ARTS RESOURCE CENTER
A BUILDING FOR THE COLORADO COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES
ARTS RESOURCE CENTER
(A building for the Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities)
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Jennifer L. Isbill Fall 1984
The Thesis of Jennifer L. Isbill is approved
Gary Long Committee Chairman
Victor Hornfoein, FAIA, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Section A
Context Section B
Site Section C
Program Section D
Climate Section E
Code Section F
The proposed project is to be a building design for the purpose of housing the functions of the existing and expanded Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities. The building shall be approximately 26,140 square feet and will occupy the site at the southwest junction of Speer Blvd. and Lawrence in downtown Denver, Colorado.
In 1984 Denver is one of the fastest growing cities in the country and consequently a city in tremendous transition and flux. The last ten years mark some of the most noticeable urban transformation, although it has been twenty years in the making. Streetscapes and skyline have been and continue to be radically altered with highrise glass towers while the preservationists strive to rescue the remaining vestiges of an earlier Denver.
The space left over between these two extremes is often desolate and ill-defined. The time factor inherent in the growth process provides a narrow scope for the understanding and application of what might be called the 'connectors'. This term'connector1 refers to the parks, squares, paths, junctions, that connect the major verticle urban elements. Traditionally these connectors occur through formal master planning or the evolution of social behavior that necessarily defines paths and perimeters especially in small towns.
Clearly Denver has niether the time to imprint intuitive social patterns nor a master plan for the future that would by definition provide the necessary urban connectors! The resulting gap may be described as a psychological physiological deficiency of crucial urban links.
The language of rational patterning (which refers to those thoughtful and logical spaces that serve as transitions in the urban context) that engenders 'sense of place' and 'reference' in an urban context possesses a diminished vocabulary where Denver is concerned.lt is the business of an enhanced vocabulary as it applies to connections and transition-making that this thesis project will address. The issues addressed however will not be exclusive to the macro urban environment. The problems concerning coherency in urban design are absolutely applicable to the internal workings of the building itself. The building will therefore strive to create a 'sense of place' on the given site and will attempt to consciously respond to the urban context in which the building is sited. The buildings internal works will strive to be equally coherent and dynamic in the transitions made from one distinct space to another.
In order to begin to understand the components that give organization to urban spaces it is important to recognize those spaces which have proven to be active places in the city.
Although Denver suffers a lack of coherence in regards to the urban fabric, it has begun to respond to an obvious need for continuity. The most obvious example is the 16TH Street Mall. The mall provides a link between lower down-
town and the upper businees district as it intersects Broadway. It also allows for an important connection with the State Capitol and the Civic Center which claims the only truly formal arrangement in Denver. Although the mall is a transit link it has nevertheless provided a generous means for pedestrians to get from one place to another and in the process lend a tremendous energy and spirit to the streetscape. For Denver, an automobile oriented city, this is a considerable achievement.
Skyline Park as it bisects the mall at Arapahoe is providing yet another viable space in which the pedestrian may interact with the immediate environment. What these two public areas have in common is their linearity. Given the domination of the automobile, cities especially in the west tend to organize themselves in a linear fashion. Defining an actual center or pivot point in the city is close to impossible. The only space in Denver that might qualify for such a position is tne Civic Center Park and unfortunately it has been denied the opportunity to integrate with the growing urban space beyond. It is ironic that our one urban park surrounded by our state government cannot command enough importance to avoid its' present alienation. It seems clear that in our comtemporary culture we may rely niether on state nor church to give identity and commonality to our cities.
What has then become apjsarent is that each individual project must take on the responsibility of cheating an image and identity for itself and the city as a whole. It is not enough to rely on the possibility that one day a few planners and architects will rally together, throw up their hands and begin a crusade to give the city back to the people. This is not to discredit the efforts of those who are working towards the integration of our city.
It is simply to make the point that initial image is vital in our struggle towards the future.
The importance of 'vision* at the outset of the conception is absolutely key in the effort to produce a resolved piece of architecture. If at the very least, all buildings in the downtown area strove to accommodate the pedestrian at street level only, our city would be radically altered for the better.
Allowing for parks, interior and exterior courts that provide important junctions, entries at a people scale, these are some of the functions of a city that will determine an active quality. The combination of memory and imagined future begin to dfine a scenario that will necessarily join forces with the inherent required functions and economy. It is a given that a building function. If it does not function in accordance with a given requirement then it has failed at its' most base level.
If it functions but with no spirit it becomes another generic waste of precious urban space. We cannot afford to be flippant in our making of permanent impr ints.
The building proposed for the site at the southwest intersection of Speer Boulevard and Lawrence is intended to address the question of placement, symbol, intersection. These questions translate at their resolution into identity'.
The variety of functions required in the program provide an opportunity for a rich dialogue between the individual parts. Given the function of housing an arts resource center, the building becomes a container for one of Denver's great hopes in the struggle to become a recognizable city, The Arts. The building is primarily to be an information center. The Council sees itself as a cultural catalysis in the community and therefore require a welcoming environment in order to foster and maintain that relationship. The congregation of management, artist and the general public will demand a wide range of spaces; public, private, and the obligatory interface.
The notion of interface is not an exclusively internal one as has been alluded to in the discussion of coherent integrated urban spaces. The building itself as an object in space will pose a kind of urban interface between the Auraria Campus and the few
remaining remnants (Tivoli,9th Street, St. Cajetans, Emmanuel Gallery, St. Elizabeths Church and the tracks) to the westjand the city to the east with the DCPA almost directly opposite the site.
