Citation
An expansion of the Rappahannock County Library

Material Information

Title:
An expansion of the Rappahannock County Library Washington, Va.
Alternate title:
Rappahannock County Library expansion
Creator:
Hill, W. B
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 110, [15] leaves : illustrations (some color, some folded), maps, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Library buildings -- Designs and plans -- Virginia -- Rappahannock County ( lcsh )
Library buildings ( fast )
Virginia -- Rappahannock County ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 110).
General Note:
Cover title: Rappahannock County Library expansion.
General Note:
"Devoted to the cultural needs of all citizens of Rappahannock."
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
W.B. Hill.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16721508 ( OCLC )
ocm16721508
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .H545 ( lcc )

Full Text
HIU-
RAPPAHANNOCK
COUNTY
LIBRARY
EXPANSION


AN EXPANSION OF
THE
RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY
LIBRARY
(Devoted to the cultural needs of all citizens of Rappahannock)
Washington, Va.
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Architecture.
W.B. HILL Spring 1987


TABLE
OF
CONTENTS


I . THESIS STATEMENT................................ 1
II. PROJECT BACKGROUND.............................. 7
A. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT...................... 8
B. DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT...................... 8
1. BACKGROUND............................. 8
2. HISTORY................................ 9
3. ORGANIZATIONS.......................... 9
k. REASONS FOR PROJECT................... 10
C. CONTEXT ANALYSIS........................... 11
l. HISTORICAL............................ 11
2. PHYSICAL.............................. 12
3. SOCIAL................................ 12
D. SITE ANALYSIS.............................. 13
1. LOCATION & TOPOGRAPHY................. 13
2. LOCATION MAPS......................... Ik
3. SITE DIAGRAMS......................... l6
SITE................................ l6
CLIMATE INFLUENCES.................. 1?
ACCESS.............................. 18
UTILITIES........................... 19
E. CLIMATE ANALYSIS........................... 20
1. DESCRIPTION........................... 20
2. CLIMATIC DATA......................... 22
3. DESIGN IMPLICATIONS................... 2k
F. CODE ANALYSIS.............................. 25
1. BUILDING CODE......................... 25
2. ZONING CODE........................... 29
III. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM.......................... 30
A. LIBRARY STATEMENT AND OBJECTIVES........... 31
B. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....................... 33
iii


C. BASIC NEEDS AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS....... 35
1. SPACE REQUIREMENTS................... 35
2. SPACE DESCRIPTIONS................... 36
D. SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS..................... 52
1. SPACE ADJACENCY MATRIX............... 52
2. SPACE ADJACENCY BUBBLE DIAGRAM...... 53
E. PLANNING, LAYOUT & FURNISHINGS DATA...... 54
1. BOOKSTACK, SHELVING & SEATING DATA.. 54
2. BOOKSTACK LAYOUT..................... 55
3. READING AREA LAYOUT.................. 56
4. FURNISHINGS.......................... 59
5. RECOMMENDED BUILDING FORMULAS........ 63
6. HANDICAPPED ACCESS REQUIREMENTS..... 66
7. TASK LIGHTING GUIDELINES............. 67
IV. APPENDIX A.................................... 68
A. GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND POLICY OF
RAPPAHANNOCK LIBRARY, MAY 30, 1972...... 69
B. BY-LAWS OF THE RAPPAHANNOCK LIBRARY,
MAY 30, 1972............................ 72
C. RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY LIBRARY FIVE-YEAR
PLAN, JUNE, 1985...................... 74
D. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, OCTOBER 24, 1963....... 76
V. APPENDIX B.................................... 78
A. VA. PUBLIC LIBRARY STANDARDS.............. 79
B. LIBRARY STATISTICS........................ 8^
VI . APPENDIX C.................................. 86
A. HISTORIC DISTRICT ORDINANCE, TOWN OF
WASHINGTON VA......................... 87
B. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE: WASHINGTON *S
ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW BOARD ............. 93
IV


C. APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE OF
APPROPRIATENESS........................ 95
VII. APPENDIX D................................... 99
A. BROCHURE, RAPPAHANNOCK HISTORICAL
SOCIETY................................. 100
VIII. FOOTNOTES..................................... 107
IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................. 109
X. DESIGN SOLUTION...............................Ill
v


I
THESIS
STATEMENT


This project proposes to deal with the preservation of history and its importance to our culture. Through the planning and design of a public library in a small rural town, the project deals with history in all of its guises: past, present and future. The preservation of history and culture necessitates a trip into the past; the meshing of modern technology and architectural advances to the historic context is our homage to the present; and our plans for the library in the future is our acknowledgement that our actions now are providing future "history."
Generativity is the human interest in historic continuity to establish and guide future generations. In his book Outliving the Self, psychologist John Kotre specifies "cultural" generativity as "the creation and conservation of the 'mind' of a culture as a symbolic system with a sense of meaning and place."-'- There is no way to outlive the "self" without the vehicle of culture. Every individual is affected by his culture, and by generativity is interested in its preservation.


The library is a product of our generativity. Historically, it's role has been to act as a preserver of our librae, in which are recorded our culture and history. The UNESCO Public Library Manifesto puts this into creed:
The public library is a practical demonstration of democracy's faith in universal education as a continuing and lifelong process, in the appreciation of the achievement of humanity in knowledge and culture. It is the principal means whereby the record of man's thoughts and ideals, and the expression of his creative imagination, are made freely available to all. 2
Designed to sanctify the educational value of books, the Library's civic importance was established early. A review of the history of the library reveals that the purpose and function of the library, while reflecting specific cultures and their times, have not changed in their importance to mankind. Julius Caesar planned the creation of a public library to become the Octavian Library, built after his death. In mid-fifteenth century Italy, Niccolo Niccoli formulated what may the earliest program for a public library, bequeathing his personal collection and declaring: "comune utilita diciaseuno" ("for the common use of everyone"). Through the Reformation period the reading of laymen was encouraged, and in 1761 in Germany, the Karlsruhe Library is thought to have been the first public library to encorporate a separate public space, or "reading room," in its design. Gradually, the civic functions of the library expanded And from then to now .


The American definition at its most idealistic was given as early as 17^7 a propos the Redwood Library at Newport, Rhode Island. A public library is an institution to which 'the curious and impatient Enquirer and the bewildered Ignorant might freely repair.' Today's American definition would be something like this: It must be free, it must lend books,
it must have open access to the shelves, it must have a children's department, and it ought to develop branches.
Thomas Jefferson, reflecting the serious role of the library in our culture, remarked that "Nothing of mere amusement should lumber a public library."5
Architecture . . . "is the act of humanizing
substantial parcels of infinity, and bringing them within man's reach and understanding."6
The perceived role of the architect in history has been to translate the desires of a culture. The library brings order and meaning to our culture. From a deposit spot for clay tablets and papyrus scrolls to a reposit for the information formats reflecting current technology, the library' function has expanded through history. However it's purpose remains clear: it is for the people; people concerned with history, knowledge, and the preservation of culture. The public library today requires an architecture for its multitude of functions. The formalism of the neoclassical library needs to give way to new ways of approaching the concept of space -- each internal space reflecting its function. The arrival sequence, circulation, natural light and energy, are designed flexibly, to meet history now and in the future.


The historic context issue here is fascinating.
The Town of Washington, Va., was surveyed and platted by George Washington in August of 1749. It was organized as a town in December of 1796 and became the county seat in 1833 when Rappahannock County was established. The town was incorporated as a municipality in February of 1894 just as it had been surveyed, platted and laid off into streets and half-acre lots by George Washington.
The rural nature of Rappahannock County will pose interesting budget constraints, and the lot size will add further to the challenge of the design. It is hoped that the less formal, perhaps more modern ideas of architectural theory will prove to be intrinsically compatible with this setting. Although exterior form, proportion and materials will be dictated to a certain extent, both interior and exterior of the building will require creative solutions.
Generativity, or our interest in historic continuity, led us to the preservation of our past in the written word. Thus the library, as the container of that literature, is important and valuable to us. With the proposed project, not only the contents of the library appeal to our interest in historic continuity. In addition, the physical structure or facade of the library will add to the total historic context of the Town of Washington, Va. The citizens of that town want to preserve not only their books but also their town's historic past as a way of enhancing the meaning of their culture.
Modern design innovations and technology will be used for the interior of the library to increase its efficiency and to increase the longevity and accessibility of its contents. Efficiency of storage and display of the contents of the library will be a design concern, as will state-of-the-art


methods of actual preservation. Accessibility of the contents of the library to the public also will be a primary concern of the design, and the design will hope to foster the public's enjoyment of every aspect of the library. Through these ideas and the use of a cost-effective approach, the library will be able to reach a greater number of people with a greater ammount of materials.
Thus it is proposed that within the given restraints of context and zoning, the design of this library will ensure that the greatest number of people possible will be exposed to the greatest ammount of information possible, in as enjoyable a setting and process as possible, thus enabling them to partake in the satisfying process of their own generativity.
Furthermore both preserving ourselves and creating history will be exciting. In the words of Rasmussen:
"And this to bring order and relation into human surroundings is the task of the architect."'7


II
PROJECT
BACKGROUND


A. Description of Overall Project
The project is an expansion of the Rappahannook (Va.) County Library facility by the addition of approximately 10,000 sq. ft. of library space to the existing 1,720 sq. ft. historic building. The preservation of the historic presence and character of the existing library building is mandatory, as is a physical connection with the new structure.
The expansion will result in a library facility capable of adequately serving the population into the 21st century, and thereby capable of continuing to provide a valuable service to the community.
A successful design will be one which will be accepted and appreciated by the local populace for its historic appropriateness, while at the same time offerring the community a compelling invitation to enter, read, look, listen, learn and gather.
B. Development of Project
1. Background
The Rappahannock County Library is currently housed in what originally was a Presbyterian Church building. It was built in 1856 by the architect James Leake Powers. Mr. Powers served his apprenticeship under Thomas Jefferson during the construction of Monticello and the University of Virginia.
There are very definite constraints imposed on this project by the historic nature of the existing library building and the need for preservation. The town of Washington, Virginia, has established an Historic District Ordinance in an effort to preserve the historic character of the town. An Architectural Review Board also has been established to rule on the appropriateness of any and all construction within the district. The library site is within the district and is subject to these constraints
8


2. History
The Rappahannock County Public Library began as a gleam in the eyes of five county residents in early i960. They began talk amongst themselves of the need for a public library in the county. They focused upon the old Presbyterian Church, which had been vacant for many years, as a desirable structure which could be converted to a library. The use of this structure as a public building had first been proposed in 1927 when one of the town residents bought it with the intention of using it as the city hall. However, this plan fell through and the structure went unused.
The group of five succeeded in buying the building at a public auction in i960 for their purpose. They then asked for contributions to help cover the cost of the purchase. By the time of the official dedication ceremony on October 19, 1963. the group had raised $9,600.
It is a tribute to both the community as well as Mr. Power's skills that they were able to put this historic Doric brick structure to such an appropriate community use after nearly 75 years of disuse and neglect. The library continues to prosper and remains the only public library facility in the county today.
3. Organizations
The Library Board of Trustees of the Rappahannock Library is the library's governing body, charged with policy making and geral oversight of library operations. The Board is made up of a minimum of five citizens, chosen at large by the governing body of the county, the County Board of Supervisors.
The Friends of the Library is a private, non-profit organization. As outside supporters of the public library, it has no official input into the affairs of the library. However, it is an important support group and a valuable fundraising organization.
9


The Rappahannock County Public Library receives its operating funding from the following sources (1984-85):
The following groups will have input and therefore influence on the design process:
1. Architectural Review Board of Washington, Va.- -see Appendix C
2. Rappahannock County Historical Society --The society is active in all local historic preservation issues and has a strong voice in these issues.
4. Reasons for Project
The most obvious reason for this project in the present lack of space necessary to provide the proper level of service for the existing population. There have been no increases in space accommodations since the library's inception. However, its contents and use have grown steadily. As this growth has occurred, the original 1,744 sq. ft. have become increasingly inadequate to serve the needs of the local population. Also, the library's desire to expand its services to meet the varied needs of all segments of the local population are severely hampered by this constraint on its facilities. (See Appendix A.)
The library presently serves a population of 6,100 and contains about 13,400 volumes. This is well below the minimum recommended State standards of volumes per capita as well as square footage per capita. The standards call for a minimum of 18,300 volumes housed in a 3.700 sq. ft. facility. Furthermore, as the main county library, the Virginia State Library Board suggests a minimum size of
10.000 sq. ft. Since the 20 yr. population projection is
10.000 maximum, an increase in library size to 10,000 sq.ft.
Rappahannock County State of Virginia Federal Government
Source
% of Total 69.5% 29.2% 1.3%
10


will be more than adequate to serve the population effectively beyond this planning period.
Beyond the need for additional space to house the traditional library functions, the present lack of handicapped accessibility and the community need for public meeting space accessible to all local and civic groups must be addressed. The provision of a multipurpose community meeting room is an essential role of the small public library as an important civic and social institution.
C. Context Analysis
1. Historical
Designing in response to strong contextual issues is a major element of this project. The preservation of the historic character of the Town of Washington, Virginia was the driving force behind the establishment of the local Historic District Ordinance and its enforcement arm, the Architectural Review Board. The Town of Washington, Va., was surveyed and platted by George Washington in the summer of 17^9 He named it for himself and subsequently, it was incorporated exactly as he had designed it. There are numerous structures still present dating to the late 1700's and early 1800's, so the desire to preserve the town character is understandable and not without justification. There also is strong community support for this preservation.
A successful design must address these issues and from the exterior, blend in with the character of this small historic town. It also must address the modern needs of a public building and a technologically advanced society.
11


2. Physical
The Rappahannock County Public Library is located in the midst of the original town of Washington, Virginia, which is the county seat. It is on a corner lot, and the surrounding lots are all residential. However, commercial establishments also exist within 200 feet of the site. County offices, the U.S. Post Office, and various other commercial concerns are located a block south of the site, interspersed with residences.
The historical character of the majority of structures and the mixed usages of neighboring lots throughout the original portion of the town are ample justification for continued siting of the new public library structure as an appendage to the existing library. This is of course contingent upon a design solution which will respect its physical context and earn the respect and support of the local populace.
3. Social
Public libraries are a social institution which occupy a prominent position in the fabric of the community. They "have established themselves as an indispensable element in the life of the community.Their contributions to the well-being, self-esteem and perceptions of future strength of their communities further underline their importance. "Thus a public library is a real centre of culture, pro-pogating human knowledge and dispensing delight."9
Rappahannock County's population is unexpectedly diverse. The average income ranges from below poverty level to extreme wealth. Located in the historic Blue Ridge Mountains, the population includes descendants of the original settlers of those mountains. These are the historically less well-educated, gun-toting, more rugged and individualistic mountain men and women. The majority of the county's population are low and middle class --
12


blue collar workers, farmers, homemakers, etc. Located only an hour from Washington, D.C., Rappahannock Co. also contains a relatively large group of "newcomers," the more affluent who have moved west from Washington,
D.C. over the last 20 years to enjoy "country life." Eugene McCarthy and James J. Kilpatrick, both frequent library patrons, are well-known representatives of this group'. This ever-growing group has brought private schools, fox hunting, horse raising, charity work and commutes to Washington, D.C. to this otherwised depressed county.
Site Analysis
1. Location and Topography
The project location is a lot in the Town of Washington, Virginia, in Rappahannock County. The site is in the Piedmont region of Virginia in rolling hill country near the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Washington, Va.
N 38^3' Latitude W 7810' Longitude
Elevation 635'



Region- State of Virginia
Area- with directions to site
From U/ashiOofon, D C. TaKe rte (t>to west tb Gainesville-take rte 2 FronTRoyal
'Jenu 2ll CroSW'^
Charlottesville
__^vipper Take rte. z<,
ia .A to MaA isor take
Charlottesvi He + ,, ,
rTe 231 north To
Sperryville take
rte 2U east (o mi les to Washington, \/a.


