The Denver aquarium

Material Information

The Denver aquarium
Leprich, C. Elizabeth
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[94], 62 leaves : illustrations, forms, maps (some folded), color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( Master of Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Design and Planning
Committee Co-Chair:
Cousins, Bruce


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquariums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Aquariums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 60-61).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
General Note:
Includes report: Platte Valley Development Committee, a concept plan, leaves 1-62 (2nd ser.).
Statement of Responsibility:
C. Elizabeth Leprich.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13802271 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .L466 ( lcc )

Full Text
the denver aquarium
"And God said, Let the waters under the heaven he gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so." -Genesis 1:9

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
C. Elizabeth Leprich Spring 1986

The Thesis of C. Elizabeth Leprich is approved
Committee Chairman
Principal Advisor*
Cousins, A.I.A
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1986

Introduction Diesis Statenent Project Description Impressions of the Site Aquarium History
Building Program (Narrative Description)
Site Alternatives Site Analysis Climate/Energy
Building Area, Building Height, Parking Building Code Information
-Building Program Charts -Building Code Checklist -Denver Planning Office Study and Diagrams
-Mechanical Systems
Solution and Photographs of the thesis product

"The sea surrounds us. Our continents are mere islands of weathered granite and basalt awash on a planet of water. The sea is within us too. The blood in our veins is remarkably similar in composition to ocean water. A reminder of a time when the land and air were uninhabitable, and only the sea supported life."
-excerpt from Secrets of the Peer) by Stephan Spotte (National Geographic, 1969)
The primary role of Aquarians within contemporary society is to provide the public with an understanding of their biological inheritance and a comprehension of the role of the oceans within the evolutionary past, present, and future. They serve as a vital educational link within our culture, and are capable of both entertaining visitors and of providing primary education of the -world of water and its vital role of. life support for the planet on which we live.

rt THESIS STATEMENT: The Aquarium is a public building uhich
has a responsibility to the residents of Denver of directly involving the visitor in an one-on-one relationship with the fish inhabitants and to interpret the broader ecological and geographical story of water and its dependent life-forms. As a function, the architecture must satisfy such responsibilities to the visitor with three factors; education, image, and entertainment.
Architecture as education provides a physical tool which helps to satisfy human nature's need to learn, explore, and discover; creating a "stimulus" for knowledge. The architecture can satisfy the senses with a method that will stimulate the mind in discovering questions and answers to intellectual issues, and which supplements the architecture with aesthetically stimulating visual multi-media tools needed in exploration and problem-solving.
By using pattern, texture, color, form, and light, a hierarchy of movement can beformulated, emphasizing the importance of the circulation and display arrangement in "telling a story"; in essence the function of educating the visitors. The fish themselves create the primary sense stimuli, and their beauty and fascination should serve as the main educational tool of which the architectural design will enhance.
As an educational tool, the Aquarium is to tell the story of a hydraulic cycle* the travels of water as it goes from the continental Divide to the oceans and is then "recycled" by nature, through cloud formations and precipitation, and returned to the mountains. Because of Denver's unique geographic position as a mid-way connection between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, two progressions can be illustrated westward from the Platte River to the Pacific via the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and the Sea c Cortez, and then eastward from the Platte River to the Atlantic via the Mississippi Riverto the Gulf of Mexico and the coral reefs off the Florida coast. This illustrative link between fresh water and salt water fish societies is the essence of life, and with innovative yet functiona displays, its overall importance to the balance of life on this planet can be emphasized, and the purpose of an Aquarium as an educational tool for the Denver metropolitan area can be realized.

The concept of creating an image through the design of the architecture can be used as a tool for becoming a focal point and creating a symbol for the city's identity. The image can be sculptural, emotional, or inventive but most importantly it should be simple and strong yet flexible enough to satisfy the changing times and needs of the people. The building has an opportunity to become a landmark, a hub of activity, and a source of orientation. This issue is vital in the creation of an image for the building.
Depending on the site's images, the Aquarii can either be a "sculpture in the park" or could take on a more urban appearance. In eithi case, the image must establish both a relationship with the downtown area and the bank of the water; whether it complements or contrasts those factors depends on the image chosei The image of the architecture must achieve such a physical landmark, both in exterior and interior treatment, and must evoke an emotion on those who view it.
Aquariums in contemporary society have developed a multi-faceted identity and role with! the community. They serve a variety of educational, recreational, and civic functions, as well as typical functions of conservation and research. Specific urban design issues that will be applied to the creation of an architectural image are i contecturalism, in response to the site, the Platte River, the downtown skyline, and the surrounding historical neighborhood; circulation, through the building, through -the site itself, and in access to the site from all directions of town; historical uses and references to the site in determining material and shape; access to views, sights, and sounds; and the solar implications.
The role of entertainment in the design of architecture is to evoke the emotions of adventure, surprise, and exploration. By tying together the elements of education and image, the architecture can provide a means by which each individual visiting the building can find a way to enjoy themselves in their own way.
In other words, it provides an entertainment tool which offers participatory architecture, bringing the visitor in touch with the aquatic way of life, and somehow disarming the boundary dividing air and water inhabitants.

The design of the exhibits and public spaces can use a sense of progression, Movement, and notion to enhance a discovery of the building and its inhabitants. Pattern, texture, sysbol, color, shape, and fora become integral elements in the evolution of the design, working together in the creation of adventurous architecture. The richness of the naterials, a sense of variety and change, and the use of naturalistic displays will further stimulate emotions in each visitor and will create a feeling of realism in the total presentation of the fish societies. For example, the feeling of darkness and enclosure within the viewing space recreates the sense of actual] being underwater and of viewing the water creatures in their natural habitats. In contrast, the entry space could be warm and inviting while being voluminous, multi-functional, and open, creating the feeling of airiness and centrality.
These three elements of education, image, and entertainment should satisfy emotional, visual and intellectual needs of the visitors and which together comprise the primary meaning of an Aquarium as an architectural statement. Furthermore, such issues create an Aquarium which satisfies the responsibilities it has to both the fish societies and to the Denver astro* politan community as a whole. The Aquarium will become the link between the public and the aquatic lifeforms in providing the physical essence of illustrating the world of water and its vital role in our biological evolution and in the basic support of life for the planet on which we live.

The Aquarium is anticipated to be an approximately 50,300 square-foot facility serving the Denver metropolitan area. Conceived as a multi-use structure, the building itself will contain seven primary exhibition components; Porpoise Pool and Amphitheatre, Reptile and Amphibian Gallery, Aquatic Habitats Gallery, Aquatic Lifestyles Gallery, Coral Reef Exhibit, Dea Bird Alcove, and Ohark Tank.
In addition, the building will contain support facilities, such as a Restaurant, Bookstore, educational Discovery Center, and administrative offices.
The Aquarium is to serve an essential role in the education of the residents of the Rocky fountain region concerning the aquatic environment and its relationship to /an. Additionally, it is recognised that the Aquarium is to provide quality entertainment and recreational interest to the metropolitan Denver community, as well as to the intermountain region.
Denver's Aquarium -'mould be designed to handle not less than 1,030,000 visitors per year. The building itself should be able to accomodate 2,510-3,000 visitors per hour. The visitors will range in age, lifestyle, education and interest; therefore a high degree of flexibility for evolving concepts and technologies will be required.
ith a building life expectancy of 30-50 years, quality materials and construction, along with a highly-educated staff, will provide a meaningful experience to its visitors. Because such a "high profile" image is desired, a large extent of the Aquarium's operating expenses can be generated from its visitors and through the revenue created by the restauran-amphitheatre, and bookstore support facilities.

As I move from site to site, observing the context and taking notes, a "sense of place" begins to take hold of my emotions. A feeling of history; past, present, and future, begins to permeate my thoughts; images and ghosts of things long gone make their presence known, and make me see what exists today on each site in a totally different way.
My first reaction to this new sensation is in response to the element of water, and its presence and power as a site enhancement. After all, the mere presence of a water element was the primary motivation in locating the Aquarium along the Central Platte Valley. All senses become attuned to the water's movement; pulling any visitor'vto the site towards its symphonic tranquility yet always hinting at its power and authority with every flow. The acceptance of water as the essence of life becomes apparent now, and makes the somewhat emotional choice of site that much more integral to the Aquarium's development, .ater is a precious resource to the survival of mankind; and because Denver is located in a semi-arid region of the country and is "land-locked" by a border of mountain and plain, the importance of water is accelerated.
Even though both the Platte River and Cherry Creek are but small, narrow ribbons of water when compared to the ocean bodies, they serve as the first step in following the hydraulic cycle of Colorado from the Continental Divide outward along eastern and western routes. Therefore, it makes sense to locate the building near the water's edge to reinforce the link between the Platte and the function of the Aquarium.
The next impression is to look out from the site, to take in the views both close at hard and faraway. In the background, the two elements which dominate are the Rocky Mountains and the Central Business District. An interesting phenomena occurs here; these two elements are always present and they always oppose each other in direction, as if to create a conflict and in turn, a feeling of excitement. The design should take advantage of this tension in its orientation, and should emulate the feeling of excitement they create.
Other strong elements viewed from each site form the immediate context for the Aquarium; the railroad yards, warehouses, open spare,

surrounding neighborhoods, the Platte River Greenway, and the highway. Each element creates a specific problem to which the building design must respond, and each one generates an emotion which the design can use to its benefit. The strongest emotion is one of historical context; bringing the past into the present. The railroad yards and the Platte River are reminescent o the past transportation modes which brought settlers to Denver, and the existence of neighborhoods illustrate how city growth developed around these means of transporatation. The open space is a positive/negative image to be used to develop a master plan; the highway creates a boundary to which the design must respond with some sort of barrier against noise and pollution.
The final impression felt from the site is one of a hypothetical nature in regards to future development; what will occur on each site and its surrounding area, as predicted by the Urban Design Office of the Denver Planning Depart' ment, and furthermore, what type of development will be spurred by the existence of an Aquarium in the area. The proposed developments by the Planning Department can be further researched in their Master Plan Study, included in the Appendix; but the prediction of what the Aquarium will mean for the future development of the Central Platte Valley is more abstract. Assumptions can be made in terms of what the Aquarium represents as an educational and entertaining element; its presence will reinforce the diversity needed in the area. Proof of this is seen in the presence of the new .ater Street Center complex being located next to the Children's Museum. Pith the existence of two public buildings in the Valley, the Aquarium and the Children's Museum, which both get alot of public exposure and visibility from downtown Denver and from 1-25, future developments which range from independent facilities, such as offices and housing, to surport facilities, such hotels and parks, can be*realised in the Central Platte Valley.

