Citation
Auraria student housing

Material Information

Title:
Auraria student housing
Creator:
Leemon, Paul
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
245 leaves in various foliations : illustrations, charts, forms, maps, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Student housing -- Planning ( fast )
Genre:
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Paul Leemon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
17464648 ( OCLC )
ocm17464648
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .L445 ( lcc )

Full Text
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AURARIA STUDENT HOUSING


The Thesis of Paul Leemon is Approved.
principal Advisor
Advisor
1


AURARIA STUDENT HOUSING
An Architectural Thesis Presented to The College Of Architecture and Planning University Of Colorado At Denver In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Architecture
Paul Leemon
Spring 1987
2


Table Of Contents
Thesis Statement .......................................... 4
Site Conditions ...........................................20
Context .................................................. 25
Buildings
Landscaping View Planes Spacial Analysis Service and Mass Transit Building Plan Pedestrian Circulation
Programming .............................................. 39
Building Code And Zoning Ordinance ....................... 54
Building Code Check Zoning Check
Climate, Lighting And Energy ............................. 66
Climate
Temperature Degree Days Precipitation Wind
Sunshine Duration And Cloud Cover Climatic Conditions Summary Solar Angles Lighting
Natural Lighting Energy Conservation
Case Studies ........................................... 90
Bibliography ........................................... 99
Design ................................................. 103
Appendices ............................................. 112
Auraria Parkway Urban Design Summary Report Schematic Phase. Prepared by Sasaki Associates, Inc.
Master Plan Proposal For Auraria Higher Education Center.
A Survey Of Perceived Interest In Housing Among Students At The Auraria Higher Education Center.
3


Geotechnical Engineering Investigation For The Proposed Auraria Replacement Facility. Prepared by Fox & Associates, Of Colorado, Inc.
News Itans


THESIS STATEMENT


The residence hall of a college or university has long been recognized as an integral part of an educational experience.
A residential system is much more than a collection of dormitories, but a distinctive and vital component of an academic caimunity, and the individual lives of the residents. It is recognized as a significant force in the maturation process of each educated generation. Students learn to study together, live together, and it is hoped from this that they grow as individuals.
Recognizing that college is a succession of impermanent inhabitants, a vital part of the student's education is relating to the college environment as a prelude to integrating into a complex urban environment. Campus housing must therefore provide students with opportunities for choice and personal expression. Residents need to take possession of their own spaces and be part of a social unit. Student housing becomes a "place" as well as a "way station"; residents experience it as a place to live for several semesters or several years. It becomes a metaphor for the transition from the academic world to the future.
The choice of having a residential system is closely related to the goals of the educational institution itself. What kind of education, student life, and academic cormiunity is desired?
All of these choices are influenced by the form of the physical environment.
I am proposing for this thesis project a student housing complex for the Auraria campus in Denver, Colorado. While the current campus master plan for Auraria does not include housing, and the political climate in the state legislature and other bodies pre-


eludes such proposals, other plans propose housing along Cherry Creek to enhance this waterway, and to link Auraria with downtown Denver. My proposal is an opportunity for Auraria to develop into a mature academic community in addition to strengthening the neighboring urban fabric.
There exists a recognized need to physically link the Auraria campus with the rest of Denver. Currently they are isolated by Cherry Creek and Speer Boulevard, and proposals have been made to modify each. My proposal for student housing will play a role in the joining of the campus with the city: physically, visually, and architecturally.
The Auraria campus itself cries out for design cohesiveness and identity. An overall campus site development have never materialized, compounded by heavy traffic dividing the grounds, conflict between the pre-existing grid and the orientation of the academic buildings, and the disjointed scales of the structures.
While my proposal will not alone solve these and other serious design problems of the Auraria campus, it can participate in campus-wide design guidelines which can begin to address the issue of identity. Great potential exists to utilize interesting view planes, adopt campus standard designs while establishing a housing identity, and strengthen pedestrian circulation.


The student housing units would be a small part of a larger complex community. Design is critical in terms of site location, network linkage, and design identity with the rest of the academic community and the local venacular.
Among the design issues to be addressed in this project:
-Establish a physical link between lower downtown and the Auraria campus to break down the isolation between them.
The Auraria campus represents an urban context compounded by the spacial requirements of the academic institution. Student housing on campus must therefore relate in a meaningful way both to the college community as a whole while addressing the proximity to the Central Business District.
-Low-rise, high density housing is possible and desirable for this site. This concept will aid in maintaining the low scale of the surrounding area while preserving the views of the mountains and the downtown area. It is also desirable to have the housing complex divided into a complicated massing consonant with a number of houses with separate entries and porches to enhance individual expression.
-Preserve and encourage the visual links toward the Tivoli Brewery, the Rocky Mountains, and the tall buildings of downtown. The site lends itself to a strong Beaux Arts axis to Tivoli in the classical academic design tradition. It can serve as a strong orientation for future campus development.
-The use of Cherry Creek as an attractive amenity for the housing complex.


-To create and maintain the atmosphere of living and learning, the design should provide housing for faculty and their families. A proper balance is necessary between privacy and accessibility between faculty and students, and can be expressed in the limitation of 12 to 25 students per cluster. The "master's" study can serve as neutral ground between the student's rooms and the faculty home, while having separate orientation and entrances between the living quarters.
-Guest accommodations should be provided.
-The housing units require a sense of privacy and autonomy while having the ability to join others. These qualities can be expressed architecturally in the hierarchy of proximities and a diversity of accommodations.


