Townhouse development

Material Information

Townhouse development
Kumar, Leonard J
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
75 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Row houses -- Designs and plans -- Pennsylvania -- Oakmont ( lcsh )
Row houses ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 74-75).
General Note:
Submited in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Leonard J. Kumar.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12258147 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .K95 ( lcc )

Full Text

(An Architectural Thesis Presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.)
Leonard J. Fall, 1984


The Thesis of Leonard J. Kumar is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver Date:

I would like to thank the following people for their time and guidance:
Robert Krauwritter, Architect/Auraria Campus Phil McCurdy, Architect/Gensler and Associates Jeffery Ellis, Boulder Designer Cathy Kumar, my wife
and to all the people who put in their two cents worth over the last year to make this project what it was. I could have never finished without your help. Thanks a million!


A house should be designed in harmony with its neighborhood. Uithin its walls, a house's rooms should be in harmony with each other and their respective functions. The successful blend of these design concepts creates a home which promotes a sense of both individuality and community for the homeowner.
The relationships and concepts used in the design of a house can be analogous to those used in the design of a city. As in a well-planned city, a home should have its component areas specifically designed for various uses. Spaces appropriately laid out for select activities, consideration of movement and traffic patterns, and an efficient use of the shapes and sizes of different areas within the design need all be included in the plan layout. In all phases of design, energy efficiency should be a primary design element as well.
A house design, which is planned keeping the broader perspective of the neighborhood or community within which it will reside in mind, stresses the need ~or compatibility and harmony in such factors as room size, function, shape, orientation, and location; and in building color, size, style, and orientation.
There will be, in all home layout designs, areas better suited to some functions than others. Careful consideration of the location and orientation of spaces designed for activities such as entertaining, dining, working, cooking and sleeping is essential to the success of the design. It is not enough that a room has a scenic view, or a favorable sun orientation, or a large amount of floor space, though these are important and ever present factors. It is also a design goal that each room convey a mood. In this way each room becomes less "open space" and more an "environment" within which to live. By selecting a certain living unit, the prospective homeowner can consider not only a well built, efficiently constructed house, but also a home which best compliments his or her own personality. The home becomes a catalyst enhancing the individual's own sense of identity.


In light of these concepts my proposal is a design for a townhouse development to be located on a lot already occupied by four colonial style homes. Two ultimate goals of this development are:
1. to blend harmonistically with the pre-existing structures of the neighborhood. This blend involves three factors:
a. scale
b. characteristic, or style,
c. density; and
2. to promote a sense of community for the residents within the design structure itself.
The proposed development, through both the diversity and compatibility of its interior and exterior spaces, will encourage interaction among the residents.
The homes being planned are specifically planned for use by people with the
human element being a major design factor. The finished living environment will
stimulate the resident's freedom of expression. A mutually complimentary relationship between residents and their community is both desirable and achievable.
Elements within the plan which may contribute to this goal include a recreational clubhouse, pool, day care center, reading room or lounge, and a community greenhouse and/or garden. More notably, the individuality of each resident's unit will promote, among the residents, a sense of being unique and independent, while preserving the feeling of security and community that one finds living in a development or neighborhood of homes. The spirit of the "old-time neighborhood,"
non-existent in the majority of impersonal contemporary "clone" housing developments, can successfully and effectively become a part of the proposed development's design, given careful, deliberate planning on the architect's part.
Ideally, the proposed development will take advantage of the existing amenities of the site, and add further qualities that will enhance the environment.

All interior and exterior spaces should be independent of artificial light in order to add a warmth and texture to the materials. Dark areas and corners should be designed out of the plan. Natural lighting will: (i) provide a sense of brightness; (ii) provide a sense of security; (iii) favorably influence utility costs; (iv) provide a source for solar design; and (v) provide the energy for the growth of plants, both inside and outside the building.
The landscaping design is an important factor in the home's compatibility with its neighborhood. The design should respond to all the various activities that a resident population drawn from different segments of society are apt to pursue. The grounds plan proposed will be subdivided in areas appropriate for various activities. The residents' needs are a prime consideration in any planning. Both the opportunity to socialize with other residents and the opportunity to enioy some private time alone in reflection are necessary considerations. A well endowed outdoor recreational setting in the development will allow both integration and segregation, in proper proportions, according to the desires of the individual. The well planned and maintained landscape will compliment the neighborhood around the site.
Each unit within the townhouse development is to be a design based upon each unique situation. Consideration of many factors is necessary to best exploit each space. Uniqueness and individuality bare recurring themes throughout the design. A house which satisfies the needs and desires of its tenant becomes a home.


The site location is 20 miles upstream of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on the Allegheny River, in the small town of Oakmont.
Oakmont is located at the west edge of the Allegheny Mountains, a range of mountains of moderate relief (approximately 7,000 feet total relief across the region).
The site is in a region of wide seasonal climatic fluctuations. This can be as much as a 90 degree range of temperature from summer to winter. Summers are hot and humid; winters are cold and dry. The wintertime temperatures drop into the sub-teens (Fahrenheight) consistently. Precipitation, in the form of both rain and snow, is heavy, averaging 40 to 60 inches annually. The result is dense hardwood forests and rich agricultural land.
Oakmont is a middle to upper middle class town, with a year-round population of approximately 6,000. The town is broken demographically in 70% residential, 20% retail, and 10% related light and heavy industry.
Towns in Pennsylvania of this type are usually laid out on the basis of a grid pattern, and frequently are located on the side of a hill. Oakmont is no exception.
The grid system runs parallel to the River. The main street, a retail store zone, is located four blocks east of the River, and runs parallel to it. The proposed townhouse site is located three blocks east of the main street, on a sloping hill in a residential area of town.
The neighborhood is a mixture of duplexes, single family homes, and small apartment complexes. Ages of the buildings range from four years old to 150 years old. The styles vary greatly, like the ages. The area streets are brick, with wide sidewalks along both sides. Tall oak and maple trees line both sides of the street, providing a canopy of shade against the summer sun.
The design site sits in the middle of a block measuring 150 feet by 250 feet. The east side, alongside of the rectangle, fronts on the major street of the neighborhood. The west side is bordered by an alley. To the north and south are

two-story residential homes. The site has an east to west slope of 8%. The two houses located to the north already on the site are located 45 feet off of the center of the street, and 75 feet apart from each other. The two on the south side are located 15 feet apart.

