- Permanent Link:
- Where's the magic? a humanistic approach to design through the study of experience and the qualities of space
- Hubert, Janet L
- Publication Date:
- Physical Description:
- 52 pages : illustrations (some folded), map ; 28 cm
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Design ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( lcsh )
Restaurants -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Morrison ( lcsh )
Design ( fast )
Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( fast )
Restaurants ( fast )
Colorado -- Morrison ( fast )
- Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
- Includes bibliographical references.
- General Note:
- Cover title.
- Statement of Responsibility:
- by Janet L. Hubert.
- Source Institution:
- University of Colorado Denver
- Holding Location:
- Auraria Library
- Rights Management:
- All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
- Resource Identifier:
- 20858501 ( OCLC )
- LD1190.A77 1987 .H82 ( lcc )
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THE FORT RESTAURANT
A HUMANISTIC APPROACH TO DESIGN THROUGH THE STUDY OF EXPERIENCE AND THE QUALITIES OF SPACE
' ; VV:
This document, by Janet L. Hubert, satisfies the thesis requirement for LA 701 put forth by The School of Landscape Architecture at the University of Colorado at Denver, for the school year of 1986/87.
Lauri McMillan Johnson, Interim Director
Jerry Shapins, Professor/Thesis Coordinator
Ellen Kotz, Committee Member
First, and foremost, I would like to thank my committee members, Eve Grunfest, Ellen Kotz and Jan Newell, for their generous and knowledgeable contribution toward the seemingly never-ending process of completing this thesis. Without their invaluable help and encouragement in keeping me on track, I never would have finished or done as well:
Lauri Johnson for her encouragement in a difficult subject:
Jerry Shapins for his directive, "just do it":
I would also like to thank Dixon Staples for his knowledge of restaurant ambiance:
Cathe Mitchell for listening to me at crutial times:
Sam Arnold for allowing me to use his restaurant as a study site:
Lin Drew for her invaluable help in sketching:
Peter Witham for his expertise and friendship:
Diane Ipsen for the use of her computer:
Jordan Postelwaite for the use of his computer:
Tom Hawkey for his patient friendship and invaluable help.
Chapter I Chapter 2 Chapter 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction and Overview 1
The Issues in Theory 6
Sensory Experience and the Qualities of Space 17
Case Study Illustration 36
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
The title of this thesis is phrased in the form of a rhetorical question. In other words, it's not necessarily supposed to be answered, so much as that it's meant to stimulate thought, inspire other questions, and ultimately incite a deeper level of awareness as to the results of one's design, which 1 is one of the intended goals of my efforts.
Yet a large part of my research was spent in attempting to define this 1 intangible concept I refer to as 'magic'. I thought that if I could identify
the criteria that went into a magical place, and that if I could learn what was important to people who's job it is to create magic, people like > Disney, and stage set designers, poets and artists, then I could set up some
sort of criteria or guidelines and apply them to Landscape Architecture. Indeed, I came up with a fairly good definition which, if you read on, will discover. But in striving so hard for this clear-cut definition, I realized
that it was still just pure philosophy that was just as intangible as the word 'magic' itself. I was intellectualizing myself away from what really ft was my original basis for being interested in magic in the first place. And
that basis is: I am a designer who is interested in how to create spaces that will cause people to become involved in the design ft with their senses and emotions in a predetermined manner.
The content of my research is essentially based upon an issue statement and 3 summary questions. The problem, or issue I feel I am dealing with is that there is a distinct lack of personal involvement between people and their environment. This is derived from observations of the abundant generic, unsightly and insensitive places that surround us. These places evolve for a variety of cultural, economic and political reasons in a highly complex society. Designers are responsible as well for a large portion of places that affect the user in a negative or even indifferent manner. Why? Why are there buildings that seem to alienate the people who inhabit them? Why are there streets and sidewalks that are cold and uninviting? Why are there huge and expensive plazas in downtown areas that remain virtually empty and unused? The only logical answer in terms of design, is that there must be some sort of lack of awareness as to how people experience space.
Towards increasing this needed awareness., I then bring up the question -What is it about a space that gets people involved? Yi- Fu-Tuan, who's major interest lies in the investigation of the experience of space, supports the idea that people react physically to the qualities of that space through the five sense; through the intellect (which forms thoughts and opinions); and through the emotions.
So, what are these qualities that make a space so special, or not so special? Again, in terms of design, it is the unique and creative, or the common and conventional arrangement of such elements as color, form, texture, etc.
From this point, I developed the hypothesis statement for this thesis: Through a better understanding of how the qualities of space are able to elicit a predetermined sensory response, the landscape architect can contribute to the design of a more humanistic environment.
People become involved within a space in three general ways: 1. through pure function or use, 2. through a response to cultural or social needs, and 3. through the senses and emotions. Obviously, all three overlap. But for the sake of explanation, it helps to subdivide into categories.
Function What I mean by pure function or use is a space that is generally used for one particular reason. A library or a grocery store serve a specific function. Boat docks are built for fishing and docking boats. Tunnels are built get to the other side of the mountain without having to go up and over.
Responding to cultural and social needs can be exemplified by spaces like campus commons, or a neighborhood recreation center, or Mile-High Stadium. Denverites attend Bronco football games because they have become an integral part of the cultural groundwork for Denver, Colorado.
But I'm particularly interested in the third aspect senses and emotions. Since this method of involvement comes from within, and
varies so much from person to person in predictability, it's much more difficult to pin-point than the first two. I want to know what it is about a space that makes a person feel good, bad or indifferent in and about a space. Again, Yi- Fu- Tuan and other cultural geographers and philosophers study the concept of spatial experience and perception. But these people are not designers, they are intelligent and observant thinkers that have the rare ability to wholistically analyze people and their behavior in the world in which they live, organize those thoughts and make suggestions as to how to begin to 'fix' the vast array of human error. One of the suggestions they make is that planners, architects and landscape architects the designers of the environment are the ones who are in the position to physically make a difference.
Because I am studying to become a designer, I want to explain the answers to the questions I am posing in terms of design language. Feelings are difficult to put into words. Poets are able to accomplish this beautifully in that they can 'paint' incredible pictures full of subtle or passionate meaning and sentiment. And, just by the arrangement of a very few words, they are able to create a form of 'magic' within the minds of the reader.
