Citation
The Greenwood Village Fitness Center

Material Information

Title:
The Greenwood Village Fitness Center
Creator:
Miller, Jeffrey H
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
197 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Athletic clubs -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Greenwood Village ( lcsh )
Athletic clubs ( fast )
Colorado -- Greenwood Village ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 197).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jeffrey H. Miller.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13770909 ( OCLC )
ocm13770909
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .M565 ( lcc )

Full Text
An Architectural Thesis presented to
the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
JEFFREY H.
MILLER
SPRING 1986


The Thesis of JEFFREY H. MILLER is approved.
Committee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver


DEDICATION
To my parents whose support and encouragement made whatever success I've had possible.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Signature Page
Table of Contents
Project Summary
Introduction
Thesis Statement
Greenwood Village Zoning
Site Information
Program Square Footage Summary
Program
Code Checklist Appendices
Miscellaneous Information Dayiighting
Planning with Climate and Solar Energy The Nihon Aerobics Center


SUMMARY
The Greenwood Village Fitness Center is to be located on a
site to the North-West of the intersection of S. Quebec St. and Orchard Rd. in the Greenwood Village. The developer is John Madden, the medical liason is St. Joseph Hospital and the architect is the WZMH Group, in conjunction with Halier & Larson, Architects.
The Fitness Center will specialize in facilities for aerobic exercise. Lap swimming, running, tennis, racguetbaii, sguash, weight training, exercise rooms and all the most up-to-date eguipment will be provided slong with careful professional supervision and instruction.
In addition, a clinic will be provided to offer 3 distinct services; a) exhaustive diagnostic physicals to determine the state of the body and thereby to facilitate a prescription for a program of training and exercise; b) a sports medicine area to handle sports related injuries and rehabilitation; and c) the Samaritan Institute providing counceling for people with emotional problems and training for its own staff. Ail these clinic services are offered to non-members as well as members of the club.
Finally, the club will offer facilities for relaxation. A complete sauna seguence (including steam rooms, whirlpools, water plunges, sunning areas and massage) will be offered. Balanced and healthy food will be served in the dining room along with snacks and drinks in the bar/iounge. In good weather, dining can take place on the patio overlooking the lake and mountains to the west.
The program is expected to reguire approximately 70,0G0 s.f. of floor area (not including the two outdoor tennis courts). Parking for 350 cars (140,000 s.f.) is to be provided on the site as well. Height restrictions limit the proposed building to 2 stories.
Adjacent to the Fitness Center is to be a park with stream, lake and exercise course. To the west of the park will eventually be two office buildings. Neither the park nor the offices are included in this project.


INTRODUCTION
Physical fitness as a social phenomena has been on the rise
in the U.5. for the last ten years. Partially a product of the "Me Generation" of the 1970's, it has now spread to ail strata of society and is perhaps the broadest common denominator in America. Everyone from factory workers to corporate executives, housewives to students, movie stars to office workers have begun, however haltingly, to try and get themselves "in shape". Television and radio talk shows have guests who promote one form of exercise or another and debate the merits of the other forms. Articles and books present page after page of data indicating the beneficial aspects of regular exercise for the human body. A day does not go by that we all aren't at some point or another reminded that we should be exercising. Even if we have been somewhat slow in responding to the overwhelming evidence, Americans are finally signing up at gym's rec. centers, and health retreats in record numbers. Today, early morning and noon-time streets in urban areas are often the scene of hoards of runners -outfitted in the latest variety of sneaker and running shorts. But is ail this new attention on physical fitness a lasting phenomena or is it merely another fad?
Webster's dictionary defines FAD as a whim or a craze. A
whim is an ill-considered plan or action, a craze is a frenzy of action whose outcome is also poorly considered. The sudden popularity of physical fitness suffers from both these problems. First of all, too many people begin exercising merely because they've heard so much about it without ever considering what type of exercise they most need and especially how much of it they need. Sadly, it's still widely believed that "if there's no pain there's no gain". Many first time exercisers (or worse those who used to exercise but have been dormant for some time) make sure they feel lots of pain when they work-out. As time reveals, the pains caused during exercise are only symptoms of often very serious physical damage to muscles, bones and organs damage that is far worse than had the person never begun exercising in the first place.
The second problem is that of people who exercise but who never really know why they do it other than it's the popular thing to do. These people go to the gym, work-up a good sweat, shower, go home, eat carelessly, collapse in bed and repeat the same thing day after day. The "getting in shape" just seems like any other chore in the day, like driving to work, or washing the dishes. Too many people never really know that there was originally a good reason for exercising, that those who first told us about exercise many years ago, believed


that physical fitness was a necessary step in learning to live fully, productively and happily.
Lastly, there is the problem of those who think that physical fitness is an end in itself that the stamina, energy, and good looks of a healthy body are the end they are seeking. These people too have overlooked the reason exercise is so important; it is a means to maximize the potential of our lives.
It's appropriate that one of the men who first extolled the virtues o regular exercise should also be among the first to recognize the shortcomings o the fitness "craze". Dr. Kenneth Cooper began promoting aerobic exercise about 15 years ago and since that time has devoted his career to researching the effects of exercise on the human body. He founded the Aerobics Center in Dallas, Texas to serve as a national clearinghouse for information and research regarding health and exercise. In the beginning, Dr. Cooper believed that regular aerobic (meaning "living in air" or "utilizing oxygen") exercise was so singularily important to the overall health of the human body that it could offset such other "bad habits" as improper diet and smoking. However, as results over time came in, it became clear that as important as regular exercise is, it must be supplimented by good eating habits and a difficu1t-to-define emotional factor in order to have the greatest benefit on our lives. Dr. cooper evetually developed a three point poan to achieve what he calls "total well-being".
1. Aerobic Exercise: Those activities that require oxygen
for prolonged periods and Diace such demands on the body that it is required to improve it's capacity to handle oxygen. As a result of aerobic exercise, there are beneficial changes that occur in the lungs, the heart, and the vascular system.
2. A Positive Eating Plan (P.E.P.); Eating the proper foods
(low in saturated fats and cholesterol and high in protein, minerals, vitamins and fiber) is a key in being able to exercise fully, remain mentally alert and maintain health throughout one's life.
3. Emotional Equilibrium; The stresses of modern life can
take an awful toll on our bodies and minds if they are allowed to build-up. Exercise is a way to release stress end refresh our minds but good rest and relaxation is also necessary. We must learn to maintain an emotional balance in activity so that stress cannot interupt our lives.
With the idea of promoting "total well-being", Dr. Cooper


imagined a number of centers around the world which would provide not only the best and most extensive equipment and facilities for aerobic exercise but which would also provide on-the-spot medical examinations end exercise programs "tailor made" for each member. Also available would be a restaurant serving healthy, balanced foods and classrooms for seminars about diet and exercise. Finally, Dr. Cooper envisioned that these centers would be used by it's members as a place to come and relax meet friends and associates, exercise, bathe, perhaps take a sauna and finally enjoy a light meal together. The centers should provide the sense of escape and 8 ho1iday-at-home that country clubs provide but without the necessary social or financial resources.
The most fully realized Cooper Aerobic Center to date is the recently opened "Nihon Aerobics Center" near Tokyo,
Japan (see appendix). It is a massive facility located in the midst of a great park, offering it's members ail the indoor activities mentioned above as well extensive outdoor exercise facilities: golf, a conference center, chapel, and even guest houses. It's success with the Japanese since it's opening earlier this year has surprised even Dr. Cooper. It would seem that his "three-fold plan" for total well-being as expressed in the program of his Aerobics Center is filling a need for vast numbers of people who want to lead healthy, more fuilfilled lives but until now haven't known quite how to go about it.


THESIS STATEMENT
The core of Dr. Cooper's philosophy is the emphasis on
balance in daily life. For good health we must find sn equilibrium between physical fitness, proper diet, and emotional stability. These three factors find immediate expression in the three divisions of the planned Greenwood Village Fitness Center: a) the aerobic exercise areas, b) the restaurant, and c) the relaxation areas along with the Samaritan Institute.
The solution to this architectural problem must symbolically reflect the balance between these three factors. The building must not be harsh or abrasive nor can it simply be cozy and warm. It requires a dynamic sense of energy among it's parts, a feeling that a roughness is balanced by a smoothness, public areas balanced by quiet, personal spaces, great voiumns complimented by human scales. From the very entrance on to the site, the visitor must become aware that he/she is embarking on a path that will not only take them from the working world into the recreational world, but also on a deeper journey leading from a casual way of living to a more respectful, and careful way of living.
A building which exists as a means to instill a deeper
respect for life and an appreciation for good health cannot turn it's back on the environment surrounding it, most particularily the small bit of nature accompaning it on the site. Indeed, since the progression of experience begins at the property line, the site must work interactively with the building to amplify the sense of balance. The building must be as much a part of the site as the site is a part of the building. They compliment one another.
In addition, the environment provides a "niche" into which the building must fit. There is a proper angle to recieve benificial day-lighting, there are winter storms to be protected from, there is glare, there is shade, there is slope and running water, there are open spaces and enclosed ones. These factors help define where the building will be and how it will be. They cannot be overlooked .
As a result of the balance it reflects and the nature of
which it is a part, the building must find a "timeless" form and expression. As far as possible the shape and attitude of the building must avoid trendiness, gimmickry, cleverness, stridency and temporality. It must be situated in nature physically and give a sense of permanacy. It strives not to dazzle and joke but to whisper and reflect. It's pleasures should not be revealed at a glance but only experiencially over time.