A careful examination of the immediate controling factors will be important in defining in specific terms what that interface will consist of. Because the building will not be solely determined by adjacent buildings as it would be in an infill project, the scope of the design may include larger urban issues such as those touched on earlier.
In conclusion, the intention must imbibe a clarity of vision, essential to the successful manipulation of the program.
There is a mystique about the West, and Colorado in particular, which has been a lodestar for artists since the days of earliest explorations. Perhaps it is the heedless spectacle of the landscape,or the living traditions near at hand of the Indian people. Perhaps it is the beckoning mountains or the promise of the prarie's boundless distance and wandering rivers that produce the inner journey which is the creative process. Perhaps it is more than all of this? it is a manifold quality. But however un-definable it may be, its psychic reality cannot be denied.
Colorado has drawn to itself creative people from every discipline and every part of the world, dedicated visitors who come again and again to its vivifying source and then depart to spread their interpretations of its magic far and wide. They arrive with the eagerness of yesterday's gold-seekers and many stay permanently, joining native-born artists working the seams of imagination, refining the products of their vision.
The cycle of boom and bust which dominates Western economies affects the development of the arts here as it affects every other aspect of life. It has produced a sturdy independence of the trends of the coastal arts centers, a good-humored spirit of experimentation and a certain acquisitive ingenuity.
THE ARTS IN COLORADO
The spiritual legacy from our native and explorer and pioneer forbears liberates Colorado artists to pick and choose what is useful from among a hundred styles, and to synthesize from them works of expansiveness and vigor.
But the youthfulness o:: institutions and their delicate support systems, our folk -myths of innocence and individualism, even the renowned topography itself,all lend a certain vulnerabilty to the arts in Colorado. There is a feeling among artists of isolation from their peers, a prickyly mistrust of organizations and a corresponding uncertainty on the part of their audience, who often seek affirmations of authenticity and excellence in the cultural establishments of the East, much as the silver barons sought the blandishments of European civilazation in the last century.
Colorado is justly esteemed for the beauty of its terrain, the value of its resources, the richness of its ethnic amalgam. Since the earliest times, the region has atrracted a multiplicity of peoples to it for as many reasons,and each succeeding human wave has made it infinitely fine, but unique and undent-ifiable contribution to our culture.
The currents of dozens of seperate traditions have formed our collective life and have borne us forward into a complex and exciting time.
Much of our understanding of this living tide of shared experience comes from observing the number and kind of activities produced and the quality of the artifacts which remain as their record. There is no better measurement of the vitality of a culture than the diversity of its arts, no surer test of its stability and confidence than the favored presence of the artist in the midst and the continuous generation of presentations and audiences. And there is no social barometer more sensitive to economic storms than the status of artists and their products.
Recognizing this, the Colorado General Assembly mandated the formation of the Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities in 1967. The entitlement of the Council, its subsequent support and the proliferation of arts organizations and local arts councils throughout the state are a measure of the value placed on the arts and their advancement by the
people of the state of Colorado, an assurance of our coming of age as a cultural entity.
In a decade and a half, much has changed inside the borders of our state and out. Colorado has experienced unprecedented growth and its attendant precarious prosperity and social shifts and strains.
Like the constituency it serves, the Council has not been insulated against these vicissitudes. The swelling population has heightened the expectations of artists of a wider, more knowledgeable audience. On the part of the audience there have been demands for improved cultural facilities in which to experience and enjoy works of art, and for educational opportunities which will enable them to participate most fully in the creative process. These imperatives have been paralleled by a period of unsettled economic weather and altered federal priorities. And like its constituency, the Council has had to adapt to new conditions and has applied creative principles to coping with them.
The council's programs and the philosophy which guides them have become increasingly aimed toward meeting future challenges. Its stance has passed from a responsive phase, appropriate in years past, to one of initiative and forward direction.
The continued support of the many high-quality arts organizations in the state is of primary importance to artistice and cultural development. The Council is committed to their vitality and growth, to the encouragement and recognition of artists, and to strengthening the community arts support structure. All three are indispensable requisites to the state's emergence as a cultural Mecca. While the Council assumes a responsibility for leadership on behalf of the arts in Colorado, it encourages the independence of local arts groups and the nurturance of programs closely matched to the needs of artists and their public in every area of the state. In this way, audiences may be brought along abreast of the arts themselves, insuring that seamless dialogue between maker and consumer upon which the advancement of aesthetic quality depends.
An excerpt from the FIFTEEN YEAR REPORT, Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities,
Future Council programs will augment those already begun and will endeavor to increase the level of awareness of the human and economic values of the arts, of their essential part in education, of the need for a widening base of public and private support. How these programs will be created and implemented has been the object of an extensive recent planning process on the part the Council, its staff, and concerned artists and lay people across Colorado. However, the foundations on which these innovations will be built are the structure of the Council itself, its history and the record of its accomplishments.
Denver had its birth along the Cherry Creek and South Platte River banks. Today what was once the site of the town of Auraria is now a major urban campus of the same name. What remains of this historic town may be seen at the Ninth Street Historical Park. By the turn of the century Auraria had not only been incorporated into the city but was evolving into a largely Hispanic community with a working base sharing space with light industry and the rail tracks nearby.
In the 1960's the city began to consider a redevelopment of the area due to a deteriorating neighborhood fabric. In 1972 voters approved a 42 million dollar bond issue which created the Auraria Higher Education Center. The result of this decision was a full scale demolition of the area with the exception of three churches, fourteen 9th Street houses and the Tivoli Brewery.
St. Ca jetans
Originally slated for demolition, St. Cajetans was saved by the local parishioners of the church in order to give it landmark status. Built in 1926 in a Spanish mission vernacular the church now serves as a lecture hall and performing arts facility.