Certain physical spaces can convey this same sort of poetic meaning. The difference is that a place, by virtue of its physical existence, is able to envelop all of the senses as well as the imagination, the intellect and the emotions. The degree of involvement within a space is greatly dependent upon what a person brings from within to that space and upon what the designer brings from his or her personal store of experience and biases. But, there are generalities that can be made, and for the purpose
of sharing information, these generalities must be used. For example: dominant horizontals suggest calm and contemplation, conflicting diagonals connote action or strife: pale tones, bright colors and light masses suit light, cheerful moods: loud noises usually denote activity,
whereas soft music or quiet signify a more meditative atmosphere: heavy, musty smells are an indication of an enclosed space with a low overhead, yet light and airy smells connote an open and free environment.
I have developed a system of analysis through which an emotional response is translated into design language. It is open-ended in that it's by no means complete and could be easily be added to and used for reference. To illustrate this method or approach to analysis and design with emotional responses in mind, I have chosen to design for my case study an outdoor patio for the Fort Restaurant in Morrison, Colorado. I wanted to design for a restaurant because restaurants are places that consciously strive toward a particular predetermined atmosphere or ambiance that the owners of that restaurant want their customers to enjoy. But this method could be applied to any sort of place. Restaurants are useful illustrations because they are somewhat of an exaggeration of the points I am making. I chose this particular restaurant because I wanted an existing place that already possessed a certain degree of atmosphere and image. That image could then be analyzed using the system and language of analysis in terms of emotional response. My design is an answer to this analysis. Finally, that design is again scrutinized to make sure the components of the desired emotive responses are present.
The remainder of this document will more thoroughly explore the theory, the components and the illustration of the above summary.
CHAPTER II THE ISSUES IN THEORY
It is important to begin this discussion with the over-riding statement that the degree of 'involvement' and the degree of what I call 'magic' within a space is largely determined by what the participant brings to that space, and by the particular background, biases and memories of the
designer of that space. "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder'. This is true. We all visit different places for different reasons and we all have different cultural attitudes, experiences, memories and tastes that
contribute to and shadow the emotional response and opinion of any work of art or architecture, any form of entertainment or any set of ideals. This is what makes each and everyone of us unique from the other. 'You
can't please everyone' and you'll never get 100% agreement on anything. If this were the case, the human race would be a boring species indeed. But designers design for everyone, and there are universal 'truths' that apply
to all people when it comes to basic emotional responses in a given situation. Torture chambers for war victims were devised in such a way, through the use of clashing and discordant colors, uncomfortable textures, ' cold or hot conditions, sickening smells, deafening, high pitched sounds
and highly restricted movement to facilitate the ultimate distress of mind and body. Shouldn't the opposite also hold true? To be able to appeal to 1 specific or general types of people, the designer must not only be aware
of, but expert in what sort of elements contribute to what emotional responses. Most people are only dimly aware of why they like a certain golf course or plaza or restaurant. If asked, they could make a stab at a few reasons, atmosphere being the most common of answers.. Yet a designer must be able to dissect a space into parts and put them back together. Those parts or elements are the tools of the design trade just as a poet uses language and rhythm to create an image and stir the emotions. It seems almost too obvious to state that designers should be aware of how to plan for a specific desired atmoshpere or mood. Yet the cold, generic environment out there tells a different tale of what is happening within the minds of those so proud of and so absorbed in one's work at the drawing board.
THE CONCEPT OF RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN THINKING
The human being is not a machine. Machines are easy to understand, even though they vary in their complexity and useage. They can be taken apart, figured out, cleaned, oiled, fixed, rebuilt, modified, improved, bought, sold, destroyed and can go out of style. People have been trying to figure out people ever since there were people. These days, we've got most of the human body understood pretty well, thanks to technology and brilliant scientific research. We know all the parts and what those parts are for. We can fix the body to a large extent, rebuild it, modify and improve it. We've always known how to destroy it, have been known to by and sell it, and different types are continually going in and out of style. Yet there's still one body part that poses a continual question mark and gives cause for ever-changing theory and research, and that, of course is the intensely complex and mystical brain. To be sure, scientists are discovering more
and more and know which parts of the brain govern which parts of the body. That which can be tested and proven is fast becoming common knowledge. That which is tangible and has a direct cause and effect relationship is understood and documented. What is left to understand more thoroughly involves the intangible and the unprovable. Questions are still being asked in regard to the cause or the source of imagination, intuition, and creativity. Is there really an extra sensory perception? How does it work? How does a possitive attitude aid in the health related matters both physically and mentally?
Betty Edwards has helped open many avenues toward the understanding of creativity through the study of right and left brain thinking in her book, "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain". Miss Edwards puts forth the fascinating and well substantiated theory that people can enhance their creativity by learning to cross over or connect the right and left brains; the left brain representing the scientific, logical, verbal, and analytic side of human nature and the right brain displaying non-verbal, intuitive, and
non-rational tendancies. She points out that one cannot reach full creative potential until dominance of one side or the other is overcome and both
sides are able to 'work' together, "...a creative individual intuitively sees possibilities for transforming ordinary data into a new creation,
makes issue of the fact that school systems only teach from the left brain mode, ignoring and not understanding how to excercise the intuitive sides. Teachers would love to teach their pupils how to be more creative, (and some are successful, to be sure). But generally, one gets the feeling that they must conclude that creative people are just 'talented', that they're
transcendent over the mere raw materials"1 (Edwards p. 26) She also
Controls Right Side of
Symbolic \ Simultaneous
1 \ Intuitive
Controls Left Side
Plan View of the Brain
born hat way and if a student is less creative or gifted than his peers, there is really not much that can be done. Betty Edwards offers a way through drawing techniques to remedy this situation. But the point she makes about which I am most concerned is that there is a proven physical cause for two opposing methods of viewing and approaching life the scientific approach (left brain), and the intuitive or artistic approach (right brain). Miss Edwards quotes the Russian scientist, Leonid Ponomarev from his "In Quest of the Quantum" which summarizes beautifully these 2 modes of thought:
"It has long been known that science is only one of the methods of studying the world around us. Another complimentary method is realized in art. The joint existence of art and science is in itself a good illustration of the complimentarity principle. You can devote yourself completely to science, or live exclusively in your art. Both points of view are equally valid, but taken separately are incomplete. The backbone of science is logic and experiment. The basis of art is intuition and insight.
But the art of ballet requires mathematical accuracy and, as Pushkin wrote, "inspiration in geometry is just as necessary as in poetry. They
complement rather than contradict each other. True
science is akin to art in the same way as real art always includes some elements of science. They reflect different, complementary aspects of human experience and give us a complete idea of the world only when taken together. Unfortuantely, we do not know the 'uncertainty relation' for the conjugate
pair of concepts 'science and art'. Hence we cannot assess the degree of damage we undergo from a
one-sided perception of life.
