Citation
Lummi Island environmental retreat

Material Information

Title:
Lummi Island environmental retreat
Creator:
McMullen, John Matthew
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
152 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color, some folded), charts, forms, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Spiritual retreats -- Designs and plans -- Washington (State) -- Lummi Island ( lcsh )
Spiritual retreats ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 123-124).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
John Matthew McMullen.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13783703 ( OCLC )
ocm13783703
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .M3256 ( lcc )

Full Text
LUMMI ISLAND
ENVIRONMENTAL RETREAT
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
A72
1986
M3256


Lumm:
i Island Retreat Center
The Thesis of John Matthew McMullen is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver May 1986


Lummi Island Environmental Retreat
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
John Matthew McMullen Spring 1986


Dedica tion
To Lara, the person who has taught me about love and made me aware of my potential. To our future...


Epigraph
:te
th
s, but of creating a new nature, a new beauty. It is finally a r of defining landscape in a way that includes both the mobility e vernacular and the political infrastructure of a stable social r. Every landscape is the place where we establish our own human nization of space and time.
-John Brinckerhoff Jackson


Project Summary
The Lummi Island Environmental Retreat is a thesis project for the Master of Architecture degree at the University of Colorado at Denver. This Retreat Center is intended to appeal to a small conference/seminar type market, approximately 40 people. The Retreat will accommodate meeting and bed/breakfast activities. The site for the Retreat lies along the southeast shoreline of Legoe Bay, Lummi Island, Washington. The building program includes 36,000 square feet of meeting rooms, dining facilities, overnight accommodations, meeting support facilities and a boat loading dock.


Table of Contents
1.0 Thesis Statement
2.0 Thesis Background
3.0 Site Analysis
4.0 Program Summary
5.0 Facilities Program Breakdowns
6.0 Thesis Design
7.0 Conclusion
8.0 Bibliography
9.0 Appendix


1.0 THESIS STATEMENT


1.0
THESIS STATEMENT
"The islands are a richly varied realm of scenes and intimate details, all interwoven into human tapestry".
Currently Lummi Island, Washington has no readily apparent identity to distinguish it from the other San Juan Islands. By the interjection of architecture in the form of an Environmental Retreat Center, a place is created from a selected site. The contention of this thesis is that once a place has been architecturally defined, this place can draw meaning from the environment. Meaning is extracted by providing a setting, or stage, for user experiences. As a result of interaction with the environment and other people, a user is left with a clear sense of place unique to Lummi Island.
A place is a space where life occurs. Space is the three dimensional organization of elements which constitute a place. A place also has a certain identifiable character. Character is the essence of a place and is determined by concrete things having material substance, shape, texture and colour. Character of a place is also a function of time. It changes with the seasons, the course of the day and the weather. Character lastly relates to human activities and their connection to a specific place.
The place must have a location and in this instance that location is around the edge of a bay on an island. "An island is a place par excellence, appearing as an 'isolated', clearly defined figure. Existentially the island brings us back to the origins: it rises out of the element from which everything was originally born." The presence of water gives identity to the land. Water is the opposite of place and thus it forms an edge with land.
A bay is a strong archetypal place. Here at this juncture between land and sea there is an overlapping of contextual meaning and physical form. Legoe Bay is currently an environmental place, but has not yet become a place in the man made sense. The bay possesses the same problem as the island, a lack of definition which does not allow it to possess a complete identity at this point. There is a need to complement this lack of definition to create an identity.


Legoe Bay is currently capable of being classified as a "sacred-place". In the book Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture by Christian Norberg-Schulz, Mircea Eliade states, "the most primitive of the sacred places we know of constituted a microcosm: a landscape of stones, water and trees. Such places are never chosen by man, but are revealed to him in some way or another." Legoe Bay did reveal itself through its beauty and power.
This sacred place is made up entirely of distinctive landscape qualities. Its character and spatial properties are determined by its: extension, topography and surface relief, texture, colour, vegetation and weather. Introduction of these factors form characteristic totalities or places. Legoe Bay has the potential to become a place with a geographical center because of the surrounding topography. A ridge is located to the east of the site and a mountainous area rises to the south of the site. Water within the bay forms the western edge. The site boundary to the north is nebulous and this accounts for the lack of present definition. A man-made construct with activities will be introduced to give definition and identity to the site, thus forming a totality or "place."
The rationale behind introducing a man-made construct owes its origin to the earlier idea of sacred places. Christian Norberg-Schulz in Genius Loci states that sacred places function as "centres". They serve as objects of mans orientation and identification and constitute a spatial structure. E. Relph in Place and Placelessness states, "The essence of a place lies in the largely unselfconscious intentionality that defines places as profound centre of human existence." Once a centre is established it will function as a focus for its surroundings. To create a building as a focus, allows the building to weave together natural environment and human activity into a certain location called place. The focus or centre created by the building begins to form a stage where human existence is acted out in a way that resembles theatre.
The following contexts will define the place and create the stage for the theatre that eventually creates identity:
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
place is described by nouns
How are the boundaries which define the place?
Landscape thing and character are dimensions of the earth.
The spirit and mood of a place lies in its landscape. The landscape currently achieves identity only in the course of existence. The landscape becomes dynamic through the cycles of weather, vegetation and tidal activity.


Horizon the meeting between earth and sky.
It can be the edge of a continuous sky -dome; or it can be foreshortened by weather to give a false perspective of enclosure.
Sky order and light are determined by the sky.
The effect of sky becomes important because of the constitution of the sky itself; quality of light and colour and the presence of characteristic clouds. Also the sky becomes important through its relationship to the ground and how it appears from below.
Time the dimension of constancy and change.
It makes space and character part of a living reality, which at any moment is given as a particular place.
SPATIAL CONTEXT
space is designated by prepositions Space is a system of relations:
Centralization among, at, of
Direction and Rhythm (nodes of activity and paths between) -across, along, around, by means of, by way of, like, onto, over, to, toward, under, unlike, up, with.
Proximity above, about, after, along with, apart from, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, in front of, near, past, underneath, until, up to, upon.
Inside/Outside except, in, inside, into, out, out of, outside, through, throughout, within, without.
The essence of a "place", as defined previously lies in the experience of an 'inside' that is distinct from an outside. To be inside a place is to belong to it and identify with it. There will be a creation of spaces for coming together, to celebrate, spaces for solitude, spaces that never change and are always as memory depicted them.


I
MANMADE CONTEXT
character is denoted by adjectives
Man made character is determined by:
Articulation determines how a building stands
and rises, and how it receives light.
- big, changing, characteristic, closed, compact, contemplative, continuous, dominating, enclosing, grand, hidden, integral, irregular, isolated, open, rooted, small, soaring, solitary, spreading, submissive, subtle.
Modes of Construction An investigation of place should comprise the basic architectural styles and their relationship to the former component of articulation.
- communal, cultural, eclectic, individual, irregular, local, piecemeal, proportional, rural, timeless, unorthodox.
Activities the human activities characteristic of a specific place.
- creative, destructive, passive, communal, individual, cultural.
Now that a place has been defined and focused by the interaction between the natural environment and a man made construct, this place is free to act as a stage for human interaction between land and sea, sky and man himself. Shakespeare once stated that "the world is a stage," and it is in theatrical terms that man's place can be interpreted as a work of art, his identity best established. "Theater the word emphasized the visual, the spectacular aspect of the environment, it also suggested a spectacle in the sense of a dramatic production with well defined space, an organization of place and time, and coherent action."5 This idea owes its origin to the view of the 16th century theatre!. Landscape becomes both the background of a picture, and a stage set "that element in a composition which gave it form and suggested location but which was not of the main body of the argument."6 This idea then becomes tempered by 17th century theatre. Here "the metaphor of landscape as theatre comes to mean drama, the analysis and solution of a problem. There is a formulation with increasing precision of the three unities: unity of time, of place, and of action."^


The design response for the Retreat will combine aspects of both types of theater. The landscape will be experienced for its own satisfaction, and also as an integral piece in the search for identity. In short,
"the scenic environment should be used to highlight and intensify the identity of the protagonists."8
This discussion has been lengthy, but a coherent and logical argument has been put forward. The lack of identity of Legoe Bay,
Lummi Island, Washington is solved by creating a "place" inhabited by man where only a natural environmental place existed. This place is created with the site definition provided by a man made construct that allowed the natural environment and human activities to focus.
Once focused, the building becomes a centre or stage. Upon this, theatre is bom and a drama unfolds with the main actors becoming man, setting, meaning and activities. The dialectic of this drama becomes the identity of both Legoe Bay and Lummi Island.


Bibliography
^Kirk, Ruth. San Juan Islands. Portland, OR:
Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company, 1983., p. 8.
^Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci: Towards A Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1979., p. 85.
3Ibid, p. 87.
^Relph, E. Place and Placelessness. London:
Pion Limited, 1976., p. 52.
3Jackson, J.B. The Necessity for Ruins. Amherst:
The University of Massachusetts Press, 1980., p. 52.
6Ibid., p. 53.
7lbid. p. 54.
8
Ibid., p. 54.


2.0 THESIS BACKGROUND


2.0
Thesis Background
Lummi Island is located where Rosario Strait merges with the Strait of Georgia. It has an area of 8.8 square miles and is 9 miles long with a maximum width of nearly two miles and 20.5 miles of shoreline. The northern portion of the island is relatively low lying and gently rolling, with elevations to 362 feet above sea level. The southern portion is mountainous with elevations to 1,665 feet. Primary access is by Whatcom County Ferry from Gooseberry Point.
Historic Information
. Island Development
The first white men to see Lummi Island were the Spanish explorers Quimper and Eliza, who during the summer of 1791, cruised in its vicinity and named the chief geographical features adjacent to it, though they seemed to have neglected to designate the island itself by name. The following summer, 1792, their compatriots, Galioano and Valdez, charted the island as Isla de Pacheco after the viceroy of Mexico.
As far as the charts were concerned, the Spanish name remained until 1841, when the Wilkes Expedition set that name aside and charted the island as McLoughlin's Island after the Chief Factor, John McLoughlin of the Hudson's Bay Company in Oregon. Why Wilkes should have chosen the name is hard to understand for McLoughlin had never seen the island or had anything to do with it. Evidently, the United States Geodetic Survey agreed because in 1853 they set aside Wilkes' appellation; and because it had always been the ancestral home of the Lummi Indians, they gave it the more appropriate and present name of Lummi Island.
For many years all was quiet on the island. The only inhabitants were the Lummis, who found it to be their favorite fishing grounds. The annual runs of salmon, headed for the Fraser River, passed close by the Western shore, so during the season the Lummis gathered in force at Village Point, so called because there was a considerable collection of split-board nuts there, where drying racks used in curing the winter's supply of food were located.
There, and in what is now called Legoe Bay, the water was shallow and ideal for the use of the reef nets, which were an invention of the prehistoric members of the tribe.


From time to time, the island was visited by members of the Hudson's Bay Company and various traders and trappers. It wasn't until the early summer of 1871, that a solitary canoe with one lone occupant slowly breasted the tide northward along the Rosario side of Lummi Island. Finally the canoe reached the indentation now known as Legoe Bay and the traveler watched the Indians with their reefnets intercepting the "silver hordes" on their way to the Fraser. He also observed the gently sloping land, extending northward back from the bay, fronted by a bit of gravelly prairie that extended from the pebbly beach to the foot of the wooded incline. All these features, along with the magnificent reaches of inland seas and broad vistas of snow capped mountains to the east, spelled peace and contentment to the canoeist, Christian Tuttle. So impressed was Tuttle with the prospects on Lummi he decided to settle on the little bay where the Indians were reefnetting. He homesteaded 170 acres and pre-empted 160 more. He built a cabin and began to ranch and farm immediately. Tuttle was followed by many other early pioneers and many of their descendants are living on the island today. Names such as Tuttle, Lane, and Granger are still seen on mailboxes all over the island.
By the middle 1880's, timber was becoming a valuable asset on Lummi, and was a drawing card for those interested in logging and lumber. By the end of the 1880's timber had become the major source of income. This emphasis shifted in the early 1890's when salmon fishing began to supercede all other pursuits. The Lummi Indians had, for untold years, made the western shores of Lummi their main fishing grounds. Around Village Point, Legoe Bay and Point Migley, they congregated to intercept the great runs, and it was there that the whites learned from them the secrets of reef netting. Then came the day of trap fishing that made fortunes in one summer; and inaugurated the system that through wanton greed and neglect depleted the runs in a few years to such an extent that their complete destruction was threatened. Three canneries were built and most of the inhabitants of the island became engaged in the fish business. Over the years the resource base diminished and logging, mining, fishing, fish processing, and farming declined.
In the 1920's the island became a popular recreational area and vacationers from throughout the northwest visited lodge and resort cabins. After World War II, tourism gave way to second homes with nearly 700 lots platted in the 20 years after the war. The last resort closed in 1970, but the number of seasonal and permanent homes has continued to increase. Currently Lummi Island has 609 current residents. Projections for the year 2000 place the population at 948 residents, for a 2.87% annual growth rate.


. Bay Development
Since Christian Tuttle's initial landing at Legoe Bay in 1871 the hay has gone through many changes. Hawley's Marina was located at the southeast corner of the bay and provided marina services for the island for approximately 20 years. The marina was subsequently sold to the Federal Government in 1972. The marina land was then leased to the Lummi Indian tribe. The Lummis had started an aquaculture project, (the controlled harvesting of seafood), to provide an economic base for the tribe. The marina became headquarters for the Lummi Indian School Aquaculture (LISA). The marina housed both classroom and laboratory facilities. Here the Lummi aquaculture workers were trained and given the technical assistance to continue harvesting seafood from the tribal tidal pond.
The LISA facilities have now moved to the mainland and the marina facility is currently vacant. The vacant marina facility is located on the site of the proposed retreat complex. To the south of the marina, small cottages are still in use. The adjacent beach is a primary access for reefnetters who fish extensively in Rosario Strait. To the northeast edge of the bay are located a cafe and small marina facility still in use. Ringing the east edge of the bay is Legoe Bay Road which separates residential development from the extensive storage of reefnetting boats and equipment along the shoreline.
Format for the Retreat center Facility Structure
The Retreat Center is intended to appeal to a small conference/seminar market. The center will house approximately 40 visitors at one time. An auditorium will house large functions; while a large meeting room, a small meeting room, and sitting dens will house the more intimate meeting functions. A library is provided for small-scale research on a variety of environmental topics. Office spaces are included for use by visiting retreat participants.
Residential facilities are differentiated in the following manner: two larger suites are provided for directors of visiting
retreating groups. The remaining 38 rooms are smaller and serve the remainder of the visiting retreat group. Food service is provided for both banquet and bed/breakfast activities. A marina is also provided to allow the visiting retreat participants to make excursions out to sea, for whatever purpose, in the Retreat Center's private boat.


Client Structure
As stated before, this Center is intended to appeal to a market of 40 or less users. It is intended that their stay be limited to two or less weeks. The Retreat Center is intended to cater to a select group of environmentally conscious organizations that would enjoy immersing themselves in an environmental context for meeting/conference purposes.
Potential users could include:
The Sierra Club Greenpeace The Audobon Society The Scripps Institution The Cousteau Society
University or College Marine Biology Departments
During periods in which a lull of retreat/conference/seminar activities is experienced, the Retreat Center has the flexibility to operate as a bed/breakfast establishment for visiting tourists.


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
Area Map
TolwjMhO! SIPS
*Z VANCOUVER
itttne Of
Site Location
U H I '<
/' sr
zj% WfcCTfc.
k
North


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
Vicinity Map
To Vancouver
Take 1-5 north to Highway 540. Go west on Highway 540 to the Lummi Island turnoff. Turn left on Haxton Way and follow the road south to Gooseberry Point. Board the "Whatcom Chief" ferry for the ten-minute, three-quarter mile ride to Lummi Island. After departing the ferry turn left on Nugent Road and head south. Turn right on Legoe Bay Road and head north until it intersects with Tuttle Lane. The site lies to the left and borders Legoe Bay.


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
iT 38 N
Gord6rr A
Gooseberry
Point"
Ligttl'
llage -Point
Site Boundary
Con 2
Lovers Bluff
Bumstead
.0
North
Site Map


Site Introduction
The site for the Environmental Retreat Center is located at the intersection of Tuttle Lane and Legoe Bay Road. The area and vicinity maps on the preceding pages show the location of the site and its relationship to the main roads and cities. Lummi is located 20 miles from Bellingham, Washington and 120 miles from Seattle, Washington. Lummi Island can be reached by either flying into Seattle Tacoma International Airport, renting a car and driving the rest of the way to Lummi; or by flying into Sea-Tac International, then changing airlines and flying into Bellingham International Airport and renting a car for the drive to Lummi Island. Leaving Bellingham the driver proceeds north on 1-5 until the Lummi Island exit is reached. At this point the driver proceeds west on Highway 540.
At Haxton Way the driver takes a left and proceeds south towards Lummi Island. The road is heavily forested on both sides producing a linear experience. The road winds and continues for about 5 miles until suddenly the driver comes out in the open and is bombarded by oblique views of the sea and island through the houses clustered along the beach. The smell of salt and sea also become pervasive. As the road curves the first contact with fishing and boats is made. The Gooseberry Point Marina sits to the right along with the General Store.
The driver turns right into the ferry loading area and drives out onto the long timbered loading dock.(l) The experience is very linear and terminates at the gateway to the ferry. A glance to the left and the driver views a scene of small boats, canoes and kayaks drawn up on the beach. Indian parents are standing and conversing in the parking lot while Indian children play in the water's edge. A glance ahead and the Island looms large, the mountainous southern part of the island gradually falling towards the gently sloping northern end. A glance to the right and the driver views boats waiting along the adjacent dock to be moved in or out of the water by the long trolley system coming from the marina boathouse storage.


As the ferry makes its progress from the island to the mainland the driver begins to feel the power of the sea and its role as a barrier between island and mainland. The ferry docks and mainland-bound traffic disembarks. After the last car has passed, island-bound traffic now boards. Once the 22-car capacity Whatcom Chief is boarded the ten minute ride towards the island begins. Various fishing ships criss-cross the line of travel of the ferry. Once heading towards the mainland the inclination is to always look ahead at the island or up and down the channel, never behind at the mainland. On the mainland side a lot of responsibility and tension are left behind.
On the island side the ferry dock outstretches and welcomes.(2) A large house sits to the left of the dock and overlooks the sea like a lighthouse.(3) To the right are bungalows on stilts. The abandoned Chevron/General Store with its white gabled roof form sticks out clearly from the forested area behind.(4) The driver proceeds up the ramp and takes a left onto Nugent Road.(5) Passing the Island General Store on the right and several houses on the left, the driver heads south. At Legoe Bay Road taking a right turn the driver heads directly toward the site. Several houses are passed on the right and left. Further along the Volunteer Fire Station and ambulance are seen to the left. Just before Legoe Bay Road curves to form the eastern edge of the site the driver looks left to see the cemetery, bounded by pines, and the Chapel. This structure with large steeple was built in the late 1890's and is the only existing chapel on the island.
The site for the Environmental Retreat is located at the intersection of Tuttle Lane and Legoe Bay Road. Located at the southeast edge of Legoe Bay, the site is bordered on the west by the sea, on the south by a forested hillock, on the east by a slough and Legoe Bay Road, and on the north it is contained by the coastline's intersection with Legoe Bay Road. The coastline side of the site is currently littered with driftwood and abandoned reefnetting boats and fishing equipment.(6) The site is approximately one and one-half miles from the ferry landing. The topography of the site consists of gently sloping land, extending back from the bay, fronted by a bit of gravelly prairie that extends from a pebbly beach to the foot of a wooded incline.(7)


3.0
SITE ANALYSIS
. Site Planning and Zoning Comprehensive Plan Goal
"The overall goal of this plan is to allow growth within the limits that will preserve the island's rural character and community. The essential limit is the capacity of the island's own water resources. 'Rural character' is understood to mean both the amenities of the natural environment the open spaces, views, wooded areas and wildlife and the lack of urban-scale development, utilities, and requirements for government. The term applies to the non-visual aspects of rural life on the island the self sufficiency, sense of community and mix of land uses as much as to the visual appearance of Lummi Island". Lummi Island Comprehensive Plan, 1979, p. 25.
The northern part of the island is designated as "Rural".
Land uses are regulated on the basis of the assumed carrying capacity of the ground water resource. The Rural designation is intended to foster the mix of land uses residential, farming, part-time farming, forestry woodlot, and light industry or business that contributes to the rural character and lifestyle of Lummi Island.
The site at Legoe Bay falls under the zoning designation of "Rural". The zoning code states that with the Rural designation the following use is allowed. Along Legoe Bay Road from County Road 656 to and including Village Point, commercial and industrial uses are allowed as a use by condition. (Lummi Island Zoning Ordinance Section A.2.2, April 1979). Any development as large as the Environmental Retreat Center would have to apply for a Planned Unit Development exemption. This move becomes necessary because of the limited water resources available on the island and the fact that the site lies within a sensitive ground water recharge area. Currently the zoning classification allows only one 1 dwelling unit per three acres and the restriction would have to be waived. This becomes a possibility because a marina and cottages currently exist on the site as a nonconforming use.
The site encompasses approximately 12 acres in a roughly triangular shaped area.