In the discussion that follows, I will develop three theoretical proposalsthat are crucial to student housing in general, and more specifically to my chosen site: 1) the relationship between the living and learning environment; 2) the relationship between the academic and residential conmunity; and 3) spatial perceptions and special interest housing.
There is a relationship between the living environment and the learning environment. Design plays a critical role in establishing a positive connection between than. In addition, there is the potential for cross-pollination of knowledge and experience within the close conmunity of student housing units, and design can enhance this potential. The word "collegiate" expresses the original concept of the monastic cloister; an intimate conmunity of students and masters with shared intellectual and social values which emphasize the development of character and learning. For many higher education institutions, residential facilities are central to the academic mission of the college, and the English quadrangle is regarded as the most appropriate expression of the residential college.
Creating a sense of conmunity between the residential complex and the academic conmunity as a whole is a desired goal. Both the physical connection and the psychological linkage of the residents to the campus are important design issues. "Campus" sums up the unique physical and spiritual character of the American college and university. Latin for "field", campus suggests more than the


entire property, including structures, of a college; it denotes
the spirit of the school, its genius loci, its identity as a self-contained conmunity and the architectural expression of its educational and social goals.
Special interest housing design could be anticipated by creating a flexible residential unit design that would allow for changes based on spacial perceptions and environmental traditions of international students.
The Living and Learning Environment
It is recognized from many educational research sources that there exists a symbioticrelationship between a living environment and a learning environment. The goal of residential academic units has always been to promote learning, leadership, as well as academic and social competence. The challenge remains to design a physical arrangement to meet these goals. While seldom financially profitable, student housing can and should be educationally productive. What kind of student living arrangement can be expected to yield educational benefits?
At the turn of the century, new facilities were created on college campuses that reflected higher educations recognition and concern of the students physical and social well-being as a prerequisite to academic progress. Student unions, infirmaries, physical education centers and dormitories were created to broaden the academic experience.
Today, the trend is toward modeling residential systems after


its original intent in the colonial college system: build a residential conmunity that narrows the gap between teacher and student. Creating a living environment that is also hospitable to learning means bringing the teacher inside the residential unit.
In the 1960's, Yale University conducted such an experiment in a closely linked living-learning environment. The acconmodations included:
-single rooms, combined in suites for 250-300 students
-living quaters for faculty
-library with 10,000 to 15,000 volumes
-common rooms for student and faculty
-game and music rooms
-offices and seminar spaces
-guest suites
-large dining hall
While these features most certainly create a higher standard of living, do they contribute to the students' education? Critics of the program claimed that this arrangement did not really unite the student's academic and social life. Instruction remained centered in the academic departments, the critics continued, and the nonresident professor's comnitment to this program was often casual.
The proponents of this program noted the increased emphasis on independent study offered an opportunity to shift the focus of some areas of academic work from the classroom lecture to tutorials, seminars, and other types of instruction which lend themselves to


the living environment. In addition, family apartments attracted older scholars to participate in the learning community. At about the same time as the Yale experiment, the University of Pennsylvania also explored the concept of residential education. It seemed a logical goal since the school planned to ultimately house upwards of 75% of its undergraduate men. The accommodations included:
-residence for House Dean
-resident Junior Faculty member: one for every thirty residents -office and lounge for nonresident Senior Faculty member -seminar space
The universitys goal was to create a vigorously intellectual social climate, supporting the staff by providing the physical environment that can, in itself, help reinforce the aims implicit in the concept of residential education. Design was recognized as meeting two fundamental student needs: privacy and participation in a civilized community.
Critics of the project have pointed out that there is no ma-jic in juxtaposing students and teachers. For many students, a close association with one faculty member may be more beneficial than a casual relationship with several. Other observers noted that the teacher-student ratio facilitated communication and improved, in intangible ways, the environment of learning.
Stephens College in the mid-1960s developed an effective team teaching approach by experimenting freely with flexible class scheduling, a variety of teaching aids, and a program of independent study liberally laced with tutorials and seminars. The


lounges and recreational rooms were used for classes, while a small lounge housed a small library. The success of this program was measured in the teacher-student ratio of one to twenty, which encouraged interaction and made individual attention to education possible. Critical to this success was the faculty attitude of teaching as its principal mission, not a distraction from its scholarly research.
The result of this experiment was an improvement in the learning environment and more efficient use of the resident hall facilities, as well as reducing the travel time between classes. The vital design application from this project was making the classrooms important working parts of the resident hall rather than appendages to it.
In addition to residential instructors, other strategies have been used by higher education institutions. The modem technology of close-circuit radio and television have brought the classroom into the private living space with varying degrees of success. Thle advantage of this technology is eliminating the cap on student enrollment in a class. The loss of individual instruction remains a critical problem, however.
Small branch libraries in or near the resident hall make reference material close to home, and relieve overcrowding in the main library. While such a collection is no substitution for a large and expensive collection, it can create an atmosphere conductive to intellectual growth. Duplicates from the main library as well as the paperback revolution make such independent collect-tions possible. The effect of introducing residential teaching


communities, books, music art, and technology to dormitories that formerly provided bed and board alone, is symptomatic of the trend toward making the living environment conducive to learning. The result of this on the total educational process resists precise measurement, but its potential is great when considering that it can do much to educate in ways that are not encouraged by formal curriculum. Many institutions understand this potential by providing their students with the amenities of the residential community in the belief that these produce educational returns.
Living in any dormitory is a learning experience. It is up to the institution to decide what it wants the student to learn there, and to plan the building accordingly. It may choose simply to create an environment which is hospitable to unstructured learning. It may emphasize the intellectual and the cultural as well as the academic aspects of college life by encouraging informal associations between teachers and students. It may simply provide an availability of art, music, and books within the resident community.
The Academic and Residential Community
The residential community can be a vital adjunct to the academic community and is often created in the hope of arresting the disintegration of the latter when its population disperses at the close of the business day. This view was not always the case of higher education in America, which has grown and evolved in response to a number of forces. What is the evolution of the campus form in creating an academic community and the relationship of the residential community to it?


The early colonial American college traces its lineage to the English models of Cambridge and Oxford Universities. They were based as a community of masters and students living and studying together in the monastic cloister, which enforced a controlled environment of learning. Symbolically, the cloister expressed inner reflection and a barrier from the outside world. In the mid-sixteenth century however, Cambridge broke the absolute enclosure of the cloister with the development of the three-sided quadrangle, which was reflected in the physical form of the American college.
The early colleges in America were single structures where instruction and the living units for both instructor and student were under one roof. As each institution grew, additional buildings were constructed with a variety of patterns reflecting openness as well as a sense of community. These early colleges were located in rural settings in harmony with the monastic tradition of isolation. Even as the rapid growth of cities surrounded the colleges, the tradition of freestanding buildings within an open plan continued to be the pattern for campus planning. For example^,?::- Yale College (now Yale University) was tied into New Haven with its "Old Brick Row" arrangement which, unlike the square, could be extended to receive additional structures. As an elaboration of this concept, the University of Virginias academic lawn became a standard campus design form. Thomas Jefferson's academic village, begun in 1817, was inspired by his theories of a reformed curriculum, yet it maintained a sense of a residential community because instructors and students lived