It must be clean, open, friendly, relaxed yet poised and simple.
Finally, as a result of ail these interactions, the building and it's site must achieve a composure; a unity of feeling. The building must have a reflective, inward-looking guaiity that results in a sense of peace and well-being. It is, beyond everything, a place for people to come, work-out and relax.


GREENWOOD VILLAGE ZONING*
Town Center District
1) Statement of Intent: The Town Center District (T.C.) combines, on a scale sufficient to permit the application of efficient master planning, the multiple uses of residences, offices, services, consumer support, medical offices and facilities, pharmacies, recreation, light industrial, research laboratories, and associated uses. To the extent practicable, the plan should serve to de-emphasize the use of the individual motor vehicle within the district and further reduce motor vehicle trips to and from the area.
Public spaces shall be encouraged and given strong consideration within any intensely developed commercial or office areas. These spaces may exist as major circulation areas. This may be accomplished by clustering of the development, which when combined with good design and placement of buildings, shall preserve much natural open space, existing topography and vistas or view planes both from within and without the District.
2) Site Qualification Requirements: The Town Center District shai be located on land meeting the following requirements:
a) Size: The minimum gross land area for a T.C. District shail be 250 contiguous acres with a minimum of sixty (60%) per cent presently zoned in zone categories other than residential at the time of application.
3) Use Regulations: All uses shall be integrated with and dispersed among the other uses within the Town Center District. Uses shall be subject to the provisions of Sections 5-2-5 (P) and (S).
b) Office: General offices, medical and dental offices, pharmacies, computer facilities, light assembly and manufacturing, warehousing and/or storage of any commodity when enclosed within a building, and research laboratories.
c) Support Uses: Retail and service establishments which are designed to service the daily needs of the Town Center concept.
A) Planning Requirements:
a) Maximum Building Ground Coverage: Building ground
coverage within any Town Center District shall not
Greenwood Village Zoning


exceed forty (40%) per cent of the gross acreage within the District.
b) Maximum Parking Ground Coverage: Surface parking and the surface area of structure parking within any Town Center District shall not exceed forty (40%) per cent of the gross land area with the District. Parking spaces shall be provided in guantities sufficient to contian sll parking within the Town Center District Boundaries without surface use of public streets.
c) Minimum Open Space: A minimum of thirty (30%) per cent of the gross acreage within the Town Center District shall be reserved for and used as open space. For the purpose of the Town Center zone, open space shall be defined as all of the land in the Town Center zone site not devoted to building, parking structures, paved streets and parking area improvements, but including such areas as landscaped medians, pedestrian ways, courtyards and other landscaped exterior space, whether public or private.
d) Maximum Gross Floor Ares: The gross floor area for the entire Town Center zone shall not exceed three (3) times the maximum building ground coverage.
e) Perimeter Treatment: Perimeter treatment in a Town Center District shall satisfy the following requirements: Minimum Setback: Buildings around the periphery o any Town Center District shall be set back at least twenty-five (25') feet from the District line.
5-2-5 SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS
A) Off Street Parking Requirements: The following are minimum requirements for parking and loading spaces to be maintained in connection with the buildings and used indicated .
1) Auditoriums, gymnasiums, theaters, skating rinks, ball fields, horse arenas, swimming pools: 1 space per four seats or 1 space per 100 sg. ft. gross floor area.
5) Commercial retail sales and services:
1 space per 150 sg. ft. gross floor area. 11) Offices (bisiness, professions! services):


1 space per 300 sq. ft. of gross floor area Tennis courts :
1.5 spaces per court Restaurants, bars:
1 space per each 60 sq. ft. of net floor area
Uses not mentioned: The requirements for similar uses.
Mixed used: The total requirement shall be the sum of
the requirements of the various uses.
Off-Street Loading Requirements:
Every institution, business, hotel, motel, commercial, industrial, or apartment building hereafter erected, moved, converted, extended, enlarged or increased shall maintain the following off-street loading berths (to measure fifteen (15) feet wide, thirty-five (35) feet long):
BUILDING AREA BERTHS
40,001 to 100,000 sq.ft. 3
Parking Area Design Requirements:
Screening and separation: Any parking area of four or
more spaces or of recreational, mainteneance, or transportation vihicles or any vehicular circulation area shall be landscaped and screened from any adjacent use or parking on another lot by a strip of landscaping at least thirty feet in width of which at least fifteen feet is on each lot.
Parking adjacent to a public right-of-way shall be separated from such right-of-way by a landscaped strip of thirty-five (35) feet in all zones.
Entrances and Exits: Areas subject to wheeled traffic shall be provided with entrances and exists so located as to minimize traffic congestion. Access to public streets shall meet the following standards:
The curb cut of any driveway shall not be closer than twenty (2U) feet to the curb line of any street intersecting the street from which access is gained.
The width of any driveway shall not exceed thirty-five (35) feet measured slong its intersection with the property line.


No two (2) driveways from the same lot shall be closer together than fifty-five (55) feet measured along their intersections with the curb line. No driveways from different lots shall be closer together than twenty (20) feet in business or commercial areas.
Separation of Parking and Circulation Areas: All
parking and circulation areas shall be separated from public rights-o-way by a landscaped barrier except at driveways.
Pedestrian Safety: Ail parking lots shall be designed
to minimize pedestrian-vehicular conflict.
Surfacing: Ail parking areas shall have all-weather
surfacing except those in residential zones of density less than or equal to one (1) acre per dwelling unit.
Community Facilities:
Educational institutions, churches, recreation facilities, governmental facilities or a combination thereof shall be allowed in all zone districts subject to the P.U.D. procedure and the following:
Height: No structure shall exceed twenty-eight (28)
feet in height except that a single church steeple or other appurtenant ceremonial feature attached to the main church building shall not exceed thirty-five (35) eet in height. Detached steeples or other appurtenant ceremonial features shall not exceed twenty-eight (28) feet in height. Accessory buildings or structures shall not exceed the maximum height allowed for such buildings in the applicable zone district.
Minimum Requirements:
lot frontage front yard side yard rear yard open space
Minimum Lot Area (multiple acreage):
300 feet 100 feet 50 feet 100 feet 40$
uses require cumulative
Combined Interior and Exterior Athletic Facility: 5 acres
Locational Requirement: The Planning and Zoning commission shall consider the following among other criteria for approving community facilities in accordance with a Planned Unit Development: danger to the public safety due to increased flow of traffic and
Greenwood Village Zoning


rusulting congestion, parking requirements, fumes and noises, increased need for fire and police protection, danger or substantial and permanent injury to the appropriate use of neighboring property caused by automobile lights and noises and the blocking of private driveways, delay of normal travel on adjoining roads, and incidental annoyance wich deprives residents of peace, guiet and privacy.
All parking, including parking for special events, shall be provided off-street. In residential zones, no parking area providing parking for twenty or more vehicles shall access local residential streets which are gravel surfaced or dead end or cul-de-saced or less than twenty-four (24) feet of surfaced width.
Public Utilities:
Walls, filter beds, irrigation canals, water supply or flood control reservoirs (not elevated tanks), telephone exchanges, electric sub-stations, gas regulator stations (with no public business office, repair or storage facilities) shall be allowed upon approval of a site plan by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Greenwood Village Zoning


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VECINITY DESCRIPTION
The Greenwood Village is an exclusive sub-division of Denver located on the northern edge of Arapahoe County. It contains luxury housing, luxury shopping and a luxury office park. Its open spaces are green and rolling with trees, ponds, streams, and sculpture dotting the hills. The buildings are modern, fasionable, and
expensive-looking. There is a very real sense of wealth and power in the expansive luxury of Greenwood Village.
Program


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SITE DI5CRIPTI0N
The site for the GREENWOOD VILLAGE FITNESS CENTER is located south of Denver, about 1/2 mile west of 1-25 on Orchard Road. It lies within the boundaries of the Greenwood Village Town Center. The site is bounded on the south
by Orchard Rd., on the east by S. Quebec St. and on the
north and west by residential development.
The site is owned by the John Madden Co. At this time only
the 11 acres at the south-east corner of the site is to
be developed for the FITNESS CENTER. The north-west corner will eventually be developed into offices. A center strip of land, including the small drainage ditch and holding-pond at the south-west corner is to be landscaped and used as a PAR-COURSE (an outdoor exercise course) and a park for Greenwood Village.
The FITNESS CENTER parcel slopes down to the south and west. The highest point at present is about 5655 ft. and the lowest point is about 5605 ft.
The site has recently be used as a dump for land-fill. There are few trees existing, none of which are likely to remain. The site contours can like-wise be expected to change considerably.
Program