As a building type, the public Aquarium traces its history back to the aquatic facility which opened in I853 at the London Zoological Gardens. The issue of aquatic husbandry can find its origins in some of the classical cultures of the past.
As far back as 2500 B.C., the Sumerians of Mesopotamia are known to have stocked pools and ponds. The Chinese are given credit for
the first domestication of fish and for conducting breeding experiments with carp as far back as 2000 B.C. "However it was during the Sung Dynasty(900-1278 A.D.) that small aquaria were made of porcelain and small goldfish and carp were first bred for the sole pleasure of fish-watching a royal pastime."(Cambridge 7, 1984) Because these small aquariums were so popular, Chang Ch'ien-Te, the scholar, wrote the first book on aquarium management in 1596 A.D. Yet, as expected, it was the Roman civilization who first developed the large scale aquarium. They developed a system of salt water tanks which were supplied by a series of canals carrying salt water inland from the ocean. These facilities were not scientific in nature; instead they served as large salt water commissaries for a complex of banquet halls, truly a uniquely Roman approach.
The technical development of modern-day aquariums is a critical issue of design and function. "The main problem in aquarium management is that aquatic animals have more stringent and precise physiological requirements than do terrestrial animals. Because fish cannot regulate their body temperature, they need a stable environmental temperature, as well as precise balance between the saline content of their body fluids and that of the surrounding water."(Cambridge 7 1984)
The first pioneers of modern aquarium management are two Englishmen. In 1844, P.H. Grosse patented the process which makes a salt compound to be added to fresh water, producing a substitute for real sea water.
Five years later, Robert Warrington did initial experiments in oxygen enrichment of fresh water systems. These two separate discoveries were responsible for the opening of the "fish house" at the London Zoological Gardens. In the following ten years, many European cities

opened public Aquariums: Hanover in 1866,
Paris in 1867, Brussels in 1868, and Cologne and Berlin both in 1869.
At first, these "fish, houses" were simple in design and were often plagued with technical difficulties, such as in maintaining oxygen levels needed and in providing the amount of daylight necessary, encouraging plant growth yet not allowing the growth of algae in the tanks. Initially, the fish were displayed in table top tanks arranged in a classroom-like setting, with a "fountain system" of circulation which supplied the series of tanks. "The system pumped water to a central overhead tank that overflowed into the individual tanks in the Aquarium, then back into a collecting cistern below the tanks where water could be recirculated through the system again." (Cambridge 7> 198*0 This basic circulation system has been utilized and modified over the last century by many different types of Aquariums
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, two distinct architectural styles in Aquarium design have evolved; the British and the Continental. The Continental style can be typified as being naturalistic in design, and in general terms, is one of simulating a grotto-like environment. Occasionally, the natural rock-work in the tank habitat would be extended above the water's surface and into the exhibition space itself. The Hanover Aquarium typifiei this style, being designed to create one large grotto with no differentiation between the tank habitat and the exhibition space. In other Aquariums, this naturalistic effect manifested itself in a ruin of gothic origin.
The British style of Aquarium design was more conservative and practical in nature, thinking of the design in Ruskinesque terms: "buildings for scientific purposes should be plain and useful in all things, in appearance as in fact."(Cambridge 7 1984) The greatest emphasis was placed on scientific and technological aspects, placing the architecture in a less flamboyant fashion than its European counterparts. Generally, the British Aquarium was neo-classical in plan and with elevations of an appropriate order, that being predominantly doric. All things considered, the purpose of the British Aquarium was one of scientific re-

! i
Most of the premier Aquariums built in the United States prior to world war II were in keeping with British traditions. Both the Steinhart Aquarium of San Francisco, completed in 1923, and the John G. Shedd Aquarium of Chicago, built in 1929. are styled in a neoclassical manner. To further the British style, the Shedd Aquarium has a classic octagonal plan which emphasizes a central rotunda and many skylights.
In the years following .'Jorld War II, a change took place in Aquarium design in North America. This new direction in the overall concept of the Aquarium is quite evident in facilities such as the New England Aquarium in Boston, the Mystic Aquarium in Mystic, Conn., and the Vancouver Aquarium in Vancouver, B.C.
Tied to the change was the realization that an Aquarium has to develop a multi-faceted identity and role within the community.
This new direction in design is as follows: Aquariums are no longer "fish houses", "scientific clubs", or "gothic ruins"; instead they must serve a variety of educational, recreational, and civic functions as well as those of conservation and research. "Central to the issue of variety is the fact that many Aquariums are financially self-sustaining. That is, they must pay their own way through admissions and must compete for discretionary recreation spending within the entertainment industry. Therefore, not only must a successful facility provide a variety of activities for the community, but it must do them compeititively and in an entertaining and creative manner."(Cambridge 7> 1984)
The presence of such compeitition has brought Aquarium design to the forefront of zoological architecture and design. At times, Aquariums have even specialized in regional aquatic themes or have developed gallery exhibits which explain ecological or evolutionary paths.
In general, the goal of contemporary aquatic exhibitions has been to directly involve the visitor in a one-on-one relationship and to interpret the broader ecological and geographical story of water and its lifeforms.
-adapted from the program compiled by Cambridge 7, Boston, Mass., flay 1984.

To avoid monotony, the traditional presentation of long rows of displays in repei-tition along long public corridors should be discouraged. Current concepts in Aquarium design centers around the establishment of more complete ecological niches in which to present a layering of aquatic animals that represent and explain a message. The emphasis is placed on a few major exhibitions instead of a larger quantity of unrelated tank displays. Instead of portraying exhibits as if they were fish bowls or larger swimming pools, the emphasis now is placed on creating the illusion of nature. The intention of such a design solution is to create an environment where aquatic creatures will feel as if they are in a natural setting and will therefore lead somewhat normal lives and thus breed successfully as well as enjoy full lifespans.
Furthermore, recent Aquariums have placed as high priority the provision of quality of the public space. The emphasis is to provide aesthetic and attractive interior observation areas, always recognizing that true beauty should be found within the wildlife exhibited. In essence, the public areas are to provide a pleasant ambience where the public can interact and relate with the aquatic inhabitants.
In regards to circulation patterns, a controlled visitor flow seems to be the preferred concept by contemporary Aquarium designers.
More specifically, the public observation spaces are designed so that the visitors view the exhibits one at a time and in a controlled progressional order. This becomes crucial if the displays tell a successive story or are interrelated. A design solution that has been used in contemporary schemes is to provide looped bypasses of certain exhibits, as some people might find certain creatures objectionable.
Finally, the Aquarium staff needs a limited interface with the visiting public to function in their daily routine, and therefore do not necessarily need public access to accomplish thei: tasks. Such a concept is important for both staff efficiency and avoidance of abstracting the attention of the visitors.
Additional parameters applicable to the circulation scheme should be considered; one of

which is the need to confine exhibits to only one side of the public corridors. This concept eliminates the need for back-tracking through the exhibitions. Also, this type of viewing scheme will aid in the control of reflections and ambient light levels while helping to focus the visitor's attention.
Another parameter is the utilization of a multi-level plan that must be provided, due to the limited area of the site. The program's square footage requirements dictate the need for such a plan. A multi-level scheme can be connected by a series of gradual ramps so as to provide a fluid movement from level to level and from exhibit to exhibit. Such a ramping system could:
-minimize the transitional impacts of going from floor to floor -aid in retaining the attention of the visitor while viewing the exhibits -provide equal access for all visitors regardless of possible handicap or of age.
The overall design concept for circulation is to provide compartmentalization of public viewing with the intent of presenting the exhibits one at a time. Furthermore, there is a need to provide adequate "digestion time" between the viewing of major habitat displays.
This separation time can be enriched by providing smaller fish displays and a multi-media presentation to introduce, educate, compare, and contrast primary exhibitions to enhance the visitor's interest. This method separates patrons into smaller groups viewing the displays, allowing for greater concentration, fewer distractions, and one-on-one involvement between visitor and aquatic inhabitants.
Overall, the effect of the circulation schem is to create a sense of adventure and surprise through the exhibits and public spaces. By using level changes and by inviting visitors through the spaces while presenting new vistas of major exhibits, a sense of the intuitive path can be developed. Additionally, square comers should be avoided since they do not appear in nature; instead the use of curvilinear junctions should be an intention. These techniques, when applied together, will establish the illusion of a natural pathway as opposed to a one-directional street-like scheme.


"Denver's Aquarium should be designed to handle not less than 1,000,000 visitors per year. Inasmuch as the Zoo can draw 20,000-25,000 people in an 8-hour period at peak times, the building should be able to accomodate 2,500 -3,000 visitors oer hour."(Flynn, 1985)
viithin the circulation scheme, there will be a need for a centralized entrance hall with access from both the main entry and the service/ receiving area. If the site chosen is directly located on the Platte River, the entrance hall must have access from the bicycle/pedestrian path as well. Located withih the entry space are the following functionss
-cashiers and ticket-takers -public restrooms -public telephones -drinking fountains
-security guard-post/first aid/lost & found -gift shop and bookstore -seating areas, lounge, and cloak room -janitorial closets
To generate excitement and to entice a sense of adventure in the visitors, a major exhibit with a dramatic theme should be visible from the entry area.
Square Footages:
Common Service Facilities 10,205
Public Areas(entry, restrms) 2,500
Gift Shop 1,000
Restaurant 3,500
Discovery Center 2.500
The Discovery Center should be located to one side of the main entry to provide direct accessibility for school groups and special tour groups. Furthermore, this area could serve an orientation purpose for visitors. Included in this space will be a "touch tank" where children will be encouraged to handle harmless marine animals(starfish, sea urchins, crabs, etc.) as a learning experience, along with the viewing of natural artifacts (shark jaws, sea turtle shells, sea fans, etc.). A special area for docents to demonstrate tame reptiles will be created along with electronic interpretive methods and participative materials.

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The Restaurant, located on the building's upper floor, should be versatile enough to interest use for evening parties, receptions, etc. It should be accessible by elevator for the evening patrons for easy egress. A full-service bar-restaurant which seats 125 people would expand the Aquarian's services and enhance revenue production. "Aquariums have demonstrated their popularity and ability to generate income through being booked for private parties with cocktails and dinner included."(Cambridge 7
198*f) This way, the Aquarium can be self-supporting. Should the restaurant not prove successful, a catering kitchen would be retained and the remainder of the space could be converted into an Insectarium. "A possible design concept might include locating the restaurant on a cantilevered balcony over the porpoise amphitheatre so that patrons could see the animals and/or view the front range of the Rockies."(Cambridge 7, 198*0
Entrance to the Aquariam could be conspicuously attractive with the remainder of the structure obscured by plantings. The vehicular access side of the building could have a prominent character quite different in orientation from the River side. Use of reflecting pools containing fish and water lilies and/or a sculpture piece should be considered as site enhancements.
This area is meant to be an exhibition for the purpose of educational and behavioral demonstration of Cetaceans, specifically Bottlenose dolphins, along with the possibility of trained Pinnipeds(Sealions). The dolphins will require a saline habitat.
The public amphitheatre is to be an all-weather facility with a seating capacity of at least 1000 persons and an exhibition tank of 150,000 gallons, which affords a view of both above-and below-water viewing. Also, there is a need for a stage area located adjacent to the exhibition tank equipped with a public address system and stage lighting. This facility could take advantage of natural daylighting because lighting control is not critical here for water management. The amphitheatre will require acoustical treatment as it is intended to also serve an auditorium-type function. Projection facilities and a large, roll-up screen should also be included.