-ilnl LV~NI

The site is located in the middle of the six hundred block of Sixth Street. The block is a residential street with light pedestrian and automobile traffic and a low noise level. There are five low density apartment developments within a two-block area of the site, but the general character of the neighborhood is single family and duplex housing.
The Lot has 37,500 square feet and contains four houses located 75 feet to 15 feet apart from each other. The homes are of colonial design with wood frame construction. The houses to the north of the Lot were built in the 1850's; the others were built in the 1870's. They are 2-1/2 to 2 stories high and each contains approximately 2,500 square feet of living space. Over the years the houses have been repeatedly subdivided to their present state. These structures will be the major form considerations that will affect the proposed building design. Other site elements include fruit and pine trees 25 feet to 50 feet high on the site. The adjacent street is lined with oak and maple trees about 100 years old. Directly to the north and south of the Lot are houses of similar scale, design, and age as those located on the site. To the east is a small townhouse development, 2-1/2 stories high and brick design, built in the 1960's. To the west, across the alley, is a rehabilitation center and parking lot. The scale of Oakmont is generally that of two to three story homes, but has apartment developments and buildings as high as 11 stories. Most of the people residing on the street are young married couples with one or two children. The crime rate for Oakmont is relatively low, and is far below the national average.
Parking in the neighborhood is mainly on-the-street parking. The design of the Plan's parking facilities is therefore a major consideration. Zoning in the area calls for 1-1/4 parking spaces for every unit of housing.
Views of the Allegheny River and Mountains exist to the south and southwest. The winds are primarily from the south and north as they generally follow the river and valley.

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SUN: Winter
December 21 8
March/September 21 6
8 9
June 21 5
8 9
M1 N3 OJ 4> O' H to U) £ m (J\ I> SO UJ
41 N. Latitude PM AZIMUTH
98.78 89.19 77.96
62.79 38.62
15.44 26.28 37.38
48.45 58.95 67.64

Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May 105 375 726 1063 1119 1002 874 480 195
55" per year (rain) 5053 to 5987
-''Average Daily Rad. on a Horizontal Surface in BTU/Day-sq. ft.
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
501.8 749.1 1106.6 1399.2 1754.6 2027.6 1968.2 1690 1336.1 1017 580.1 443.9
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
31.3 31.4 39.8 51.3 63.4 71.8 75.8 73.4 66.1 55.6 43.2 32.6


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The site is classified as R-3. In Oakmont R-3 is residential housing, and multiple or apartment dwelling.
Front Yard = 15-0
Side Yard = 7-0M Rear Yard = 20'-0
See, Article 11, Section 84-61
Attached dwelling must have 1,500 sq. ft. of lot per unit.
Attached dwelling lot coverage shall not exceed 35%.
For every dwelling you must have 300 sq. ft. of open space (25% of balconies can be used as open space).
See, Article 11, Section 84-61, R-3 Zoning.
In residence districts no building shall exceed 35 feet in height.

Townhouse one space for each unit; multiple or apartment dwelling 1-1/4 per unit.
Measurement must be at least 8'6" x 18'0" per parking space.
Parking strucutre must be located 5'0" off alleys and 3'0" from streets.
The following pages contain copies of the codes that directly influenced the direction of the project.

promotion of the public health, safety, comfort, convenience id general welfare. Where the provisions of this ordinance impose greater restrictions than those of any statute, other ordinance or regulation, the provisions of this ordinance shall be con-olling. Where the provisions of any statute, other ordinance u:' regulation impose greater restrictions than this ordinance, the provisions of such statute, ordinance or regulation shall be mtrolling.
84-6. Definitions.
Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and shall be construed throughout this ordinance to have he meaninars here indicated. The singular shall include the plural, and the nlural shall include the singular. The word used" shall include the words arranged. desicned or in-ended to Im used. The word building shall include the word structure. The present tense shall include the future ense. The word may is permissive. The word shall is nnndatory.
ACCESSORY BUILDING A building subordinate to the main building on a lot and used for purposes customarily incidental to those of the main building.
ACCESSORY USE A use subordinate to the main use of land or of a building and customarily incidental thereto.
ALLEY A public right-of-way less than twenty-five (251 feet in width.
BTTLDING A roofed structure for the shelter, bousing or enclosure of persons or property, and which includes the following types:
A. DETACHED A building which has no party wall.
v? o**-v
B. SEMIDETACHED A building which has only one
(1) party wall in common with an adjacent building, except as otherwise provided below.
C. ATTACHED A building which has two (2) party walls in common with adjacent buildings, except that the end building of a row of attached buildings shall be deemed attached even though it has only one (1) parry wall.
BUILDING AREA The aggregate of the maximum horizontal cross-section areas, excluding cornices, eaves and gutters, of all buildings on a lot.
BUILDING LINE The line parallel to the street line at a distance therefrom equal to the depth of the front yard required for the district in which the lot is located.
COVERAGE That percentage of the lot area covered by the building. (See Illustration No. 1 at end of chapter.)
DWELLING Any building which is arranged, designed, used or intended to be used for residential occupancy by one (1) or more families, and which includes the following types: (See Hlustration No. 2 at end of chapter.)
A. SINGLE-FAMILY A building designed as a residence for one (1) family.
B. TWO-FAMILY A building designed as a residence for two (2) families.
C. MULTIPLE or APARTMENT A building designed as a residence for three (3) or more families, not including attached or townhouses.
D. TOWNHOUSE An attached building designed as a residence for one (1) family. The terms attached