FRONT
ROYAL
Neighborhood


16


CLIMATE INFLUENCES
17
10' 2O'


ACCESS
18


UTILITIES
19


E. Climate Analysis
1. Description
The climate of Virginia is determined by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and by its latitude and topography. The state is in the zone of prevailing westerly movement of the earths atmosphere, in or near the mean path of winter storm tracks, and in the mean path of tropical moist air from the southwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico much of the summer and early fall seasons. The mountains produce various steering, blocking, and modifying effects on storms and general air movements in their vicinity. The prevalence of winds with a westerly component prevents the extension of ocean influences very far westward from the coast
WIND
Virginia lies in the zone of prevailing westerlies where the general motion is from west to east. Southerly and northerly winds are about equally frequent, reflecting the progression of weather systems over the state. Northerly winds are most common during the cold season. Southerly winds with light speeds prevail during the warm season.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Summers in Virginia are usually warm and humid, and several hot and humid periods usually occur each year. Relative humidity varies inversely with temperature-- high in the morning and low in the afternoon. PRECIPITATI ON
Precipitation is well distributed throughout the year without distinct wet and dry periods. Maximum rainfall occurs in the summer months and minimum in the fall months. Precipitation during the cold season is quite evenly distributed in comparison to the warm season.
20


Snow is common in winter, but normally without damaging consequences. Average seasonal amounts range to around 20".
TEMPERATURE AND DEGREE DAYS
The monthly temperature means range from 32.3F in January to 75*2F in July. Winter temperature may be expected to reach 0F and in summer to exceed 90F.
The attached weather data is for the Town of Warrenton, Va., which is located 25 miles northeast of Washington, Ya. It is at an elevation 135 ft. lower than the project site, and is 25 miles farther away from the Blue Ridge Mountains and their effects on the micro-climate. However, the weather statistics should be similar enough to those at the site to be useful design data.


MONTHLY NORMALS OF TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION & HEATING & COOLING DEGREE DAYS 1951-80
Warrenton, Va. N38* 4l' Lat, ,W77 46' Longitude Elevation 500'
JAN FEB , MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Temp. Norms
Max 41.7 44.1 53-6 65.3 74.0 81.3 85.8 85.0 79.0 67.9 56.2 45.1
Min 22.8 24.1 32.3 42.6 51.6 60.1 64.5 63.4 57.0 45.2 36.0 26.8
Mean 32.3 34.1 42.9 54.0 62.8 70.7 75-2 74.2 68.0 56.6 46.2 36.0

Precip. 3.02 2.6l 3.50 3.22 3.54 3.83 3.93 3.90 3.32 3.14 2.98 3.06

Heating D.D. -Annual 4813 1014 865 685 334 127 l4 0 0 35 276 564 899
Cooling D.D. -Annual 985 0 0 0 0 58 185 316 285 125 16 0 0
Washington, V a. N38 4l' Lat., W78 10' Longitude Elevation 63 5'
Precip. 2.42 2.20 3.09 3.29 3.85 3.64 4.04 4.47 3.42 3.47 3.09 2.60
- Data taken from Climatography of U.S. No. 81 (Virginia)
ro
N>


SOLAR ALTITUDE
NOON
NOON
29
9 AM/4 PM 7
SOLAR
E
SUMMER
AZIMUTH
23


3. Design Implications
The microclimate of this site suggests that the major climatic design implications relate to the control of interior humidity and temperature as well as the control of direct sunlight. The nature of libraries requires that, for the preservation of their contents, the interior climate must be strictly controlled. Heating, air conditioning and humidity control will be necessary and should be incorporated with an air filtration system for maximum effectiveness. Controlled ventilation is preferable to operable windows in order to maintain this optimum interior climate.
While natural daylight offers the opportunity for many desirable design effects, the year-round control of direct sunlight will be necessary to negate its detrimental effects. These include the harmful effect that ultra-violet rays have on books as well as the control of summer heat and winter glare.
The precipitation characteristics of the region will require that provision be made for the rapid collection and drainage of substantial quantities of water from summer thunderstorms.
The wind patterns and characteristics of the region do not suggest any major design concerns.
24


F. CODE ANALYSIS
1. BUILDING CODE
Applicable Code: BOCA, 1984 Ed.
Occupancy classification: A-3
Use Group B for total occupant load less than 50.
Construction type: Noncombustible/ Combustible
Type 3A Protected, 3 Story, 40', 11,550 sq. ft. Occupancy separations required:
Ext. bearing wall <6' to>-30,= 2 hrs.
Ext. nonbearing wall <6' to <11'= 2 hrs.
Ext. nonbearing wall>|i' to<30'= 1.5 hrs.
Max, allowable floor area: 11,550 sq. ft.
Max, allowable height: 45 ft.
Fire resistance of exterior walls:
Rating Separation Wall Type
2 hr. 40' . Ext. bearing
3 hr. 30' Ext. bearing &
nonbearing
Windows required in rooms:
Window area not less than 8fo of floor area, min. width of 3" for ea. ft. of ht.,
5' min. width
Enclosed o£ semi-enclosed courts-
area = 1.5 X sq. of width; nor length> twice width
Ventilation requirements:
Min. openable area to outdoors = 4$ of floor area served
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms: 7'-6"
Standards of natural light:
Natural light from adjoining spaces- the unobstructed opening to the adjoining room shall be 3? Qf0 of floor area of the interior room, but not less than 25 sq. ft.
Stairways- interior stairways shall be provided with an ext. glazing area of ^ io sq. ft. on every floor through which the stairway passes
25


Min, floor area of rooms: 70 sq. ft.
Fine resistive nequinemen~ts: 2 hns. for A-3 snd B
Ext. bearing walls- <6' to >30'= 2 hr.
Int. bearing walls- 1 hr.
Ext. non-bearing walls-
< 6' to <11'= 2 hrs.
>11 to >30'= 0 hrs.
Structural frame- not less than 1 hr.
Exit corridor walls- not less than 1 hr.
Vertical openings- not less than 1 hr.
Floors- including beams, 1 hr.
Roofs- 1 hr.
Exit doors & frames- 1.5 hrs.
Inner court walls- 2 hrs.
Boiler room enclosures- 2 hrs.
Exits:a unit of egress width = 22" w/ 0.5 unit for 12"-22"
Capacity per unit, egress width-
stairway door^/ramps/corridors
w/o sprinkler 75 occ. 100
w/ sprinkler 113 150
Reading rooms- 50 net sq. ft./ occupant
Stack area- 100 gross sq. ft./ occupant
No. of exits required- 2, for occupant load of 500 or less
Exit separation- as remote as possible
Exit sequence- may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area provided such rm. is accessory to area served, is not of a higher hazard than room or space from which egress is made and provides direct means of egress to an exit.
Exit doors:if rm. w/ load >50 or >2 ,000 sq. ft., must have two egrss doorways
Min. width & height- clear width of ^ 32", ht. ^ 6'-8".
Max. leaf width- 48"
Width required for no. of occupants-
a door 40" in width shall be deemed = 2 full units of egress width
Swing- in direction of egress when serving occupant load \ 50
Doors in series not <7' apart
26


Exit corridors:
Required width- not less than 44"
Required height- min. ht. = 8'
Dead end corridors- 20' max. length Stairs;
Min. width-
36" for occ. load of 50 or less 44" for occ. load of greater than 50
Max. riser allowed- 7.5"
Min. tread allowed- 10"
Winding, circular, spiral stairs-
not permitted as required exit,if used tread width of ^ 9" @ 12" from narrow side, min. tread width = 6"
Landings-
min. width rqd.- same as stairs vert, distance btwn. landings- 12'
Stair to roof rqd.?- no, if under 3 stories
Stair headroom- 6'-8"
Handrails:
Reqd. @ ea. side if width less than 44"
Max. width btwn. interior rails- 88"
Rqd. height £ 30", ^ 34"
Max. openings in rails- 6"
Height above nosing- not more than 6" Extension of railing- 18"
Projection from wall- not more than 3*5"
Guard rails = 42" in ht.
Horizontal exit requirements;
Vestibules- depth from ext. 10', width = 20 Ramps:
Width- not less than that rqd. for corridors
Max. slope- for runs 8', 1:10 for runs ? 30', 1:12
Landings- as per max. length above, 60" intermediate, 72" @ bottom
Handrails- @ least one side if slope >1:12


Toilet room requirements;
Fixtures- w.c. = 1 per 125, lav.= 1 per 200
Drinking fountains- 1 per 1,000 Handicapped requirements:
Walk width = 5' & gradient 1 in 20 or. ramp as stated in ramp requirements, vert, rise 30" btwn. landings
Accessible bathrooms- at least 1 w.c., lav.
& misc. accessiblej clear space beyond rm. door opening of not less than 60" in diameter
Parking- 1 space for every 25 total spaces
W.C. compartment- clear width btwn. the face of compartment and a wall shall be not less than 48"; when accessible from side, not less than 60" wide by 59" deep; from front, not less than 39" wide by 69" deep; depth may be reduced by 3" when w.c. is wall-mounted; must have outswing door at least 32" wide; w.c. seat 16" to 19" from floor
Lav. max. 32" from floor to top; unobstructed knee clearance min. 22" high by 8" deep


2. ZONING CODE
Applicable Ordinance: Town of Washington, Va.
Proposed use: Library
Present zoning: Village residential
Applicable allowable uses: Library- use by right
Min, lot size; 0.5 acres
Min, yard setbacks:
Front- 35* from £ of local rd., 45' from £ of secondary rd.
Rear- 30*
Side- 15'
Both sides- 30' total
Max, height* 60' provided that rqd. front, side and rear yards shall be increased one ft. for each ft. in ht. over 35'
Offstreet parking:
Rqd. by use- 1 space per 5 fixed seats Parking permitted in setbacks- yes


Ill
ARCHITECTURAL
PROGRAM


A. LIBRARY STATEMENT AND OBJECTIVES
The Rappahannock County Library is the main and only public library facility for its county. As such, it functions as a valuable resource, available to all residents. Although the small, rural nature of the county is not expected to change in the future, the population and services required by the county are growing.
The library objectives, as taken from the policy statement of May 30, 1972. are:
l..To assemble, preserve and administer, in organized collections, books and related educational and recreational material in order to promote, through guidance and stimulation of ideas, an enlightened citizenship and enriched personal lives.
2. To serve the community as an intellectual community center of reliable information, cultural enrichment and literary entertainment .
3. To support educational, civic and cultural activities of groups and organizations.
4. To provide community and encouragement for children, men and women to continue to educate themselves.
5. To seek to identify community needs and to provide services to meet such needs.
(See Appendix. A)
The expansion of the Rappahannock County Library is needed in order to improve existing or needed services and to provide for future growth. The expansion should be so designed to meet the present and future needs of the library system for the next 20 years. In addition to the expansion in spAce for the existing library functions, the design should consider the additional specific needs as follows:
*To:l-provide for the use of local history^materials in a protected area.
*To improve access to services for handicapped citi zens.
*To provide for children's events and better space for storytimes.
31


*To consolidate microfilm readers-printers, photocopiers and other machines for greater efficiency.
*To provide for the sorting, storing and pricing of gift and withdrawn library materials.
*To provide study carrels for research and study.
*To provide space for listening to records and audio cassettes.
*To house other machine equipment obtained in the future.
*To provide separate meeting facilities for library and community activities*
The aim of the library progam must be to provide an environment that will foster public use of the facility. This will require an understanding and appreciation of the valued role of the library in the community and an architectural response that recognizes this role. The building should have a special quality that identifies its important civic function, and invites the public to experience it. It must also successfully deal with the strong historical context issues to ensure its public acceptance. It must reflect its sense of place.


B. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1. The information/circulation desk is at the heart
of a traditional circulating library such as this.
As the center of activity, its importance to the entire design can not be overemphasized.
2. Flexibility^and openness of space are desired.
3. The library should provide an environment that
is friendly, warm and inviting.
4. It also should provide a variety of interior
spatial experiences.
5. Its operation must be efficient.
6. All major library functions should be identifiable
at entry by various methods.
7. The information service center should be easily
identifiable and accessible, but not perceived as a barrier to self-service use of the library.
8. A variety of media experiences (present and future)
should be visible to the public but controllable by the staff.
9. Children's and adult service areas should be
identifiable from the entrance and easily accessible one from the other.
10. The program and meeting facilities should be
accessible to both children and adults and controllable when other library services are in use or when the library is closed.
11. The use of daylighting is desirable for its psy-
chological benefits, its form-giving properties and its illumination value.
12. The library should provide a variety of settings
and arrangements for user seating.
13. Public restrooms and a public telephone are required.
14. Parking for handicapped and general visitors must
be provided as required by applicable codes.
15. An environmental control system capable of sustain-
ing the optimum temperature and relative humidity (68-70* F, 45-55$ R.H.) is required.


16. A minimum ceiling height of 8'-6 is recommended.
17. The allowance for future installation of various
electronic data systems must be planned.
18. An exterior facade of brick seems appropriate
but not absolute.
19* The interior materials should be selected for their durability and their acoustical effects must be considered.
20. For the required space flexibility, all floor
areas must be capable of supporting a live load of 150 psf.
RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY LIBRARY FACILITIES
_______With Addition________
Existing Immediate 20 Yr.
(1985) (1987) Projection
Population 6,100 6,300 10,000
Books 13,400 19,000 40,000
Area (sq. ft.) 1,7^4 11,700 11,700
Seating 20 40 56
Hours/week 49 49 55
Staff 1.5 2.0 3
Budget $26,000 $38,000 $60,000
34


C. BASIC NEEDS AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS 1. Space Requirements
PUBLIC AREAS VOLUMES SEATS EST. AREA
Main Entry/Display Lobby 200 s.
General Reading Area 30 1,500
General Bookstack Area 27,200 2,720
Browsing/Newspapers/ Periodicals 100 6 400
Reference 100 6 400
Card Catalog 100
Young Adult Reading Area 8 400
Children's Library 8,500 10 1,400
SUBTOTAL- PUBLIC 6o 7,020
COMMUNITY AREA SEATS
Multipurpose/Meeting 200 50 1,720
STAFF AREAS STAFF
Information/Circulation 2 380
Librarian Office 1 120
W orkroom/Lounge 700
Storage 60
SUBTOTAL- STAFF 1,260
SERVICE AREAS
Janitorial 60
Mechanical 100
Public Restrooms 240
Nonassignable 1,220
SUBTOTAL- SERVICE 1,820
TOTAL PROGRAM AREA 11,720
35


SPACE: MAIN ENTRY / DISPLAY LOBBY
USER: Public and Staff____________________
ACTIVITIES: Entry/exit circulation;
public waiting area; community activity notices and announcements
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Signify entrance; inviting, happy, friendly.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Public telephone
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Durable, weather resistant flooring Air-lock entry Handicapped access Street frontage
AREA: 200 sq. ft.
ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Information/ circulation desk Browsing/ Newspapers/ Periodicals Multipurpose/ meeting room
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE: GENERAL READING AREA
USER: Adults and young adults
ACTIVITIES: Individual and group
reading
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Variety of spatial experiences
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Tables and chairs, lounge chairs individual study carrels
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
View to outside desirable
Noise control desired
Seating capacity- 30
Table/informal ratio- 1:1.5
I
AREA: 1.500 sq. ft._________
ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
General bookstacks Young Adult reading area Remote from:
Children
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE: GENERAL BOOKSTACK AREA
USER: Adults, young adults, staff ACTIVITIES: Book storage
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Bright and open Easy access
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Free standing bookshelves in 3 ft. modules,
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Min. aisle width- V-6"
Design live load- 150 psf
Bookstack capacity- 27,200 Nonfiction- 16,600 Fiction- 10,600
AREA: 2720 i- ft-
ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Information/circulation Card catalog General reading Remote from:
Children's Library
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE BROWSING / NEWSPAPERS / PERIODICALS
USER Public (all ages) AREA' ^00 sct- ft-
ACTIVITIES- Informal reading, relaxation. ADJACENCIES: Close to: Main entry/Display lobby Information/circulation
SPATIAL QUALITIES: Inviting, friendly, bright, informal.
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISH INGS:
Magazine and newspaper display, Comfortable lounge chairs,
Book display facilities.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
View to outside desirable.
Public visibility.
Easy access but controllable.
Bookstack capacity- 100
Seating capacity- 6
Periodical cap.- ^0
Newspaper cap.- 8
CO
CD
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE:
REFERENCE AREA
USER: Public (Age 8 and up)
ACTIVITIES: Storage of reference
materials (non-circulating),
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Separateness of area, confined.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Counter-height bookshelves, Dictionary & Atlas stands,
Microfilm cabinet & reader,
Table, chairs, phono record cabinet.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Noise control desired.
Visible from info/circ. desk.
Seating capacity- 6 Phono record cap.- ^00 Vert, file cap.- 500
Plan for future computer stations
AREA: s ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Information/circulation Remote from:
Children's Library
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


\
SPACE: CARD CATALOG AREA
USER: Adults, young adults ACTIVITIES: Index to the location
of all volumes;
Activity center for library users.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Openness, easy access, visibity.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Card catalog.
Standing height table.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Space for circulation around unit, Bright illumination.
AREA'- 100 sq. ft.
ADJACENCIES:
Close tos
Information/circulation desk General bookstacks
CO
X
m
m
SPACE DESCRIPTION


SPACE YOUNG ADULT READING AREA
USER* Young adults AREA: 400 S(i* ft-
ACTIVITIES- Reading, studying, ADJACENCIES:
socializing. Close to:
SPATIAL QUALITIES: Friendly, separate. General Bookstacks Browsing Card catalog,
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Tables and chairs
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Noise control desired.
-P>
ro
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE: CHILDREN'S LIBRARY
USER: Children and parents
ACTIVITIES: Browsing, reading,
book storage, story hour.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Inviting, friendly, cheerful, bright.
Scale of room and furnishings to be friendly to children.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Low height bookstacks,
Informal and table seating, Carpeted floor,
Children's card catalog.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
View to outside desirable.
Noise control required.
Bookstack capacity- 8,500 Seating capacity- 18
AREA: 1,^00 sq. ft. ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Information/circulation Public restrooms Remote from:
General reading General bookstacks Reference
X
m
m
SPACE DESCRIPTION


SPACE: MULTIPURPOSE / MEETING ROOM
USER: All community residents ACTIVITIES: Library and community-
related meetings, programs, exhibits and displays.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Adaptable to multiple uses.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Chairs,
Conference table,
Audio-visual equipment.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Access independent of library. Access to public restrooms. Storage space for equipment. Separate from library functions. Seating capacity- 50
AREA: 1,720 sq. ft.
ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Entry
Public restrooms Remote from:
General reading area


SPACE: INFORMATION / CIRCULATION DESK
USER: Public, staff ACTIVITIES: Information, book
check out & return, library administration/reception, central security.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Prominent yet unintimidating, welcoming.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Dual height book counter/work desk, Shelving carts,
Telephone,
Filing cabinets.___________
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Maximum unobstructed visibility to and from this area.
AREA: 38o sq. ft.
ADJACENCIES:
Close tos
Main entry/display lobby
Card catalog
Reference
Browsing
Children's library Librarian office
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE- librarian office
USER- staff AREA'- 120 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES: Administrative functions ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Information/circulation desk
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Enclosed, private.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Desk and chairs,
Telephone,
Piling cabinets.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Noise control required.
View to info/circulation desk.
CT>
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE STAFF WORKROOM / LOUNGE
USER: staff AREA: voo sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES: Clerical and processing ADJACENCIES:
work, staff lounge/lunch area. Close to:
SPATIAL QUALITIES: Enclosed, pleasant, comfortable working environment. Information/circulation desk Storage Service entrance
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Work tables, chairs, desk, Telephone,
Shelving,
Cabinets._____________________
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Sink and small kitchen facilities. View to info/circulation desk.
^1
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE- STORAGE
USER: staff AREA: 60 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES: storage of supplies SPATIAL QUALITIES: Closet-like ADJACENCIES: Close to: Staff workroom/lounge Information/circulation desk
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Shelving
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Lockable space.
00
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE: janitorial
USER' staff AREA* 60 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES* Storage of janitorial ADJACENCIES:
supplies. Close to:
SPATIAL QUALITIES: Closet-like. Service entrance
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISH INGS:
Work table.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Slop sink.
Floor drain.
4'-0" wide door.
CD
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE- MECHANICAL ROOM
USER- Staff, maintenance personnel AREA- 100 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES Mechanical equipment ADJACENCIES: Close to: Service entrance
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
EQUIPMENT/ FURNISH INGS:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Floor drain.
2 hr. fire rating.
CJ1
o
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


SPACE: PUBLIC RESTROOMS
USER I Public________________________
ACTIVITIES I Toilet facilities.
SPATIAL QUALITIES:
Clean, pleasant.
EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS:
Enclosed stalls,
Wash basins,
Shelf space.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Handicap equipped.
Two bathrooms,male and female.
AREA: 2l*0 sq. ft.
ADJACENCIES:
Close to:
Multipurpose/meeting room Children's library
SPACE DESCRIPTION SHEET


Main Entry/ Display Lobby
Public Restrooms
Information/
Circulation
Card Catalog
Reference
Browsing/Newspapers/ Periodicals
General Bookstacks
General Reading
Young Adult Reading
Children's Library
Staff Workroom/ Lounge
Librarian Office
Storage/Janitorial
Mechanical
Multipurpose/Meeting Service Entry
Physical/Visual Relationships 1 Close as possible Close
Doesn't matter Separate Far apart
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS 1. Space Adjacency Matrix


2. Space Adjacency Bubble Diagram
53


E. PLANNING, LAYOUT AND FURNISHINGS DATA
1. Bookstack, Shelving and Seating Data Bookstack Data__________________________
Type of Book Number of Books per lin. ft.
Children's 10- 12
Nonfiction 8
Fiction 8
Reference 7
Periodicals 1 sq. ft./ title
Phono Records 50 / lin. ft.
Shelving Data
Standard Heights
3 shelves 42"
5 shelves 66"
7 shelves b o\
4 shelves 46" (Children* s)
Reference shelves 42" high units
Standard Size Units
3'-0" long X 8" wide- single-faced
X 16" wide- double-faced
Double stack spacing center to center 4*-6" 6*-0"
Seating Data
Approx, sq. ft. requirements for Seating Types Type of Accommodation Sq. Ft. Requirement
Min. Adequate Generou
Small Lounge Chair 20 25 30
Large Lounge Chair 25 30 35
Tables for four 22.5 25 27.5
Single Study Carrels 20 22.5 25
54


Bookstack Layout
c^t
CM
4-q1' L 4-11" l gj-q
LO
LD
THTT i l i 1 -<
+L JJL
_J <2
1 I |
1 1 f
C^Ts:

Jr 1 l
cej c<2
III -1 1 11 11 I]
*
b
-r
*
6'-y > 6*-II


3. Reading Area Layout
l
i
56


Adults
SEEING DISTANCES
MAXIMUM REACH ________81-
MAX SHELF HEIGHT______72
66-
BROWSING SHELVES______54"
.42-
MINIMUM HEIGHT TO_____24-
AVOID SOUATTING
SQUATTING POSITION____12-
MAXIMUM
/ OPTIMUM'
/
/ ! MINIMUM
Teenagers
highest shelf 66"
browsing shelves ;SV.
optimum 39"
min shelf height for 24- r
no squatting
squatting shelves 9.
highest shelf 45-
browsing shelves 36 V
26-
min for no 18-
squatting
squatting snelves 4
Children
\ table height seat
.72
6cr
48
36-;
24-
12-
FIELD OF VISUAL ACUITY FIXATED VISION FIELD RANGE OF ARM REACH
SEEING DISTANCES
Maximum 30 Optimum 22".
Minimum 15-
table height seat height
57


(2-0*) | 00*) | I2-CT) j
i
j 00*) 0-0*)
[^7^1 t,

0-0*1
Clearances
The following two diagrams show minimum clearances necessary between tables, furniture and bookcases in informal reading areas. Because readers will choose books from the shelves and because trolley access will be needed, the layout of both study tables and casual seating needs careful consideration if congestion is to be avoided at peak times.
Table space requirements for readers
j :3-5)j (6-cn i n-m !
1 1 J ~T i 1 l
1
58


FURNISHINGS Card Catalog
Recommended drawer heights in catalogue area
maximum -.30 seeing distance
I
/
/ optimum 22";
Recommended drawer height* for Card Catalog.
0(2


Card Catalog
!l! TT 11 7-77" '!. 0> Miliii1!
ii ill, ill : i 1 - IP* ll,i* JaJ 1 I;|ii|;
CASE illffc
140 WIOE 60 DRAWER CASE
I standard
Catalogue cam with reference shelve*. There
70 DRAWER CASE 84 DRAWER CASE
SPECIAL SPECIAL
. WP**h of catalogue caret. -
- - * *- The rifhl-hand care is a standard six-tray width; both cases are in two pans,
ewn seven tract high for additional capacity. Additional horizontal support provided by thicker croas pseces (not shown) will he required b each part.
60
SLIOINO REFERENCE SHELF




Miscellaneous
^ Shelving for current periodicals. Type 1: slanting shelving hinged at the top with storage space for unbound back numbers behind. Type 2: slanting shelving with storage space for unbound back numbers below. Type 3: flat shelving with current and unbound back numbers shelved flat. Capacity is tripled, but advantage of display b lost. Type 4: display shelving with no space for back numbers.
Dictionary stand. Front and side elevations. Note slant to aid use.
62