in close proximity. Instructors were housed in pavilions flanking the academic lawn; students were housed between each pavilion-a tradition that continues to this day.
The Gothic Revival in the academic setting was established in the 1840's in part because of the significance that was placed on education and its connection to the medieval cloister; the classroom and the living units continued to be under the same roof. With the modem technology of the automobile in the 20th century, the face of the academic community changed. The commuter college broke the long-held tradition of the container academic community, creating a wide-open and disunified campus plan with the impact of parking lots and a disbursed population. In the 20th century, traditional campus forms disappeared in the design of new campus facilities, in part because of the criticism that traditional forms were no longer suited to modem education.
The individuality of each campus structure was expressed with modem construction materials that made no attempt to reconcile with its older counterparts. A notable exception to this was the work of Eero Saarinen at the University of Chicago and at Yale. Saarinen sought harmony and compatibility between the new facilities and the old through the use of materials, site, and scale.
There has developed in the last twenty years a new interpretation of the traditional ideas of the college campus within the modernist context. Kresge College, at the University of California at Santa Cruz, is an example. The architects, Charles Moore and William Turnbull, expressed their belief that the undergraduate residences should cultivate a feeling of comnunity. The housing units were


located on a path between the dining hall and the faculty/college offices. This arrangement became a pedestrian street which tied the conminity together physically and socially.
While many campuses have suffered with the impact of the automobile and the resulting parking lots consuming open space, the significance of human interaction has continued to be recognized as a vital element of the college campus. The offering of a variety of services, from the athletic facilities to student unions where commuters can enjoy some of the convenience of campus living, and pedestrian streets, are common landmarks on the academic landscape.
Spacial Perceptions and Special Interest Housing The ideal residential hall design for students will create manageable groups where residents can find companionship without pressure to conform, and privacy without isolation -- a difficult design task for the architect. The potential creation of special interest housing on a college campus further complicates this work when accounting for flexibility in design to accommodate the changing needs of such living units.
Taking this design sophistication a step further, an investigation of spacial perceptions and environmental traditions among various cultures as a design reference for international student residents represents an even greater challenge.
The concept of international student housing is based on a desire to orient the newly-arrived student in a gradual fashion to the American scene within the context of a reasonably familiar spacial setting. In addition, American students can learn first-


hand about different cultures without leaving the country. The potential for cross-pollination of knowledge and experience is enhanced. The difficulty of designing for cultural appropriateness is linked in part to developing a methodology for such a study, such as targeting specific cultural groups for a more manageable survey, identifying their cultural-spacial perceptions, establishing commonality among the forms, if any, and finally designing the living units based on these common forms.
Studies have been successfully made in cases where a single, identifiable culture is involved, such as Wolfgang Preisers' study of Navajo culture for the Mission Academy Student Housing in 1981. Since the physiological and physical needs of all people are fundamentally the same, it should be possible to identify and design an environment with characteristics that are ideal for all groups. In reality, both cultural groups and individuals differ greatly, not in basic needs but in what they want within a social context. These social wants vary considerably and are less well-defined than physiological and physical needs because they are influenced by a long train of historic and social forces, in addition to traditions and hopes for the future.


Education has long been regarded as the salvation of civilization. The quality of that education is therefore a reflection of both how our culture views the role of education and the quality of that culture itself. It follows that the architecture of educational institutions reflects the values that society places on education.
An examination of collegiate architecture reveals great diversity in forms and intentions. In examples spanning many years, the college image reflects the prevailing architectural styles of their respective eras, despite the attempts at seeking a style that succinctly expresses the essence of education. In addition, the campus form as a whole mirrored contemporary theories of planning. The original form of the monastic cloister reappeared only with casual regularity.
Presently,the American college campus represents a paradox and faces perhaps its greatest challenge. Higher education is available to more people in our time than in any previous era, yet declining budgets have curtailed the building programs of many institutions that would acconmodate new students. The impact of the automobile has additionally changed, perhaps irreversibly, the face of campus design. The erosion of the bond between the residential and academic conmunities has been tempered, however, with the reaffirmation of this traditional relationship among several institutions. Bringing the teacher and the student together in a residential setting has brought the monastic cloister to full circle.


SITE CONDITIONS


Site Context
Denver, Colorado


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Auraria Campus Projected 10 Year Development Plan


CONTEXT
Denver had its birth along the Cherry Creek and South Platte River banks. Today, what was once the site of the town of Auraria, is now a major urban campus of the same name. What remains of this historic town may be seen at the Ninth Street Historic Park.
In the 1960s, the city began to consider a redevelopment of the area due to a deteriorating neighborhood fabric. In 1972, voters approved a $42 million bond issue which created the Auraria Higher Educational Center. The result was the demolition of the area, with the exception of three churches, fourteen houses on 9th Street, and the Tivoli Brewery, which are described briefly on this and the following pages.
St. Elizabeth's Church And St. Francis Interfaith Center
St. Elizabeth still serves as a church and is not the property of the campus. However, the St. Francis Center is an interdenominational student support service.


St. Cajetans
Originally slated for demolition, St. Cajetans was saved by the local parishioners of the church in order to give it landmark status. Built in 1926 in a Spanish mission vernacular, the church serves as a lecture hall and performing arts facility.
Enmanuel Gallery
Emmanual Gallery is a Gothic chapel which was built in 1874 and which is Denver's oldest standing place of worship. Originally an Episcopalian church, the building was later converted into a synagogue by the congregation of Shearith Israel. Today, Emmanual Gallery is used as a student art gallery.


Tivoli Brewery
The 114-foot tower of the Tivoli -Union Brewery is a striking landmark on the Denver skyline. Built in 1880, it was the first brewery in Colorado. In 1973, the building was acquired by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority to be transferred to the state as part of Auraria. Tivoli is under long-term lease to a private developer who created an historic-flavored center for retail and conmercial use.
The Ninth Street Historic Park
The Ninth Street Historic Park is the Oldest residential block intact in Denver. The oldest house in the park is at 1020 Ninth Street and was built in 1873. The houses are used for faculty offices and educationally related programs. It is a common for student activities and meditation, and for public enjoyment.


Landscaping
The formal landscaping of Larimer Street on the campus can be tied in with the site. The housing complex can also serve as an entry
to Auraria.


View Planes
The strong axis between the site and Tivoli Brewery is the major view plane of this proposal. It can serve as Auraria's "academic lawn" for future development.