Several components to "be included in the support facilities are as follows:
-3 holding tanks -2 quarantine tanks -food preparation -trainer's room -storage -portable hoist
Square footages:
Exhibition Area:
Stage and Exhibition 1,500
Grandstand Seating 9,000
Service Facilities:
Food Preparation 150
Storage 200
Trainer's Room 100
3 Holding Tanks V, .00
2 Quarantine Tanks / ^
Mechanical Systems 800
The purpose of the reptile and amphibian gallery will be to bring about a greater understanding and appreciation of those often misunderstood animals. Such acceptance will be accomplished by displaying them in a naturalistic and aesthetically pleasing environment complemented by a full range of educational graphics, videos, and interpretive displays.
The educational exhibit concepts to be applied are: food-finding methods, defense, reproduction, thermoregulation, convergent evolution, Colorado species, types of venomous reptiles, mimicry, and evolutionary relationships. Also to be included is a variety of themed exhibits, each with a sense of purpose to illustrate chosen concepts. A "cool room" for housing amphibians must be included.
Several possibilities for major habitats are as follows:
Amazon Rain Forest
Predominantly composed of tropical forest, this region is one of the world's richest wildlife areas. Conceptually, the exhibit could recreate a large section of Amazon riverbar with underwater viewing for the visitors.
Spaces above and below the water, as well as between major aquatic exhibits, would be adapted for a variety of species.

Southwestern Desert This exhibit is meant to contrast the other two exhibits and show how creatures adapt to desert climate and the chronic shortage of water. Thermoregulation and adaption to water scarcity are to be its central educational message 3y providing a dual display of the desert by day and the desert by night, The complete life-systems can be understood.
v.'est African Forest
This exhibit can be used to both compare and contrast the other two exhibits, displaying such concepts as divergent evolution and. the adaptive diversity of its animals. Some of this section could be a nocturnal display with at leant one crocodile pool providing underwater display.
The following are required service facilities:
-a refrigerator used to store antivenin -snake bite alarm system -food preparation area -freezer for frozen food items -holding and breeding facilities for live food
-large holding and quarantine facilities
Square Footages:
Exhibition Areas:
public Observation 2,000
Habitat Areas 2,265
Service Areas:
Food Preparation 100
Storage 75
Office/workstation 100
Live Food Breeding/Holding 200
.. orkroom 150
Animal Holding/Breeding 500 5,390
This gallery would serve to tell the story of a hydraulic cycle: the travels of water as it goes from the clouds to the mountains and on to the ocean, and bacl-^gain.
"The water cycle could^n South Park, Colorado and travel down the South Platte to the ultimate junction with the Mississippi. From the Mississippi River the water could be traced to a coastal estuary on the Delta."(Cambridge

7, 198^) This entire cycle could be explained and illustrated by a series of exhibits.
A composite display would begin with a section cut through a Platte River beaver pond and transform itself into a section showing a Colorado trout habitat and explaining the ecosystem of mountain streams and rivers. Following this would be a presentation which illustrates the travel of water on its way to the Mississippi River, and leads to the next habitat display relating to under-and-above water viewing of the aquatic wildlife found on the Mississippi River. Further graphic presentation and smaller displays would fill the story of the journey as it approaches the tidal lowlands.
A similar presentation would tell the story of the travel of water as it follows the Colorado River toward the Gulf of Mexico.and into the Sea of Cortes, off the Baja Peninsula. At this point, a reference would be made to the habitats of the desert and would serve as a tool in connecting the reptile and amphibian habitats to the water cycle.
"The exhibit is to be considered as an integrated story that relates the complex interrelationships found in this vast ecosystem.
The narrative could explain and show how the interregional ecologies are all a part of a closed aquatic system."(Cambridge 7, 198^)
Square Footages:
Public Areas:
Observation Areas 750
Habitats 1,800
Service Facilities:
Dry Storage 100
i orkstation 100
Workroom 200
Animal Back-up Facilities 750
Mechanical Room 522 ^+,200
The sea bird exhibit is meant to illustrate the adaptions of birds that live an aquatic-type life, such as Puffins from Iceland. Such species require both a refrigerated environment and an air filtration system for life support. Envisioned as a sea cliffs environment with a glass-

fronted swimming tank, authenticity of a natural surrounding can he achieved. To further this idea, a cutaway nest could he a part6f the exhibit to show the brooding behavior of the birds and to allow them to actually burrow for their nests. Other compatible birds, such as Alcids, may also be included.
Required service facilities are as follows: -food preparation -short-time freezer storage
-separate quarantine facilities(air-filtered) -back-up facilities -mechanical systems
Square Footages:
Public Areas:
Public Observation 500
Puffin Habitat 500
Service Facilities:
Food Preparation 50
Freezer 100 -
Puffin(Handling/Quarantine) 300
orkstation 100
Mechanical 500 2,050
The intent of this gallery is to display a variety of aquaria containing diverse aquatic creatures, both fresh water and marine. This gallery will be used to illustrate the diversity of niches and high levels of specialization found in aquatic habitats. Ecological and evolutionary concepts, such as convergent and divergent evolution, cryptic coloration, mimicry, electric field generation, and territoriality, would be illustrated in this exhibit.
Because of the nature of the exhibits inhabitats, the display may consist of smaller aquaria, and therefore could be located on different levels. There will be a need for a full range of aquatic habitats; saline and fresh water; tropical, mild, and frigid temperatures. All displays will show the diversity and specialisation found within aquatic animals worldwide.
Required service facilities:
-food preparation

-dry storage -mechanical systems
Square Footages:
Public Areas:
Public Observation 1,000
Habitats 1,500
Service Facilities:
Rater Management Lab 150
Food Preparation 300
Dry Storage 100
Back-up Tanks 200
Mechanical Room --J.25 3,575
A coral reef Is an intricate aquatic community of plants and animals, found only in warm sunlit areas. The primary element for this display is a large 50,000-gallon tank which provides total viewing in the round and at multiple levels for exploration and appreciation of the diversity of a coral reef.
The tank could be hexagonal in plan with side walls of laminated safety glass so as ncrt to hamper viewing. This layout, in conjunction with multiple-level viewing on an encircling spiral ramp, allows for complete and regulated observation of the exhibit, and explains the story of an underwater habitat in a logical procession.
Problems exist with the use of live reefbuilding coral; in its maintenance, in its expense in replacement, and in its practice of being ecologically unsound. Present technology uses sculptured or cast fiberglas that is coated with epoxy resins to recreate realistic formation: such as elkhorn coral or pillar coral.
Required service facilities are as follows:
-food preparation
-mop closet
-mechanical room
-back-up tanks
-scuba gear storage area
Square Footages:
Public Areas:
public Observation 500
Habitats 1,500

Service Facilities:
Mop Closet 20
Dry Storage 200
Back-up Tanks 325
Mechanical Room 500 370^5
The exhibition of sharks causes some unique problems in aquaria habitation, for the following reasons. Sharks differ from true fish in that they have lighter, more elastic skeletons of cartilage instead of bone. Also, they lack a gas-filled bladder for buoyancy, making it essential for some species to swim continuously to avoid sinking. Furthermore, the handling and movement becomes difficult, if not life-threatening, due to their lack of a bony skeleton. Some species require constant movement in the water so that they can obtain the required amount of water circulation over their gills for survival.
These characteristics illustrate some of the difficult issues in keeping sharks healthy. In general, shark tanks should be designed to optimize the gliding motion needed for water circulation through the gills for life support. Because of this, the tank needs to be oblong, and could become a multi-leveled display area utilizing a one-way ramp scheme. The tank could provide large controlled viewing portals and multi-media graphic presentations in the intervening areas between the portals.
Several species of sharks and rays could be exhibited together in a setting simulating the floor of the ocean.
Required service facilities: -back-up tanks -quarantine tanks -mechanical systems
Square Footages: Public Areas: Public Observation Habitats 1,000 l,if00
Service Facilities: Back-up Tanks Quarantine Tanks Mechanical Systems 300 100 ..325


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Several facilities are required to support the various elements in the Aquarium complex. By being located in a central basement area, access circulation by the staff to the different habitats would be uninterrupted.
Elements of the Central Service Facility;
Central Commissary-
"Recognizing the great distance of Denver from commercial fishing, it will be necessary to purchase sea food when supplies are seasonally plentiful and affordable. There is a need for bulk processing and storage facilities to handle the long term supplies of food stuffs for the exhibition animals"(Cambridge 7, 198^)-this is the primary role of the central commissary. Most of the daily food preparation and short-term storage will be done at the various habitat work stations, viithin this central commissary space, the following elements are needed;
-workroom with scales and workstations -short-term refrigerator -short-term freezer -long-term freezers -elevator (dumbwaiter)
,ater Reservoirs-
"All water used in the aquarium system, whether in the fresh or marine environments, will require various levels of initial processing prior to being placed in the aquatic systems."(Cambridge 7, 198^)
Processes needed:
-sedimentation filters -diatomaceous earth filters -dechlorination equipment -salination equipment -mechanical equipment -aeration equipment -ozone generation equipment
Back-up Power Generation Facilities-
A power failure of any type would place all aquatic creatures in peril; therefore it is necessary to have back-up electrical generation capabilities on the site. This function, along with needed propane storage, could be isolated from the main body of the Aquarium to reduce the risk of explosion or fire.



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Service elements of the generator facility: -diesel or natural gas generators(2-3) -combustible storage (both diesel and propane) -control console -circuit breaker room
Staff Facilities-
These areas constitute staff support areas that will serve the needs of the Aquarium on a functional level. Such spaces should be pleasant, attractive, and wherever possible, provide access to windows and the outdoors.
Needed facilities:
-men's lockers and showers -women's lockers and showers -supervisor's office -men's toilet -women's toilet -breakroom with kitchen
These shop facilities could be either located separately or could share a common work area with limited isolation of some functions. The work areas would be used for exhibit design preparation, fabrication, and repair. Shops could also be used for fabrication and maintenance of components for mechanical and life support systems.
Graphics orkroom-
This workroom would be used to implement and maintain the various types of signage and multi-media information that would be used throughout the Aquarium. Even with the availability of outside consultants and graphics labs, it will still be necessary to have a workroom and storage facility for the graphic communication program.
Loading and Storage Areas-
The loading dock requires semi-tractor trailer access, with a large cargo door and trailer dock. There should be provided at least a small portable hoist, although a small electric fork lift would be better. This loading and storage area must have a direct and unhindered access to the freight elevator. The storage facility will be for non-perishable supplies.

