabs connected to perimeter and lateral drains. Free-draining granular material used in the drain system should contain less than 5% passing the No. 200 sieve and more than 50% retained on the No. 4 sieve with a maximum size of 2 inches. The drains should consist of drain tile wrapped with Mirafi 140S and surrounded above the invert with a minimum of 6 inches of free-draining granular material. lateral drains should be placed on approximate 50-foot centers. The drain lines should be placed at least 1 foot below the floor level and graded to sumps at a minimum slope of 1%. The granular underdrain systems should be sloped to where water can be removed by pimping or gravity drainage.
SURFACE DRAINAGE
The following drainage precautions should be observed during construction and naintained at all times after the facility has been completed.
(1) Excessive wetting or drying of the foundation excavations and underslab areas should be avoided during construction.
(2) Exterior backfill should be moistened and compacted to at least 95% of the maximum standard Proctor density.
(3) The ground surface surrounding the exterior of the building should be sloped to drain away from the foundation in all directions. We recommend a minimum slope of 6 inches in the first 10 feet.
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(4) Roof downspouts and drains should discharge well beyond the limits of all backfill.
(5) Landscaping which requires excessive watering and lawn sprinkler hea3s should be located at least 10 feet from foundation walls.
(6) Plastic membranes should not be used to cover the ground surface adjacent to foundation walls.
EXCAVATION CONSIDERATIONS
The majority of the material to be excavated at the site should be suitable for removal by conventional excavating equipment. However, confined areas such as building corners and utility trenches may have to be ripped with single-tooth ripper pulled by D-9 dozer or blasted. In cemented bedrock areas also, light blasting may have to be performed.
Due to the space restrictions, we assume that the majority of the lower level excavation will require a temporary bracing system rather than being sloped back for safety. We suggest temporary excavation slopes in the soil should be constructed no steeper than 1.5:1 (horizontal to vertical). Seme minor surface sloughing may occur adjacent to the surface areas at this slope. Bedrock may be temporarily excavated at 1:1 (horizontal to vertical). Vfe should be notified to observe the excavation as it proceeds. Temporary Retaining Structures: Two types of temporary retaining structures utilized in the Denver area seem feasible for the site. Excavations on the order of 10 to 15 feet in height may be retained by cantilevered structures consisting of closely spaced caissons. The caissons consist of mixed-in-place concrete slurry with a reinforcing cage. Temporary retaining structures for
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deeper excavations will require one or two of the grouted or mechanical tieback anchors. These structures utilize steel soldier piles and walers. Soil is prevented fran entering the excavation with wood lagging.
Temporary retaining structures anchored with tiebacks should be designed for an earth pressure in psf equal to twenty-two times the height of the excavation in feet. Cantilevered retaining structures on the site may be designed for a lateral pressure assuming an equivalent fluid pressure of 40 psf per foot depth. Surcharges due to traffic, storage of materials, and adjacent structures should be added to these pressure distributions.
Passive earth pressure resistance at the toe of both the tieback and the cantilevered retaining structure may be calculated using an equivalent fluid pressure of 250 psf per foot depth in the bedrock. The modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction discussed in the "Foundation Recommendations" section of this report could also be used for the passive earth pressure resistance calculation depending upon the method of analysis. In our opinion, the upper 2 feet of the material in the excavation should be neglected when calculating the passive earth pressure.
Subsequent to the design of temporary retaining structures, we should be contacted to present our opinion on the system used. We recommend continued consultation on geotechnical aspects of temporary retaining structures.
During construction, a periodic survey of the retaining system should be made to monitor its performance. Contingent plans and materials should be immediately available in case of excessive movement of the shearing system.
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LIMITATIONS
This report has been prepared in accordance with generally accepted soil and foundation engineering practices in this area for use by the client for design purposes. The conclusions and recommendations submitted in this report are based upon the data obtained from the exploratory holes drilled at the locations indicated on the exploratory hole plan. The nature and extent of variations between the exploratory holes may not become evident until excavation is performed. If during construction, fill, soil, rock and water conditions appear to be different from those described herein, this office should be advised at once so reevaluation of the recommendations may be irade. We recommend on-site observation of excavations and foundation bearing strata by a soil engineer.
NK/jj
cc: Anthony Pellecchia Architects ATTN: James Outen Gregory P. Luth Associates ATTN: Gregory P. Luth
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Chen & Associates
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LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
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i 6oi 85 Chen & Associates
IL CAMPANILE
LOCS OF EXPLORATORY holes
FI. 5


6oi as | Chen & Associates I I legend and notes
LEGEND:
Fill, sandy to very sandy clay, slightly moist to moist, brown.

l
Clay (CL), sandy to very sandy, occasional fine gravel, stiff to very stiff, moist, brown.
Claystone bedrock, sandy, scattered with thin lenses of sandstone, hard to very hard, moist, brown.
Sandstone bedrock, silty slightly moist to moist.
to clayey,
brown.
uncenented to cemented,
very hard.
|J Drive sample, 2-inch 1.0. California liner sample.
16/12 Orive sample blow count. Indicates that 16 blows of a HiO-pound hammer
falling 30 inches were required to drive the California sampler 12 inches.
t
T
J
Disturbed bulk sample.
t3
Core sample tested.
Depth to water level and number of days after drilling measurement was made.
Indicates hole advanced by NX core drilling. 50 indicates percent core recovery. 38 indicates Rock Quality Designation (RQD).
NOTES:
1. Test holes were drilled on June 18 through 21, 1985 with a l*-inch diameter continuous flight power auger and NX coring equipment.
2. Locations of test holes were measured approximately by pacing from features shown on the site plan provided.
3. Elevations of test holes were measured by instrument level and refer to the bench mark on Fig. 1. The contour plan provided by Wilsey 6 Ham, Inc, indicate project elevation 5732 ft. equals elevation 100 ft. in this report.
I4. The lines between materials shown on the test hole logs represent the approximate boundaries between material types and the transitions may be gradual.
5. Water level readings shown on the logs were made at the time and under conditions indicated. Fluctuations in the water level may occur with time.
6. Laboratory Test Results:
WC*Vater Content {%);
DD*Dry Density (pcf);
-200*Percentage passing No. 200 Sieve;
LLLiquid Limi t {%);
PI=Plasticity Index (%) ;
WSS*Water Soluble Sulfates (%)m,
UCUnconfined Compressive Strength (psf);
UU'Unconsolidated-undrained triaxial shear strength (psf).


GEOLOGIC LOG GRAPHIC LOG DISCONTINUITY LOG j RQD/
1 t Recovery
Job No. 1 601 85
CORE LOG
Sheet
of
Project Hole _____1
IL CAMPANILE
Ground
Elevation 1 0 3 ''
Location Total Depth
East side of proposed building
120 ft.
Dapth of Overburden,
12 ft.
Angle from Horizontal
90
Bearing of Angle Hole
Depth of Water Table
66 ft.
Begun 6/20/88 Finished 6/21/8S
Fill: sandy clay, moist, brown.
Clay: sandy, stiff, moist, light brown.
s -
10 -
Clavstone: as below.
Sandstone: Olive brown, fine 15
grained, friable, clayey, highly altered, iron stained.
Claystone: Olive brown, low plastic, sandy, occasionally iron stained 20 along bedding with some sandstone lenses.
Sandstone: Olive brown, fine grained, clayey, friable to very low hardness, moderately altered^.
-25
C1aystone: Brown, plastic to very low hardness, silty to very silty, highly altered, iron stained, fossi1iferous.
30 -
35 -
Sandstone: As above
Claystone: As above
-1*0
Sandstone: As above
CI ays tone: As above
Sandstone: Olive brown, fine to medium grained, **** friable to very low hardness, clayey, silty.
50
Test Results
20/12
15/12 WC-22.2 00*101.3 -200=68 LL-M P I *23
50/11
WC=20.6
DD=10L.7 b
-200=7R
UU=20,30C V
WC=20.0 p _
DD=I0L.8
-200=6L pv -1
UC=62,2L0
wc=i8.9
DD=106.0
-200=6L
UC = 70.270
BE*---
wc=i7.9
DD=106.8 f2 -200=31 UU=6,300
M
3
/- 5
Depth end Elevation (Feet)
0 Lu
Hole advanced from surface to 13 feet through overburden soils with 7*inch diameter hollow stem auger. Remainder of hole cored with NX diamond core bit.
- 10
^Bedrock encountered at 12 feet.
L
fp'-Zone of no core recovery
20
----- Zone of no core recovery
FT 25
ft.
30
Zone of no core recovery
-352 joints, 85, iron filled Zone of no core recovery
k0
^5
50
LEGEND:
^Drive sample, 2-inch I.D. California Nco re sample tested.
liner sample.
m
i :
Laboratory Test Results:
WC*Water Content (%);
DD*Dry Density (pcf);
-200Percentage passing No. 200 Sieve; LLL*iqui d Limit ($);
Pl-Plast ic i ty Index (%)-,
UCUnconfined Compressive Strength (psf); UU*Unconso1idated-undrained triaxial shear strength (psf).


Job Ho. 1 601 85
CORE LOG
Sheet 2 of 3
Hole______5______Continued
GEOLOGIC LOG
GRAPHIC LOG
DISCONTINUITY LOG
Sandstone: Olive brown, fine grained, clayey, friable to very low hardness, moderately altered.
From 70.0 feet medium to coarse grained.
Claystone: brown, sandy.
plast ic
X
Sandstone: Greenish gray, medium to coarse grained, conglomeratic, with volcanic rock fragments.
Fine to coarse grained from 90 feet, with cIaystone-siitstone lenses, micaceous.
50
55 "
60
65 -
70 -
75 -
*r
85 -
90 -
95 -
100 -
105 -
110
Test Results
wc= 15.6
DD=109-8 p UC=65,180
WO20.6 DD= i 05 7 UU=35,500
Depth and Elevation (Feet)
I73(T
t$1 y--Zone of no core recovery
Joint, 45, iron stained
f.
}) ~ 60
Vi ^---Zone of no core recovery
65
^5"Zone of
90
V Zone of
\--Zone of no core recovery
75
-80
no core recovery
no core recovery
3-95
__Zone of no core recovery
.100
-v-105
-i 10
% RQD/ J_Recover^
("T r 11 pm]
0 50 10




Compression % Expansion Compression % Expansion
on* ft 9
chen and associates, me
Moisture Content =23-0 percent Dry Unit Weight = I01.lt pcf Sample of: Sandy claystone
From: Hole 1 at depth 18'

<

E; CX :pan: msU ior nJL u .pr. 1C 31 SlL LX p
u! >on v e 11 in 1-


0.1 1.0 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Moisture Content = 1 6.9 percent Dry Unit Weight = 100.0 pet Sample ot: Sandy clay
From: Hole 2 at de -p t h It 1

Ex, COI lans i istar on U un re J c ;s r j e
up< >n wt tt ng




1.0 10 100 APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
1 601 85
SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS
Fig3


1
0
1
2
3
1*
5
6
7
chen and associates, inc
Moisture Content 1 25.3 percent Dry Unit Weight 1 p\ .2 PCf Sample of: Clay stone
From: Hole 3 @ depth 28'

___ Exp ansi r.t.in Dn :n jn pe- ie r- H %
due to vet ti ig


o\


v
\ >





1 00
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Fig.
SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS
9


Compression % Compression
chen and associates, inc
Moisture Content =22.3 percent Dry Unit Weight = J QO 0 pcf Sample of: Clayey sandstone From: Hole g depth 39'

1
' A Idit on; 1 !

u L o C( di >m'p r< >nst< le t< ss nt on Pr lLL u :s Le *i< 3 1 X e ir r e
L X
O


l.o 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Moisture Content = 19*6 percent Dry Unit Weight = 101.2 pcf Sample of: Sandy clay
Fro n: Hole 6 S de| Dth v

< Ex CO Dans ista on tt ur >re dc S! r u -<

1 up Dn w j L L 1 IIL




i.o io
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Fig.
601 35
SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS
10


Compression % Expansion Compression
\sr\~ ft 9
chen and associates, inc
I
Moisture Content = 22.8 percent Dry Unit Weight = 101.3 pcf Sampleo(: Sandy claystone From; Hole 8 § depth 19'



E; c< ;pan< >nst; 5 ^ c I u Pr id ;s ei St r e
U| >on v et i n )



ol----- 1.0 io 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Fig.
11
. 601 85
SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS


Compression % Expansion Compression
CA-1-79
chen and associates, me
35 SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS Fig.