Built in 1876 as an Episcapalian church, it later served as Denver's first Jewish Synagogue. It was remodeled and today serves as the campus art gallery.
St. Elizabeths Church and St. Francis Interfaith Center
St. Elizabeths Church still serves as a church and is not the property of the campus. However, the recent addition, the St. Francis Interfaith Center built in 1978 serves as an interdenominational student support service.
9th Street Park
The 9th Strret Park is the oldest area in Denver today. Originally built in the 1870's, the houses today serve as campus office facilities. The Park is on the National Historic Register and a poetic reminder of Denver's past.
Denver's only beer brewery, built in the 1870's, is now in the process of being renovated into a restaurant/cinema/retai1 complex by a private development firm.
Discussing context for this project is a major endeavor because it involves Denver's present configuration as an urban center, its growth patterns and in general, glimpsing the future. Many of the issues to do with context have been discussed in the introduction to the project.
For the immediate context however, it would be good to recognize the dynamism of the site given its corner location. To the west, the Auraria Campus which has just been briefly described and to the east, the city. What will be immediately addressed is the relationship to a major structure, the DCPA and the edge of Larimer St., Market and Blake as they intersect the edge of Speer. Other contextual influences may be the Terrace Centre and the Colonade Building both of which respond to the creek, the mountains beyond and even the Auraria campus, for the Terrace Centre. There are others but these are certainly the highlights.
Cherry Creek with the bike path is an extremely important aspect of the cities life. Because it is a transportation route and because it is a waterway, and because there is history, it is a dynamic element in the city.
Lawrence Street is scheduled to be closed off and rerouted some time in the future. If this is the case Lawrence as it passes through the campus will become a major pedestrian path but remain a strong east-west circulation beckoning the city.
IN SEARCH OF THE INHERENT QUALITIES OF THE SITE
The site is an important aspect of the dynamics of this particular project. The Council when asked if it had a describable image, replied, Catalysis" (A leader, a spokesman, helping people help themselves).
This is a public building. It should have an image and through it be identifiable. It should be open to the city and its' people. The site should work with the building to achieve this.
The site at the corner of Speer and Lawrence is a major intersection and marks the entry into the city as one approaches the city from the west. An entry from the west makes a dramatic statement with the juxtaposition of the Rocky Mountains and the City.
Speer is a boundary to the west of downtown which organizes old and new urban elements. It holds Larimar Square to the north and the DCPA to the south.
The site boarders the edge of Cherry Creek which in the past five years has become an active pedestrian access through downtown.
The junction of roads marks the boundary between the Auraria Campus and the city. What is the relationship between the academic and the adjacent urban community?
Auraria Higher Education Center
CCD Administration Child Care Center East Classroom Education (UCD)
Emmanuel Gallery Learning Resource Center LR MSC Administration WA
Ninth Street Park NP
Physical Education PE
St Ca|elans SA
Student Center ST
UCD Administration UA
West Classroom WC
PROPOSED FUTURE GROWTH
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The surface geology of the site is characterized by approximately five feet of unstable man-made fill. This is a consequence of several generations of buildings on the site. Below the fill,there is approximately 15 feet of medium to dense sand and gravel that has been deposited by Cherry Creek.
Stable claystone bedrock is encountered at depths of 10-20 feet. The water table averages about 13 feet below the surface, but rises in wet years because of the proximity (200 feet) of Cherry Creek.
The engineer's report suggests that drilled piers to the claystone, which has a bearing strength of 30,000-60,000 psf would be preferred construction. For ground floors the loose, man-made fill should be excavated for a slab on grade, or a structural floor system should be employed. Because of soil and water problems, basements are not recommended.
Excerpted from a thesis on same site Craig Gibson, Spring 1983
It is desirable that Council staff have adjacencies that allow for ease of communication. Shared conference areas are suggested. Reception must be central for immediate needs of all departments. The space should be daylit whenever possible. The Council staff is essentially the core energy of the operation and should probably centralize for ease of communications with the other functions in the building.Genrally hierarchy is not a major concern within the staff, however the executive director may benefit from some additional office space for informal meetings with members of the staff and community at large. Current files and light storage should be centrally located for the use of all staff members as well as a copy center.to be easily accessible but not disruptive to immediate offices.
SUGGESTED SPACE ALLOTMENT
* Executive Director
* Director of Budget and Planning
* Staff Assistant
* Accounting Technician
* Receptionist/Current Files
* Computer Terminal/Word Processing
* Director of Arts Organization Programs
* Program Assistant
* Director of Folk Arts
* Program Assistant
* Director of Community Programs
6 o' s.f
------------------------- PROGRAM CONTINUED
* Director of Individual Artist Program
* nead of Public Media Projects
* Conference Area / 18-25 Persons
* Conference Area / 8-12 Persons (Two)
* Light Storage
* Storage / Copy Area
220 s.f. ea.
PERIODICAL LIBRARY / LOUNGE
This space to be comforable,informal and well lit. It is an area that should be easily accessed by both staff members as well as the general public. This space will store and display a substantial number of art publications, mostly in periodical form. This is not a lending library. The space is to be flexible and have the capability of doubling as a meeting space for panel meetings as well as the annual meeting which would demand a capacity of up to 40 persons. Folding chairs would be stored in a location and fashion condusive to an expedient set up and removal.
* Periodical Library / Lounge
The gallery space is to be for the exhibition of local and regional work of all types, space allowing. The space should be flexible and may share foyer space at the entry. This area should take advantage of natural light, but also be provided with an effecient track system. Moveable partitions are suggested as well as display cases for smaller, more fragile pieces.