Miscellaneous
FRONT
SIDE
Atlas case. Front and side elevations. Shelves constructed to pull out 1 ft 6 in. for ease of use.
tabic length -
tabic length
-4-
26"; 1
Elephant folios on newspaper shelving.
Reading table heights for adults (left) and children (right)
T~
1 -4
.. i W"- i i i i!
* , t!
40"
-z&-
Typical open carrel

22
5z
4
X D c I D C
i 44" 60"
-'X v Book truck. Length depends on aisle widths and type of use. Width of 14 in. minimum desirable to make possible shelving on each side. Width of 18 in. is safer but may present difficulty in narrow aisle. Note rubber bumpers on comers.
Carrels back to back.
63


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
'1
5. RECOMMENDED BUILDING FORMULAS
-as compiled for the Rappahannock Library, 5/l/8l
Book open shelves .10 sq. ft. (Minimum Standards)
15' range, 4' stack aisles, 6' cross aisles, 6 shelves per section,
144 books per section 6' 10" height.
Book closed shelves = .07 sq. ft. (Metcalf p. 396)
24' range, 3' stack aisles, 5' cross aisles 7 shelves per section,
168 b*ooks per section 7' 6" height.
Current Periodical = 1 sq. ft. per title (Metcalf p. 106, 170)
15' range, 4' stack aisle, 6' cross aisle, 5 shelves per section,
15 periodicals per section.
Catalog Drawer = 1/2 to 1 sq. ft. per drawer (Metcalf p. 397) depending upon layout and height. 250 books per drawer (Myller p. 52)
(Also can use 1, 000 2, 000 cards per sq. ft. )
Readers seat = 35 sq. ft. (Minimum Standards)
Service point 125 sq. ft. (Metcalf p. 396)
Index table = 35 sq. ft. per reader.
File case legal = 9.0 sq. ft. + 35 sq. ft. each group. (Average is 1-3/4 sq. ft. per drawer)
File case letter = 7.5 sq. ft. + 35 sq. ft. each group. (Average is 1-1/2 sq. ft. per drawer)
Atlas stand = 10 sq. ft. + 30 sq. ft. each group.
Dictionary stand 5 sq. ft. + 15 sq. ft. each group.
Book display rack 7 sq. ft. + 76 sq. ft. each group.
Microfilm cabinet (capacity 540 100' rolls) = 8. 5 sq. ft. + 35 sq. ft. each group. Microfilm reader 40 sq. ft. per reader.
Map case 006 sq. ft. per map.
Map case 48" x 35". 4 map cases in 16' range. 6' cross aisle, 2' stack aisle (plus 35" open drawer) = 30, 720 maps in 172 sq. ft.

Map reader 50 sq. ft.
Pamphlet (see File Case Legal)
200 pamphlets per drawer X 5 drawers = 1, 000 pamphlets per file case.


Recommended Building Formulas, Continued
1 Phono record 3 sq. ft.
15' range (7 tables each with 2 tubs), tubs 28" x 13", 38 records per tub. Includes 4' stack aisle, 6' cross aisle. At 5' = .4 sq. ft.
1 16 mm. film = .09 sq. ft.
15' range, 4' stack aisles, 6' cross aisles, 5 shelves per section, 6' 3" high, 135 £ilms per section.
'
Framed paintings 4. 5 sq. ft.
3 ft. leaves, 6' high, mounted two paintings to a leaf.
4 paintings to a section, each section 1' long. 6' aisle.
Mounted pictures (See File Case Letter)
850 pictures per drawer; 4 drawers per file 3, 400 pictures per file.
5' clear cross aisles are ample anywhere. In closed stack area, 4' is enough to allow 2 book trucks to pass each other.


6. Handicapped Access Requirements by Public Law 533
Building Approach
At least one primary entrance at a grade floor level shall be accessible by means of a walk uninterrupted by steps or abrupt changes in level, not less than 5'-0" wide, with ramp slope less than 1' in 20' .
Off-street Parking
Location close as possible to primary entrance. Parking spaces 12'-0" wide.
Curb cut between parking area and approach walk. Curb cut slope is 1' in 12' or less.
Curb cut 4'-0" wide.
1 H.C. space per 25 total.
Telephone
For accessibility, coin slot must be 54" or less in height.
Water Closets
Stall 3'-6" X 6'-0" (front entry).
Stall 3'-6" X 7'-0" (side entry).
32" clear stall opening / outswing door.
48" X 48" clear space in front of stall.


7. Task Lighting Guidelines
- from I.E.S. Lighting Handbook,
Library Area_______
Reading Areas
Reading printed material Study and note taking Conference Areas Seminar Rooms
Bookstacks (at 30" above fir.) Active Stacks Inactive Stacks Book Repair and Binding Cataloging Card Files Carrels
Circulation Desk Rare Book Rooms- Archives Storage Areas Reading Areas
Map, Picture and Print Rooms Storage Areas Use Areas Audiovisual Areas Audio Listening Areas General
For Note taking Record inspection table Microfilm Areas Files
Viewing Area Office
Accounting, auditing Regular office work Corridors Restrooms
5th Ed., 1972.
Min. Recommended Ft.-Candles
30
70
30
70
30
5
70
70
100
70
70
30
100
30
100
70
30
70
100
70
30
150
100
30
30


IV
APPENDIX
A


General Objectives and Policy of the Rappahannock Library
Hay 30, 1972
A* To assemble, preserve and administer, in organized collections, books and related educational and recreational material in order to promote, through guidance and stimulation of ideas, an enlightened citizenship and enriched personal lives*
B* To serve the community os an intellectual coranunity center of reliable information, cultural enrichment and literary entertainment,
C. To support educational, civic and cultural activities of groups and organizations.
D. To provide opportunity and encouragement for children, young people, men and women to continue to educate themselves.
E. To seek to identify cormnunity needs and to provide services to meet such needs.
e
II WHO MAT USE THE LIBRARY
A, The library will serve all residents of the community for library-related functions*
B* Ihe use of the library or its services shall be limited when excessive demands of groups or individuals tend to curtail service to the general public.
C* The use of the library or its services may be curtailed and/or denied by the librarian or a member of the Board of Trustees. Such cause may be failure to return books or to pay penalties, destruction of library property, disturbance of other patrons, or any other objectionablo conduct on library premises.
231 SERVICES OF THE LiaUET
A. The library will select from the mass of available materials, and organize for easy access, those books and materials which best meet the needs of the community.
B* The library staff will provide guidance and assistance in the use of library facilities.
C. Wig library will provide information and materials to help people*
1. equip themselves for efficient activities in useful occupations.
2. increase their understanding and appreciation of literature, the arts, sciences and the political and natural world.
D. The library will initiate programs, exhibits, book lists, etc., to stimulate the usa of library materials for the enlightenment of people of all ages;
1. derive cultural enrichment, entertainment and pleasure.
69


2. help them gain knowledge to accomplish practical occupations they nead, or elect, to undertake*
E. The library will cooperate with ether community agencies and organizations to halp them meet the educational needs of the community.
P* The library accepts a responsibility for securing information beyond its own resources by borrowing materials which are not owned by the library and which cannot be purchased, or materials for which the demand does not justify purchase.
0. The library will endeaver to maintain a balance in its services to men, women, young people and children. The public library will cooperate with, but cannot perform tho functions of school or other institutional libraries which are designed to meet curricular noeds.
IV LIUtARY MATERIALS
A. The library will try to provide any materials which halp to meet its objectives.
B. Materials acquired will meet hi$; standards of quality in content, expression and format.
C. Materials which are no longer useful in the light of stated objectives of the library will be systematically weeded from the collection according to accepted professional practices.
V COOPERATION WITH OTHER LIBRARIES
A. The Board of Trustees recognizes that no single library can meet all the demands of its community. Libraries in different political subdivisions working together, sharing their services and resources, can meet more nearly the full needs of their users.
B. The Board of Trustoes and the librarian will ba alert to opportunities of cooperation with other libraries, to strengthen the services and resources of the library.
VI PHYSICAL FACILITIES
A. To achieve the goal of good library service, tho Board of Trustees accepts the responsibility to see that public library building facilities are provided which will adequately meat the physical requirements of modern, aggressive library service Such facilities will offer to the community a compelling invitation to enter, read, look, listen and learn.
VII GIFTS
A. Books and other materials will be accepted on the condition that the library has tho authority to make whatever disposition is deemed advisable.
B. Gifts of money, real property, and/or stock, will be accepted if conditions attached thereto are acceptable to the Board of Trustees.
70


/
/
/'
VUI PUBLIC RELATIONS \
A. Sane of the primary public relatione goal* of the library are*
1. Understanding of the librarys objectives and services by governing officials, civic leaders, and the general public.
2. Participating in the varied services offered by the library to people of all ageB.
B. She Board recognizes that public relations involves every person who has any connection with the library. The Board urges its own members and every staff mernbor to realize that he or she represents the library in every public contact. Good service supports good public relations.
n POLICY REVIEW
A. These policies will be reviewed by the Board of Trustees from tin# to time for the purpose of amending, revising, or adding thereto.
71


- T. -ey-rs*- j.. . .<
Vf77 /*>&$ ^y-r'.j!?yi:' 77 V
* . * *: * > . '** .. > , r
.V
/ *
' A-'"'
* vA ^

-'/A


> *.
BY-LAWS ; ,
**. V. "'S ** ,; \ ' ' .
Bsp^Uy^Mc Librajy ti^VVK^ V 1?72 ,
\
W

^ ' Pai*6nai>fc- ip ibo. riiiuirimaaiits of the general Code of Virginia,
tb BaurJ#i T'rusigoj .of tiro lteppubunnock Library shall consist of not-3&s
r'.i:?{.. .f < -/oP., .miTire or trusioOB. They ehail b.v. riTjQointcjd by the govcrntn.'
\y C/. Jrr&ii*£u ojfiaOnq-ct largo with refertnco to their fitnoaa for
twrtj oTTTeal 0iy -sucii shall bo appah'iitd in ths beginning for a torm
vf yea~*, Oija >ua;iHb^r for a Lor;:, of .two yours,. c no. Member for a tor*! of tlrco years, and two :yiabcrs .for. turns of four yearsj thereafter all. five f.-iaiil l;/.appo ini 7d for to'.r.3 of Your yoarc;. Tin governing body of any con.ity pi* city entitled to re-; r. ;;oiv<;-vu on c>n a library board of a library of nriaihor .inr.vrdiqtaf fi pur tun nt to shall appoint a member
> ^imiy 1 or until the contract in terminated, -uhich-
V.lcai.eion atari he filled for unexpirod terror, ao econVul
x : !C ci*,d;ut he
JT Jl* ?.",v ih;: -1 o
. r' L cot ef ih,ry iv c *
'% > v. f w 7;02jl by e. .eh i^siiiboirt .
H' > v.v \ *' u. -. ;* . .-5^-
; 1/ -V : -v , \ r :* *?-. V- V >' - ;.
-I c!-i r-clcunly swear (or affirm) tliat I uill support the Constitution of Uio belted States and thq'Constitution of the State of Virginia and that I will faithfully and iwpra*tially_ discharge and perform all the duties ...no* umbered on as aoirimr 'of the Rappnhrainock\Library according to tha bust
of iiry ability, no holp ma Cod." ' . ;. : h*Vv'^v. ;-
3. Bcunilur Quarterly rwotinr^a shall bo held in the Library, or at such other tiivj .-Vu! pl.c-o no tj.r beard reay dotermino. - y
* ' f. ( *' V. vV. 4J; .;#s '*-* ;U V i- . .
Jj. Spc-tcial inootinge may fc a bold nt any time at1 the call of "the
or_^g£jjijry v-rul'p 'ie THigr-ib^r of tli Board of Tru3toeo.
A quoitr-V at any nootv.ig sliall oonnist of *5hre /o. TJia officarn of the Board shall bo a Chairjnan, a Vice Chairwswv
ai:d a'Soctorjii'/ (usually "LlvVLibrarian). Their term of offien Ehaiy b.^> f<^ ui'O i-oa** coincttiifio with the fi scal YQfir. shs.ll bo eloctud at' the first '
rj;;ul;.r Muuting ju uadi .finaa'l. vura1 a:id shall remain in of^cc until their } suooofiuors iiVo *.jlctod and otnliYied*j ..*/' , :S ... ;:. '
7. Tiio duties of all officers shall fco such as by custom and law devolves upon such officorc in ;tcccrdance witli ttieir'.mines, i The Cliaiiman shall be ux officio, i*. MfynK.r of all .vtui ding oeuwrittofcR. '"'7 ^
*V
72