§ 84-6
dwelling, townhouse dwelling and townhouse shall be construed and used as synonyms in this ordinance.
DWELLING EXIT One (1) or more rooms in a residential building which are arranged, designed, used or intended for use as living quarters for one (1) family. A dwelling unit shall have sanitary facilities and permanent facilities for sleeping, cooking and eating.
ELECTRIC SUBSTATION An assemblage of equipment, for purposes other than generation, through which electric energy in bulk is passed for the purpose of switching or modifying its characteristics to meet the needs of the general public, provided that in residence districts (a) an electric substation shall not include rotating equipment. storage of materials, trucks or repair facilities, or housing of repair crews and (b) the external design of the installation shall be subject to the approval of the Zoning Hearing Board.
FAMILY Any number of persons living and cooking together as a single housekeeping unit, including not more than two ('O'1 roomers or boarders.
A. PRIVATE An accessory building used for the storage of motor vehicles, which may include one (1) commercial vehicle, owned or used by the owner or tenant of the premises, and for the storage of not more than two (21 private noncommercial vehicles owned or used by persons other than the owner or tenant of the premises.
5 8-1-1)
UXJx'H 1 x'l VJl
Tl. PUnLIC Any building of premises, except those
defined herein as a private garage, used for the storage
or care of motor vehicles, or for their hire or sale.
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS The vertical distance measured from the mean level of the ground abutting the building to the highest point of the roof adjacent to the street wall for flat roofs, to the deck line of mansard roofs, and to Ihe mean height between eaves and ridges for gable, gambrel and hip roofs, and to the highest point of any othe- type of roof: provided that chimneys, spires, towers, elevator penthouses, tanks and similar projections of the building shall not be included in calculating the height. (See Illustration No. 3 at end of chapter.)
HOME OCCUPATION An occupation carried on in a dwelling unit by the residents thereof as a customary and accessory use. In connection therewith there shall be no display of any kind except one (1) accessory-use sign, as defined in Article XTT. The use shall not require internal or external alteration or construction features not customary in dwellings, and shall be clearly incidental to the primary use of the premises for residential purposes. No traffic shall be generated by sneh home oeeupation in greater volume than would normally be expected in a residential neighborhood, and any parking required bathe conduct of such home occupation shall be off the street and other than in a required front yard. Permitted home occupations, subject to the regulations listed above, shall include the professions of architect, artist, clergyman, dentist, engineer, lawyer, musician, physician, writer, and teacher giving instruction to not more than two (2) pupils at any one (1) time; customary domestic occupations including dressmaker, seamstress and milliner. A beauty parlor is a permitted home occupation, provided

§ 84-6
that only one (1) person, who lives on the premises, may function as a beauty operator. Dancing instruction, band-instrument instruction in groups, real-estate offices, convalescent homes, and stores, trades or business of any kind not herein excepted shall not be deemed to be home occupations.
LOT A parcel of land on which a main building and any accessory buildings are or may he placed, together with the required open spaces. The area of a lot shall not be construed to include any part of an abutting public right-of-way.
MARINA An establishment for mooring, servicing and storing recreational boats, as well as providing supplies, provisions and fueling facilities. A marina may include a res*aurant and/or boat and motor-sales store.
A. PUBLIC HEALTH CLTNIC A facility owned by the public or by a nonprofit organization and operated for the primary purpose of providing health services in more than one (1) medical or dental specialty for outpatient medical or dental care of the sick or injured, and including related facilities such as laboratories and other service facilities operated in connection with the clinic.
B. PRIVATE GROUP CLTNTC An establishment consisting of several physicians or dentists in cooperative practice using joint or common office facilities and equipment for the outpatient medical or dental care of the sick or injured.
MOBILE HOME Any vehicle used, or originally constructed so as to permit its being used as a vehicle upon the
9 23 71
$ 04-0

3 vsx
public street* or higbw&yij, and obnstfuflted in uueii (t Winner as will permit occupancy thereof as a dwelling or sleeping place.
MOTEL A building containing individual sleeping or living units, designed for and used by transient motorists, except that one (1) dwelling unit for a resident manager or proprietor may be included. It may or may not include common dining and drinking facilities, meeting rooms and recreation facilities.
NURSING HOME or INFIRMARY A building in which nursing care and related medical facilities are provided for individuals who, because of illness, disease, injury or physical or mental infirmity, need such care.
PARTY WALL A wall between adjoining structures owned in common or in severalty, or by one (1) owner alone, and providing mutual rights of support for the respective adjacent buildings or structures.
PERSONAL CARE HOME FOR ADULTS Any premises v/liich provides food, shelter, personal assistance or supervision for a period exceeding twenty-four (24) hours for more than two (2) adults who are not relatives of the
9 23 71

§ 84-6
operator and who require assistance or supervision in such matters as dressing, bathing, diet or medication prescribed for self-administration.
SIGN Any device designed to inform or attract the attention of persons not on the premises on which the sign is located: provided, however that the following shall not be included in the application of the regulations herein:
A. Flags and insignia of any government except when displayed in connection with commercial promotion.
B. Integral decorative or architectural features of buildings. except letters, trademarks, moving parts or moving lights.
The surface area of a sign shall be computed as including the entire area within a quadrangle or other form comprising all the display area of the sign and including all of the elements of the matter displayed. Frames and structural members not bearing advertising matter shall not be included in computation of surface area.
SINGLE AND SEPARATE OWNERSHIP The ownership of a lot by one (1) or more persons, partnerships or corporations, which ownership is separate and distinct from that of any abutting or adjoining lot.
SPECIAL EXCEPTION An exception specifically provided for in this ordinance and granted by the Zoning Hearing Board in accordance with standards and criteria sot forth in § 84-26.
STREET LINE The dividing line between a lot and a public street, road or highway legally open or officially plotted by the borough, or between a lot and a private
§ 84-6
§ 84-6
street, road or way over which the owners or tenants of two (2) or more lots held in single and separate ownership have the right-of-way.
SUBSTANTIALLY COMMENCED No dwelling, commercial building or other structure shall be considered as substantially commenced unless and until work has been completed, as provided in Subsections A or B below, as the ease may be:
A. Any dwelling, commercial building or other structure with cellar or basement shall be considered a-s substantially commenced when, and only when, the footers and foundation for the basement or cellar shall be completely installed ready for installation of joists for the first floor.
B. Any dwelling, commercial building or other structure shall be considered as substantially commenced when, and only when, the concrete footer, floor or slab in the nature of a foundation shall be completely installed ready for commencement of the superstructure.
TELEPHONE CENTRAL OFFICE A building and its equipment erected and used for the purposes of facilitating transmission and exchange of telephone or radio-telephone messages between subscribers, and other business of the Telephone Company: provided that, in residence districts, such use shall not include the transmission of business with the public, storage of materials, trucks or repair facilities or housing of repair crews.
T SABLE OPEN SPACE That required portion of a lot at ground level, unoccupied by principal or aecessorv buildings and available to all occupants of the buildin?. This space of minimum prescribed dimensions shall be