Spacial Analysis
The large athletic field between the site and Tivoli Brewery, and development of Cherry Creek will be major open space amenities.


STOP SERVICE ROUT^r ENTRY
Service and Mass Transit
The site would be a major stop on the campus shuttle route.


Building Plan
The student housing proposal would be on the edge of the campus, serving as a model for future development along Cherry Creek. It would also be a transitional structure in the urban fabric between
Auraria and downtown.


Pedestrian Circulation
Pedestrian traffic is expected and desired between the campus and downtown. The site can serve as a transitional area, with pedestrian usage to increase from moderate to heavy.


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Project Nome:____Student Housing Complex_________________________________________
I ortiftw Denver. Colorado; adjacent to Speer Blvd. and south of Cherry Creek,
between Larimer St. and Market St._____________________________________
Applicable Code Building Code of the City and County of Denver, 1982.
Code Check Ry- Paul Leemon_________________________ 10/14/86_____________________
Section
1604 16-3
1301 13-1
1801 18-1
511_______ 5-13
505 5-3
Item
Fire zone 3________________________________________________n/a
Occupancy classification
Principle H Division 2_____________________________________
Others (specify)__El_______________________________________n/a
Construction type
Occupancy separations required_______________________ n/a
H 2 to H 3 1 hours
H 2 I 1 hours
H 2 to J 1 1 hours
H 2 tn J 2 u hours
H 2 to H 2 0 hours
Changes in occupancy_________n' a________________________n/a
Maximum allowable floor area_____________________________n/a
1.25% for each foot
If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides____________n/a
not to exceed 200% minimum width: greater
If over one story of area permitted_____than 20 feet_____ a/a
for 1 story building
If sprinltlered___________________________oZa____________n/a
Increases for fire separations
nZa.
n/a
1


m
506-
types)
1ZQL
1A.
5=1
12=11
Muiaun allowable height
Feet Unlimited____________
Stories Unlimited
n/a
n/a
n/a
Not used for habitation or storage. Towers,spires,steeples Noncombustible material: unlimitedn/a
Combustible: not more than 20 feet.
Fire resistance of exterior wails (see occupancy 6c construction
North South East Vest _
Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior walls n/a North 20 feet__________________________________________________
South 20 feet East 20 feet West 20 feet
Location within city/ location on property
-oZa.
n/a
Use of Public Property
n/a
n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property7-Restrictions on marquees, conopies, etc. ____________
1 ans
Other projections.
13-2__ Windows required in rooms Open to court, yard or streg^
Window area 7 feet high, no more than 7 feet deep.
At least 50% than otherwise required.
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd. Fnr ? st-m-ies: at least 3 fee
6 inches for each story
______ Ventilation requirements_______________________________n/a
mi
13-2_ Minimum ceiling heights in rooms 7 feet: at least 50%^ area.
2 5 feet or less: balance


1727
17-12
Minimum floor are* of rooms Fire resistive requirements____
Exterior bearing wails_________
Interior bearing walls________
Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame _______
Permanent partitions
Exit corridor walls___
Vertical openings_____
Floors _______________
Roofs
Exterior doors
Exit doors Sc frames Inner court walls _
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) Roof coverings______________
Boiler room enclosure
Structural requirements Framework_____________
Stairs_____
Floors_____
Roofs _____
Partitions Exits______
A.
A.
1.5
.75
.75
n/a
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
Occupancy
Basis
Actual Load
3


3302
33-3
3302 33-4
3302 33-4
3J22 33-21
3302 33-5
3303 33-5-6
3304 33-7-8
Number of exits required 2 or more required if floor arean/a divided by 20(SF per occupant) is greater than 20.
Minimum width of exits (in feet) Total occupant load__ n/a
divided by 50.________________________________________
Exit separation arrangement At least 2 of the exits be n/a remote from each other to permit 2 means of egress. Minimum distance: 25 feet
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit within 100 feet n/a With sprinklers within 150 feet____________________________
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas) ______n/a
Permitted, provided with direct means of egress to exit corridor, stairway, exterior exit._________________________
Exit doors
n/a
Minimum vidth 8. height Width: 3 feet Height: 6 feet 8 inches Maximum leaf width Shall not exceed 4 feet__________
Width required for number of occupants For 30 or 1:10 r':
Swing
In direction of exit travel.
Change in floor level at door Exit Corridors__________
No more than 1 inch lower than threshold
n/a
At least 44 inches.
Required width
RpnnirpH h*iohr At least 7 feet> measured to lowest projection 4 8 rrom ceiling.
Dead end corridors length
4
Not, to exceed 2Q feet


m
330^ 33-9
3305 33-9
3305 33-9
3305 33-9
3305 33-10
33-10
Openings Doors protected by fire assembly with fire rating of 45 minutes.
Stairs
n/a
Min. width At least 44 inchqfi.^ load more than 50.
At least 36 inches________________occ joa(j0f 50 or less.
At least 30 inches less than 10.
Maximum riser allowed Minimum tread allowed
occ. load of occ. load of
7.5 inches
10 inches
n/a
n/a
Winding, circular, spiral stairs binding: Requires tread at 1'^ incaeb from narrow. Circular: As exit, minimum run not less than 10 inches at point 12 inches from narrow.___________________________
Landings__________________________________________
Equal in dimension measured in Minimum width rqd. direction of travel.___________
n/a
Maximum width rqd. 5 feet with straight run.________________
Vertical distance between landings Not exceeding 12 feet 6 inches Handicap refuge space At least 25 inches x 42 inches for all floors above first floor.___________________________________
Stair to roof rqd.?____________________^____________________n/a
Barrier with stairs at basement Stair to basement restrictions and upper story______________ n/a
Stair enclosure rqd.?
Stair headroom____
Handrails_________
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Rqd. at each side?
Intermediate rails rqd ?
Max. width between interior rails Rqd. height________________________
Max. openings in rails Height above nosing _
5