CHEN ANO ASSOCIATES
Consulting Soil and Foundation Engineers
TEST NUMBER 1 2 3 k
Ho 1 e 5
LOCATION
Depth ft. 28
HEIGHT INCH 3.935)
DIAMETER INCH 1.865
WATER CONTENT X 20.6
DRY DENSITY pcf 10l.7
Qi O3 ksf 1*0.61
O3 k,f 1.50
07 ksf !2.11
TYPE OF SPECIMEN Rock core
SOIL DESCRIPTION Sandy claystone
TYPE OF TEST
Triaxial, unsaturated,
unconsolidated, undrained.
Axial Strain (t)
TAN 0 0
COHESION ksf
20 **0 60 80 Normal Stress ksf
31 85 TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST RESULTS Fig. 13


ur-ICN ANU Md^UUAI L5
Consulting Soil ond Foundation Engineers
TEST NUMBER 1 2 3 k
Hole LOCATION Oepth Ft. 5 A6.5
HEIGHT INCH 3-926
DIAMETER INCH 1.711
WATER CONTENT t 17.9
DRY DENSITY pcf 106.8
CJ1 0"3 ksf 12.52
CT3 ksf 2.52
CJ" 1 ksf 15.0i
TYPE OF SPECIMEN SOIL DESCRIPTION
TYPE OF TEST
Rock core
Siltv sandstone
Triaxial. unsaturated. unconsolidated, undrained
15
ji
i
J. 10
>
w
o
5 10
Axial Strain (t)
15
TAN 0
t
COHESION ksf
6-3
in
V-
m
ti
JZ
to
5 10 15 20
Normal Stress ksf
0 85
TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST RESULTS
Fig. 1*4


UHEN AND ASSOCIATES
Consulting Soil and Foundation Engineers
TEST NUMBER 1 2 3 A
LOCATION Hole 5
Depth ft. 96
HEIGHT INCH 3.593
DIAMETER INCH l .803
WATER CONTENT * 20.6
DRY DENSITY pcf 105-7
QT O"3 ksf 70.95
03 ktf 2.52
OT ksf 73.^7
TYPE OF SPECIMEN Rock core
SOIL DESCRIPTION ... Sandstone
TYPE OF TEST
Triaxial, unsaturated_____
unconsolidated, undrained.
Axial Strain (t)
TAN 0 0
COHESION ksf

VI
4)
L.
t)
CO
20 ^0 60 80 100 Normal Stress ksf
1 85
TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST RESULTS


Chen and associates
Consulting Soil and Foundation Engineers
TEST NUMBER 1 2 3 k
LOCATION Hole Depth ft. 5 119
HEIGHT INCH 3.772
DIAMETER INCH 1.827
WATER CONTENT X 20.1
DRY DENSITY pcf 10^4. 1
(Jl 0*3 ksf 90.91
0*3 ksf 2.52
Q~i ksf 93.1*3
TYPE OF SPECIMEN Rock core
SOIL DESCRIPTION Clavstone
TYPE OF TEST
Triaxial, unsaturated. Unconsolidated, undrained.
Axial Strain (l)
TAN 0
COHESION ksf ________**5- 5
I
I
V
i.
t/>
i.
o
4)
-C
CO
20 **0 60 80 100
Normal Stress ksf
6u l 85
TRIAXIAL SHEAR TEST RESULTS


1
CHE AND ASSOCIATES TABLE I
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS 1601 85
SAMPLE LOCATION NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%) NATURAL CRV DENSITY (PCF) CRAOATl ON PERCENT PASSING NO. 200 SIEVE ATTERBERO LIMITS UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (P3F) TRIAXIAL UNCONSOL. UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH (PSF) SOIL OR BEDROCK TYPE
MOLE OEPTH (FEET) GRAVEL (7.) SAND (%)
LIOUID LIMIT (7.) PLASTICITY INDEX (7J
1 18 23.0 101. A 9^ Sandy claystone
68 17. A 81 .U 28 14,9*40 Silty sandstone

2 !* 16.9 100.0 83 52 3*4 Sandy clay

3 28 25.3 91.2 98 Claystone

11 h 1A. 1 87.6 88 1(7 29 Sandy clay
1 1 39 22.3 100.0 38 38 11* Clayey sandstone

5 7 22.2 101.3 68 UU 23 Sandy clay
28 20.6 10A 7 lh 20,300 Sandy claystone
30.5 20.0 1014.8 6 A 62,21(0 Sandy claystone
38 18.9 106.0 61( 70.270 Clavstone
1(6.6 17.q 106.8 31 6.300 Silty sandstone
56 15.6 109.8 65.180 Silty sandstone
96 20.6 105.7 35.500 Sandstone
111 2.9 15^.2 1.276.250 Sandstone
119 20.1 10A. 1 *45.500 Claystone
4
6 J( 19.6 101.2 72 i3 23 Sandy clay



CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
TABLE I
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS 1 601 85
sample location NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%) NATURAL 9RA0ATI0N PERCENT PASSINQ NO. 200 SIEVE ATTERBEPG LIMITS UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSF) SOIL OP 6E0R0CK TYPE
MOLE DEPTH (EEET) OPT DENSITY (PC f) GRAVEL <*/) SAN0 <%)
LIQUID LIMIT <%) PLASTICITY INOEX (%>
7 25.5 96.9 99 2? Rqn Clavstone

8 19 22.8 101.3 81 Sandy claystone
39 25.2 95.7 91 15.170 Claystone

9 7 16. A 102.2 66 A5 CM Sandy clay

10 27 17.7 101 .6 69 15.900 Sandy cl avstone.

11 17 21 .8 10A. 0 79 Sarldv clavstnne

12 9 11.0 98. A 63 CO CO 22 Very sandv clav
59 18.6 109.1 93 Claystone











TABLE II
Job No. 1 601 85
WATER SOLUBLE SULFATES
Sample
Hole Depth (ft.)
Water Soluble Sulfate
(%)
1 18 0.072
2 4 0.030
4 4 <0.001
7 47 0.069
12 9 0.042
I


APPENDIX B DRAINAGE REPORT


PRELIMINARY DRAINAGE STUDY II Campanile Lot 2, Block 1
Greenwood Plaza South Filing No. 2
July 1985
Prepared For:
John Madden Company
7800 East Orchard Road, Suite 300
Englewood, Colorado 80111
Prepared by:
Wilsey & Ham, Inc.
2420 West 26th Avenue, Penthouse D Denver, Colorado 80211
Job No. 2824-0101


PRELIMINARY DRAINAGE STUDY
II Campanile
Index
I. General Location and Description
II. Drainage Basins and Sub-Basins
III. Drainage Design Criteria
IV. Drainage Facility Design
V. Conclus i on
VI. References
A. Rainfall Curves
B. Overland Flow Time
C. Basin Flow Calculations
D. Drainage Study Drawing
C


PRELIMINARY DRAINAGE STUDY
II Campanile
I. General Location and Description
The II Campanile stie is located in Lot 2, Block 1 of Greenwood Plaza South, Filing No. 2, which is a resubdivision of Lot 1, Block 2 and Tracts "B" and "C" of Greenwood Plaza South Filing No. 1, Section 21, Township 5 South, Range 67 West of the Sixth Principal Meridian, County of Arapahoe, State of Colorado. Lot 2, Block 1 is approximately 475 feet east of South Ulster Street and on the south side of East Caley Avenue. The site is located within the Greenwood Plaza South development. A vicinity map and additional location data are provided on the drainage study drawing.
II Campanile will be a high rise office building located on Lot 2 which has an area of 1.98 acres. Most of the site will be covered with building and a parking structure. The westerly side of the site will be landscaped to blend in with the existing amphitheater and park improvements.
The site is currently undeveloped with little or no vegetation at this time. The ground generally slopes to the northwest to an existing swale directing runoff to East Caley Avenue. There are no major drainageways or drainage facilities located on the site. The current drainage patterns have been determined by the drainage needs of the surrounding parcels.
II. Drainage Basins and Sub-Basins
For an analysis of the major basins and sub-basins, please refer to the Greenwood Plaza South Master Drainage Plan, Project No.
KMA B-811104 prepared by Kirkham, Michael and Associates, dated April 12, 1982. It is intended that drainage from the II Campanile site will conform to the master plan and all runoff from this site will be tributary to Pond No. 2.
III. Drainage Design Criteria
The drainage from II Campanile will conform to the Greenwood Plaza South Master Drainage Plan and to the drainage criteria of Arapahoe County.
Runoff has been calculated by the rational method using the criteria and rainfall data contained in the Arapahoe County "Storm Drainage Design and Technical Criteria" Manual. The calculated flows are for the 5-year and 100-year storms. The basin runoff calculations and related data are included in the reference section of this report.
Due to the small size, steep slope and imperviousness of the site sub-basins, which result in concentration times of less than 5 minutes, a concentration time of 5 minutes has been used as the rainfall intensity-duration curves are unreliable for shorter times.


IV. Drainage Facility Design
The general drainage plan for this site is to convey all runoff to Pond No. 2 and conform to the Master Plan. No on-site detention will be provided.
Runoff from Basin A will flow directly into East Caley Avenue and then into the existing storm sewer system for conveyance to Pond No. 2.
Runoff from Basins B and C will concentrate in most westerly corner of the site, where a pipe will collect the runoff and convey it directly The pipe has been preliminarily sized as a 15 5+X and a Type "C" inlet will be used. Please Drainage Study Drawing for additional details.
a low area, in the and inlet system to Pond No. 2.
RCP at a grade of refer to the
V. Conclusions
The proposed drainage for this site has been developed to conform to Arapahoe County Standards and the Greenwood Plaza South Master Drainage Plan. The drainage from this site will be handled in a manner to convey runoff from the site to the Master Plan facilities without damage to on-site or off-site property.
Prepared by:
ax caa
Charles G. Swanson, P _ ftli y
for and on behalf of Wilsey & Ham, Inc.
VMlVP* ' V/f
sgf
'VWnyjcv-'
C0V>


STORM DRAINAGE DESIGN AND TECHNICAL CRITERIA
FIGURE 501
TIME INTENSITY FREQUENCY CURVES
10.0
3
O
JZ

a
0)

O
c
H.
>-
H
55
z
LU
H
Z
<
u.
z
<
tr
/EAR
/EAR
YEAR fP ('EAR
^YEAR
Date:
Rev:
JLO 20 .30 _40 _60
STORM DURATION OR TIME OF CONCENTRATION. ^ (mlnutee)
NOV 1984 .| REFERENCE:
i i faan n ^n minr t nwi n Arsnnrr


WATERCOURSE SLOPE IN PERCENT
DRAINAGE CRITERIA MANUAL
RUNOFF
FIGURE 3-2. ESTIMATE OF AVERAGE FLOW VELOCITY FOR USE WITH THE RATIONAL FORMULA.
* MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURRING UNDEVELOPED"
LAND SURFACES IN THE DENVER REGION.
REFERENCE: Urban Hydrology For Small Watersheds Tachnical Release No. 55, USDA, SCS Jan. 1975.
I
5-1-84 , .
/'
URBAN DRAINAGE & FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT


I
I
WILSEY & HAM
2420 WEST 26th AVENUE / PENTHOUSE D DENVER, COLORADO 80211 Telephone (303) 458-8540
......DATE SUBJECT ............ SHEET NO............!.....OF...5.
(T ). BY ............DATE...................Lw-terflr.'. .5............................... ........ JOB NO. . .T.f*. J.. .7. .9.1.
.................................................................................................................................


WII^SEY & HAM
2420 WEST 26th AVENUE / PENTHOUSE D DENVER, COLORADO 80211 Telephone (303) 458-8540
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2420 WEST 26th AVENUE / PENTHOUSE D DENVER, COLORADO 80211 Telephone (303) 458-8540
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DATE....................*? %r...!T .V?. £. M........... JOB NO. 'JrlQ'i.£?.J...*..9.)...
......................*S D BY


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WII.SEY & HAM
2420 WEST 26th AVENUE / PENTHOUSE D DENVER, COLORADO 80211 Telephone (303) 458-8540
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SUBJECT
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y, OtuQ W.............. job NO. Z.S £4 ", O l ~0 j
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2420 WEST 26th AVENUE / PENTHOUSE D DENVER, COLORADO 80211 Telephone (303) 458-8540
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BY .........DATE.........
subject .Itt.. .^rr£tf}.t£r£ '.'r.f........ sheet no...........of
....,'X?1?rTr.!..^Tv?.C?T.................. JOB NO.
.......^.^.t W... !tSr.O.Vl^. >.......................................