The dichotomy, or complementarity between science and art is directly applicable to the inherent problems and possible solutions with respect to the design profession in general and landscape architecture in particular. Our society is entirely too left-brained oriented. People are asking 'where's the magic?' They are fed up with spaces and places that leave them cold; that are constructed and designed for the self conscious, egotistical benefit of the designer or the directed and predetermined benefit of the owner's pocketbook by seducing the consumer directly to specific destinations, where speculative reality takes the place of a real experience. The typical shopping mall is a prime example. The exterior is purposely dull, drab, and uninviting for the purpose of luring the customer inside the mall just as a protective fortress would from dangerous and unsightly surroundings. 3 Seldom is the actual human experience of a designed place considered as an end in itself. And, this lack of human awareness in designers all originates back to a thorougly left-brained mode of teaching design in the typical studio. As Botard Bognar points out in his article "A Phenomonological Approach to Architecture and its Teaching in the Design Studio":
The majority of recent architectural educations and practice is concerned with design as an objective
process of producing an objective
' environment....Students are provided with a list of
objective, well defined goals and methods to achieve such ends as utility, efficiency, economy, structural stability and formal appearance....The task is to reduce the difficulties of the design process into
> logical and exact problems which, if well stated,
should lead to clear-cut, rational solutions....Even when the relationship of architecture to human responses is considered, if at all, it, too, is usually reduced to measureable effects and results, and
therefore disregarded or largely misunderstood a fact which seriously limits architecture's primary
grounding in human experience.
The point being that when an overload of scientific approach or left-brain
attitudes are applied in design with little regard for creativity and intuitive
ways of knowing, it tips the balance and leads to an environment with little humanisitic appeal, meaning, poetry, sensitivity, reality or 'magic'.
Thus, in defining and describing this concept of 'magic', a simple and elegant blend of both science and intuition must be present. So, I will purely define magic in space as the poetry of space, in which
exists a simple balance of scientific method and artistic expression toward the execution of function or need. In so doing,
new and simpler ways of approaching problems can be discovered, the human
senses can be more naturally attended to, the gap between man and his
environment can be narrowed considerably and meaning is given to the
WHO ARE THE MAGIC MAKERS?
Who are the people who's business it is to create magic? What can landscape architects learn from them? No discussion such as this should begin without an investigation into the behind the scenes action at Disney World or "The Magic Kingdom". After all, Walt Disney was the ultimate creator of magic. He was a master at combining technology and science with artistic talent and producing fun, excitement and awe. Never once is the observer distracted by a lack of authenticity or quality. Each and every display, character, building and detail is designed for the single intent of giving pleasure to the visitor. As described by the film "In Search of Excellence", who's topic was to find out what lay behind the success of successful business in a dwindling American economy:
What is it that attracts people in these numbers? (23 million per year to Disney World) In a word, the irresistable magic of Disney make-believe....Disney Productions Theme Parks are designed and managed with only one thing in mind satisfying the customer....The world of make-believe isn't real it's a continuous performance occurring all around you. The physical park is a giant stage. But to come alive, a stage needs performers. What Disney does better than anyone else in the business is train its employees to be performers in a live show ^
Disney and his team of designers are thoroughly aware of how to create a particular mood and feeling. They know what it takes to draw forth a predetermined response from the audience. One's senses are thoroughly captivated ranging from pure terror and fear for Snow White's life to pure amusement and gaity with Donald Duck and his three nephews. Not only is the plot of the story and the personality of the characters enchanting, the scenery and background support and enhance the entire production right down to the smallest detail. From the beginning of Disney Productions, back when Mickey Mouse marked the inception of animated film, Disney was reputed as a man who never substituted quantity for quality. He was a man of dreams and ideas and was never intimidated by the remote possibility that they couldn't come true. He was fascinated with the limitless potential in using technological know-how and imagination toward the creation of wonder and the good of the environment in general. He considered nature the ultimate teacher and maker of magic, making film photography studies of nature before National geographic did. Disney World itself is built on a swamp elevated so as not to tip the ecological balances. Cities look to Disney World and the new EPCOT Center as a role model for more efficient methods of city functions such as drainiage and waste recycling. Walt Disney has been dead since 1970. He died before his biggest dream, Florida's Disney World opened.
Yet his fantasies-turned-reality, in order for the world to enjoy, are still going strong. His committment to excellence and imagination have had a lasting impact on people of all ages and nationalities. Fortunately, those who have carried on the corporation have been able to follow through on Disney's seemingly endless supply of ideas with the same pure dedication and committment to excellence and the pleasure of the people.
Disney is a part of show business. Show business is much more than a 'business'. It is the visibility of art and expression; the sharing with the audience of creativity and talent. Performers love to perform and one does not have to be an actor to perform or share one's creativity. It seems there's a never-ending supply of creative expression in the world on stage, through film, music, art displays of all sorts, literature, poetry, sculpture, design and sports. But it's a double-sided attachment. The audience, meaning everyone, seems to crave creative expression from both a give and take point of view. To quote Shirley McClain: "We always appreciate it when someone does it for us, which is why entertainers are so well paid. We identify with a performer and depend on him or her to take us for a ride. 6
An analogy can be made comparing environmental design to theatre. As Richard Williams states in his book "The Urban Stage", a book devoted entirely to this dramatic metaphor: The distinction between
make-believe and reality is ever more ambiguous as our society seeks more and more to make dreams come true. Learning ways in which the design of settings for everyday life may respond to this desire, may be greatly reinforced through a better understanding of the theater and its historic contribution to the enhancement of human expression. ^
So, how can landscape architecture learn from the entertainment business? It is the business of landscape architects, architects, and interior designers to create space space that is generally used in some manner that is predetermined. In that sense, designers are setting a stage, so to speak, in or on which people go about the business of living. Shakespeare acquainted us with the familiar metaphor "All .the World's a Stage..." Conversely, the stage is a microcosm, an exaggeration or a summation of life in symbolic form. Talented performers and actors all are aware of how to draw emotion from an audience. They know if they are honest and their creative expression rings true, the audience will not be disappointed. But it is the stage set designer who's job it is to set the mood, to create the space appropriate to and supplemental to the actor's and director's intent. Stage set designers take their job quite seriously and are highly trained and well paid for their services. They must have a strict working knowledge of theatrical orginization and working methods before free and imaginative creativity can take place. This means, not only do they know theatre from a producer, performer and audience point of view, they must thoroughly understand composition, the principles and elements of design, movement and the intricate process of lighting.8 They are great examples of people who have learned to balance their right and left brain modes of thinking. Stage set designers are particularly interested in the creation of mood in response to the author's intent. They must acquire an intuitive sense of what the author had in mind to be able to read between the lines, so to speak, just as an actor must do, and turn it into physical form. They also have a thorough knowledge of how their designs elicit predetermined responses from the audience. Nothing on that stage is put there arbritrarily for fear of detracting from the prime function in mind the performance. And that performance is for the
audience. The major difference, it seems, is stage set designers design spaces for an audience that will view the space from a distance. Environmental designers design space for an audience that will participate within the space as well as from a distance. It would be helpful if the landscape architect and other desigers could learn how space can determ ne an emotional response as completely as the stage set designer must learn it.