Extension of railing Projection from wall Exceptions___________


509 5-16
SQ2 5-16

m 64-1
6403 64-8
Horizontal exit requirements
Ramps _______________________________________________
Width________________________________________________
Maximum slope _______________________________________
Landings_____________________________________________
Handrails____________________________________________
Exit signs rqd. _____________________________________
Toilet room requirements (code utilized?)____________
Fixture requirements (basis?) _______________________
WC: 1 per 8; Lav: 1 per 12
women________________________________________________
WC: 1 per 10; Lav: 1 per 12; Urinals: 1 per 25 Men__________________________________________________
Drinking fountains 1 per 75 with 1 per floor.________
Showers______________________________________________
Handicapped Requirements ____________________________
Site Parking, passenger loading zone, curb, ramp_____
and other site development requirements, refer to Zoning Ordinance.____________________________________
Accessible Routes Minimum clearance width: 36 inches. Passing Space: 60 inches; slope not to exceed 1:50
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
6


6403______ 64-21 Accessible bathrooms Clear Floor Space: at fixtures,
controls, accessible route and turning spaces may overlap. Urinal, lavatory, mirror,WC: at least one of each. Controls, dispensers, receptacles; at least one of each
on accessible route._____________________________________
Showers: at least one.___________________________________
mi
6403
64-7 Accessible housing ________________________________________n/a
Number of units_________________________________________
Minimum requirements Clear width for single wheelchair:
32 inches to point; 36 inches continuous run.___________
TWo wheelchairs to pass: 60 inches._____________________
180 turn: 60 inches; Clear floor space: 30 inches x 48 inches. High reach: forward 48 inches, side 34 inches, low greater than 64-~34 Special rqmts. not listed_______________________________n/a
Laundry facilities on accessible route._________________
7


(gfhtataft
SiMi
Student Housing Complex
Project Name:
Location- Denver, Colorado; adjacent to Speer Blvd. and south of Cherry
Creek, between Larimer St. and Market St.______________________
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: City and County of Denver Colorado____________
Zoning Check By: Paul I^emon______________________ Date: 10/14/86
Section
Page
Item
Proposed uses Residential dormitories for students attending Auraria Higher Education Complex.
---------- ------- Present Zoning Classification ______£2_________________
59-222______4220 Applicable Allowable Uses University or college
including residential accommodations for students
.aptLfaculty._______________________________________
_________ ______ Zone Change Required? ______&________________________
59-224 4221 Minimum Lot Size
area: Not loss than 12f500 SF_____________________
width: Not less than 100 feet at front setback line.
59-224___ 4221 Minimum Yard Requirements
front: Not less than 20 feet, provided for rectangular structures, front setback may be reduced to
10 feet on either long dimension,
i


SQ-??4_______ 47.7.3-4
39-224____ 4221
rear: Not less than 20 feet from each rear line.___________
Side: Not less than 7 feet 6 inches from each side line.
both sides: ______nZa______________________________________
allowances for overhangs: See page 4 of Zoning Check
Maximum FAS Building footprint shall not exceed 60% of area zone lot.
Available Bonuses ________________________S/l______________
Maximum Height __________________________n/a
feet: ______________________________________
stories: ___________________________________
Bulk Planes See diagram below_______________
/
/
Off street Parking
rqd. spaces by use: n/a
rqd spaces for project: _____n/a
parking permitted in setbacks?:
n/a
2


n/a
Open Space Requirements
Landscaping Rqmts. _________n/a
5.1-m____ A22Z
59-549___ M
59-585-6 4346-7
not exceeding 48 inches in height at front line. Fences txrt-f.xc.eediog-7.2...inches in height, elsewhere.
Sign Restrictions Permitted Contents: ID by letter,
number, symbol by name, use hours, services.__________
Permitted Sign Types: wall, window, ground and archade.
Maximum Number: 5 signs or 2 for each frontline of
zone lot. Maximum Sign Area: 20 SF or 1 SF for each
dwelling unit, not to exceed 96 SF of total sign area
and not more than 32 SF to any one street front.
Other Special Requirements______________________________
Small Car Allotments: Not to exceed 50% of total off-street parking spaces.______________________________
3


Allowances For Overhangs:
18 inches all sides
Pilasters
Lintels
Sills
Belt courses
Front: 3 feet Back: 5 feet Side: 18 inches
Cornices
Eaves
Gutters
Front: 5 feet Back: 10 feet Side: 3 feet
Outside stairways Building accessories
for controlling light
Ramps for Handicapped
Encroach onto setback permitted, provided: no other alternative location available, compatible with character of structure.
Front: 5 feet Back: 5 feet
Unwalled porches
Terraces
Balconies
Front: any distance Canopies
All Sides: any distance Any structure below grade
4


CLIMATE, LIGHTING AND ENERGY


CLIMATE
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver' weather: Arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. There is a low relative humidity which makes temperature extremes more tolerable. There are large temper ature changes from night to day. Winter winds can cause severe cold spells, but summer afternoon clouds keep temperatures from reaching severe highs. Winds are predominantly light and from the south, but the most intense winds are from the northwest. Precipitation is greatest in the spring and winter the least. Denver itself is typically two to four degrees warmer than the outlying areas during the winter months. There is a less pronounced temperature difference in the summer. The downtown area also receives less precipitation than the surrounding areas with the precipitation difference of snowfall in the winter months varying from an average of 66 inches per year at the airport to 56 inches in the central part of the city.


Temperature
Located on the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains, Denver is characterized by the mild interior continental climate typical of the high, semi-arid plain. The area experiences mild seasonal temperature differentiation, a significant daily temperature swing, and low levels of precipitation and humidity. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5 or 6 days are rare and the resulting mild weather and high level of solar radiation, contribute to Denver's pleasant climate.
Dry, high plains air and predominatly clear skys result in a daily temperature swing that is normally greater than the^winter to sunnier swing, which ranges frcm a monthly mean of 29.9 F in January to 73F in July. Occasional chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. The average yearly temperature is mild at 50.2F.
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY lF| DENVER, COLO.
Nona 1 Degree Davs
Dally Pal 1 v Month 1v Record Record 5*>F 90 F and 32F and
Month Max Imutn Minlour Mean Hlrh Low (Meat Inc) (Cool In*) above be J ov
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 10RS 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 902 0 0 2?
Ha r 50.1 :j.* 37.0 84 -11 060 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.4 47.5 85 . * 17* 0 0 . 13
Kav 70.3 43.6 57.0 46 22 251 0 * 2
Jun 8".l Sl.t 46.0 104 30 flr 110 0
Jul 0 7.4 5 A.6 71.n 104 43 n 744 15 0
Aug 85. P 57.4 71.6 101 4) 0 206 9 0
Sep 77.7 47.8 62.0 9 7 20 120 56 * 1 i
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 RH 3 408 > 0
Nov 53.3 25.4 34.4 79 - H 76H 0 0
Dec 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -IK 1004 0 29
Annua 1 64.0 36.2 50. 1 104 -30 6016 675 32 16?
. , . . .. Source: Department ol (omnur-e. 1u 1 /
Lean than on** half.