Square Footages:
Central Commissary:
Office 75
:i orkroom 200
Refrigerator 100
Freezer(short-term) 100
Freezer(long-term); JS 425 1,275
Dry Storage 75
Viet Closet 50
Restroom 50
Staff Room 2,000
.jater Reservoirs:
Ozone Generation 100
Silica Filter System 100
Diatomaceous Earth Filter 100
Dechlorination Equipment 100
Salination Equipment 100
Aeration Equipment 10,000-gallons Fresh Water 200
Reservoir 2-10,000 gallons salt water 210
Reservoirs 420
Mechanical Equipment 400 1,730
Generation Facilities:
Back-up Generators 250
Transformer Room 100
Storage jm 705
Staff Facilities:
Men's Locker Room/Showers 725
omen's Locker Room/Showers 500
Supervisor's Office 150
Men's Toilet 100
Women's Toilet 100
Breakroom 200
Kitchen Annex 100
Laundry Room 75
Storage 27000
.1 orkshops 1,000
Spray Room 135
Assembly Room 135
Graphics W orkroom/Storage 250
Loading Dock 1,000
Storage Area 1,250
Total of Support Areas

Component Square Footage Summary-Exhibition Areas;
porpoise Pool and Amphitheatre 12,250
Reptile & Amphibian Gallery 5,390
Aquatic Habitat Gallery *1,200
Aquatic Lifestyles Gallery 3,575
Sea Bird Alcove 2,050
Coral Reef Exhibition 3,0*+5
Shark Tank 3.125
Sub-total 33,635
Common Service Facilities 10,205
Public Areas(entry, restrms,etc) 2,500
Gift Shop 1,000
Restaurant 3,500
Discovery Center 2.500
Total Building Square Footage 53,3*^0

site alternatives

0 ALTERNATE ONE: Advantages:
-excellent view of the downtown skyline -historical railway buildings are very contextural
-picturesque water front setting on the Platte River overlooking large cottonwoods -possible connection with the Childrens Museum
-nice feeling of open space Disadvantages:
-Mile-High Stadium is an eye-sore -possible flood plain problem -pedestrian access limited to the Greenway -current high-tech ater St. Center project could be detrimental to the character of the Valley
-noise from 1-25 is a problem
-possible adaptive re-use of parts from the Forney Museum
-Confluence Park provides excellent outdoor urban space
-newly renovated office building, restaurant, and bar nearby
-extremely tight site -parking is quite limited
-too close to 1-25 and Speer Blvd. intersectior
-close to newly-developed areas of lower downtown
-possibility for grading and terracing down to Cherry Creek
-existing railroad could be used for transporting food supplies
-site is visible from many angles, increasing public awareness

-distorted view of skyline -vehicle accessibility is currently somewhat limited
-site might be too "urban", causing vibrations which would disturb the fish
-excellent view of the downtown skyline -historical content around the site is excellent
-good node point for future continuation of l6th St. shuttle -future open space proposal near-by
--Convention Center plans for Denver Union Station were rejected by voters -somewhat limited in access
-possible link to Children's Museum -excellent view of downtown and Front Range -open site, good access to the Platte River Greenway -good access from 1-25
-Mile-High/McNichols view unattractive -noise from 1-25 a problem -possible complications from flood, plain -vibrations from highway are life-threatening for the fish
Note: Some information adapted from Elayne Anderson's thesis report, 1984.

site analysis

The five sites analyzed in the following text as potential locations for the Denver Aquarium were chosen on the basis of studies conducted by the Urban Design Office of the Denver Planning Department and on plans developed by the thesis proposal of Elayne Anderson, in conjunction with Mile High Land Associates, the owner/developer of 155 acres of land in the Central Platte Valley.
Mile High Land Associates has developed a Master Plan for the 155~acre site which is entitled the Mile High Land Project. All five sites to be considered lie within this tract of land.
Mayor Federico Pena had appointed the Downtown Plan Steering Committee to develop a Master Plan for the Downtown/Central Platte Valley. The study is included in its current development in the Appendix of this text. The committee that developed this Master Plan consisted of 27 citizens representing property owners, preservationists, developers, lawyers, bankers, and employees of the Denver Planning Office. The plan has been developed with and without the Convention Center proposal to be located at the Denver Union Station site.
All assumptions, developments, and conclusions have been made based on these two studies.

Historically, in the 1850's the junction o£ the Platte River and Cherry Creek presented a sylvan scene of sparkling waters amidst towering cottonwood trees.
Currently, a diverse riparian vegetation exists along the rivers. This sparse natural vegetation provides a limited habitat for small mammals and variety of birds. Habitat restoration may produc an increase in the animal species populations.
The quality of water in the South Platte River an Cherry Creek has been improving in the past decad Increasing run-off caused by any development coul adversely affect water quality unless treated bef flowing into the rivers.
Source: Center for Community Design and Developme UCD, adapted from Elayne Anderson's thesi

WATERs Pressures
SANITARY SEWERSs As noted; located at Wewatta/Delgany Sts.
FLOOD CONTROLS Complete site is included in 100-year flood-plain, according to the Waste Water Department's study on urban drainage; in contrast, the Army Corps of Engineers states that because the damn was built upstream, the site is no longer included in the floodplain.
ELECTRICALS As noted; along Speer viaduct, overhead.
NATURAL GASs As noted; depths
FIRE HYDRANTS s As noted; along Wewatta St. and 10th St.
TRAFFIC PATTERNSs Speer viaduct in both directions; future access is by the proposed "Spine Road" concept developed by the Denver Planning Office.
WATER TABLES 10-20 feet(avgs 17 feet)
SOIL BEARING CAPACITYs Western l/3 of sites 20-30 feet to bedrock Eastern 2/3 of sites 30~^ feet to bedrock
A soils report is being obtained from Barker, Rinker, Seacat Architects in reference to the Children's Museum site

Although current manping indicates otherwise, -the Army Corps of engineers and Urban Drainage and Flood Control District analysis concludes that Cherrjjfcreek will stay within its channel walls during a 100-year 'term and will not flood the area north of Cmeer in the ,entral Platte Valley.
There is an opportunity -or channelization or rebanking of the creek in order to create outlie open space that is accessible to the unique water frontage.
There may be a problem with a storm run-off as it increases with development (90j run-off parking, 8p on buildings, 35;- on Greenway),
MH0 Hv^h. Land Asaoc* ,
Andersen's thesis.

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BEDROCK: Predominantly consists of bedrock at a depth
of 30-40 feet. The site is part of the Denver Formation with interstratified lenses of clay-stone, siltstone, and sandstone.
Consist of clean sands with scattered areas of gravel. Sporatic conditions exist due to the flood plain alluvial deposits.
Deep areas of fill 6-9 feet deep are expected along the Platte River due to improvements and changes in channel arrangement.
Stabilized water level on the site is approximately 17-20 feet below ground surface. Fluctuations of 3-5 feet in the ground water level adjacent to the rivers should be anticipated.

Central Vlatte Valley is a topographical sink or degression where temperature inversions are common and air circulation is poor.
The main pollutants include:
-Carbon .'.onoxide (CO) primarily from motor vehicles -Ozone (cu) generated when oxygen interacts with hydrocarbons from auto exhaust
-Suspended particles (TSP, total suspended particle otherwise known as the "brown cloud"
Care should be taken to utilize maximum amounts of native vegetation to help replace carbon dioxide with 09 oxygen around immediate site.
promotion of pedestrian/bike paths along with futur mall shuttle systems, along with mass transit, will
be pursued in the design solution.
VC >, xlayne Anderson's thesis.

The current main bike/pedestrian route along the Platte River Greenway is extensively used, but lacks sufficient access points to maximize use and enjoyment.
15th St. presents one of the few significant opportunities for street/pedestrian continuity directly up into the Highlands neighborhoods .
l6th St. presents one of the few transit connections from downtown to lower downtown to the Platte River Greenway.
The design solution for the Denver Aquarium will take into consideration such bicycle/pedestrian pathways, and will try to strengthen their routes.

Currently, The only cultural facilities within the vicinity of the sites proposed for the Aquarium are the Children's Museum, the Auraria Campus facilities, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, .-.'ith the addition of the Aquariui these facilities will be able to benefit from the public awareness that the aquatic facility will generate, therefore increasing revenue benefits.
The facilities mentioned above include the following complexes:
DCPA Theatre Boettcher Concert Hall Auditorium Theatre & Arena Children's Museum Auraria Gallery St. Cajetan's Gallery

Current recognized historic areas within the site's vicinity, by the Preservation Alliance, include: the Amos Root Building, The Forney Museum, Union Station, Moffatt Station, and the district near 15th & Vfewatta St., including two blacksmith shops, two flour mills, and the old Daniels & Fisher warehouse.
Since the five alternative sites are located near these historic buildings, the design solution for the Aquarium should make an effort to enhance their historical significance.

The surrounding parks include:
South Platte River Greenway Confluence Park Gates Crescent Park Centenial Park Rockmont Park
The development of the Denver Aquarium provides an opportunity to expand the Platte River Greenway up onto the Cherry Creek banks. This building could enhance public open space for the redevelopment of the lower downtown area.
Furthermore, the Aquarium could enhance the proposed "Denver Commons" area planned by the Denver Planning Office study which would be located behind Union Station extending to the banks of the Platte.

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The Central Platte Valley is a Regional transit center used for coal and "piggy-back" goods. If the Aquarium was located on any of the five sites, the Burlington Northern mainline, storage yard, and trailer operations will move off the site. At that time, Burlington Northern would be combined with other railroads from Speer Blvd. to 20th St. into one five-track, 105-foot wide R.O.W., in the Denver Union Terminal corridor.
The railroads play a valuable part in the choice of bringing the Aquarium to the Central Platte Vail because it could serve as the primary source of transport for aquaria food supplies and equipment.

Interstate 25 between 1-70 and Colfax Ave. is currently reaching its capacity for traffic volume. Therefore, a long-term regional solution is then required to handle additional transportation needs generated by growth in the CBD and the Platte Valley.
Conclusions drawn by information supplied by Mile Higfr Land Associates, the Denver Planning Office, and the thesis of Slayne Anderson are as follows:
-l6th St. viaduct to be removed and the l6th St. Mall Shuttle system to continue at gradato the Platte River
-lpth St. viaduct to be removed and a pedestrian/ roadway to be installed at grade

Since vehicular access is critical to the development of the Flatte Valley, Mile High Land Associates has proposed in their Master Plan an idea called the "Spine Road Concept". The objectives are:
-it will act as a main collector/feeder street
-it will provide for project-wide continuity
-it intersects with existing valley roads -it adds an organizing element to the area
Since such a proposal intersects the five proposed sites for the Aquarium, its presence as a parkway will be strongly considered as an enhancement to the Platte River Valley, and therefore as an enhancement to the Aquarium.