[>1 r\ Xl KIRKHAM,
! C ) V ( MICHAEL LM lAyvj AND ASSOCIATES
DENVER-OMAHA-DES MOINES-ROCHESTE ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS-PLANNER
GREENWOOD PLAZA SOUTH MASTER DRAINAGE PLAN
I
PROJECT NO. KMA B-811104 April 12, 1982
PREPARED BY:
KIRKHAM, MICHAEL AND ASSOCIATES
R. WHEELER DIVISION, 6000 SOUTH ULSTER STREET, SUITE 202, ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO 80111, (303) 694-2300


I
m_______________________________________________________________
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This report analyzes the effects of development on storm runoff patterns for the Greenwood Plaza South site and will satisfy the Arapahoe County final drainage report requirements. This report and its accompanying construction
K *
documents are intended to be of a final and comprehensive nature insofar as the project's drainage and storm sewer analysis requirements are concerned. Additional drainage studies will be required as portions of the project are developed in order to analyze individual site drainage and to insure conformance with this master drainage plan.
site Location ,and description
The proposed Greenwood Plaza South project is located
i
in Section 21, Township 5 South, Range 67 West of the Sixth Principal Meridian, in Arapahoe County, Colorado. The approximately ninety-acre site is bounded by Interstate 25 on the East, the Commons South office development on the North, South Ulster Street on the West, and the proposed Greenhouse office/Commercial project on the South. Approximately eighty acres of the proposed development site is currently controlled by the developer. A ten-acre site situated in the approximate center of the project site is
i
planned to be included in the proposed Greenwood Plaza South at a future date, and will be compatible in density and use with the remainder of the project. The total ninety-acre


site has been analyzed in this report.
The proposed development will be of a "mixed use" nature, and is planned to include office, commerical, and residential units, all connected by a series of plazas and walkways. The development will be of a fairly high density nature, with multi-storied structures the rule.rather than the exception. The development will be graded such that all rainfall except that falling on and immediately adjacent to the proposed roadways will be contained on building and parking structure roofs and on multi-story plazas and routed directly to the proposed storm sewer system. A curved "horseshoe" connector street is planned on-site which will connect East Caley Avenue and East Peakview Avenue. The "horseshoe" connector street will have a fifteen foot wide landscaped median throughout its length. Four large irrigation ponds, to be situated at the Northeast and Southeast corners of the intersections of East Caley Avenue and East Peakview Avenue with South Ulster Street (See Sheet 3 of 3) will also serve as storm detention ponds. The proposed phasing of the Greenwood Plaza South development is currently planned to occur over a ten to fifteen year term. The proposed street and storm sewer improvements are planned to be constructed during 1982.
The existing site is situated at the headwater of four major drainage basins. The basins are: (1) Goldsmith Gulch, which flows Easterly from the site to 1-25; (2) Upper


CM
Little Dry Creek, which flows Southerly from the site toward East Arapahoe Road; and, (3) and (4) two Greenwood Gulch tributaries, which flow Westerly from the site to South '
Ulster Street. The latter two basins have been named "Upper Greenwood Gulch" and "Lower Greenwood Gulch" for the
* i
purposes of this report. The site is not traversed by or situated directly adjacent to any Flood Insurance Administration
I
floodplains, and does not receive any off-site drainage from surrounding properties. The existing site topography is moderate with slopes ranging from three percent to ten percent across the site. The existing surface soils are mainly sandy clays, loess, and fill material, and are presently covered with native grasses and weeds.
i
CRITERIA ''
This report generally utilized the Drainage Criteria Manual, by the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, District, along with the Arapahoe County Subdivision Regulations as drainage criteria. The Rational Method was used to develop peak runoff rates for the ten-year and 1-year frequency rainfall events. A "C" coefficient of 0.25 was used for undeveloped areas, 0.70 was used for street areas which had both landscaped medians and grassy areas adjacent to the streets, and 0.80 was used for the proposed building and plaza ar^as. The Triangular Hydrograph Procedure modified


from U. S. Bureau of Reclamation hydrology methods was used to develop inflow hydrographs for the proposed detention ponds. The Storage-Indication Method as per the Soil Conservation Service was used for routing analyses.
i
Overall storm drainage design for Greenwood Plaza South
\
was controlled by the detention requirement guidelines of Arapahoe County. The maximum discharge from the site was controlled by the lower of two values:
1. The maximum historic 100-vear discharge at the proposed point of discharge, and
2. The capabilities of existing and proposed storm sewer at the proposed point of discharge.
As an example of the above', the Lower Greenwood Gulch Basin currently discharges approximately 33 cfs to South' Ulster Street. Because of the inadequacy of the existing storm sewer system (capacity equals 21 cfs) at the low point
of South Ulster Street, the historic discharge from this
( .
basin ponds and sheet flows over the street to the West. Under the restrictions imposed by this report, the developed
i
condition discharge will be less than the 21 cfs which is currently the capacity of the existing storm sewer system.
CONCLUSION
This report identifies the effects of increased storm runoff due to development of the Greenwood Plaza South site. The overall drainage desgin concept for this project is to


route as much runoff as possible to four proposed detention ponds via storm sewer systems. This concept will result in the routing of approximately 93% of the sites storm runoff
t
into the proposed detention ponds. The proposed pond characteristics are as follows:
. Detention
Peak Outflow Maximum Volume
Peak 100-year From Site Depth Provided
Pond Inflow (cfs) (cfs) (feet) (Acre - Feet)
1 95.0 13.2 5.4 4.95
2 227.3 40.8 5.6 4.50
3 48.9 8.0 2.8 2.27
4 166.6 24.4 5.6 5.13
Additional detention of storm water will be required at
the small two-acre parcel located at the Southeasterly
corner of the site. This parcel is proposed to be the site of a future R.T.D. parking terminal.
Discharge from the proposed ponds will be via office structures and strom sewer. Detailed calculations for all drainage analysis is presented in a calculation appendix contained in this report. All storm sewer analysis is also presented, although storm sewer construction drawings are not a part of this report. All storm sewer details including curb inlet details, plan and profile, and structural design of the pond outlets are included in the "Gr.eenwood Plaza South Street and Storm Sewer Plans" prepared by this office for the Greenwood South Metropolitan District. At the


KM
present time, the drainage improvements proposed in this report are planned to be built in different phases, corresponding to the proposed phased building construction plan.
t
In order to reduce the possibility of downstream flooding, the following minimum pond construction schedule should be < adhered to:
Site Development ,
I) Any site in the Goldsmith Gulch or lower Greenwood Gulch historic
. basins and/or sites in drainage basins "P", "R", and "T" (see sheet 2 of 3)
II) Peakview Avenue portion of the the "horsehoe" connector only
Any site in the remainder of the project not included in I or II.
' f
In the event that any parcel of land within this project is developed in such a manner as to conflict with the drainage patterns proposed in this report, that parcel shall provide on-site detention in accordance with the Arapahoe County requirements. In order to insure conformance with this master report, all future development in this project( will submit individual drainage reports with detailed site .
Ponds Which Must Be Constructed
Pond #1 and Pond #2
Temporary pond at site of future Pond #4
Pond #3 and Pond #4
information.


KM_____________________________________________________
In conclusion, we believe that the recommendations and design contained in this report will lead to an efficient drainage system for the proposed development which will be adequate to collect, route, store, and discharge the 100-
i
year site runoff. Th^ Arapahoe County Standards and the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District's Design Standards have been followed and augmented for safe and esthetic planning of the Greenwood Plaza South's immediate and future drainage requirements.


DRAINAGE CALCULATIONS



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208
ARAPAHOE COUNTY T 5 S R 67 M TOTAL RAINFALL OEPTH(INCHES) OURAT ION(MINUTES) FREQUENCY(YEARS)
FREQUENCY
(YEARS)
OURATION
(MINUTES) 2.0 5.0 10.0 20.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0
5.00 .36 .53 .72 .78 .80 .87 .92 .95
10.00 .50 ' .71* 1.00 1.09 1.12 1.22 1.28 1.33
15.00 - .61 .91 * 1.22 1.33 1.36 1.68 1.56 1.62
20.00 . 70 1.06 1.60 1.53 1.57 1.71 1.79 1.86
25.00 7 3 1.16 1.56 1.70 1.75 1.90 2.00 2.07
TO. 00 . 36 1.27 1.70 1.86 1.91 2.08 2.18 2.26
<0.00 .92 1.37 1.86 2.02 2.07 2.25 2.37 2.65
50.00 .97 1.66 1.99 2.16 2.21 2.60 2.52 2.61
60.00 1.02 1.56 2.10 2.28 2.33 2.53 2.65 2.76
70.00 1. 06 1.61 2.20 2.38 2.66 2.66 2.77 2.86
30.00 1. 10 1.67 2.29 2.63 2.56 2.76 2. 37 2.97
50.00 1. 13 1.72 2.37 2.56 2.63 2.86 2.97 3.07
100.00 1. 16 1.77 2.65 2.66 2.71 2.92 3. 06 3.16
110.00 1.19 1.32 2.52 2.72 2.79 3.00 3.16 3.26
120.00 1.21 1.87 2.59 2.70 2.86 3.08 3.22 3.32
130.00 1.26 1.91 2.65 2.85 2.92 3.15 3.29 3.39
mo.oo ' 1. 26 1.95 2.71 2.92 2.99 3.22 3.36 3.66
150.00 1.23 1.99 2.77 2.98 3.05 3.28 3.63 3.53
160.00 1. 31 2.02 2.82 3.C3 3.11 3.36 3.69 3.59
170.00 1. 33 2.06 2.87 3.09 3.16 3.60 3.55 3.66
180.00 1. 36 2.09 2.92 3.16 3.21 3.66 3.60 3.71
260.00 1 5 2.27 3.19 3.62 3.50 3.75 3.91 6.02
360.00 1.60 2.56 3.60 3.85 3.93 6.21 6.38 6.50
720.00 1. 33 2.75 3.73 6.02 6.11 6.63 6.62 6.77
1030.00 1. 93 2.33 3.31 6.12 6.22 6.56 6.77 6.93
1660.00 2. 10 2.97 3.87 6.19 6.30 6.66 6. 88 5.05


209
sp9hpc rrmtr y
T 5 5
o
67 M
sETiiph "fno * 2.1 YF99S RETURN ERI09 100.0 YE99S
iu9i-T TON (MIN.1 nm 15 TH (T *ICMr si INCEMp^ML 1rT9 (INOMfll design 9IN (I'lrMf*;) INTEN-SI TY (IN/HP) ' 0U9-T I ON (HIM.) TOTAL DEPTH (INCHES) INCIEHEHTAl depth (INCHES) CESIGN 99 IN (INCHES) INTEN- SITY CIN/HU)
1C. 01 .50 . 50 .05 3.13 10.00 1.33 1.33 .13 7.97
30.00 .70 . 70 .06 3.11 7C.O0 1.36 .93 .19 5.59
30.09 .96 . 15 . 3C 1. 71 30.00 3.36 .60 .53 6.53
<.0.01 . 06 .50 1.33 60. OC 3.65 .11- 1.33 3.67
S fj. 0 J .07 . 05 .15 1. 17 50.0C 3.61 .16 .60 3.13
61.00 t. 3? . 05 .05 1. 33 60.0C 7. 76 .13 .15 3.76
70. n 1.36 . 36 .06 . 91 7C. 0(3 3.96 .1 .13 7.6
31.0J 1.10 . 36 .06 .97 90.00 3.97 11 . .11 3.33
90.33 1.17 . 37 .03 .75 90.00 3.07 .10 .10 3.C6
100.31 1.16 . 17 . U 7 . 7 C 100.OP 3.16 .19 .09 1.69
111.00 1.19 . 17 .03 .65 110.00 3.36 .0* .09 1.77
130.13 1 .1 . 13 .13 .61 130.00 3.33 .09 .69 1.66
130.00 1.36 . 33 .13 .57 13C.0C 3.79 .07 .37 1.57
161.01 1. ?6 . 1? .03 .56 16C.00 3.66 .07 .07 1.69
150.00 l.9 . O .0? - .51 - 150.OC 3.53 .07 .07 1.61
160.0) 1. 1 . 1? .03 .69 160.00 3.59 .06 .06 1.35
170.33 1.33 .33 .33 .67 170.00 3.66 .06 .16 1.39
190.13 1.16 . 13 .3 .65 190.00 3.71 .06 .06 1.36
ooljn sms
1.16
1.96
3.71
3.7 1






LONGITUDINAL CURB SLOPE (PERCENT)
O 5.0 6.0 8.0
if)
Ll*
o
UJ
o
tr
<
x
o
CO
o
EXAMPLE
GIVEN
L COMBINATION CURB 8l GUTTER
2. LONGITUDINAL SLOPE *0.9%
3. DISCHARGE 1.73 CFS.
READ*
L DEPTH OF FLOW 0.304 FT.
2. VELOCITY 1.75 F R S.
1
9
STANDARD


FI4. 5
CHART II
in
, u. o
z
o
UJ
o
t£
<
X
o
s?
o
U*L*J or PUBLIC HOADS JH IBS3
HEAD FOR STANDARD
C. M. PIPE CULVERTS FLOWING FULL n 0.024
(


CHART 5
- ieo
- lee
- 156 14 4
- 132
- 120 d
' tftj
- 108 51 -96 1
a
6
o
or
o
2
lO
u.
O
2
UJ
O
cc
<
X
- o in
- 84
- 72
60
54
46
- 42
53
30
27
- 24
- 21
- ie
- 15
- 12
UKU or PUBLIC ROADS JAN 1963
10,000
6,000
6,000
5.000
4.000
3.000
2.000
1,000
eoo
600
500
400
300
200
100
80""
60
50
40
EXAMPLE
0< 36 IttBtt (3 0 (Ml) O' 66 eft
MW * MV
0 !!)
(1) 1 94
(2) 2 1 43
(3) 2.2 *0 It fttl 44
30
20
10
8
6
5
4
3
2
L 1.0

SCALE
(1)
(2)
3.
- 2.
o
(3)
ENTRANCE
TYPE
Hood wotl
Mltorod to confer* to ilopt
Project inf
To ooo ocolo (2) or (3) projoei konjontolly to ocolo (l)t toon 000 OtrolfM tochnod lioo tOrow 0 ond 0 ocolo*, or rovoroo oi illwot roTod.
(3)
1.5
- 3.
- 2
- 1.5
6.
5.
2
1.5
- tO
- .9
- .6
- .7
- .6

L .5
- .5
HEADWATER DEPTH FOR C. M. PIPE CULVERTS WITH INLET CONTROL
wv


'b
F\6
CHART 9
n
r 2000
1000
eoo
600
500
400
300
-200
V)
u.
o
bj
0 tc <
1
o
irt
r\oo eoJ
60
50
40
30
-20