HEATING DEGREE DAYS. BASE 65 F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
Decree Days
The concept of degree days is useful for determining a buildings energy requirements. Degree days figures help predict energy demands by revealing peak periods of space heating and air conditioning within a facility. The highest heating demand occurs between December and January, with 1040 heating degree days.
non* niis


Precipitation
Lying in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky mountains, Denver's dry environment is subject to a mean annual precipitation of less than 15.6 inches. The greatest precipitation occurs in spring, during the months of April, May and June, although heavy thunderstorms are not unconmon during the warm sunnier months. Winter months are normally the driest and from November to March, precipitation usually falls as snow. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24 hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 and 19.4 inches respectively.
DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA linches] DENVER, COLORADO
''onch Total Preclol t.it Jon an Nunher of Days with Prec Lnttac lor. .Cl inch ow Mean Mean Monthly Maxtmja .Monthly Minlnua Max Lrr.ua 24-hour Monthly Vi* m Uux Lsv.an
Jan .M ..** 15.'ll 1.02 A '* 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 9.0 15.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.99 0.13 J l.iK 9 n.6 25.2
Aor 1.93 4.17 o.ni 3.35 9 9.6 25.3 | 3
May 2.64 7. 3! 0.06 5.55 10 1.5 116 *b
Jan t. 91 4. n9 0. !0 3.16 9 TC 0. 1 0
Jul 1.79 6.41 0,7 2.42 9 0.0 0.3 0
A up. 1.29 4-u 0.06 _ 3.4 3 0.0 0,3
Sn-p 1.13 4. h7 2..* 6 1 .3 23.3 .
Oct 1.11 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 1.9 31.2 '
Mov 0. 74 2.97 0.01 1 29 5 7.4 36.1 2
0*c 0.43 2.94 0.0, 'w 5 6.5 30 * 2
Total 15.51 Ml r- 5.15 hH 5>.> 9.1 -
a Monthly total* ace rounded to the neurnt whole day. SOURCE: U. S. heparewent of v.raier^. /7
br)enotee lea* than one-half, cm.notes a trace of prec!pLtat Lon


Wind
Wind speed affects all the functional requirements conditioned by climate. Accordingly, wind data is a key variable in modifying the impact of both temperature and precipitation.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring, and lowest in late summer and fall. The highest average wind speeds have been recorded in March and April at 10.1 and 10.4 respectively. Prevailing winds are from the south while stronger winds generally originate from the northwest and can range up to 56 mph. However, sustained winds of 90 mph with gusts to 120 mph have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver.
Wind speed and direction are important in so far as they combine with outside temperatures to effect desired temperatures within a building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is functioning.
Month Mean Wind SDeed (aph) Prevaillng Direction Maxlciun Wind Speed Recorded (raph) Direction Associated with Maxinun
Jan 9.2 s 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW s
Mar 10.1 s 53 NW
Apr 10.4 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 SW
Jun 9.2 s , / S
Jul 8.5 s 56 SW
Aug 8.2 3 42 SW
Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct 3.2 s 45 NW
Nov 8.7 s 43 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCZ: U.S. Oeparcaenc of rce.


AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
Data Isurcai D.l. Vaatkar lurtau
Utuloa ( VIn4 Tanaai Dovaimm Cwnaar, rooftop alotitlM* at or Mar Mala Poac Offtea
Annual Frequencies of Winds of Various Velocities at Stapleton Airport, Denver, Colorado


Sunshine Duration and Cloud Cover
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the Earth's surface which is intense enough to create distinct shadows. As a result of Denver's altitude and high percentage of clear days, the area receives on the average 70/ of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30% cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80-100% cloud cover). The greatest amount of solar radiation occurs in July with the least in December.
MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA
Denver, Colorado
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of* Clear Dayn Number of* Partly Cloudy Days Number of* Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 u 5.3
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
Juna 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, L977.


DENVER, CO TEMPERATURE (F) ON 215T DAY OF:
J F M A M J - A S 0 N D
DAILY MAX CRT 40.7 43.1 e i t J dm X 65.0 n .2 81.3 65.5 82.2 69.2 65.5 48.9 45.6
DAILY AVE DBT 27.8 31.1 39.0 51.6 59.5 68.1 72.6 69.3 56.6 50.9 36.5 33.7
DAILY MIN DET 15.2 20.8 26.2 38.8 47.6 54.8 59.2 57.3 44.9 37.8 25.6 23.4
DAILY MAX DPT 17.1 22.0 24.7 32.2 43.5 51.8 50.5 51.8 42.9 31.1 24.9 21.5
DAILY AVE DFT 8.9 15.3 18.1 25.1 36.4 44.7 44.5 44.9 37.8 24.9 18.5 14.2
DAILY MIN DPT 0.7 8.6 10.6 16.9 28.1 36.4 36.9 36.2 31.5 15.7 11.2 7.4
DAILY MAX WBT 30.6 33.2 37.3 45.9 53.1 59.3 60.2 59.4 52.2 45.8 36.8 33.9
DAILY AVE WET 21.9 25.8 31.0 39.8 47.7 54.7 56.3 55.6 46.9 39.7 29.7 27.1
DAILY MIN WBT 12.6 18.5 23.2 33.5 41 .5 49.4 51.2 51 .4 40.8 33.0 22.5 19.8
NORMAL DAILY SOLAR RADI ATION (MONTHLY AVG) BTU/ 3Q FT (DAY)
J F M A M J J A S 0 N z
HORIZONTAL 5VO. 1127. 1530. i879. 2135. 2351. 2273. 2044 . 1727 . 1300. 1 .
SO VERTICAL 1440 . 1551. 1572. 1344. 1147. 1114. 1130. 1277 . 1535 . 1616. 1424. 1327 .
HEATING DEGREE DAYS BASE 6SF 6416.0 COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 6SF 967.1 COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 78F ET* 144.9
WINTER DESIGN DET 99.0% -5.0
97.5% 1.0
SUMMER DESIGN DBT / COINCIDENT W5T 1% 93.0 / 59.0
2.5% 91.0 / 59.0
o 89.0 / 59.0
SUMMER DESIGN WET 1% 64.0
2.5% 63.0
5% 62.0
% TOTAL HEATING HOURS (LESS THAN 66F) I-V 79.1
HEATING I 40.2
HEATING II 8.7
7 1
HEATING IV 9.5
HEATING V 13.5
% HUMIDIFICATION HOURS VI.A VI.3 4.5
% TOTAL COMFORT HCURS .SHADING REQUIRED) VII 9.3
% DEHUMIDIFICATION HOURS VIII 0.0
% TOTAL COOLING HOURS (GREATER THAN 7SF ET*) IX XVII 7.1
% PASSIVE COOLING HOURS IX XIV j y
COOLING IX c.c
COOLING X 0. c
COOLING V T 3.1
COOLING XII o.c
COOLING XIII 1 c
COOLING XIV 2.1
0 VENTILATION EFFECT IV fNESS HOURS IX X XI J 1
o, 0 MASS EFFECTIVENESS H URS X XI XII X11 I 4.6
c FVAFORATIVF COOLING E F F c C TIVEHESS HOURS XI XTII t XIV VI.P. 5 2
0 2_ HOURS BEYOND PASSIVE EFFECTIVENESS VIII XV XVI XVII 0.0
rFHUMID!FI CATION VIII 0 .L
DLHUM1 0IH CATION AND COOLING XV o.c
DEHUMIDIFICATION AND COOLING XVI o.c
COOLING XVII 0.0
Climatic Conditions Sunn-try