-Delegany 3t. to be paved for access to businesses currently located at and around the old Daniels & Fisher warehouse
-Spine Rd. for Mile High Land Project to be inplenented through the central core of the Platte River Valley (see Spine Concept)
-Speer 31vd. to be realigned to the south at grade to becone a parkway.


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C3 CLIMATE Denver lies on a high semi-arid, plain near the Rocky Mountains with a mild interior continental climate typical of the region. The area is characterized by mild seasonal temperature differentiation, drastic diurnal temperature differentiation, relatively low levels of precipitation, and a high degree of solar radiation. At an elevation of 5*280 feet above sea level, Denver's location is 39*^5 north latitude and 10^.52,west longitude. The following data and statistics are explained by climatic components for use in the site analysis. ALTITUDE Altitude angles for the solar disk in Denver ranges from a high of 73*5 *at noon on the summer solstice to a low of 26.6at noon on the winter solstice. The low winter angle and high summer angle extremes may cause problems in monitoring water temperatures and in preventing the growt^f bacteria in the tanks. Heat gain and 'direct sunlight are also problems which must be closely examined. DEGREE DAYS In determining energy requirements for a building, the concept of degree days becomes very helpful in revealing peak periods of space heating and air conditioning in a facility. Degree day temperature data helps predict such seasonal heating and cooling demands. Degree days, based on 65, are computed as follows: Maximum temp, for the day=50F Minimum temp, for the day=30 F Sum 80s* 2= 40* Degree day base-=65'- kO25 degree days (heating) The highest heating demand falls in both December and January(10^0 heating degree days), with the highest cooling demand being in the months of July and August(220 cooling degree days). In comparison to similar less temperate climates, these figures are somewhat reasonable and compatible. Because there is an abundance of sunlight in the months of summer (7Q& possibility of sunshine), the cooling load in a

load-dominated, building could be decreased by eliminating and/or reducing artificial light, and by avoiding direct heat-gain through some kind of sun-shading. In winter, the physical mechanical system could be used to recirculate ambient heat, which would reduce heating costs.
Denvers mean annual precipitation of a mere 15*51" qualifies it as a semi-arid environment. The greatest precipitation occurs during the months of April, May, and June, whereas the winter months are usually the driest. In the period from November to March, precipitation typically falls in the form of snowfall, which averages 59*9" per year. Snow has been recorded at some time in every month except July and August.
Humidification of the space becomes mandatory due to the low monthly humidity levels. Such humidification in the winter causes problems in condensation on interior windows and on any large expanses of glass, yet the overall effect is beneficial as to prevent any acceleration in the natural evaporation of' the water in the tanks.
In Denver, sudden heavy thunderstorms are common during the months of summer, requiring the provision for site runoff and drainage. As a somewhat urban area, the runoff should be dealt with without eroding away the sites landscaped areas. Precipitation also affects roof pitch, overhang, gutters, downspouts, and weatherproofing.
Being a public building, ice and snow accumulation must also be an issue of concern. Sheltered areas located on the north may harbor snow for longer periods, becoming a hazard to pedestrians. Accumulation elsewhere on the site would be somewhat negligible due to evaporation and melt-off.
Solar Bearing June 22: 240Summer
The sun angles typical for Denver result in a strong design solution because the south becomes exposed to a maximum amount of solar energy in the cold months of winter when the sun rays are low, and a minimum amount in

the warm months of summer when sun rays are high. Shading of a southern-exposed window to prevent overheating during the summer is easily accomplished by providing an overhang which is calculated to equinox sun angles.
Solar Bearing December 22t 120Winter
During the summer months, three sides of the building will be bathed in sunlight. In the winter months, the exposure to the building will be reduced to half that of the summer.
Due to the city's elevation and high percent of clear days, the intensity of Denver's sunshine has the potential of adversely effecting water temperature and therefore the support of life. The building design must protect against this by providing shading which would prevent the influx of direct glare and sunshine.
Denver receives an average of 7Q3 of the total possible sunshine levels throughout the year. The cloudiest days occur in the spring; the clearest in the fall. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30/o cloud cover), 133 partly-cloudy days (30-80/$ cloud cover), and 117 cloudy days (80-100/$ cloud cover). The highest percentage of solar radiation occurs in the month of July, and the lowest in December.
Denver's mild temperature has always been oneof the city's major assets in drawing visitors and new inhabitants. The diurnal temperature range is usually greater than the winter to summer swing, which ranges from a monthly mean of 29.9^ in January to 73"F in July. The average yearly temperature is a mild 50*2^.
Periods of extremes in high or low temperatures rarely last beyond 5-6 days, but will still require mechanical conditioning.
In an Aquarium, where the public circulate through every space and require a certain comfortable temperature, and the fish societies require a different temperature than the public to sustain life,mechanical heating

and cooling becomes a real challenge.
The low levels of humidity in Denver as forementioned are amplified by the need for heating in winter, adding to the problem of water tank evaporation. Relative humidity must be maintained at a minimum of ^555 cf during the heating system cycle. The demands on the HVAG system depend on the number of occupants, wind direction, and the amount of sunshine.
The highest average wind speeds have been recorded during the months of March(lO,l MPH) and April(l0.4 MPH), with winter and late spring winds showing an average of 9.3 MPH. Summer and autumn winds are slightly lower, averaging 8.36 MPH. .ihile the stronger winds are generally from the northwest ranging up to 56 MPH, the prevailing winds are from the south.
.1 ind damage should not cause a problem if the structure is properly designed, but there is the danger of the breakage of glass on the entry atrium and restaurant spaces if such panes of glass are designed to be too large and are exposed to large gusts of wind.
Desirable site characteristics might be to protect the structure from winter winds, which would sweep across the open expanse of the Platte River, while providing access to summer breezes. One advantage of the wind is that it cleanses the air of pollution, which is badly needed around the site.
Site analysis and orientation and location of the building in relation to its surrounds can modify the immediate climate.
Such effects are as follows:
-air pollution control
-changes in wind, sunshine, precipitation, and runoff
-increase in flood and drought potential -failure of structure to withstand stress from climate extremes such as wind, snow -excessive energy use in buildings that are poorly adapted to local climate

-potential problems entailing solar rights and reflective glare -icy or snow-covered sidewalks and parking lots
These effects should be a primary concern when determining the design concepts.
Some information adapted from both Barbara Christian's and Blayne Anderson's thesis reports, 1984.

The current zoning ordinance for the sites included in the site alternatives are classified as 1-2 districts, a heavy industrial area.
Although the Aquarium can be loosely catagorized as "a community center owned and operated by a governmental entity and/or community recreational facility owned and operated by a governmental entity"(QZO,1982), in all probability a change in zone in the form of a Planned Urban Development (P.U.D.) would be required. A P.U.D. is, in effect, a specific zone district for a specific area, including set regulations written by the applicant and, if approved by City Council, is enforced by the City. It allows maximum flexibility during the planning stage and maximum assurance that the stipulations and conditions proposed will be developed and implemented.

As set forth in Section 505 of the DBC, the allowable floor area for a B-2 occupancy with Type I Construction is catagorized as "Unlimited".
BUILD DIG HEIGHT As listed in Table 5-D of the DBC,
the maximum height of a building with Type I Construction is catagorized as "Unlimited".
According to the 1982 Denver Zoning Ordinance, Section 59_586, The required number of off-street parking spaces is dependent upon the zoning "use by right" and is therefore catagorized into classes according to such uses.
The Aquarium falls under the catagory of Class Two, which states that "...there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each six hundred (600) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right..."
Therefore, the total number of parking spaces required is as follows:
53,3^0 sq. ft. building area
600 sq. ft. parking spaces needed 89
Furthermore, an allowance for k-6 school buses must be taken into account when planning the parking layout and access and drop-off points.
School Bus: 39'8" length 8*-0" width 12'-8" overhang rear
Allow a maximum turning radius of 48'-0" for school buses, fire trucks, and semitractor trailers.
Also, there is a requirement of two access points to accomodate fire vehicles.

BITTTDTNG CODE INFORMATION i -adapted from the Denver Building Code, 1982
Fire Zone 3
Occupancy classification* Group B, Division 2 Principal occupancy: B-2, F-l, G-3, F-2 B-2* Light Assembly F-l: Dining/Drinking G-3* Parking Garage F-2: Offices
Occupancy Separation: Maximum 1-hour Construction Type I
Maximum allowable basic floor area: Unlimited
If adjacent to an open area:
all sides: jy&/ft.; 3 sides: 2.56/ft.,
2 sides: 1.Z'yjo/ft., where public space, streets, or yard more than 20* are not extending along 2 sides of the building, the area may be increased 1.2^2 for each foot by which the minimum may exceed 20* but not exceed
If over one story, 20Q& of the area permitted for one-story buildings can be used, yet no floor area can exceed all percentages permitted for one-story buildings; basements are not included in floor area percentages.
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts:
The size required with 2 sides 5C$ open is 7*-0" by 7'-0".
The width of the courts is 3' or greater if the building is 2 stories high, and with an increment of 6" for each additional story.
The width of the court must be at least 5Q^ greater than normally required if the court is totally enclosed.
Minimum ceiling height in rooms: No portion can be less than 5* and 5Q& must be at least 7*.
Fire resistive requirements:
exterior bearing walls 4 hours
interior bearing walls 3
exterior non-bearing walls Jf
structural frame 3
permanent partitions 1
vertical openings 2
floors 2
roofs 2

exterior doors(^20* setbk) exterior windows( " ")
inner court walls mezzanine floors(l/3 rm. size) roof coverings boiler room enclosure
see courts 1 1 1
Structural requirements!
framework(steel, cone., masry) 3 stairsfrein. cone., steel) 2
floors(noncomb, fire-res const) 2
In B-occupancy, where every part of the roof structure is 25* above the floor, unprotected noncombustible material is allowed.
Roofs j
partitions(noncomb., fire-res) 1-2 roofs 1
Two or more exits are required when the occupancy load of each occupancy type exceeds1
occupancy basisfs.f. /<*
assembly(medium) 10
office (bldgs. Sc offices) 100
dining assembly(low) 15
kitchens(commercial) 200
mechanical equipment 300
stores 30
Occupant load! Floor area/ sq. ft./ occupant
no. of exits required!
-2 or more exits are required when occupancy load, exceeds!
-assembly! 50 -offices: 30
-mechanical equipment! 30
Minimum w3&h of exitsi 3 ft.
Exits should be accessible in at least 2 different directions. Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25* apart at a minimum, and should be arranged to be remote enough from each other so that they both will not be blocked by fire or emergency conditions.
Minimum travel distance to an exit: 150*
with sprinklers: 200*