10
8
6
5
5
1-6 e
(-10
- 2
- 3
- 4
- 5
- 6
- 6
-10
20
Of PUtt-C *0C JAM *443
HEAD FOR
CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS FLOWING FULL n 0.012 '
A
&


DIAMETER OF CULVERT (D) IN INCHES
rt* d.
I
I
I
- 180 168 186
- 144
- 138
- 120 108
- 96
- 84
- 72
- 60
- 54
- 48
r- 10,000
- 8,000
- 6,000
- 5,000
- 4,000
r 3,000
- 2,000
- 1,000
- 800
EXAMPLE
0*42 Inchtt |3.9 loot) 0*120 eft
MW fotl
(0 2.9 9.1
(2) 2.1 7.4
(3) 2.2 T.T
*0 In faat
- too
- 80
- 60
- 50
- 40
HW
SCALE
ENTRANCE
TYPE
- 36
- 33
- 30
- 27
- 24
SO (') Spoort odgt olth htidotll
20 (2) Orooat ond aith htodvoll
(3) Crooat ond projecting
10
6
- 21
- 18
Te utt aeolt (2) or (3) pro)act horliontollp to tcolo (l),thoii otrolfM inclined lint through D ond 0 ICOIta, or roaorat ot
llluatrotad.
CHART 2
- 15
1.0
* .5
.5
L- ,5
L 12
headwater SCALES 2S3 REVISED MAY 1964
OUltC AU OF PDSLIC HOADS JAM IPOJ
HEADWATER DEPTH FOR CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS WITH INLET CONTROL
5-22


VK3NfTV MAP
CALI r. 1000'


APPENDIX



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Pt 3 % >* C<47 A,
1 4 2.6 1.76 0.31 o. g 0.25
z s.r 3.6 0-35 o-7 0.30
3 4.4- 3.6 0.33 *' 0-3- 0.25
6 4.2 1.77 0-37 0.63 0.31
5 5.7 1.77 0.40 0-63 0-34
4 7.4 1.77 o.43 0.58 o. 37
id 8-2 1-77 0.45 0.56 0-38
5.2 3.54 0.35 0.7 0.30
13 5.6 3.54 0-36 o-7 0-30
15 3-5 3.54 0.32 0-8 0-27
|6 4.1 3.54 0.33 0.8 0-23
24 6-7 3.25 0-32 0.-7 0.33
25 6.3 3.25 6-37 0.3 2
27 4.4 3.25 0.34 on 0-2-8
25 4.3 3.25 0.24 on 1 O-Zb
OL* Z''
10.4
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16.5
20.0
21. 6
17.3
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15.7 15-4
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lo . 0.5t> 0.7 2 3.7 1.4 !
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15 0-75 0.05 6.3 /. 1
IS 0-69 0.02 6.7 ).S
15 <0-37 0.92 4-8 o-4
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15 0-7 6 5.3 1-0
15 o.46 0-47 4.3 0-\ rO--C
15 0-47 0-47 4.2 o_\ = o -**0 1 i 1
i


STORM SEWER CALCULATIONS



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p^jen/y i*JE R&C> poJt?)NJ£ VIpuomE (£ pn-p^K. ^-Tt> iffE"
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30 4.52 3>60 ,2 47^ I
40 3.L7 S2ZO 123)2 *
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I


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RETURN PERIOD
TOTAL RAINFALL DEPTH IN INC
*
Q
3
O ro
w


APPENDIX C SEATING


The basis of theater design is the study of optics and acoustics within the relationship of performer and audience.
The careful study of seating is important to both as well as other critical concerns in theater design. Seemingly insignificant details and dimensions often play an important role in the success of failure of a space. (17)
Several kinds of seating configurations have been used in theater design, and continental seems to be the most effective layout. The following table compares the parallel and radial aisle systems.
The continental system was chosen based on the following reasons.
- Continental seating provides wider aisles for more comfort and leg room for those seated and allows them to remain seated when someone passes.
- Continental seating maintains the best viewing positions that are usually lost to aisles.
- Although codes require more exits for continental seating, the time it takes the audience (in case of a emergency) to reach it is shortened.
- From the performers view point, the auditorium is not separated.
- Continental allows the flexible use of unlimited seats up to a hundred per row.
- In the case of a multiple-use facility, continental seating allows for changes in volume and seating capacity without violating fire and building codes or forcing the audience to cross large closed off portions of the room.


- Site lines, both vertical and horizontal, are critical to proper communication between performers and audience. Site line anthropometries are shown on the following pages as well as other calculations for staggering seats, floor slope, and depth of house.
Style Back-to-back minimum spacing, in.* Average seats per 256 ft.Jf Total no. of seats No. of rows Maximum distance from stayr. ft.
Radial aisle 36 41 605 18 54
Parallel aisle 36 46 617 18 54
Continental side aisle 39 48 756 16 52
*For comfort.
H(,UR£ 1.66 Basic contemporary auditorium Matin* teoinetries in plan (no scale), (a) Rectilinear, (b) t .ur\ (linear. (c| Sinyle herringbone, (d) Double .itriiMi^htinr jli. C. IseiMMir Archive|
/
*


50* MAXIMUM mead (XTATIOM
/ .45* EASY HEAD MOVEMENT
L
THEATER SEAT WIDTHS: MAXIMUM U~-(5.5 m AVERAGE 21* SO.I cm MINIMUM 1~- 45.7 cm
news IJ Ahwh 4lmmmkmm ml tto mamamd kmtmam Ipw m flam (ahm Damftwml (G> C. Imm* AldH


FIGURE 1.4 The vertical tight line: every-row vision (after Frink). |G. C. Ixenour Archive)
FIGURE I.S The vertical sight line: every-other-row vision (after Frink). [G. C Ixenour Archive)
FICURE l.l The horizontal sight line (after Frink). (G. C Ixenour Archival


The section through stage and auditorium at any point is dictated by vertical sight lines which will be affected by the following factors:
Maximum distance desirable for the spectator farthest from the performance.
Depth of acting area and the vertical height above it essential to the type of performance.
Nearest and lowest part of the stage which must be within the unrestricted view of all spectators.
Highest point in acting area which must be visible to the spectators farthest from the stage. Balcony fronts, or soffits, proscenium or false proscenium pelmet or border must not obstruct sight lines through these extreme points.
Bad fight lines from these seats
The take should continue on this line
No. 3:7
The line of the auditorium rake must be continuous over cross aisles. To start the rake again after the cross aisle, as shown above, results in bad sight lines for the seats immediately behind the aisle.


I
No. 3:6 Graphical method for finding balcony rake.
Vertical sightlines The following is an approximate method of determining the slope of from tiers a tier. It does not replace the more meticulous method described above which can be applied to tiers as well as to main banks of seating.
First fix the eye position for the front row of seats (A) and the depth (L) to the eye position of the back row. Vertically above A
find point X so that AX = Next draw a line from P (on stage)
through X to cut the vertical through the eye position of the back row at O.
The rake of the tier will then be parallel to AO, but 1120 mm below (see note above on eye height of a seated person).
Note that the maximum slope with steps is 35 (glc)


Auotinin***of*kU'aling ' . ^ ^restricted
Slai*er* ' cine nnd 868t 8paC'n aUs proportional to
For B'ven rW #Pf e (a) seen frm any C where k ft
iu. -*
constant 4/200
MicI-ooo.y-"d,"2M
thus at 9m from the i
*-x9
False proscenium


TFT TTTT *
** ^ hr n TT'IT

-w.lZ- *. 11111M
Tm M i p 1T11] . m
TTTT ii 11 mi I TT
a. 1 ^"1 : i! J JxT : ; ^
* . < v "v *
' '*v'> /-. x iiii t t..i. uij' i J-L \*- . A\ \ '
------- t: rV-7 r- ,'. ,-V ^
v |*............... ,< -*V* \
n*.' // ^ mjtj ? i! r in n; n
/ tt : t i : h it -'.ur
Efficiency analysis drawing of a parallel aiala auditorium theater conaulting practice (no acale). |C. C. Izenour Archive!
Hr.llKF, IJ2 KITidcnry analysis drawing of a radial aiala auditorium seating system, as used in author's theater consulting practice (no scale). |G. C laenour Archtve|


FIGURE 1.50 Laterally nonstaggered auditorium seating: very-other-row vision (after Frink). |G. C. Izenour Archive)
MUiKK l.bl Laiciat:\ i.(^ *t.*i.*i .. i vory-rnw vision
(after Frink) |(j. II. Izrnour Am .hvm|


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No. 9:10 Section
Effect of front row sight lines on proscenium dimensions and masking.
No. 9:11
Plan.


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Cultural
MUSIC FACILITIES
Table IV Numbers of Seats (Stock Sizes) for Any Row Length
Row Ft.-In. .ength In. 19 20" 21 22" Row Ft.-ln. .ength In. 19" 20" 21" 22" Row Ft.-In. .ength In. 19" 20" 21" 22" 1 Row Ft.-In. Length In. 19" 2ff 21" 22"
5- 0 60 3 11- 5 137 6 1 16 4 196 7 3 5 4 21- 3 255 8 5 12
5- 1 61 2 1 11- 6 138 5 2 16 5 197 6 4 4 5 21- 4 256 7 6 11 1
5- 2 62 1 2 11- 7 139 4 3 16 6 198 5 5 3 6 21- 5 257 6 7 10 2
5- 3 63 3 11- 8 140 3 4 16 7 199 4 6 2 7 21- 6 258 5 8 9 3
5- 4 64 2 1 11- 9 141 2 5 16 8 200 3 7 1 8 21- 7 259 4 ? 8 4
5- 5 65 1 2 11-10 142 1 6 16 9 201 2 8 9 21- 8 260 3 10 7 5
V Ol 66 3 1 11-11 143 7 16 10 202 1 9 21- 9 261 2 11 6 6
5- 7 67 2 1 12- 0 144 6 1 16 11 203 10 21-10 262 1 12 5 7
5- 8 68 1 2 12- 1 145 5 2 17 0 204 9 1 21-11 263 13 4 8
5- 9 69 3 12- 2 146 4 3 17 1 205 8 2 22- 0 264 12 1 |3 9
8- 7 79 4 12- 3 147 3 4 17 2 206 7 3 22- 1 265 11 2*2 10
6- 8 80 3 1 12- 4 148 2 5 17 3 207 6 4 22- 2 266 10 3 11 11
6- 9 81 2 2 12- 5 149 1 6 17 4 208 5 5 22- 3 267 9 4 12
6-10 82 1 3 12- 6 150 7 17 5 209 4 6 22- 4 268 8 5
6-11 83 4 12- 7 151 6 1 17 6 210 3 7 22- 5 269 14 7 6
7- 0 84 3 1 12- 8 152 5 2 17 7 211 2 8 22- 6 270 13 lie 7
7- 1 85 2 2 12- 9 153 4 3 17 8 212 11 1 9 22- 7 271 12 2 5 8
7- 2 86 1 3 12-10 154 3 4 17 9 213 10 1 10 22- 8 272 11 JjT 9
7- 3 87 4 12-11 155 8 2 5 17 10 214 9 2 9 1 22- 9 273 10 t|3 10
7- 4 88 3 1 13- 0 156 7 1 1 6 17 11 215 8 3 8 2 22-10 274 9 5}2 11
7- 5 89 2 2 13- 1 157 6 2 7 18 0 216 7 4 7 3 22-11 275 8 11 12
7- 6 90 1 3 13- 2 158 5 3 18 1 217 6 5 6 4 23- 0 276 7 7 13
7- 8 91 4 13- 3 159 4 4 18 2 218 5 6 5 5 23- 1 277 6 8 12 1
8- 2 98 8 13- 4 160 3 5 18 3 219 4 7 4 6 23- 2 278 5 9 11 2
8- 3 99 4 1 13- 5 161 2 6 18 4 220 3 8 3 7 23- 3 279 4 10 10 3
8- 4 100 3 2 13- 6 162 1 7 18 5 221 2 9 2 8 23- 4 280 3 11 9 4
8- 5 101 2 3 13- 7 163 8 18 6 222 1 10 1 9 23- 5 281 2 12 8 5
8- 6 102 1 4 13- 8 164 7 1 18 7 223 11 10 23- 6 282 1 13 7 6
8- 7 103 5 13- 9 165 6 2 18 8 224 10 1 23- 7 283 14 J 7
8- 8 104 4 1 13-10 166 5 3 18 9 225 9 2 23- 8 284 13 1 15 8
8- 9 105 3 2 13-11 167 4 4 18 10 226 8 3 23- 9 285 12 T f4 9
8-10 106 2 3 14- 0 168 3 5 18 11 227 7 4 23-10 286 11 3 3 10
8-11 107 1 4 14- 1 169 2 6 19 0 228 6 5 23-11 287 10 4 2 11
9- 0 108 S 14- 2 170 1 7 19 1 229 5 6 24- 0 288 9 i. .1 12
9- 1 109 4 1 14- 3 171 8 19 2 230 4 7 24- 1 289 8 6 13
9- 2 110 3 2 14- 4 172 7 1 19 3 231 12 3 8 24- 2 290 7 7
9- 3 111 2 3 14- 5 173 6 2 19 4 232 11 1! 2 9 24- 3 291 6 8
9- 4 112 1 4 14- 6 174 5 3 19 5 233 10 -ill 10 24- 4 292 5 9
9- 5 113 S 14- 7 175 8 1 4 4 19 6 234 9 3 11 24- 5 293 4 10
9- 9 117 8 14- 8 176 7 2 3 5 19 7 235 8 4 10 1 24- 6 294 3 11
9-10 118 5 1 14- 9 177 6 3 2 6 19 8 236 7 ~5-1 9 2 24- 7 295 2 12
9-11 119 4 2 14-10 178 5 4 1 7 19 9 237 6 6 8 3 24- 8 296 1 13
10- 0 120 3 3 14-11 179 4 5 8 19 10 238 5 7 7 4 24- 9 297 14
10- 1 121 2 4 15- 0 180 3 6 19 11 239 4 8 6 5 24-10 298 13 1
10- 2 122 1 5 15- 1 181 2 7 20 0 240 3 9 5 6 24-11 299 12' 2
10- 3 123 8 15- 2 182 1 8 20 1 241 2 10 4 7 25- 0 300 11 3
10- 4 124 5 1 15- 3 183 9 20 2 242 1 11 3 8 25- 1 301 10 4
10- 5 125 4 2 15- 4 184 8 1 20 3 243 12 2 9 25- 2 302 9 5
10- 6 126 3 3 15- 5 185 7 2 20 4 244 11 x! 1 10 25- 3 303 8 6
-10- 7 127 2 4 15- 6 186 6 3 20 5 245 10 11 25- 4 304 7 7
10- 8 128 1 5 15- 7 187 5 4 20 6 246 9 3 25- 5 305 6 8
10- 9 129 6 15- 8 188 4 5 20 7 247 8 4 25-6 306 5 9
10-10 130 5 1 15- 9 189 3 6 20 8 248 7 5 25- 7 307 4 10
10-11 131 4 2 15-10 190 2 7 20 9 249 6 6 25- 8 308 3 11
11- 0 132 3 3 15-11 191 1 8 20 0 250 13 5 7 25- 9 309 2 12
11- 1 133 2 4 18- 0 192 9 20 1 251 12 It 8 25-10 310 1 13
11- 2 134 1 5 16- 1 193 10 8 1 21 0 252 U 2l3 9 25-11 311 14
11- 3 135 8 16- 2 194 9 1 7 2 21 1 253 10 3! 2 10
11- 4 136 7 16- 3 195 8 2 1 6 3 21 2 254 9 ill 11
End AI law* new: Normal 3* allowance to accommodate 2 end standards per row is included above. For balconies with steps in aisles allow 2" additional.
Seat Sizes: Common sizes shown. Seats are also available 18" 23" 6r 24*' wide. 18" size not recommended. Limit use of 19" seats to ends of rows for comfort.
Choice of Seats: Note that for longer rows two choices of seat sizes are available. Example: Row length 14*- 9" ; six 19 seats and three 20" may be used; or, two 21" and six 22" Dotted lines separate choices. Dimensions not fitted by stock size* are omitted.
392