A small permanent collection of approximately 60 pieces will require a secured storage area. The collection is expanding and will demand a curator, probably on a part time basis. However, it will be necessary to monitor current exhibitions and space should be provided, a desk area or small office to be shared with the curator.
The gallery space should be central to the entry or major public space and be serviced by public restrooms and reception.
* Gallery 5000 s.f.
* Collection Officer 100 s.f.
NOTE: In addition to the gallery space there will be a sizeable exterior space dedicated to the exhibiting of sculpture. This space will be an extension of the building and provide a pleasant gathering place at lunch time, in the intermission of meetings and performances and a place for special events to take place. This designed exterior space shall be easily accessible from the major public interior space.
Studio Ones This studio will serve the visual artist. The space is designed
to provide a place for small workshop/demonstrations, a place for an artist in residence to work for a specified time and work area for special projects. The space will have a sink and be of durable largely waterproof surfaces. The space should be well ventilated to avoid inhalation of dangerous toxic fumes inherent in many of the materials used in the visual arts. The space will be well lit, northern light is desirable.
* Studio One ..............................800 s.f.
Studio Two: This studio will serve the performing artist. The studio will be
particularly geared in its design (materials) to the dancei However, the space should be flexible in order to serve as a space for dramatic work as well. Again, the studio may be used for short term workshoos in dance or theatre. The studio will also serve as an audition space for the artist in residence program. The option to sign up for studio time on a limited bases will allow the larger community of artists to take advantage of quality rehearsal space.
* Studio Two
bote : The Artist in Residence Program helps qualified sponsors engage
professional artists in residencies ranging in length from one week to nine months. Residencies, awarded on a competitive basis, are available in architecture, crafts, dance, film and video, folk arts, literature, mime, music, photography, sculpture, theatre and visual arts.
Artists are selected by a peer panel and carefully matched with sponsors.
The auditorium like so many spaces in the building will be multi-functional. Seating for 450 people will accommodate lectures of all kinds, with a projection room available for slide presentations and film. The auditorium will also function as a space for special award ceremonies and larger regional meetings that could not be held in the Library/Lounge space. In addition to these functions the auditorium will provide a space for performances to take place. Music, dance and drama although different in their individual needs in a performance situation will be provided for with as little sacrifice to one or more particular areas as is possible. It is noted that any space which must perform for a large diversity of activities will suffer a certain amount of detail whiPh gives clarity and efficiency to a particular space. It is hoped that tne space will provide a reasonable standard of quality for the variety of functions suggested.
As with the studios, the auditorium will allow for a variety of groups in the city to sign up on a limited basis for rehearsal time. The auditorium will also provide a space for auditions especially when auditions are required in determining artists for the artists in residence program.
The auditorium should be located in fairly close proximity to the main entrance and near restroom facilities. It may be desireable to be able to exit to an exterior courtyard for reprieves and intermissions.
Seating for 450 people 3555 s. f
Platform 640 s.f
Dressing Room 190 S. f
Storage Room 70 s.f
Projection Room 190 S.f
Check Room 225 s.f
Toilets 310 s.f
Notes on AUDITORIUM Design:
Generally the shape of the auditorium will be determined by the site lines. In order for the audience to enjoy full exposer, sight and sound wise and to make use of the proscenium arch stage, a frontal orientation is required with the sides fanning at a maximum of 100 degrees from the center line of the stage.
The steeper the seating slope the more advantageous the sight lines and acoustical perception of the performance.
A suitable reverberation time,uniform sound coverage (no dead spots or reinforced reflections) and a wide frequency range of sound are required in order for the audience to receive a clear sound.
Drama and music require different acoustic qualities.Some compromise will then have to be made in the simultaneous accommodation of these two performance situations. Ideallv for drama the audience needs unobstructed vision as well as good audio intelligibility. The revereration time will be less in this situation than for the performing of music (especially an orchestra).
Factors to be considered for seating are the vertical and horizontal sight lines, aisle location and dimension, chair size, and the proximity of one seat to another.
ADJACENT PERFORMANCE ROOM
This space will be located near to the auditorium and share its facilities.
The space will serve as a secondary performing area and rehearsal space for events to take place in the auditorium or for special performing arts workshops and seminars. This space like the auditorium should be easily accessible to public restrooms and to exterior space that would give relief and relaxation to a long afternoon or mornings work and generally provide an informal gathering place.
* Adjacent Performance Room
The lounge would serve the entire building but would primarily serve the needs of those speeding considerable amount of time in rehearsal meeting or conference in the auditorium area or the adjacent performance room. This space would also be an alternative to the exterior courtyard space in bad weather,specifically February through April (although one never really knows in Colorado).
The space should be provided a lot of natural light and should have a colour and material design that are conducive to relaxation and calm (not dull).
* Lounge 800 s.f.
CCAH publishes The Muse, a bimonthly newspaper filled with practical information* articles on arts law, business and management: profiles of artists and arts groups; listing of events and competitions; and other features of interest to artists and their audiences. From an initial circulation of a few hundred, its circulation increases by 1982 to 16,00 copies distributed through 80 Colorado locations.
excerpt from the FIFTEEN YEAR
The Muse is presently a one room operation and will probably remain a small production of artist information. All printing is down out of the office.
A medium sized space, larger than the largest office space in the office will accommodate two people. A layout table and desks are necessary along with filing space for shelved issues and original copies of submitted work. Conceivably this space might be located in the area of administration for easy communication of assisted information of the Council staff.