Relevant provisions of the zoning ordinance are:
Current Use: Development Type:
Maximum Height: Parking:
Abandoned marina and cottages.
Institutional-type established with minimal disturbance of the existing contours, appropriately landscaping the site to retain its present character.
25 feet (because of fire equipment capabilities)
Impervious surfacing shall be held to a minimum.
Zoning Changes: For a different use or a greater size
than that allowed by the use by condition permit, a zone change would have to be approved. The application must include a development program statement, development plan, and development schedule.
Relevant provisions of the Whatcom County Shoreline Management Program Whatcom County Plannning Department, June 1978 are:
Shoreline Designation: Commercial Setbacks*:
Shore:
Side Yard:
Open Space:
Height Limit:
Floor Elevation:
Parking and Utilities
Shore:
Side yard:
Site Coverage:
Rural
100 feet from OHWM, (ordinary high water mark) 15 feet
50%
0-100 feet from OHWM 20 feet 100-200 feet from OHWM 25 feet Elevation of finished ground floor of building at least 5 feet above OHWM.
Setbacks*:
75 feet from OHWM 50 feet
2:1 undeveloped to developed
Setbacks do not apply to outdoor swim pools, decks or patios which do not extend more than 25 feet waterward from dwelling unit.




3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
. Existing Infrastructure
Wa ter
With the exception of three water associations that draw surface water from watersheds and open reservoirs on the mountain, all domestic water supply comes from wells on the northern half of the island.
Sewage Disposal
On Lummi Island sewage is disposed primarily by individual septic tank systems. Septic tank systems first condition the raw sewage in the tank and then distribute it within the soils where filtration can occur. Within the site at Legoe Bay, depth to bedrock is greater than 50 feet, however this site falls within a sensitive ground water recharge area. Due to the fact that all groundwater is absorbed by the northern part of the island an alternative to septic system disposal might have to be explored.
Electricity
Puget Sound Power and Light has four submarine cables connecting Lummi Island to Gooseberry Point. Three cables are in use; one is a spare. Present use is about 40% of capacity. It is assumed that there is sufficient electrical power to supply the Environmental Retreat Center.


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS


_i2L
42'30"
(LUMM! BA Y)
: *24
40'
3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
^ 1 '.Ik.1' Vi ''y
Existing Infrastructure
L U MM I BAY
. | Gorddrr t\& ~
vy Fishermans ' Cove J
Gooseber. /Point
I
; Ligh
Village Point'
Site
\
\'
A\
Lagfle Rau
K Lovers BluYf
SEPTIC TANKS & GROUND WATER QUALITY \
AREAS WHERE DEPTH TO BEDROCK IS GREATER THAN 50 FEET
AREAS WHERE DEPTH TO BEDROCK IS LESS THAN 50 FEET
SOURCE: PRELIMINARY WATER STUDY OF LUMMi ISLAND BY R. SCHMIDT AND SOIL SURVEY BY SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. INFORMATION IS GENERAL AND CONTAINS LOCAL EXCEPTIONS .IMITATIONS OF INFORMATION USED.
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 FEET
5
r\
/t / 4 ]
Sunrise 'y 4




ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
. Landscape
- Landscape Organization and Planning
Mature vegetation on the site currently consists of only a few conifers and successional shrubs and grass. Bordering the site on the south is a hillock covered by a large aggregate of conifers. To the east, a gentle slope covered by grass and successional shrubs gradually works its way up the hill, and is finally covered by mixed deciduous and conifers. Bordering the site on the west is a scattering of deciduous and conifers infilled with sparse grass and shrubs. Within the site boundaries the majority of vegetation congregates around a slough.
Following is a breakdown of vegetation that naturally occurs within the San Juan Island region. This list will be used as a reference when landscaping the site in conjunction with the Lummi Island Environmental Retreat.
Trees and Shrubs Suitable for Seaside Planting
Broadleaved Evergreens Arbutus Unedo
Calluna Vulgaris & Varieties Choisya Ternata Cotoneaster Varieties Cytisus Varieties Eleagnus Varieties Escallonia Varieties Eunymus Fortunei Varieties
Evergreens Coniferous
Chamaecyparis Pisifera Juniperus Horizontalis
Euonymus Japonicus Genista Varieties Itex Aquifolium Varieties Lavandula Spica Pyracantha Varieties Spartium Junceum Vibrunum Varieties Yucca Varieties
Pinus Mugo Mughus Taxus Cuspidata
Ornamental Flowering and Shade Trees
Crataegus Varieties Fraxinus Exelsior Populus Alba Populus Tremula Quercus Robur
Rhus Varieties Sophora
Sorbus Aria Varieties Sorbus Aucuparia Varieties


Deciduous Ornamental and Flowering Shrubs
Clethra Alnifolia Cornus Stolonifera Fuchsia Magellanica Halimodendron Halodendron Hibiscus Syriacus Hippophae Rhatnnoides Hydrangea Macrophylla
Ground Covers
Lonicera Tatarica Potentilla Varietie Rosa Varieties Spirea Varieties Suringa Vulgaris Tamarix
Arctostaphylos Ura Ursi Gaultheria Shallon


42'30
/T\ /'>^int M,g,*y
W3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
LAND COVER, NORTHERN PAR OF ISLAND
SOURCE COASTAL ZONE jiff LAS OF ____ WASHINGTON. VOL 1, WHATCOM CO
I' | CONIFERS
DECIDUOUS and MIXED Enad DECIDUOUS & CONIFERS
f \ 1 SUCCESSIONAL SHRUBS- ^
I cleared/grass
IOOO 2000 3000 4000 5000 FEET


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
. Landscape Coastal Information
The coastal zone may be defined as a rather narrow transitional ribbon occurring where a continental land meets a tidal sea. The coastal zone is a bundle of resources, of immense value for commercial, recreational and aesthetic reasons. In order for the Legoe Bay coastal zone to be used properly, any activity introduced into the bay must be supplementary. Use activities are supplementary when change in the level of one activity has no effect on the level of activity of other uses. Supplementary use will be one of the goals in the design of the Lummi Island Environmental Retreat. There will be an attempt to minimize the impact of the center on the commercial fishing activity that occurs in the bay.
The coastal zone is the junction of two environments, it is linear in nature and the length is an essential characteristic. It is an edge at which events are concentrated. Where the land and sea meet, the sea is shallowest and the land lowest. Flooding is common, both by daily tidal flooding of sand and mud flats and by storm tides that are individually unpredictable.
The shallowness of the sea, beginning some distance from the actual tide line, has an effect on the concentration of the sea's energy at the coast. The shallower the shore and the more gradual its slope, the geater will be the distance over which the sea's energy is spent. On very gradually sloping coasts, large storms may raise sea level by as much as five feet at times in Legoe Bay. During normal tidal flooding the difference between high and low tide will account for 3 vertical feet and approximately 25 horizontal feet. This tidal difference begins to become a large factor in the placement of the marina dock.
The coastal zone may be broken down into the following four subzones paralleling the coastline. (See graphic)
(1) NERITIC This ecological "near-shore" marine zone spreads from the continental shelf to the beach. It is the richest zone for fishing and often contains bars and reefs. Visual contact is predominantly with the sea rather than the land.
(2) BEACH The beach zone reaches both into the water and onto the land. Shorebirds and abundant plant and animal life begin to occur in this zone.
(3) SHORELAND The shoreland zone identifies that ribbon of land lying behind the beach and the many supporting marine activities. An important aspect of this zone is the visual connection with the sea.


(4) VICINAGE The marine coastal backland generally contains supporting services for recreational activities and is also the locale for housing. This zone depends upon the geographic image of nearness rather than visual linkage with the beach and sea.
Coastal Zone Management Act
The Coastal Zone Management Act was created to deal with the complex questions of allocation and protection of coastal resources. The National Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 provides a mechanism for the establishment of State programs to protect and develop coastal waters. The states are to establish comprehensive coastal management programs, including an identification of permissible uses, areas of particular concern, and general principles for development and protection.
Washington Shorelands Management Act of 1971
Under this Act, the Department of Ecology, which administers the State Coastal Zone Management Plan, was to develop guidelines for land and water uses within the state's coastal zone. Based upon those guidelines, local units of government (counties and cities) were to establish comprehensive management plans. Under the Act, any substantial development must receive a local permit to occur. "Substantial" is defined, with some exceptions, as involving a market value of more than $1000 or as any action that would materially interfere with the normal public use of the water or shorelines of the s ta te.
Whatcom County Shoreline Management Act
In Whatcom County (including Lummi Island), a County Planning Manual was established. This planning manual is intended to answer three basic questions:
(1) Who has ownership and/or jurisdiction over a particular site?
What regulatory programs affect the area? What are the legal issues and policies affecting the decision?
(2) What is the natural system or habitat that exists at or around the site? How should the site be managed?
(3) Should the proposed use be allowed to locate on the site?
If so, under what conditions?
Terrestrial
A VICINAGE
The four Subzones of the Coastal Zone.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
- Landscape
- Soils
Geology of the Island
The northern part of Lummi Island is essentially an irregular bedrock surface covered by glacial material except where bedrock is exposed. The bedrock consists mostly of Chuckanut sandstone and conglomerate with volcanic outcrops at several coastal locations and older metamorphic rocks in a small area north of Sunrise Road. The glacial material is composed primarily of till and clay with lesser amounts of sand and gravel. Units of both types of glacial sediment range in thickness from a few inches to as much as 50 feet or more.
Hydrogeology
The geology thus has two types of water-bearing material: the bedrock of sandstone and conglomerate where water is stored principally in fractures and fissures, and the overlying glacial material, where water is stored in both the permeable sands and gravels and in the much less permeable but still quite porous clays and tills. The storage capacity of the latter materials is judged to be at least ten times as good as the bedrock and the transmissivity (ability of the water to move through the materials) generally is judged to be higher and much less variable.
Geology of the Site
The soil at the site consists mainly of Kickerville Silt Loam. A section of the southern part of the site has a relatively high water table due to the location of a slough. At low tide fresh water runs out of the slough and back into the ocean. At high tide saltwater from the sea is transferred back into the slough.
The site also lies in a sensitive recharge area. Any development on the site will have to include a provision that allows run-off water to be deposited back into the ground for drainage into the underground aquifer.
Depth to bedrock varies at the site. At the southern end depth is less than 50 feet. Outside the southern boundary lies a large bedrock outcrop consisting of volcanic rocks which have been glacially polished and grooved. At the northern end of the site depth is greater than 50 feet. Slope stability all along the site is very good.




3.0 SIT
E jftNALYSIS
Depth to Bedrock Map
DEPTH TO BEDROCK
DEPTH TO BEDROCK (BELOW LAND SURFACE) INTERVAL 50'
X
woo 2000 3000 nrr
BEDROCK OUTCROP
DEPTH TO BEDROCK LESS THAN 50 FEET
DEPTH TO BEDROCK GREATER THAN 50 FEET
BOBINSON AND NOBll INC G BOUND WAT El GTOiOGISTS TACOMA WASHINGTON
IGS
S/7B
G7M5


(LUMMI BAY)
,Point Migldy
3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
SI o pe St a bl Ijty M a
L U M M I BA
The
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iT 38 N \37 N
Lummi X hrfwid X
* LighA,_____
Village Point
''C01n J Lovers Bluff
Sunrise
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SLOPE STABILITY, NORTHERN PART OF ISLAND
[ I STABLE
POTENT UNSTABLE
POTENTIALLY
UNSTABLE
SOURCE: COASTAL ZONE ATLAS OF
WASHINGTON. V0L.1. WHATCOM CO. B
0 \ 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 FEET
Gr
8:


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
. Horizon
Below are four slides taken as a panorama from the site from southwest to north. These slides are keyed to a map on the following page.
Slide No. 1 - This slide looks from the site southwest past Lover's
Bluff through to Blakely Island. To the left is the tip of Cypress
Island. To the right is a sliver of Orcas Island.
Slide No. 2 This slide looks straight West across the Rosario Strait towards Orcas Island. The highest point on the right of Orcas is called Mt. Constitution.
Slide No. 3 This slide looks from the site northwest across Rosario Strait towards the northern end of Orcas Island. In front of Orcas Island lies Stuart Island.
Slide No. 4 - This slide looks directly north from the site across
Legoe Bay. Village Point is seen across the bay, along with the
existing marina and cafe.


J.UMMUSLAND
ORCAS ISLAND
SINCLAIR ISLAND
.& GUEMES k- ISLAND I
BLAKELY tv ISLAND
Aa >] Mi* *.
3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
Horizon Map


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
. Sky
The effect of the sky becomes important because of the constitution of the sky itself. This includes the quality of light and colour and the presence of characteristic clouds. Following is a description of the sky as it changes through the seasons.
January
Many mornings begin with fog. A foggy morning usually means a day without rain, even though the sun may not break through until afternoon. The horizon is reduced to the immediate surroundings.
The sun becomes a wan floating disk in an undilineated sky. Once the sun does break through, the fog is gone suddenly and the horizon once again enlarges to become the edge of a sky-dome. Colors of the landscape change from a grayed out appearance during the fog to their full-blown glistening brilliance under the deep blue clear sky.
Blue-black clouds during January mean rain.
February
In February fog once again becomes an indicator of the weather. If the day begins with fog, then there is a chance of seeing the sun. If the day begins without fog then it usually ends with rain. Once rain begins to fall it usually continues for periods as long as a week. A blue haze hangs over the water. The horizon is a mass of indistinct blurs. The horizon advances and recedes and advances. The sea itself becomes a mirror and reflects grey skies. Hills and roadsides begin to color slowly and the smell of spring is in the air.
March
During March, nights become clear and the stars are reflected, but faintly blurred on the surface of the water. The sky during the day remains grey and brings rain in gusts. The sea takes on a varied character. Water close to shore remains quiet; farther out it becomes wind rippled and takes on a greenish color. Horizon lines are curved and gentled by a blur of mist.
Spring officially makes an appearance during March and the first wildflowers come into bloom.
April
During April, rain sometimes falls steadily for three days from low, gray clouds. Shower and sun take turns. A single day might see three, four or a half-dozen rainbows. The wind tastes and smells of iodine and salt.
As the month progresses the cloud mantle is lifted and the sky becomes delft-blue. Water becomes gray-green and is dotted with whitecaps produced by a pre-dominant north wind.


During May, the day begins with the appearance of the sun. It rises as an orange-red balloon above Mount Baker and the blueish-cast North Cascade Mountain Range.
The sun then bursts full into a confederate-gray sky. Days turn mild as summer comes full-blown. The water remains blue and calm and reflects a blue sky. White clouds form and reform patterns and are reflected on the still surface of the water. With the coming of sunset, evening red slowly fades from the sky. Mountains change from coral pink to ghostly gray and then melt from view.
June
During June, days become longer, with June 21st being the longest day of the year. Clouds become scarce and the sky over the water seems empty. The horizon is at its most distant point during June.
July
During July, skies remain cloudless and time stands still during afternoons. Days remain long and even after ten o'clock the mountains still hold a blush of coral.
Still water mirrors pink clouds and the cool air smells of iodine.
The northern lights, aurora borealis, make their appearance. "The sky becomes engulfed in moving, vivid color. Long flashing streamers drape the sky, converge in an arch overhead, change constantly, showing luminous waving bands of rose, red, gold, gray, voilet, flame, yellow-green, folded and fluted. Finally the colors waver away, fading to a pale gray rose. The sky turns black, and the stars come out." Heckman, Hazel. Island Year p. 78.
Augus t
During August the rain begins again. A haze, neither cloud nor fog, filters the sunlight in the morning. Towards afternoon, wind blows pearl-gray clouds across the sky, and steel blue water is dotted with running whitecaps.
September
With the coming of September, shrinking Indian summer days are filled with a new and warmer light. Days remain mild and the sky remains hazy. Rain begins to fall during the night.


October
After the rains and wind of the autumn equinox, the weather softens again and the skies clear during the early part of October.
As the month wears on the clouds come back and drizzle begins. Some evenings the sun returns for an encore. Sunsets are spectacular, gray sky enriched with muted shades of rose and apricot and orange.
November
Cold rain falls from gray skies. The water roughens and gleams with whitecaps. The air holds a hint of frost and smells of autumn.
December
December is the month of snow and rain. Sheets of rain sweep the water, and gray water near the shore turns to green farther out. As the month continues the wind blows in from the northeast and whips olive green water into long foamy whitecaps that pile mounds of froth on the beach. The gray windy sky seems empty. As the mercury plummets, freezing rain turns to snow. The mainland becomes blotted out by snow squalls. Clouds of steam arise from the channel.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
. Time
Time is the dimension of constancy and change. At Lummi Island, the context of time becomes timelessness. There is an ethereal quality that escapes true finite definition. Lummi Island is a throwback to a simpler time. Public services are minimal. Roads are two lanes at best.
The fact that Lummi Island is separated from the mainland by water on all sides and is reachable only by ferry contributes to the island's timelessness. A certain amount of tension and expectation are left on the mainland side. The ferry ride across Hale Passage becomes a transition between the United States and what feels like another country. As one leaves the mainland there is a feeling of leaving the U.S. behind and entering a separate entity. This entity becomes a stronghold for contemplation and reflection. One is lulled into a sense of unchangingness.
As John Muir once wrote, "No pain here, no dull empty hours, no fear of the past, no fear of the future".


SPATIAL CONTEXT
Following are a series of patterns drawn from both Alexander's Pattern Language and Cullen's Townscape These patterns will be arranged in the following format. The first section will contain patterns that already exist on the island. A second section will introduce patterns that will also be included in my design. These patterns are new, but still compatible with the existing character and fabric of the island.
Space is designated by prepositions .
Space is a system of relations :
. Centralization Direction and Rhythm Proximity Inside/Outside
Centralization among, at, of
What is the nature and organization of space among my building?
What spaces lie at the heart of my site? xisting Patterns ^at is the essence of_ space within the complex?

^rvu/r*l
^r^viVi^'W
91 Traveler's Inn
Make the traveler's inn a place where traveler's can take rooms for the night, but where unlike most hotels and motels the inn draws all its energy from the community of travelers that are there any given evening. The scale is small 30 to 40 guests to an inn; meals are offered communally; there is even a large space ringed round with beds or tables and seats in alcoves.
129 Common Areas At The Heart
Create a single common area for every social group. Locate it at the center of gravity of all the spaces the group occupies, and in such a way that the paths which go in and out of the building lie tangent to it.


139
Farmhouse Kitchen
Make the kitchen bigger than usual, big enough to include the "family room" space, and place it near the center of the commons, not so far back in the house as the ordinary kitchen. Make it large enough to hold a good big table and chairs, some soft and some hard, with counters and stove and sink around the edge of the room; and make it a bright and comfortable room.
Reception Welcomes You
Arrange a series of welcoming things immediately inside the entrance soft chairs, a fireplace, food, coffee. Place the reception desk so that it is not between the receptionist and the welcoming area, but to one side at an angle -so that she, or he can get up and walk toward the people who come in, greet them, and then invite them to sit down.
Small Meeting Rooms
Make at least 70 per cent of all meeting rooms really small for 12 people or less. Locate them in the most public parts of the building, evenly scattered among the workplaces.
Half-Private Office
Avoid closed off, separate or private offices. Make every workroom, whether it is for a group of two or three people or for one person, half-open to the other workgroups and the world immediately beyond it. At the front, just inside the door, make comfortable sitting space, with the actual workspace^) away from the door, and further back.
Alcoves
Make small places at the edge of any common room, usually no more than 6 feet wide and 3 to 6 feet deep and possibly much smaller. These alcoves should be large enough for two people to sit, chat, or play and sometimes large enough to contain a desk or a table.