APPENDIX D ACOUSTICS


The acoustics of a theatre will affect every production in that theatre. Because of the extreme difficulty of making any noticeable change in the acoustic conditions by adjustments to the theatre itself, the architect in effect decides its acoustic characteristicsat the onset. 08) Several areas need to be looked at, they are:
Acoustic Background -
Some manipulation of the sound, if not of the acoustics, is possible by modern amplification systems, such as sound effects, amplifying performers voice, and the dispersing of sound equally to all parts of the audience area.
Loudspeakers are generally dispersed in the stage area, auditorium, front of the house, and orchestra pit. The type of loudspeaker will be determined by the layout and level of reproduction.
A theatre must be protected from all external noise and must have a mechanical plant designed so that background noise level does not exceed certain criteria. The larger the auditorium, the lower these criteria should be. For theatres over 500 seats, a noise criterion of 20 dBA or less should not be exceeded.
Particular attention must be paid to noise from flushing lavatories, talking in dressing room, and noise from lounge area.
Seating Rake and Layout -
The rake of seating is as important for sound as it is for sight. When sound passes at a low angle of incidence over an audience, it is strongly attenuated


because of the highly absorptive properties of the audience.
If seating is layed out in a semi-circular plan, or if balcony fronts are concave, there is the risk of causing a focusing of sound. Concave areas, be they steps or walls, should be absorbent or break up the surface for sound diffusion.
Size and Shape -
The larger the stage house, the more the waste of acoustic energy and the more difficulty the actor has in projecting his voice through the proscenium opening unless they go into the auditorium on the Forestage.
Changes of surface level and modelling of the surfaces will provide acoustic diffusion. Projections with widths and depths of at least 5" are necessary to be effective and are more productive if arranged in a random pattern.
Balcony Overhangs -
In auditoriums, deep overhung balconies should be avoided. It is best to restrict the depth from the front of the balcony to the rearmost row of seats to not more than twice the distance from audience head level to the balcony soffit at the front of the balcony.
Reverberation -
Reverberation will improve acoustical conditions provided it is neither too much or too little. For speech, the optimal reverberation (RT) for unamplified speech varies from 1 second in small volumes to 1.4 seconds in large ones, for music, longer reverberation times are required depending on the type of music. Valves between 1 and 2 seconds are satisfactory for much programme


material and thus the acoustics can be good for music without effect RT of speech.
Reverberation is directly proportional to the volume of the auditorium and inversely proportional to the amount of absorption in it. Allowing for the fact that hard materials will have an absorption, it is found that a volume of 9 cubic feet per seat provides the right total absorption for satisfactory reverberation time for speech. As some surfaces will be^ sound reflecting, they can be disposed to promote useful reflections to help compensate for normal fall off of sound from the source.
This approach is only satisfactory for up to 500 seats. If auditorium exceeds 500 seats, the proportions will be poor with such a low ceiling height; a volume that exceeds 9 cubic feet per seat must add absorbents
to the room surfaces to obtain reverberation time.
*
In contrast to this, auditoriums oriented toward the production of music must be designed with a much larger volume per seat (315 cubic feet) or it will be impossible to obtain long enough reverberation time, however hard the surfaces. The closer together an audience can be seated, the shorter will be the average distance to the stage and the easier it is to keep the volume per seat down to a low value.
Reflectors -
When the auditorium is large and the maximum distance to a seat in over 50', ceiling reflectors are a great help. They should be designed so that the reflections are concentrated on the most distant seats. In designing reflectors it is necessary to decide on the position of the sound source, the aid provided by the reflectors will be most necessary to an actor speaking from far up stage in the position under the stage house and proscenium.


Material for reflectors must be smooth and non-porous, and should not weigh less than 1.5 pounds per square foot for speech and 5.5 pounds per square foot for music.
The application of reflectors above the actors head is difficult due to the conflict of lighting positions.
Resonance -
Any auditorium has to be thought of as a three dimensional sounding board, similar to the wood panel in a piano which acts as a two-dimensional sounding board that is forced to vibrate. The prominence of resonance frequencies in any room depends on the reflective properties of its walls. This can be suppressed with movable absorptive material on the walls of the room.
The following curve indicates that unless the room is smaller than
50,000 cubic feet, an amplifying system is needed to ensure a minimum articulation percentage of 85% for hearing speech. The curve also shows how much better speech is heard in small rooms than large ones.
Another factor of speech is the directional spread around a speaker's head. When a speaker faces the audience, he is heard much better than when he is not. The following diagram shows the average horizontal directivity around the speaker at three different frequencies. When the speaker turns his back, he is inaudible unless he faces appropriately
i
located and shaped reflectors, designed to reflect mainly high frequency sounds to the audience.
The fan shaped room(b) sends sound into the trapping rear corners of the room. The traditional parallel side wall in (a) sends sound to the front area of the room. In the multiple-use auditorium, requiring both focus for individuals and breadth for large musical groups adjustable reflective absorptive elements are necessary to modify the sound
distribution.


Adjustable reflectors


i/vi-
ncuu 7.202(l| Auditorium. Fino Arts Cooler. Viterbo Collet*, half-plan and eectioo (concert hall mode). Brat reflection* analysis figure. (G. C. Izanour Archival
ncuu 7.202(b) Auditorium, Fins Aria Center, Viterbo Collet*, section (intimate theater mode). Brat reflections analysis Stur*. [G.'C. Ixenour Archival
FICUU 7.201 Aoditorium. Fin* Arts Center. Viterbo Collet*, isometric aeatinf geometry analysis Ature. (G. C. Izanour Archival


8


Frequency, Hz Absorption per chair, sabins
125 2.8-32
250 3.6-4.0
500 38-4.2
1.000 3.8-42
2.000 3 6-4.0
4,000 3 3-4.2


SOME RELEVANT ACOUSTICAL DATA ON WELL KNOWN CONCERT HALLS AND ON RECENT MULTIPLE-USE AUDITORIA
NAME OF HALL OR AUDITORIUM STAGE DIMENSIONS IN FT. AUDIENCE AREA IN FT. VOLUME -THOUSANDS OF CTJ. FT. NUMBER of SEATS REVERBERATION TIME SECONDS !
Height - Width Depth Height Width Depth 500-1000 Hz 125 Hz
EDWIN THOMAS PERFORMING ARTS HALL1 Akron University 25-36 34-56 3. 54 56-162 76-130 140-650 800 to 3000 1.6-2.0* 1
CONCERTCEBOUV Amsterdam 46-50 32 56 92 96 633 2206 2.0 2.2
CONCERT HALL1 Atlanta 25-34 44-64 40 59 90 100 484 1762 l.l3 2.23
SYMPHONY HALL Boston 37-44 44-58 34 58-62 76 134 662 2631 1.9 2.2
SEVERANCE HALL (1958) Cleveland 24-40 40-58 46 54 92 62-114 555 1890 1.9 -
CORDINER HALL Walla Walla, Uaah. 20-26 36-50 34 32-42 56-104 lot 330 1450 1.6 1.8
FESTIVAL HALL | Tokyo 18-36 30-44 30 52 72-110 122 605 2327 2.03 2.83
THEATER-CONCERT HALL1 1 Fresno, Calif. 24-30 44-S6 *40 -J 46 64-116 112 475 2360 1.7 2.1
I GAMMAGE AUDITORIUM 1 Arizona State Unlv. 20-32 48-64 40 44-64 84-140 105 700 3050 i.i 2,
THEATER-CONCERT HALL Honolulu 24-26 36-50 38 40-54 68-105 102 530 1800 2.03 2.43
ROYAL FESTIVAL HALL London (1960) 34-44 58-106 48 54 106 118 775 3030 1.5 1.4
j DOROTHY CHANDLER1 | PAVILION, Los Angeles 24-32 50-60 44 36-60 90-130 106 750 3250 1.9 2.0
PHILADELPHIA ACADEMY OF MUSIC (pre-1965) 18-22 54 50 66 90 104 555 2900 1.5 1.6
NEUES FESTSPIELHAUS Salzburg nl 42-1001 varies 50 100-120 90-115 470 2340 1.5 1.6
VAN WEZEL AUDITORIUM Sarasota 22-33 38-56 36 40 76-150 112 350 1900 1.5-1.8 1.9-2.3
OPERA HOUSE | Seattle 24-30 36-60 40 32-60 64-140 108-150 778 3150 2.03 2.23
STAATS OPER Vienna 5J 442 - 64 68 92 376 2100 1.3 1.4
MUSIKVEREINSSAAL j Vienna 45-54 65 34 56 6 i 112 520 2000 i.. 2.1
j WASHBURN CONCERT HALL | Topeka, Kansas 24-34 54-62 38 38-40 84-100 104 360 1200 i..3 2.33
CONCERT HALL CENTURY II Wichita 26-29 50-58 40 48 60-116 116 460 2200 2.0 2.7
Hlultlple-uae; listed stags disens Iona are for the acoustical aholl ^Proscenium dimensions *No audience 4Calculated
FIGURE 8.8 Relevant acoustical data on well-known concert halls and recent multiple-use auditoria. [V. O. Knudsen Archive)
Type Vol. ft. RT
Chamber/Solos 10,000-15,000 0.8-1.0 sec
Symphony lg. 500,000 1.6-2.0 sec
Organ/Choral 1.0-1.5 mil. 2.0-2.5 sec


APPENDIX E LIGHTING


Before describing the technical provisions of stage lighting, there are four functions that should be understood.
1. Visibility: To make it possible for the audience to see, and for the director to control attention by variations in intensity and color.
2. Naturalism: Lighting on the stage must imitate the natural or artifical lighting of the supposed place so that a believable illusion is created.
3. Design: In theatre organization stage lighting is considered a part of scene design. Light sometimes is scenery. It must therefore be flexible enough to be useful in conformity with any stylish idiom of the plastic arts.
a
4. Mood: Many designers and directors depend upon light as an important facility for creating and sustaining the desired mood.
However good the position of the audience in relation to the stage, the contact is lost if the actor is not properly illuminated.
Illumination of the acting area is rarely achieved by using sources throwing a wide angle beam of light.
The task is to build a pattern of illumination from a number of localized units each fed from its owm electrical circuit. The pattern can then be altered by increasing or reducing the intensity of light from the appropriate units, and the principal instrument for this purpose is a centralized lighting control through which all circuits pass.
After the general illumination has been established, attention must be given to achieving a specific dramatical or decorative effect.