* The Muse Office
COLORADO LAWYERS FOR THE ARTS
Colorado Lawyers for the Arts begins as a Council-initiated project. CoLA attorneys contribute time and skills to artists and arts organizations of limited means, assisting them with information about tax laws, copyright procedures, incorporation, not-for-profit status and contracts. In its first two years it handles more than 500 inquiries. By 1980, CoLA is incorporated independently of the CCAH and hires its own professional staff.
excerpt from the FIFTEEN YEAR REPORT
Clearly Colorado Lawyers for the Arts is growing, however it is still a small operation and not full time. It is beneficial for both the Council and CoLA to be located in the same building. Both organizations are working for the rights and opportunities of artists in Colorado. This office should be located in the general vicinity of the Council administration offices and benefit from mutual conference areas and receptionist. One or two people will be working in this off ice
Colorado Lawyers for the Arts Office
COLORADO FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS
Colorado Foundation on the Arts is a non-profit organization designed to help support the council with special funds and especially give support to regional arts projects and events. The office or offices (depending On arrangement) should be located in close proximity to the Council's administrative offices and share the reception area and conference space.
* Colorado Foundation on the Arts Office
* Business Manager
* Development Officer
COLORADO ARTISTS REGISTER
The Colorado Artists Register begins with the partnership of the Boulder Public Library Foundation and the CCAH. funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. It is a publicly-accessible slide bank with computerized data supplied by visual artists as to their backgrounds, media, styles, exhibition and collection records, availability for various services and other facts. By 1982, 1100 artists are included. The register is a resource for galleries, art dealers, schools and exhibition coordinators as well as the Council's Art in Public Places and Artists in Education Programs. At present, plans are being made to market the service to interior designers, corporate art buyers and other design and art professionals.
excerpt from the FIFTEEN YEAR REPORT
The Artists Register is presently located in the Boulder Public Library. It is suggested that the Register move to Denver to provide a more central location for potential patrons. The Artists Register will benefit from its position in the new building for the Council. The gallery will orovide a kind of extention to the Register. The Registers artists will have the opportunity to have special showings of their work in support and conjunction with the work stored in the slide file. The Artists Register will be expanded to include video storage .viewing and filming space. It is the hope that the Register can accommodate the performing artist with video tapings to take place on the premises or off the prem-
200 s.f. 150 s.f.
ises and stored in the files at the Artists Register.
The Artists Register in Boulder is presently a small operation consisting of a primary space that contains a large table with three or four slide cabinets located around the table and the computer on the table for easy access to biographical information on individual artists. There are two offices, for the director and assistant. Prsently the space is very minimal and should be expanded for comfort effeciency as well as potential growth. It is also desire-able that there be a space for discussion and review of a given artist's work.
The Artists Register should be centrally located in the building and have easy access to the gallery space, other spaces such as the auditorium, adjacent performing room, or even the exterior courtyard space(s) may be taken advantage of for the purpose of filming sessions to then be stored in the Register.
* Slide Storage/viewing
* Video Equipment Storage
* Video Files/Viewing
* Computer Terminal referencing visual and performing artist's biographical data
300 s.f. 100 s.f. 300 s.f. 200 s.f.
* Small Conference Space
The kitchen will provide a place for those who work in the building daily to prepare hot beverages,prepare or warm foods and store perishables. The kitchen will also be used in the preparation for special gatherings# such as award ceremonies and opening receptions. The kitchen should be located in close proximity to the gallery space and in resonable distance from staff offices.
These facilities will primarily serve the staff and artists who are working in the building.Restrooms and showers should be located somewhere between staff office area and the auditorium and adjacent performance space.
* Restroom/showers 200 s.f. ea.
Custodial spaces to be located throughout the building, serving all major spaces and their adjacent spaces. Equipment storage for maintenance purposes will be located in one primary location probably near to the auditorium and adjacent performance spaces are located. These spaces probably employ the most mechanical equipment and may require the most servicing.
loading/r EC ElVING
This area should be located in such as way so as not to interupt major public spaces but should be as convenient to delivery of pieces to be exhibited in the gallery space or exterior courtyards as possible. Special larger parcels,such as new euipment, bulk publications or supplies will enter the building at this point.
* Loading/Receiving 500 s.f.
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Latitude 39.45 N
Longitude 104.52 W
Altitude 5, 285 ft. above sea level
Average Yearly Precipitation 14.53"
Average Yearly Temperature 50.2 *F
Average Relative Humidity 40%
Degree Days.... Heat ing 6016
Percent of Sunshine (Yearly) 58%
Denver is situated on the South Platte River and Cherry Creek on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate in Denver is characterized by low relative humidity, light to moderate winds, and mild temperatures with a wide diurnal temperature swing (about 30 degrees from day tc night) caused by the high altitude and the low humidity. Denver has a high degree of solar radiation and light precipitation.
The average monthly temperature varies from 30.4 F in January to 73.3 F in July. Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. The annual snowfall averages 62 inches. Colorado is a state of extreme weather conditions, consequently its snows and rains often occur in dramatic proportions and not at all. Although Denver averages 62 in. of snowfall there is a short period of snowcover. Intense winter sun often immediately melts large amounts of snow usually deposited in a twentyfour hour period. March is the most extreme winter month Denver experiences followed by what is usually an abbreviated spring. More than 50 % of the annual precipitation occurs between and during the months of April and July. Summer is marked by daily afternoon showers, cooling extreme morning temperatures.
Our abundant number of sunny days makes Denver an excellent place for the employment of active and passive solar heating techniques. The sun however can be extremely intense and for daylighting purposes, south-facing glass should be handled with shading devices taken into consideration. Landscaping will aid greatly in the effort to cool the building. Studio and office space should take advantage of north and east exposures.