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SOIL CONDITIONS*
Extracted from a report on soil conditions by Fox & Assoc.,
Engineers.
STRATIGRAPHY
Three basic strata were encountered on the site: a) man-made fill; b) natural clay and sand overburden soils; and c) bedrock.
The man-made fill consists of sandy clay with some
construction rubble. It varies in thickness from 0 to 11 ft.
The native overburden soils are likewise of sandy clays.
They are not encountered where the bedrock is very near the surface.
Bedrock was encountered in ail test holes, from a ew inches below surface to 19 ft. below surface.
Groundwater was encountered from 7 ft. to 11 ft. below grade.
For extensive cuts in grade, blasting into the sandstone bedrock may be required.
FOUNDATIONS
It is recommended that structural loads for the building be supported by a drilled pier and grade beam foundation. Ail piers should be at least 15 ft. long and penetrate at least 5 ft. into medium hard bedrock.
LANDSCAPING
The final grade surrounding the building should hsve a
positive slope of 12 in. in 10 ft. (1:10) away from foundation walls.
Sprinkler systems should not be installed to water any closer than 5 ft. to foundation walls or exterior slabs.
Plantings next to the building should be watered by a drip irrigation system.
Native vegetation suggested next to building.
Program


FLOOD PLAIN INFORMATION
Greenwood Village Fitness Center Greenwood Village, Co.
Arapahoe County Little Dry Creek
The Little Dry Creek Flood Plain, known as the Greenwood Gulch in this area, flows south of Orchard Rd. through the middle of the Greenwood Village Office Park. At no point does the flood plain (for the 100 year flood) or the Creek itself reach north of Orchard Rd.. Therefore the site of the Greenwood Village Fitness Center is unaffected by the Little Dry Creek.
The small ditch and ponds which are presently on the site are for water retension only and are no part of a significant dra inage basin.
Flood Plain Info.


winds
DIRECTED LEATHER ATTA< J ^ DENVER /


20- SANITARY SEWE* ESM7 ----- (2199^84)
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SQUARE FOOTAGE SUMMARY
MAIN ENTRANCE/RECEPTION 650 S.F.
Reception/Seating Control Desk Pro Shop 200 s.f. 150 s.f. 300 s.f.
CLUB ADMINISTRATION 2075 S.F
Sales Offices (5& 150 s.f.) Sales Presentation Room Closing Room Accounting/Bookkeeping (5 h Suppiy/Computor/Xerox Director and Receptionist Storage 750 s.f. 200 s.f. 150 s.f. 75 s.f ) 375 s.f. 200 s.f. 300 s.f. 100 s.f.
NURSERY 600 S.F.
Play Area Office Toilets (2 a 20 s.f.) 480 s.f. 80 s.f. 40 s.f.
WELLNESS CENTER 5920 S.F
Business Office Pals Offices Samaritans Clinic Sports Med. 1000 s.f. 320 s.f. 820 s.f. 2820 s.f. 960 s.f.
RESTAURANT/BAR 1700 S.F
Dining Area (60 seats) Bar/Lounge (30 seats) Toilets (2 a 80 s.f.) 1000 s.f. 540 s.f. 160 s.f.
KITCHEN 1660 S.F
Kitchen/Dishwashing Toilets (2 a 30 s.f.) 1600 s.f. 60 s.f.
ATHLETIC DIRECTORS/ASSISTANTS 450 S.F.
Offices (2 b 150 s.f.) Staff Rest/Change 300 s.f. 150 s.f.
LAUNDRY 550 S.F.
Office Laundry 200 s.f. 350 s.f.
Program


ADULT LOCKER ROOMS 9280 S.F. (2 x 4640 s.f.)
Locker Area Lounge Vanity Showers Toilets Sauna Area 2640 s.f. 200 s.f. 150 s.f. 410 s.f. 200 s.f. 1040 s.f.
HIGH SCHOOL LOCKER ROOMS 1720 S.F. (2 x 860 s.f.)
Locker Area Vanity Showers Toilets 360 s.f. 150 s.f. 200 s.f. 150 s.f.
SWIMMING POOL 10,000 S.F.
Pool Water Area 5 ft. Apron Dry Training Area Office Storage Pool Water Services 4575 s.f. 1539 s.f. 500 s.f. 100 s.f. 500 s.f. 2745 s.f.
GYMNASIUM 8780 S.F.
Basketball Court 10 ft. Apron/Running Track Storage/Of fice 4700 s.f. 3280 s.f. 800 s.f.
SQUASH COURTS (3) 1776 S.F.
RACQUETBALL COURTS (6) 4800 S.F.
WEIGHT TRAINING 3000 S.F.
AEROBIC ROOM 4000 S.F.
CARDIOVASCULAR ROOM 300 S.F.
Exercise Room Cardiologists Office 200 s.f. 100 s.f.
TOTAL NET SQUARE FOOTAGE NET to GROSS FACTOR GROSS SQUARE FOOTAGE 57,260 S.F x 1.25 71,572 S.F.
Program


PROGRAM
ADJACENCY LEGEND
1A = Direct, physical contact.
2A = Close, obvious relationship.
3A = Some relationship helpful but not crucial.
Program


MAIN ENTRANCE/ RECEIPT ION
AREA* 650 5.F.
Spaces consist of:
RECEPTION/SEATING 200 5.F.
CONTROL DESK 150 S.F.
PRO SHOP 300 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to ADMINISTRATION AREA 1A to WELLNESS CENTER 1A to NURSERY 2A to DINING AREA 2A to SPORTS AREAS
OPERATIONS
Open during aii times.
Information, "traffic director", members check-in.
Activity Registration.
Must be centrally located at ENTRANCE.
PRO SHOP sells small sports items, swim suits, running shoes, shorts, ect.
EQUIPMENT
CONTROL DESK to have menbership files. CRT, phone, intercom to all areas. Seating in LOUNGE from 25 people.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest guaiity.
Luxurious finishes, colorful, textured.
Warm and welcoming.
Lighting: 300 lux in seating area, down-1ighting.
500 lux at CONTROL DESK, down-1ighting.
Program




CLUB ADMINIST R A T I 0 N
AREA*
Spaces consist of:
SALES OFFICES (5 h 150 S.F.) SALES PRESENTATION ROOM CLOSING ROOM
ACCOUNTING/BOOKKEEPING (5 a
SUPPLY/COMPUTOR/XEROX DIRECTOR AND RECEPTIONIST STORAGE
ADJACENCIES
2075 S.F.
750 S.F. 200 S.F. 150 S.F.
S.F. ) 375 S.F. 200 S.F. 300 S.F. 100 S.F .
1A to ENTRANCE LOBBY 3A to SPORTS AREAS
OPERATIONS
Sales, memberships, billing, records, marketing.
Computor and accounting area could be shared with WELLNESS CENTER .
Area should be accessable by public via CONTROL DESK but also closable during late FITNESS HOURS.
Open 8-5, M-F.
Receptionist should be at the entrance to ADMINISTRATION AREA.
EQUIPMENT
Standard office desks and chairs for 5 people.
Phones, CRTS, filing cabinets.
Executive type desks and chairs for 5 SALES OFFICES, CLOSING ROOM, and DIRECTOR.
Small couches in these rooms.
Book shelves in each SALES, CLOSING and DIRECTOR ROOMS. Computor in air conditioned room (80 s.f.)
Xerox, terminals, supply storage File room
Rear-screen projection in PRESENTATION ROOM, chairs for 10-15 people.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
SALES OFFICES, SALES PRESENTATION, CLOSING, RECEPTIONIST and DIRECTOR AREAS to be highest quality.
Colorful, textured, warm, rich-1ooking.
Exterior windows on SALES OFFICES, CLOSING and DIRECTOR. Accounting, computor, storage, to have modular furniture. Colorful, bright.
Lighting: ACCOUNTING OFFICES: 1000 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
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SALES OFFICES: 500 lux, warm-white fluorescent, wall washes.
PRESENTATION: 300 lux on reostat, down-1ighting
plus
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SPORTS AREAS


NURSERY
AREA 600 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to FITNESS CENTER ENTRANCE IA to EXTERIOR PLAY AREA
OPERATIONS
Leased out.
Supervision for small children for a couple hours only. Small OFFICE (80 s.f.) and two TOILETS (20 s.f. ea.)
EQUIPMENT
All supplied by leasee.
Storage closets.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Robust, wear-resistant surfaces.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 300 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
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NURSERY