Mood can be described as the quality of a play that, when properly transmitted, effects a state of mind and emotional response in the audience....the scene designer brings to the production a visual expression of the authors aim. It is a fusing of the visual effect and the basic intent of the play into a single dramatic impression....illustrating the relationship of scenery to the action in time and place...establishing the dominant mood, reinforcing the theme and staging the story.9
CHAPTER III SENSORY EXPERIENCE AND THE QUALITIES
THE NEED FOR SPATIAL AWARENESS
If landscape architects are going to design for people and help improve the present ever-widening gap that exists between man and his environment; if the environment is ever going to mean more than a space to earn a living, or a piece of pavement to lead one to work, or a cheap fountain arbitrarily placed in the middle of a plaza that no one ever passes
through, or an outdoor patio stuck on the north side of a building because there was no room anywhere else and "patios are 'in' now"; then the design profession must somehow become more aware from the beginning as to
how people experience their environment. It seems those that are most interested in spatial experience are people like J. B. Jackson, Yi-Fu-Tuan, D. W. Meinig and a host of other people most of whom are trained in the
field of cultural geography. These people are thinkers and observers of the land and the people who live on and in it. They observe, they study, they write, they teach, they observe some more and they understand. What they
are coming to understand more and more is that architects, landscape architects and planners are the ones who are most directly responsible for the designed environment. Thus, they are the ones who are in the position to make possitive, significant contributions. As Anne Buttimer puts it so succinctly:
The lack of 'fit' between administrative regionalization plans and the social character of local areas remains an enduring problem regarding the identity of place....But to do justice to the fundamental life interests which could be evoked by the question of place identity today, one needs to probe to a deeper level of meaning, there hopefully to find some common denominators for a dialogue between those who wish to live in places and those
who wish to plan for them
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING TO 'READ' THE LANDSCAPE
To be able to discern the unique culture of a particular area is an important element in the analysis stage of design in order to better 'fit' the design with the area. As mentioned earlier, everyone brings with them memories, opinions and biases formed throughout their lives which color how a place is perceived. We all view things in a different way even though we may be looking at the same thing. Yet, if we develop a practiced eye that is able to transcend these biases, the land has a story to tell just by being there. Cultural geographers such as J.B. Jackson and D.W. Meinig are people who have developed very practiced eyes and are appreciative of the landscape and the people who live there for what it is.
The basic principle is this: that all human landscape has cultural meaning, no matter how ordinary that landscape may be. It follows, as Mae Thielgaard Watts has remarked, that we can "read the landscape as we might read a book. Our human landscape is our unwitting autobiography, reflecting our tastes, our values, our aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form. We rarely think of landscape that way, and so the cultural record we have
"written" in the landscape is liable to be more truthful than most autobiographies because we are less self-conscious about how we describe ourselves.
Grady Clay has said it well: "There are no secrets in the landscape." All our
cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them. Peirce F.
The following is a short summary of some guides or axioms put forth by Pierce Lewis in helping anyone come closer to understanding what is perceived by learning how to look at what is seen.
1. THE AXIOM OF LANDSCAPE AS CLUE TO CULTURE.
The culture of any area is reflected in its ordinary vernacular landscape.
a. The ; corollarv of cultural change people will not change a landscape
unless they are under heavy pressure to do so. If things look like a large change is occurring physically, a major cultural change is probably also occuring. b. The reaional corollarv. If one Dart of the countrv looks different from
anothe c. Th r, the chances are that it probably is different. e corollarv of cpnvÂ§r
areas d. Th< are starting to look alike, their cultures are probably converging. 9 corollary of diffusion. Imitation of another area also results in
change e. Th' e corollary of taste. To understand how different tastes differ
within a culture is to understand the basis of the culture itself.
2. THE AXIOM OF CULTURAL UNITY AND LANDSCAPE EQUALITY
Nearly all items and forms in human landscapes reflect culture in some way, with none being more or less important than the other in reflecting that culture.
3. THE AXIOM OF COMMON THINGS
It is more difficult to study common places, like shopping center, gas stations, suburban tract housing and city dumps than it is to study the unique and famous, like The Golden Gate Bridge or the Eiffle Tower, even though such common places are everywhere to be seen.
4. THE HISTORIC AXIOM
Life is cumulative. People do what they do in the way that they do it because it is somehow linked to the past.
5. THE GEOGRAPHIC OR ECOLOGIC AXIOM.
It makes little cultural sense to study elements of a cultural landscape outside with the geographic context.
6. THE AXIOM OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
Most cultural landscapes are intimately related to physical environment. Thus,the reading of cultural landscape also presupposes some basic knowledge of physical landscape.
7. THE AXIOM OF LANDSCAPE OBSCURITY.
Most objects in the landscape, although they convey all kinds of 'messages', don't convey them in an obvious way. One must know what kinds of questions to ask. For instance, what does it look like? How does it work? Who designed it? Why? When? What does it tell us about the way our society works?