§ 84-7
unobstructed to the sky and shall not be devoted to service driveways or off-street parking space and/or loading berths, but shall be usable for greenery, drying yards, recreational space and other leisure activities normally carried on outdoors. To the extent prescribed in this ordinance. balconies and roof areas may also be considered as usable open space.
A. FRONT The required open space, extending along the street line throughout the full width of the lot, exclusive of steps and open porches, bay windows, overhanging eaves, gutters or cornices.
B. SIDE The required open space, extending along the side line of the lot throughout the full depth of the lot. exclusive of steps, bay windows, overhanging eaves, gutters or cornices.
C. REAR The required open space, extending along the rear line of the lot throughout the full width of the lot. exclusive of steps, bay windows, overhanging eaves, gutters or cornices.
ARTICLE IT Classification of Districts
<, 84-7. Classes of districts.
For the purposes of this ordinance, the Borough of Oakmont hereby divided into five (o) classes of districts, which shall be designated as follows:
R-l Residence Districts R-2 Residence Districts R-S Residence Districts C Commercial Districts T Industrial Districts
§ 84-8
/j\Ji\ l \jr
§ 84-8. Zoning Map.
A. The boundaries of districts shall be as shown on the map dated August 9, 1971. and made a part of this ordinance, which map shall be known as the Zoning Map of Oakmont Borough. Said Map and all notations, references and data shown thereon are hereby incorporated by reference into this ordinance, and shall be as much a part of the ordinance as if all were fully described herein.
B. The Zoning Map of Oakmont Borough shall be identified by the signature' of the Mayor attested by the Borough Secretary, and bearing the seal of the borough under the following words: This is to certify that this is the Zoning Map referred to in Section 201' of Ord. No. 014-71 of the Borough of Oakmont, Pennsylvania. together with the date of the adoption of this ordinance.
C. The Borough Engineer shall be custodian of said Map, and shall enter changes to district boundaries or other matter shown on the Map when, and only when, such changes have been properly adopted by Borough Council according to law. Each such change shall be identified on said Map with an entry stating the number of the authorizing ordinance, the date of said ordinance, the date when such change is actually entered upon the Map, and a brief description of the change. Said entry shall be signed by the Borough Engineer and attested by the Borough Secretary. No amendment to this ordinance which involves matter portrayed on the Zoning Map shall become official until after such change and entry have been made on said Map.
D. Regardless of the existence of purported copies of the Zoning Map which may be made or published, the Zoning
1 Kdltors Note: Section 201 refers to the original numbering of Ord. No. 014-71.
Said section Is renumbered 3 84-8 In this Code.

§ 84-16
§ 84-18
feet in aggregate width, and neither of which shall be less than six (6) feet in width.
(2) For each dwelling unit in a semidetached structure there shall be one (1) side yard, which shall be not less than seven (7) feet in width.
E. Rear yard. There shall be a rear yard on each lot which shall be not less than twenty-five (25) feet in depth.
ARTICLE V R-3 Residence Districts
§ 84-17. General.
In R-3 Residence Districts, the following regulations shall apply.
§ 84-18. Use regulations.
A building may be erected or used, and a lot may be used or occupied, for any of the following purposes and no other:
A. Any use permitted in R-2 Residency Districts.
B. Attached dwelling, provided that all dwellings which share a party wall are erected at the same time. No row of attached dwellings shall exceed one hundred fifty (150) feet in length.
C. Multiple or apartment dwelling.
D. Club or. lodge organized for fraternal or social purposes, the buildings and services of which are for use by mem-

§ 84-It)
bers and their guests only, provided that the chief activity shall not be one which is customarily carried on as a business, when authorized as a special exception.
1 Mortuary, when authorized as a special exception.
F. Open-ai^ parking lot. not to include an automobile junkyard. when authorized as a special exception, provided such lot is located not more than two hundred (200) feet from a commercial or industrial district boundary.
< Nursing home, personal-care home for adults, or public-health clinic, when authorized as a special exception.
4-19. Area regulations.
Lot area and width.
(1) For every building hereafter erected or used in whole or in part as a dwelling, the following minimum lot area per dwelling unit shall be provided:
(a) Detached or semidetached
dwelling .................... 2,400 square feet
(b) Attached dwelling .......... 2.000 square feet
(c) Multiple or apartment dwelling 1,500 square feet
(2) The minimum lot width per dwelling unit at the
building line shall be as follows:
(a) Detached dwelling .................... 35 feet
(b) Semidetached dwelling ................ 25 feet
(e) Single-story attached dwelling ........ 25 feet
(d) Two-story attached dwelling .......... 20 feet
(e) End townhouse, attached on one (1) side 27 feet
§ 84-19
§ 84-19
B. Coverage.
(1) For each type of building, lot coverage shall not ex-
ceed the following amounts:
(a) Detached or semidetached dwelling ...... 35%
(b) Attached dwelling ...................... 30%
(c) Multiple or apartment dwelling ......... 30%
(d) Other permitted building............... 50%
C. Front yard. There shall be a front yard on each street on which a lot abuts which shall be not less than fifteen (15) fret in depth, provided that the front yard on the long side of a corner lot may be reduced to a depth of not less than ten (10) feet.
D. Side yards.
(1) For every detached dwelling, there shall be two (2) side yards, neither of which shall be less than five (5) feet in width.
(2) For every seimdetached dwelling unit, there shall be one (1) side yard, which shall be not less than seven (7) feet in width.
(3) Foi every townhouse dwelling at the end of a row of townhouses, there shall be one (1) side yard, which snail be not less than seven (7) feet in width.
(4) For every multiple dwelling and for every building other than a dwelling, there shall be two (2) side yards, neither of which shall be less than eight (8) feet in width.
E. Rear yard. There shall be a rear yard on each lot which shall be not less than twenty (20) feet in depth.

§ 84-21
F. Usable open space. For every multiple or apartment dwelling hereafter erected, usable open spaee shall be provided comprising not less than three hundred (300) square feet per dwelling unit. Such usable open space shall he provided ir a compact area having no dimension less that twenty (20") feet, except as herein provided. In calculating the usable open space for an apartment dwelling, there may be credited to the required area the area, up to twenty-five percent (25%) of the reouircd open space, of any balconies with a minimum dimension of four (41 feet, six (fi) inches, and the area of open space on the roof free of any obstructions and available for safe and convenient use to all occupants of the building. The slope of any usable open 'pace shall not exceed a grade of ten percent (10%).
ARTICLE YT C Commercial Districts
! 20. General.
In C Commercial Districts, the following regulations shall
' 21. Use regulations.
A. A building may be erected or used, and a lot may be used or occupied, for any of the following purposes, and no other:
(1) Apartment or multiple dwelling only on a noncorner lot abutting a lot in a residence district which has frontage on the same street, when authorized as a special exception. (See Illustration No. 4 at end of chapter.)
§ 84-21
§ 84-21
(2) Marina and related facilities.
(3) A rooming or boarding house by conversion only, in accordance with the provisions of § 84-64.
(4) Motel, when authorized as a special exception.
(5) Restaurant, tearoom, catering establishment, provided that a drive-in restaurant is permitted only when authorized as a special exception.
(6) Passenger station, railway or bus.
(7) Retail store or appliance-repair shop.
(8) Personal-service shop, including tailor, barber, beauty, dressmaking, shoe repair or similar shop.
(9) Professional or business office, agency or studio.
(10) Confectionery or bakery shop.
(11) Laundry and dry-cleaning establishments for pickup and delivery service.
(12) Laundry or dry-cleaning plant, including coin-operated laundry or dry-cleaning facilities, when authorized as a special exception.
(13) Indoor theater, bowling alley or other place of public amusement conducted entirely within a building.
(14) Bank or other financial institution.
(15) Mortuary, when authorized as a special exception.
(16) Newspaper or job-printing establishment.
(17) Motor-vehicle service station, public garage or automobile-repair shop, when authorized as a special exception.
(18) Motor-vehicle sales agency, provided that a used-car-sales lot, when abutting a residential area, shall be