CLASSROOM
AREA
750 s.r.
ADJACENCIES
IA to FITNESS CENTER LOBBY 3A to SAMARITAN CENTER 3A to WELLNESS CENTER
OPERATIONS
Must be accessabie to FITNESS CENTER and SAMARITANS when CLINIC is closed.
Shared by whole acility for seminars and conferences. Should be dividable or smaller meeting.
EQUIPMENT
Countertop with sink and storage.
Seats for 50-75 people.
Chalk boards.
Movie Screen Storage.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Wear-resistant finishes.
Carpeted.
Lighting: 300 lux max., variable lighting with warm-white fluorescent and incandescent downlights on reostat.
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FITNESS CENTER LOBBY
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WELLNESS CENTER ENTRANCE
AREA*
30A S.F.
Spaces consist of: RECEPTION DESK OFFICE WAITING
80 S.F. 80 S.F. 144 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
IA to ENTRANCE LOBBY of FITNESS CENTER 2A to SAMARITAN CENTER 2A to INTERIOR WAITING/CLINIC AREAS 3A to PALS OFFICES 3A to BUSINESS OFFICES
OPERATIONS
The ENTRANCE AREA must be closable during hours when CLINIC is closed but FITNESS CENTER is open. It must, however have provision for staying open for the SAMARITAN CENTER'S extended hours.
Open 8-5 M-F for CLINIC, 8-7 T,T H. for SAMARITANS and 8-5 SATS. for SAMARITANS.
EQUIPMENT
See following sheets for individual spaces.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
The ENTRANCE AREA must give a sense of welcome, friendliness hospitality and luxury.
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ENTRANCE LOBBY
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FITNESS CENTER


RECEPTION DESK
AREA 80 5.E.
ADJACENCIES

IA to OFFICE 2A to WAITING
OPERATIONS
Provide information for WELLNESS CENTER and for FITNESS CENTER on request.
Distribute admission forms and questionairs for WELLNESS CENTER.
Announce patient arrivals to various staff personel inside. Make appointments by phone and in person.
1 full-time receptionist, I part-time (not to coincide)
EQUIPMENT
Large counter.
T eiephone.
Intercom.
CRT .
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest quality materials.
Colorful, texured surfaces.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 500 lux, warm spot-1ighting.
Program


OFFICE


OFFICE
AREA
ADJACENCIES
1A to RECEPTION DESK OPERATIONS
Create files for new patients. Stores and up-dates existing files. 1 sectretary.
EQUIPMENT
File cabinets.
Desk.
Chair.
Intercom.
T elephone.
CRT.
Closet space for coats, ect.
AMBIENT ACUITIES
Standard Office quality.
Carpeted.
Lighting: 1000 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
80 S.F.
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RECEPTION DESK


WAITING
AREA 144 5.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to RECEPTION DESK/OFFICE OPERATIONS
Hold patients for SAMARITAN CENTER, PALS, and CLINIC before their appointments. Short turn-over time.
Pamphlets available for various services in the whole complex.
Writing area for questionairs.
Seating for approx. 15 people.
EQUIPMENT
Sofas for 15 people.
Coffee tables for brosures and writing.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest quality materials.
Colorful, texured surfaces.
Friendly and warm.
Carpeted.
Lighting: 300-500 lux, down-1ighting over seating and wall washes.
Program




WELLNESS CENTER BUSINE5S OFFICE
AREA
ADJACENCIES
3A to WELLNESS CENTER 2A to FITNESS CENTER
OPERATIONS
Space could be shared with FITNESS CENTER OFFICE. Accounting and billing.
4 employees for WELLNESS CENTER.
EQUIPMENT
Air-conditioned computor room (80 s.f.)
Office machines (typewriters, CRT'S, xerox, ect.) 4 desks and chairs.
File cabinets.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard office quality.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 1500 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
1000 S.F.
P rogram


WELLNESS CENTER BUSINESS OFFICE
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PALS
(PERSONSLIZED AEROBIC LIFE-STYLE)
AREA*
320 S.F
Spaces consist of: 2 OFFICES h 1 OFFICE h
80 S.F. ea. 160 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
3A to CLINIC ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 2A to WELLNESS CENTER RECEPTION
OPERATIONS
Primarily office work, some visitors for individual counseling.
1 OFFICE for director (80 s.f.)
1 OFFICE for secretary (80 s.f)
1 OFFICE for 2-3 employees (160 s.f.)
4-5 staff members.
Open only during CLINIC hours (8-5, M-F)
EQUIPMENT
Desks, chairs.
Phones.
CRT
Storage (file cabinets)
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard office guality.
Carpet ing.
Lighting: 1000-1500 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
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SAMARITAN CENTER
AREA*
(III*
KTCTO 5 F
Spaces consist of: 1 OFFICE a A OFFICE b 1 STORAGE ROOM a
168 S.F.
144 S.F. ea. 72 S.F
ADJACENCIES
2A to ENTRANCE AREA (RECEPTION DESK/WA ITING)
3A to CLASSROOM.
OPERATIONS
RECEPTION and WAITING facilities to be shared with CLINIC. CLASSROOM to be shared with CLINIC and FITNESS CENTER.
Area sub-leased to SAMARITANS.
Training of new staff takes place along with counseling of patients.
"One-way" mirror access from storage room into 0FFICE5. Hourly turn-over, 7-8 people per hour.
Some extended hours: 8-5 M,W,F,SAT., 8-7 T,TH.
5 staff members and some interns.
EQUIPMENT
Desks and chairs.
Sofas in counseling rooms.
Storage in each (bookshelves)
File cabinets in SECRETARIES OFFICE.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Rooms must seem open and light.
Exterior windows and/or skylights desirable.
Counseling rooms with delux office guaiity.
Secretary with standard office guaiity.
Sofas comfortable and relaxing.
Carpet, wail coverings: muted, warm, friendly.
Lighting: 300-1000 lux, variable, warm, down-lighting and
task lighting
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CLASSROOM


INTERIOR WAITING
AREA 200 5.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to LOCKER ROOMS
2A to CLINIC AREA (DOCTORS OFFICES and EXAM ROOMS)
2A to WORK STATION.
Central interior location preferable.
OPERATIONS
Clinic patients return to this area repeatedly through-out the exam period ( lasting up to 6 or 8 hours)
Writing space must be provided for guestionairs to be filled out.
Area somewhat private since patients sitting in robes. EQUIPMENT
Sofas for 15 persons.
Tables for writing.
Magazine and newspaper storage.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Very comfortable, luxurious, sofas.
Colorful, friendly, textured surfaces.
Windows to private court-yard or skylights desirable. Carpeting.
Lighting: 500 lux, warm down-1ighting and wall washes.
P rogram


LOCKER ROOMS


WELLNESS CENTER LOCKER ROOMS
AREA*
Spaces consist of:
1 MENS LOCKER ROOM 150 S.F.
1 WOMENS LOCKER ROOM 150 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to INTERIOR WAITING AREA 2A to ENTRANCE
OPERATIONS
Primarily a changing room before and after exams also available.
Bathrobes provided.
Space for 9 people each room.
EQUIPMENT
9 lockers each room (full-length)
2 showers each.
2 sinks each.
2 toilets each.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Delux quality.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 200 lux, warm-white fluorescent, plus lighting around mirrors.
300 S.F .
. Showering
indirect
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INTERIOR WAITING AREA
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WORK STATION
AREA
140 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to BLOOD LAB 2A to LOUNGE 2A to INTERIOR WAITING 2A to DOCTOR'S OFFICES 2A to EXAM ROOMS
OPERATIONS
WORK STATION for technician.
Temporary file storage.
Patient inquiries.
EQUIPMENT
Counter.
Storage.
CRT.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Delux quality.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 500 lux, warm-white fluorescent, plus task lighting .
Program




BLOOD LAB/UTILITY
AREA
ADJACENCIES
2A to WORK STATION OPERATIONS
Analysis of blood samples Storage of samples (refrigerated)
EQUIPMENT
Multiple channel analyzer (see diag.) Blood count unit (see diag.) Centrifuge (see diag.)
Refrigerator.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard hospital quality.
Tiled floor.
Lighting: 500 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
80 S.F.
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WORK STATION


LOUNGE
AREA
ADJACENCIES
2A to WORK STATION
3A to DOCTOR'S OFFICES, EXAM ROOMS Needs to be secluded from activity.
OPERATIONS
Place or lunch and breaks. Storage for lunches and coats.
EQUIPMENT
Dining table and chairs.
Small refrigerator.
Small counter with sink.
Closet.
Exterior view desirable. AMBIENT FACILITIES
Warm, friendly atmosphere.
Wear-resistant guaiity.
Carpeting
Lighting: 300 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
100 S.F.
Program



CLINIC AREA


CLINIC STAFF OFFICES
AREA*
620 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
1 large OFFICE for director 120 S.F.
5 standard OFFICES for doctors and secretary
100 S.F. ea.
ADJACENCIES
2A to EXAM ROOMS 2A to INTERIOR WAITING 2A to WORK STATION
OPERATIONS
Doctors to share OFFICE spaces with each other.
Doctors work only part-time and therefore not permanent occupants of an OFFICE.
Patients confer with doctors before and after exams. EQUIPMENT
Desk and chair each OFFICE
Arm chair for patient each OFFICE
Book shelves.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Delux quality.
Warm, friendly atmosphere.
Carpeting
Lighting: 500 lux, warm-white fluorescent and task lighting.
P rogram