THE ROLE OF THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
Lanscape architects have placed themselves on the fence post between the two extremes of the development process. On the one hand, the party that initiates any sort of development is the party with the money and/or power to purchase and build, in business either for profit or, if public, to serve the commuity as cheaply and efficiently as possible. Be it public or private, this entity is the one who carries the weight and makes the grand and somewhat irreplaceable decisions before the designer is even hired. The types of thinkers who have earned themselves such positions are notorously dominant left-brained, rational, logical, cause and effect sort of people. They are politicians, engineers, developers, lawyers and realtors who are, on the whoLe, indifferent or simply oblivious to the ultimate long range as well as daily human effects of their 'big ideas'. (The present Morrison mega-development is a prime example). These are the parties for whom landscape architects work. Seldom is the designer and the developer one in the same. Seldom is a designer consulted or involved in any way in the initial stages of decision making. Consequently, the profession suffers from a lack of significant impact or contribution to the community and the environment, and are only known to the majority of people as those who are good at supplying 'green paint' around a building. There are exceptions or course, but by and large the landscape architect is in a position to design what the client asks for, all too often resulting in a generic, monotonous repetition of what some one else did down the road or in a magazine. The designs lack substance. They lack meaning which brings us into the realm of the other end of the fence post the user's end. These are the everyday folks who walk by, drive past, work in, live in, play in, or just notice one time from a distance, a place. These are the people
who's lives are affected on a cumulative basis, because these are the ones who experience the place. These are the people who's senses are triggered or dulled who accumulate memories and who bring with them meaning and significance to that place. Unfortunately, they are not the ones who are in a position to judge a space effectively and seldom are they ever consulted with before a design is built or after it's completed. Even more seldom are they the ones considered by the developer except perhaps as a consumer in an abstract way. The developer makes the rules according to the economic trends in business magazines that are supposed to forecast what people are wanting these days, from a scientific method, in order to make money. It's great to make money. But there are too many limitations on the method limitations that all too often leave out the human element.
So what can the landscape architect do? There's a great need for designer types in general to jump on the political band wagon and get in on the policy making end of things. There's also a great need for more sensitive developers before the entire United States becomes one big suburb. On the other hand, most designer types aren't so inclined to tackle the big administrative, decision making end of the politician or developer. They prefer to do hands-on design. Perhaps the solutions here lies in the education process from the beginning in the design studio where attitudes are formed and experiments are more easily attempted. The landscape architecture profesion is extremely diverse and touches many levels of society. It has great potential for high profile and should make every effort to capitolize on that potential. But it also needs to develop awareness of each level from policy maker all the way to the 'man on the street' because all people are affected in one way or another by what the developer and the designer produces.
What I am simply suggesting, as so many philosophers, social scientists, thinkers and sensitive doers have suggested time and again, is that a deeper, practical knowledge and intuitive understanding of the effects of ones actions will result in a much more practical, sensitive and meaningful environment. This is the stuff from which magic emerges.
THE QUALITIES OF SPACE
The experience of being within fine three-dimensional spatial volumes is one of the great experiences of life.12 Garrett Eckbo
For a space to function most effectively toward its intended purpose, it must be capable of triggering all of the senses in a manner appropriate to that purpose. Therefore, an understanding of the qualities of spatial characteristics and the elements that contribute to those qualities is necessary. For instance, if the task at hand is to design an outdoor sitting area for a urban hospital, what spatial qualities would be more suitable than hers? Certainly nothing that would increase any tension levels that are aready present in such a place. The environment would want to promote ease and relaxation and a sense of safety and repose from the hectic world even though that world is only a wall away. The colors, forms and textures of that three-dimensional space must all lend themselves toward the creation of these particular desired qualities. This chapter will explore the qualities of space, sensory experience to space and link them to design in a language a designer can understand.
SENSORY EXPERIENCE IN TERMS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES
A poem or an essay is not itself an important element in our surroundings By contrast, a building is. A designed landscape is indeed an
all-encompassing milieu. Architecture, unlike
literature can affect our senses directly. It influences us by simply being there, bypassing the necessity to stimulte the active cooperation of the mind...Buildings and topographical peoms, insofar as they are artworks, clarify experience...They
encourage us to select different kinds of environmental clues to attend and fuse the imagination. Yi Fu Tuan 13
What is experience? Webster defines experience as the conscious perception or apprehension of reality, or something personally encountered, undergone or lived through. Tuan defines it as "...a cover-all term for the various modes through which a person knows and constitutes a reality. 14 These are two ways of saying the same thing. I included both definitions because the word 'experience' is not being used here as some special intellectual term unique to this study. Experience is something universal and relatively easy to understand.
What elements contribute to a complete experience? In other words, how do people experience space and place? Yi Fu Tuan is particularly interested in this and has done a multitude of indepth studies on the subject of the perception of space and place. He makes the point that the present designed environment is too visually oriented which severely limits the human experience of that environment. ^ Humans experience through the combined and related use of their senses, emotions and thoughts. It is done in a cumulative sense such that the memory of built-up experiences effect any given subsequent experience.
"AI2CH ITE^TLlPE 16 THE! OEAuTFUL 4-
6Eja|<7|4J7 (SAME *?F SfAtE*
sensation, perception, conception EMOTION emotion thought THOUGHT
This discussion will not analyze the mechanics or scientific basis of how people hear, touch, see or smell. I'm more interested in learning why and how each sense contributes to the perception of reality in space. This is Tuan's approach as well which is why I'm following his method of explanation.
People have become too reliant on visual perception for a reason. Sight is the major organizer of space. The other senses expand and enrich the visual world. The senses that allow for the most intense spatial meaning and emotional reaction are sight and touch. Space is experienced directly by being able to have the room to move. The simple action of stretching or kicking one's legs contributes to the basic awareness of space. By shifting from one space to another, a person can acquire a sense of direction. The eyes,which have "bifocal overlap and stereoscopic capacity,17 allow us to see in three dimensions. Yet a child is not able to discern depth and understand three dimensions without having first learned through the sense of touch. Touching and handling things opens up a world full of objects objects of a large variety of shapes and sizes. By learning about the relative location of objects or form, and being able to move about in and around them, space and place is defined and understood. The sense of
smell alone does not contribute to the perception of space as clearly as sight or touch. But odors lend character and personality to places and objects, making them more distinctive and easier to identify. Odor is closely linked to the emotions and to memory. A simple scent passing in the wind can take one back to a childhood memory in an instant. Odors also are capable of suggesting mass and volume. Some odors are heavy, like musk. A room can smell musty after it's been closed up for a while. Other scents are light and airy, giving the impression of more expansive space. Carnivores are dependent on their acute sense of smell to sense out danger and discern direction. The human nose relies primarily on sight and is supplemented by the other senses to discern the source of danger and appeal. 18
Sound, by itself, is capable of evoking spatial impressions. Generally, we are able to orient oneself by distant sounds, although not as well as an animal with ears that are able to adjust and move toward the source of the sound. Blind people are very dependent on sound and touch to shape their spatial world. Everyone learns to relate to distance in the act of speaking. We learn not to speak loudly in an intimate situation and alter our tone according to the situation at hand. The sense of vastness can be discerned through the echos off canyon walls. Musicologists speak of 'musical space.' Spatial illusions are created in music, and music is often said to have a form of its own. Roberto Gerhard, a musicologist, said "form in
music means knowing at every moment exactly where one is. Consciousness of form is really a sense of orientation."