Light must not stray outside these intended beams; it must fall only on a specific area at the desired time. One must know where the beams edge is, this is particularly important in protecting the audience from glare.
There are basic lighting positions which are essential if the performance is to be seen with clarity. But when these have been provided, still other angles and directions of light may be required to build up an effective composition.
A large part of the lighting from the direction of the audience should be arranged so that it strikes the actor's face at about 45 above horizontal. If the angle is much steeper or flatter, it will produce unwanted shadows on actors and sets. Spotlights are rarely directed straight at actors, but are usually crossed.
The preferred angle of 45 cannot, therefore to locate the lighting positions on a section drawn on the entire line of the auditorium, but if these positions are sited at an angle of elevation of about 55 to the actors face, the light will strike him at approximately 45 after crossing diagonally. Obviously, the width of the stage and height of the lighting equipment will also affect the angle.
Another important consideration is the accessibility to the lighting positions. Each unit should be reachable so that it may be focused, have color filters changed, and keep the fittings maintained. Walkways and platforms should be provided so that the technician can reach them. Sometimes a light bridge can be justified by frequent use. A location just on the auditorium side of the stage probably be best for a lighting bridge, not interfering with the fly gallery.


The lighting position may need to be reached even during the performance without the technician passing through the auditorium.
Side positions in the wall of the auditorium are useful. If the lighting is placed in wall slots, provision can be made for access from outside or through catwalks in the ceiling. The diagrams on the following page show the recommended sizes of lighting bridges and wall slots.
Storage space and raking for 20% of spare lamps, equipment, colors, and cables should be available on or adjacent to bridges and slots.
The lighting and control room in the auditorium with an observation window providing an unrestricted stage view shall accommodate the lighting control board operator. The control room houses the lighting console, the operator, and needs space for writing the lighting plot, storage, and maintenance. 10' by 8' is sufficient. Access should be outside the auditorium and preferably separate from the public. However, a door into the auditorium is desirable for rehearsal. There should be easy connection from the control room to the stage. The entrance door must be light-trapped. Direct access to stage lighting is also desirable.
The sound control room should be in close location to the lighting, control room. It should be insulated from the lighting room with an inter-connecting door.
A film projection box should be included, but should be separate from the control rooms because of fire safety. Certain auditorium lighting controls will have to be duplicated so that the film projectionist will not have to go to another room to dim the auditorium lights and operate the curtain.


An observation window needs to be provided. It must have a ^d glass opening to avoid reflections, and be operable for rehearsals. _.er, it needs to be well insulated for performance. The window d measure approximately 4' by 2' in height.
The battery room should be located where it will be easily accessible, it cannot be close to anything that is liable to be affected by fire explosion. The room should be 100 square feet and no less than
c.i feet in height. It should have good natural ventilation to open independent of any ventilated sources. The battery room should be of -combustible construction with a one hour fire rating. The door will ept locked at all times. A sink and cold water supply should be
I'de the room or nearby. Storage space will be kept for distilled r and the batteries themselves.
Auditorium lighting bridgt.


auditorium wall
Plan


APPENDIX F STAGE FORMS


Cultural
THEATERS
By JO MIELZINER
Fig. 2 The typical early-twentieth-centuiy American theater had meager and often inadequate stage and supporting facilities.
The twentieth century brought an entirely new attitude toward shaping our theaters. Whereas in the past, a consistent, developing production technique gave rise to a single, if gradually developing theater shape for each period, in the last 60 years several theater shapes have been available for our use. Due partly, no doubt, to nineteenth-century historicism and scholarship, a revival of earlier stage forms sprang up to accompany the mainstream tradition of the proscenium stage. There began to be a multiple choice of theater shapes for plays in the twentieth century a situation that was unknown in previous times. This movement clearly underscored the tremendous activity in theater arts the thinking and lack of it being done by all people involved.
Proscenium Theaters
From the turn of the twentieth century to the present day, the proscenium theater a direct-line survival of the horseshoe opera house that originated in the Renaissance has continued as the most generally accepted and widely built theater shape in this country. By definition, a proscenium theater is a shape in which the audience faces the performing area on one side only and sees the performing area through an architectural opening that often has an elaborated architectural frame although that is not an essential element. The performing area is not always limited by that opening; it can project out a nominal distance into the auditorium in the form of what is called a forestage or apron. In essence, this is not an intimate theater shape, since the audience and the actors are each in separate, but connected, interior rooms (see Fig. 1).
At the turn of the century, many American proscenium theaters were outmoded and run down, despite the fact that the theater itself was prosperous. Unlike European theaters of the time, in the United States experiments were hampered by the lack of space, prohibitive
The Shape of Our Theatre, Clarkson N. Potter, Publisher, New York.
Fig. 1 The proscenium shape.
labor costs, and the overriding profit motive of the commerical American theater. Very few of these theaters were built with adequate machinery stage elevators or turntables. Tenants were expected to bring everything with them, including turntables and all lighting equipment. Consequently, early-twentieth-century producing groups dedicated to the new stagecraft and contemporary American playwrights found their theaters woefully inadequate in shape and meager in equipment.
The absentee landlord's profits were not put back into the buildings or into new equipment, particularly stage lighting equipment. Actually, landlords were not absent physically. What was missing was any real love of the arts of the theater; instead they substituted a love of profits. If they were away from their theaters for any length of time, their general managers were on hand to keep a watchful eye on financial operations.
One New York City landlord-builder ordered a theater constructed with as little space as
possible for the stage, the lobby, and between-legroom rows. In one instance the box office was omitted entirely. In spite of the owner's concern over his new theater's capacity to operate on a profitable level, the absence of any professional theater people on the owner's or the architect's staff was responsible for the amazing omission. Only in a last-minute inspection by the owner did this situation reveal itself, and a hastily designed and very cramped box office was quickly put in.
One theater builder in Philadelphia forgot to include dressing rooms and later had them constructed in a separate building across an alley, back of the theater. This little convenience meant that the artist, to get from his dressing room to the stage, had to go down to the basement, literally duck under sewage and steam pipes, and then go up into the other building. All this showed little understanding for the art of the theater and no respect for its artists (see Fig. 2).
Because of this general situation, it was the
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352


Cultural
THEATERS
producer, not the theater owner, who was forced to keep up with the times and pay for proper facilities and equipment to install portable dressing rooms backstage. I note these almost unbelievable instances not in the spirit of gossip, but to stress the need for the constant presence of a professional theater expert not on the outskirts of a projected theater design, but in a position of responsibility.
However, some producer-managers who were clients for their own theater buildings had a real love of theater itself, and an understanding of the latest European stagecraft developments. Among them were the Frohmans, David Belasco, and Florenz Ziegfeld; the latter retained architect-scene designer Joseph Urban to design his own theater. Winthrop Ames, a wealthy amateur of the arts, and a thoroughly professional producer, put up the Century Theater on New York's Central Park West. This 2,000-seat theater was notably ahead of its time, but was soon demolished because no contemporary repertory company could fill it.
If the absentee theater owners had been more knowing, if they had even more materialistic imagination, they would have made the kind of improvement that Billy Rose later made to his Ziegfeld Theatre (since demolished). There he equipped the backstage as well as the auditorium with the latest, most efficient lighting equipment and lighting control systems. Even if motivated solely by financial self-interest, this produced lucrative rentals from his tenants, and also provided presentational potential for the users.
Because the picture frame theaters were badly designed and therefore nearly unusable, they have recently been much downgraded. They were not bad simply because they were old or because they had proscenium forms, but because of their initial poor design. What most of U6 have forgotten is that the proscenium stage has been for centuries and will remain one of our most useful theater shapes.
A Revival of Ancient Shapes
As early as 1914, a group at Teachers College in New York used the simplest bleachers and seats on four sides of a medium-sized room to create an arena stage. An ancient theater shape, the arena stage was used in the great coliseums and arenas of Greece and Rome but never specifically for drama. This new usage was the beginning of a revival.
The arena is a theater-in-the-round. The stage is surrounded on all sides by the audience. This arrangement puts the greatest number of the audience in intimate proximity with the performer. Both the audience and actor are in the same room. Others were gradually won
fig- 3 The arena shape.
Reinhardt and Leopold Jessner in Germany our best young playwrights, Eugene O'Neill, Elmer Rice, and John Howard Lawson, helped launch and stimulate a new attitude toward stagecraft in the United States.
Expreesionistic scene development in Germany and Russia was also reflected in America. Lee Simonson, Norman Bel Geddes, and Robert Edmond Jones produced designs of dramatic imagination for scenery and stage. However, since they were not in the mainstream of commercial thinking, few of these new stages were actually built.
Conventional Broadway was not the only vital place; community and college playhouses sprang up all over the country. But the time and cost of producing scenery led directors to bypass that traditional problem and to investigate other techniques of stagecraft.
Early in this century, the ancient open-thrust stage, which had been used before the development of the proscenium theatre, was revived by several directors and producers. High costs of proscenium productions, which required elaborate and sometimes complicated scenery as well as high operating costs, led to this revival. Coupled with this was a desire to bring greater intimacy to the theater again. (See Fig. 4.)
The open-thrust stage had experienced an earlier revival in Europe. Davioud and Bourdais unexecuted 1875 opera house design proposed a stage of extreme thrust, extending 50 ft into the auditorium with seating on three sides. And in the twenties, the Parisian actor-director Jacques Copeau conceived a truly open theater chamber of intimate proportions in his Theatre Vieux Colombier. His open stage had multiple
Fig. 5 The open stage of Jacques Copeaus Vieux Colombier, Paris, had multiple levels and a flexible but permanent architectural set.
to this cost-saving stage form which automatically minimizes the expensive, elaborate scenery usually associated with the proscenium tradition. (See Fig. 3.)
The period following World War I was exciting both in Europe and America. Inspired by a fresh approach to writing and the new European expressionistic stage designers and producers Adolphe Appia in Switzerland, Max
353