EXAM ROOMS
AREA*
Spaces consist of:
1 STRESS TEST ROOM b 1 STRESS TEST ROOM b 1 SIGMOID ROOM with TOILET b 3 EXAM ROOMS a
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660 S.F.
144 S.F.
192 S.F.
120 S.F.
100 S.F. ea.
ADJACENCIES
2A to DOCTORS OFFICES. 2A to WORK STATION 2A to INTERIOR WAITING
OPERATIONS
Various swquentiai tests performed on patients, (see accomp. descriptions )
Each room accomodating several tests.
EQUIPMENT
See 8ccomp. diags. for examples of medical equipment.
Small STRESS ROOM houses one treadmill.
Large STRESS ROOM houses two treadmills.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Both STRESS ROOMS need windows to exterior to relieve tedium of test.
All Rooms must be roomy and "open" feeling.
Delux quality finishes.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 300 lux, warm-white fluorescent, plus special task lighting as necessary.
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X-RAY ROOM
AREA
ADJACENCIES
2 A to SPORTS MEDICINE
2 A to CLINIC AREA
OPERATIONS
Used by both SPORTS MED. and CLINIC AREAS.
Chest , extremities and mammography only .
Film storage and darkroom included (25 s.f.
EQUIPMENT
70mm x-ray unit (see diag.) or standard x-ray unit Developer.
Mammograghy unit (see diag.)
Exam table.
Heat exhaust fan.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard hospital guality.
Lighting: 100 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
320 S.F.
Program




SPORTS MEDICINE
AREA'*
960 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
1 MEDICAL OFFICE a 80 S.F.
1 STORAGE ROOM h 80 S.F.
TREATMENT CUBICLES/REHAB. h 800 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to WELLNESS CENTER CLINIC
2 A to EXTERIOR ENTRANCE/RECEPTI 0N/WA ITING IA to LOCKER ROOMS
LOCKER ROOM 1A to HYDROTHERAPY AREA (wet)
OPERATIONS
Two major treatment areas: wet and dry.
Hydrotherapy should be separable from dry area.
Possible door to exterior exercise area.
Caters to anyone with a sports related injury.
Shares WAITING space and X-RAY facilities with the WELLNESS CENTER.
Toilets accessable for patients and staff.
EQUIPMENT
Treatment cubicles (3) must have curtain tracks for privacy. Treatment table with drawers and/or shelves.
Counter with storage, and sink h each TREATMENT CUBICLE.
One CASTING CUBICLE with counter and cast sink.
Whirlpool for arm, foot, hip and leg.
Adjustable chair, table and stool for whirlpool.
Linen and towel storage.
Wringer and dryer for bathing suits.
Storage for wet and dry bathing suits.
2 leg tanks.
Hot pack machine.
2 treadmill booths (8 ft.x 8 ft.)
OFFICE to have space for files, desk and 2 chairs.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Wet area provided with floor of unglazed ceramic tile. Carpeting in dry area.
Ceiling height of 9'-6" min.
Windows only if privacy is maintained (not recommended) Sturdy, easily cleanable surfaces.
Sound absorbent surfaces.
Lighting: 500 lux min., indirect, non-glare, warm-white f iuorescent.
Program


LOCKER ROOMS


Anthropomotry
At this station, the screenee s height, weight, end temperature will be measured end recorded. Various other body measurements may be taken at this time for anthropometries! research projects. A skinfold thickness test (subscapular and triceps) is performed to determine the degree of obesity. (See Fig. 1.)
Vision --------------------------------_
The screenee may be examined for visual acuity with a Snellen chart or various types of stereoscopic screening devices may be used to test for fusion, acuity level, color and binocular vision, thus eliminating the need for a Snelien chart. (See Fig. 2 )
After receiving proparacain HCI eye drops ot a similar medication as a topical anesthetic, he is tested for glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, by means of a tonometer. If the electronic tonometer is used, no drops are needed.
He is prepared for retinal photography with phenylephrine HCI or similar drops in one eye 20 minutes before the test to dilate the pupil-
If photography is not used, he may be examined with an ophthalmoscope; however, this requires trained personnel.
Retinal Photo
A fundus camera i6 used to take a 35 mm photograph of the retina 20 minutes after mydriatic eye drops are instilled to detect any pathology (e.g.. disc changes, retinal arteriosclerosis. hypertensive angiopathy, diabetic retinopathy, etc.). Depending on the type and strength of mydriatic drops used, the 20-minute limit mBy be exceeded. (See Fig. 3.)
Rearing- ~--------------------------I
Hearing perception is tested through measurement of tone thresholds. Various frequencies are tested using increasing and decreasing tone volumes Audiometric testing may be primarily self-administered by means of a special audiometer. Quality of the earphones is more important than the degree of soundproofing. (See Fig 4.)
Fig. 1 (a) Scale with measuring rod. (b) Electronic
thermometer skinioid calipers.
Fig. 2 (a) Vision tester, (b) Electronic tonometer.
Fig. 3 (a) Fundus camera, (b) Portable fundus camera.
Glucose Ingestion
The screenee is given a 75 gm glucose medium to ingest. This may be dispensed in bottles or in a refrigerated carbonated beverage unit. The time of administration is recorded on the appropriate card. At the end of one hour (determined by the screening unit), a blood sample will be drawn and tested for glucose. Testing exactly on the predetermined hour is vital to _this test's accuracy. -
Besides diabetes, numerous latent conditions may result in abnormal glucose levels
. Fig. 4
Audiometer.


Electrocardiogram An electrocardiogram is taken to detect abnormal cardiac rhythm, con* duction disturbances, myocardial damage, coronary insufficiency, and other conditions which alter the normal electrics! activity of the heart The most common method of electrocardiography in this country today employs twelve leads (I, II, III, |VR, aVL, sVF, VI, V2, V3, V4. V5. V6). taken sequentially. An EKG may also be recorded using a single oblique chest electrode. Cady has described a method by which he determined that the "ordered importance of standard electrocardiographic leads were leads V6, V2, and III. An EKG chair has been developed, but it is not yet in production. It consists of an eiectrocardio-graph and an ordinary artificial leather reclining chair with lithium chloride impregnated electrodes. (See Fig. fi +- -
Cardiopulmonary
Vital Signs The screenee lies down on an examining table where his pulse, respiratory rate, and blood pressure are checked and recorded. With the monitor shown, temperature may also be taken. Modular monitoring equipment is available which measures and digitally displays vital signs, including the respiratory rate.
Graded Exercise Tolerance EKG A preliminary EKG is recorded. If this is normal and there is no prior history of significant myocardial damage or ischemia, an exercise EKG may be performed to help detect coronary insufficiency. This should not be done without a physician present because of complications that could arise in performing such a test on older patients and members of other high-risk groups.
tc) Id)
Fig 6 () Monitor (B/P. palse. temperature, |b> Electrocardiograph I connectable to computer vie phone! (c) EKS
table, (d) EKE chair.
Tw
Fig. 8 (a) Spirometer (portable), (b) Spirometer (connectable to computer).
Spirometry The ecreenee is shown how to use the spirometer (or vitalometer) to determine lung capacity. He exhales into the disposable mouthpiece of a vitalometer tube or into the large double-lumen catheter of a spirometer. The amount of exhaled air and the flow rate indicate the degree of respiratory impairment. A more basic test consists of measuring the screenee's chest circumference before and after inhalation. If inhalation does not increase the dimension properly for age and sex. there is tome degree of respiratory impairment. (See Fig. 8.) __________________
X-Ray
Chest A 70-mm posterior-anterior chest x-ray is performed to determine pulmonary, cardiac, or neoplastic conditions High speed processors currently on the market can be used to develop films in approximately 90 seconds. If 70-mm x-ray is used, a radiologist familiar with such films must be used for their inter-pretation. (See Fig. 9.) ________
!___________________________________
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Fig. 9 () X-ray unit (70 mm), (b) Developer (70 mm).