An object of place achieves concrete reality when our experience of it is total, that is, through all the senses as well as with the active and reflective mind 20
3. PALE TONES AND LIGHT MASSES SUIT LIGHT. GAY MOODS
4. HEAVY MASSES AND DARK TONES CREATE SOMBER MOODS
SPATIAL DEFINITION THE ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
So what are the elements of space? What are the elements used to create such qualities? Space is three-dimensional, and four- diminsional after one considers the crutial element of time. The following is a discussion of the components used to make up those dimensions.
Space has an element of containment. It is a volume possessing a top, or overhead plane, a bottom or base plane, sides, a foreground (frontstage) and background (backstage) differentiated by a series of vertical and horizontal forms distributed in any number of sizes, and shapes which are able to display themselves from an infinite variety of colors, lines, textures, sounds, smells and lightings. We live in space. We participate with space. We are able to move about bodily, visually, or psychologically within and through space, whereas we live and move around form. In shaping the outdoor environment, the landscape architect is not as limited as an architect or interior designer by the materials he uses. Available to him/her is the full range of hard, man made materials as well as what nature has to offer.
The Base Plane. The base plane establishes and defines the area. The size, shape and texture of the base are arranged to express the function of the area. Often the base plane is often the natural surface of the earth which can be molded, shaped and manipulated according to the specific use in mind. Skilled handling of the base plane can suggest movement or repose or any other desired spatial characteristic.
The Overhead Plane. The overhead plane controls the height, form and character of a space. The sky alone is not always appropriate even in outdoor design and some sort of shelter is preferable.
The Verticals. The vertical elements in space are the most important to the function of the space. They are also the easiest to manipulate and the most visually apparent. They can direct attention inward, outward, upward or down. They can be used as points of reference, articulators, dividers, and screens.
Form. Form is the counterpart of space, yet the two are inseperable. There really is no form without space and vice versa. Form is that which we move around and it is that which gives meaning and interest to space.
Line. Line is inseperable from form. Space is interpreted through the lines that compose forms that can elicit complex responses.
Texture. Texture describes the surface qualities of materials. It is related to the sense of touch, yet visually, it gives depth and character to a space. Coarse and harsh textures tend to be more irritating, whereas smooth and shiny textures are slippery and cold. Texture is the humanizing element. It breaks areas into sections that can interplay with one another within the compostion as a whole. Too much of one texture can be monotonous and too much variety can cause confusion.
Blue and green are transcendent, spiritual, nonsensuous colors....yellow and red, the classical colors, are the colors of the material, the near, the full-blooded. Red is the characteristic color of sexuality hence it is the only color that works upon the beasts. It matches best the phallus symbol and therefore the statue and the Doric column but it is pure blue that etherealizes the Madonna's mantle. This relation of the colors has established itself in every great school as a deepfelt necessity. Violet, a red succumbing to blue, is the color of women no longer fruitful and of priests living in
celibacy....Yellow and red are the popular colors,
the colors of the crowd, of children, of women and of savages. Among the Venetians and the Spaniards high personages affected a splendid black or blue, with an unconscious sense of the aloofness inherent in these colors. Oswald Spengler
What is color? Technically, color is a phenomonon of various lengths of light rays emitted from a light source. Without light,there is no color. Color is the only design element that has the capability of drastically modifying the other elements of form and texture by playing tricks on the eyes. Because of this, the designer must be careful with its use. An entire design can be ruined because the color scheme is wrong.
Color can be divided into three basic categories: hue, value and intensity. Hue is basically the name of the color goverened by where it falls on the
color wheel. They are categorized in three ways: 1. Primary: red, blue and yellow. called primary because they cannot be made by mixing other hues. Various mixtures of the primaries result in every other color. 2. Secondary or binary: Green, violet, and orange. Each is equidistant between two primaries. and 3. Tertiary or intermediary: Yellow-green, glue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, orange-red, and yellow-orange. These fall midway between a primary and a secondary hue. Hue also indicates a color's coolness or warmth. A color can change its hue by mixing with another color, or by a change in the background, or the colors behind the hue in question. A warm background will make hues seem cooler and a cool background will make them warmer. Red seen against a blue background will seem much warmer than against an orange background because of the contrast.
Value is the light or darkness of a color or, more technically speaking, the quantity of light reflected or transmitted by that color. The value is described by tints and shades tint being a value lighter than normal; shade being darker than normal. Values can be changed by the addition of white, black, grey, or any hues lighter or darker than the original, or the complements. They can also go through apparent changes by increasing or decreasing the amount of natural light or artificial light reaching a surface or placing it against backgrounds of differing degrees of light or dark. In other words, they seem to be affected by adjacent color values. Intensity refers to the amount of saturation of a color and is determined by the quantity of the predominant hue. To change the intensity, add white, black, grey or the color's complement.
Colors can affect one another in three ways: 1. by color harmony a joint effect of two or more colors implying balance and symmetry of forces. 2. Successive contrast the after-image of a color is always the complement as the eye seeks to restore equilibrium, and 3. simultaneous contrast grey on any color background will look like the complement of the background tinged with the complement. Any hue placed on different colored backgrounds will appear tinged by the color of the complement of the background. If you place a square of red on a violet background, it will be tinged by yellow; on an orange background, by blue. Consequently, you can maximize the intensity of a color by surrounding it with its complement.
Color modifies form. As as element of design, color is a powerful stimulus that can change the dimension of form; reverse the direction of line; also the interval between forms; and generate optical motion.^1 Below is a description of the 6 basic hues with the emotional responses for each. It should be noted that these are very general. By changing the intensity or hue or amount of light or darkness, as well as manipulating the colors around it greatly changes the reaction. For instance, red and pink elicit totally different emotions and carry with them totally different conotations. Reactions to color are also closely linked to Nature's use of color. Use of light blues and greens on the ground plane more often than not define a place that either shouldn't be walked upon or signals that one should tread carefully. There are exceptions to this theory, but generally, people have adapted to this basic principle of the laws of Nature and can be subconsciously offended when those rules are broken. ^
white, Orange fall.
Red forceful Violet
Radiant, light giving, golden, saintly; in light values near virginal.