The Fire
181
182
Build the fire in a common space perhaps in the kitchen where it provides a natural focus for talk and dreams and thought. Adjust the location until it knits together the social spaces and rooms around it, giving them each a glimpse of the fire; and make a window or some other focus to sustain the place during the times when the fire is out.
Eating Atmosphere
New Patterns 98
102
Put a heavy table in the center of the eating space -large enough for the whole family or the group of people using it. Put a light over the table to create a pool of light over the group, and enclose the space with walls or with contrasting darkness. Make the space large enough so the chairs can be pulled back comfortably, and provide shelves and counters close at hand for things related to the meal.
Circulation Realms
Lay out very large buildings and collection of small buildings so that one reaches a given point inside by passing through a sequence of realms, each marked by a gateway and becoming smaller and smaller, as one passes from each one, through a gateway, to the next. Choose the realms so that each one can be easily named, so that you can tell a person where to go, simply by telling him which realms to go through.
Family of Entrances
Lay out the entrances to form a family. This means:
1. They form a group, are visible together, and each is visible from all the others.
2. They are all broadly similar, for instance all porches, or all gates in a wall, are all marked by a similar kind of doorway.


146 Flexible Office Space
Lay out the office space as wings of open space, with free standing columns around their edges, so they define half-private and common spaces opening into one another. Set down enough columns so that people can fill them in over the years, in many different ways but always in a semi-permanent fashion.
If you happen to know the working group before you build the space, then make it more like a house, more closely tailored to their needs.
In either case, create a variety of space throughout the office comparable in variety to the different sizes and kinds of space in a large old house.


Direction and Rhythm (modes of activity and paths between) across, along, around, by means of, by way of, like, onto, over, to, toward, under, unlike, up, with.
How does one move across the site?
How does the building complex progress along the shore? How does space flow around the buildings?
The Retreat recalls spatial experiences by means of ?
One gets to the site by way of ?
The Retreat complex begin to spatially organize like ? How does one get onto the site?
Can one pass over any building masses?
How does one progress to the various functions?
How does one move toward the building mass?
Can one pass under any building masses?
How is any part of the building complex unlike any other part?
Does one move _U£ through the complex?
How does rhythm fit in with the existing island fabric?
existing Patterns 51
Green Streets
On local roads, closed to through traffic, plant grass all over the road and set occasional paving stones into the grass to form a surface for the wheels of those cars that need access to the street. Make no distinction between the street and sidewalk. Where houses open off the street, put in more paving stones or gravel and let cars turn onto their own land.
53 Main Gateways
Mark every boundary in the city which has important human meaning the boundary of a building cluster, a neighborhood, a precinct by great gateways where the major entering paths cross the boundary.
247 Paving With Cracks Between The Stones
On paths and terraces, lay paving stones with a 1 inch crack between the stones, so that grass and mosses and small flowers can grow between the stones. Lay the stones directly into the earth, not into mortar, and, of course, use no cement or mortar in between the stones.


New Patterns
Trellised Walk
174
Where paths need special protection or where they need some intimacy, build a trellis over the path and plant some climbing flowers. Use the trellis to help shape the outdoor spaces on either side of it.
134 Zen View
If there is a beautiful view, don't spoil it by building huge windows that gape incessantly at it. Instead, put the windows which look onto the view at places of transition along paths, in hallways, in entry ways, on stairs, between rooms.
If the view window is correctly placed, people will see a glimpse of the distant view as they come up to the window or pass it but the view is never visible from the places where people stay.
142 Sequence Of Sitting Spaces
Put in a sequence of graded sitting spaces throughout the building, varying according to their degree of enclosure. Enclose the most formal ones entirely, in rooms by themselves; put the least formal ones in corners of other rooms, without any kind of screen around them; and place the intermediate one with a partial enclosure round them to keep them connected to some larger space, but also partly separate.


Proximity above, about, after, along with, apart from, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, in front of, near, past, underneath, until, up to, upon.
From the north one views the bluff and church steeple above the site. About the site lie undeveloped areas.
After passing the site one comes upon the cafe and marina to the north.
Fishing activities at the site exist along with my Retreat complex.
To the north residential activity exists apart from the fishing activity.
Around the site lies a sensitive wildlife habitat.
Before you reach the site heading north, one passes the Island Chapel and Cemetery.
Behind the site, to the west, lies the sea and Orcas Island.
Beside the site, to the south, access to the beach must be maintained for commercial fishermen.
Be tween the site and the ridge to the east, the land gently slopes down to the sea and forms a saucer.
Beyond the site to the north, road meets shoreline and closes the site.
The road contains the site on the east as it passes by_ the Environmental Retreat.
The Environmental Retreat will stand in front of the sea.
The Site is defined on the west by its location near the sea.
Past the site, the sea becomes readily visible.
Views to the bay are blocked until one passes the chapel.
Access from the site to the east should be open up to what point?
Existing Patterns
64 Pools And Streams
Preserve natural pools and streams and allow them to run through the complex, make paths for people to walk along them and footbridges to cross them. Let the streams form natural barriers.
Whenever possible, collect rainwater in open gutters and allow it to flow above ground, along pedestrian paths and in front of houses.


70 Grave Sites
Never build massive cemeteries. Instead, allocate pieces of land throughout the community as grave sites corners of parks, sections of paths, gardens, beside gateways where memorials to people who have died can be ritually placed with inscriptions and mementos which celebrate their life. Give each grave site an edge, a path, and a quiet corner where people can sit.
By custom, this is hallowed ground.
172 Garden Growing Wild
Grow grasses, mosses, bushes, flowers, and trees in a way which comes close to the way they occur in nature: intermingled, without barriers between them, without bare earth, without formal flower beds, and with all the boundaries and edges made in rough stone and brick and wood which become a part of the natural growth.
Juxtaposi tion
How does one deal with the direct relationship between "village" and "countryside"? Is it handled in the classical way? The village turns in on itself; it is enclosed and hollow in contrast to the exposure of nature. There is a violence of contrast.
Immediacy
People long for the direct contact of immediacy. This relates to the conception of categories and their juxtaposition to give drama and clarity to the landscape. Comes from the consideration of thisness or uniqueness.


Inside/Outside except, in, inside, into, out, out of, outside, through, throughout, within, without.
One feels like he is inside the complex except when passes into certain spatial areas.
How does one know he is in the complex?
What is the quality of space inside the complex?
How does one get into the complex?
How does one know he is out of the complex?
How does one get out of a building?
What is the landscape like outside the building complex? How does one pass through the complex?
Are spaces connected physically throughout the complex?
Existing Patterns 105
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128
South Facing Outdoors
Always place buildings to the north of the outdoor spaces that go with them, and keep the outdoor spaces to the south. Never leave a deep band of shade between the building and the sunny part of the outdoors.
Intimacy Gradient
Lay out the spaces of a building so that they create a sequence which begins with the entrance and the most public parts of the building, then leads into the slightly more private areas, and finally to the most private domains.
Indoor Sunlight
Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the building, and spread the building out along the east-west axis.
Fine tune the arrangement so that the proper rooms are exposed to the south-east and the south-west sun. For example: give the common area a full southern exposure, bedrooms southeast, porch southwest.
138
w-J-e
4
Sleeping To The East
Give those parts of the house where people sleep, an eastern orientation, so that they wake up with the sun and light. This means, typically, that the sleeping area needs to be on the eastern side of the house; but it can also be on the western side provided there is a courtyard or a terrace to the east of it.


OO
159
Light On-Two Sides Of Every Room
Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.
161
Sunny Place
Inside a south-facing court, or garden or yard, find the spot between the building and the outdoors which gets the best sun. Develop this spot as a special sunny place make it the important outdoor room, a place to work in the sun, or a place for a swing and some special plants, a place to sunbathe. Be very careful indeed to place the sunny place in a position where it is sheltered from the wind. A steady wind will prevent you from using the most beautiful place.
North Face
Make the north face of the building a cascade which slopes down to the ground, so that the sun which normally casts a long shadow to the north strikes the ground immediately beside the building.
171
O O O js.
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Tree Places
If you are planting trees, plant them according to their nature, to form enclosures, avenues, squares, groves, and single spreading trees toward the middle of open spaces. And shape the nearby buildings in response to the trees, so that the trees themselves, and the trees and buildings together, form places which people can use.
Looking Out Of Enclosure
Hereness, the feeling of identity with a place automatically creates a sense of thereness. In the manipulation of these two qualities the spatial drama of relationship is set up. Enclosure creates here and the space viewed is there.


Here and There
The interplay between Here and an unknown There.
Infinity
There are two ways in which the solitude and vastness of the sky can be made personal to us. First, by cutting out the middle distance and juxtaposing the immediate here with the sky, its more conventional overtones are somehow discarded and the deeper qualities aroused. Second, the expected line of travel is distorted, sky substituted for road.
Exposure 1
The qualities of emptiness, a great expanse of sky, geometry, these are some of the elements that create the feeling of exposure.
Intimacy
Luxuriant growth, enclosure, little sky and warm brick work create the inward life of intimacy and cordiality.
Taming With Tact 2
The intrusion of man into the wilderness without vulgarity. New Patterns 106 Positive Outdoor Space
Make all the outdoor spaces which surround and lie between your buildings positive. Give each one some degree of enclosure; surround each space with wings of buildings, trees, hedges, fences, arcades, and trellised walks, until it becomes an entity with a positive quality and does not spill out indefinitely around corners.
112 Entrance Transition
Make a transition space between the street and the front door. Bring the path which connects street and entrance through this transition space, and mark it with a change of light, a change of sound, a change of direction, a change of surface, a change of level, perhaps by gateways which make a change of enclosure, and above all with a change of view.


163 Outdoor Room
Build a place outdoors which has so much enclosure round it, that it takes on the feeling of a room, even though it is open to the sky. To do this, define it at the corners with columns, perhaps roof it partially with a trellis or a sliding canvas roof, and create "walls" around it, with fences, sitting walls, screens, hedges, or the exterior wall of the building itself.
Indoor Landscape And The Outdoor Room
People will attempt to humanize the landscape. The outdoors is an environment for the complete human being, who can claim it either statically or in movement. He demands drama that can be released all around him from floor, sky, buildings, trees and levels by the art of arrangement. Inside and outside intermix.
The Outdoor Room and Enclosure
The most powerful and most obvious of all devices to instill a person's sense of position, of identity with the surroundings. It embodies the idea of Hereness.
Inside Extends Out
The expression of inside volumes externally. Can also be a void where outside penetrates.


MANMADE CONTEXT Style
Folio Nor t of t sta
wing is an excerpt from Contemporary Homes of the Pacific west by Harry Martin, p. 9-33. The essay traces the development le Pacific Northwest Style from its beginnings to its current
tte


THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST STYLE
An identifiable style of home architecture has emerged in the Pacific Northwest. It is reflective of the climate, the terrain, and the history and the social attitudes of the people, from Vancouver and Victoria in British Columbia to the north, through the Puget Sound rim, Seattle and Tacoma, and south to Portland and its environs.
The weather produces few snows and none of any harshness or duration. The rains are frequent but usually of light spray and mist and seldom intense. The sun is in and out throughout the year. The variables of light require that the Northwest home, for natural interior light, have more than one source from more than one exposure. Glass is used lavishly and roofs are peaked and turned toward the best source of natural light from clerestory windows and new treatments of the dormer.
Building sites are most often on hills, often steep. Rocks erupt from the earth to become a natural element in a total design. There are nearly always views of mountains or mountain ranges. Water is everywhere. On lakeside sires the water will lap up to lawns. From hillside sites houses look out to the harbors and ports of the cities. In the suburbs they abut lakes, bays, and sounds on hillsides or at water level.
The people of the Pacific Northwest are no earlier than second-generation newcomers to this late frontier. Most are more recent migrants to a prospering, vital society of wide-ranging social, cultural, and business activity. People in
the arts and sciences and education wield as much influence as those in commerce and industry. There is even still a strain of wealth based on agriculture.
The architects of the Pacific Northwest have edited all of these elements into their work. As Vancouver's Arthur Erickson has written: Architects foremost of all should be listeners, since architecture is the art of relating a building to its environment. Architecture is not so much a process of creation as it is of discovery."
The shape of the Northwest home is not the flat-topped box of the International or Bauhaus schools. Roofs with steep pitches and wide overhangs, many-angled and multi-planed, shed rain and falling needles from the pine and fir trees that brush their surfaces. Roofs are intended to attract light and frame views as well as-or more than-merely provide shelter or identify- style.
Because wood is the indigenous building material, siding on the elevations is not the smooth surfaces of the Art Deco and Art Moderne periods, nor the formal brick we associate with Roman Revival, Victorian Gothic, or the American Federal periods. The Northwest home is typically of native cedar or fir. Boards may be applied vertically, horizontally, or on the diagonal to achieve a pattern in wood. Wood shingles are not the heavy one-inch shakes we associate with the Southern California ranch house. A light shingle that casts a thinner shadow line along the roof is preferred.


And wood is at its strongest when used boldly as an open, exposed structural element. Posts and beams become an element of design as well as of support.
The plan of the Northwest home is not so formal as the rigid, structured traffic schemes of the Georgian or the Colonial styles. The plan is simple and most often open from one area to another. The house is usually on several levels connected by a few steps, stairways, or bridges. If the house is on a hillside the ceilings will rise and drop in dramatic configurations. Most rooms in the house will probably be accessible to the outdoors where gardens, patios, and terraces become an integral part of the interior.
From most urban areas in North America commuting to a home in the country calls for long train rides or congested freeway driving. In the Pacific Northwest one can be out of the city-in a matter of a few minutes. A private retreat is essentially the nature of the Northwest home. Even after the several building booms since World War 11, land, in most of the region, is still in relatively plentiful supply. There are few demands on the architect to provide for urban privacy. The Northwest home will probably have a garage on the road or the street with a covered walkway to the entry. Entry gardens and gardens to the side of the house are so worked into the plan that the year-round abundance of flowers and shrubs, plants, and trees becomes an integral element in the concept of the house.
The ornamentation of the Victorian house and the more recent detailing of a Frank Lloyd Wright house will probably be eschewed by the Northwest architect. Decoration is inconsistent with the simple, natural forms and materials he prefers. Glass reveals the elementary ornamen-
tarion'of nature. For much the same reason strong color is seldom used. Only the subtle hues, such as those of the Colonial Williamsburg palette, are at times used to harmonize with the shadings of the natural setting.
In its essence the contemporary Pacific Northwest Style is as different in character from the English Tudor, French Provincial, and Early American Colonial styles as are the Northwest paintings of Morris Graves and Mark Tobey from the rigid intellectual w'orks of Piet Mondrian and Fernand Leger.
Induu cammumtx house
hort Xtsqiully blockhouse. 1H1 <
,


Darius and Ambrose Rogers house, before iHso
Ahouv ( aptam John (.. Ainsworth house. Mount Pleasant. iKso-s i Below: Ainsworth house, side delation
The Portland Influence
If the earliest wave of settlers was content with only shelter for its housing, by the 1800s there was a more critical populace who were
concerned with architectural character. Two themes can be identified with the early homes of any consequence: the Greek Revival Style and the Gothic Revival. The Greek Revival Style is marked by the use of Doric or Ionic columns on houses; the most elaborate columns, the Corinthian, were reserved principally for public buildings. The Greek Revival house had such details as tall, narrow side windows on either side of the front door, pediment-shaped window heads, and a pilaster corner board for trim. As early as 1851 the house of Captain John C. Ainsworth showed the influence of the style. Unlike the Ainsworth house, most early Greek Revival houses did not have a pillared front porch.
(
.Knapp house, Portland. 1SS2
Corbett house. Portland. /*-*. Warren H. Williams, architect


-Thc Gothic Revival Style appeared in Portland and many of the communities to the north in the late nineteenth century. A Gothic house has a steeply pitched roof, a pronounced wall dormer, hood molds over the windows, and elaborate gingerbread trim. Elaboration is everywhere: in bay windows, wheel windows, oriel windows that project out from the house in a curve. The exterior is most often finished with vertical planks of native wood and strips of board and batten.
No history of home building in the nineteenth-century Northwest would be complete without reference to The Practical House Carpenter, which was published in England in seventeen editions between iSyo and 184- For the early settlers there were no architects and no professional builders as we know them today. Houses were built by common laborers or by semiskilled craftsmen. The owner was his own contractor. The Practical House Carpenter contained no floor plans-the owner drew his own. It had no complete elevations. Those would be decided by the location of the house, its size, and the choices of the owner.
What the book did offer was a primer of the classical styles, their structural details, and their ornamental elements. It was from such publications that the early Greek Revival and Gothic Revival styles were assembled by the new status-secking home builder. When the Queen Anne, the F.astlake, or the Beaux Arts Style house became the fashion, as will be described in sections on other cities, it was most often to The Practical House Carpenter that the builder turned for guidance.

' \
Queen Anne Style from The Practical House Carpenter
M.n Shngren cottjfic. \<>rth Bench, iyob;
A. I Doyle, architect
The architectural office of A. E. Doyle had established itself with important commercial and public buildings. When the opportunities arose to design homes in the new resort areas, Doyle responded with a vigor and talent that set
Julius Meier "farmhouse." Menucha, lyit, A. t. Doyle, architect


the pace for the emerging new Northwest Style. This period heralded a welcome release from the confining formalities of the several revival styles Doyle's firm had been designing. A new society was ready to cast off the forms and fashions that had been dictated by a sentimental attachment to the past. By the turn of the century a confidence and commitment to the new Northwest was ready to express itself in an architectural freedom and informality.
Doyles work at Gearhart Park was a result of and a part of the Western Stick Style. The Stick Style had begun in the East as a refinement of elaborate Victorian adornment. It retained the steeply pitched roof, gables, towers, dormers, and large verandas, but in a carefully simplified version. (The label stick came from the natural use of such wood elements as posts and beams without embellishment.) In the Western Stick Style the profile is lower, the pitched roof not so
Ahoxc: Western Stick SryU Below: Wcncfee ranch house'' iyjH; Pietro Helluschi. architect
Kerr house, dear hart, 1941; A. t Doyle and associate Pietro helluschi, architects
steep. Extended and exposed sticklike roof rafters project well beyond the ends of the roof, and window sills, railings, and other beam elements protrude through vertical posts. Over it all a roof spreads out beyond the walls and balconies, porches, recessed entries, and attached terraces. The exterior siding is either wood shingle or wood boards which are protected bv earth-tone stains.
One of Doyle's early apprentices, later his partner, became a dominant figure in the development of the Northwest Style and had an effect on his profession that extended far beyond the Northwest scene. Pietro Belluschi was born in 1891;. He spent his early years in Rome and attended schools in Bologna and Milan. After serving in the Italian arms he returned to Rome, receiving a doctorate in architectural engineering from the University of Rome in 1922. Belluschi came to the United States as an exchange student at Cornell. His westward travels culminated in his joining the Doyle office in 1925, and in 1927 he was appointed chief designer for the firm. In collaboration with Doyle and later on his own he simplified the Stick Style and eventually evolved his own style, using simple forms, great glass expanses to replace small, confining windows, and, most important, a free shape that was disciplined by no previous styles. For Belluschi the site, the ter-


rain, the weather-the total environment-directed his work.
The appearance of John Yeon in the late 1930s marked the next important move forward for the Pacific Northwest Style. Yeon, too, had apprenticed at the Doyle office. At the time when both Belluschi and Yeon were in their formative years, architects throughout the world were confronted with an overwhelming body of architectural authority that believed all architecture, and the house in particular, should be a machine for living and that art could assist in social change. The leaders of thik movement came from the Russian Constructivists, the German Bauhaus designers, the art world of the Dadaists and Surrealists, and even the more romantic Abstract Expressionists. Artists, architects, and industrial designers saw themselves as a political force as well as a design influence.
The Pacific Northwest was one of the first societies to reject the mechanistic, anti-individual theories of what was loosely called the International School. As Belluschi wrote, so Yeon believed. Not for them and the Northwest the flat-topped boxes, the smooth, uniform finishes, and the small windows that were used as
Lawrence Shaw house. Lake Oswego: John Yeon. architect
Watzek house. lohn Yeon, architect
geometric adornment rather than natural function.
Yeons Watzek house in 1937 was one of the first homes in the Northwest to receive national publicity. It has a simple and clean profile and a keen handling of detail. In later work Yeon was the first to use exterior fir plywood. Instead of windows that could be operated up and down or in and out, he set fixed glass into the structure itself with a ventilating panel above or below the glass. He recognized the value of a "systems approach that could be used by the new generation of speculative builder. His designs for standardized modular components w ere among the first to bring good architectural design to a broad audience.
Victor brgcmcn house, /y?v. lohn )> ;. architect