Fist Pint* of Abdomen A flat plate x-ray ^nay be taken to visualize my abdominal pathology. (See Fig 10.) ____ '
Fiq 10 (a) X-ray unit (14 by 17 in.), (b) X-ray cassene
holder (14 by 17 in.), (c) Developer (rapid process
Mammography Various x-ray views are taken of each breast to visualize neoplastic conditions in menopausal women. (See Fig t > )
Laboratory lasts
Blood Blood chemistry tests can be performed by means of automated multichannel analyzers using a minimum of sample Techniques such as automatic reagent addition to sample, synchronous flow techniques, reagent-sample mixing by centrifugal force, time-controlled incubations in self-enclosed plastic packages containing chemical reagents, end automatic presentation of sample plus reagents to a colorimeter or spectrophotometer are all available at the current state of the art. Automatic sample blanks and removal of protein or other interfering substances by dialysis can also be accomplished. There are a large number and variety of clinical tests available in different combinations and these comprise almost all of the commonly requested chemical parameters. All multichannel devices currently available possess the capability of interfacing to computers either directly or indirectly (paper or magnetic tape, data cards, etc.) and independently produce bar chart or printed output.
CBC (complete blood count) -end STS (serological test for syphilis) should be done on all specimens Automated equipment is available for both of these tests. The blood sample may also be checked for the presence of the rheumatoid factor (indicative of rheumatoid arthritis) by means of latex fixation test. (See Fig
14) ______________- ~
Urinalysis The urine specimen is obtained in the unit. Toilet facilities may be provided near the lab. It should be tested for color, specific: gravity, pH, sugar, albumin, acetone, end/ bacteria. ____J
Fig 14
(<) Compact imittipio china.' ooolyzof. (b; Blooc count unit (c) Coouitugn.
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g.
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Fig. IS Microscope.
Fig. IS Jot iotoctot.


i
Tap Smear
Pap smear* to detact cervical cancer may be
done on all married women, single women over 21, those who have been pregnant, and those under 21 who have proper consent The escep-tions are those in the last trimester of pregnancy Disposable vaginal specula are available (See Fig Md.\ ----
Proctoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy
Examination of the rectum and the sigmoid (lower portion of the descending colon) by means of a lighted instrument (scope) may be done to detect polyps or cancerous lesions Disposable sigmoidoscopes are now available which eliminate the need for autoclaving or sterilization (Sea Fig. Mf.)
Achilleomfltrv
Achilles Reflex This is a fast to detect hypothyroidism. The scieenee places one knee on e chair or stool with his foot and ankle extending over the edge. His Achilles tendon is struck with a percussion hammer. The reflex action (plantar reflex and extension) is similar to that of the knee jerk It is exaggerated in upper motor neuron disease and absent in lower motor neuron disease. A photomotoaraph may be used to record the test results. (See Fig, 18.) ________________________________________"
Pressure Tolerance This test is performed on the Achilles tendon to determine the pain threshold of each mcreenee in order to test for neurological damage (See Fia 19.)
w id
Tip. 17 {) Examination light. |b) Examination table. |c) Stool, (d) Vapinal inoculum, la) Examination table (f)
Proctoscopes, sigmoidoscopes, battery box for light.
Basic Test Sequences
Basic patient flow charts ere represented in Fig. 21a and b. The individual health evaluation tests are grouped according to the ease and convenience of administering each one. and according to equipment size and/or similarity. Functional body systems were given only secondary consideration where grouping of tests was concerned Each testing group is referred to as a phase, with different numbers of phases comprising a complete data collection sequence. Testing sequence was determined by convenience of arrangement and by t required time intervals between phases, e.g.J 20 minutes between instilling mydristic drops, and taking the retinal photograph. Phases) which are heavily outlined are those whose, position in the data collection sequence may! not be altered because of critical interdepen- \ dence with another phase. All other phases may be rearranged as long as the number of phases between those marked ai invariable remains constant. (See Fia. 22.) -----
Test Durations
Individual test durations have been estimated After consulting the USPHS, staff members of operational multiphasic screening units, nursing personnel, and medical literature, the following list of assumed times was compiled Actual times will vary depending on factors such as th* type of screenee. staffing pattern, and type of equipment used.
Entrance and esit for the screenee* are combined, but the unit provides a separate personnel entrance. The health evaluation process consists of 18 phases Characteristics of this junit are the separate corridors for men and women and many aaparata screening stations to use during those teats which require their wearing disposable gowns. Aftar these tests they will undergo the remainder of the test sequence together. The unit also contains s consultation room (See Fig 23.)
Fig. 18 Achilles reflex meter.
Fig. 19 Pressure tolerance set.
Assumed Time, minutes
Achilleometry.................
Audiometry....................
_pental exam...................
Dressing .....................
EKG. B/P, P, R .............
Glucose ......................
Health education..............
Height, weight................
Immunization..................
Medical history...............
Mydriatic drops (instillation) .
Pep smea' ....................
Phonocardiogram...............
Proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy Psychological Questionnaire
Registration..................
Retinal photography
Skinfold......................
Spiromatry....................
Tamperatura...................
Thermography..................
Toncmatry ..................
Urine specimen................
Venipuncture..................
Viaion........................
X-ray (chest).................
X-ray (dental)................
4
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24
3- 4 4
24
2
4- 5 4
12
24
4-5
4-5
1-2
4
1- 4 12
2
2- 4 4
1
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RESTAURANT/BAR
AREA*
1700 S.F.
*Spaces consist of:
DINING AREA (60 seats) 1000 S.F.
BAR/LOUNGE (30 seats) 540 S.F.
2 TOILET ROOMS (3 toilets ea.)
80 s.f. ea.
ADJACENCIES
1A to KITCHEN 1A to PATIO
2A to FITNESS CENTER LOBBY
3A to POOL and GYM (possibly over-looking them) 3A to SAUNA (via dumb-waiter to LOUNGE)
OPERATIONS
Must be at the "heart of the CENTER.
Must be visible from ENTRANCE HALL.
Toilets adjacent to DINING AREA.
Serves healthy food (not "health food"), beverages, beers and wine.
Bar might serve sandwiches when RESTAURANT closed.
Some snack service possible to SAUNA LOUNGE.
Outside seating with views to lake and mountains (southern exposure)
DINING to seat 60 persons.
BAR to seat 30 persons.
See accompaning diags. for possible table and aisle lay-outs. EQUIPMENT
To be furnished by leasee.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Comfortable, relaxing atmosphere.
Casual, but elegant.
Open, spacious feeling.
Warm, texured surfaces.
Carpeting.
Lighting: 100-150 lux, ambient down-1ighting .
Program


POOL & GYM


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Restaurant Seating
MmiIII WwtieH
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Scat groupings around rectangular and circular tables.
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Fig. 7 banquette seating arrangements and limiting dimensions including space for access and service.
Fred Lawton, Restauranf Pfenning ond Design, The Architectural Frett, ltd., London, 1973.
759


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LIMITS OF AISLE
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
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KITCHEN
AREA*
1660 S.F
Spaces consist of:
KITCHEN 1600 S.F.
2 TOILET ROOMS (30 S.F. ea) 60 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to DINING/BAR
IA to exterior DELIVERY and TRASH AREA in rear of building OPERATIONS
Primarily fresh food service, some prepared.
Daily fresh deliveries, requiring small storage.
See accompaning diags. for possible kitchen lay-outs.
EQUIPMENT
To be furnished by leasee.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Robust, washable surfaces.
Non-slip flooring.
Ventilation of 20 fresh air changes per hour. Ventilation hoods over all cooking apparatus. Lighting: 500-700 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
Program


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KITCHEN


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ATHLETIC DIRECT0R5/AS5I5TANTS
AREA*
450 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
2 OFFICES (fc 150 S.F. ea.) 300 S.F. 1 STAFF REST/CHANGE AREA 150 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to SPORTS AREAS OPERATIONS
Coordinate activities.
Located away from SPORTS AREAS themselves for privacy. REST/CHANGING AREA for meals, showers and storing belongings.
EQUIPMENT
2 desks, 3 chairs per office.
File cabinets in each.
Bookshelves in each.
Phones, CRTS.
Shower, toilet, sink, 10 lockers in CHANGE AREA.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard office guality.
Wear-resistant finishes.
Carpeting in OFFICES, LOUNGE.
Lighting: 1000 lux in OFFICES, warm-white fluorescent.
500 lux in LOUNGE, warm-white fluorescent.
200 lux in LOCKER ROOM, warm-white fluorescent.
Program




LAUNDRY
AREA*
550 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
OFFICE 200 S.F.
LAUNDRY 350 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to POOL
1A to LOCKER ROOMS
2A to DRY SPORT AREAS
OPERATIONS
Washing 8nd drying of towels, robes for entire CENTER. Storage of clean items in OFFICE.
Clean items distributed through out CENTER. Distribution of towels directly to LOCKER ROOMS. Shampoos, soaps ect. also available at counter.
EQUIPMENT
Storage for clean items (lockable cabinets)
Large capacity washers and dryers.
Folding area .
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Robust, water-resistant surfaces.
Non-slip flooring.
Lighting: 300 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
Program


I
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FOOL
DRY SPORT AREAS


ADULT LOCKER ROOMS
(1 or Men, 1 for Women)
AREA*
4640 S.F.EA
Spaces consist of: LOCKER AREA (1125 KIT
LOUNGE
VANITY
22 SHOWERS (1/2 gang,
8 TOILETS/LAVATORIES SAUNA AREA
LOCKERS, 225 DRESSING LOCKERS) 2640 S.F.
200 S.F.
150 S.F.
1/2 stalls)
410 S.F.
200 S.F.
1040 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to POOL (shallow end)
2A to GYM, RUNNING TRACK, COURTS. 3A to AEROBIC ROOM, WEIGHT ROOM 3A to FITNESS CENTER LOBBY
OPERATIONS
All LOCKER ROOMS grouped together.
Each LOCKER ROOM divided into a dry corridor and a wet corridor.
LOCKER ROOMS must be on same level as POOL.
HIGH SCHOOL LOCKER ROOMS separate from ADULT LOCKERS. Access to POOL via LOCKER ROOMS only.
EQUIPMENT
See following sheets for individual spaces.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest guality.
Very durable, robust finishes.
Corrosion resistant.
Washable
Lighting: see each area for specific info.
Program