(
>2
0. The order of 'business! et oil regular meetings of the Board shall be as follcr.fs*
Roll Call
Disposition of Minutes of previous meeting Communication.-. "
Report of Librarian
FlxuineJLal KcocrC /r
Rspurts of Oemm'ittoes > Gyro^>
Unfinished businsss p< ~ 4>t'i '
N(rj and miPcelinnHCue business
9. Robert.r Rulnr of Older t;Iv-ill govern in the parliamentary procedure of the Board.
10. Tlio Head Librarian : l.-ill eremite policies adopted by the Board. Among thii Head Librariana duties and responsibilities shall be the airscxion' and supervision of all rtoff members in the performance of their duties. the submission to tills Board of regular reports and recommendations of such policies and procedures as in the opinion of *!uid Head Librarian will promote the efficiency of tha Library in its service to the people of the community.
11. Amendments to tho^r; rules mav be proposecTat any regular meeting but may become offectivo only after a favorable vote at a subsequent mooting.
Anv of the forogoing rule;; :nay t>c t>. 'arilv suspended by a unanimous vote of all the members.
GENERAL DUTIES OF THE LIERA.RT BOARD
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
, 0.
H.
the public at large.
GFMERAL DUTIES OF THE LIBRARIAN
A. To administer the library.
B. To be technical advisor to the board.
C. To dlract tho activities of the staff.
D. To prepare tho budget in consultation with tha board.
E. To soled and purchase books, library materials and supplies.
7. To ~prep^To and rolaase library pub)In tty-
G. "To stimulate growth of library servico.
H. To keop tho board informed about clianges in library legislation and st.-indarda -
. To attend Hl-raiy iwntinri;.
To secure adequate funds.
To hiro a capable librarian.
To determine library policies.
To approve expenditures of library funds.
To receive gifts to the library.
familiar with the State and Federal aid program and
________ and national library standards. ~~
To" attend board mootings regularly. -
To support tho library's service program in daily contacts with
wi Upstate
I


t&afautty
(Devoted to the cultural needs of all citizens of Rappahannock)
Washington, Va. 22747 703-675-3.780
\
FIVE YEAR PLAN June 1935
1935-36
1. Begin planning for expansion of present building, with zoning, architectural and health boards, and for funding.
Obtain and present sketches for architectural plans to provide additional space for workroom; storage; ramp and bathroom for handicapped, etc.
2. Set up a board of Library Supporters with regular meetings of interested people so that volunteers' energy can be tapped for special projects and a large number of Library-oriented people can contribute ideas.
V
Plan and carry out publicity programs to keep the community informed of Library services available.
3. Review personnel policy. Consider hiring full-time librarian, preferably state-certified, and providing employees with benefits received by other county employees (e.g. retirement, vacation, sick leave. )
4. Install microfilm reader. Borrow films.
Expand collection of audio-cassettes.
1936- 37
1. Ask Friends of the Library to launch fund drive to finance expansion of present building.
2. Plan for use of land recently presented to Freiena of the Library contingent on life-tenure of present residents.
3. Employ full-time librarian.
4. Cooperate with local schools in encouraging students to use public library for informational and recreational reading.
5. Begin expansion of present library.
6. Request Board of Supervisors increase county funding.
1937- 33
1. Complete expansion of present building.
74


Washington, Va. 22747
(jaunty ^.tfauvuf
(Devoted to the cultural needs of all citizens of Rappahannock)
703-675-3780
FIVE-YEAR PLAN page 2 June 1935
2. Continue with plans for use of property across the street,
3. Request Board of Supervisors increase county funding.
1, Ask Friends of the Library to launch fund drive for new building across the street,
2, Continue, and expand, book-related services to children and adults of Rappahannock county based on present program of story hours, special programs and displays, and book discussions,
3, Request Board of Supervisors increase county funding.
1939-90
1, If demand warrants and space is available, purchase VCR and start a collection of video-cassettes,
2, Request Board of Supervisors increase county funding.
1933-39
e
75


UBRtfW
)R 24, 19C:i
SUBSCRIPTION <2.50 PKR YEAR (In Advance;
1 nty Library in :heon Well
Dedication Ceremony, Attended And Enjoyed
A goodly number of county residents, their guests, friends from surrounding areas, and a number of distinguished guests here to participate in the ceremonies, celebrated the formal opening and Dedication of the Rappahannock Library, Saturday, October 19th in Washington, Virginia.
Mr. K. M. Jones, District Committee member of the Library Board, acted as a gracious master of ceremonies. After welcoming remarks to the guests gathered on the sun drenched front grounds of the Library he called on the Rev. Charles Claenzer who gave an inspired Invocation.
Mrs. B. M. Miller,-Trustee and Treasurer, presented a well prepared, informative ;report on the background of itbe Library, both financial land historical. The full text of her message appears else-Iwhere in this paper.
The Hon. George S. Aldhizer II of Harrisonburg, gave the Dedicatory address wherein he congratulated the residents iof the County on their splendid 'accomplishment in establishing the Library. He, himself, iis sensitive to Library needs, :and expressed his willingness i assist in various ways.
' Miss Florence Yoder, Head I of the Extension Division of the Virginia State Library in Richmond acted as official Ribbon Cutter. In her remarks she confessed that as a Field Representative, in the early stages of planning, she did not feel that such a library could be established. She congratulated all concerned in the very


senungrrre iwye w uw
building to the joint Librarians Miss Josephine and Miss Anna May Stambaugh, in his ex-temperaneous remarks, wished the project well, complimented the Librarians and all other volunteers and offered his assistance in any capacity.
The group then entered and toured the Library, expressing great admiration for the fine old building itself and for the excellent way it has been developed, including the well arranged, attractive terra cotta book stacks.
The Board is particularly grateful to the Orange County Library for the Bookmobile which was on display on the Library grounds throughout the day and to Mrs. Maury Jones and Mrs. Robert E. Lee of Orange who so kindly gave their day to demonstrate the workings of a typical Bookmobile.
The program was moved to ithe Rappahannock High School | Auditorium. There the Warren County High School Band was Sassembled on the stage. This !well trained groupof 85pieces was led by Bandmaster and accomplished musician Mr.
, Harry E. Parker of Front Royal. Mrs. L. Nelson Rever-jcomb of Arlington and Peo'la I Mills, accompanied by the i band, led in the singing of | The Star Spangled Banner. The assemblage was privileged to hear Mrs. Rever-comb in solo, accompanied by Mrs., C. E. Johnson, Jr. of Sperryville, sing God Bless America.
Mr. Jones introduced Mr. William M. Carrigan, Chairman of the Library Board of Trustees, who cited some of the aims and future plans for the Library. These include in addition to offering a good selection of books, a planned program for children, young people and adults at the Library. This would embrace such things a6 book reviews, lectures and discussions, the showing of films, etc. They also hope to provide several authorities on a given subject to any group studying a particular problem. Mr. Carrigan also announced that each of the six Magisterial Districts will hold a major program within the district once a year. The first will be held by Hampton District in November. He also expressed hope for a (Continued on page 2)
vGostbimTfrofFpM* 1)
complete county historlal research program, to be reported on later.
Members of the Board of Trustees and District Committee members were introduced and Special Guests recognized which included the Hon. Tom Frost of Warrenton and Librarians from Culpeper Front Royal and Warrenton.
Mr. Frost introduced the Hon. Robert Y. Button, Attorney-General for the State of Virginia who delivered the principal address.
He prefaced his remarks a6 follows the dedication earlier this morning of Rappahannocks first publiclv owned library building makes this a red letter day in your long and glorious history. Free public libraries are one of the bulwarks of liberty. As long as the people have free and complete access to un-cesnored news, periodicals and books, the torch of liberty will certainly continue to burn .Education is perhaps the greatest single function of the State. This is not only true in providing elementary, high schools and colleges, but also for furnishing the adult population the facilities to continue and supplement their knowledge and general information. The Libraries are the store houses to which the people can go to read or to withdraw the books of current interest
for their pleasure and enlightenment. It is the duty of the localities to furnish the facilities to house the library. The locality mu6t provide the home, and the State will assist in providing the books and also in other ways. The people of Rappahannock County, with the aid of certain private foundations, have fully met their part of this responsibility and Rappahannock now has a beautiful and commodious library building*. Later in his address Mr. Button expressed his fears of increasing encroachment of Gov. ernment in the affairs of State and warned against it.
Mrs. George H. Davis, Jr.,I District Committee member and Mayor of Washington, reported on the House Tourj sponsored by the Women of Bromfield Parish Church which took place the same day and was tied in with the Library dedication. She also gave in a delightful manner some of her pwn personal recollections on the background of the Library.
Benediction was pronounced by the Rev. Arnold Sorrells.
A benefit luncheon wa6 served immediately following in the school cafeteria.
Open days for the Library have tentatively been stated as Wednesday afternoon, Friday evening and Saturday morning.
77


!
§
V
APPENDIX
B


A.
RECOMMENDED MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR VIRGINIA PUBLIC LIBRARIES
I. The needs of the population of the service area must be assessed at regular intervals (i.e., every five years) through a formal community analysis. In between, there should be continuing informal assessments.
II. STAFFING

e '
Adequate staffing consists of A plus B plus C plus O.
(A) Public service (for headquarters, branches, and stations)
I II
III
IV
Hours open Staff required for circulation
40 1 +
48 2
60+ V 2 Vi +
Additional specifically trained staff member for each service area other than the lending desk. (Service areas include any area which requires services that cannot be provided from behind the lending desk.) s service areas
1 x s)
2>x s) +
2% x s) +
VI
One additional staff member for every 20,000 circulations above basic staff from II and III
Staff for special programs as indicated by a community analysis
Bookmobiles should have one staff member and one driver for each eight hour shift
If, III, IV, V, and VI = staff for public service
(B) Technical Processing (if done in house)
One person for every 1,000 volumes processed or part thereof. This may be reduced if cataloging processes are automated or materials are preprocessed and received available for public use or if the library is in a cooperative cataloging system.
(C) Administration (i.e., director, assistant director, secretary, personnel manager, public relations specialist, but not branch librarians or department heads that are counted as public service or technical processing personnel).
One full-time administrative staff member for every 15 staff members or fulltime equivalents.
Regional libraries must have one staff member designated as bookkeeper for the system.
(D) When the total number of reference questions, using the definition of the National Center for Education Statistics, exceeds 2,000 units per month, additional reference staff should be added. (One reference question is to be counted as five units. One directional question is to be counted as one unit.)
The staffing pattern should reflect the following proportions:
79


Hourly and salaried clerical 45 55%
Paraprofessional* 20 25%
Professional** 25 30%
*Paraprofessional personnel defined as those with two years post-secondary education through the baccalaureate degree.
Professional is those having a Masters Degree in Library Science or the equivalent from an ALA accredited institution and those holding certification from the State Boar^ of Certification.

III. SALARIES AND BENEFITS
A. The initial step of a professional salary should not be less than that figure based on the current median salary for the Southeastern United States as reported in the Library Journal. Guidelines for salaries at different job levels and according to population served are indicated in the following table:
Librarian Grade Salary Librarian Grade Salary
1 median of S.E. IV 80%
II 20% V +120%
III 50% VI +150%
The cost of living for the area, as shown by the National Cost of Living Index, should also be taken into consideration.
B. Library staff should receive benefits at least equal to those of other employees of the same jurisdiction. Regional libraries should adopt the most liberal benefits offered in the region.
IV. BUILDINGS
A. Aggregate size of all buildings in the system should equal .6 square foot per person living in the jurisdiction served. All areas of the building should be accessible to the handicapped.
B. Any "main or "central library in a system should comprise half the square footage of A. No main library should be less than 10,000 square feet.
C. Each full-service branch should be at least 4,500 square feet and larger when necessary to meet the requirement of .6 square foot per capita in the service area.
D. The size of a station should be based on its purpose but in no case should a station replace a branch except when a definite plan exists to upgrade it to a branch meeting the standard IV (C).
E. There should be three seats (including study carrels and lounge furniture) for public use in a reading area for each 1,000 persons in the jurisdiction served.
F. At branches and main libraries there should be 1.5 square feet of parking space designated exclusively for library use for each square foot of floor space.
G. Public restrooms and copying machine* should be provided in the main library and in all branches.


V. OUTLETS
A. Travel time to the nearest library should not be more than 1015 minutes on public transportation in an urban area or 1530 minutes by car in a rural area. No person in the service area should be more than four miles from a branch in an urban area with a population density greater than 4,000 people per square mile. There should be one branch, two stations, or 40 hours of bookmobile stops per month for every 20,000 people Sfrved. Consideration should be given to geographical impediments to transportation or normal travel patterns.
B. A bookmobile should be on station, open to the public 60 percent of its operating time. If the circulation rate is in excess of 60 books per hour additional service should be provided. If bookmobile circulation falls below 20 circulations per hour some alternate service should be provided.
C. Libraries should be open those hours of greatest potential use as indicated by a community survey.
D. All libraries, branches, and bookmobiles should have evening and weekend hours.
VI. COLLECTIONS
A. Book purchases (including periodicals) should *make up at least 20 percent of the total budget.
B. When an urban library serving 100,000 or more population includes a central research collection, that collection should contain at least 150,000 titles and shoald keep the collection current by the addition of 5 percent of its collection each year.
C. All systems serving less than 50,000 persons should have at least 3 volumes per capita and systems serving over 100,000 should have at least 2 volumes per capita.
O. All systems should add 1/6 book per capita per year. Small systems should aggressively participate in interlibrary loan agreements with larger urban libraries and the State Library.
E. The ratio of children's books to adult books in the collection should match the ratio of children to adults in the service area.
F. Every library should have a written book selection policy and a collection development policy. The collection should be regularly evaluated to ensure that it reflects the current needs of the community. The library collection should provide books and other materials presenting all points of view concerning the problems and issues of our times.
G. There should be one current periodical subscription for every 250 people in the service area. Libraries should use the standard periodical indexes as guides to selection.
H. Libraries should enter into cooperative agreements with other libraries to establish a central storage of periodical titles not needed on a day-to-day basis in the local library. These titles should be kept for 20 years and should be available within 24 hours.
I. A library system serving more than 25,000 people should develop a collection of recordings on discs or tapes. This collection should include instructional and spoken arts recordings and a variety of music reflecting the interests of the community.
J. All libraries should have access to a 16mm film collection of not less than 5,000 titles. Regional collections supplementing the State Library collection should be built at the rate of one film for every 5,000 people in the service area.