£. W. Van Buren house, 1949; John Yean, architect
James Grieve house, 19<>o; John Storrs, architect

Wessmger house. 194X; Waller Gordon, architect
Above: David tyre house. 194X; Van t.vera Batin, architect. Below: Jan deGraff house. 1940. Richard \eutra. architect, with Van t.vera Haile}, supervising architect
The Port Townsend Influence
The John E. Fuge house, built in 1875, is one of the earliest examples in the Northwest of the Italianate Villa Style. A seemingly unlikely style for the time, it shows an awareness of traditional excellence. The almost square plan and formal balance of the house, with a central one-bay porch, are from traditional New England tastes. But the low-pitched roof and wide overhanging eaves were a departure which found acceptance in other styles in later years. The Charles Sawyer house was built at about the same time and is a superb!) scaled and proportioned Victorian with a mansard roof. Still another innovation. Carpenter Gothic styling, seen in the Srarrett house, suggests the variety of design excellence in the small community.
Charles Sawyer house. Port Townsend. iX~s


The George Starrett house, l}ort Townsend, iKNy
Captain William Webster house, Steilacoom, iHRs
The Seattle Influence
Stimson house, Seattle. i*f06
The turn of the century was a watershed for Seattle architecture. In 1903 the park board hired J. C. Olmsted to plan a boulevard system. His design created a twenty-mile parkway that integrated the existing parks and greenbelts and opened up new residential areas. The Highlands, Magnolia, much of the land surrounding the University of Washington, Madison Park, and the north side of Queen Anne Hill are some of the neighborhoods that owe their character to the vision of the park board and the talents of Olmsted.
One after the other, great homes were built for the pace-setters. Steel magnate W. D. Hofius built a mansion in the Italian Renaissance Style in 1901. The entire side of a hill overlooking Lake Union was the site of John Learys English country manor, designed for him by English architect Alfred Bodley. Haddon Hall, a famous manor in Derbyshire, England, was the model for the C. J. Smith home designed by Carl Neuse of Cutter and Malmgren. Seattle architect Warren Gould designed an eighteenth-century Italian villa in 1901 for Albert Rhodes. Another prominent Seattle firm, Kirkland Cutter, did a Tudor-stvle mansion in 1906 forC. D. Stimson.
That a contemporary Pacific Northwest Style could grow out of such a morass of reproductions transplanted Irom foreign scenes is a wonder indeed. In fact, in Seattle the earliest work of any consequence in the contemporary genre was not done for the prestigious clients of early wealth. The first indications of a new style are to be found in the relatively modest commissions from the second wave of North-westerners.
Ellsworth Storey was one of the first architects to begin stripping the elaborate ornamentation and superfluous detailing from the


traditional styles. As early as 1903 his work was in demand in Portland as well as in Seattle. That many of his commissions were for low-cost housing is some indication that his simple, honest approach to structure was not as widely accepted then as it would be today. W. R. B. Willcox, from the same period, is remembered more for his teaching at the university, where he inspired a generation of young students, than for the several exemplary versions of the Western Stick Style that he built. He, like Andrew' Willatsen, was a man and a talent ahead of his time. Willatsen had studied and worked under
( ottages at ( olentan hark. Seattle. 1908, Ellsworth Storey. architect
Bungalow Style. 181)0-1940
Frank Lloyd Wright. His work, if not equal to Wrights, was inevitably Compared to it. (Such was the professional burden of many students of Wright wherever they went after their apprenticeships.)
A somewhat hybrid style found wide acceptance by the middle class: the Shingle Style or what has been called the Bungalow Style.
A great mass of roof is the dominant c lement. Cedar shingles cover not only a low-pitched gable, hipped, or even gambrel roof, but cover all elevations, porches, and posts. Small-paned windows form a continuous horizontal line around the house.
An even more popular-and more pedestrian-style is the one-story bungalow with a pitched roof and broad gables, a lower gable to cover a porch, and rafters and wood beams which extend w ell beyond the roof line. Row upon row, block after block of these modest cottage-style houses appeared in all the communities around Puget Sound in the 1910s and 30s.
Rmr of hutUcr houses. ix-tcs
/ Inter I /<>,// house. 1909: Andrew Willatsen. architect


Frank Lloyd Wright, the Greene brothers in Pasadena, and Bernard Maybeck in the San Francisco Bay Area were working in the Prairie Style from 1900 until well into the 20s. Northwest architects found the style particularly relevant to the local scene, and it had a strong influence on much of the work done for the upper middle classes throughout the Northwest. In the Prairie Style a certain portion of the structure rises higher than flanking wings. Eaves of a low-pitched roof extend well beyond the wall, and a large, low chimney projects up through the axis of the living core. Brick or stucco are often used in other parts of the country, but in the Northwest the Prairie Style is interpreted in native woods.
laonel Priess house 1 lesigned for his own use Ify jn early ami influential U\X professor of architecture
- /
Bud Burnett house, lyso; Tucker. Shields and Jerry, architects
In the late 1930s Paul Hayden Kirk and Roland Terry began further investigations of the Northwest Style. The plan of the house became more and more simplified into an open plan of social areas. The outdoors was integrated into the interiors; exteriors were unadorned, simplified even more by post-and-beam construction, a development in Seattle that attracted national attention. A simple frame of posts and beams onto which panels are suspended or siding is applied was a development in architectural style to which Seattle architects can lay claim.
Above: Blair kirk house. i*)< Ban I Harden kirk, architect. Below: William lames house. i*;o, Hassetti and \lor>, architec


The Tacoma Influence
Henry Hewirt built one of the first important homes in Tacoma. Designed in the Eastlakc Style, it was laden with ornamentation. Porch posts, railings, and balusters were massive, and large curved brackets and scrolls were placed at every corner turn and projection around the facade. Perforated pediments and gables, carved panels, and a profusion of spindles and latticework along the porch eaves added to the complexity.
\X! F. Sheard house, 1901; Ambrose James Russell, architect
The first architectural office in Tacoma to design homes of any consequence was headed by Ambrose James Russell. He was born in India and was a graduate of the Ecole de Beaux Arts in Paris. A typical commission of the period is the home built for fur merchant W. F. Sheard in 1903. Palm trees and other incongruous exotic plants were imported to embellish a huge house in the Spanish Villa Style.
The ultimate reproduction of European grandeur is Thornewood, built in 1911 as a


country estate for Chester Thorne. It was consistent for Thorne, an eastern financier to the manor born, to indulge his taste for the country life in the Northwest. On a thirty-acre property at the south end of American Lake, Thorne-wood is a four-storied, forry-room, eighteen-bath Tudor Gothic monument, reached by a private railroad twenty miles from the city. His own yacht was moored in the lake. The gardens, tended by twenty-eight gardeners, were reported by House Beautiful Magazine in 1916 to be "the outstanding private formal gardens in America.
The trend was set. Rhodesleigh was started by merchant Henry Rhodes in 1911 and completed in 1 922 on nearby Lake Steilacoom. On the third of the suburban lakes. Gravelly Lake, the Mediterranean villa of Joseph Carman had forty acres of imported gardens. Only one comparable baronial home was built in the city, an English Tudor, commissioned in 192; by J. P. Weyerhaeuser. Of these monuments to status and success only the Carman villa is still occupied as a single-family, private residence. The others are divided into apartments, the land having been sold off for builder developments.
Until shortly before World War 1, there was no evidence of an emerging Northwest Style in Tacoma. The tradition was to reproduce the more elegant traditions of Europe. But when the three lakes, American, Gravelly, and Steilacoom, became the residential hub of the social leaders, the trek to build near them began. In 1910 the Tacoma Golf and Country Club was built at the north end of American Lake. Soon the summer cottage, a frame structure of nondescript style, was appearing around the lakes. The cottages were not heated and had no kitchens. The townspeople who used them for
summer retreats had their meals at the Club. Culminating and confirming their imported lifestyle, the Woodbrook Hunt Club was founded in 1926. The early elite had made their statement. The grand style persists today in many respects.
Above: loscph Gilpin house. Gaston Lance, architect.
Below: (.hauncey Griggs house, iyf.j, Lrank Lloyd Wright, architect; construction supervised bx Alan Liddle. architect


The Vancouver Influence
InJun longhoHSC. Yancoui vr IslanJ. 1SS2.
The first log houses were built in the tradi-tional English or French Quebec plan, with a central entry, a symmetrical arrangement of windows, and a from porch but seldom a space-wasting entry hall, bleat came from a central wood-burning stove, so there were few-interior partitions to obstruct the free flow of heat. Open fireplaces that required more elaborate chimney stacks were unusual until the '80s.
When the more sophisticated colonial administrators and navy personnel arrived, English architects were often imported to design their residences. The urban houses were narrow and tall, usually two-storied or more. They were built on narrow lots and lined up much as in the early industrial towns of England. The typical plan w as asymmetrical: a side hall led to a stairway and a kitchen in the rear. The parlor was at the front, on the street, with a room behind it. In the larger houses this second room was a dining room that could be closed off by sliding doors; in a smaller house it served as a downstairs bedroom.
Robson house. Victoria, iHSs
For more important clients such as the family of a newly arrived representative of a bank or a railroad, the Victorian Style began to appear, as it had in other cities to the south. Georgian and Palladian styles were more popular in British Columbia in the 1880s and 90s than the more elaborate revival styles that were being built in the same period in Oregon and Washington.
Craigdarroch Castle, built in 1890 for coal baron Robert Dunsmuir, is one of Victorias oldest landmark homes. Designed by Portland architect H. H. Williams, the castle fulfilled the dream of Dunsmuirs wife for a castle to remind her of her homeland. The High Victorian Scottish Baronial Style employs heavy cyclopian stonework rising through a picturesque Gothic rootline and culminating in a series of dormers, balconied oriels, and soaring chimneys. On a more modest scale, the Emily Carr house, built in 186;. was considered more appropriate to its location in a rural farmland. Its alignment of exterior elements in a symmetrical order was a contrast to other, more complex, symmetrical styles that had inclined to elaborate cornices, brackets, and moldings.
After 1900 the building boom kept sawmills in the area operating at full capacity. It was not uncommon for a complete floating-mill opera-


tion to move from inlet to inlet. Houses were built and assembled on the site from the mailorder plan books that had been supplying Northwest carpenters with instructions for basic plans, classical orders, and decorative detailing. In Vancouver and Victoria, grand houses were built in the Gothic Revival Style with high, steep roofs, broad overhangs, and elaborate trim which reflected the extravagant use of the abundant local wood.
At about this time two men appeared whose work would have the most significant impact on the architecture of Western Canada until the post-World War II period. F. M. Rattenbury worked only on public buildings, bur the Empress Hotel, the provincial Parliament build-
Above. (raigdarroch (fistic, Victoria. iSyo; H H.
W iliums. architect. Below: b.milx (.art house. \ ictnna. ih(y\. W right ami Sjunders. architects
J. ). Flumerfcldt house, Victoria. 1*96, Samuel Maclurc. architect
ings, and the railroad terminals he did are picturesque adaptations of French Gothic and Italianare influences which have remained glorious monuments to the era.
It wa in the work of Samuel Mac)ure that residential architecture found its newest and most vigorous innovator. Maclure, born in 1860, was the first white child in New Westminster, British Columbia. In his youth he studied painting in Philadelphia, but he rarely traveled after his return west. He read and trained himself in architecture while working as a telegraph operator, entering a practice with Richard Sharpe in 1887.
His early work was in rhe Victorian tradition, Stick Style houses with extravagant detailing on porches and verandas. But he soon turned to more inventive studies of the native scene and local needs. Before 1900, Maclure had pioneered his own version of the Cottage Style, a colonial bungalow topped with a great shingle roof that drooped low toward the ground. He went on to develop a more urban style with elements of the half-timber Tudor style. Although Maclure corresponded with and was strongly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright, his own work was intimately appropriate to the more humid climate and the native materials of the Canadian Northwest.


The plans of Maclures houses in Victoria were dictated, as they should have been, by the social patterns of the time. But certain elements of these houses suggest the open, informal plan we now associate with the Pacific Northwest Style. The houses were arranged around a two-story entry hall that often included a sweeping staircase, a huge fireplace, and doors out to the gardens. Dining and drawing rooms, a library, bedrooms, and service areas all radiated from the entry axis and could be opened or shut off depending on the need of the occasion. Because there was an active social life in Victoria it was essential that the house be able to accommodate large groups at formal entertainments and yet provide intimacy and privacy for the family life.
There was no identifiable architectural breakthrough of any consequence during the 1910s and 30s. What has been extraordinary is the explosion of new and daring talent since World War II. It may be a result of a long delayed or dormant reaction to old traditions, to the old conservatism that is the nature of the territory. Those traditions and their restraints have been stronger than in Washington and Oregon, so it would seem logical that their rejections may consequently have been greater.
In Vancouver Arthur Erickson is composing exposed structures that span difficult sites or is piling heavy beams in a succession of levels and
A. (inre house. lyij. Samuel Mat luti. art hiteet
"--w
Samuel Maclurc's Prairie Style
catwalks to traverse them. Robert Hassell and Barry Griblin are sinking a foundation into a 45-degree hill and suspending from it seven levels of living. Bruno Freschi plays with the round form for interior spaces that suggest a geometric labyrinth. Barry Downs is secreting houses into island hills or among heavily wooded sites. Geoffres Massey can exercise ele gant sophistication or the most rugged Northwest Style. Roger Kemble designs a hillside house as a sharp scarp and paints it an orange red. Dino Rapanos and John Kay join them in giving the wood structure an unorthodox, occasionally spectacular inventiveness.
But many of the traditions remain. The English garden is still an integral part of the landscape, even though it is often smaller and more simple than the traditional garden. And there is still a strong respect for the opinions of one's peers. Experiment for the sake of experiment, change for the sake of change, is more apt to be found in American architecture than in contemporary Canadian work. There is considerably more willingness to be controversial within architectural circles in the United States than in the Canadian community.
Architects throughout the Northwest, on both sides of the border, have all been exposed to the same influences: empathy for Wright, the Greene brothers, and Warren Callister; rejection of the Bauhaus, the International Style, and the ateliers of Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier. Architects are expressing the Pacific Northwest Style in ingenious and inventive solutions to site, form, plan, and style choices that range from elegant formality to Spartan simplicity.


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS
MANMADE CONTEXT Style
la
flat
Residential
Most residential development on the island has taken place in the last thirty years. Housing styles range from Modern to Contemporary Folk to NeoEclectic. In an analysis of existing island fabric, only two houses from an earlier era were found to remain standing. These houses range from the period of the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century. In order to create any identity for Lummi Island certain styles that are consistent should be identified and recreated in any new development on the island. Following is an analysis of the two houses. It is believed that any search for a stylistic identity for architecture on the island could begin here.
The following analysis follows the format outlined in A Field Guide to American Houses by Virginia and Lee McAlester.
Folk Victorian 1870-1910
. Side-gabled 2 story w/Gothic Revival detailing Oldest existing structure on Lummi Island
Walls Flush horizontal boards
Roof Form Cross-gabled, steep pitch
Roof Materials Plain patterns composition shingle
Roof Wall Junction Slight eave overhang, boxed without brackets
Dormers Gabled
Decorated Verge Boards Gothic Revival Styling
Porch Supports Turned spindles Porches Full-height entry with pediment Ground Plans T Plan, Front facing, One unit deep,
Windows Label mode, double-hung
Three units wide


~\
Elevations Facade Width and Symmetry Height two stories Width three units


Roof-Wall Proportions
Gable end view Steep pitch, two stories
one-unit width
Eclectic Craftsman 1905-1930 Side gabled 2 story
Walls Plain wood shingle pattern, staggered
Roof Form Side-gabled, moderate pitch with lower hipped form.
Roof Materials Plain pattern composition shingles
Roof Wall Junction Exposed rafters
Windows 3 contiguous windows, double-hung
Porch Supports Heavy-squared Piers
Grand Plans Three units width, two units depth
Elevation Facade Width and Symmetry three units
two stories
>
Roof Wall Proportions Gable-end view
moderate pitch two stories, two unit width


Public
Post Office painted concrete block building with composition shingles, front-gabled roof.
Grange Hall plain pattern wood shingle building with composition shingled, side-gabled roof. Meeting hall for the community.
Beach School Eclectic Craftsman Style building. Horizontal lapped board siding with composition shingled, side-gabled roof. Serves grades K-6.
Cottages on Site White horizontal lapped board siding with composition shingled roof. Roof shapes vary from side gabled to dual pitched gabled. Entry porch included under roof.
Cottages on site along shoreline lapped horizontal board siding. Side gabled and front gabled roofs. Greek Revival influence in porch element with exposed rafters. Composition shingled roofs.
Lummi Island Congregational Church Classic Gothic Revival building built in 1910. White lapped horizontal board siding. Wood shingled steeple and wood shingled roof.


LUMMI ISLAND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH


LUMMI ISLAND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH


MANMADE CONTEXT
Following are a series of patterns drawn from both Alexander's Pattern Language and Cullen's Townscape .
These patterns will be arranged in the following format. The first section will contain patterns that already exist on the island. A second section will introduce patterns that will also be included in my design. These patterns are new, but still compatible with the existing character and fabric of the island.
Character is determined by adjectives .
Manmade character is determined by:
. Articulation Modes of Construction Activities
Articulation big, changing, characteristic, closed, compact, contemplative, continuous, dominating, enclosing, grand, hidden, integral, irregular, isolated, open, rooted, small, soaring, solitary, spreading, submissive, subtle.
xisting Patterns 107 wings of Light
OK
Arrange each building so that it breaks down into wings which correspond, approximately to the most important natural social groups with the building. Make each wing long and as narrow as you can never more than 25 feet Yn* wide.
vi^iW .

110 Main Entrance
Place the main entrance of the building at a point where it can be seen immediately from the main avenues of approach and give it a bold, visible shape which stands out in front of the building.
117 Sheltering Roof
Slope the roof or make a vault of it, make its entire surface visible, and bring the eaves of the roof down low, as low as 6'-0" or 6'-6" at places like the entrance, where people pause. Build the top story of each wing right into the roof, so that the roof does not only cover it, but actually surrounds it.


125 Stair Seats
In any public place where people loiter, add a few steps at the edge where stairs come down or where there is a change of level. Make these raised areas immediately accessible from below, so that people may congregate and sit to watch the goings-on.
135 Tapestry Of Light And Dark
Create alternating areas of light and dark throughout the building, in such a way that people naturally walk toward the light, whenever they are going to important places: seats, entrances, stairs, passages, places of special beauty, and make other areas darker, to increase the contrast.
159 Light On Two Sides Of Every Room
Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.
160 Building Edge
Make sure that you treat the edge of the building as a "thing", a "place", a zone with volume to it, not a line or interface which has no thickness. Crenelate the edge of building with places that invite people to stop. Make places that have depth and a covering, places to sit, lean, and walk, especially at those points along the perimeter which look onto interesting outdoor life.
168 Connection To The Earth
Connect the building to the earth around it by building a series of paths and terraces and steps around the edge. Place them deliberately to make the boundary ambiguous so that it is impossible to say exactly where the building stops and earth begins.
Base in the ground expresses intimate "romantic" relationship to the "forces" of the earth. As the building rises up it becomes vertically "open". It joins the sky as a "tree" and forms a serrate silhouette.