oakmoxt code
§ 84-56
hat actual construction be substantially commenced not ter than twelve (12) months after the date of such deruction. Said twelve-month period may be extended by action of the Zoning Hearing Board, if deemed in the lblic interest.
{ Repairs and maintenance.
any nonconforming structure or portion of a structure eon-a a nonconforming use. ordinary repairs may be made, ^bearing walls, fixtures, wiring or plumbing may be re-d or replaced, provided that the cubic content existing when >, e nonconforming shall not be increased. If a nonconform-t. ..eture or portion of a structure containing a nonconform-ise becomes physically unsafe or unlawful due to lack of t ind maintenance, and is declared by any duly authorized .0 be unsafe or unlawful by reason of physical condition, all not thereafter be restored, repaired or rebuilt except in > ity with the regulations of the district in which it is Nothing in this ordinance shall be deemed to prevent the gthening or restoring to a safe condition of any building i thereof declared to be unsafe by any official charged i..>tecting the public safety, upon order of such official.
56. Uses under special exception provision not nonconforming uses.
\ use which is permitted as a special exception in a district r the terms of this ordinance (other than a change through i Hearing Board action from a nonconforming use to i use not generally permitted in the district) shall not >emed a nonconforming use in such district, but shall with-'i her action be considered a conforming use.
!) 23 71
§ 84-57
§ b4-(aj
§ 84-57. (Reserved)
ARTICLE XI General Regulations
§ 84-58. Public utility corporations.
This ordinance shall not apply to any existing or proposed building, or extension thereof, used or to be used by public utility corporations if, upon petition of the corporation, the Public Utility Commission shall, after a public hearing, decide that the present or proposed situation of the building in question is reasonably necessary for the convenience or welfare of the public.
§ 84-59. Building height regulations.
In residence districts no building shall exceed thirty-five (35) feet in height, provided that such height limit may be exceeded by one (1) foot for each foot by which the width of each side yard is increased beyond minimum side-yard requirements, up to a maximum of fifty (50) feet; in commercial districts, no building shall exceed fifty (50) feet in height, provided that such height limit may be exceeded when authorized as a special exception by the Zoning Hearing Board. Structures supporting utility facilities are exempted from the provisions of this section.
§ 84-60. Vision obstruction.
On any corner lot, no structure, fence, wall, hedge or other planting shall be erected or allowed to grow, be placed or maintained, at a height of more than three (3) feet above the cnrbline within a triangle formed by the curblines and a straight

§ 8-1 -nr,
fl '4-6(1
line joining: said curblines at points fifteen (15) feet from the point where such curbs would intersect if extended in a straight Jine.
§ 84-61. Front-yard exception.
The front yard of a proposed building may be decreased in depth to the average alignment of existing buildings within one hundred (100) feet on each side of the proposed building, and within the same block, if such alignment of existing buildings is less than the front-yard requirements for the district.
§ 84-62. Alley dwellings.
No dwelling shall hereafter be erected, placed or constructed on the rear portion of any lot so that the front or main entrance shall front or open on any alley.
§ 84-63. Sanitary facility requirements.
All buildings hereafter erected shall be provided with adequate sanitary and drainage facilities in accordance with the provisions of this section and the provisions of any other ordinance of the Borough of Oakmont governing similar matters. Plans for all buildings shall indicate a proper relation of the proposed buildings as to elevation with reference to the public sewer system or sanitary and storm sewers installed or to be installed in the street or streets upon which the property abuts. If the area of the proposed building is not serviced by the public sewer system, plans for a private sanitary and drainage system shall he submitted and approved by the Allegheny County Health Department ; the drainage system of each lot shall be separate and independent of that of any other lot. No building shall be erected except in accordance with the plans so submitted and approved.
§ 84-64
9 evt-uo
§ 84-64. Conversion of dwellings.
The Zoning Hearing Board may authorize, as a special exception after public hearing, the conversion of any existing building into a dwelling for more than the number of families permitted in R-l and B-2 Residence Districts, provided that the lot area shall not be reduced thereby to less than five thousand (5.000) square feet per family in R-l Residence Districts, three thousand (3.000) square feet per family in R-2 Residence Districts and one thousand five hundred (1.500) square feet per family in other districts; and further provided that the yard and building area requirements for the district shall not he reduced thereby. If such exception is authorized, the Zoning Hearing Board may prescribe such further conditions with respect to the conversion and use of such buildings as it deems appropriate to the public.
§ 84-65. Mobile homes.
No mobile home shall be occupied as a dwelling within the Borough of Oakmont. No mobile home shall be maintained or parked within the Borough of Oakmont outside an enclosed building in excess of two (2) weeks; provided, however, that a building contractor may park a mobile home on a building site for use as an office or storage shed only. Any mobile home so used by a building contractor shall be promptly removed upon completion of construction.
§ 84-66. Private garage and off-street parking.
A. Garage location.
(1) A private garage in or attached to the main structure on a lot shall be subject to the same yard regulations as the main structure.