K. All libraries should develop a plan for the systematic removal of materials that are no longer useful.
VII. REFERENCE SERVICE
A. Every library system should provide in at least one location a public reference service staffed during all the hours the library is open, supervised by one trained professional librarian and staffed by professional librarians.
B. A refeVence department should be able to answer correctly or refer to another agency which subsequently correctly answers 90 percent of all reference questions. If it does not meet this measure, it should consider establishing a centralized reference service, contracting for such service with another library or agency or improving the skills of its staff or upgrading the materials in its reference collection.
VIII. STAFF DEVELOPMENT
A. Jurisdictions should provide funds to send staff members to national library associations meetings, to the state library convention, appropriate subject workshops, and special academic classes and in other ways support continuing education for the library staff.
IX. CHILDRENS SERVICES
A. Children's services and programs should be in the same proportion as the ratio of chil-ren to adults in the population of the service area.
B. Staffing in the childrens area should also reflect the above ratio with allowances for the staff assigned to administration and technical processing.
C. The children's book collection should be regularly and critically evaluated to ensure that it reflects the current needs of the community and should be closely coordinated with programs of other agencies and institutions within the community which offer services to children and parents.
X. ADULT SERVICES
A. Adult services and programs should be in the same proportion as the ratio of adults to children in the population of the service area.
B. Staffing in the adult area should also reflect the above ratio with allowances for the staff assigned to administration and technical processing.
C. The adult book collection should be regularly and critically evaluated to ensure that it reflects the current needs of the community.
XI. PROGRAMS
A. Libraries should provide a full range of programs for all segments of the population, co-


ordinating these services with other local agencies offering services and programs to similar groups.
B. Library services should be offered to those unable to come into the library buildings.
C. A continuing effort should be made to locate and attract those unaware of the librarys services through both in-library and out-of-the-library programs as well as through a planned public relations effort.
O. Adequate, trained staff should be employed to carry out these programs.
XII. COOPERATION
A. Efforts should be made to develop cooperative agreements with all types of libraries.
B. Efforts should be made to form regional libraries or to enlarge smaller regions so that they serve a minimum population of 100,000.
C. Efforts should be made not to duplicate other collections and services available in the area except when such services or collections are needed in greater quantity at varying hours or in more convenient locations than provided.
O. Meetings should be regularly held with other libraries to share ideas, to study regional plans, and to become aware of the holdings and services of other libraries.
Appendix A
A reference transaction is an information contact which involves the knowledge, use,recommendation, interpretation, or instruction in the use of,one or more information sources by a member of the library staff. Information sources include printed and non-printed materials, machine-readable data bases (including computer assisted instruction), catalogs and other holdings records, and, through communication or referral, other libraries and institutions, and persons both inside and outside the library. A contact that includes both reference and directional services should be reported as one reference transaction. When a staff member utilizes information gained from previous use of information sources to answer a question, report as a reference transaction, even if the source is not consulted again during this transaction. Duration should not be an element in determining whether a transaction is reference or directional.
A directional transaction is an information contact which facilitates theuse of the library in which the contact occurs and which does NOT involve the knowledge, use, recommendation, interpretation, or instruction in the use of, any information sources other than those which describe that library, such as schedules, floor plans, handbooks, and policy statements. Examples of directional transactions include giving directions for locating, within the library, staff, patrons, or physical features; lending pencils, etc.; and giving assistance of a nonbiblio-graphic nature with machines.
Approved by the State Library Board January 30,1978


B. RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY LIBRARY STATISTICS
Rappahannock County
Population- 6,100 (1985)
Area - 26? sq. mi.
Analysis of Circulation (1984- 1985)
Total Book Circulation % Adult % Juvenile Vols. per Capita
14,383 66.2 33-8 2.53
Total Non-Book % Total Circ.
1,038 6.7
Analysis of Collections (1984-85)
Total Vol. % Adult % ANF % % AF Juv. Vol. per Can.
13,379 75-7 60.8 39.2 24.3 2.19
No. Yols. Added No. Yols. Withdrawn No. Titles Added
903 534 888
No. Audio Recordings No. Microforms No. Periodical Titles No. Newspaper Titles
273 2,940 30 6
Personnel (1984- 85)
No. Certified Full Time Part Time Total FTE
1.0 0 3.0 1.5
Registered Borrowers (84-85) - 1,684
84


Summary of Rappahannock County Library Statistics (1975 1985)
-as compiled by The Library Development Branch, Va. State Library, Richmond, Va.
Year Pop. Income Total Circ. Books Tot. Vol. Vols. Per Cap. No. Audio Rec. No. Per. No. Vert. Files No. Microf. No. Reg. Borrowers
75-76 5,199 10,963 7,420 8,207 1.58 40 0 1,054
76-77 5,199 8,885 7,746 8,405 1.62 108 2 2,030
77-78 5,500 9,564 8,632 8,738 1.59 169 4 0 937
78-79 5,600 10,323 10,066 9,376 1.67 373 11 0 900
79-80 6,028 14,100 13,075 10,452 2.07 300 16 2,142 960
80-81 6,093 16,919 14,616 11,250 1.85 500 16 300 2,194 965
81-82 6,093 17,442 14,423 12,196 2.00 342 17 300 2,385 1,092
82-83 6,093 22,327 16,131 13,562 2.23 38 7 27 400 2,944 1,210
83-84 5,900 22,210 15,721 13,010 2.14 238 27 - 2,940 1,449
84-85 6,100 25,289 15,421 13,379 2.19 273 30 - 2,940 1,684
00
CJI


VI
APPENDIX
C


Approved by the Planning Commission May 22, 1985 Enacted August 14, 1985
HISTORIC DISTRICT ORDINANCE TOWN OP WASHINGTON, VIRGINIA
Section 1. The purpose of this Ordinance is to preserve the style and historic character of the Town of Washington and to promote the general welfare of the inhabitants of the Town of Washington through the preservation and protection of buildings or structures of historic, architectural or cultural Interest, pursuant to $ 15.1-503.2 of the Code of Virginia.
Section 2.
There is hereby created in the Town of Washington
N
an Architectural Review Board consisting of three unpaid members who shall be resident taxpayers of the Town of Washington, Virginia, to be selected by the Town Council. The Architectural Review Board shall have the powers and authority to perform all the duties as hereinafter enumerated and provided. The term of office of the members of the Architectural Review Boa^d shall be
four years from the date of their selection by the Towri Council, except that the terms of the Initial Architectural Review Board shall be for two, three, and four years, respectively. Any member of the Review Board may be removed from office by the Town Council after public hearing for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance. An appointment to fill a vacancy shall only be for the unexpired portion of the term.
Section 3. There are hereby established in the Town of Washington two Historic Districts which shall Include those areas of the Town designated as A and B as follows! AREA A All areas in Town not AREA B. AREA B Those properties fronting on Mt.


Sal0m Avtnut in its entirety, and all parcels on the south aid#
US
of fttsbe-Route 211 (Business) and east of the lots designated as 119 and 115 on the Rappahannock County tax nap for the Town of Washington. Provided that buildings with less than 25% of their first floor area lying within Town boundaries shall be excluded froa this Ordinance.
Section 4. No building, fence or structure shall hereafter be erected, reconstructed, or altered wlth^the Town of Washington
x
Historic District unless and until an application for a building permit shall have been approved as to exterior architectural features which are subject to public view from a public street, way, or place. Evidence of such required approval shall be a certificate of appropriateness issued by the Architectural Review Board.
Section 5. No building or structure within the Town of Washington Historic District shall be razed, demolished, or moved without first obtaining a permit approved by the Architectural Review Board, and said Board shall be empowered to refuse such a
w
permit where the building to be destroyed was built during the period described in Section 7(b) applicable to its area, and the Board concludes that the building Is of architectural, historical, or cultural merit.
Section 6. The Architectural Review Board shall select a Chairman and a Secretary. The Review Board shall meet within two weeks of notification by its Secretary of the receipt of an application for a certificate of appropriateness or permit for removal and at such other times as the Review Board may determine. It shall keep a record of its resolutions,


- J
transactions, and datanninationa and may maka such rulaa conalstant with thia Ordlnanca aa may appear daalrabla and necessary. Zt may hold auch public haarlnga aa It may daam advlaabla.
Sactlon 7. (a) Zt ahall ba tha function and tha duty of tha
Architactural Review Board to paaa upon tha appropriatanasa of exterior architactural faaturaa of buildings# fancaa and atructuraa haraaftar to ba erected, reconstructed# or altered in tha Town of Washington Historic District wharavar such axtarior features are subject to public view from a public street or way. All plans# elevations# and other information deemed necessary by the Board to determine the appropriateness of tha axtarior features to ba passed upon shall ba made available to tha Board by tha applicant. Zt shall also ba tha duty of tha Board to pass upon the demolition or alteration of any building within said districts as set forth in Section 5.
. (b) Zn passing upon a plan for new# renovated or remodelled buildings# fences# or structures# the standards to ba us4d by tha Architectural Review Board or the Town Council on appeal shall be as followsi
(1) For AREA A# tha axtarior styles#
designs# signs# scale# textures
v
materials# and colors# built or applied# in tha Town of Washington# Virginia from tha data of its settlement through 1900;
(2) For AREA B# tha axtarior styles# designs# signs# scale# textures# materials and colors# built or applied#
89


4
' 'in the Town of Washington, Virginia
tha data of its settlement through 1945.
(c) Tha Architactural Raviaw Board shall not considar intarior daaigns, intarior arranganant or building faaturas not subjact to public viav, nor shall it mandate spacific axtarior colors. Tha Board shall not make any recom-Bandations or raquiramants axcapt for tha purposa of pravanting davalopmanta Incongruous to tha historic, architactural or cultural aspects of the surroundings and tha Town of Washington Historic Districts. Satellite dish antennae shall, to tha axtant practicabla, ba screenad from public view.
(d) In case of disapproval, tha Board shall atata its reasons therefor in writing and it may make recommendations to tha applicant with respect to appropriateness of alternative style, design, scale, texture, material, or colors of tha building or structure involved.
(a) Upon approval of a plan, tha Board shall causa a certificate of appropriateness, dated and signed by tha Chairman, to ba issued to tha applicant, or affixed to tha plans.
(f) If tha Board shall fail to taka final action in any case within sixty (60) days after receipt of any
' V
application for a certificate of appropriateness or a permit for removal, tha case shall ba deemed to ba approved axcapt where mutual agreement has bean reached for an extension of tha time limit.
Section 8. Any parson who erects, altars, or demolishes a building or structure in violation of Sections 4 or 5 of this
90


Ordinance ahall be required to restore tha building or atructura and it* aita to ita appearance prior to tha violation.
Saction 9. (a) Appeals nay ba taken to tha Town Council by
any paraon aggriavad by tha ruling of tha Architactural Raviaw Board. Tha Town Council ahall promptly conduct a full and Impartial da novo haarlng bafora randaring a daciaion. Tha Council ahall apply tha same atandarda in ita raviaw aa ara appllcabla harain to tha Architactural Raviaw Board. Tha daciaion of the Council shall ba determined by a majority vote of ita members.
(b) Tha decision of tha Council, subject to.tha provisions of Saction 10, shall ba final.
Section 10. (a) Any paraon, or tha Architactural Raviaw
Board, aggrieved by a decision of tha Town Council, may appeal to tha Circuit Court for a review; provided, such appeal la filed within a period of thirty (30) days after tha randaring of tha final decision by tha Town Council. Such appeal shall ba takan by ^filing a petition, at law, to review tha daciaion of tha Council. Tha filing of such petition shall stay tha Council's decision pending tha outcome of tha appeal to tha Circuit Court, except that tha filing of such petition ahall NOT stay tha decision of tha Council if such decision denies tha right to rasa or demolish a building within tha Town of Washington Historic Districts. Findings of fact by tha Council shall ba conclusive on tha Circuit Court in any such appeal. Tha Circuit Court sty^ reverse or aredify tha decision of tha Council, in whole or in part, if it finds upon raviaw that tha decision of tha Council is contrary to law or that its decision is arbitrary and constitutes
91


an abut* of discretion, or it mAy Affirm the decision of ths Council*
(b) Costs shell not be Allowed against the Architectural Review Boerd or the Town Council unless it shell eppeer to the Court that the Board or Council in making the decision appealed from acted in bad faith or with malice.
(c) Costs shall not be allowed against the party appealing from the decision of the Architectural Review Board unless it shall appear to the Court that said appellant or appellants acted in bad faith or with malice in making the appeal to the Court.
Section 11. In case any Section, paragraph or part of this Prdlnance be held unconstitutional by any court of last resort, every other Section, paragraph or part shall continue in full force and effect.
Section 12. This Ordinance shall take effect upon its acceptance by majority vote of the Town Council of the Town of
Washington, at a regular meeting or any meeting duly called for
*
the purpose.
August 14, 1985
Mayor
(SEA1)


W ashingtons ABB: A mandate to help
By LOU HATTER
Rappahannock New§ Staff Writer
The Town of Washingtons Architectural Review Board, established by inclusion in the provisions of the towns historic district ordinance, is concerned that residents of the town understand the boards purpose.
We are not here to design the exterior of peoples homes, ARB Chairman Carol Miller explained. We are just here to preserve the historic nature of the town The three of us (Mrs. Miller, Evelyn Willis and Jim Thomasson) did not come up "'WCiniusTEIH^- we were appointed to the board by the Town Council, which created the board in conjunction with the historic district ordinance.
According to Section 4, Historic District Ordinance, Town of Washington, (enacted August 14, 1985) No building or structure shall hereafter be erected, reconstructed, altered, or restored within the Town of Washington Historic District unless and until an application for a building permit shall have been approved as to exterior architectural features which are subject to public view from a public street, way, or place. Evidence of such required approval shall be a certificate of appropriateness issued by the Architectural Review Board.
Mrs. Willis explained that
property owners within the historic district boundaries must submit an application for a certificate of appropriateness for anything which can be seen from the street ... To put up a door, a window, a door-knocker, a lamp out front, a mailbox, or to change any (exterior paint) colors.
Mrs. Miller was quick to add, however, that Its not our personal taste. Were trying to establish a historic feel to preserve the historic nature of the town ... to help (property owners) to fit in with the historic perspective of the town.
Section 7 (c) of the Historic District Ordinance states, in part The Board shall not make any recommendations or requirements except for the purpose of preventing developments obviously incongruous to the historic, architectural or cultural aspects of the surroundings and the Town of Washington Historic District.
Mrs. Willis concurred with the intent of the ordinance, saying that The ARB will work best if it is used as a resource,
rather than in a judgemental manner.
Mayor Dean Morehouse added that, The ARB has no legislative or judicial function. It should be used in an advisory capacity.
Mrs. Miller agreed. We cant mandate. We cant design. But we can suggest.
Mr. Thomasson added, We don't ever want to get to the point where we tell people This is how this building should look.
Mayor Morehouse explained that, The reason for the ARB is a requirement from the Interior Department for the maintenance of Interior Department Historic District standards. This is a federal mandate, not something that the Town Council dreamed up.
The state requires, in its charter to the town, that it have a Board of Zoning Appeals and a Planning Commission, Mayor Morehouse said. The Architectural Review Board is mandated by the Historic District Ordinance, which is provided for by the states enabling legislation. These three boards work hand in hand to administer the ordinances of the town, the mayor t continued.
Mrs. Miller said that the ARBs guidelines were developed with assistance from Brian Mitchell of the Landmarks Division of the Virginia Commission for Historic Preservation; the guidelines of the Federal Advisory Council of the U. S. Department of the Interior; a joint publication of the National Park Service and the Department of the Interior entitled The Secretary of the Interiors Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings; and guidelines developed by other historic districts elsewhere, including Nantucket, Rhode Island (??????).
We are here to try to help, and to try to supply sources, Mrs. Willis continued. We are building a resource file of carpenters, house-restorers, color specialists, restoration and reconstruction experts who will serve as consultants free of charge to the property owners.