Cultural
THEATERS
levels, a number of entrances and exits, and a flexible architectural set, which was permanent and therefore cost-cutting. Neither of these European theater designs directly influenced American stage designs, however, until the educational theater did so much to spur the revival of the open-thrust stage. (See Fig. 5.)
American educators felt that the proper method of teaching Shakespeare was to permit students to act and to observe performances of his plays on the type of stage for which they were written. Educators often attempted makeshift open-thrust stages in whatever theaters were available to them. Scenery of the proscenium tradition was virtually eliminated in open-thrust stagecraft. And ultimately permanent open-thrust stage theaters were constructed by the producers of Shakespeare festivals for such regional and community groups as those at San Diego, California; Portland, Oregon; and later the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C.
A thrust stage must not be confused with extended forestages in proscenium theatres,, which utilize techniques of acting, direction, and designing that do not differ from standard proscenium stagecraft. A true thrust stage is a platform extending into an open auditorium in which the audience truly surrounds the stage on three sides. There may be exits in the back of the stage, as well as under the audience through vomitory tunnels. A thrust stage is an area deep and wide enough on which to play a full scene. When an apron or forestage is only an adjunct to a proscenium stage, it should not be considered a thrust stage (see Fig. 6).
Fig. 6 The apron shape.
Thus, by the end of the twenties, theater professionals had a choice of not only the traditional proscenium stage but also the revived open-thrust and the arena stage forms.
Hiatus in Theater Building
The Depression of 1929 brought a virtual end to theater building in the United States until the end of World War II. No commercial theaters were built in major American cities between 19£9 and 1950. The sole exception was Rockefeller Center's Center Theatre, built in 1936 and demolished in 1950. In the thirties, only a few colleges and universities had the funds to build modern theaters with stages designed for modern stagecraft and modern repertory requirements.
After World War II, America was ripe for a "cultural explosion." Mid-twentieth-century Americans were more affluent, better traveled,
and more cultivated. There was a new boom in theater construction. The quarter-century hiatus in building, however, had left its mark. A whole generation of architects and designers had been passed by, and the new generation was unschooled in the development of stage design. This ignorance led to rampant confusion in theater design.
Multiple Choice et Midcentury
When theatre building activity was resumed, the proscenium was the only widely known theater shape; therefore it continued to be popular. To make the proscenium more effective for mid-twentieth-century use, new developments were introduced by architects and designers. Electrically operated flying scenery, electronic control systems like those that preset positions for stage elevators, and predetermined lighting plans made the designing of theaters as complicated as it made the physical operation simpler. More and more sophisticated attention to good sight lines and seating furthered the continuation of the proscenium tradition.
Clients, on the other hand, sometimes continued a status-seeking reverence for seventeenth- and eighteenth-century European models that could not, in all ways, take advantage of these new techniques. A significant example of this reactionary view was the attitude of the Metropolitan Opera Board of Directors toward commissioning a new opera house in Lincoln Center. I am not criticizing the architects' designs or even their execution. The design was chosen with the conviction that the Golden Horseshoe" of their old (1882) house was sacrosanct. A sentimental attachment to the past, as well as a lack of sympathy with contemporary design, may well have influenced the Board's decision. But I would suspect that the fear of alienating the few, but financially critical constituents was the dominant factor in their decision.
I am well aware that backstage the mechanical facilities of the new Metropolitan Opera House are up to date and undoubtedly do much to keep down the backbreaking operational overhead.
That they did not attempt to peer into the not-too-distant twenty-first century is understandable. The life-span of contemporary structures particularly those associated with the performing arts, is shortening so quickly that new theater shapes may serve satisfactorily for only a generation or two. But in delib-
erately choosing a multitiered eighteenth-century horseshoe seating plan, the directors were guilty of a graver error than just inflicting substandard sight lines. That error was the failure to recognize that our twentieth-century visual art forms are not just passing fads, but are deeply dyed in our daily lives, in our means of communication and our social behavior. It seems strange that the impresarios of an art form as abstract au music should allow themselves to close their eyes to even the most universally acceptable visual arts of our midcentury.
Today, only after careful consideration, proper planning and design will the proscenium theater regain its usefulness. A modern proscenium theater need not be rigid in its dimensionseither in width or height. Side panels adjacent to the proscenium can have facilities for openings and side stages. Offstage rooms right and left, up and down, traps and fly loft-all have to be provided. All these elements lend great flexibility to the Proscenium stage, but also make it more complex and more expensive to build. Basically, the proscenium is one of the most flexible theater shapes because any and all styles of production can be effectively realized. For the director, the problems of sight lines and other questions inherent in proscenium productions are fluid. In stagecraft, particularly lighting and settings, everything from the most stylistic and simple designs to the most elaborate and imaginative settings can take full advantage of this shape. Even a play such as Hair, which was first performed on an open stage, was successfully produced on Broadway in a proscenium theater. (See Fig. 7.)
The limitation of this theater shape is that it tends to be less intimate than either the The-ater-in-the-round or the open-thrust stage. Yet it also must be remembered that many playwrights want the kind of separation between actor and audience that the proscenium shape gives. On the whole, if I were limited to a single r stage form, I would choose a flexible proscenium with an ample forestage.
During the 1950s, labor and material costs again led clients as well as producers and designers to seek new methods of stagecraft. So it was that arena stages or theaters-in-the-round gained wider acceptance as a suitable setting for spoken drama. They were less expensive to build and required virtually no conventional scenery. A strong influence during the theater explosion, the arena stage in Washington, D.C., clearly demonstrates how sophisticated theater-in-the-round can be. De-
Fig. 7 In today's proscenium theater, the width of the proscenium opening can often be varied by adjustable panels.
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signed for Zelda Fichandler in 1961 by Chicago architects Harry Weese & Associates, it is a far cry from the frequently seen, makeshift the-aters-in-the-round. Well planned and successful, it is actually a theater-in-the-rectangle, but the principle of an audience surrounding the stage is identical. Here both the architect and the owner worked carefully to meet the needs of the company and to solve the technical problems and limitations of such a theater shape (see Fig. 8).
One built-in limitation of arena stages is applicable to all stages surrounded, or partly surrounded, by the audience: the director must constantly change his axis to prevent one group of viewers from being presented with poorer images than other sections of the audience. Actors, a6 well as the director, must use entirely different attacks on performance and movement. Lighting is also more difficult in arena staging because of the mandatory economy; however, when handled by an artist, this flexible medium can stress the nonillusionistic approach to a design.
In addition, the ability to vary settings is a limitation, both because architectural forms are impractical, and because elevations on the stage have to be limited in scale. In choosing a repertory for an arena stage company, certain plays such as the classical plays of Sophocles, Euripides, Shakespeare, Moliere, and Sheridan succeed while, on the other hand, some plays written for the proscenium stage must be omitted.
One of the primary advantages of an arena theater is intimacy. Even with 1,000 seats, the most distant member of the audience need not
be much more than 32 ft from the nearest part of the stage. Although in more sophisticated theaters-in-the-round, it is possible to use traps and to fly elements overhead from a modified grid above the center of the stage, scenic investiture is ordinarily reduced to only the most expressive and economical forms of lighting and projection, costumes, props, and simple portable scenic elements that do not mask the actor from any part of the surrounding audience. On the whole, I think the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages of arena theaters. The fact that presentation style stresses imagination and simplicity is surely a strong argument.
Throughout the fifties and sixties a major innovative force in theater architecture has been Irish theater director Sir Tyrone Guthrie. In the fifties, after much acclaimed experimentation in England and Scotland, Guthrie was invited by the bright, ambitious young community leaders of Stratford, Ontario, to establish a theater. Intended primarily for the classics, the theater was first set up inside a tent, and later rebuilt under a permanent architectural structure (see Fig. 9).
Tyrone Guthrie's concept for Stratford, which was worked out with theater designer Tanya Moisewitsch, was appropriately a classical one. The auditorium is based on a steeply banked, semicircular, Greco-Roman, three-sided seating arrangement; it surrounds an open-thrust stage that has many basic elements of the Elizabethan stage. Besides entrances from the rear wall, Guthrie also used vomitories, which are entrances and exits to the stage from below the audience seating areas.
Little if any background scenery is used. Stress is on costumes, props, and lighting, which the director/designer team use in the most imaginative and simplest way to create scenic atmosphere. Light is used almost entirely as illumination, with very little sophistication in movement, color, or image projection. On the other hand, their sophisticated use of costumes and properties has been extremely important in creating a sense of mood and character. The impact of the theater was international. It was intimate and vital, and extremely suitable for the classics.
A few years later, after the Ontario theater had been built, Guthrie himself initiated, with Oliver Rea, a similar venture in Minneapolis, Minnesota. There, he planned with architect Ralph Rapson a variation on the Stratford, Ontario, theater. Corrections were made, for example, in the sight lines at extreme left and right. He included facilities for hanging scenery behind the thrust. It is a token proscenium behind the thrust stage. This combination of the two theater forms was a major innovation. And thoughtful architects and designers throughout the country and abroad studied it with great interest.
An open-thrust stage can be extremely simple, like Tyrone Guthries Stratford, Ontario, theater. It can then be elaborated by planning an adaptable grid for lights, props, and scenic elements to be hung directly over the thrust. Yet all this fits into the basically simple staging that is germane to the shape.
The advantages of thrust are clear and strong, but so are its disadvantages. Of the advantages, the greatest is perhaps the heightened sense of involvement gained by both the audience and the actor. Intimacy naturally is enhanced; the movement and pace of the play are swift; and the technique is fluid and cinematographic. The open-thrust stage does, however, diminish the significance of the il-lusionistic" style of stage design. (Depending on one's point of view, admittedly, this may be counted either as one of its advantages or as one of its limitations. For me, illusion is one of the lesser achievements of the contemporary theater.) The open stage requires a totally different approach. The cast cannot be directed to act only toward the front, because the audience is on the sides as well. And, in a sense, they must act dimensionally within a scenic scheme, rather than in front of it. Costumes also become more important as do the few but choice properties with which the actors work. And finally, because background pictures are not being created, lighting must become a living element through which players move.
Generally, the open-thrust stage is more flexible than the arena. With the open-thrust stage, the director does not have to worry so much about the actor's back being to the audience. But because the open-thrust is more complicated to design, it may turn out to be more expensive to build than the arena or proscenium theatre.
Perhaps the most outstanding disadvantage is that the more realistic a play is, the less effective it may be for the open-thrust stage. Shakespearean plays and other earlier classics are easily adaptable since in their writing and production they were presented on open Elizabethan stages with a minimum of scenic effects. Much of nineteenth-century drama is considered ill-suited for the open-thrust stage; but this also presents an opportunity for an imaginative director to approach these plays with a radically fresh style.
Of the multiple choices in theater shapes at midcentury, then, three were prominent proscenium, arena, and open-thrust; but more involved, complex choices of theater shapes were
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yet to confuse the decision-making and design processes of architects and clients.
MULTICHOICE IN A SINGLE THEATER
Besides the choice among three traditional, historical theater shapes, which are available to theater planners and designers today, a new combination of multiples has appeared. Now, we can attempt to have several, or all three of these stage forms in a single building even in the same auditorium. This unique possibility has led to the extreme complication of present-day theater design and to the utter confusion of present-day theater designers.
The educator's desire to perform Shakespearean plays in the original setting has been extended to a desire also to perform eighteenth- and nineteenth-century plays in the theaters for which they were originally produced. Not content with an open-thrust stage theater for plays written for that basic shape, from the days of classical Greece to the Middle Ages, producers also want a proscenium theater, in which to present Renaissance and later plays. This desire has now spread from the educators to the producers of community and regional theater as well.
Where sufficient funds are available, the building of two theaters one proscenium and one open splendidly accommodates this desire. (It must be remembered that in no age but our own were plays written expressly for arena theaters.) However, sufficient funds do not always seem available for such a splendid solution. As a compromise, and it must immediately be recognized as that, architects,
Fig. 10 The total thoatar scheme, datignod by Walter Grapiu, in 1929, it a chimera holding forth tha illusive promise of a multiform stage. It could be changed from (a) the proscenium shape to (b) the open-thrust shape, and (c) the arena shape.
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stage engineers, and designers have attempted to build, within a single theater, multiform stages, which can be changed from one shape to another (Fig. 10).
The Multiform Stage
Inspired by the total theater scheme of the late architect Walter Gropius, which was designed in 1929, but never executed, engineers have attempted tour-de-force theaters that could be altered from proscenium stage arrangements to open-thrust stage arrangements and even to the arena shape. Engineering and mechanical ingenuity, coupled with accurate electric controls, have made these chimeras appear attainable. It is my feeling, however, that this concept has never been successfully realized.
Multiform stages were developed for clients who felt they could afford to build only one theater, but were unable to commit themselves to a single stage form. The mechanical multiform stage was also intended to make flexible space operational for theaters of large size, and to save manpower and time in rearranging stage form and audience seating plans.
In Fig. 11 I have illustrated one theater interior that can be used for two types of stage productions by rearranging some of the seating and changing the proscenium proportions. The first is a true proscenium technique. Then, by using an elevator to bring up a thrust stage and readjust the seating elements, this same theater can be used for a second technique the open-thrust stage.
At the Loeb Drama Center at Harvard University, mechanical means have been provided to create three entirely different relations between acting area and audience seating. De-
signed by architect Hugh Stubbins and theater engineer George Izenour, the Loeb Theatre interior itself does not essentially changeonly the mobile units within its walls and under its ceilings. The avowed purpose of this highly selective and mechanical complex was to satisfy the needs of student directors, actors, and authors to create any and all stage shapes at will (see Fig. 12).
For all multiform stages, there is a price paid not only in dollars, but also in sacrifice of function. No multiform stage can be either a perfect thrust or a perfect proscenium stage. Yes, they work. But the additional expense, both in design and construction and ultimately in operational costs, is not worth the loss of unified purpose that characterizes a theater with a single stage shape. Such experiments fail basically for the very reason that in none of their two or three or five alternate adjustments has one a feeling of a well-designed, simple, clean, direct, single-form theater. In order to make a collective multiform that works at all, each single arrangement must be a compromise.
It has been my experience that impressive and technically practical as some of the experiments may be, in none of their various chameleon-like changes are they as effective in either arrangements or elements as the stages designed for a specific purpose.
Even a theater that can be changed to create only two of the basic stage shapes is a compromise. But such dual-form or hybrid" theaters appeal to clients who desire some of the advantages of the thrust stage and, with a minimum of changeover, the use of the same auditorium as a proscenium stage. And it must be admitted that a stage that can be changed from
arena shape to open-thrust shape may not be so serious a compromise. The real difficulty is in designing a theater that will accommodate both the axial vision demanded by the proscenium stage and the radial vision that is basic to the open-thrust stage.
I have been involved (although after instinctive personal protest) in designing a number of dual-form theaters. An honest architect or designer must hold a Monday-morning quarterback session with himself, if not in public, upon the completion of an important job. I feel that a public session here will provide a valuable share of my experience.