At least half of the required exits shall be located so that they can be reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from one room opening into another room adjoining or intervening with the area are allowed, as long as the adjacent room is accessory to the area served, and provides a direct means of egress to am exit.
Doors must have a 45-minute fire resistance, and be accessorized with a self-closing device.
Minimum width of exit doors: 3*
Maximum leaf width allowed: 4*
Width required for no. of occupants: total occ.
Exit corridors have a minimum allowable width of 44"(3*-8")
It is required to have an exit at each end of the corridor when 2 exits are needed.
Dead-end corridors axe allowed, with a maximum length of 20*.
For occupancy loads of 50 and above: min. width
" " less than 50
" " less than 10:
Maximum riser: 7.5"
Minimum tread: 10"
Minimum size: Dimension is measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway but not exceeding the 5,_0" maximum size required with a straight run.
Maximum vertical distance between landings is
The required height of the rails is to be not less than 30" and not more than 34" above the nosing.
They are required at each side of the stairs. Intermediate rails are required at stairs which are at least 88" wide.
For stairways 44" or less in width, only one

handrail will be required. Stairways open on one or both sides must have handrails on all open sides.
Height above nosing: 3034"
Balusters are required at a height of 42" Intermediate rails are required at 9"
Handrails must return to the wall at the ends, and may extend beyond the stair by 6".
If the building is 4 or more stories, one stairway shall extend to the roof with a hinged door.
The stairway to the roof must have a permanent inside means of access leading to any roof mechanical facilities.
Stair enclosures are required and must have a 2-hour rating, but are not required for a stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only
one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Maximum slope to use as an exit: 1:12(from first floor to grade), l:8(any other exit ramps).
Handrails are required on at least one side of the ramp.
Exit signs are required at every exit from an area where the occupancy load is 30 or greater
Balcony rails are required on all unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of stairway ramps, landings, and balconies.
The required height of a balcony rail is 42".
Area limitations: 333& of area supporting roo Height limitations: None in Type I Constructio:
Penthouses may be used only for the shelter of mechanical equipment or for vertical shaft openings. The walls, floor, and roof shall be constructed in the same manner as the main par of the building, unless the penthouse walls are at least 5'-0" from the property line; in that case they may be of 1-hour construction.

Parapet walls:
All exterior walls are required to have parapets, which must be 3" above the intersection of the wall and roof surface.
Fire Extinguishing Systems:
Sprinklers are required when the floor area exceeds 1,500 sq. ft.
Wet standpipes are required in buildings of 4 or more stories, with one or more 4" standpipes for every 4 stories. They must be located in a public corridor within 10* for the opening of a required stairway on all floor levels.
Fire extinguishers must be placed at each standpipe location.
Toilet Room Requirements:
lavatories: 3 per 601-775 occupants in bldg, water closets: 3 per 601-950 " "
urinals: 3 per 601-950 M "
lavatories: 3 per 601-1100 occupants in bldg, water closets: 3 per 201-400 " "
At least one drinking fountain per floor is required.
Skylights must be located at least 4*-0" from the wall, with a minimum separation of 4'-0" between each unit. The maximum size allowed for skylights is 100 sq. ft., and can cover up to 25$ of the room area sheltered by the roof.
Elevators and Escalators:
Maximum number in each shaft: 2
The machine room wall construction must have a 2-hour fire rating, and the penthouse must be properly ventilated. For fire protection, sprinklers must be located directly above and parallel to each escalator and at the ceiling above vertical openings of escalators or elevators.

Use of Public Property!
Doors axe prohibited from swinging into city property.
Marquees and canopies must be entirely supported from the building and must be constructed of laminated safety glass, plastic, or fabric that is treated so that it is noncombustible.
Distance above walk(canvas)i 8*-0"
(7'-0" for canopy)
Maximum distance of extension over walk* minimum of 2'-0" inside curb line Maximum height* slope is 1" in 4*.
Drainage should be toward the building.
Awnings and balconies must be at least 8*-0" above the ground, with a 1" per 1' of clearance up to
Fire Alarm*
Fire alarms must be provided on all stories, amd must provide manual pull stations.
Emergency lights or power is required in exit ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and must be illuminated by at least one foot candle.
Access doors are required in exterior walls that are without openings.

Cambridge 7 Associates. Architectural Program for the proposed Denver Aquarium, compiled by Cambridge 7 Associates, Boston,FA, researched and submitted January, 1985*
Cousins, Bruce, A.I.A. Interviews with the H.O.H. Associates architectural principal working in conjunction with Cambridge 7 Associates, conducted September 5 amd October 23, 1985*
Dixon, John M. "Profile: Cambridge Seven Associates." Progressive Architecture. December 1972, p. 58.
kisner, Simon and Gallion, Arthur B. The Urban Pattern. D. Van Nostrand Co,
Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1983.
Flynn, illiam. Interview with the Assistant Director of the Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver, CO, conducted October 30, 1935*
Gaskle, Margaret F. "The National Aquarium in Baltimore". Architectural Record. May 1982, pp.83-91.
Greer, Nora R. "Another Powerful Harborside Attraction; Cambridge Seven Associates". AIA Journal. Mid-May 1982, pp. 170-175.
Grosvenor, Gilbert H. "Face and Floor of the Peaceful Sea". National Geographic Magazine. October 1989, Vol. 138, No. 4, pp M96-499.
Jones, J. Christopher. Design Methods: Seeds of Human Features. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y., 19&1. ..
Knight, Carleton III. "Purposeful Chaos on Cannery Row". Architecture. June
1985. pp. 50-59.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. The MIT Press, Cambridge, HA, 1962.
Marlin, Jilliam. "Fumihiko Maki, Marine Life Park, Okinawa". Architectural Record. August 1978, pp. 89-73. .........
Pena, J illiam. Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer, with .i illiam Caudill and John Focke. CBI Publishing Co., Inc., 3oston, HA, 1977.
Preiser, Nolfgang F.3. Facility Programming: Methods and Applications. Dowden, Hutchison & Ross, Stroudburg, PA, 1978.
Ramsey, Charles G. and Sleeper, Harold R. Architectural Graphic Standards. The American Institute of Architects, Seventh Edition. John liley & Sons,
New York, N.Y.. I98I.
Sanoff, Henry. Methods of Architectural Programming. Dowden, Hutchison & Ross, Inc., Stroudburg, PA, I98O.

Smith, C. Ray. "Boston's Underwater Environment". Progressive Architecture. December 1969, pp. 9107*
Smith, Herbert H. The Citizen's Guide to Zoning. Section on Planned Unit Development (PUD), Planners Press, American Planning Association, iashington, D.C., 1983.
Straka, Ron. Interview with the head of the Urban Design Department of the Denver Planning Office, Denver, CO, conducted November 25, 1985.
Twelfth Annual Design Awards. "Citation: Recreation; New England Aquarium
for the New England Aquarium Corporation, Boston, MA". Progressive Architecture. January 1965, pp. 152-153*
Twenty-sixth p/a Awards. "Citation: Architectural Design; Cambridge Seven Associates". Progressive Architecture. January 1979 PP* 83.
Urban Land Institute. Downtown Development Handbook. .Washington, D.C., I98O.

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CftrihuzHbl^ bfoyMCsf bobW X>i-o^e\ wA pvtyMitbj
CstryArro\ Ltry&oijLs
(b\fCMA-Y VltrtTY^
\ \m&w\
I l^TTU A*,
tcuXvp I Q&ctwAFi*'*
oAbpf enuM e&f\nci£>
SPACE: pMz-or fy^fu-pe&- ^\

f t
iMM (smzM\vL>
0U1& owpprW (\uza& Vwtfr UnU' wvo Wo naAs? rk kbo AqWwlUr*' On (O H/ncMrnaL-\JJK\ (sM.cWs frpMJLw zbindd-' bo pVA&twAr, MraWvo, inA (juhcrciw pazribU', prtnrido H l/rindtnoe OJnA^ puAcAom opouiz.
mrrMps activity: | IftC'D a '|
people: ^(zkff-
aquaria: front'
\Uri& Ifo&yl ZMtomtb Wfrrrwfa UrthY\Onrww% Owv\rY?rro
Wrmtrie Wick-br&ikcrtinvis YJ\-chcn^ Annex [AUAnJni khLrfyn^
\0D +
)Wn'& [mMlhz? qmA AMmtvo
Women# \mMjvk? PnA
^tprn'^rr^ HticLs
. \Am& TonUA-
. vkrrrurte Wlev . i/\n\Vi>\ci\dnsM-^
(M^rcoI CornmX<^w[A Uttwv i^ry J
SPAUfc r/^iuyitzo oy^\j\o^o

VfU&Ls ^TWf ftuklAtio*? tti&tKvafoAjLj Or rtiMd q^, ofrmmry^ wtr/K. urto^ pn-Hv OmktzA \&oloUiryu o\ MrmLs ftus\&brr?. Th^ Irryr^ fartis? yrruAd be- v*%4 fry -£y hifcnjr try^j jipJpri'" Uihtms ; Ord rvfflAr. 4dhrp^ UruAcL od&0 tes ^(A for* faJ^icAAttryi' OwA mdmter\Mic^ (U (^Yiprrutffe? hr inni&IrmuotiL UmAs L<^ hiA^yrv^ &^myyz> W^rMiAp^- \,oiro ^pmj frCTYT^ \^> N^pc^nbkA fottny^ . L^. 1^1 o a'
USERS: people: ^Wf/ AQUARIA.f4^/ MUv ntmL/
lAs^myTl | l If^gww 1
ADJACENCIES: rrmtrr d \<^v\tw& * \bwArWj J Atm
SPACE: \Ho'f3f^ADP0

UtrrKrinrrvLs vmd4 \fycA b LnipUm^to (K/ru\ xtwmMams Hnu {hfafinto i/nf^mMini^ tovto \pmtid \)tou\ -fHo Aquarium
fe]f-cv\s (AnHi- \hju AatzmI AbiUhj M Hvh^n'dc, £0pn&uA fzt*vfe
imCpIMo \aJe& i Vr uriu> otoiU \Xs ru&?e>ajYM to foMM^ ivtrk -rtrrfl* OMd & tor tups £&cAJiftj {tr HUs QMplA'C' Cstnbmuyu-C'tWum-' ptozAyM^' -
(tontfiuoo W drlcytrm/ \TYdLQC' 'i&o

rtoiOitorruM^ pvt^cy^b^tn-' pY6toMctory^
* ti^Yitorvj
\mtim l&Yirtcc'

Vajl ItmJJrvj
fiMYti- ^YAjcAtY -hfCbd^ M602&J
ttriHi ^ \cy/Afr 60/tao fcwk' Ab-OpA, bbwvKs
ehJrvM bo pvmnjUA aA-U^pf As &ytukA\ Y\t]^Ar
AAbWrusji^ cA&/ \hio ImAtru] (vnA <£farAsf^' (Vruo Yrw&b h&vo ^ Af' (MM Uv^hAnAMrM bo
-bho AblUr&JcdY. 'XhJU
bhrr^o faMUhj WiMs foY
btfn' povJZh&tebC'
mmrrv 4m\O'
^IHiQ I 'QOC^- I n fwi
ImA'iM Oi/oK \](TCrD bArrwpt An%
people: Wrrkt^^l^[t^
AQUARIA: eOfa&)< Ptehs
All d\^p\av^p
Cbfr\riag? cwiA.
SPACE: UAPIf^ AHU ^7?rAA&- Af=45AG -

'Vwt, \^o mu -sdryvcd" Qw&yia &' pr/nrid*4 ft* 'Zacks iurz hundred SqiAfrine* H
Qyv&b f/m' Olka*
Tfi . arfyiAoUvrc* Cm "
kturuj ^ r/gW. "
Uv>g£ ^ x 7
Ccnnpazd- cax<2> l.GxlGf* bUrdfoff*d &pac/*} M' xzc>'
g£, a' Wp&AF&A, Ct&0 <2C{ noutid'
h 4-(> fevee^?(Z&lnpv\
o \jnu\)m o Mmu ^Mru QcaM- (xcczo^?
SPACE: r^r^/N&

The mechanical systems needed for the Denver Aquarium will be researched further during design development. I have written Cambridge Seven Associates, Boston, HA, and Enartec Consulting Engineers, San Diego, CA. in order to obtain the required technical data.