4 84-66
A detached enclosed private garage or unenclosed private garage (carport) may be located within a required rear yard, but shall not be closer to a rear lot line than five (5) feet when entrance is from an alley and three (3) feet when entrance is from the street, nor closer to a side lot line than the required side-yard depth.
. Off-street parking space.
(11 For the purposes of this ordinance, an off-street parkins space shall consist of a space adequate for parking an automobile with room for opening doors on both sides, but in no ease measuring less than eight feet, six inches, by eighteen feet (8'6" x 18'), together with maneuvering room and properly related access to a public street or alley. Required off-street parking areas for three (3) or more automobiles shall have individual spaces marked, and shall be so designed. maintained and regulated that no parking or maneuvering incidental to parking shall be on any public street or walk, and so that any automobile may be parked or unparked without moving another. No driveway across public property or curb shall exceed a width of twenty-five (25) feet. Required off-street, parking shall not be in a required front yard, unless authorized as a special exception.
(2) All open parking areas containing more than four (4) parking spaces shall be improved with a bituminous or other all-weather, dust-free surface, and shall be effectively screened on each side adjoining any residence by a wall, opaque fence or densely planted compact hedge not less than four (4) nor more than six (fi) feet in height. All such parking lots shall be equipped with trash containers.
!) IT. 71
§ 84-66
4 84-66
(3) Required off-street parking shall be located on the
site of the principal building which is served by the parking, or separated therefrom by a public right-of-way not more than twenty-five (25) feet in width. Said parking space shall not be encroached upon by buildings, storage or other use, nor shall the parking space be reduced except upon the approval of the Zoning Hearing Board and then only after proof that the off-street parking spaces provided are no longer needed by reason of the reduction in floor area, seating area, or other factors controlling the regulation of such parking facilities as established in this section.
(4) All parking areas in commercial and industrial districts shall be suitably illuminated at night, and such lighting shall be deflected away from any residential structure. Access shall be provided for parking areas to main buildings by means of paved sidewalks.
C. Off-street parking requirements. The minimum number of off-street parking spaces to be provided for every new or substantially reconstructed building shall be as follows:
Minimum Requirements
(1) Single-family, two- One (1) space per dwelling family and town- unit (d.u.) house dwellings
(2) Multiple or apartment dwelling
One and one-fourth (1*4) spaces per d.u.
(3) Motel without restaurant
One (1) space per sleeping room plus one (1) for manager

^ 04:-00
(4) Motel with restaurant
(5) Club or lodge
(6) Nursing home or personal-care home for adults
(7) Mortuary
(8) Doctors or dentists office, medical or dental clinic
(9) Restaurant, tearoom
(10) Amusement enterprises, including skating rinks and sports arenas
(11) Auditorium, except theaters
Minimum Requirements
Same as (3) plus one (1) per one hundred fifty (150) square feet of customer service area in restaurant
One (1) per three (3) persons, based on the design capacity of the facility
One (1) per six (6) beds plus one (1) per staff or visiting doctor plus one (1) per two (2) employees
Ten (10) per chapel or parlor plus one (1) per funeral vehicle plus one (1) per employee
Five (5) per doctor or dentist
One (1) per one hundred (100) square feet of customer service area
One (1) per three (3) persons, based on design capacity of the facility
One (1) per five (5) persons, based on design capacity of the facility
5 84-60
§ 84-66
Minimum Requirements
(12) Theater One (1) per four (4) seats
(13) Bowling alley Four (4) per alley
(14) Retail stores (individual or in groups), devoted to retail sales under one (1) roof (except where otherwise specified) One (1) per two hundred (200) square feet of customer service area
(15) Furniture and major-appliance store, motor-vehicle sales One (1) per six hundred (600) square feet of customer service area
(16) Bank, business or professional office except where otherwise stated) One (1) per three hundred fifty (350) square feet of floor area
(17) Manufacturing, wholesaling and industrial uses One (1) per two (2) employees on the largest shift or period of maximum employment
(18) Church One (1) per eight (8) seats or one (1) per one hundred forty-four (144) lineal inches of pew space
(19) Motor-vehicle service station One (1) per two (2) employees at work plus one (1) per automobile service bay


1 uNu hT
Social interaction and awareness stimulate a feeling of well-being and security. The design of a residential development should reflect this attitude. Pride and prestige grow from a unity in the community no matter what size it is. People who feel good about their environment will take pride in maintaining and enchancing it. The design should be flexible and reflect the resident's feeling of self-expression. A person need not sacrifice his or her self identity in a community development. The community encourages self-expression. A unique community is the result of each individual's sense of self-expression.
Many contemporary developments force regimentality on the design of structures and layout, and on the living styles of the residents. Too many developments are designed solely to maximize profit with available materials. The final product reflects this insensitivity to social needs and expectations. Throughout the United States the tasteless development of housing complexes is evident. Repetition of stark design, mixtures of materials, and floor plans is typical.
People get excitement out of life when exposed to a wide variety of experiences. A home's design should provide the opportunity for an individual's self-expression.
The attributes of each homesite will be analyzed. Elements within the design will take advantage of these attributes. The design will be approached differently for every unit. Each unit will have different orientations, points of entry, views, and possibly different floor plans.
The population of the surrounding neighborhood is a mixed-age group. The development will be designed to accommodate the same type of population.
The design and placement of one, two and three bedroom units will be determined by the age groups most likely to utilize them.
Physical restrictions and capabilities will be considered. Senior citizens may desire to live on ground level units with easy access. Singles and young couples may appreciate the upper floors and loft areas. Specific areas will be developed for small families, with green spaces located near two and three bedroom units.

The colonial style houses presently on the site will be a major influence on the form and design of the development. There will be a continuity of form structure, design elements and textures in the design. A common grid pattern for structure should be developed throughout the plan, with a central design concept as the focal point of each unit. The new townhouse design should contain two or three elements of the older colonial home design. The same balance and proportions of the older design will be used to encourage a unity and harmony of the entire site when it is completed. The scale and lines of the townhouse will match the colonial style closely. The new units will be semi-detached from the existing houses, and building lines will be easily carried from new to old.
The units will be accessible from both the Sixth Street entrance and from the parking area. Service groupings should be stipulated in areas in order not to interfere with the sequential flow of residents. The units must also give users audio and visual privacy. The degree of privacy will depend on use. Windows will not look into each other, and doors will not open onto each other or have direct views from one to another. When two units share a common wall, the design will be arranged so that rooms with similar activities share that common wall.
Exterior materials and structural framing members will be wood in order to match that of the old houses. The design will accommodate the extreme range of temperatures that exists in the region. Sun controls such as overhangs can help cut heat gain in summer and provide heat in winter. Facade orientation, solar heat gain and storage, super insulation, and solar water heating are possible ways to reduce energy consumption. The design of natural lighting for the interior and exterior will supply a light and airy feel to the space. Natural lighting will also bring out the warmth and texture of the materials. The interior design of units furnish proper air flows. Suitable window placement and the use of high vaulted ceilings opening to the second floor, or lofts, will create appropriate air circulation patterns. Stairs and halls should be independent of artificial lighting. Interior stairs can be used to supply air flow. Air locks will be used at all entries.
Exterior spaces will be planned with the idea of appropriate sun orientation. Areas will be designed for summer and winter use (shaded in summer; sun areas for winter) T.f facilities are to be arranged for children they will be located in that

area so it can be used all year round. Open space will also be located at major areas of circulation.
Security will be provided through visual orientation of windows from units to exterior spaces. Night lights will be arranged to contribute to security.