180 Window Place
In every room where you spend any length of time during the day, make at least one window into a "window place."
192 Windows Overlooking Life
In each room, place the windows in such a way that their total area conforms roughly to the appropriate figures for your region, and place them in positions which give the best possible views out over life: activities in streets, quiet gardens, anything different from the indoor scene.
Windows are a mechanism to create a "romantic" interplay between exterior and interior by means of irregular and surprising transitions.
Window expresses spatial structure of the building, and how it is related to light. Through proportion and detailing, it participates in the functions of standing and rising.
In the window, the genius loci is focused and explained".
222 Low Sill
When determining exact location of windows also decide which windows should have low sills. On the first floor, make the sills of windows which you plan to sit by between 12 and 14 inches high. On the upper stories, make them higher, around 20 inches.
231 Dormer Windows
Wherever you have windows in the roof, make dormer windows which are high enough to stand in, and frame them like any other alcoves in the building.
236 Windows Which Open Wide
Decide which of the windows will be opening windows. Pick those which are easy to get to, and choose the ones which open onto flowers you want to smell, paths where you might want to talk, and natural breezes. Then put in side-hung casements that open outward. Here and there, go all the way and build French windows.
241 Seat Spots
In cool climates, choose them to face the sun, and to be protected from the wind. Place them to face activities.


242 Front Door Bench
Build a special bench outside the front door where people from inside can sit comfortably for hours on end and watch the world go by. Place the bench to define a half-private domain in front of the house. A low wall, planting, a tree, can help to create the same domain.
New Patterns ^21 Natural Doors And Windows
Make each window a different size, according to its place. Make the windows smaller and smaller, as you go higher in the building. The position of the doors and windows should be "felt".
223 Deep Reveals
Make the window frame a deep, splayed edge: about a foot wide and splayed at about 50 to 60 degrees to the plane of the window, so that the gentle gradient of daylight gives a smooth transition between the light of the window and the dark of the inner wall.


Modes of Construction communal, cultural, eclectic,
individual, irregular, local, piecemeal, proportional, rural, timeless, unorthodox.
Existing Patterns
2^3 Floor Surface
Zone the house, or building, into two kinds of zones: public zones, and private or more intimate zones. Use hard materials like waxed, red polished concrete, tiles, or hardwood in the public zones. In the more intimate zone, use an underfloor of soft materials, like felt, cheap nylon carpet, or straw matting, and cover it with cloths, and pillows, and carpets, and tapestries. Make a clearly marked edge between the two perhaps even a step so that people can take their shoes off when they pass from the public to the intimate.
234 Lapped Outside Walls


Build up the exterior wall surface with materials that are lapped against the weather: either "internally lapped," like exterior plaster, or more literally lapped, shingles and boards and tiles. In either case, choose a material that is easy to repair in little patches, inexpensively, so that little by little, the wall can be maintained in good condition.
239 Small Panes
Divide each window into small panes. These panes can be very small indeed, and should hardly ever be more than a foot square. To get the exact size of the panes, divide the width and height of the window by the number of panes. Then each window will have different sized panes according to its height and width.
Construction Materials
Construction materials used on the island differ according to the type of building: public or residential. Public buildings use concrete block for walls and composition shingles for roofs. Residential buildings use either horizontal lapped board siding on the outside of frame walls, or wood shingles in a plain coursed pattern. Roofs are either composition or wood shingle. Usually the materials used in either the public or residential structures are relatively inexpensive and are chosen for their ready availability.


Methods Of Construction
Smaller construction projects are usually handled as communal, small man-power construction projects. These projects are usually "in-house", with local craftsman on the island providing the labor. Very few projects of this nature are architect-designed. Thus the style is usually either basic or eclectic and mish-mash at best. This particular problem is the biggest contributing factor to the lack of continuity and identity on the island. Larger projects, usually elegant residences, are handled by several local general contracting firms. These are generally architect designed and the quality of design and materials is much higher.


Activities creative, destructive, passive, communal, individual, cultural
Existing Patterns 147 Communal Eating
Give every institution and social group a place where people can eat together. Make the common meal a regular event. In particular, start a common lunch in every work place, so that a genuine meal around a common table (not out of boxes, machines, or bags) becomes an important, comfortable, and daily event with room for invited guests.

148 Small Work Groups
Break institutions into small, spatially identifiable work groups, with less than a half-dozen people in each.
Arrange these work groups so that each person is in at least partial view of the other members of his own group; and arrange several groups in such a way that they share a common entrance, food, office equipment, drinking fountains, bathrooms.
^57^Reefnetting
Reefnetting belongs only to the San Juan Islands and the adjacent Vancouver Islands. Reef-net rigs consist of two canoes with a net suspended horizontally between them. As salmon swam over the net, the men raised it and emptied the content into one of the canoes. The system worked only when the rig was positioned directly in the path of the migrating fish.
Generally men set reef nets where kelp forests grew from gently sloping bottoms. To direct the fish, they cleared a path through the kelp stem, leading to the forward edge of the net. In deep water or on reefs that had no kelp, they often suspended a false bottom of horizontal ropes reaching forward from the net. Tufts of ryegrass tied onto the ropes helped direct the Honored Ones. No bait was used.
No hooks or gill netting. Knowledge of migration routes and times sufficed to guide the salmon a bit and intercept them. Only calm days offered success; and the water had to be clear enough that the fishing captain, who stood in the stern of one of the canoes, could see the fish approach. Poor weather or choppy water clouded this visibility.
When the captain saw salmon jumping close to his net, he sang out, "Thank you, Elder Brother, Come, Elder Brother." And he waved his hand up and down to startle the fish into crossing the net's forward edge. Once they'd done so and were in position above the net, he called "Lift, lift, lift, lift" and his crew pulled on lines supporting the sides of the net. As many as twelve men might work together, six to a canoe.


Anchor lines attached amidships, not at bow or stern, held the two canoes apart, and a predetermined length of slack line was looped around a thwart and held by a pin. When the captain shouted, "Let it go", crewmen pulled these pins and the canoes floated alongside each other, gunwale to gunwale. The crew closest to shore started pulling the net into their canoe, while the men opposite them slid fish off into their own canoe, ritually greeting the Swimmers.
Nets had to be made anew each year. Women spun yarn for blankets from the fleece of mountain goats and of special, small dogs kept for their wool; but even more they spun endless cordage from strips of willow bark and long fibers taken from nettles. From the cordage men fashioned the nets, ancient forerunners of today's Sheep-to-Shawl.
The sockeye come in July and August. From about 1890 until 1934, reef netting dwindled because the insatiable demand of canneries for salmon encouraged a faster supply of catches than old methods could produce. Salmon traps soon replaced reef nets. But their short-range efficiency so devastated the spawning runs that traps were legally banned in the mid 1930s, and reef-net captains again began watching for sockeye and directing their crews in hauling the nets.
Whole crews worked together putting in anchors to hold each pair of canoes parallel to each other. Beach rocks so big they took two or more men to lift them were girdled with cedar-bough ropes and loaded onto a platform of planks laid across both canoes. Crewmen dropped over the first rock attached to the anchor line, then ten to twelve more rocks, each with a loop of rope that was threaded onto the anchorline.
Reef-net boats now are modern but still long and narrow, still paired. Towers ten to fifteen feet high lift the watchmen for a better view of the Honored Ones. Power winches raise the nylon nets that have replaced hand-hauled willow-bark nets; and crewmen transfer sockeye into mesh holding pens to stay fresh until the local fish buyer makes his rounds. Fundamentally, however, remarkably little has changed except perhaps the size of the haul. A catch of 300 to 400 fish per day is now considered good, one fifth what it used to be.


3.0 SITE ANALYSIS MANMADE CONTEXT
REEFNETTING
i-.. .


4.0 PROGRAM SUMMARY


A.0 PROGRAM SUMMARY
Program Totals Net Square Feet Gross Square
Retreat Facilities 8550 10690
Offices 1570 1960
Residential/Bed & Breakfast 1A0A0 17550
Restaurant/Food Service 2A50 3060
Support Facilities 2050 2560 35820 GSF
Net Square Feet assumed 75% efficient
Marina 2500 3125
Parking: A0 overnight guest spaces @ 1 car/person 0 300 SF = 12,000
10 staff spaces @ 1 car/person @ 300 SF = 3,000
15,000 GSF
Note: This program summary is adapted from Kelly Karmel's
thesis, May 1985.


Retreat Facilities Auditorium Large Meeting Room Small Meeting Room Sitting Room/Dens Library
Lobby/Reception Small Gathering Areas Coffee Break Areas Restrooms & Cloakrooms Meeting Storage
Offices
Retreat Director
Director's Recep. Reservations
Assistant Director
Restaurant Manager
Residence Manager
Conference Services
Participant Office Space
Audio-Visual Office & Equip.
Number NSF Total NSF
1 1800 1800
2 900 1800
4 400 1600
2 250 500
1 500 500
1 800 800
5 50 250
2 150 300
4 200 800
1 200 200 8550 NSF
10690 GSF
Number NSF Total NSF
1 220 220
1 100 100
1 150 150
1 150 150
1 150 150
2 100 200
4 100 400
1 200 200 1570 NSF
1960 GSF


Residential Facilities Sui te
Room 160 SF Sitting Room 160 SF Bath 80 SF
Private Room Room 180 SF Bath 80 SF Entry 40 SF
Resident's Lounge/Lobby Maid/Janitor Closet
Restuarant and Food Service Large Dining Room Small Dining Room/Cafe Kitchen
Serving/Food Preparation
Restrooms
Food Storage
Wine Cellar
Delivery/Disposal
Bakery
Cleaning Area
NSF Total NSF
400 800
300 11400
400 1600
60 240 14,040 NSF
17,550 GSF
NSF Total NSF
600 600
250 250
500 500
100 100
150 300
150 150
100 100
150 150
200 200
100 100
2450 NSF
Number
2
38
4
4
Number
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3060 GSF


Support Facilities A/V Control Room Copy/Graphics Room Dark Room Service Delivery Weight Room Dance/Exercise Studio Jacuzzi/Sauna Lockers & Showers
Marina Facilities Boat Dock
Marina Maintenance
Number NSF Total NSF
1 150 150
1 200 200
1 200 200
1 200 200
1 200 200
1 400 400
2 150 300
2 200 400 2050 NSF 2560 GSF
Number 1 NSF Total NS
1 2500 2500


5.0 FACILITIES PROGRAM BREAKDOWN


5.0 RETREAT FACILITIES


SPACE: Auditorium 30-40 people
ACTIVITIES
-Large group meetings or lectures
-Slide presentations, videos or movies
-Performances by theatrical or musical groups
NOTES
1. Acoustics should allow speech or music to be heard without electrical amnlification.
2. Moveable chairs can be brought in for overflow crowds.
3. Elevated stage needed for performances.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-40 built-in seats -15 moveable chairs -Projection screen
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
[ ; Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION ; j Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT De slrable
Optional
£ i .None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
: : None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL : ] Required
i None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL ~~j High
3 Normal
Special


SPACE: Large Meeting Room
20-25 people
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY w. Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
[ : Moderate
None
VIEW OUT w De slrable
Optional
None
VIEW IN 9 Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION J Bright
9 Moderate
Special
: a Flexible
[ : Natural
NOISE CONTROL [ : Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
9 Normal
Special
NOTES
1. The room should be versatile enough for either a lecture or group format.
2.Seating should be arranged in a face-to-face or circular arrangement.


SPACE: Small Meeting Room
8-10 people
ACTIVITIES
- Seminars
-Small presentations
-Breakdowns from the auditorium or large meeting rooms
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-10 moveable chairs -1 table
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
M Versatility
None
SUPERVISION m Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT [::: Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN [ J Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
'J1 Moderate
: i Special
[ 1 Flexible
[ % Natural
NOISE CONTROL m Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
NOTES
1. Chairs and table should be moveable for flexibility.
2. Materials within the room should vary from room to room to set a Dersonal mood.
3. Lighting should be variable to establish different moods


SPACE: Sitting Room/Den
5-8 peopie
ACTIVITIES
-Impromptu meetings -Social gatherings -Relaxation after meetings
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-fireplace -8 lounge chairs -2 low tables
-throw pillows or cushions
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
[ ; None
VIEW OUT r ' Desirable
p Optional
b None
VIEW IN L 1 Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
l Flexible
m Natural
NOISE CONTROL m Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
L J Normal
u Special
NOTES
1.Space should be flexible enough for a variety of arrangements.
2. Lighting should be natural during the day and flexible to establish a mood at night. Task-level lighting for Leading.
3. Materials should be warm and natural.


SPACE: Library 18-20 people
ACTIVITIES
-Reading
-Preparation of conference material -Research
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-4 tables -20 chairs -5 carrels
-bookshelves and bookcases
-computer terminals
-reference and information counter
CHECKLIST
ZONE : i Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION l : Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT L A Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN L J Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
s Moderate
Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL ] Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
: : Normal
ZJ Special
NOTES
1.Supervision and information staffing is critical here.
2. Lighting task levels should accomodate reading.
3. Acoustic seperation is critical between other spaces.


SPACE: Lobby/Reception
40 people
ACTIVITIES
-Main entrance and exit
-Reception and registration for retreat participants and overnight guests.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-reception counter -chairs: in waiting area -fireplace
CHECKLIST
ZONE [ : Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION [ ; Required
rz Moderate
None
VIEW OUT l ; Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN [ ) Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
[ ] Moderate
Special
Flexible
[ : Natural
NOISE CONTROL Required
L J None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
NOTES
1. Provide view through to sea.
2. Lighting should be mainly natural.
3. Resilient floor surface in high-traffic areas.


SPACE: Small Gathering Area 1-4 people
ACTIVITIES
-Discussion between a few people -Contemplation by a single person
NOTES
1 .Flexibility within the st>ace.
2. Views out and in should be indirect to maximize the sense of privacy and enclosure.
3. Adjustable, warm artificial lighting.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-ledges
-moveable chairs -low table -throw cushions
CHECKLIST
ZONE LZ Public
L , Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
[ Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
L J None
VIEW OUT Desirable
: ] Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
M Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
: j Moderate
Special
[ Fie xible
Natural
NOISE Required
CONTROL L J None
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE M Normal
CONTROL Special


ACTIVITIES
-Organization and management of the Retreat Center functions.
-Participant office space for users of the Retreat
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-desks
-chairs
-bookshelves
-filing cabinets
-typewriters
-etc., as required
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
1 Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY 1 Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION : i Required
Moderate
,J None
VIEW OUT M Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN : i Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
SSL Moderate
Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL i Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
ft Normal
Special
NOTES
1.Conference service and participant office space should be flexible enough to meet any retreat group's needs.
2.See Audio-visual form for special equipment needed.


5.0 Retreat Facilities
Organizational Diagram


5.0 RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES


SPACE: Suite Room
1-2 people
ACTIVITIES
-Overnight accomodations for special speakers or lecturers, (maximum two week stay)
-Informal meetings of 1-4 people in the sitting room.
-Bed/breakfast accomodations for families.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-comfortable chairs and low table for the sitting room.
-bed, writing desk and chair, bureau dresser
-radio
CHECKLIST
ZONE rz Public
tz Semi-Public
r i Restricted
FLEXIBILITY m Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
m Moderate
None
VIEW OUT m Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN ; ] Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
: i Moderate
Special
Flexible
m Natural
NOISE CONTROL S Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
[ 1 Normal
Special
NOTES
1. A pleasant view is very desirable here.
2. Noise control between rooms is especially critical.
3.Interior decor should be elegant, yet not too luxurious.


SPACE: Private Room 1 person
ACTIVITIES
-Overnight accomodations for retreat participants, (two week maximum stay)
-Bed/breakfast accomodations for couples.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-reading chair
-bed
-bureau
-writing desk and chair -radio
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
M None
VIEW OUT L-3 Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
H Natural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE High
: j Normal
CONTROL Special
NOTES
1. A pleasant view is very desirable.
2. Two adjacent rooms should be connected for expandibility for bed/ breakfast functions.
3. Acoustical separation between rooms is critical.


SPACE: Resident's Lounge
15-18 people
ACTIVITIES
-Informal gatherings of retreat participants
-Conversation
-Reading
-Watching television -Listening to music -Card games
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-comfortable chairs -low tables -bookcases -television -radio/stereo
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
A None
VIEW OUT 9 Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
9 Natural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
NOTES
1.Space should be versatile enough to accomodate a range of activities.
2.View out and into the space is desirable.
3.Illumination should be natural during day and flexible to serve activity during night.


5.0 RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES Organizational Diagram


5.0 FOOD SERVICE FACILITIES


SPACE: Large Dining Room
40 people
ACTIVITIES
-Service of breakfast, lunch and dinner. -Formal or informal gatherings
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-comfortable chairs
-tables of different sizes, ranging in capacity from 2-6 people. Tables should be able to be pushed together to form larger arrangements.
CHECKLIST
ZONE nr Public
[ Semi-Public
n_ Restricted
FLEXIBILITY t Expandability
[ : Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
[ : Moderate
None
VIEW OUT L 1 Desirable
( Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
M Moderate
Special
M Flexible
% Natural
NOISE Required
CONTROL [ } None
VENTILATION/ [ High
CLIMATE r ! Normal
CONTROL Special
NOTES
1.Seating arrangement should be flexible to allow for different types of gatherings.
2.Illumination varies through the day from natural and bright during breakfast and lunch, to subdued during dinner.
3.Pay special attention to texture and color of matls


SMALL DINING ROOM/CAFE 250 SF
GUIDELINES NUMBER: 1
The small dining room will house a variety of activities. This space will serve breakfast, lunch and dinner on a smaller, intimate scale. Activities also include a grill that will provide food on an intermediate basis between the three daily meals. A bar will also be included to allow for any dancing or nightlife activity. A connection to the outdoors is desirable to allow dining activity to extend outdoors during favorable weather.


LARGE DINING ROOM
GUIDELINES
600 SF
NUMBER: 1
The dining room should be an elegant space that would allow the presentation of full scale banquets. This elegance should be tempered somewhat by recognizing that more mundane activities, such as breakfast and lunch will also take place in this space. Tables and chairs should be easily re-arranged to allow for a variety of seating arrangements. Special attention should be paid to the selection of materials for the dining room. Texture, color and pattern should form the basis for the refinement and elegance of the space. An outdoor connection is desirable to allow dining activity to extend out


SPACE: Small Dining Room/Cafe 10-15 people
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
m Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
[ ; Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
[ ; Moderate
rr None
VIEW OUT i : Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN _ r i Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
[ ] Moderate
Special
m Flexible
w Natural
NOISE CONTROL M Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
[ : Normal
Special
NOTES
1. Flexibility should allow for dining, dancing and bar activities.
2. Lighting should respond to the activity taking place at the moment.


FOOD SERVICE AND STORAGE 100-500 SF
GUIDELINES NUMBER: 7
Food service and storage should be accomplished in a logical, progressive fashion to allow food to be stored and prepared easily. The food service area should have a degree of flexibility to allow the facility to serve either banquet gatherings or small-scale cafe activity. Liquor will be served in the dining rooms, as well as the bar. Due to the location of the Retreat near Washington State's wine-growing region, a wine cellar has been included.


ACTIVITIES
-Food delivery, storage, preparation, cooking, and service.
-Cleaning activities
-Liquor storage and service
-Disposal of waste
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-commercial kitchen cooking and preparation equipment
-display cases for bakery
-storage shelving
-special ventilation equipment
-special plumbing and electrical outlets as required
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Sami-Public
: : Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
[ : Versatility
None
SUPERVISION [ ; Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
[ ; Optional (
None
VIEW IN Desirable
L ; Optional
None
ILLUMINATION 9 Bright
Moderate
[ } Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL 9 Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL 9 High
Normal
r i Special
NOTES
1. Materials should be durable and washable.
2. Bright lighting required over food preparation areas
3. Acoustical separation is required between food prep, and dining.
A.Special ventilation equip, is required.


5.0 FOOD SERVICE FACILITIES Organizational Diagram
rwU/W


5.0 SUPPORT FACILITIES


A/V CONTROL ROOM________________________150 SF
GUIDELINES NUMBER: 1
The A/V control room is the booth located adjacent to the Auditorium. Functions include control of light levels and sound images on the auditorium projection screen. Space is also included to produce and record sound, and store small amounts of equipment. This room is staffed by 1-2 A/V specialists during retreat activity.


1-2 people
ACTIVITIES
-Projection of visual presentations. -Producing and recording sound.
-Control of light levels and direction. -Storage of small amounts of equipment.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-projectors
-slide projectors
-recorc ing equipment
-lights
-stools for the A/V specialists
-special electrical supply
-control panel for auditorium lights,
sound system, etc.
CHECKLIST
ZONE rz Public
tz Semi-Public
[ ; Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
r i None
SUPERVISION L , Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT [ '] Desirable
Optional
1 None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
M Moderate
Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL c Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
NOTES
l.View out into auditorium for projection onto screen.
2.Acoustic adj acent seperation between spaces.