Project Name PPL Thesis Project No. Location ___________ ______
1. 2 .
£>2- *?* I
£ ^ ^ ^
tW > f=-2,
**- 3.
Applicable Code Name Denver Building Code, 1979__________
Code Check by UV VPP&CU Date d&fc life
Fire Zone
1601 ?
Occupancy Classification Group ff, Division .2 ^7
Principal Occupancy
Others (Specify) Dining & Drinking, F-l \ln\
) *** N0N& Parking Garage , 0-3
Offices, F-2 rn \\0 ]
1 1
1 Occupancy FI Separation to required ** 2 F2 1 Hours Table 5B
FI to G3 1 Hours Table 5B
F2 to G3 1 Hours Table 5B
0Z to M JWh. Hours
to 1 Hours
Construction Type a Table 5C


Rev. March 1983
hi"- ^ bW-t i/4 tf nt nnrrt> +h/b ZA1 QhwO U>n4 arnbu^ir. n\c&')-
Maximum allowable Basic Floor Area^ ^Unlimited

If adjacent to open ~..r- . j
cfffijA v5%/(2^%), ^t. by which minimum^^' two or more sides: widtfrexceeds 20 feet.______________ 506 b fj*Y fyrtl-f- IjMWW^
200 % of area permitted .for _ ^
jQ 5 b
If over one story: one-storv buildings s v\0 ^ / (KMA'C^ If sprinklered: sltaidr-nctJi>eS~iriipi^dJVhBrt^the^bui^dTgtvg
506 d
Al/-. fcrcAs. rojKvvfe m*-f
Ui pltcl ^ rw-blrni '
Maximum allowable height: 9t*8$o^aTBW<7 /'J.x vi -J>sflbti'}
Feet I-Unlimited (11-75') for tr-2________________._________ Table 5-D ibinnyhndr-
Stories I-Unlimited (11-^) for fe-2
Table 5-D
Fire Resistance of exterior wall (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type)

I. Openings in exterior walls: (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type)
Openings shall not be permitted in ext. walls located less 1707 b
than 5 ft. from adjacent
: El or CL

of street or alley.
Vy Set-back requiring protection of openings in ext, walls Table 17-C
= (23
9. Wirtdo%5S required in rooms: ____________________________ _____________
Window area required:
). Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size required
* *7x71 &=>e,/ofrfvn'
W6 3
* 7 X7 1 f/j 4 60 /g ^rt/_________________________
! ^ V*4 '2'f'rri^ Uy f,\rru
\piatyu M tbo1*ficr. Hvw- ifj itMkf ^YntnZj[ ^

Revised March 1983
4.10 sopPLBCBrnuur nvomanoH (cont'd)
4.10.3 prrrrjvnac COOK CHECKLISTi (Cont'd)
No portion less than 5'-0 1405 b
11. Minimum ceiling height in rooms: 7' over 50% q m*b ^ ^
12. Minimum floor area of rooms: _____
13. Fire resistive requirements
. ft|pe-3l Umk-
a, n*r>-bfA* Interior bearing walls ^ / (3) .. Hours Table 17-A
Exterior non-bearing walls Hours Table 17-A
Structural frame Hours Table 17-A
Permanent partitions Q Hours Table 17-A
Vertical openings Hours Table 17-A
Floors (2) Hours Table 17-A
Roof3 (Section 1806) ( 27 Hours Table 17-A
Exterior doors 3IN. if less than 20' setback( Hour 3 1707 c
Exterior windows 3/4 if less than 20' setbac^^^ Jjiours 1707 c
Inner court walls* TL between opp. walls Hours 1707 d
exterior opening requirements apply.
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) UJ Hours 1715 b
No mezzanine floor s Roof coverings l
s.s A or B (Sec,
1806 {l)
_Hour 3 Hours
3204 b
Boiler room enclosure ________________
14. Structural requirements:
Framework Steel, concrete or masonry_______(j) Hours
Stairs Reinf. concrete or structural steel M Hours Floors Noncombustible fire-resistive const. jD Hours

Rev. March 1983
0 'HcwpimM
Where every part of M)c?A7fsJfJucture SECTION
25 above floory^n^ncomfmstible material fcA,\trWtA
Roofs tor rep jtsCrO^a-___________________________1 Hours 1806
fire-resistive Hours
Paurtitions Noncombustible, fire-resis_______________
CtYVft Vtsaaa hfart, Lint,-fptMzA Txhk^l


Occupancy load basis (square feet per occupant)
Office Bldgs. & Offices________100
Assembly (Low concentration) 15
h&uwblM IMuUvrK') Kitchens (Commercial) *0 200
Occupant Floor Area Load SF/Occupant
UxchmcaL pm
Number of exits required: 2 or more exits reqd. when occ. load exceeds:
Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total 3302 j
occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a percentage of the_____
occupant loads of adjacent floors.
Exit separation arrangement:
Exits will be accessible in at least 2 different_____ 3302 k
directions. Minimum travel distance between fire_____
exit doors shall be 25* apart minimum.
Mtmquj j-p. Hnaj btfihs twOr ^

4.10 savnBoamsa Tsrvmxncm (cont'd)
4.IQ.3 wa wmr-niMC COO* CHfa ll.TST: (Cont'd)
Maximus allowable travel distance to exit
with rinklers ____________________________200'_____
Allowable exit aaquancai ^ W
At least 4 of req'd. exits shall be located to be
reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from a room mav open into an adjoining or intervening
room or area, provided the adjacent room is accessory to the area served and provides a Hi rent means of pgr* to an exit.
Exit doors:
Minimum width allowed _____
Maximus leaf width allowed
3 ft.
4 ft. ________________
-M^l foCAW-
Width required for No. of occupants------'
(See minimum width of exits previous page)_________
Exit corridors:
Minimus allowable width
44 in.^l (3 *-8) ------o'
Required to have exit at each end of corridor7 yes when 2 exits are req'd. except for dead-end allowance. Dead end corridors allowed? yes Maximus length 20'
MT1* Wf Ifwx,
3320 c
3320 c
3320 a 3302 m
3303 d 3303 e 3302 j
3304 b 3304 e 3304 f

Rev. March 1983
4.10.3 slp wnrnge gggg omcxlist (Cant'd)

Nall fire resistance required 1 hour 3304 e
Doors and frames fire resistance f hw required: 45 rain. 3304 f
Stairs: Minimum width 44 in. (3'-8)For occ. load of +50 3305 b
36 in. For occ. load of iC50 3305 b
Vr\\rvjts bO" For occ. load of *{0
Maximum riser allowed Minimum tread allowed Are winders allowed?
7.5 in
ia.(tiOt PXCl&A UuA)
10 in.
\fj prmdM ok a? print- \*ia AttirtoaM tohur* Wrt wuvtrww
& prcvidM ok
'Uam OVyA (pc.
3305 c
3305 c
Minimum size Dimension measured/ in-1 direct ion of____ 3305 g
travel^width of stairway but not exceeding 5'-0 w/straight run 3^*5
Maxiraum size required 5'-0 w/straight run_____________ 3305 b^iUWVek:
PHaM M/$. ahrv^ Yk
Maximum vertical distance between landings 12 '~6 3305 o jrlt tyficof) ibu*4'lv
. , .... bt, prcnn'hj Ur
Minimum vertical distance between landings M//\ NIs3* i U)huA Cwuy Uy u
Uthin/yv> h.t>.
Required height of rails C21 6 to 2* 10) 30-34" above 3305 i .
Handrails: yw/ iff) fy\k\Y (TY\6 ^idu C-'xtCrdl&
" is?" Msltrvt' bojrrvU -bp ho hrm ru
Required at each side? Yes______________________________
3305 i
Intermediate rails required at stairs 83" wide Yes
Maximum width between int. Equal spacing_______
Exception* applicable Ak 11 trf {j&? in? VriA'hu
wcu/i huAs I hjirij\r/uA
3305 i
3305 i
L fc tATtiy /%y^L IuwAyoa 1 hand fyxut'
NLnj yma #fajru/Uf£ nxri rni. IwH* ei/c ^ tpws h\ djuifi).

Revised March 1983
IHrOfMATIO* (Coat'd)
4.10.3 SLP BOMDC OOCT Ctry~TT-T Height above nosing Balusters required?
3305 i
42" high
UBC = 6 max.
Intermediate rail required? Yes 9 max-
Maximus post spacing allowed
Handrails return to wall at ends?
3305 i
Handrails extend beyond stair 6" fat Ipa^r one hand- 3305 i
rail at both top & bottom)
Stair to roof required? Yes, if in bldg.s 4+ stories. 3305 ti
one stairway shall extend to roof with hinged door.
Stair to basement restrictions Provide barrier to 3305 h
prevent persons from .
^tfrrwnaJz tM
Stair access to roof required? Yes, see above
going to basement. f/Ho/zW Y IttlftiA & tLPptrt
tAtir 'CYlrt'\^
Access to roof required? Yes, to mechanical__________ 5213 c
hUK' p^rmimey^r irrricUs rncAn^, dl (XcotA?*?
Stair enclosure required? Yes____________Hours' 2 3308 b
Exceptions Enclosure shall not be required for a 3308 a
stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent
floor and not connected w/corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Horizontal exit requirements (if applicable)_________ __________ l
Maximun slope to use as exit ________1:12______________ 3306 c
l:f£ Urm Ut&Y U. -b ftr/yU., I:g owa 0+ht/Y
Handrails required ^On at least one side min. 3.2 3306 e
high measured from surface of ramp.
Extend 1 ft. beyond top and bottom of ramp.