lur1 IMT^
When designing the living room of the units it should be kept in mind that it is desirable that this space be the most versatile room of the unit. The living room may serve, by demand, in the capacity of a dining area, a sitting room, a reception area, or a television and entertainment center. In tandem with a sofa bed it may act as an extra guest room. Through the use of multiple design elements, the living room will become the focal point of the unit's design.
The living room will be centrally located, close to the front, or the major, entrance of the home. The front entrance will open into a foyer or air lock. The living and dining rooms are rooms having complimentary functions, and will be located adjacent to each other.
The architect should adopt a flexible policy of "open" or "closed" styles of design, depending upon each unique situation.
Aesthetics and the living room design are inseparable. Orientations will be based upon scenic views, landscaping and direction of first and last daily sunlight. Generous balconies or porches will be included.
Unusual, albeit practical, design ideas will be considered. A sunken living room, oval sun room or a Jacuzzi will add to the uniqueness of each home.
There will be, in all cases, a dominant design concept around which the surrounding area will be planned. Fireplace and hearth settings, large bay windows and sun roofs or ornate staircases are possible examples. Built-in accessory features such as bookcases or wet bars may be important additions to the design.
The styles and colors of the interior will be a reflection of those of the exterior, and will be compatible with an architectural "theme," which will vary according to the individual homesite's situation.
An essential consideration in the design concept of the living room is a careful analysis of the. projected movement patterns in and through the room. Therefore, not

only is the placement of structures such as fireplaces or staircases important within the plan of the room, but the orientation and placement of entrances and exits to adjacent rooms is a factor in the overall design.
Wall space for furnishings will be generous. Windows and doors will be incorporated into the layout with this in mind.
Energy costs are significant in this part of the world, and any home design must conform to this environmental condition. Conservation methods will be a high priority in all of the units because of the environmental conditions. More significantly, the positioning and design of the living area will be considered in light of the latest solar energy capabilities available. Superinsulation techniques and high performance glass should also be added into the construction.
Adequate utility and clothes closets will be located convenient to the living room.
The design of the dining room should be compatible with the total square footage of the unit. The design will consider the different eating habits that the wide variety of residents will represent.
The dining area will be located close to, but separate from, the kitchen. The dining area will be located adjacent to the living room, and an eye for possible views is desirable here, as in the living room.
Maximum and minimum dining space requirements will be analyzed, with adequate space for eating, serving, and the storage of china and silverware provided. Dining areas should incorporate different floor materials or ceiling height changes to differentiate space.

There are two principal factors relevant to the design of a kitchen floor plan. The basis of the plan is the pattern of work flow in storing, processing, cooking and serving foods, and post-meal cleanup. The physical restrictions of the appliances (such as stove/oven, sink, refrigerator and so on) set a minimum size requirement, and careful placement of the appliances will enhance the work flow potential of the kitchen area.
The efficiency of a kitchen may be checked by measuring its "work triangle." A maximum distance of 22 feet is standard. The sink to refrigerator distance will be on the order of four to seven feet. The sink to range distance will be four to six feet, and the range to refrigerator distance will be four to nine feet. These three appliances (range, sink, and refrigerator) are the core around which the rest of the kitchen is planned.
The kitchen will have an outside entrance to facilitate supply stocking and trash removal. It should be located adjacent to the dining area, but will also provide an entrance to the kitchen that does not require passage through the dining area. Through traffic patterns will be discouraged through the kitchen work area. Finally, the kitchen will provide easy access to the front, or the major, entrance of the unit.
The kitchen will be bright and well lit, with plentiful electrical outlets and generous cabinet space. For the sake of plumbing efficiency, laundry facilities may be located adjoining the kitchen.

Bathrooms for two or three bedroom homes require a bath and powder room or two full bathrooms. Three bedroom units will locate the second bath off of the master bedroom. A multi-level unit will have a powder room off of the living room and at least one good bath on the sleeping level. A unit \^ith one bath will be planned with the bath in a central location. One factor to consider is to group the baths (and possibly the kitchen, as well) to centralize the plumbing. Plumbing costs will be reduced if second floor baths are located above the first floor bath, or kitchen. Baths designed for use for people from several bedrooms will open onto a hallway.
A powder room will consist of a water closet and lavatory.
Materials will be of ceramic tile, vinyl plastic, and moisture-proof wood.
Exhaust fans will be used to circulate air in the baths. Fans will be located near the tub or shower to remove water vapors.
Windows are desirable. The tub, water closet, and lavatory will not be directly in front of the window, for privacy. The water closet will not be located in view of the next room or hall when the bathroom door is open.
A method of rapidly increasing the air temperature will be provided in the bath.
Storage facilities for bathroom accessories will be provided.

The bedrooms will be located together in one section of the house. Privacy and quiet will be goals in bedroom design. Other rooms with quiet activities may be located in this area as well. Noise control from both interior and exterior areas will be considered. Closets, well-insulated walls, and solid core doors can help
reduce noise levels in the bedrooms. Clothing storage will be provided in each bedroom. One person bedrooms require a minimum of three linear feet of closet space. A double occupancy bedroom requires six linear feet of space. These are minimum requirements.
Two windows in every bedroom is desirable. The windows will have high sills (approximately 44") to add to privacy. High sills will also allow easier arrangement of furniture.
The entrance to the bedrooms will be off of the hallway. An outside entrance may open onto a patio or balcony.
An east facing bedroom is ideal, to catch the morning sun.
Private dressing rooms, wall-in closets, and private baths are also design considerations.