DARK ROOM AND GRAPHICS ROOM 400 SF
GUIDELINES
NUMBER:
The dark room and graphics room are available for use by photographers and artists from retreat groups. Facilities are provided to allow users to capture the environmental context in visual and graphic form. These two rooms will be monitored through conference services and they will be operated on a self-help basis.
ADJACENCIES


SPACE: Dark Room and Graphics Room
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
1 Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE CONTROL 9l Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL m High
Normal
Special
NOTES
l.Task lighting provided in graphics room at drafting table, easel and layout table.
2.Special plumbing and
equipment required for the dark room.


EXERCISE FACILITIES
GUIDELINES
950 SF
NUMBER:
The exercise facility includes a weight room, dance/exercise studio, jacuzzi, sauna, lockers and showers. These facilities provide an opportunity for eith retreat participants or bed/breakfast overnight guests to exercise.
Running, hiking and bicycling around the island are other viable exercise alternatives. The exercise facilities will not be staffed, but will be be operated on an honor system.


SPACE: Exercise Facilities
20-30 people
ACTIVITIES
-Running, lifting weights, stretching, aerobics, dance.
-Relaxation in the jacuzzi or sauna. -Changing and showering in the locker room.
FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT
-weight lifting equipment
-jacuzzi
-sauna
-mirrors and ballet bar for dance studio -special plumbing for jacuzzi and showers -lockers -benches
CHECKLIST
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
A Natural
NOISE Required
CONTROL None
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
NOTES
1. Humidity due to showers provided for.
2. Toilets, lavs., showers, water fountains required.
3. Floors of non-skid impervious material or synthetic carpeting.
A.Walls and ceilings resistant to moisture
5.Provide seating near lockers


5.0 SUPPORT FACILITIES
Organizational Diagram
oor


6.0 THESIS DESIGN












7.0 CONCLUSION


7.0
CONCLUSION
Looking back at the whole design process I feel extremely satisfied with the overall character and nature of the project. The project seemed to walk the fine line of vernacular between a "Trader Vic's" sort of mentality and merely reproducing a "down home" architecture.
The success of walking that fine line was due in large part to the excellent advice given by my advisors. A great deal of the credit should also go to Charles Moore and others associated with him. Much reading and investigation into the works of Moore and his cohorts provided excellent examples of successfully accomplished vernacular work. Perhaps the high point of the semester was a critique of my project by Charles Moore, during his visit to Denver for the AIA lecture series.
In looking back at my thesis statement during the semester and attempting to apply this intellectual analysis to design I became acutely aware of the limitations of the statement. Any investigation using phenomenology must seperate an analysis of the problem from objective reality and subjective response. This basic tenet is preposterous.
Nothing in life can be seperated from its circumstances and events in order to be understood. Any analysis must include these things.
Life is not a laboratory. It is this basic conflict that leaves me with such a distaste for analytical and intellectual design that does not respond to the human element. Any analysis should be rierely used as a tool in the design process. These things are absorbed into the mind and later become one of the bases for an intuitive design process.


One of the disappointments about the final design product was the limited interaction between indoor and outdoor space. This was a design area that I was aware of from the beginning of the design process. Looking at the work and writings of Christopher Alexander,
I was inspired to succeed in this area. I feel now at the end that I was marginally successful.
At the other end of the spectrum I feel that one of my greatest design successes was the creation of discovered spaces such as the library loft, the bar, the lookout above the boathouse, and the hot tub. I feel that these spaces captured the spirit of their uses and would be a joy for the user to discover.


8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY


Alexander, Christopher, and others. A Pattern Language.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Armstrong, John M. and Ryner, Peter C. Coastal Waters:
A Management Analysis. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., 1978.
Cullen, Gordon. The Concise Townscape. London, England:
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1961.
Downing, Antoinette F. and Scully, Vincent J. Jr.
The Architectural Heritage of Newport Rhode Island.
2nd ed. New York: Bramhall House, 1967.
Heckman, Hazel. Island Year. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1972.
Hite, James C. and Laurent, Eugene A. Environmental Planning:
An Economic Analysis. Applications for the Coastal Zone. New York: Praeger Publishers Inc., 1972.
Ivy, Robert A. Jr. "Building by the Sea: The Southeast." Architecture, vol. 74, no. 6, June 1985, pp. 70-75.
Jeffcoat, Percival R. Nooksack Tales and Trails., 1949.
Ketchum, Bostwick H. The Water's Edge: Critical Problems of the Coastal Zone. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972.
Kirk, Ruth. San Juan Islands. Portland: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company, 1983.
Martin, Harry. Contemporary Homes of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: Madrona Publishers Inc., 1980.
McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1984.
McHarg, Ian L. Design with Nature. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1971.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci: Towards A
Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications Inc., 1979.


Porter, Phil. View from the Veranda: The History and Architecture of the Summer Cottages on Mackinac Island., No. 8, Mackinac State Park Commission, 1981.
Relph, E. Place and Placelessness. London: Pion Limited, 1976.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Annual Report
1984. University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California UCSD Press, 1985.
Whatcom County Planning Department. Lummi Island Plan. Whatcom County, Washington, 1979.
Whitehead, Russell F. and Brown, Frank Chouteau.
Early Homes of Rhode Island. Amo Press Inc., 1977.


9.0 APPENDIX


CLIMATE
The following is an excerpt from a 1978 thesis in Bellingham, Washington by Shannon Sue Morris.
Bellingham is located in northwestern Washington state, latitude 48% 44', longitude 122* 29', elevation 120'. Some of the factors which play an important role in the climate of Bellingham are its distance from the Pacific Ocean and other large bodies of water, coastal ranges of mountains on the Olympic Peninsula to the south and on Vancouver Island to the west, the Cascade range of mountains which rise to elevations of 5000 to 8000 feet within 75 miles east of the city, the southern migration of storms moving out of the Gulf of Alaska during the winter and their return to a more northerly path in the summer.
The climate of Bellingham can be classified as a marine-type environment in most respects. The air is rather moist throughout most of the year and the daily range of temperature is small. Maximum temperatures of 90* or above are unusual and are of short duration in the summer. The coastal mountains on Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula protect the city from the main force of storms moving eastward from over the Pacific Ocean. Breaks in the coastal mountains and the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Euca permit a large amount of moist air from over the ocean to reach the area. This marine air is usually warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer than air over the interior of the continent at this latitude.
The Cascade Mountains shield the area from cold air in the interior during the winter, and the warm air in the summer. However, occasionally cold air from the interior of Canada will move through the Fraser River Canyon and spread southward bringing low temperatures to the Bellingham area. The lowest temperatures in the winter and the highest in the summer are usually associated with easterly or northeasterly winds. The lowest humidity is observed when easterly winds are blowing down the western slope of the Cascades. The growing season is quite long and usually lasts from about the middle of March to the latter part of November. Grass usually remains green throughout the winter.
The prevailing southwesterly circulation of warm, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean keeps the average winter daytime temperature in the 40's and the nighttime temperature in the upper 20s or lower 30's. There is a gradual shift of the winds to a westerly and northerly direction during the summer. Cool air from over the Pacific Ocean in the summer keeps the average afternoon temperature in the mid-70's and the nighttime temperature in the high 40's.
The highest wind velocities are usually from a southwesterly direction during the winter, although occasionally strong northerly winds occur with the passage of a storm. Wind velocities are usually much lower in the summer than in the winter months.


There is a pronounced, though not sharply defined, rainy season and considerable cloudiness during the winter. About three-fourths of the annual rainfall is received from October through April. December is the wettest month and July and August are the driest months. Snowfall is rather light and on the average does not remain on the ground for long periods of time. Precipitation and snowfall increase rapidly in an eastern direction. Some of the heaviest snowfall and greatest snow depths in the United States have been recorded in the Mt. Baker area, approximately AO miles east of the city.
The occurrence of light fog is most frequent during late fall and winter. Thunderstorms average about six per year, lightning damage is infrequent, and tornadoes have never been reported in the city.


CLIMATE
Following is a collection of climatic data. There is currently no weather gathering station on Lummi Island. Climatic data from Bellingham (20 miles to the south) and Seattle (108 miles to the south) are presented due to the absence of any closer stations to the site.
Average Daily Solar Radiation (Btu/day/sq. ft)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aus- Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
252 472 917 1376 1665 1724 1805 1617 1129 638 326 218
Percent of Possible Sunshine
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Au^ Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
28 34 42 47 52 49 63 56 53 37 28 23
Sunshine (hours/day)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1.8 3 4 6.5 8 7.5 10 8 6.5 3.5 2.3 1.6


UTTTVD1 1*8* 1*7*
Lononuot 122 29'
nxr. iokoumd) 120*
O. >. DITAItTMINT or COMMEACt WtATHIR BUREAU COOnAATlOM WITH BELLI NGHAM CHAUBtK OF COUMERCI CUMATCKJRAJ-KT OF TUB UNITED STATES NO 30 1*5
CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
MIAMI AMD UTUMU FOR FIAIOD 1928 1997
Month Tamparatura (F) : 6 3 : | TJ 3 X Precipitation Totals (Inches) Mean number of days Month
Mmm Extramaa 3 X Greatest daily i (H Snow, Slaat Precip. .10 inch or more Temparaturaa
Mu. Min.
§ j* 9 Q 0 e .1 1 5 o a s 3 9 0 X Record highest 2 * Record lowest 3 >- 3 X ft 4 0 x a 3 >* Greatest daily a a *TJ 3 s! -d 9 0 CN n a TJ .3i (N n a s i b i>
(a) 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 3 30
JAJ U3.1 28.9 36.0 61* 1935 -1* 1937+ 900 3.98 2.95 1935 2.5 11.0 1937 7.5 1929 11 0 1* 18 JAN
rzB 1*7.5 30.7 39.1 66 191*3*- - 3 1950 730 3.15 2.02 1951 2-3 15.2 1936 6.0 19l*9 9 0 1 16 FEB
MAH 52.2 33-9 1*3.1 72 1928 10 1555 680 3.21 1.59 1930 1.3 27.0 1951 9.0 1951 10 0 13 0 MAH
APR 58.6 37.0 1*7.8 82 1931* 19 1951 520 2.16 1.28 191*1* T T 191*8 T 19l*8 7 0 0 8 0 APR
MAY 61^9 1*1.1 53.0 85 1956 22 1951* 370 1.72 2.26 1952 5 0 0 2 0 MAT
JUH 68.8 li6.1 57.5 92 1955 29 1933 230 1.96 2.32 19h6 5 0 0 JUN
JUL 73.3 1*7.7 60.5 9l* 1951+ 31* 191*9*- 11*0 1.00 1.50 1932 3 0 0 0 JUL
ADO 73-7 1*7.0 60.1* 91 1935a 31* 191*5*- U*o 1.00 1.77 1950 3 0 0 0 AOT
SEP 69.5 1*3.5 56.5 90 1951 27 1931* 260 1.88 1.50 1930 5 0 0 1 0 SEP
OCT 60.8 39.0 50.0 83 1936 22 191*9 1*70 3.63 1.96 19U5 t T 191*9 T 19l*9 9 0 0 6 0 OCT
*oy 51.6 31*-5 1*3.1 71 19 1*9 3 1955 660 1**18 1.81 1932 .7 7.0 1937 l*.o 1955*- 11 0 11 0 *07
DEC 16.6 32.1* 39.5 67 19l*l 5 1952 800 1*.76 I.85 191*9 1.8 7.5 191*8 5.0 19l*9* 15 0 1 11* 0 DEC
JUL JAN JAN MAR MAR
Taar 99.2 38.5 1*8-9 91* 1951+ - 1* 1937*- 5900 32.63 2.95 1935 8.6 27.0 1951 9.0 1951 91 6 9? e Yaai
U) jvserege 1*0901 01 record, 7Mrs. Also on earner dataa. OBIBS, or jeers.
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SUNSHINE PRECIPITATION TEMPERATURE
ISSN 0198-5442
1984
LOCAL CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
ANNUAL SUMMARY WITH COMPARATIVE DATA
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
*r*Tts 0< *
Daily Data
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TEMPERATURE DEPICTS NORMAL MAXIMUM. NORMAL MINIMUM AND ACTUAL DAILY HIGH AND LOW VALUES (FAHRENHEIT) PRECIPITATION IS MEASURED IN INCHES, SCALE IS NON-UNEAR SUNSHINE IS PERCENT OF THE POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
I CERTIFY THAT THIS IS AN OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION. AND IS COMPILED FROM RECORDS ON FILE AT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER, ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA, 28801
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NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
NATIONAL NATIONAL
ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE. DATA CLIMATIC DATA CENTER AND INFORMATION SERVICE ASHEVILLE NORTH CAROLINA
DIRECTOR
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER
CufrlV*


METEOROLOGICAL DATA FOR 1984
SEATTLE. WASHINGTON SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
LATITUDE: 4727'N LONGITUDE: 12218'W ELEVATION: FT. Igrd) 400 I ms I I 450 TIME ZONE: PACIFIC WBAN: 24233
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
TEMPERATURE F: Averages -Dai Iy Max i mum
47.8 50.7 55.2 56.4 60.5 67.0 75.3 74.8 68.3 56.4 48.4 41 .5 58.6
~Da i Iy Mini mum 38,5 38.8 41 .7 41 .0 45.2 50.6 54.7 55.0 51.4 42.8 38.8 32,1 44.3
-Month Iy 43.2 44.8 48.5 48.7 52.8 58.8 65.0 64.8 58.8 48.7 44.6 36.8 51 .5
-Month Iy Dewp t . 35.6 37.0 40.2 38.1 42.5 48.1 50.3 50.5 46.6 42.2 38.8 30.8 41.7
Ex tremes
-H i ghest 61 60 64 83 81 83 81 85 86 74 58 48 81
-Date 4 7 8 14 28 23 23 8 14 7 12 7 JUL 23
-Lowes t 21 31 33 36 40 46 50 48 42 31 31 20 20
-Date 18 2 30 26 4 1 11 28 24 31 22 18 DEC 18
DEGREE DAYS BASE 65 F:
Heat i ng 672 577 507 482 372 183 54 42 158 467 603 867 4885
Coo I i ng 0 0 0 0 1 5 62 45 11 0 0 0 124
Z OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 27 26 40 43 55 48 74 76 66 36 15 27 48
AVG. SKY COVER (tenths)
Sunr i se Sunse t 8.0 8.8 8.0 8.0 8.1 7.7 4.1 5.2 6.2 8.2 8.2 8.1 7.5
Midnight Midnight 8.0 8.6 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.5 3.8 4.8 5.8 7.6 8.8 7.7 7.2
NUMBER OF DAYS: Sunrise to Sunset
~CI ear 5 1 4 1 0 1 14 10 5 1 1 4 47
-Par tIy Cloudy 3 3 4 11 8 14 14 13 14 7 2 4 88
-C I oudy 23 25 23 18 22 15 3 8 11 23 27 23 221
Prec i p i tat i on
.01 inches or more 17 20 20 18 16 8 2 3 4 13 23 20 165
Snow,Ice pellets
1.0 inches or more 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Thunders torms 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 5
Heavy Fog, visibility
1/4 mile or 1 ess 8 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 , 6 2 5 30
Temperature F -Max i mum
80 and above 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
32 and be 1ow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
-Min i mum
32 and below 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 10 21
0 and be 1ow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
AVG. STATION PRESS, (mb) 1007.1 1000.0 1000.7 1000.0 1001.4 1000.7 1002.2 1000.3 1000.0 888.3 884.2 888.8 1000.3
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (Z)
Hour 04 80 82 85 83 82 83 76 77 78 86 85 83 82
Hour 10,. -r Hour- 16 'L0Cal Time 77 80 76 68 68 70 62 63 66 78 81 81 73
72 70 62 56 58 58 46 45 48 66 78j 76 61
Hour 22 76 77 76 72 74 73 61 63 68 81 82 80 74
PRECIPITATION (inches): Water Equ i vaIent
-Total 3.62 3.81 3.81 2.67 3.38 2.81 0.17 0.13 1.01 2.14 8.08 4.85 36.88
-Greatest 124 hrs) 1.37 0.81 0.77 0.71 0.68 1.61 0.15 0.08 0.41 0.85 1.46 1.38 1.61
-Date Snow,Ice pellets 24-25 20-21 18-20 8-10 PM- 1 20-21 31 27 22 8-10 1- 2 7- 8 JUN 20-21
-Total T 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 2.4 2.4
-Greatest (24 hrs) -Date T 21 0.0 0.0 T 28 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 31 T 27 1 .6 20 1 .6 DEC 20
WIND: Resu1 tan t
-Direction 1 ) 172 160 181 180 204 232 342 241 203 180 167 145 187
-Speed imph) 2.8 4.3 2.7 4.6 5.1 3.0 3.6 2.2 1 .2 3.8 5.6 2.5 2.6
Average Speed (mph ) 8.3 8.7 8.3 8.8 8.0 8.1 8.2 7.7 8.3 8.3 10.1 8.8 8.6
Fastest M;le
-D i rec t i on 1 ) S S SW SE Sw S S SW SW SW SW S SW
-Speed Imph) 33 28 44 25 28 24 23 23 28 28 31 23 44
-Date 25 22 16 8 1 28 25 31 5 12 2 14 MAR 16
PEAK GUST
-d;rec t i on 1 !! ) S S SW SW S S SW SW SW S SW N SW
-Speed (mph) 38 35 43 35 32 31 26 28 38 36 45 38 45
-Date 23 8 16 12 2 28 25 31 5 30 2 17 NOV 2
See Reference Notes on Page SB
Page 2
( )


NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES
LATITUDE: 4727'N
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
LONGITUDE: 1.2218'H ELEVATION: FT. lord) 400 (msl) 450 TIME ZONE: PACIFIC
la) JAN FEB MAR "APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
TEMPERATURE F:
Nor^a1 s
-Da i 1v Ma* i mum 43.9 48.8 51.1 56.8 64.0 69.2 75.2 73.9 68.7 59.5 50.3 45.6 58.9
-Da: 1 v Mini mum 34.3 36.8 37.2 40.5 46.0 51.1 54.3 54.3 51.2 45.3 39.3 36.3 43.9
-Month 1y 39.1 42.8 44.2 48.7 55.0 60.2 64.8 64.1 60.0 52.4 44.8 41.0 51.4
Ex tremes
-Record Highest 40 84 70 72 85 93 96 98 99 94 82 74 63 99
-Year 1981 1968 1947 1976 1963 1955 1979 1981 1981 1980 1949 1980 AUG 1981
-Record Lowest 40 0 1 11 29 28 38 43 44 35 28 6 6 0
-Year 1950 1950 1955 1975 1954 1952 1954 1955 1972 1949 1955 1968 JAN 1950
NORMAL DEGREE DAYS:
Heating (base b5 F) 803 622 645 489 313 169 76 97 169 388 606 744 5121
Cooling (base S5F) 0 0 0 0 0 25 70 70 19 0 0 0 184
X OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 18 24 37 49 53 56 54 65 64 59 44 29 20 4b
MEAN SKY COVER (tenths)
Sunrise Sunset 40 8.5 8.3 8.0 7.7 7.1 7.1 5.3 5.8 6.2 7.5 8.3 8.7 7.4
MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS:
Sunrise to Sunset
C1 ear 40 2.8 2.5 3.1 2.8 4.4 4.9 10.4 8.8 7.6 4.0 2.6 2.0 55.8
Par t1y Cloudy 40 3.8 4.0 5.8 7.2 9.0 7.6 9,9 9.7 8.7 7.3 4.3 3.5 80.9
~C1oudy 40 24.5 21.7 22.1 19.9 17.5 17.4 10.4 12(. 6 13.6 19.6 23.1 25.5 228.2
Prec i p i tat i on
.01 inches or more 40 19.0 16.2 17.1 13.9 10.2 9.3 5.1 6.6 9.4 13.5 18.0 20.0 158.1
Snow,Ice pellets
1.0 inches or more 40 1 .8 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.* 0.3 0.9 4.2
Thunders torms 40 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.3 7.3
Heavy Fog Visibility 1/4 mi U or 1 ess 40 5.5 3.5 2.3 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.8 3.0 . 5.7 7.9 6.1 6.1 44.8
Temperature F
-Ma 90 i mum and above 25 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 1 .1 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0
32 and below 25 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .2 2.6
-Min i mum 0 and be 1ow
32 25 10.0 4.6 3.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.6 8.2 30.2
0 and be 1ow 25 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
AVG. STATION PRESS.(mb) 12 1001.1 998.9 998.4 1000.9 1001.4 1001.2 1001.5 1000.5 1000.7 1001.4 999.3 1000.7 1000.5
RELATIVE HUMIDITY IX)
Hour 04 25 80 80 81 82 82 81 81 83, 86 86 83 81 82
Hour 10 M _| r Hour 1| ILocal T,mel 25 78 76 74 70 68 66 65 69 74 79 80 80 73
25 74 67 62 57 54 53 49 52 58 67 74 77 62
Hour 22 25 77 76 75 73 71 69 67 71 76 81 80 80 75
PRECIPITATION (inches):
Water Equ i v31ent
-Norma 1 8.04 4.22 3.59 2.40 1 .58 1.38 0.74 1.27 2.02 3.43 5.60 6.33 38.60
-Max i mum Monthly 40 12.92 9.11 8.40 4 .19 4.76 3.90 2.39 4.59 5.95 8.95 9.69 11.85 12.92
-Year 1953 1961 1950 1978 1948 1946 1983 1975 1978 1947 1963 1979 JAN 1953
-Mini mum Month 1 y 40 0.86 1.58 0.57 0.33 0.35 0.13 T 0.01 T 0.72 0.74 1.37 T
- Year 1949 1977 1965 1956 1947 1951 1960 1974 1975 1972 1976 1978 SEP 1975
-Max I mum in 24 hrs 40 2.41 3.41 2.86 1 .85 1.83 1.75 0,85 1.75 2.23 3.74 3.41 2.61 3.74
- Year 1967 1951 1972 1965 1969 1968 1981 1968 1978 1981 1959 1979 OCT 1981
Snow,Ice pellets 18.2
-Ma; mum Monthly 40 57.2 13.1 2.3 T T T 2.0 13.7 22.1 57.2
-Year 1950 1949 1951 1972 1974 1980 1972 1971 1946 1968 JAN 1950
-Maximum in 24 hrs 40 21.4 7.2 5.6 2.3 T T T 2.0 9.4 13.0 21.4
- Year 1950 1962 1951 1972 1974 1980 1972 1971 1946 1968 JAN 1950
HIND:
Mea1- Speed (mph ) 3b 9.9 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.0 8.8 8.3 7.9 8.1 8.6 9.2 9.8 9.1
Pre.a;l i ng Direction h 1%3
throug SSW SW SSH SH SH SH SH SH N S S SSH SH
Fastes t Mi le
-Dir ec t i on l ) 17 SH S SH SH SH SH SH SH S SH s S S
-speed (MPH) 17 45 51 44 38 32 29 26 29 33 38 66 49 66
-yea r 1971 1981 1984 1972 1968 1974 1981 1977 1981 1982 1981 1982 NOV 1981
HBAN: 24233
(!! ) See Reference Notes on Page 6B.
Page 3


PRECIPITATION (inches)
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
1955 3.35 4.30 3.25 3 b4 1 95 1 27 2.10 0.17 1 52 b bO 6.9b 9.50 4b.81
195b 8 b7 2.17 4.95 0.33 0.83 2.47 0.33 0.7b 2.42 b .71 1 .59 5.82 38.85
1957 2.41 5.57 b 2b 2.23 1.17 1.18 1.10 1 b4 0.7b 3.79 3.00 5.52 34.83
1958 8.72 5.3b 2.2b 3.51 0.94 0.90 T 0.31 1 .42 3.99 8.07 7.15 42.83
1959 7.98 3 b4 4.12 3.59 1 bO 1 .82 0.93 O.bO 4 bO 2 b7 8.14 b 83 48.52
1 9b0 5.48 4.01 4.08 2.88 3.04 0.70 T 1.92 1.17 4.22 8.03 3.75 39.28
1 9b 1 7.71 9.11 4.48 2.35 3.07 0.54 0.75 0.82 0.4b 3.27 4.87 5.32 42.53
1 9b2 2.43 2.29 2.8b 2.03 1 82 0 b8 0 b9 1 9b 2.31 4.1b 9.34 5.22 35.79
1 9b3 2.25 4.3b 3.43 3 Ob 0.90 1 b8 1.18 0.73 0.59 5.0b 9.89 5.79 38.72
1 984 9.7b 1 .bb 2.9b 1 ,5b 0.91 3.82 0.99 1 .23 2.27 1 .00 9.85 5.53 41.34
1 9b5 5.27 3.88 0.57. 3.73 1 b3 0.59 0.38 2.18 0.49 2.7b 4.98 7.10 33.5b
1 9bb 5.43 2.31 4.38 1 99 1 35 1.15 1 35 0.42 1 77 2.92 b 85 8.31 38.23
1 9b7 9.32 2.72 3.71 2.50 0.38 2.04 0.01 0.02 0.94 b.bb 2.5b 4.72 35.58
1 9b8 b 90 b 08 5.08 1 33 1 b7 3.02 0.83 4.58 1..93 4.32 5.8b 8.55 50.15
1 9b9 5.71 3.1b 2.20 3.45 2.93 0.91 0.27 0.45 5.57 1.19 2.21 5.88 33.73
1970 8.22 2.2b 3.1b 3.31 1.17 0.43 0.48 0.32 2.23 2.52 5.03 8.28 37.41
1971 5.32 4.3b 7.12 2.39 1 .43 2.28 0 b8 0.57 3.51 3.57 5.31 b 87 43.21
1 972 7.24 8.11 b 74 4.12 0 b9 1 .81 1 34 1.13 4.10 0.72 3.38 8.98 48.3b
1973 4.29 1 89 1 b2 1 35 1 bO 2.50 0.08 0.27 1 81 3.31 7.99 8.33 35.04
1 974 7.78 4.01 5.84 2.39 1 37 1 .25 1 .51 0.01 0.21 1 99 5.0b b 45 37.87
1975 b .01 5.80 2.87 2.49 1.13 0.84 0.27 4.59 T 7.75 5.07 7 bb 44.48
1 97b 5.55 4.74 2.71 1 b7 1 .b1 0 b3 1.17 2.71 1 .25 2.0b 0.74 1 8b 2b 70
1 977 1 77 1 .58 3.80 0.55 3.70 0.54 0.42 3.59 2.55 2 bO 5.27 b 47 32.84
1978 4.30 3.59 2.43 4.19 1 79 0.75 1 40 1.19 5.95 0.98 b 05 1 37 33.99
1979 2.25 5.32 1 .55 0.81 0.88 0.4b 0.73 1 .02 2.07 3.38 1 94 11.85 32.2b
1980 4.09 5.04 2.10 3.23 0.97 1 77 0.4b 0 b4 1 43 1 32 7.1b 7.39 35.80
1981 2.42 4.45 2.23 1 .58 1 33 2.31 1 38 0 25 3.42 b 40 4.07 5.5b 35.40
1 982 5.35 7.57 3.73 2.07 0 b3 1 .03 0.59 0 b2 1 49 4.07 5.31 b 8b 39.32
1983 7.07 4.57 3.81 1 Ob 2.10 1 .85 2.39 1 90 1 85 1 34 7.97 5.02 40.93
1 984 3 b2 3.91 3.91 2.87 3.38 2.81 0.17 0.13 1 .01 2.14 8.09 4.95 38.99
Record
Mean 5.70 4.50 3 b8 2.39 Se 1 .83 e Refer 1 49 ence No Page 0.80 tes on 4A 1.17 Page 8B 2.10 3 b3 5.74 b 24 39.09
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (deg. F) Seattle. Washington Seattle tacoma airport
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
1 955 39.1 38.2 39.2 44.8 50.7 58.0 60.1 60.9 57.0 50.4 38.9 38.4 47.9
1 95b 39.0 35.7 40.8 49.8 5b 8 5b 9 84.8 63.0 57.9 49.5 42.6 40.2 49.7
1 957 32 b 39.5 44.4 50.1 57.9 bO 4 61.8 61 6 62.7 50.7 43.5 43.7 50.7
1 958 43 b 47.5 44.0 49.2 bO 4 b4.0 88.8 6b b 59.8 53.9 43.4 44.9 53.8
#1959 40.8 41.0 44.2 49.8 53.5 59 b 66.1 82.3 57.4 52.0 43.9 40.3 50.9
1 980 38.9 41.2 43.5 49.3 52.7 59.5 66.7 82.2 58.0 52.7 44.5 39.5 50.8
1 981 43 b 44.4 45.3 47.0 53.8 b3.5 67.1 88.4 58.7 50.8 41.9 39.3 52.0
1 982 38.4 43 1 43.3 50.0 50 b 59.9 63.5 82.0 59.6 52.6 46.5 42.3 51 .0
1 983 33.9 48.2 43.8 48.3 57.7 59.9 62.4 84.8 63.5 54.5 44.4 40.8 51 8
1 954 40.0 41.3 44.1 4b 8 53.2 57.9 63.5 82 b 58.5 53.5 42.1 3b 4 50.0
1 985 40.2 43.0 47.0 49.5 51 9 bO 8 87.8 85.7 58.4 56.4 49.4 40.4 52.6
1988 41 1 43.9 45.1 50.0 54.5 58.7 82.1 84.5 61.5 51 4 45.4 43.5 51 8
1 987 42.4 42.8 42.2 4b b 55.4 82.7 bb 5 71 1 65.7 54.8 47.3 41.8 53.2
1 988 40.9 48.5 48.8 48.7 57.3 80.7 87.0 83.7 59.1 51 5 46.8 36.6 52.5
1 989 33.1 42.3 4fc 9 48.9 58.0 84.3 84.7 84.0 81 0 52.4 48.8 45.2 52.3
1 970 41.2 47.0 4b 0 4b 1 54.7 82.7 84.9 84.5 58.6 50.8 4b 5 39.0 51 8
1 971 39.7 42.3 41.3 48.9 54.5 55.9 85.5 87.7 57.6 51.0 45.7 37.5 50.6
1 972 37.0 4 1.4 48.9 47.0 58.3 80.1 bb 0 bb 7 55.4 50.1 4b 7 38.1 51.1
1 973 38.7 43.9 44.1 48.8 5b 5 59.3 84.7 81 8 61 9 52.2 43.7 44.4 51 .6
1 974 38.7 43.2 4b 3 50.3 54.9 82 b 84.0 84 b 84.4 52.5 45.1 42.4 52.4
1 975 38.8 40.8 42.9 45.8 54 .b 80.7 87.5 83.2 63.0 51.4 44.9 41.5 51.3
1 97b 41.8 40.9 41.3 49.5 5b 4 80.0 85.9 84.1 62.6 54.9 47.8 44.7 52.5
1 977 39.4 48.7 45.7 53 b 54.5 83.0 85.1 88.5 58.9 52.2 43.9 42.2 53.0
1 978 44.4 4b 0 48 b 49.9 54.5 84.3 85.8 85.5 58.8 54.3 41 .2 37.5 52.6
1979 37.8 42.3 49.3 50.8 57.2 82.5 87.4 84.0 62.6 54.2 43.9 44 1 53.0
1980 34.8 43.8 44.3 51 b 54.2 57.5 83.8 61.9 59.6 53.9 4b 7 44 1 51 4
1 981 44.4 44.2 48.8 49.8 54.7 57.5 83.3 88.1 61.1 50.9 47.2 41.7 52.7
1982 39.3 42.1 44 1 47.4 54.7 63.1 62.8 65.1 60.6 52.7 43.2 40.8 51 3
1983 45.0 4b 9 49.4 50.7 57.7 59.9 63.3 65.6 58.3 51 7 47.8 36.1 52.7
1984 43.2 44.8 48.5 48.7 52.9 58.8 65.0 64.9 59.9 49.7 44.8 3b 8 51 .5
Record
Mean 38.9 42.7 44.5 48 b 55.1 80.0 64.5 64.2 59.7 52.0 44 7 40.6 51 3
Ma* 43.8 48.7 51 5 5b 8 b4.2 69.1 74.9 74 1 68.6 59 1 50.3 45.4 58.9
M i n 33.9 3b b 37.4 40.4 4b 0 50.9 54.0 54.2 50.8 44.8 39.1 35.8 43.7
See Reference Notes on Page SB.
Page 4B


HEATING DEGREE DAYS Base 65 deg. F
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
SEASON JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE TOTAL
195556 1 52 1 25 243 446 776 81 8 800 844 74 1 455 260 238 5898
1956-57 70 89 208 474 663 760 995 706 629 44 1 2 1 3 1 35 5383
1957-58 97 95 72 434 638 656 656 482 645 468 1 63 81 4487
1958-59 1 5 1 9 1 65 338 640 61 7 742 667 637 456 355 1 66 48 17
#1959-80 59 87 '217 396 628 758 804 684 660 465 373 1 64 5295
1960-61 4 1 1 26 21 0 374 607 783 657 569 607 531 345 93 4943
1961-62 23 8 1 97 437 689 789 821 61 0 668 44 3 438 1 67 5290
1962-63 95 1 00 1 58 377 550 698 959 465 651 496 255 1 7 1 4975
1963-64 78 37 71 320 61 2 743 77 1 682 640 535 370 204 5063
1964-65 76 91 1 89 349 679 882 761 61 1 553 459 400 1 36 51 86
1965-66 24 44 1 94 261 462 754 732 584 6 1 0 442 32 1 1 90 4618
1966-67 95 54 1 06 4 1 4 585 658 695 61 4 700 548 292 92 4853
1967-68 1 6 O 44 3 1 O 524 7 1 8 737 472 503 485 232 1 39 4 1 80
1968-69 33 70 1 79 4 1 5 538 87 1 983 6^7 554 478 230 71 5049
1969-70 49 49 1 44 381 547 607 731 499 586 563 3 1 4 1 22 4592
1970-71 53 4 4 1 90 435 548 801 778 628 728 472 321 267 5265
1971-72 82 1 7 2 1 4 429 570 843 863 678 557 53 1 222 1 44 51 50
1972-73 48 32 295 455 544 825 807 586 639 484 272 1 83 51 70
1973-74 70 1 1 4 1 1 1 388 633 632 809 606 573 433 306 99 4774
1974-75 60 66 74 380 591 690 804 67 1 678 570 31 7 1 44 5045
1975-76 23 73 93 4 1 3 594 723 71 2 693 731 465 265 1 57 4942
1976-77 24 52 81 307 51 0 625 786 451 59 1 335 320 79 4 16 1
1977-78 34 43 1 78 390 625 70 1 631 525 498 447 323 78 4473
1978-79 44 42 1 80 324 706 846 837 630 479 420 235 96 4839
1979-80 27 40 86 327 628 642 929 6 1 O 634 395 329 21 8 4865
1980-81 66 1 04 1 58 343 543 639 633 577 494 455 3 1 6 220 4548
1981-82 80 28 1 38 430 530 7 1 5 790 636 640 52 1 3 1 2 1 03 4923
1982-83 93 42 1 4 1 373 647 745 61 3 502 479 422 244 1 49 4450
1983-84 72 1 9 1 96 406 51 1 8 9 0, 672 577 507 482 372 1 83 4887
1984-85 54 42 1 59 467 603 867'
See renc e No t e s on Page 6B .
Page 5A
COOLING DEGREE DAYS Base 65 deg. F Seattle, Washington Seattle tacoma airport
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TOTAL
1 969 0 0 O 0 1 9 55 44 25 28 O 0 0 1 7 1
1970 0 0 0 0 1 60 58 36 & O 0 O 1 6 1
197 1 O O 0 0 4 2 1 06 1 07 O 0 0 o 21 9
1972 O O O 0 22 3 85 91 1 1 o 0 o 21 2
1973 O 0 0 0 1 6 1 9 67 1 7 21 o 0 0 1 40
1974 O 0 O o O 36 38 62 60 o o 0 1 96
1975 0 0 o 0 0 2 1 1 08 29 39 0 0 0 1 97
1976 o 0 o 8 4 1 4 59 29 1 5 o 0 o 1 29
1977 0 0 0 0 0 26 44 1 58 4 0 0 o 232
1978 0 0 0 0 4 66 76 64 0 0 0 o 2 1 0
1 979 o 0 0 0 2 27 1 06 1 5 21 0 0 o 1 7 1
1 980 o o 0 0 0 0 34 1 5 3 2 0 o 54
1 98 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 35 1 3 1 24 o 0 0 1 94
1 982 0 0 0 0 0 53 31 55 1 5 0 0 0 1 54
1983 0 0 0 0 24 2 24 44 0 o 0 0 94
1 984 0 0 0 0 1 5 62 45 1 1 0 0 o 1 24
See
No t Page
e s on
5B
Page
SB .


SNOWFALL (inches) Seattle. Washington Seattle tacoma airport
SEASON JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE TOTAL
1955-56 0.0 0.0 0.0 o o 6.0 6.1 0.4 9.4 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 24.2
1956-57 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 3.0 7.5 7.2 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 17.7
1957-58 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 T
1958-59 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 o o 3.2 6.5 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.9
1959-60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 2.2 0.0 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.3
1960-61 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 T 1 .8 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0
1961-62 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.9 1 .0 7.0 1 .7 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.6
1962-63 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 3.1 0.5 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
1963-64 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .0 T 0.5 T T T 0.0 0.0 1 .5
1964-65 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 7.6 7.3 T T o o T 0.0 18.2
1965-66 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.3 2.1 T 5.5 T 0.0 0.0 22.9
1966-67 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 5.9 T T T 0.0 0.0 7.9
1967-68 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 7.5 o o 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 11.6
1968-69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.1 45.4 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 67.5
1969-70 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 T 0.0 T T 0.0 0.0 T
1970-71 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 2.9 9.1 2.2 1 .9 T 0.0 0.0 16.1
1971-72 0.0' 0.0 0.0 2.0 T 10.6 14.0 0.3 T 2.3 0.0 0.0 29.2
1972-73 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 T 5.6 2.7 T 0.8 T 0.0 0.0 9.1
1973-74 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 3.7 T T 0.0 T 0.0 4.2
1974-75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.8 1 3 T T 0.2 o o 0.0 11.3
1975-76 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .6 2.6 T 0.5 0.2 T 0.0 0.0 4.9
1976-77 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 1 .0 T 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .9
1977-78 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 T T 0.0 T T 0.0 0.0 3.5
1978-79 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.0 o o 0.0 0.0 6.0
1979-80 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .2 8.8 2.5 0.1 T 0.0 0.0 12.6
1980-81 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.3 0.0 1 1 0.0 o o 0.0 0.0 1 4
1981-82 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 7.0 T 2.0 T 0.0 0.0 9.0
1982-83 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T
1983-84 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.3 T 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 0.3
1984-85 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 2.4
Record
Mean T 0.0 T 0.1 1 .0 2.8 6.0 1 4 1 4 0.1 T o o 12.7
See Reference Notes on Page SB. Page BA
REFERENCE NOTES Seattle, Washington Seattle tacoma airport
general exceptions
T TRACE AMOUNT.
BLANK ENTRIES DENOTE MISSING/UNREPOFTED DATA NONE
# INDICATES A STATION OP INSTRUMENT RELOCATION SEE STATION LOCATION TABLE ON PAGE 8.
SPECIFIC PAGE 2
PM INCLUDES LAST DAY OF PREVIOUS MONTH PAGE 3
la) LENGTH OF RECORD IN YEARS, ALTHOUGH INDIVIDUAL MONTHS MAY BE MISSING.
* LESS THAN .05
NORMALS BASED ON THE 1951-1580 RECORD PERIOD.
EXTREMES DATES ARE THE MOST RECENT OCCURRENCE HIND DIR.- NUMERALS' SHOW TENS OF DEGRESS CLOCKWISE FROM TRUE NORTH. 00" INDICATES CALM.
RESULTANT DIRECTIONS ARE GIVEN TO WHOLE DEGREES.
PAGES 4 A, 4B, & A
RECORD MEANS ARE FOR ENTIRE PERIOD OF RECORD,
REGARDLESS OF location
Page &B


SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT
The Seattle-Tacoma International Airport is located 6 miles south of the Seattle city limits and 14 miles north of Tacoma It is situated on a low ridge lying between Puget Sound on the west and the Green River valley on the east with terrain sloping moderately to the shores of Puget Sound some 2 miles to the west The Olympic Mountains, rising sharply from Puget Sound, are about 50 miles to the northwest. Rather steep bluffs border the Green River Valley about 2.5 miles to the east and the foothills of the Cascade Range begin 10 to 15 miles to the east of the airport
The mild climate of the Pacific Coast is modified by the Cascade Mountains and, to a lesser extent, by the Olympic Mountains. The climate is characterized by mild temperatures, a pronounced though not sharply defined rainy season, and considerable cloudiness, particularly during the winter months. The Cascades are very effective in shielding the Seattle-Tacoma area from the cold, dry continental air during the winter and the hot, dry continental air during the summer months The extremes of temperature that occur in western Washington are the result of the occasional pressure distributions that force the continental air into the Puget Sound area But the prevailing southwesterly circulation keeps the average winter daytime temperatures in the 40-s and the nighttime readings in the 30-s. During the summer, daytime temperatures are usually in the 70-s with
nighttime lows in the 50-s Extremes of temperatures, both in the winter and summer, are usually of short duration The dry season is centered around July and early August with July being the driest month of the year. The rainy season extends from October to March with December normally the wettest month, however, precipitation is rather evenly distributed through the winter and early spring months with more than 75 percent of the yearly precipitation falling during the winter wet season Most of the rainfall in the Seattle area comes from storms common to the middle latitudes These disturbances are most vigorous during the winter as they move through western Washington, the storm track shifts to the north during the summer and those that reach the State are not the wind and rain producers of the winter months Local summer afternoon showers and a few thundershowers occur in the Seattle-Tacoma area but they do not contribute materially to the precipitation
The occurrence of snow in the Seattle-Tacoma area is extremely variable and usually melts before accumulating measurable depths. There are winters on record with only a trace of snow, but at the other extreme, over 21 inches has fallen in a 24-hour period. Usually, winter storms do not produce snow unless the storm is in such a way as to bring cold air out of Canada directly or with only a short over water trajectory.
The highest winds recorded in the Seattle-Tacoma area were associated with strong storms crossing the State from the southwest Prevailing winds are from the southwest but occasional severe winter storms will produce strong northerly winds Winds during the summer months are relatively light with occasional land-sea breeze effects creating afternoon northerly winds of 8 to 15 miles an hour. Fog or low clouds that form over the southern Puget Sound area in the late summer, fall, and early winter months, often dominate the weather conditions during the late night and early morning hours with visibilities occasionally lower for a few hours near sunrise. Most of the summer clouds form along the coast and move into the Seattle area from the southwest
Based on the 1951-1980 period, the average first occurrence of 32 degrees Fahrenheit in the fall is November 11 and the average last occurrence in the spring is March 24


STATION LOCATION
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON SEATTLE-TACOMA AIRPORT

Elevation above fcTiao.
Sea Ground
level _
Location 1 .1 2 9 Latitude Longitude is 3 1 M. u 1 1 h e 4* i O* lenarks
i £ 1 1 i ** % J { *> 1 8 J t
1 o 1 5 North Neat a fi | e 5 >
1 6 | Hi IS sr 1 1 £ 1 JC m c I J o L l o a
8 o 1 9 ss * J 4 w H 8 * co £ < Ul
cm
SE comer 1st & Yesler 8/01/90 5/01/93 47* 36 122 20' 17 &70 &68 & Elevation estimated.
Streets
New York Block, 701 2nd 5/01/93 5/01/05 793 ft. NE 47 36 122 20 $151 114 114 107 $ 121 feet to 1/1/02.
Avenue, 2nd & Cherry
Alaska Building, 12 2nd 5/01/05 11/01/11 200 ft. SW 47* 36 122 20' 224 185 185 179
Avenue, 2nd & Cherry
Hoge Building, 703 2nd Avenue, 2nd & Cherry Ll/01/11 4/15/33 250 ft. w 47* 36' 122 20' 39 250 215 215 209
Federal Office Building 4/15/33 11/30/72 730 ft. NW 47 36' 122 20 14 321 90 b90 83 83 Wind instrunents on the Exchange
181 & Marion Building, 1st 6 Marion, b Removed 7/1/39.
Summary published through 1964,
2725 Montlake Blvc .. East Ll/30/72 Present 4 mi. NNE 47 39' 122 18 19 33 4 4 4 3 Summary Publication resumed
January 1973.
AIRPORT
Control Tower Seattle- Ll/21/44 11/17/49 47 26' 122 18' 379 43 5 5 3
Tacoma Airport, 1 miles
S of P. 0. at Seattle
Administration Building Seattle-Tacoma Airport 11/17/49 3/24/55 1000 ft. E 47 27' 122 18 379 109 6 5 3 * * Telepsychrometer(4')ll/17/49. Moved 1000' NNE 3/24/55.
Administration Building 3/24/55 11/01/56 No Change 47* 27' 122 18 376 109 5 a5 3 * Moved 210' WSW 11/01/56. Removed 6/6/63.
Seattle-Tacoma Airport
Administration Building 11/01/56 12/11/59 No Change 47* 27' 122 18' 386 112 b5 b5 3 * a Moved 1000' NNE of prev. site.
Seattle-Tacoma Airport c20 b Moved 210' WSW of prev. site.
c Moved tc field site 11/21/59.
Administration Building 12/11/59 Present No Change 47 27' 122 18' 400 20 d6 d5 X91 NA f 3 3 e6 NA d Standby equipment. Roof site effective 9/23/67.
h20 d77 d77 * g!5 h6
i6 e Hygro. commissioned 12/11/59.
f Added 1/1/65. g Moved to roof site 2/1/66. h Moved 2800 feet SW of previous
site 12/2/69.
X Commissioned 10/7/68. i Type change 11/6/79.
SUBSCRIPTION:
Price and ordering information available through: National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, North Carolina 28801
USCOW-NOAA-ASHEVILLE 1700
US. DEPARTMENT OE COMMERCE AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITT EMPLOYER
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER fEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE, N.C 28801
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COM 210
FIRST CLASS


48 NL
5 AM
attitude angles


CLIMATE INFLUENCE ON BUILDING DESIGN
-adapted from CLIMAT program, Don Woolard, 1985.
Layout
Buildings should be oriented on an east-west axis.
The long elevations facing north and south to reduce exposure to the sun. Spacing
Compact planning is recommended if the air movement requirement is significant. Air Movement
Rooms may be double-banked, but the plan should allow for temporary crossventilation (e.g. large interconnecting doors)
If wind is unreliable, or site limitations restrict planning for crossventilation, ceiling mounted fans may be considered. These would require a room height of not less than 9', which will affect the built form.
Openings
"Large", between 40 and 80% of the north and south walls.
These need not be fully glazed, but should be protected from the sun, sky glare and rain, preferably by horizontal overhang.
Walls
External should be light with low thermal capacity Within this category there are two subtypes:
Internal walls should be heavy and massive, where any occurence of hot dry conditions is combined with a large annual mean range of temperature (over 20*C)
Roofs
A light but well insulated roof, with low thermal capacity Size of Opening Medium: 25-40%
Position of Opening
In north and south walls at body height on windward side.
Openings also in internal walls.
Walls and Floors
Light, low thermal capacity Roofs
Light, well insulated


sureLzxnmuiT ihfokm&tioh
ptTTLDTMG COOK CHTgTT.IST
Project Name Lumml Island Environmental Retreat Project No. Location Legoe Bay ______________________
Lummi Island, Washington
Applicable Code Name Uniforin Building Code-1982 UMC- -1982 UPC-1982
Code Check by J* Matthew McMullen _ 11/85 Date
1. Fire Zone SECTION
2. Occupancy Classification
_ A3 Auditorium Principal Occupancy 601
. Bl Marina Maintenance Others (Specify) 1201
B2 Retreat Facilities, Offices, Lounges
R3 Residential Facilities 1201

3. Occupancy Separation required A3 Bl 3 to Table 5B Hours
A3 B2 N to Table 5B Hours
A3 R3 1 to Table 5B Hours
Bl B2 1 to Table 5B Hours
B1 R3 1 to Table 5B Hours
B2 R3 1 4. Construction Type Typo v 1 hnnr Table 5B Table 5C


( SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION (Cont'd)
BOTLDING CODE CHECKLIST (Cont'd)
5. Maxi B2 14000 SF R3-Unlimited mum allowable Basic Floor Area: A3-10500 SF 151-1400 SF itahle SO.
If adjacent to open area on 5%, 2*5%, l*s%/ft. by which minimum two or more sides: width exceeds 20 feet. 506b
If 200% of area permitted for one-story over one story: buildings 505b
If Allowable area tripled in 1 story, sprinklered: Allowable area doubled over Lstorv. 506d
6. Maximum allowable height:
I
Feet Type V 1 hour-50 feet _____________________________ Table 5D.
Stories A3~2 B1~3 B2-3 R3-3 Fire Resistance of exterior wall (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) A3 2 hours less than 10', 1 hour less than 40' Table 5D Table 5A
Bl 1 hour less than 20'
B2 1 hour less than 20'
R3 1 hour less than 3'
Buildings on same property assumed to have Property line between them. Openings in exterior walls: (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) A3 Not permitted 1 eas_than SJ jlqJ m i_i c*
Bl, B2 nor nermitted less than S' ] n' /.one
R3 not permitted less than 3'
Yes, A3, Bl, B2 area greater than
9. Windows required in rooms: 1/1Q total floor area, nppnahle L/2O__££)£-r705,1204
of floor area. R3 1 operable window greater than
Window area required: 5.7 sq. ft. height+24" width+20 ___________
rooms=l/10 floor area, bathrooms openable +1/20 floor area
10. Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size required ____________ S04r and ipnh
Yard bldgs.+ 2 stories yard=3'+l' additional for each story ( Courts semi-enclosed; bounded 3+ sides greater than TO1 length unless bounded one 1 end by yard or street, greater than 6' width.


suppLBCHrraaT raroratircow (corrt'd)
BPTTJvraG COOT CHECKLIST; (Cont' d)
habitable space+7'-6", kitchens, halls,
T1. Minimun ceiling height in rooms: WC+7' 1207a
12. Minimum floor area of rooms: +70 sq. ft. 1207b
13. Fire resistive requirements: Exterior bearing walls 2203,1705d 1 Hours Table 17A
Interior bearing walls Hours Table 17A
Exterior non-bearing walls
Structural frame
1702
Permanent partitions
Vertical openings ___
Floors ______________
Roofs
1705b
1706
Exterior doors
Exterior windows
_Hours _Hours _Hour s _Hours _Hours _Hours _Hours Hours
Table 17A
Table 17A
Table 17A
Table 17A
Table 17A
Table 17A
2203
2203
Property line between opp. walls! 504c
Inner court walls,^opening..-requirement o apply ^our3 -------
1
Hours
1716
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) ____________________________
No mezzanine floor shall cover more than 1/3 area of a room.
4-
Hour 3
Roof coverings
R3 ordinary, A3, Bl, B2 class C or No.l shakes or shingles Boiler room enclosure ___________________t ________Hours
3202b, -3203g
6GS-
14.
Structural requirements:
Pramework Steel. Concrete, Masonry, HnnH 1_____
Stairs Reinf. concrete or .strnrtnrpl ^i-ppI 1
Chapters 26
Hours o/. OS oom _
Hours i an/, i n/i
Hours 1904,


gTPyrjonarrKBT QETOBKATIOM (Coat'd)
15.
BETEECIBG COOK CffBCXI.IST: (Contd)
R3 ordinary roof covering A3, "Bl Class C or Roofs No. 1 cedar nr. redwood shaken nr shingles 1 Hour* B2 fire retardant
Partitions Hori-rnmViimfihlp fi rp rpsigtiw - HOUTS
Can be of wood or wood assembly
Exits:
Occupancy load basis (square feet per occupant) Occupancy Type __________Basis_______________Actual Load
Auditorium
50
|50
Meeting Room
15
60
Dining Room
15
Locker rooms 50
Commercial Kitchens 200
Offices 106
Library 50
Guest Rooms 200
Number of exits required:.
Meeting Room
40
T"
2.5
~T~
10
~T~
60
2 Exits Req'd.
Auditorium
Minimum width of exits:
3'
SECTION
Ch- 12.,. 3?03g 2il£_25J_Z__ 2003c
Occupant
Load
Floor Area SF/Occupant
3303b
Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among seperate exits, and including a percentage of the occupant loads of adjacent floors.
Exit separation arrangement:
Exits placed a distance apart equal to +h length of max.' 3303c overall diagonal dimension of area to be served, measured
in a straight line between exits,


DoroRHunow (coat'd)
HjT-rjvner roc* CTXCn.IST: (Contd)
SECTION
allowable travel distance to exit 150 3203d
With sprinklers 200' 3303d
Allowable exit sequence: 3303e _
Rooms may have 1 exit through an adjoining or intervening
room which provides a direct means of travel to an exit,
provided the distance is less than other provisions of code, uu ex 11 uhdOhgh kiccnen, 'storeroom,'closest or similar'. t
kxit doors:
Minima width allowed 3304e
Maxiaaa leaf width allowed ^ ' 3304f
Width reouired for No. of occupants Total width in feet greater than total occupant load 3303b
served divided by 50. Width divided equally among exits. Includes a percentage of adjoining floors. 50% of first adjacent story. 25% of next adjacent story.
Exit corridors:
44" (3-8") Minima allowable width 3305b
Required to have exit at each end of corridor?
when 2 exits are req'd. except for dead-end allowance, less than 20 Dead snd corridors allowed? yPg Maxima length ..1505P____


, wirrorac cdct ch
1ST (Cant'd)
SECTION
Auditorium, Large Meeting Rooms, Large Dining Room Wall fire resistance required______________ i p^,,r
Doors and frames fire resistance required: ?n m-in
. Stairs:
Minimum width UU n-H"! For occ. load of +=so__________ 37n6h
36"__________For occ. load of Ipss than 50 3306h
For occ. load of _____
Maximum riser allowed 7.5"___________________________' 3306c
Minimmi tread allowed 10"________________________ 3306c
Are winders allowed? yes, R3 required width of run less 3306d
*
than 12" from side of stairway, width
Landings: of run can not he hess than 6"
*1s. Dimension measured in direction of travel= 3306g width of stairway but n66d iVSr-g%c'fefed thfe 4' vr^grTaTgLit ^ufr---------
Maximum sire required.
4' with straight run
3306g
Maximun vertical distance between landings Minimum vertical distance between landings
12'
3306i
Required height of rails A
nosing.
(2-6" to 2-10") 30-34" above 3306j
Handrails:
Required at each side7
yes
3306j
88" yes
Intermediate rails required at stairs ______wide_____
3306j
Maximum width between int. rails. Exceptions applicable ___________
Equal spacing
3306j


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SOryyuggTMCr THFOWOTIOa (Coat'd)
wm-nraG CDCT (^'T-TST: (Cont'd)
Height above nosing SECTION 3306j _
Balusters reguired7
Intermediate rail required? yes- UBC = 6" max 3306j
Maxlajn post spacing allowed
Handrails return to wall at ends? yes or _newel Post 3306j
or sarety terminal Handrails extend beyond stair b at ^east 1 handrail 3306j _
ax both top and Stair, to roof r.ecuired? yes in bld§s A+ stories bottom. 3 one 3306o
stairway snail extend LU ruoi Wltn ningfid door. Stair to casement restrictions Provide harrier to prevent 3306h
persons from going to basement.
No Stair access to roof required? 3306m,o

yes, to mechanical Access to roof required? UMC 71Oh
yes Stair enclosure required? Hours 1 3309b
Exceptions- Enclosure shall not be required foi a 3309a
stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent floor
and not connected w/corridors or stairways serving other floors.
R3 need not be enclosed.. Horizontal exit requirements (if applicable) aaas
Ramps: Maximm slope to use as exit 1; 12 3307d
Handrails required Slope steeper than 1:15 shall havp 3lQ7e handrails as required for stairways, except no intermediate handrails.
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aromiCTi (cant'd)
anugc actm cmcaxigr (coat'd)
SECTION
yes, at every req'd. exit door w/occ. 3314 Exit signs required? rloQ^ of -------------------------- --------
yes
Balcony rails?__________________________________________
All unenclosed floor, roof openings,open 1711 w^era required?and g-lazadsidoo of-sfcetiro, ramps-- -* ----
and landings, balconies, etc.
Height required 4?" ___________________________ -1711------
Balusters or intermediate rails required 7 o.c. max. y 7 ] |
17. Penthouses:
18.
19.
*>/
Area limitations 3-3-173% of-the area supporting roof 3f)01b---
less than 28 for tanks or elevators
Height limitations less than 12 1 for others___-________ 3601 a
Use only for shelter of mechanical equip.
Use limitations or vertical shaft.openings______________ 3601c
Shall have walls, floor and a roof Construction requirements constructed as the main part of a 3601d building, unless housing only mechanical equip, and less than 20' from property line may be of unprotectednon-combustible construction. On 1 story building unroofed mechanical equip.scteens,fences, etc. may be of combustible construction when +20 from property lines~and less than 4^ in height above roof surface.
Parapet vails:
Where required. All exterior walls (see exceptions) 1709a
Height 30" above where roof surface and wall intersect. 1709b
Pire extinguishing systems:
Sprinklers required AH except for R3 and when floor 3802
area exceeds 1,500 sq. ft. (see section for details)
. , . . Class III, if more than 1 story Tabie 38A
Dry standpipes required 0 ___________________________ _____________
At every floor level above the first story of 3805c Location_____________________________________~ ___________
; _ every required stairway and on each side of the wall adjacent
> to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.


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SDTFLBORUT TSTCSaOTlCM {Cont* d)
BDIXDrHC COOX C3HOXISTJ (Cont'd) Number required SETT ION see 3805c
Number outlets required see 3805c
Hose required No Table 38A
Siamese connections required^-way out^et above roofline 3805c
when roof slope is less than 4:12
Wet standpipes required ,
Number required (hose run) .

Location

determined by local fire chief UFC 1982 Fire extinguishers required
Toilet roan requirements: Code utilized? Fixture count requirements: Conference Auditorium Dining Men: Basis Actual UPC 1982
Lavatories 2 7 1
Water closets ^ ^ 2
Urinals i 1 1
Women: Lavatories 22 1
Water closets 3 3
Drinking fountain reauiinianta none


(
(Cost'd)
nurse
CTOX.TST (Coat'd)
Showers required? 0116 Per apartment unit
Hard, smooth, non-absorbent surfaces
Walls
Floors
Hard, smooth, non-absorbent surfaces
Compartments
30" wide x (w.c. +24") long= 14 sq. ft.
Handicapped requirements
See "Illustrated Handbook for Barrier-Free Design;" Washington State Rules and Regulations
SFCTION
Appendix C 510b 510b 511a 511 UBC
_l. Skylights: chapter 34 Locations
Separation Minimum'4' ^pn.ippn nn-ii-e
5+0-70-
22.
Maximum size 1QQ Rq. ft £nr.1X2.mat,.-200 sq. ft., for CC1 5207a 4
Maximum aggregate area in room-in/32 of floor- aTva f vm* ;
sheltered by roof(CCl), 25% for (CC2) Curb height 4" above roof plane_________________________ S7D7 a-1
Elevators and escalators:
Maximum number in each shaft____________________________ _____________
Ventilate penthouse?____________________________________ _____________
' (


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SUFPUMB^TXRT INFORMATION (Corrtd)
BOXLOrHG CDDg CHKCXLIST: {Cont'd)
SECTION
23.
Use of public property:
Doors prohibited fran swinging into city proper^y^*7 a~^e^ ^507 Marquees, canopies, etc.: property line, l-0"
Support from building? Rnt-iroiy
4506b
non-combustible frame with ,, Material restrictions .combustible covering.----------
8'
4506b
4506d
Distance above walk__________________________________ _________
min. 2' inside 4506c
Maximum distance of extension over walk ijnc_ ________
Maximum height Drainage_______
Other projections:
4504a
Minimum height above "ground" +8', 1" per 1" of
up to 4'
Maximum allowable projection__________________________
Bay window, porch, balconies_______________________
Cornices, etc._____________________________________
- 24. Fire alarm:
Required basis R3
Manual pull Type stations, smoke detectors
1202b
1210
25.
Bnergency lights or power requiredex^t ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way-
33138
1807i
illuminate to 1 foot-candle. Standby power, lighting and emergency systems in B2.
. Access doors required in exterior walls without openings? ___________
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