Winds are another climatic device for cooling which could be taken advantage of in the summer months. Mild prevailing breezes from the south, especially in summer suggest operable windows as a possible cooling method.
The hail that often accompanies summer storms may be a consideration in window and skylight design.
NOTE: The Cherry Creek Channel Improvements insure an unimpeded floodway, thus excluding the site from the hundred-year flood plain.
ANNUAL FREQUENCIES OF WINDS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES AT STAPLETON AIRPORT, DENVER, COLORADO
From northwest every month of year
Nor^h and northwest wind = arctic air from Canada ana Alaska
South and southwest wind = warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
South and southwest wind = warm, dry air from Mexico
West wind = Pacific air modified by passage over Rock Mountains
From the south every month of the year
From north-northwest in winter
From northeast in spring
From north in the fall
Denver is in the belt of
the prevailing westerlies
4 -12mph mm
DENVER SOLAR CHART
% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 1%)
HEATING DD | BASE 65 I COOLING DD
HEATING AND COOLING CHART
EXCERPTS FROM THE UNIFORM BUILDING CODE..............1982 EDITION
Building Type II
Description of Occupancy A 2
Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage.
The site bounded by Lawrence Street, Larimer Street,
12th Street, and Speer Boulevard falls within Fire Zone II. The structural elements in Type II fire -resistive buildings shall be of iron, steel, concrete or masonry. Exterior walls shall have a two hour rating, if less than ten feet from an adjacent building, one hour elsewhere. Openings in exterior walls are not permitted less than five feet and must be protected if less than ten feet.
For a building or portion thereof which has more than one use, the occupant load shall be determined by the use which gives the largest number of persons.
The occupant load for buildings or areas containing two or more occupancies shall be determined by adding the occupant loads of the various use areas as computed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section. (Sec. 3302)
Fixed seating. (Auditorium) For areas having fixed seat and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The required width of aisles serving fixed seats shall not be used for any other purpose.
Posting of Room Capacity. Any room having an occupant of 50 or more where fixed seats are not installed, and which is used for classroom, assembly or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place on an approved sign near the main exit from the room. Such signs shall be maintained legible by the owner or his authorized agent and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for each room use.
Allowable Floor Areas (Sec. 505)
Area of Buildings Over One Story. The total combined floor area for multistory buildings may be twice that permitted by Table No. 5-C for one-story buildings, and the floor area of any single story shall not exceed that permitted for a one-story building
Mezzanines. Unless considered as a sperate story, the floor area of all mezzanines shall be included in calculating the allowable floor area of the stories in which the mezzanines are located.
Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases (Sec. 507)
The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the character of the occupancy and type of construction and shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D.
Exits Required (Sec. 3303)
Number of Exits. Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit, not less than two exits where required by table No. 33-A and additional exits as required by this subsection.
Floors complying with the provisions for mezzanines as specified in Section 1716 shall be provided with exits as specified therein.
The second story story shall be provided with not less than two exits when the occupant load is ten or more.
Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor.
Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits.
The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of the floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above( and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equiped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, complying with Section 3304.
Entrances to Buildings. Main exits from buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and be on a level that would make the elevators accessible where provided.
Doors.Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
Stairways (Sec. 3305)
Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Every 12 feet of travel (verticle) shall have a 44 inch landing. Stairs and balconies should be eguiped with hand rails between 30 inches and 34 inches which extend six inches beyond the end of the stairs, and shall include intermediate hand rail each 88 inches of width. Risers should be at least four inches, but not more than seven and one half inches. Treads should be at least 10 inches wide.
Ramps shall be at least 44 inches wide and may not exceed a slope of one to twelve for the handicapped. (Sec. 3306) They shall have a landing of at least five feet for every five feet of verticle rise and shall be surfaced with non-slip material.
At least one toilet for each sex shall be provided on each floor including at least one stall accessible by the handicapped for each five floors. Water closets shall be at least 30 inches wide by 48 inches deep, and 60 inches for the handicapped.
For Special Information on Stages and Platforms, see Chapter 39, page 589
Hapgood, Karen. Planning and the Arts. American Society of Planning Officials, No. 313, 1975
Krier, Rob. Urban Space. Rizzoli, New York, 1979
Lenard, Erica. Classic Garden, Lustrum Press, New York, 1982
Moore, Charles W. and K. C. Bloomer. Body, Memory, and Architecture. Yale University Press, London and New Haven, 1977
Perloff, Harvey S. The Arts and the Economic Life of the City. American Council for theArts,
Barbara Neil, Head of Budget and Planning, Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities. Denver, Colorado. 866 5432
U.S. Weather Bureau, Standard Statistical Climatic Summary for Denver, Colorado, 1979
Auraria Higher Education Center, Planning Office
Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition
Denver: Che Arcs Come in
Prom Che Cold
i In the arts, at least, Mayor Pena has gone beyond just imagining a great city.
Earlier this year, Denver joined the ranks of many other U.S. cities, when the arts were formally incorporated as an essential area of government responsibility.
Denver was one of the last large cities to create an arts commissionand an unfunded one at that. But the present administration, under Mayor Frederico Pena has, over a remarkably short period of time, demonstrated the understanding and leadership that could position Denver among the front ranks of cities known for strong and effective support of the arts.
Even during the 1983 mayoral campaign, Pena included arts support as an important aspect of his candidacy. The visual and performing arts are an essen-, tial component of Denvers continued cultural and economic development, his position paper on the subject began, continuing: Broad access to the arts enriches the lives of Denver residents and makes Denver a more attractive place in which to live, work and invest ... the City must have a single body responsible for the promotion of the arts.