I F M A M I I A S 0 N D
TEMPERATURE
_pL_ 4 rr
max. 1 60 IT f UJ y -1- -FI jrn
mean min 4 -i tl y 11 tl IT
u= F u. uJ
HUMIDITY
CLEAR/C1OUDY
cloudy: 118---
partly c. 132-
clear 115-----
0T
7*'
*}
Climatic Conditions Summary


Plan of Solar Angles


zenith
Sun Angles for Denver 40 North Latitude


280
E
Solar
40
Chart for Denver
North Latitude
1U0


SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY;
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time A.M. Solar Pos1cIon Direct Normal Irradlac ion, Etuh/sq ft Solar Heat Cain Factors. Btuh/sq ft Sol ar T ime P.M.
Ale. Az Lmuch N NF c SF S sv w MW Hor.
S1TMVER 5 4.2 117.3 21 10 21 20 6 1 1 1 1 2 7
6 14.A 10A.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June 21 7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
A 17.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 15) 4
9 48.8 80.2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 1
10 59.A 65.A 272 35 62 145 14A 69 16 15 15 217 2
11 69.2 41.9 276 37 /.o AO 116 AA 4) 37 17 260 1
12 73.5 0.0 27A )A )A 41 71 95 71 41 18 267 12
Half Da v Totals 242 714 1019 810 111 197 1 A1 180 1121
WINTER A 5.5 51.0 88 2 7 67 A1 49 3 2 2 6 6
9 14.0 41.9 217 9 10 115 205 151 12 9 9 39 1
Oec 21 10 20.7 29.4 261 14 14 111 232 210 55 14 14 77 2
11 25.0 15.2 27 16 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 1
12 26.4 0.0 2A4 17 17 1A 177 251 177 1A 17 111 12
Half Da v Total a 49 54 3A0 All 781 271 50 49 2A2
*TotaJ solar hat gains for DS (1/8 In.) sheet glass. Based on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Reorinted from ASHRAF.
"Handbook nf Fundamentals, 1^7?
EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Solar Time Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. 0. -121.3
5:00 a.m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a.m. o. -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7" 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a.m. 5.5" -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a.m. 20.7 -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a.m. 25.0 -15.2 47. 7 -22.6 69.2 -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4 0.0 1
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES lin feet per one foot of obstruction!
40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time Leve 1 Ground 5Z S* Slope 5Z N Slope 5Z W Slope 5X E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2. 7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4. 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 !
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9
* Slope Is downward to Che souCh at a rate o£ 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.


Lighting
I. Lighting accounts for about 20$ of the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35$ of +he electrical use in office buildings. Office buildings are character Ized by daytime use patterns, long hours of lighting use, relatively high lighting levels, and high Installed watts per square foot, which results In lighting being the single largest energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.)
A. Reductions In lighting energy consumption are thus essentia! elements of a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and politically vulnerable energy sources.
B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savings.
I. Four different elements In this process can be identified:
a. Selection of efficient lighting systems and components over less efficient products.
b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use.
c. Improved operation and maintenance cf lighting sy stems.
d. A return to a partial reliance on natural lighting techniques.
II. Natural lighting serves several Important functions.
A. Visual power In defining and identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns.
B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical lighting requIrements.
C. Natural lighting techniques should Include both diffuse light from the sky (dayl Ight) and direct radiation from the sun (sun I Ight).
I. Additionally, sidelighting (reflected light through windows) and toplighting (skylights) should be considered.
D. Four major Issues must be confronted before daylIghting practice can be Implemented.
1. Analysis and design techniques.
2. ThermaI/I I I urn Inatlon tradeoffs.


3. Sun and glare control.
4. Lighting controls.
E. A full array of sun control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include:
1. Exterior arch Itectural appendages.
2. Exter1 or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl Inds.
3. InterI or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, blInds.
4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films.
a. It Is the opinion of experts In the field that dayllghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable climate management devices such as shades, blinds, and seIectlve f11 ms to control excessive solar gain.
5. It seems likely that office occupants will close shades and blinds to reduce excessive heat gain or glare for thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to realize daylighting savings.
F. In designing spaces which are to be naturally lighted. It is Important to consider that quality of light rather than greaTer Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are:
1. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper illumination for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower lighting levels are acceptable.
2. Nontask areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average lighting of approximately one-third the level of task IIghtIng.
3. Noncrttlcal lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a lighting level of approximately one-third the level of general lighting Is needed.
a. The efficiency of any lighting system Is directly affected by the reflectivity of Interior surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, floors and furniture.


b. In general, the designer can select light colors which reflect and contribute to the general visual comfort of a space.
Task Areas Footcandles on Tasks
OFFICE
General 100
Drafting 150-200
Accounting 150
Conference 30
Restroom 30
Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20
Lobby 50
EXTERIOR
Building 15-30
Parking 1-2
Levels of Illumination
4. To reduce glare from uncomfortably bright light sources cr ref Iectlons:
a. Reduce source brightness by dimming.
b. Relocate source outside field of vision.
c. Reduce reflectance of surfaces surrounding task.
d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc.
e. Select sources which distribute light away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.