Rev. March 1983

4.10 ggQMOJICTI (Cont'd)
4.10.3 SIP BOXZ4)
<3CELISr (Cont'd)
Exit signs required? Yes, at every reg'd. exit door 3312
w/occ. load of +30
Balcony rails?________________________________________
All unenclosed floor, roof openings, open Where required?and ?lazed'sides of stairs, ramps and 1714 landings, balconies, etc.
Height required _______42" (3'-6)___________________ 1714
Balusters or intermediate rails required o.c. max.
h(ZUEVS pJrx-vts
Area limitations 33-1/3% of the area supporting roof
3301 b
Height limitations None in Type I construction_________ 3601 a
Use only for shelter of mechanical equip.
Use limitations or vertical shaft openings.____________ 3601 c
Construction requirements Shall have walls, floor and 3601 d
a roof constructed as the main part of bldg, unless
penth. walls are +5'-0 from H, may be of 1 hour construetion.
Parapet ,11,= ^ ^ ^ ^
Where requiredAll exterior walls (See exceptions)^ 1710 a
Height30" above where roof surface and wall intersect.
Fire extinguishing systems:
Sprinlders rrp, 1710 b
3803 a
Dry standpipes required_ Location

Raised March 1983
( )
K. A
XSTi (Cont'd)
Number required^
Number outlets required^ Hose required___________________
Siamese connections required
Wet standpipes required in bldgs. +4 stories________
Number required (hose run) One or more. 4 s.pipes

for =4 stories (100 ft. max, distance to any point in bldg.)
Location In a public corridor w/in 10' for-the opening _____
of a req'd. stairway on all floor levels.____________
Fire extinguishers ragn-ired At each standpipe location. _____
20. Toilet roan requirements: Code utilized? *5^1 _____
Fixture count requirements: _____
Men: Basis Actual
2? lc>D\- US
Water closets________(sO \-e^l:=>0
Urinals__________*2? pey UGI -
% per b0\- lift)
Water closets
% pv w A Ur in icing fountain requirements^
prraviA mnu^n

Rev. March 1983
mronano* (cost'd)
4.10.3 SLP BtnXOXSS
Showers required?_
Walls Hard, smooth, non-absorbent surfaces
509 b 5A
glooraflard,.smooth, non-absorbent surfaces_____________
Compartments 30" wide x (w.c. + 24") long = 14 sq. ft. Handicapped requirements Also see handicap ordinances
509 b 5A
509 b 5B

DA lifted A:Q fJ^rvryi iwlU
Separation Min. 4'-0 between units
('e(rp B 7
600 5a.7
Maximum size 100 sq. ft.
600 5a. S

Maximum .aggregate area in roo25% of room area sheltered 600 5a, Cp
by roof.
Curb height 9" above roof plane.___________________________________________
T hn Ad An. /r ,L J I
Elevators and escalators: £Jv5(o, Maximum number in each shaft_
Ventilate penthouse?
J I---l WS
rmntricnio 6 ound 7 U voeAa^kitc.
Irbnhrv) &ti&tx+yv ty ZprlyWjA'
- mi
(f? l-4irfbj in hj~.
Machine room wall construction 'WltT

\AYts pyrU'thr*; ^prinKU^^ UnatiA (^ruAUi ahrvt^ QurJ~ U
WVl r CM Ur^j C^tvu Wt+fc^ frv[ ^ bMAwJtlw**yb

Revised March 1983
23. Use of public property:
Doors prohibited fran swinging into city property?Yes Marquees, canopies, etc.:
Support from building? Entirely___________________
Laminated safety glass, Material restrictions plastic, fabric
~ yrr Kwcfrr)kw?i-ibLi>
. Distance above walk
8' -0
4506 c
4505 c
4506 a 4505 a
^ Maximum distance of extension over walk min. 2'-0 __
. . . . inside curb line
Maximum height 1 l/l _________________________ ___
4501 e
Drainage Toward the building
4505 cl
. Other projections
u Minimum height above "ground" +8-0_______________
1" per 1" of clearance up to 4'-0
Maximum allowable projection___________
Bay window, porch, balconies_________
Cornices, etc._______________________
24. Fire alarm:
All F-2 of +4 stories (exempt 4 stories)
Required basis___________________________
Type Manual pull stations._______________
25. Emergency lights or power required In exit wavs which are 5310 a
continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way illuminate to one foot candle.______________________
26. Access doors required in exterior walls without openings? __________

The nechanical systems needed for the Denver Aquarium will be researched further during design development. I have written Cambridge Seven Associates, Boston, HA, and Enartec Consulting Engineers, San Diego, CA. in order to obtain the required technical data.

The Report and Recommended Plan for the Central Platte Valley Development submitted by the Platte Valley Development Committee to the Denver Planning Board
June 12, 1985
and as revised by the Denver Planning Board RECOMMENDED FOR TRANSMITTAL TO THE MAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL OF DENVER July 3, 1985

Executive Summary
1.0 General statements regarding the development of the Central Platte Valley
2.0 Land uses, density and design character
3.0 Open space network and pedestrian circulation
4.0 Railroad corridor & buffer
5.0 Automobile circulation, traffic improvements, mass transit
6.0 Flood Control
7.0 Historic Preservation
8.0 Financing Principles
9.0 Implementation Principles
10.0 Miscellaneous
- Convention Center

The members of the Platte Valley Development Committee (PVDC) began their work in January, 1984, responding to Mayor Pena's request for a development framework that would encompass the entire Central Platte Valley. The PVDC included representives of City Council, Planning Board and other Administration officials, as well as railroads, developers and landowners in the area. In addition, there were representatives of the adjacent areas the downtown core, Auraria, and the north and west side neighborhoods.
The study area includes nearly 400 acres (with an additional 171 acres of the Auraria Campus) bounded by West Colfax Avenue, 1-25, 23rd/Fox Streets, and Wynkoop. The Central Platte Valley, which is immediately west of downtown, has historical significance as the place where Denver was founded at the confluence of the South Platte River and the Cherry Creek. In addition, such a large parcel of underdeveloped land is an unique and exciting opportunity for Denver.
The task for the PVDC was to create, through a consensus process, the conceptual framework within which the Platte Valley would be developed. This framework provides the recommended general direction for the character; building densities and heights; land uses; transportation network; open space system; and financial and institutional arrangements for the Central Platte Valley.
It is important to note that this Concept Plan for the Central Platte Valley Development is a policy document (not a planning document) which reflects the agreements reached by the PVDC. These agreements, reached through a lively, 16-month, give-and-take process, represent h first cut analysis that will be subject to further planning refinements undertaken in the coming months. This Concept Plan will, however, be the basis for the zoning, development agreements and other contracts which will effect the development in the Central Platte Valley.
Whv Develop the Platte Valiev Now?
The transformation of the Central Platte Valley from an area associated only with rail yards and warehouses to one in which the waterways and greenways are prominent can significantly change the image of Denver for many people.
The Platte Valley, for many, is currently a transportation crossroads through which they travel (on 1-25; across town on Speer Boulevard, West Colfax, or 20th Street). For those people, their image of Denver is, in great part, their image of the Platte Valley. The enhancement of the Valley through the improvemetns outlined in this Plan, offers the

opportunity to create a dynamic and powerful gateway to Denver.
Through the addition of the open space, activities (employment, cultural, recreational, and pedestrian/retail), and housing, there will be the opportunity to respond to markets in the core area which have not yet been successfully tapped. In addition, these projects can effect substantive change in how people define Denver. Denver will not only be a city of family residences, cultural and recreational opportunities, and myriad parks facing the mountains; but will once again be reconnected to the waterways where she was founded.
Denver is in a "landlocked" situation due to the fact that the City cannot annex additional land. This severely affects Denver's ability to increase economic development for additional jobs, residents, and tax revenue. The need for such development in part comes from the fact that Denver has been losing its economic base to surrounding areas.
Given these circumstances, it is important that the remaining undeveloped land in Denver be better utilized, wherever possible. The Central Platte Valley is the most prominent example of underutilized land. Currently, the Central Platte Valley contributes only $56,000 annually in taxes. This low tax generation is in part due to the uses in the Valley and in part due to the fact that the City cannot tax railroad yards or rights-of-way, only main line trackage and the few properties.
Moreover, the Central Platte Valley, as it currently exists, offers the opportunity for Denver to actively compete with suburban developments. This is due to these assets: l)the land values in the Valley are competitive with surrounding projects; 2)there is excellent access to the Valley; 3) it is a location immediately adjacent to downtown services; and 4) the Valley presents unique amenities, such as an improved South Platte River, Cherry Creek, and new open space.
As exciting as the development of the Valley is projected to be in and of itself transforming a blighted, industrial warehouse and rail yard district into a vital, thriving near-downtown district it is a critical element as an economic boost to the entire city. The direct and indirect benefits will, over time, exceed the costs of the infrastructure, with the resultant revenue helping the entire city. The indirect benefits include the revenue generation from development which which is likely to occur in adjacent areas (Lower Downtown and the Union Pacific Yards) once the Platte Valley development begins.
The transformation of such a blighted area will be dramatically felt by the neighborhoods in the amenities

developed and created; the new connection to downtown; and the creation of new jobs.
The development of the Platte Valley has been discussed and studied for nearly twenty years. Much has been learned from some of those past endeavors which has resulted in the present cooperation among all the interested parties. Most importantly, the railroad agreement to consolidate the rail lines makes this different from past efforts. The railroad companies and the developers are committed to making substantial investments in the Valley. In addition, their development will be paying, through the new tax revenue mechanism, for most of the public infrastructure.
There are certain givens in the Central Platte Valley which should not be overlooked:
1. The City owns little property in the Central Platte Valley. In addition, given the current economics of the nation, state and the City, funds for public acquisition of entire redevelopment area are not available.
2. A local government cannot use eminent domain to acquire land owned bv a railroad. Therefore, in order for the critical removal of the rail lines to occur, the railroads must also support the development economics of re-using their property.
3. To the greatest extent possible, the development in the Platte Valiev must pav for the infrastructure which directly benefits the Platte Valiev. In addition, some infrastructure improvements that are city-wide in nature will also need to be made. For those infrastructure projects, other sources of funding may be required.
4. Platte Valley development will minimize negative impacts on near-side neighborhoods (Highlands. Jefferson Park. Diamond Hill) and mitigate those negative impacts which are unavoidable. The Central Platte Valley development should be consistent with neighborhood plans and planning in those areas. Where there is a conflict between a neighborhood plan and the Platte Valley Development Concept Plan, the neighborhood plan shall rule for the area encompassed by the neighborhood.
5. The development in the Platte Valiev should complement, not duplicate the downtown. While it is important that Denver retain and improve its share of the development in the metropolitan area, it is also important that the neardowntown development complement and enhance downtown. This should be achieved through the feel and character of the