POOL


HIGH SCHOOL LOCKER ROOMS
(I for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA*
*Spaces consist of:
LOCKER AREA (150 KIT LOCKERS, 30 DRESSING)
360 S.F.
VANITY 150 S.F.
10 SHOWERS (1/2 gang, 1/2 stall)
200 S.F.
6 TOILETS/LAVATORIES 150 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
Same as for ADULT LOCKER ROOMS OPERATIONS
Same as for ADULT LOCKER ROOMS, except:
No access to SAUNA AREA
EQUIPMENT
Same as for ADULT LOCKER ROOMS.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Same as for ADULT LOCKER ROOMS.
860 S.F.
Program




LOCKER AREA
(1 for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA 2640 5.E.
ADJACENCIES
1A to LOCKER ROOM ENTRY (dry corridor) IA to PRECLEANSE AREA (wet corridor)
2A to GYM, RUNNING TRACK, COURTS.
3A to AEROBIC ROOM, WEIGHT ROOM 1A to LOUNGE IA to VANITY
OPERATIONS
Best locker arrangement is in bays.
Max. number of lockers in bay is 16.
For long bays with a single bench, make 3 ft. breaks in bench at 15 ft.
4 ft. circulation aisle at each end of bays.
Kit and dressing lockers mixed (5 kit to 1 dressing)
Fixed benches 16 in. high.
Lockers on raised base with 2"-4" ventilation space between backs.
1/2 of toilets located in dry toilet area.
For standard locker sizes see diag.
For aisle spacing see diag.
EQUIPMENT
Lockers with numbering system.
1125 kit lockers (in stacks of 3)
225 dressing dressing lockers
NOTE: different count in HIGH SCHOOL LOCKER ROOMS Hardwood benches.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest guaiity.
Walls and floors of sturdy, washable material.
Brick or tile-faced conrete block.
Non-slip flooring.
Carpeting possible strickly in dry corridor and LOUNGE AREAS. Lighting: 200 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
\
Program


\
\


LOUNGE
(1 for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA
ADJACENCIES
1A to LOCKER AREA
1A to DRY CORRIDOR
2A to LOCKER ROOM ENTRY
OPERATIONS
Waiting, relaxing area.
Snack vending (fruit juices)
Conference area.
Substantially partitioned from LOCKER AREA. EQUIPMENT
Drinking fountain.
Bulletin board.
Sofa.
Clock .
Full-length mirror.
Vending machines.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Durable, wear-resistant finishes.
Comfortable, relaxed atmosphere.
Carpeting .
Lighting: 100 lux, incandescent down-lighting.
200 S.F.
Program




VANITY
(I for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA 150 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
IA to LOCKER AREA
2A to LOCKER ROOM ENTRY
2A to PRECLEANSE (wet corridor)
OPERATIONS
Grooming after sports activities.
EQUIPMENT
All or most lavatories should be located here. Mirrors with back lighting above lavs.
Shelf below mirrors.
10 hair dryers (wall mount)
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Walls and floors of sturdy, washable material.
Brick or tile-faced concrete block.
Non-slip flooring.
Lighting: 200 lux general overhead, plus back-lighting
behind mirrors.
Program




PRECLEAN5E AREA
(1 for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA* 510 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
22 SHOWERS 410 S.F.
4 TOILETS 100 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to POOL (shallow end)
1A to TOWELING AREA 1A to LOCKER AREA 1A to SAUNA AREA 2A to DRY CORRIDOR
OPERATIONS
Everyone must pass through the showers on their way into the pool.
Wet TOILET should be located so that one must pass through the showers again to return to the POOL.
Toweling area for drying off.
Waste water could be run through a heat exchanger.
EQUIPMENT
Luxury eguipment
11 SHOWERS in stalls (3'-6" x 3'-6")
11 SHOWERS in gang formation (see accompaning diag. for spacing)
Vision barriers on all entrances.
Showers at shoulder height (see table)
4 TOILETS (1/2 urinals for Men)
AMBIENT FACILITIES
All surfaces, moisture resistant, washable.
Glazed ceramic tile recommened on all surfaces.
Non-slip flooring.
Lighting: 300 lux, corrosion resistant down-lighting.
Program


DRY CORRIDOR


SAUNA AREA
(1 for Men, 1 for Women)
AREA*
1040 S.F.
*5paces consist of:
JACUZZI
SAUNA
STEAM BATH
2 SUN ROOMS (80 S.F ea) MASSAGE ROOM
RESTING AREA/LOUNGE/OFFICE
160 S.F. 100 S.F. 180 S.F. 160 S.F 80 S.F. 360 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to PRECLEANSE AREA 2A to LOCKER AREA 3A to DRY CORRIDOR
OPERATIONS
One must shower before entering SAUNA AREA.
SAUNA AREA to be separate from all other areas.
Possible private exterior yard for sunning (or windows in LOUNGE opening out into yard)
See brosure from BADEN-BADEN for sauna seguence.
Snack service available from RESTAURANT/BAR via the SAUNA OFFICE.
LOUNGE also for sleeping.
EQUIPMENT
1 Jacuzzi with variable controls.
1 cedar-lined Sauna cabinet.
Sun-tanning benches in SUN ROOMS.
Massage table.
6 reclining lounges.
Blankets, towels, robes available in OFFICE.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Feeling of a self-sufficient facility. Highest guality finishes.
Generally robust and water resistant. Carpeting in LOUNGE.
Luxurious, relaxing atmosphere. Lighting: Variable.
Program


\
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* 4 4*
T 1 1 IT i 1 Z h
LINE or J a
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1 i I min Min
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PLAN
GROUP SHOWERS
There must be a sufficient number of shower heads Educational facilities with time constraints should have 10 shower heads for the first 30 persons and 1 shower head for every 4 additional persons In recreational facilities 1 shower head for each 10 dressing lockers is a minimum Temperature controls are necessary to keep water from exceeding 110F. Both individual and master controls are needed for group showers.
PLAN
INDIVIDUAL. SHOWERS AND DRESSING ROOMS
INDIVIDUAL ROOMS MINIMUM OPTIMUM
Showers 3-0" x 36" 3'-6 x 3'-6"
Dressing Rooms 3 -0" x 3 6 3-6" x 4 -0"
Plan
DRVING ROOM AND WET TOILET
The drying room should have about the same area the shower room. Provision for drainage should made Heavy duty towel rails, approximately 4 from the floor, are recommended. A toot drying led; 18 in. high and 8 in. wide as shown in the drawing desirable. An adjacent wet toilet is suggested. Avc curbs between drying room and adjacent space Xm tinww n riarrahk' ira.aaeh^i Size of area vanes w; material to be stored (can be used for distributi uniforms), with 200 sq ft usually being sufficient.
PLAN
AISLE SPACE FOR DRESSING ROOM
AISLE SPACE
A B c
Recreation 2-2" V 8" 3'-6"
School 2-6" 2'-6" 4 0"
Bench should be minimum 8 in. in width and 16 in. from the floor. Traffic breaks 3 ft minimum wide should occur at maximum intervals of 12 ft. Main traffic aisle to be wider for large number of locker bays. Avoid Thflt at Qn' rnrnPr__________________________
LOCKERS STANDARD SIZES
Width 9". 12", 15", 18" Depth 12", 15". 18" Height 60", 72" (overall)
RECOMMENDED MOUNTING HEIGHTS
Shower valve 4'-0"
Shower head
Men 6-6
Women 6-0"
Children 5'-0"
Hand dryer outlet
Men 3'-8"
Women 3'-6"
Teenagers 31"
Preteens 2-8"
Hair dryer outlet
Men 6 0"
Women 5 5"
Teenagers 5'-0"
Preteens 5'-O'
Clock 6' 6" n
Robe hook 6-3"
Towel bar 4-0"
Suggested locker and bench installation
H hen locker height is kept down to 54 in., entire room can be supervised. Sloping locker top cannot be used, but 4 in. ventilating space should be louvered.