Campaign rhetoric was rapidly transformed into substance. Several months after the election, legislation was drafted creating the citys Commission on Cultural Affairs (replacing the Mayors Commission on the Arts, an advisory body), and a line item of $100,000 was included in the citys 1984 budget to support the new commissions programs. Until this point, Denver had held the dubious distinction of being one of only three major U.S. cities that provided no 1 direct appropriation to their municipal arts agencies.
Mayor Frederico Pena
The commission is charged with providing a support system for Denvers arts organizations and individual artists, while increasing the availability of quality arts experiences for the citizens of Denver. It is now in the process of broadening its support: from the several major institutions who have traditionally been the recipients of annual appropriations to midsized and small, established and emerging, arts organizations as well as to the numerous individual artists of Denver.
The citys determination to establish a municipal arts program received added impetus last December, when the National Endowment for the Arts awarded Denver a sizeable grant under the first round of the Test Program of Support for Local Arts Agencies. Denver was one of five cities selected to receive funds nationwide. The Cultural Affairs Commission will receive $130,000 over the next three years to implement a range of arts programs and services, including a subgranting program.
The commission's existence can still be measured in months, but a number of projects have been undertaken. These include: a six-month exhibition of leased art work in the City and County building, displaying the range and quality of Denver artists; a series of 12 lunchtime concerts in the Civic Center; and an artists residency series featuring three professional actors performing in non-traditional settings.
In addition, the commission recently coordinated Denvers 125th anniversary celebration, a two-month event which included: a series of city-produced neighborhood festivities; a variety of historical, recreational and cultural events, produced by local organizations under the celebration banner; and Civic Center Alive, a three-day festival of the arts. The festival involved entertainment from four stages, a participatory childrens art area, a monumental environmental art installation, an exhibition of Colorado contemporary art work, a low-rider car rally and exhibition and a folk art/artists marketplace.
Despite unseasonably rainy weather, the festival attracted some 40,000 people. Perhaps even more significantly, Civic Center Alive marked a true collaboration, bringing together the resources of city government, private industry and several hundred citizens who volunteered thousands of hours to bring Civic Center Park dramatically alive.
Under the aegis of the new city administration, Denver has made substantial progress over a very short period of time in an area that has been remarkably neglected. Denver may have far to go in relation with other comparable sized U.S. cities (and even many smaller communities), but it has taken important first steps toward creating an environment in which the arts can thrive.
Mayor Pena commented earlier this year, addressing the Chamber of Commerces Cultural Affairs Task Force, Denver has the opportunity to become a world class city well-noted for its cultural amenities ... I believe the arts can make a sizeable difference in the Denver that emerges over the coming years. It is up to all of us to create this cultural environment. In doing so, we will assure a far livelier, vibrant and appealing city.
Greg Geissler is the director of the Denver Commission on Cultural Affairs.
Nov. 1 is the deadline for nonprofit arts and neighborhood organizations applying to the Denver Commission on Cultural Affairs for $55,000 worth of grant money.
The $55,000 is part of the commissions $150,000 NEA grant, and it will go for projects occurring between Dec. 15, 1984 and June 30, 1985.
Call 575-2621 for application forms and information.
is Collaboration Possible?
ts not a new word. It's not a new concept. But it does seem to be getting more than its share of attention of late, and perhaps with good reason.
Collaboration. Interest in collaboration has grown in the last couple of years, both among individual artists and in organizations. Perhaps the most prominent example is the Next Wave series started at the Brooklyn Academy of Music last year: beginning with that controversial work, The Photographer, and continuing this year with a string of world premieres, as well as a restaging of Philip Glass Einstein on the Beach.
Here in Colorado weve also seen increased focus on this topic, with the recent completion of the first piece funded under the Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities Collaboration Pilot Project: Sur\'ival. Stop the Process, a performance created by musician Bruce Odland. dancer Nancy Spanier, and visual artists Nancy Metcalf and Becky Starr. A second CCAH-funded project is beginning. It involves a collaboration between visual artist Brian Dreith and videographer Gary Emrich.
Not that collaborations a new concept. Ive always been fascinated by stories of Joseph Albers Black Mountain School in North Carolina, where Rauschenberg, Cage and Cunningham first got together in the 50s; by the earlier work of the artists at the Bauhaus; by the collaboration between Picasso, Diaghilcv and Stravinsky. The 1960s saw the experimentation of dance collectives like the Grand Union, and later came the Oberlin Dance Collective (this still exists, but the method of making work has changed) and Pilobolus.
I could continue the list, but that isnt my purpose. I want to attempt to explore the evocative but elusive concept of collaboration a little.
1 sometimes seems to me that the results of many collaborations are like those brilliant ideas that come in dreams. We wake up full of excitement, but when we attempt to describe the idea, it seems awkward, fuzzy, out-of-focus. Sort of like one of those incredibly funny incidents you try to describe, only to find yourself saying apologetically, You really had to be there.
And yet sometimes the results are so
brilliant that they give us impetus to trust the concept again.
In a way much of art particularly the performing arts is a collaboration of sorts. A choreographer is influenced in making a dance by the dancers she or he has to work with. Actors influence directors and sometimes playwrights. A cameraman or prop person may have as much to do with the final look of a film as the filmmaker himself.
But in each of these cases, one person has the ultimate say, the final control over the product. You remember the joke about a camels being a horse designed by committee? Without either a clear artistic direction, or a truly shared vision, a camel is what collaborators are apt to end up with.