Natural Lighting
Commercial buildings present many opportunities for the use of daylighting. Since commercial building design decisions are ultimately concerned with economics. It Is Important to establish the basis for significant cost savings using dayllghtlng.
A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high lighting levels required during the daylight hours Is the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy.
B. One of the most powerful reasons f or I ncorpcratl ng daylight design In buildings Is that, when properly used, daylight provides a lighting quality In arch ItecturaI spaces rarely equaled by artificial systems.
1. Daylight through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce celling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact wI th outdoor conditions.
2. Window openings also can provide visual rest when used In work environments.
3. Dayllghttng can complement artificial lighting. The following rules for dayllghtlng can be used:
a. Design artificial lighting to fill In areas of room where desired II lumlnation levels cnnot be achieved by dayllghtlng (e.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors).
b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting fixtures should be switched or dimmed to lower illumination levels or be turned off.
c. Use neutra I-coI or Interior surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial lighting Is used with day I IghtIng.
d. Admit day I I ght from two or more room sides to avoid sharp contrast between daylight and adjacent wall surf aces.
e. Admit day I ight from high locations at least one-half room depth, that are away from occupants' I Ine-of-sIght.
f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit daylIght to Interior spaces.
g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare. To lower brightness ratios, splay jambs and slope light wells.


h. Baffle daylighting openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions.
I. Use large-scale elements (e.g., horizontal overhangs, deep reveals, or flne-mesh screen, drapes, or blinds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse" effects.
j. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-light Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, white pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors of light than asphalt or grass.
k. Enhance daylight by using reflectors or topllghting in areas without view (e.g., clerestcrIes, light shelves) to project daylight deep Into interior spaces. Use roof coverings with high reflectances to Increase quantity of light admitted by cIerestorIes, and other top-lighting devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles.
l. Use I nter I or finishes with high reflectances to maximize effectiveness of both daylight and artificial lighting and to soften contrast with sky.
m. Do not use Iow-transmIttance glass (I.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adjacent to clear glass, open door, or open wIndow.


Energy Conservation
I. The energy consumed by a building during use Is a variable which can and should be controlled.
A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a bu11dIng are:
I. Functional Factors
a. Building I ocatI on
b. Building size and function
c. Floor area per person
d. Size of processing equipment and appliances
e. Building operating schedules
2. Environmental Factors
a. Lighting comfort levels
b. Thermal comfort levels
3. Envelope Factors
a. Orientation of building
b. Shape of bu iIdi ng
c. Mass of bu11dIng
d. Wall and roof Insulation value (U-value)
e. Glass area and location
f. Reflectivity of skin (walls, roof, glass)
g. Skin shading or screening
4. Air Conditioning System Factors
a. System controls
b. Air conditioning system design characteristics
c. Air conditioning equipment selection and efficiency
d. Heat recovery and recycling
e. Natural (outside air) ventilation provisions
5. Energy Source Factors
a. Availability of reelalmable waste heat (One of the mosT efficient ways to make use of internal heat gains is to recover heat generated by lighting system,s and use it to supplement mechanical heating systems.)
b. Energy-source selection
6. Electrical System Factors
a. Electrical power utilization efficiencies
b. Energy-source selection
y


7.
Additional Considerations
a. What Is the major supply/damand problem of the util It-'/ company ?
b. What alternative energy sources are available?
c. What Is the utility rate structure and how will it affect energy use?
d. How will building operation schedules affect energy use?
B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are:
1. Is the building going to be Internally or externally dominated? (Buildings with high surf ace-to-voiume ratios (houses, smaI I commere I a I) are externally dominated; bulldlngswith low surf ace-to-volume ratios tend to be internally dominated.)
2. How will climate affect building energy use?
3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature?
4. Is the primary problem energy demand or consumption?
5. Are there sources of reclaimable waste heat available?
6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities?
7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects?
Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysis, and should be evaluated In terms of its effect on the energy meter.
II. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety in buildings. Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include:
A. Openings for cross-vent I I at I on and daylighting purposes will tend to disrupt fire development In roems. Where ventilation is sufficient and fuel load small, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to Infiltration of cooler outdoor air.
B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to reinforce fire development by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.


C. External solar shading devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters.
D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial microclimate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For example, buildings at the edge of cliffs or other steep grades may restrict access to only one side.


Typical Energy Budget
* Building Envelope 10.55,
1. Walls + Windows 9.0'i
2. Roof, Floor + Skylights 1.5%
B. Building Contents 39.5%
3. Occupants 4. Appliances 2.5% 5.0%
5. Elevators, Motors, Fans+flisc : 15.0;.
6. Water Heating 7. Ventilation 5.0% 12.0%,
C. Lighting Systems 50.0%
8. Task + Ge.n'1 Illumination 48. G%
9. CXitdoor + Special 2.0%
D. Total Enerw Budget 100.0%


skin and mechanical capital costs S/si
6 7 8 9
annual operating energy cost $1000/yr
capital vs energy costs
COMPARISON OF SKIN AND MECHANICAL COST AND ANNUAL ENERGY OPERATING COSTS
FROM ENERGY IN DESIGN: TECHNIQUES THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


CASE STUDIES


Wu Hall
Dining, lounge, game room Princeton University New Jersey
First Floor
cu.fcr


Northwestern University Student Housing Illinois


Village B Student Housing Georgetown University Washington DC
TYPICAL FLOOR


San Pietto al Natisone Student Housing Italy
1. Gallery
2. Dining hall
3. Kitchen i. Office
5. Library
6. Director's apartment
7. Lounge
8. Living room
9. Auditorium
10. Portico
11. Single bedroom
12. Triple bedroom
13. Storage
1L Open to below
i fT
CD
ra lu

NORTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION


Deerfield Academy
Strident and Faculty Housing
Massachusetts


nm
n <-y i
Deerfield Academy J1 n u. \ Student and Faculty Housing OT 11J j Massachusetts


Pembroke Dormitories Brown University Rhode Island
y
First Floor
Second Floor


Pembroke Dormitories Brown University Rhode Island
Fourth Floor


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