Festive, earthy, peasant colors, neutral shades, nature in the Active, passionate, full of inner warmth, fiery, strong ,
Royal, piety, deeper shades, shadows, terror, chaos, a
Passive, receding, deep, cool, purity, icy tints. 1 Tranquility, compassion, nature in the spring and summer.^
OES COLOR AFFECT US? HUE, VALUE AND INTENSITY
Hue Warm hues are active stimulating; cool hues are quieting and restful Value Light values are cheering; dark ranging from restful to depressing; contrasts are alerting. Dark tones tend to indicate heaviness. Intensity High intensities are heartening and strong; low intensities are peaceful.
Warm hues attract more attention than cool. Extreme values tend to attract the eye; contrasts or surprises are even more effective. High intensities attract attention.
Warm hues increase size of object; decrease size of room. Light values increase apparent size of objects; but strong contrast with background is equally effective. Same effect as hues. High make objects larger rooms smaller.
Warm hues bring objects forward; cool hues make them recede. Light values recede, dark values advance. Sharp contrasts in value make objects seem nearer. High intensities decrease apparent distances.
Light and lighting. Landscape architecture is less dependent upon <
artificial light as a design element than the other design professions.
Shade vrs. full sunlight, sun angles and exposure is always a factor and can determine the character and comfort of a space. Yet very often night lighting becomes a crutial design element. Lighting can accent, change, direct, hide, reveal, and dramatize form. It can make or break a desired mood or ambiance just as stage lighting plays a large part in the creation of mood. Light has the ability to transmit and reveal color. Knowledge of the distribution of light affects form by the use of highlight, shade, and shadows in the composition.24
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
In order to achieve unity in a design in order for the parts to be able to fit together and form a whole unit, a composition, the designer must utilize the following principles of balance, rhythm, proportion, scale contrast and emphasis. Elements and characteristics of space are not enough. They should be put together in an orderly fashion, relating to one another to the function of the space and ultimately to user.
1. Balance is the way in which visual weights are put in equilibrium.
Visual weight is determined by the psychological impact it imparts: ie. large, bright or heavy objects, or objects of strong contrast need to be balanced because they are quickly noticed and remembered. These types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry and radial. Symmetrical balance gives the feeling of formality or stateliness. It tends to emphasize the center, logically aiming toward a focal point. Asymmetry is when visual weights are equivalent, but not identical. The type of balance is more in harmony
with nature and suggests movement, spontaneity and flexibility. Radial balance refers to all parts balanced and repeated around a center. It suggest movement from, toward or around a center, as in the spokes of a wheel.
2. Rhythm defines a pattern of movement. It is repitition, alternation or progression of design elements which create a sense of movement. In reference to rhythm, one should: repeat only those elments that underline the basic charater of the space avoid repeating the ordinary remember contrast to avoid monotony and, too little repetition leads to confusion.
3. Proportion is the relation of one part to another part, or to the whole of a design. It refers to ratios, relative sizes and arrangements and shape relationships. The proportion of a shape affects its expressive quality. It takes balance one step further in that proportion suggests a meaning or significance.
4. Scale relates to proportion in size and character. It is the size of forms within the design concept in relation to the whole or to the use.
Most designs are scaled to fit the size of the human being. If it's bigger, then it implies something larger than life, or powerful. The reverse also holds true.
5. Contrast is the noticeable difference between any and all elements, ie. horizontal vrs. vertical, straight vrs. curved, light vrs. dark, red vrs.green, smooth vrs, rough etc.
6. Emphasis and subordination involves giving appropriate significance to each part and to the whole, calling more attention to important parts. Subordination is used to de-emphasize some areas in order to emphasize others, like focal points. Emphasis is best used through simplicity to avoid confusion.
THE LINK BETWEEN SENSORY RESPONSE AND DESIGN ELEMENTS
The next step in the process to this approach is to show the connection between people's sensory response to a space and what elements make up that space. I've developed a system of analysis through which an emotional response is translated into design language. It's open-ended in that it's by no means complete, but could easily be added to and used for reference. I've selected a list of 7 diverse and contrasting emotive responses that are common to the types of spaces Landscape Architects are called upon to design. To each emotion, I've chosen three illustrative photographs of places and observed and analyzed each one in terms of their sensory qualities. I have then synthesized those qualities and listed them in categories of color, form, texture, volume, scale, balance, lighting, sounds and smells. These categories derive from basic elements and principles of design, which, essentially relate to the sense of sight and touch. I've included sounds and smells to round out this sensory analysis.
CHAPTER IV CASE STUDY THE FORT, A RESTAURANT IN MORRISON, COLORADO
To illustrate this method or approach to analysis and design with emotional responses in mind, I have chosen to design for my case study, an outdoor patio for the Fort restaurant in Morrison, Colorado. I wanted to design for a restaurant because restaurants are places that consciously strive toward a particular predetermined atmoshpere or ambiance that the owners want their customers to enjoy.
For a study site, I wanted to choose a restaurant that already exhibited a certain degree of atmosphere and image. I could then analyze that image using the system and language of analysis in terms of emotional resonse. My design is an answer to this analysis. Finally, that design is again scrutinized to make sure the components of the desired emotive response are present.
ABOUT THE FORT
The Fort restaurant in Morrison Colorado is an authentic replica of Bent's Old Fort, built in 1832 on the north bank of the Arkansas River in the plains east of La Junta and Las Animas, Colorado. In order to better understand the overall theme and atmosphere of the restaurant, it helps to know a bit about the original version.
Rather than a military fort, Bent's Old Fort was a frontier outpost for two decades benefiting plains Indians, mountain trappers, traders, soldiers and adventurers who stopped to rest and enjoy some comforts of civilization before venturing further in the perils of the Old West. It was built by William and Charles Bent, and their partner, Ceran St. Vrain, all St. Louis fur traders, who brought 150 wrokmen from Taos and Santa Fe to build their adobe fort. It was the first American Community west of the Mississippi and the first in Colorado.
It stood on U.S. soil, just across the river from Spanish and later Mexican territory. It is as historic as the Santa Fe Trail it served and was just as important. Frontiersmen like Kit Carson, Uncle Dick Wooton (builder of the first road over Raton Pass), Old Bill Williams, Jim Baker and Jim Beckwourth considered this adobe fortification an oasis and a haven. In 1835, after leading an expedition against troublesome tribes,
Col. Henry Dodge held a council at the fort with the Cheyenne and Arapahoe. Eleven years later, Fort Bent was designated as headquarters for the Upper Platte and Arkansas Indian Agency. In 1846, that same year, General Stephen Kearney used the fort as a supply base for the invasion of New Mexico by his Army of the West.