But if collaboration is an inherent part of much of the artistic process, so is isolation and idiosyncrasy. Consider the image of the writer in a garret, the visual artist alone in a loft, the choreographer making dances in front of a mirror, the composer at the piano. The act of collaboration both forces a dialogue and breaks down a precious myth about the existential loneliness of the artist.
Since the results of a collaboration cant be predicted (this is true of any artistic endeavor, but collaboration increases the uncertainty exponentially), few cultural institutions are willing to commission collaborative work.
Still, some institutions do. Some go further and serve as impresarios, bringing together collaborators previously unknown to each other. And in some cases, the impetus comes from the artists themselves: one artist approaching another he admires, and with whose work he feels an affinity.
In a true collaboration, each party contributes something significant, and the credit for the resultant work truly lies with the group or the partnership, rather than the individual artist. In a true collaboration, no partner is quite sure who exactly came up with what; concepts have appeared that none of the collaborators would have come up with individually. An outsider, of course, may see that one element of the piece seems more like one artists work than another's.
Brainstorming or simultaneous creation isn't the only form of collaboration, ob-
viously. Theres the process Jun Kaneko and Tony Hepburn both artists who work in monumental, sculptural clay forms go through; a kind of dance with one anothers work. A year ago the artists were asked to come to Banff and each create a piece in a gallery space simultaneously. The act of creation would be the piece, said the gallery director, and the actual artworks nothing more than artifacts or records of the living process.
After a week, Jun approached Tony (the two artists hadn't known each other previously) and suggested trading places, and each adding to the others work. Tony agreed. Soon Jun had painted bright colors on Tonys monumental, basically monochromatic pieces, and Tony had transformed Juns paintings into three-dimensional objects. The next week, Tony left and Jun returned to his original piece, now adding to Tony's additions.
Apparently the artists liked this method of working. This summer. Jun followed Tony at Aspens Anderson Ranch Tony created a gateway. Jun altered it. Perhaps this collaboration was one-sided, but both artists seemed satisfied with it.
Collaboration is a difficult process. The temperaments and egos that drive people to create are not easily tamed or harnessed, cannot be fitted easily into an alien mold. How many collaborations have continued over the years, as John Cages has with Merce Cunningham, or that of Philip Glass with Lucinda Childs? And are these truly collaborations, or is it just that Cage makes music that suits Cunningham; Childs creates dances aligned with the tempos and perspectives of Glass?
And a final question. Is it a collaboration when one artist works in many disciplines, as Laurie Anderson does, for example? Well, of course, you say, thats not a collaboration at all But isnt it? Perhaps its the most successful collaboration of all.
Director. Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities
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A primary goal in the development and completion of the described project was to create viable public spaces in an urban setting. In the initial statement these spaces were defined as linkages or connectors which provided necessary transitions between major urban pieces as well as serving a function at the more internal level of the building. The term connector re-fered to parks, paths, squares and junctions.
The program also required because of the nature of the function of this building, for the building to orient itself towards the city. Although it was not specifically a request for a physical response, as the project developed it clearly became an issue of physical orientation, in order to convey a public image and to dramatically pose a dialogue between the building which housed the Colorado Council for the Arts and Humanities and the city beyond with the almost immediate adjacency to the DCPA the building had to open its public arms to the city directly across Speer Blvd. and Cherry Creek.
The building is centralized with a major entry into a substantial public lobby space which focuses into an enclosed exterior courtyard. On the two floors above are the Council offices and support organizations.
Council offices are located on the third floor with intermediate public-private offices on the second floor.
Major circulation occurs around the central courtyard as it continues up to the second and third floor. This organization provides for an ease of communication between the various offices within the Council itself and still allows for privacy.
From this main building all other parts of the program are organized. Because the Council is really the heart throb or nucleus: of the program, all other functions work as tangents or appendages to the Council offices in this main three story building. In this way the project is able to clearly define relationships between the various parts, some being public others, intermediate or less public. The building is then able to usurp and control a major portion of the site.
Giving the site a truly public nature in its urban setting required a formality that could not be achieved by mere fragments and unsubstantiated landscape gestures. In determining a hierarchy of parts the complex was able to take full advantage of the site and its dynamic qualities and create useable public spaces, such as plaza area in front of the building, a sunken sculpture garden, enclosed courtyard and remaining landscaped park area.
The building maintains a tight edge along Lawrence Street whdch will become pedestrian in the near future. A potential gateway to and from the city then becomes a junction of paths where the greenway at the edge of the campus continues across the end of Lawrence as it meets Speer and continues further then across the front of the building site and incorporates into specific landscaped areas adjacent to the building.
The building is able with its orientation and the proposed continuance of the parkway to sensitively address the notion and reality of a larger city greenbelt which in large part is occuring along Speer Blvd. Here again issues of public space in the city has been a determinant in the configuration and actual placement of the building.
Viewing the building from the city the image is an embracing one and in this way allows the city to enter the campus (psychologically) which presently does not exist because of the type of building, its scale and detailing and the position of those buildings which make no gesture to the city beyond. The building as it is viewed from some of the highest, most prominant buildings downtown will read distinctively and dramatically (in roof plan) and will provide the Council with some bit of recognition and identity.
In the introduction the statement was made that the importance of 'vision' at the outset of the conception of the project was crucial in finally producing a resolved piece of architecture. whatever success has been achieved in this project has come out of a commitment to an idea.
Good architecture cannot come without passionate ideas which must be based on knowledge and intuition working in close harmony. The reality of the physical nature of building can at no time be separated from the idea. However, thesis projects as well as those that manifest within the profession that are not examined first as an idea that with technology and craft may be made real will serve only to perpetuate the misuse of architecture in culture.
Note* Program was modified during design process and alloted areas increased