ARB
Continued
The town council has authorized us to purchase several reference books on restoration which will be donated to the county library, Mrs. Willis added. We are also working on a source file, to be updated monthly, which the librarian will be able to direct people to. It will include sources for everything from light fixtures to major architectural renovations.
The ARBs guidelines, adopted on May 13, 1986, provide that:
1. Reconstruction ... to restore a building or structure to prior condition and detail, is by right.
2. Repainting, where painting entails the duplication of existing colors, is by right.
3. New painting, or repainting with new colors or combination of colors requires approval of the ARB. For reference, consult one of the following color charts:
Historical Color Collection, Benjamin Moore and Co.
Heritage Colors, Sherwinfi
Williams Co. \l
Historical Colors, Duron' Paint Co.
Section 7 (a) provides, in part, that All plans, elevations, and other information deemed necessary by the Board to determine the appropriateness of the exterior features to be passed upon shall be made available to the Board by the applicant..
Section 7 (c) states that . the standard to be used by the ARB or Town Council on appeal shall be the exterior style, design, texture, material and colors used in the Town of Washington, Virginia from the date of its founding through 1900.
The Historic District Ordinance also provides that in case of disapproval of an application by the ARB, the board shall convey its reasons in writing and may make recommendations to the applicant of alternative appropriate styles, materials, textures or colors wThich could be used on the building.
The ordinance states that Appeals may be taken to the Town Council by any person aggrieved by the ruling of the ARB. (Section 10, a)
Williamsburg Paint Colors in the Authentic Colonial Colors' catalog, Martin-Senour Co.
4. Vinyl and aluminum siding are not appropriate materials for construction, reconstruction or restoration...
5. Raw or unfaced concrete or cinder block is not appropriate.
Mayor Morehouse explained that the ARB decided that paint colors are an important consideration in unifying the towns architecture, hence the inclusion of a guideline concerning accepta-ole colors.
Mrs. Willis hastened to add the paint companies have recreated lines of historic colors. The applicants do not have to use those companies they can use comparable colors.
Section 6 of the Historic District Ordinance provides that the ARB shall meet within two weeks of notification by its secretary of the receipt of an application ...
Section 11 (a) further provides for an appeal of the decision of the Town Council to the Circuit Court, provided that it is filed within 30 days of the councils decision.
Mr. Thomasson quickly said that We are not dictators We will make every possible attempt to provide the resources to help (the applicant) reach the end results which they are attempting to achieve. We have to maintain a general sensitivity to the intent of the ordinance, and need to make our concern the appropriateness of the historic district ordinance to the histnrio Hie. trictjl*----
' Copies of the historic district ordinange ''and the ARB guidelines are-bn file at the clerks office and at the library. Applications for a certificate of appropriateness are available at the office of the zoning administrator.


APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE OF APPROPRIATENESS
TOWN OF WASHINGTON, VA ARCHITECTUJAL REVIEW BOARD
APPLICATION FOR HEARING
NAME OF APPLICANT:________________________________________________________
DOING BUSINESS AS (if applicable):________________________________________
ADDRESS OF APPLICANT:
(Zip Code)
TELEPHONE :______________________________
LOCATION OF PROPERTY (to include street address if available):
RELATIONSHIP OF APPLICANT TO PROPERTY (lesee, owner):
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF EACH MODIFICATION OR IMPROVEMENT:
DO ALL DRAWINGS, MATERIAL SAMPLES AND RELATED INFORMATION AND
OTHER ITEMS REQUIRED BY ARB GUIDELINES ACCOMPANY THIS APPLICATION? (Guidelines available at Rapp. Co. Zoning Office).
IF NOT, EXPLAIN: ____________________________________________
95


TOWN OF WASHINGTON, VA ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW BOARD
Page 2
APPLICATION FOR HEARING
HAS A SITE PLAN OF THE SUBJECT PROPERTY BEEN SUBMITTED TO THE ZONING ADMINISTRATOR? _________________
IS THERE AN APPLICATION RELEVANT TO THIS PROPERTY AND THE SUBJECT MODIFICATIONS OR IMPROVEMENTS PENDING OR CONTEMPLATED BEFORE THE BOARD OF ZONING APPEALS, TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION OR TOWN COUNCIL?
IF SO, SPECIFY:
WHO WILL REPRESENT APPLICANT BEFORE ARB (Representative should have authority to commit applicant to make changes that may be suggested or required by the Board.)
NAME ____________________________________
TITLE OR RELATIONSHIP TO APPLICANT: ____________________________
ADDRESS: _____ _________ __________.
TELEPHONE:.
(Zip Code)
SIGNATURE OF OWNER (Where applicable): SIGNATURE OF APPLICANT OR AGENT:
*
Signature:____________________________Signature: . ______ _________
Name (Print or type): Name (print of * *
To be completed by Zoning Administrator
Received By ________________________________
Date _______________________________________
Tax Map Identification _____________________
96


SUBMISSION FORM FOR EXHIBITS REQUIRED FOR ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW BOARD
Zoning Administrator Rappahannock County Court House Washington, VA 22747
Dear Administrator:
This is a transmittal letter listing all drawings, samples and exhibits included with this application.
I understand that the application cannot be processed for presentation before the Architectural Review Board unless all of the applicable items are submitted at least seven days prior to the next regualrly scheduled meeting.
Also, all the exhibits will be clearly identified with the exhibit number in the lower right hand corner.
I read and understand the detailed and descriptive list of exhibits given to me by the Zoning Administrator as an attachment to the application for approval.
SUBMISSIONS
Exhibit No. 1
Exhibit No. 2
Exhibit No. 3
Exhibit No. 4
Exhibit No. 5
Exhibit No. 6
No. of Photographs
List Samples Submitted:
Exhibit No. 7 Exhibit No. 8
Yours truly,
97


ORGANIZED A A TOWN OENERAL AIBCMRLY OR VIRGINIA OECEMRER 14, I74
PURVEYED AND PLATTED BY COROE WABMINGTON AUGUST 4. I74S
INCORPORATED AB A MUNICIPALITY GENERAL ASSEMBLY OP VIRGINIA FEBRUARY IE. ISS4
XLhc Govern of Washington
"THE FIRST WASHINGTON OF ALL"
WASHINGTON. VIRGINIA.
I
Date
Dear
Your application to the Archit certificate of appropriateness was
. The
ectural Review Board for a considered at our meeting of decision of the Board was:
Approval ________
Denial ________
Other ___________________________________________
The Architectural Review Board recorded the following reasons for its decision:
Sincerely yours.
Architectural Review Board
98


VII
APPENDIX
D


The Rappahannock
Historical Society
presents
A WALKING TOUR
of
WASHINGTON, Virginia
Please join us in a leisurely walk back through time, down the quiet, tree-shaded streets of the first Washington of them all.
Turn your mind back to the year 1749. On a warm July 24th of that year, a tall, lanky red-haired teenager stood on this very spot, surveying tools in hand. The boys name was George. He had just turned 17, and at the suggestion of a family friend, Thomas Lord Fairfax, had taken the job as county surveyor in the newly formed frontier county of Culpeper. His first major assignment required him to ride horseback 20 miles across rolling hills and streams north of Culpeper to lay out a new town.
He dismounted and stood where you are now standing. He looked appreciatively at the ring of verdant mountains surrounding this fertile plain, drained by the Rush River. He walked toward the Indian trading post, possibly exchanging greetings with several Manahoac natives mingling with the children and adults of the four colonial families living and farming in the area.
Assisted by two chairmen, John Lonem and Edward Corder, the young surveyor staked out the checkerboard pattern you see today, naming four of the streets after the families already living here: Porter, Jett, Calvert, and Wheeler. It is assumed that Gay Street was named for Gay Fairfax, his girlfriend. He also included a Main Street and a Middle Street. The young surveyors journal records simply: ... in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Culpeper County I laid off a town.
Tradition has it that George named the future town for himself, inscribing the plat he had drawn Plan of the Town of Washington, making it the oldest of all towns in the United States named for the Father of our Country.
Nearly 50 years later, in December 1796, the Virginia General Assembly established Washington as a town, noting that the population had reached 200 souls, the number required for establishing a town. In 1833, when Rappahannock County separated from Culpeper, Washington became its county seat. And in February 1894, the Virginia General Assembly incorporated Washington as a municipality.
It stands today as the only incorporated town in this Blue Ridge area which was surveyed, platted, and laid off into streets and half-acre lots, exactly as George Washington had designed it.


We start our tour in front of the Rappahannock Historical Society building (Lot 42 on your map) and proceed clockwise along Gay, Porter, Main, and Calvert Streets, returning to the starting point. The town boasts 7 original log buildings; some have had their logs covered with modern materials, but 3 still retain their log facades.
The Historical Society building is flanked by two 20th century structures, the Rappahannock Medical Center and the CENTEL Telephone company. Lot 42 was owned by George Calvert in 1796 when Washington became a town, and our building was one of the outbuildings of the manor house, Avon Hall, which stood where the Medical Center now stands, with its pillars and verandah right up against Gay Street. The big house was moved to its present location on Warren Avenue in the late 1920s.
In 1833, when Rappahannock became a county, our building saw service as temporary county offices for two years until the new courthouse was completed. It was moved to its present location in 1965 when the new telephone company building was erected. Also on this site in 1835, the Misses Janie and Julie Chappins ran a female seminary where French, English, and Italian were taught.
Walk south along Gay Street past the former Methodist Church which was built in 1890. It closed its doors in June 1979, and has since been bought by the town of Washington for use as a townhall. The big bell which once hung in its tower now calls worshippers to services in Mount Lebanon Baptist Church in Scrabble, Va., about 6 miles south of Sperryville.
RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY COURT HOUSE
Next, pause to read the inscriptions on the squat stone marker commemorating George Washingtons survey of the town, and on the tall white shaft next to the flag pole dedicated to Confederate war dead. The list of names is only partial; Rappahannock sent almost 800 men into that conflict.
This hilltop location, comprising lots 44, 45, and 46, was especially selected in 1833 for the new courthouse, clerks office, and jail, because of its beautiful view. The original owner, Richard Jackson, reportedly a cousin of President Andrew Jackson, was a large land holder, owning some 10,000 acres between here and Sperryville. The courthouse and the outbuildings to its left now occupied by the Treasurer and the Commissioner of Revenue, were completed in 1835 by James Leake Powers (whom we shall meet again on this tour) for $4,500. The jail, at the far rear corner of the lot, cost the taxpayers another $2,600. The courthouse was remodeled in 1947 for $18,000. And the new Clerks office to the right of the courthouse was completed in 1978 as a replica of the older buildings for approximately $150,000.
During the March 1859 trial of James Johnson for the poison murder of his wife, over 3,000 persons jammed into and around the first floor courtroom. The clerk complained that he could hardly do his work because of the overcrowding. After the trial, some 5,000 persons witnessed Mr. Johnsons outdoor hanging.
Directly across Porter Street, on Lot 47, architect-builder James Leake Powers had set up his brick kiln and carpenter shop while working on the county buildings. Some 40 years later, in 1873, the present Baptist Church was erected on the site, as a branch of the older Mount Salem Baptist Church, to serve the county seat. However, the Washington Baptist congregation was not formally organized until nine
101


years later, in 1882. It is interesting to note that since both the Baptists and the Masons were looking for homes at the time, they got together on this building, the Masons owning the top floor, the Baptists the rest. The relationship still exists today, with both sharing in the upkeep of the building. The monument marks the resting place of the Rev. Barnett Grimsley (1807-1885), pastor of the parent Mt. Salem church. His body was exhumed from a private cemetery near Rock Mills and moved here to this more fitting site.
Beyond, on Lot 49. is an early log cabin, birthplace of Middleton Miller, whose woolen mills first produced the fabric known as Confederate Gray. He built The Maples, the large brick home at the end of Gay Street. The old fashioned well at the end of the alley is one of four Town Wells which have been used by the town since before 1798. The other three town wells are at the courthouse, at Washington House, and on Lot 23.
Lot 31, now the home of Peter Kramers cabinet shop, was once the site of a livery stable, stage coach stop, and blacksmith shop. On one terrible night in March 1916, the livery stable caught fire, and some of the horses were burned to death. The Baptist Church across the street was scorched by
the flames. The present structure was built as an apple packing warehouse.
Just below, on the East corner of Porter and Main, is a private museum, in what was originally known as the Clark Tavern. Delicious meals were served in the late 1800s for 50, and folks would line up from the courthouse down to this building to be served. When Main Street was widened and macadamized before World War I, it was necessary to remove both the front porch and upstairs gallery of the Tavern. Subsequently, the two top floors were also removed, leaving only the single story structure standing today.
Looking down the lane, to the rear of Lot 15, we see The Meadows, a home built by the Mason family about 1786. It was used as a Confederate hospital during the war, and those who died there were buried in the orchard out back. After the war, the house was said to be haunted, and the owner, Judge Strother, couldnt keep any servants. Finally, he let it be known that he had shot all the ghosts with silver bullets, and he was able to keep help once again. Visible for many years in the attic was the graffitti written on the walls by the recuperating soldiers; but when the house was remodeled, this was painted over.
n he own ''iVctfy/uTu^fayn
gay street
102