William Bent's wife, Owl Woman, was the daughter of a Cheyenne medicine chief. Charles Bent married Jaramillo, a Taos Mexican woman.
Kit Carson married Jaramillo's sister, thus becoming Charles Bent's brother-in-law. Padre Martinez, a famous Taos priest, married both couples.
As times past, the pressure on American Indians increased and the fur industry dwindled. Charles Bent was murdered in the Taos rebellion, and a disagreement between William and his partner, Ceran St. Vrain regarding
the treatment of Indians resulted in the end of their partnership. Wagon trains had destroyed any woodlands and grass within miles of the fort and business was dwindling. The government was interested in buying and William was willing to sell, he asked $16,000 and they were only willing to pay $12,000. Rather than give in, Bent blew his fort up with several kegs of black powder and abandoned it.
The structure was essentially in the Mexican style. The materials, adobe and wood, and the basic design were similar to many of that period of the northern frontier of Mexico, in particular of Taos. The similarities were illustrated by an inward facing building with a hollow square with no sharp corners and walls, which were two to four feet thick, that curved gently into each other and into the floors and ceilings. 25
THE FORT, THE RESTAURANT
The Morrison version was built in 1963 by Sam and Betty Arnold, two history enthusiasts with a passion for authenticity. They wanted their fort to be a trading post, a restaurant, a museum and they wanted to live there. It sits all by itself on isolated Highway 8 between Morrison and Highway 285, nestled up against an enormous rock outcrop typical of the Morrison Formation. It commands a panormaic view of Denver and the Great Plains unhindered by adjacent development, perfectly accommodated by the architectural setting.
With the exception of the fourth side of the courtyard, The Fort is patterned exactly as possible after Bent's Old Fort. All beams and planking were hand-planed to look more authentic. 80,000 adobe bricks 10"X14"X4" were made by the imported Taos workmen out of local Red Rock mud and straw. Each block was tested 700 pounds to the square inch, compared to
400 pounds for Taos adobes. No additives were used in either bricks or mortar. The walls measure 2 feet thick in most places. Taos craftsman, Elidio Gonzales created and handmade doors and furniture from the old New Mexico Colonial period examples. A 350 pound, 115 year-old bell, brought West by wagon train, was installed over the Main Gates in the watchtower room and used to call for dinner. A pre-Texas, 27-star flag flies from the flagpole just as it did when Bent's fort served as headquarters for the Indian agency. A half pound swivel cannon sits out back and is fired occasionally to startle and impress the guests just as Bent used to use to impress the Indians.
The restaurant was popular almost from the start due to the unique architecture and the atmosphere of a re-created, by-gone era. Inside, visitors are treated with dining and service plates and cups from Colorado baked clay. Meat entrees are broiled using aspen coals only on a large Mexican-tiled grill.
Sam Arnold ran the restaurant for several years successfully, sold it and just bought it back in October of 1986. Apparently, the second owner made some changes that Mr. Arnold probably wouldn't have done, the most glaring of which is the addition in the back. The previous outdoor eating area is now enclosed. Instead of using materials and style in keeping with the present structure, it's simply a long, rectangular wood pannelled appendage. The new 'patio' is nothing but a gravel-lined pit surrounded by railroad ties, junipers and yuccas with only a spectacular view to dilute the shabby effect.
The following analysis and design will be the culmination of this thesis. I will attempt to incorporate the research, processes and conclusions reached thus far, hopefully coming up with a design that meets the challenge, improving, adding to and blending in with the
strength of the already existing magic of Sam Arnold's Fort.
In answer to the analysis, I came up with a set of conceptual design criteria that hopefully will fill the gaps that exist in this place so that visitors can become more involved and, as a consequence, more thoroughly enjoy the experience of being there.
1. Replace the old addition with a new adobe structure to match the existing Spanish-Colonial architecture, and to create a protected courtyard feeling that fits the image of the days of the early 1800's.
2. Enclose the area with an adobe wall for an intimate outdoor room and the sense of an oasis from the surrounding rugged and vast setting.
3. Design the wall in an undulating fashion to enframe views and enhance foreground interest.
4. Design an outdoor fireplace in response to the kiva or Spanish fireplace on the interior and incorprate it into the adobe wall for maximum comfort on cool evenings, low flickering lighting for intimace, relaxation and romance.
5. Provide nite lighting in the form of lumminaria for accent, intimacy and relaxation.
6. Employ the use of native plant materials like sage, yucca, pinon pine and juniper for masimum smells common to setting.
7. Use of quality and authentic materials and detail to support the image, stimulate imagination and complement the interior.
8. Provide gates in the wall to encourage visitors to venture out of the enclosed patio to feel closer to and enjoy the setting. The setting is important to the image of the Old West and must be enhanced as much as possible.
Finally, I repeated once again the procedure of sensory analysis to the design itself as shown on the proposed patio board. The proposed qualities I strove for most were those that adhered to the possitive qualities I observed and listed in the existing conditions board: relaxation and comfort a place to go eat a good meal, with good service and surroundings that satisfy 'creature comforts'.
A sense of oasis a place that enhances the beauty of the setting while feeling safe and secure from it.
Escape and imagination a place that adheres to an authentic image and style in which a patron can forget every-day hum-drum routine, and Appreciation a place that offers an environment of quality and beauty.
In conclusion, the creative arrangement of components in this design will hopefully result in a place that adheres to the goals I had set for myself in the hypothesis of my thesis. I am thankful to have given myself the opportunity to develop a greater understanding of what goes into the creation of a specific atmosphere. But creativity is not something that can be explained in the form of a recipe with specific ingredients. It's so much more complex than that. This approach is simply another tool to help a designer keep from forgetting that the ultimate test of a successful
design lies within the realm of the user.
1. Edwards, p. 26
2. Ibid. p. 39
3. Gottiener. p. 84
4. Nathan, p. 10
5. Finch, p. 35
6. McClain, p. 89
7. Williams. P. 19
8. Parker-Smith. p. 18
9. Ibid. p. 19
10. Buttimer & Seamon. p. 80
11. Meinig. p. 12
12. Eckbo. p. 25
13. Meinig. p. 97
14. Tuan. p. 3
15. Ibid. p. 11
16. Ibid. p. 8
17. Ibid. p. 10
18. Ibid. p. 11
19. Ibid. p. 15
20. Ibid. p. 18
21. Parker-Smith. p. 56
22. Simonds. p. 146
23. Parker-Smith. p. 248
24. Ibid. p. 56
25. Moore, p. 38
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