It was tragic that one of the great architects with a true and sensitive understanding of theater, the late Eero Saarinen, should have lived to complete only the Beaumont Theater of Lincoln Center. It was a privilege to be codesigner with him on the stage and auditorium. When Eero and I were given the responsibility for designing the two theaters for the Lincoln Center Repertory Company, we met privately for long, honest studies. I found, to my pleasure, that our basic concepts were in agreement. First, neither of us believed in anything but single-form stages; we both were completely opposed to a multiform stage. If our original proposition had been accepted, we would have had the upstairs theater slightly smaller and the downstairs theaters slightly larger. One of them would have been pure thrust stage and the other pure proscenium. The question of which form would be which size would have been left to the building committee. That is, if the committee voted that the larger theater should have a proscenium stage, we wanted that theater to be a pure proscenium theater, in the best sense, and the other to be a pure open-thrust stage and vice versa. (See Fig. 13.)
We were overruled. In fact, some members of the committee even talked about a basic multiuse scheme for the Beaumont. We turned that down completely, but we realized that we would have to accept the compromise of a dualform design. Our original proposition would have been the wiser decision, and ultimately far cheaper in both initial costs and in subsequent operating costs.
However, Lincoln Center gave us months of exploratory time and supported the costs of experimental designs and models which were shown to the building committee of the Repertory Company and to a group of theater critics. A small, but very volatile minority of them supported the idea that the open-thrust stage should be the dominant form. But at the end of the investigation, the consensus was that we should design the larger theater so that it could be used as a proscenium theater and as an open-thrust stage; and that we, as designers, should find some practical means of making the changeover relatively simple.
We pointed out that to meet the production schedule of a repertory company for a two-hour changeover between matinee and evening, it would be imperative to install expensive automatic mechanical equipment. For example, if a production using open-thrust was completed at 5 or 5:30 and the evening schedule called for proscenium staging, an enormous amount of work would be required not only in changing the scenery and lighting, but in changing the seating plan and the open-thrust stage itself. What we designed at the Beaumont Theater for this changeover can be effected in 2 hours.
It is achieved by locating the front group of seats on a large lift that descends to the subbasement where a turntable rotates them, substituting an open-thrust stage, which is then raised into position. Proscenium panels at the Beaumont can be opened to make a maximum
Fig. 11
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proscenium opening that is 50 ft across. When the thrust is in use, the panels are completely closed; then actors can enter from right and left downstage of the proscenium panels and from two vomitory entrances under the front orchestra seats.
It must be stated categorically that multiform stages are designed for dramatic productions of plays only. In the case of the Beaumont, the acoustical characteristics are specifically for the spoken word. The theater cannot be used successfully for opera or musical recitals.
Multiuse Auditoriums
An approach to theater shapes born of the midtwentieth-century electronic era, and perhaps twentieth-century indecision, is the multi-use auditorium. It is an attempt to satisfy the client who wants an auditorium so adaptable in relationships that any and all the performing arts can be accommodated. Not only do performing groups want a theater to house plays, but they also hope to use their new auditoriums for opera and musical productions, concerts, and recitals. But music reverberation time demands a greater spatial volume than that for the spoken word. What results is an attempt to build one hall that can be suited to both music and drama by altering the very volume of the auditorium. This implies large-scale physical changes being made to ceiling elements and aven to the side walls of the auditorium. In some instances, an entire balcony can be shut off for the purpose of changing acoustical characteristics and audience capacity.
Colleges and universities have led the race in building such facilities. High schools have built structures that attempt to accommodate the basketball court, as well as the performance of Ibsen and the choral society recital. Combinations such as the gymnatorium and the cafe-torium have been tried as a means of saving
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Fig. 12 The Loeb Drama Canter at Harvard University, designed by architect Hugh Stubbins and theater engineer 6eorge izenour in I960, is a small-scale realization of the multiform stage. Electrically operated mobile seating units and stage sections can be rearranged to create (a) a basic proscenium shape, (b) a basic open-thrust shape, and (c) a modified arena or center stage shape.
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space and construction funds. Such schemes appealed equally to builders, architects, and engineers, as well as clients. The multi-use theater thus spread to fantastic degrees. And it has become a byword of confusion in the 1960s. Not only the idea but the definition of the words multi-use" or "multipurpose" have become confused, even by theater experts.
It is understandable that members of boards of trustees or college regents cried out for a single design to meet all the needs of all the performing arts. Even in affluent times, it is not easy for a large university or regional theater group to raise enough money to build more than one good theater. And there will inevitably be an avid army of architects, engineers, and acoustical specialists willing to take on that challenging desire of clients to accommodate all the performing arts in a single auditorium. Even when the architects or consultants are men of integrity and theater experience, they may find difficulty in persuading building committees that however well an auditorium may suit the combined needs of the choral society and the music school opera, it cannot possibly be used for intimate drama as well.
This is when the dangerous plea is made to bring in the engineering magic that we see in so many regional and college theaters today, and in such community auditoriums as the Jesse Jones Hall in Houston.
During the 1960s, engineering firms devised astounding mechanical systems that changed the very shape of an auditorium, pitched the floor, tipping the ceiling and cutting off the balconies, pivoted the walls, and rolled banks of seating across the floor and stage. In too many of these cases, these electronic tails wagged the theatrical dogs.
Not all engineering developments were futile, however. Certainly in terms of stagecraft, electronic controls for rigging and lighting systems, which were often developed for such auditoriums, have been astonishing in their programs of complicated presentational problems, but these are mechanical contributions to the backstage area and are not to be confused with the mechanical manipulation of the architectural front-of-the-house arrangements.
It is certainly human on the part of an owner or manager to feel that a single auditorium with adjustable elements serves in place of what might otherwise be a complex of two or three separate theaters. But every medium in the dramatic and musical arts cries for a specific scale for the performing area and the audience. With the spoken word in drama, the sense of intimacy is essential both visually and aurally. Add music and singing from a musical comedy, and the scale of the auditorium can increase appreciably.
An auditorium that is good for the actor's voice is technically ineffectual for the singing voice and for musical instruments. The reverse is equally true. On an everyday level, we know that when we want to say something intimate to a friend, we do not shout it across a courtyard. We approach closely, eye to eye, and speak quietly in close contact, as in intimate drama. If we want to sing an aria to that same friend, we would back away or choose a room of sufficient size. The same principle holds in choosing a theater shape.
Specifically, the distance between the last viewer and the performer can increase because when acting is augmented by broader techniques, the audience can be much farther away from the performer and still enjoy an acceptable contact. From operetta to grand opera, an even greater change in scale is acceptable. In fact, the patron who enjoys second-row-center seats at a drama would find grand opera completely unacceptable at
this close range. To many followers of opera, of course, the aural appreciation is almost complete without the visual.
The scale that I have been referring to is not only the distance between the audience and the forestage but also the width of the playing stage or proscenium opening. As an example, a good width for a legitimate play is not much more than 35 ft; whereas opera stages will open 60 to 80 ft in width.
It is self-evident that the solution to housing all these art forms in one building must be a magic one, if technically successful. Furthermore, this technical magic must be a dominant part of the basic design. The multi-use auditorium is one of the most serious mistakes in the history of theater design. The notion that
any single design can be used for all purposes
is nonsense.
Uncommitted Theater Spaces
Still another theater design approach that- developed during this period of "theater explosion" is one for which there is no historical precedent in the tradition of our indoor theaters. It is based on the idea that neither of the basic elements that make up a theater audience or stage should be predetermined so far as their location or configuration within the theater are concerned.
In effect, this concept says that within the space provided by the architect, an undetermined stage area and seating area may be set
Fig. 13 The Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center, designed by Eero Saarinen and Jo Mielziner in 1960, can change its shape from (a) an open-thrust stage to (h) a proscenium stage with a modified apron.
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Fig. 13 (corrt.) The Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center, (c) The section shows a very deep stage planned for a repertory schedule. The deep stage, combined with large stage wagons, and a "saturation lighting" system as well as the multiform stage mechanism make it possible to change stage shapes and scenery from production to production in a matter of hours with minimum labor.
at will in a wide variety of relationships, arrangements, and relocations. This final theater concept goes one step further than the mechanized theaters. It rejects any and all means for creating a specific playing area or an audience area. Its proponents say, Give me a cocoon that shuts out the outer world, and in it we will create our concepts without the aid of predetermined form. They feel that it frees future theater users from any set interior arrangement." They also proffer what they feel is the advantage of a simultaneous and multiple approach to dramatic problems. Theirs is the "uncommitted theater space."
Back in the 1890s, the great scenic artist Adolphe Appia said, Let us abandon theaters to their dying past, and let us erect simple buildings instead, merely to cover the space where we work no stage, no amphitheatre, only a bare and empty room." This bold pronun-ciamento, like many manifestos, bears some analysis. Any serious student of the theater who admires Adolphe Appia's magnificently conceived stage settings knows, however, that to achieve the subtlety of his mood lighting and the perfectly proportioned grandeur of his plastic forms, the most complex and technically sophisticated equipment must be available. Much of this equipment must be located not only backstage but in the auditorium itself and subtly related to the stage area. In other words, Appia's bare empty room, once equipped to meet the high standards of his production concepts, would lose all semblance of nudity and emptiness and might become a well-conceived nd carefully predetermined theater.
The limitations of mechanized multiform schemes are even greater in these uncommitted theater spaces. On the economic side, the budget for such an indeterminate theater must be greatly increased for purely mechanical equipment, if for no other. In order to justify the alleged freedom, a maximum amount of mechanical support must be available in every corner of the uncommitted area. Natu-rally egresses and exits, ventilating and heating equipment, supporting technical elements and power outlets for lighting must be predetermined and fixed. And the operating costs for moving this equipment are major restrictions on the alleged freedom.
Any rational study of the intricate problems relating to sight lines, acoustics, or lighting
must also lead one to the conclusion that to keep these relationships in an undetermined plan can mean only that the ultimate quality of any single interior relationship is bound to be below par.
The only logical justification for this nonmechanical, multiform approach is for a university that offers a course in theater architecture. As a really effective working laboratory for the study of acting, direction, and stage design, it is one to be researched and explored.
Uncommitted Spaces for Involvement?
Another current trend in stagecraft is the desire for even further involvement of the actor and audience. I refer to a greater psychological and physical contact between audience and actor, and to a greater use of sensory as well as visual involvement throughout the theater. It has been suggested that the uncommitted theater space fosters this involvement.
Ever since the 1900s, nonobjective and totally abstract experiments in the arts have been expressed beyond the painter's and sculptor's studio. Changes in ail communication arts written and visual have influenced dramatists in a revolutionary way. Poetry, prose, and journalism have all been affected by the tempo of the radio, recorded music, and their extension into cinematography and television. Poets have rejected rhyme, meter, and syntax. Prose writers have made equally insurrectionary demands on their medium. In the first 50 years of this century the theater reflected very little of this movement. In recent years, avant-garde writers and directors have plunged into radical experiments in what they felt was a new theater-oriented field that furthers audience involvement.
When I refer to total involvement, I do not mean what is currently referred to as a "Happening." The talk about Happenings is based on a valuable instinct the genuine desire for greater contact, for greater participation of both audience and actor, but it is practiced and preached in an undisciplined and, I think, un-creative way. It is undisciplined because it makes a point of the fact that there is ostensibly no premeditated play, no rehearsal, no restrictive texts.
Although the charade, the conversation, the story, and the extemporaneous narrative have
value, they are not basically theater. Any theater form like all serious art forms is born of deliberation, self-discipline, and creativity. To rely on improvisation, no matter how talented the actor, or how receptive the audience, is to misunderstand freedom.
Freedom in art is not license. The artist can be free only if he masters and accepts the limitation of his medium. I have always believed that authors and directors must be given the greatest freedom in staging. In the auditorium and on the stage, the greatest range of lighting, scenic equipment, and spatial freedom must be available. If a new play needs one hundred different visual indications of mood and background, it must be provided.
I have worked with directors and authors who desperately wanted to be free of any set format. But gradually, to have effects, lights, and scenic elements meet the needs of an actor at a precise moment, we started to reintroduce a theatrical limitation dramatic form.
Similarly, we must accept and work with the physical limitations of our stages. If I have a stage that is only 10 ft deep, and I want to give the impression of unlimited space, I accept that 10 ft and do something with it. Suggestions and implications, whether they are visual, oral, or aural, are means of working with one's limitations. It might be the use of the magic of poetry or of music's abstract sounds. The power of the creative artist is infinite, but only when he masters the technique in which he creates. Yet all these production aids, these minute details, must be made practical and must be carefully timed and rehearsed. All the environmental background, born in excitement and high imagination, must be transposed into controlled and disciplined technique.
I feel I must state that I am not, on principle, anti-Happening. It must be said on behalf of Happenings that they do accentuate some of the better trends fostered by all contemporary dramatists and stage directors. They have one outstanding characteristic in common with other modern theater movements the desire to accentuate actor-spectator relationships.
The advocates of Happenings question the accepted concepts of actor-audience spatial relationships. Michael Kirby states in the Tulane Drama Review (Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 40, Winter, 1965):
Performance and audience are both necessary to have theatre. But it might be thought that it is this very separation of spectator and work which is responsible for an artificiality" of the form, and many Happenings and related pieces have attempted to "break down" the barrier between presentation and spectator and to make the passive viewer a more active participator. At any rate, works have recently been conceived which, since they are to be performed without an audience a totally original and unprecedented development in the art might be called "activities."
It would be pointless at this early stage of the avant-garde experiments in Happenings even to suggest what formalized theater shape they might take, or if they will have any influence at all on theater shapes. Their most vocal leaders seem to disagree about the best environment in which this new and exotic hybrid will flourish.
At this writing, this theater of protest does find what seems to be adequate housing in a large variety of structures both in and out of the theater. So varied are they, that this particular form of dramatic expression does not easily fit into this discussion of theater shapes.
If and when it matures into a new art form, then it may develop a stage and auditorium especially designed for its own needs. I doubt that it will be a totally uncommitted theater space.
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X. BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY
The American Theater Planning Board, Inc. Theatre Check List. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
Cole, Edward C., and Meyer, Harold Burris. Theaters and Auditoriums New York, Kreiger Publishing Co., 1964.
Cromer, Gary D.. Capital City Arts Center. Architectural Design Programming, Kansas State University, 1984.
De Chiara, Joseph, and Callender, John Hancock. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980.
Egan, David C.. Concepts in Architectural Accoustics, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci, Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, New York, Riszoli International Publications, Inc., 1979.
Mielziner, Jo. The. Shapes of Our Theaters, New York, Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970.
Pena, William. Problem Seeking, Boston, Cahners Books International, 1977.
Schubert, Hannelore. The Modern Theater. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1971.
Silverman, Maxwell. Contemporary Theater Architectui-e, New York, New York Public Library, 196b.
Tidworth, Samuel. Theaters ,____An___Architectural____and Cultural
Hi story. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1973.
"Solution File". Urban Land. Washington, D.C., Urban Land Institute, January 1986.


The Soils Report, prepared by Chen & Associates, Inc., the Drainage Reports, prepared by Wilsey & Ham and Kirkham, Michael and Associates, the site plans and topographical maps have been provided courtesy of the John Madden Company.
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