Turning right up Main Street, we pass on the left, the old Post Office and the editorial offices of the Rappahannock News, which has served the county since November 1949. On your right, in Lot 29, the white "pebbledash home on the hill was once the Episcopal Rectory. Note the large boxwoods. It was once a post office, once a private school. The other pebbledash building on the corner of Lot 27 was moved there from this lot, and at different times served as a bank, a bar room, and a post office.
The small building on the left in Lot 12 was originally the ice house for the colonaded manor house next door. Ice was cut from the river and ponds and stored here deep in the ground, packed in straw or sawdust. In the 1890s there was a tailor shop here, more recently a craft shop.
Across Jett street on Lot 11, the Blue Ridge Guide had its editorial offices and ran its printing presses from 1886 to 1936. The Guide succeeded the Blue Ridge Echo, which published local news for about four years beginning in 1878 under the leadership of Judge W.W. Moffett. Before that, the original Rappahannock News survived for about a year in 1877.
On your right, in Lot 26, is one of Washingtons original log cabins, this one boasting a cat slide roof in the rear. It has recently been restored, revealing the original axe marks on its 200-year old logs, and the "Hessian Notch (Modified A over V) construction of its corners. Behind this cabin is a building which for many years served as the summer kitchen for the Clopton House just to the north. This large home was built in the early 1800s and has been added on to many times. The Victorian bay windows and front porch were added during one of these renovations as a way of modernizing an old house. It is now occupied by the Albright Art Studio, Health Center, and a real estate office.
Lot 25 The Episcopal Church on your right beyond the parking lot was completed in 1857 by James Leake Powers. Well look more fully at this building when we come around to its front, later in this tour. Here in what is now the church parking lot was first a store, then a restaurant known as the Cherry Tree and Hatchet. The proprietor always cooked everything in butter, so you can imagine how good the meals were.
Across the street in Lot 9 is Natures Foods, a popular cafe now occupying the building which for many years was the home of Merrills Ford, one of the oldest Ford dealership in the U.S. from the standpoint of continuous existance. When Mr. Merrill first opened his doors in the 1920s, his garage was located across the street where the popular eating establishment, The Inn, now stands.
We now come to one of the oldest parts of the town of Washington. At least three of the buildings you can see today near this corner we believe were here when George Washington arrived to conduct his survey in 1749.
The building presumed to be the original Trading Post once stood on this corner, in Lot 26, but has been moved twice, ending up in its present location just to the right of The Inn. This is the old building now comprising the front part of the Country Store, whose age is substantiated by many construction details, including its front windows, whose panes of glass reflect the traditional six over nine design popular in the early 18th century. A large number of Indian artifacts found a short distance away down Warren Avenue, near the Lake Motel, indicates the site of a permanent Indian camp in this location.
The large white double galleried building on the corner of Lot 8 is the former tavern known as Coxes Ordinary, built between 1735 and 1740. Miss Annie Coxe was the proprietor from 1800 until 1850, and served a fixed menu. Upstairs was a large common room, where you could rent space for the night. It could be either space in a bed, or space on the floor. There were also several private rooms for lady travellers. Tradition has it that George Washington danced at a ball here, probably while visiting his cousins at Thornton Hill near Sperryville.
On the side of the building next to Natures Foods is a water fountain connected to one of the four original town wells. And above the fountain is a large bell on the second floor gallery. Before Rappahannock became a county in 1833, local gentlemen justices met here at Coxes Ordinary to settle disputes and run the business of the locality. The bell on the upper balcony was used both to call the justices to meetings, or customers to dinner. During the latter half of the 19th century, Charlie Dear, son of the then proprietors, was an expert with the carving knife, slicing country ham family style at the boarding house table. Charlie had the reputation
COXE'S ORDINARY
103


of being able to cut off a slice of ham and flip it down the table to the customers plate, and he never missed. During the war, Charlie joined Mosbys Partisan Rangers, and some years later, a customer at the tavern made the remark that Mosbys men were robbers and cut-throats." Charlie, a large man, was carving at the time, but with a quick move, was down the table and had his sharp knife at the offenders throat, saying: Take that back! Which he did.
Saddlebags found recently between the walls of the tavern are believed to have belonged to Charlie Dear.
Moving up Main Street, we pass the House of Reproductions, and come next to June Jordans Pottery Shop, believed by some to be the oldest building in town. Deeds to the property can be traced back to 1752. Most likely there was a house on this property for several years before that, and it is probable that George Washington saw it, along with the others nearby, when he arrived in 1749. Note the unusual details of the chimney. Typical of early 18th century construction, the chimney was built away from the house proper after clearing the second floor fireplace, for fire prevention. The arched brick chimney caps are also unusual.
Lot 6 -Here stood the Free Town Meeting House, which served as a county courthouse for several years beginning in 1833, until the new courthouse could be finished. The rental was $25 a year. It was torn down around 1904 and the present store was built by William Stuart, who not only sold all kinds of merchandise, but also loaned money from the enormous safe on the premises. Mr. Stuarts Victorian home, which can be seen a short distance to the west, was built in 1898-99. Some of the original gas lights are still in place.
All three houses sharing this corner with the Cash Store were originally log houses, but their logs have been covered over in an effort at modernization. During the early part of the 19th century, the home diagonally across from the store (Lot 21) was used as a jail, and the chains which held the prisoners are still visible in the house. Debtors could go out during the day to work within the town; but felons were allowed to work only within a block or two of the jail.
Turn right on Calvert Street and walk one block to the corner ot Gay Street. There on Lot 37 is the home of James Leake Powers, the builder of so many local landmarks, including the courthouse, Episcopal Church, library, and several homes throughout the county. In his youth, Powers assisted Thomas Jefferson in the construction of the University of Virginia, apparently becoming a student of the Jeffersonian style of architecture. There is an old log cabin under the pebbledash facade of this house, which was probably added in the 1930's. Note the hump in the line of the long rear roof, where an addition was obviously tacked on at some unknown date. Mr. Powers died in 1889 at the age Of 99.
Looking north up Gay Street, you can see the white chimneys of the old Academy on Lot 34. It is a one-story brick building having two rooms with a fireplace in each room. During the war, it served as a hospital for Union soldiers; later it became a public school (Academy) where the 3 Rs and Latin were taught; and in still later times, the men of the town held their weekly poker games there. It is probably they who christened it the Rabbit Gum after a two-compartment trap used to catch rabbits.
Turn south on Gay Street and find the Rappahannock County Library on your right in Lot 22. This Doric brick structure was completed by James Leake Powers in 1858 to serve the Presbyterian congregation, which had existed in this town since at least 1833. It continued as a Presbyterian Church until 1891, when only two active members remained; it was officially closed the following year. During the next half century, despite an abortive effort in the 1920s to make it a sort of town hall, trees and shrubs grew wild, eventually hiding the building from view. In the early 1960's, a small group of dedicated residents rescued the old building and turned it into a public library, which is prospering today. The fact that the building was still sound after nearly 75 years of disuse and neglect is a tribute to Mr. Powers construction ability. If the library is open, take a moment to browse around inside.
RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY LIBRARY
104


X
I
"CAT" CARY HOUSE
Continuing south on Gay Street, you see several small outbuildings on the right, behind the house on the corner. The beading on the siding of these buildings indicates great age; they were probably constructed in the early 18th century. Each in turn served as a post office, and the mail slots are still visible in the doors.
On your left is another of our 18th century homes. According to a bill-of-sale dated 1798, this house was sold in that year for 10-pounds, 19-shillings to Ralls Calvert, second postmaster of the town of Washington.He sold it in 1811 for $500, proving that real estate appreciated even in those days. The next owner bought the house at auction in 1878; her name was Mrs. Catherine Cary, and her nickname was Cat, which is either a diminutive of Catherine, or derived from the fact that she kept a houseful of cats. During the current restoration, it was discovered that all four corner posts of the house and the two corner posts of the back kitchen (formerly the porch) are solid trees, squared off and cornered to support the house. Both inside and outside walls are brick, mortared with mud, called "Brick Noggin an 18th century form of insulation.
^ .Trinity Episcopal Church on your right (Lot 25) is another monument to James Leake Powers. The cornerstone was laid May 30, 1857 by the Masonic Lodge of Washington, Va., and according to Masonic records, contains a copper box, into which were inserted copies of: a Book of Common Prayer; the Journal of the 61st annual convention of the Protestant Episcopal church of Virginia; the Episcopal Recorder; the Southern Churchwoman; the Masonic Mirror; and a small book entitled "Dew Drops by J.E. Dow, a teacher at the Academy. Masons and other townfolk tossed in the following coins of the day: seven 5-cent pieces; two 10-cent pieces; one 25-cent piece; one 50-cent piece; and one gold dollar (donated in the name of the Grand Orient of France.)
Construction of the church was completed within the year at a total cost of $1,800. The original facade was board and batten; the stucco finish and steeple were added later. The original front doors entered the sanctuary where the stained glass windows now stand. For many years, the windows were covered with colored paper in imitation of stained glass.
Prior to the construction of this church, the congregation was served by a circuit riding priest from Culpeper, who once complained: Many times the weather was inclement and so cold indeed as to freeze my buffalo overshoes to my stirrups.
Lot 41, across the street is now owned by the Episcopal church, but once housed a blacksmith shop.
/ \
TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH
105


Lot 26 Presently the site of the Rush River Company, this building has traditionally been a general store and gathering place for local residents and loafers. It served for a time as a bus station for the twice daily bus service between the District of Columbia and New Market. This service was still available locally during the 1950s and 60s.
Lot 27 A large three-story brick building formerly stood on the site of the Jenkins Auction house, containing a mercantile store, and a restaurant run by a local black family in the basement. They served a delicious meal for 25 (or 35* on special days.)
You have now completed the circuit and have returned to the starting point of our walking tour, the Historical Society Building. We hope you have enjoyed your visit to our historic town, and that you will be back again real soon.
JONES'OLD GENERAL STORE
The Rappahannock Historical Society is continually seeking to preserve our heritage. Our files contain interesting old maps and photographs, facts and figures, and family geneologies.
If you would like to conduct any research, or make any inquiries, please contact us. Or, perhaps you could donate some material of interest to our community. Old documents, photographs, or taped interviews with old time residents are always welcome. Tax-deductible contributions are, of course, appreciated, or you could help by buying a brick of our building, and have your name ascribed to that brick.
We hope that you have enjoyed your tour of the first Washington of them all, and that we will hear from you again. HWH
Rappahannock Historical Society Box 36
Washington, Va. 22747
Printed in 1981 Price: one dollar


VIII
FOOTNOTES


FOOTNOTES
Ijohn Kotre, Outliving the Self (Baltimore: John Hopkins U. Press, 1985) P 24.
^Godfrey Thompson, Planning and Design of Library Buildings (N .YNichols Pub."! 1977)7 p. 12
3Nikolaus Pevsner, A History of Building Types (Princeton: Princeton U. Press"! 1976), p94
^Ibid., p. 104.
5lbid., p. 106.
6Thomas Hartland, Building is your Business, (London:Wingate, 1947), p. 57.
7steen Rasmussen, Experiencing Architecture (Cambridge:MIT Press, 1959) p. 10.
^UNESCO: Public Libraries and their Mission, The Library and the Community, K.C. Harrison (London: Trinity Press, 1966)=
^K.C. Harrison, The Library in' the Community (London: Trinity Press, 1966), p. 14".
108


BIBLIOGRAPHY


I
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cohen, Aaron and Cohen, Elaine, Designing, And Space Planning For Libraries A Behavioral Guide, N.Y.,
R.R. Bowker Co., 1979-
de Chiara, Jos. and Callender, J.H., Eds., Time-Saver Standards For Building Types, 4th Ed., N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1973-
Draper, James and Brooks, James, Interior Design for Libraries, Chicago, American Library Association,
1979.
Evans, Benjamin H., Daylighting in Architecture, N.Y.,
r Architectural Record Books, 1981".
Harrison, Kenneth C,, The Library and the Community,
3rd Ed.:Rev., London, A. Deutsch, 1972.
Kaula, P ,N Library Buildings- Planning and Design,
Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Oceana Publications, 1971.
Lam, William M.C., Perception and Lighting as Formgivers for Architecture, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1977-
Library Buildings Institute(1963sChicago), Problems in Planning Library Facilities, Chicago, American Library Association, 1964.
Lushington, Nolan and Mills, Willis N Libraries Designed for Users, Syracuse, N.Y., Gaylord Publishing, 1979-
Metcalf, Keyes D., Planning Academic and Research Libraries, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co~ 1965.
Myller, Rolf, The Design of the Small Public Library,
N.Y., R*R. Bowker Co., 1966.
Orr, J.M., Designing Library Buildings for Activity,
London, A. Deutsch, 1972.
Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types, Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Pres"i"i 1976.
Thompson, Godfrey, Planning and Design of Library Buildings, 2nd Ed., N.Y., Nichols Publishing, 1977-
Zevi, Bruno, Architect As Space, N.Y., Horizon Press,
1957-
Kotre, John, Outliving the Self. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1985 ~
Rasmussen, Steen, Experiencing Architecture, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1959.
110


X
DESIGN
SOLUTION


V



- :;




RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY LIBRARY
A DESIGN FOR EXPANSION
As
A Requirement For
The Degree of Master of Architecture
AN ARCHITECTURAL
BY
W.B. HILL
MAY, 1987
THESIS
For
School of Architecture & Planning University of Colorado At Denver


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Add 10,000 to a 1,700 historic building.
The site is located in an historic district. The facade should respect this fact.
DESIGN GOALS
A modern building which will preserve and enhance the existing historic structure. Bright, inviting and open interior spaces.
LOCATION: TOWN OF WASHINGTON, VIRGINIA
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