Adequate storage facilities will be located in areas where they will be most needed. Storage will be planned according to room use.
Three basic types of storage will be provided: closets, space built into
furniture, and cabinets.
Closets are to be at least 2'-0" deep. Bedroom closets will be at least 4'-10" wide or wider. One person needs about three to four linear feet of space.
Linen closets will be located near the bedrooms or baths. The size will be l-0" to 1'-6" deep and 2'-0" to 4-0" wide.
Closets will not protrude into a room. They will extend across the end of the room, or open into an adjoining room.
Walk-in closets and dressing areas can be combined. A typical size is 6'-0" x 5'-0". A 2'-0" aisle is a minimum requirement.
A dresser, chest or built-in cabinets will be part of the storage facilities in the walk-in closets.
Various other types of storage facilities will be considered, depending on available space.
The den will be designed to serve as both a den and a quest room. It will be located in a quiet area of the house. Den can also serve as an extra bedroom, storage, or other needs.

Spaces for a washer and dryer and sorting and ironing areas will be provided. This room can be located in a recessed space in the hall.
The washer and dryer will be located side by side. Some appliances can be stacked.
A sink is necessary near or in the laundry area.
Dryers can be located against an outside wall to facilitate venting.
Space must be reserved for wiring and plumbing.
Space for the water heater and furnace will be provided in all units. A possible location is in the bath where it can be closed off from the rest of the room. A high efficiency furnace should be considered.
Chimney location must be considered if there is to be a furnace.
Ventilation will be designed into the room.
Easy serviceability of equipment is necessary.
Loft space will be available and utilized in areas with high ceilings. They will be used to take advantage of wasted space. Lofts can be a creative way to solve storage problems.


I. Unit I, consisting of one bedroom, possible loft or patio. Located mainly on 1st Floor
and 3rd Floor.
A. Living Room 150 to 175 ll'-O
B. Dining Room 100' to 150' 9' -0
C. Master Bedroom 140' to 150' 9' -4
D. Loft 80' to 100 O i
E. Kitchen 90 to 110' 8' -0
F. Bath 50 to 60' 6' -0
G. Balcony, patio, or porch 50 to 75' 5'-O'
H. Storage 50'
750' to 900'/unit

II. Unit II, consisting of two bedrooms, loft or patio. Located mainly on 1st and 2nd Floors.
A. Living Room...............................
B. Dining Room...............................
C. Master Bedroom............................
D. Other Bedroom.............................
E. Loft......................................
F. Kitchen...................................
G. Bath......................................
H. Balcony, Patio or Porch...................
I. Storage...................................
175 to 200' 11 -0"
150' to 180' 9 -0"
140' to 150' 9' -0
110' to 130 8 -0"
80' to 100 8' -0
110 to 130' 8' -0
50' to 75' 5' -0"
50' to 80' 5' -0"
050' to 1800'/unit

III. Unit III, consisting of three bedrooms, loft or balcony, patio. Located mainly on 1st Floor.
A. Living Room.................................
B. Dining Room.................................
C. Master Bedroom..............................
D. Other Bedroom...............................
E. Loft........................................
F. Kitchen.....................................
G. Bath and Powder Room........................
H. Balcony.....................................
I. Storage.....................................
J. Den.........................................
K. Laundry or Utility Room.....................
200' to 250' 11 -0
180' to 250' 9' -0"
140' to 160 9' -6"
110' to 130 8' -0"
80' to 100' 8' -0"
130' to 150' 8' -0"
75' to 100' 5' -0"
50' to 80' 5 -0"
80' i
80 to 120'
80 to 100' 8 -0"
1300' to 1800'/unit

Unit I Unit II Unit III TOTAL
4 x 900 sq. ft. = 3,600 sq. ft.
5 x 1400 sq. ft. = 7,000 sq. ft.
4 x 1700 sq. ft. = 6,800 sq. ft.
13 units 17,400 sq. ft.
7% Site 2,000 sq. ft.
507 Site 15,000 sq. ft.
337 Site 10,000 sq. ft.
107 Site 3,000 sq. ft.



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In my original thesis proposal, I started with a smaller project than the final presentation. Because of the true opportunities that existed on the site, it became apparent that a larger area of land was available to the south of the original area of land. The properties that are included in the final thesis proposal are 50 feet by 150 feet in size each and have a house of the same design and age as the most northern house on the site with the total square footage of land being 37,500 feet with the newly acquired land.
The final project consists of 16 units, seven new and nine renovated with units ranging in size from 3,100 square feet in the larger units to 750 square feet in the loft or studio units. The two new housing complexes consist of 5,700 square feet with the total project reaching 22,300 square feet (11,000 square feet in renovation). The units had bedroom units, six 2-bedroom units and five 1-bedroom units.
In the end I felt that I clearly solved the problems created by the existing codes and maximized on the possible units without suffering in design of the buildings.
I feel that the final design reflected my goals of historic preservation, developing usable open space, proper security for the area, and to give each unit an individual identity.
My concepts of blending harmonistically with the pre-existing structures of the neighborhood with its scale, characteristics, style and density; promoting a sense of security within a small community; the energy conservation with proper use of orientation and natural lighting; and developing units with different age groups in mind so to group and orientate the units to accompany the need of those age groups and other users was apparent in my final design solution, as I hope you can see in the following presentation.

1) Pena, William, with W. Caudill and J. Focke; Co., Inc., 1977. Problem Seeking; CBI Publishing
2) Anderson, Bruce, with Michael R-iordan; The Solar Handbook; Chesire Books,
Harrisville, New Hampshire, 1976.
3) Christopher, Alexander; Ishakowa, Sarah; Language; Oxford Press, Hew York, 1977. and Silverstein, Murray; A Pattern
4) McHarg, Ian L. ; Design with Nature; Doubleday/Natural History Press, New York, 1977.
5) Hoffman, Hubert; Row Houses and Cluster Houses; Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, New York^ 1977.
6) Underwood, Francis H. ; The Colonial House, Then and Now; C.E. Tutle Company, Rutland, Vermont, 1977.
7) Weiss, Jeffrey; Lofts; W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1979.
8) Feilden, Bernard M. ; Conservation of Historic Buildings; Butterworth and Co. Publishers, Boston, I9&T.
9) Evans, Benjamin H. ; Daylight in Architecture; McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1981.
10) Williams, Henry Lionel and Williams, Ottalie K. ; Old American Houses; Bonanza Books, New York, 1967.
11) Whitehead, Russell F. and Brown, Frank C.; Colonial Architecture in New England; Arno Press, Inc., 1977.

12) Sanoff, Henry; Methods of Architectural Programming; Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1977.
13) Ramsey and Sleeper; Architectural Graphic Standards, Seventh Edition; John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
14) Mazria, Edward; The Passive Solar Energy Book; Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, 1979.
15) Spence, William P. ; Architecture; McKnight Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1979.