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Wher. you walF down the broad stairway of the F ned nchsbad. aftef two wonder ful refaxmg hours in the .Roman-lnsh) Baths, you vmI tee as though you've been reborn
A delightful and health gvmg experience, unique throughout Europe in the form, for more than a century The most nchly trad bona! Baths r. BadervBaden
The elegant atmosphere of the Spas .belle 6poque* hn gers on in the neo-Renats sance style of this great .bathing palace*, dating from 1877, when crowned heads, leading lights, artists, philosophers and philanderers gathered in Europe's .Summer Capital*.
Marble, brass and stucco bring the intenor to We. Elegant columns, strikm^y arched ceilings beaubfuly decorated tiles, shovwng scenes of Wy-ponds with dudes, storks, herons, exotic parrots, graceful flowering branches
Even such functional equipment as showers and taps have been created artistically r. brass.
During 1980 and 1981, the Baths were painstakingly restored. While the most modem technology is now
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installed .behind the so nothing has beer, taken away from, the splendot the building. To the con tfie Fnednchsbad has once again become the tocakpoeit ofthe classic life of BadervBaden.
The atmosphere ei the ary entrance+Hl is pie sant the greeting at Re bon fnendfy Al around columns, frescoes, arch ways. One expects, afrn to see lades of high fas carrying whfte parasols appear, but at the Fried


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bad clothes make neither the mar nor the woman... bathing ts m the nude In the .Roman-tnsh Baths ladies and gentlemen go their separate ways. But at certain times, .mixed battung* is the rule Walk up the broad stairway to the first floor. Here men and women go to different but almost ideribcatty equipped wngs of the building. In the changing-rooms or in a comfortable single cabn, workaday Me is put away with our dothes, in the locker. From this point on, and for the next two hours, we be Irving in a drffererrt wrorld...
The bathing experience starts with a luxurious si wer followed by a warm bath. This dry, hot arr & no means uncamfortaM spite of its 129 F (54Q temper ature Resbng on wooden bench, the first quarter of an hour flies | Reading a newspaper, a a relaxed conversation i our neighbour It s only wher, wahong across thi room to the dnntong wa hxmtan that we reafese we were given sandals t wear, the tired floor is aI .warm 129 F.
The curtained-oft hot-air bath is next at around 3 (70 C). In this room pe rabon runs in rivulets, a the air is hot enough tc make us gasp
Another refreshing sho% and then the soap-arc brush massage Skilled hands knead, scrub anc massage us, from neck muscles down to our tc little brushing a lot of foam and any amoun physical well-being. The ceremony ends vwth tf* ditiooal .slap on the bci tom, and already we a> looking forward to the t time


With some expedience no*, ten minutes spent at 113 F (45 C) in Stearoftooffi \ isnt a problem although first-timers should be wary of the uppe ter of seats The steam is noticeably hot ter up there tnan at lower
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StearrvRoorri 2 is a few degrees hotter, ever. We move around as itfie as possible keeping, a carefui eye on the dock no longer than five minutes All the more pleasurable when we reach Station Nnc fci immersion in the Thermo Bath.
Here in small sunken marble tubs, with thar half round steps, /nixed bathers' meet, and enjoy, qute smpiy, perfect Deace. A fuC hour has slipped past...
Somewhat less peaceful is the Thermal-Spray-Bath which follows From numerable jets, water sprays and bubbles... pleasantly tide fcsh!
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the undisputed high-poi a Roman-Irish visit to ttn Fnednchsbad b the ana Exerase PooL Here we* an enjoyable round or h high above is the great i pda, supported on its si der columns, bunging k to this unique .batting palace, and giving the t tfcngs exterior its cnarac sbc domed sihouette.
For those who have the rage, and feel the need, .Roman-Irish expeneno ends with a plunge mo Catt-teter Pqql r% the freshwater pod in fie .Roman-insh Bath*. | But nobody's going to P you...


body, and assist the mets-boitan. Bkood cirailabon is sUrmnated the body is her-darnd Treatment of many aftnurib e speeded, espe-dafljr rheumatic, orcutation snus ovj some glandular
And those blessed witn per fed health? A couple of blissful hours and they leave nchsbad *flh a of physical already anticipating next visit to the Baths*.
Baden-Baden
Tounsm and Convention Centre
Roemerptatz 1 D-7570 Baden-Baden Telephone (07221) 275-1
: Comention CantTe 3ai
M D Volz
Mona Retmann. SchnRir Hwroductior Riegjer. Kjrtrn* Print Enfefriarrt & Bauer Karta/i*>' KKXJO/k'W


SWIMMING POOL
AREA*
10,000 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
POOL WATER AREA 4575 S.F.
5 FT. APRON AROUND POOL 1539 S.F
DRY TRAINING AREA
OFFICE
STORAGE
POOL WATER SERVICES
500 S.F.
100 S.F.
500 S.F.
(60% OF POOL WATER AREA) 2745 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
1A to WET CORRIDOR of LOCKER ROOMS 1A to exterior SUNNING AREA
2A to RESTAURANT (which might overlook POOL)
NO direct access to DRY AREAS (ie. GYM, WEIGHT TRAINING, RAQUETBALL ect.)
OPERATIONS
Pool size: 25m z 17m (8 lanes)
Interior lanes 2m ea., exterior lanes 2.5m ea.
See diag. for cross-section of POOL.
Pool surrounds at least 5 ft. (sloped 1:24)
DRY TRAINING AREA for stretching and warm-up.
See diag. for "in-ground" and "above-ground" pool construction.
Exterior access for chemical deliveries in PLANT ROOM. EQUIPMENT
Lane ropes.
Provisions for Water Polo.
Large timing clock.
Heated poolside seats (see diag.). Can be combined with hot air supply .
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Robust, washable surfaces on floor and to at least 5 ft. on walls.
Glazed ceramic tile or concrete block most typical.
Non-slip surface on floor.
Superstructure and finishes, see accompaning special information.
Ceiling and upper walls should provide areas for accoustic absorption. Special decay resistant materials necessary.
Lighting: 300 lux, natural plus artificial (see accompaning
diags. for dayiighting)
Large areas of glazing should be avoided due to
Program


unpleasant glare.
Blinds, louvres, overhangs and tinted glass can be used. Host effective is eye-level glazing with outside plantings for protection.
Roof skylights also effective but some shading necessary .
Program


I
RESTAURANT


1.2 Basic structural form
Inground pool
In 1, services are buried beneath the surround with manhole access points as required. In 2 a continuous service duct may be provided beneath the surround.
Above ground pool
The structure can be built completely (or partially) above tl ground for a variety of reasons, eg a high water table, po sub-soil bearing capacity or limited space. The meth< adopted depends on a thorough assessment of site cone tions.
3
2
1, 2 Typical pool profiles for in ground pools
3, 4 Typical pool profiles for above ground pools
3-8 Alternative air distribution systems for pool hall. Diagrams adapted from Building services for swimming pools by L. N. Dor,J. H. Gura and P. L. Martin, JIHVE, Volume 35, 1967, p 261


9-11 Natural lighting of pool halls. In 9 and 10 there is reflection on the water bur in 11 this is avoided. If rooflights face south, sunlight can enter the building giving life to the interior
3 Heated poolside seat. Photo: Cement and Concrete Association
4 Pool surround dimensions required for poolside seat
533 to 610


beams
2.1 Detailed design consideration
The two basic structural alternatives are shown in 7. Whatever material is chosen for the structural frame, the following factors will all be critical to a successful design:
Protection of the frame and its components from corrosion, decay or rot
Movement of the frame in relation to adjoining materials For ioadbearing structures consider the type, position and detailing of movement jointsthe surfaces of the joint should be flush with the adjoining surfaces. For framed structures consider how the frame will move in relation to other adjoining materials. Excessively warm air temperatures in the pool hall(s), pre-cleanse and changing areas may cause severe shrinkage particularly where structural timber members are built into a wall. Designers should make allowance in their detailing for such shrinkage cracking.
Services integration with the structural frame and rest of the building
The structural frame should allow for the proper integration of services. Designers should consider the loading of services and how the structure can be arranged to accommodate the larger size ducts and pipes. This is particularly important in the pool hall(s), pre-cleanse and changing areas, where warm air ducts could be positioned in the roof zone, whether concealed or exposed.
The Building Regulations 1976
Designers should consider Part E, Safety in Fire. Depending on the overall volume of the pool halls and the choice of materials for structure and adjoining surfaces, a DOE relaxation could be required.
Safety
Free standing and projecting columns or piers must be designed so that they do not provide a hazard, ie sharp corners must be avoided. Flush surfaces are preferred, 8.
7a shows a simple framed structure, the ancillary accommodation is shown as an extension to the main volume(s) and can be built as a framed structure or in loadbearing masonry. In many cases, the ancillary areas are housed within the overall structural frame and as such, would probably be built as non-loadbearing partitions
7b shows a simple loadbearing structure which in turn supports the roof
Details for points numbered in diagrams 7a, 7b:
1 Main structural frame including roof beams Design factors:
Protection of frame from corrosion, rot
Safetyfree standing and projecting columns can be a hazard Firesee appropriate building regulations Movement of frame in relation to adjoining materials Sennces integration
2 Walls Design factors:
Thermalheat loss, condensation and movement Hygieneinternally, ease of cleaninglack of dirt traps
Safetyinternal surfaces to be non-abrasive, avoid sharp edges
Structuralconsider loading of fittings, eg diving columns
Firesee appropriate building regulations
Services integration
Useheavy wear up to 2 m in height
Noiseconsider internal finishes above 2 m height
3 W'indows and door openings Design factors:
Protection against corrosion, rot
Thermalheat loss, condensation and movement
Hygieneease of cleaning
Firesee appropriate building regulations
4 Roof construction Design factors:
Protection of frame from corrosion, rot etc.
Thermalheat loss, condensation, movement Structuralconsider loading by service fixtures Service integration
Firesee appropriate building regulations Noiseconsider internal finish for sound absorbency


SPECIAL DESIGN ISSUES FOR SWIMMING POOLS
HEATING
Host commonly low pressure hot water from central boiler plant.
VENTILATION
Full fresh air system with no recirculation.
4-8 air changes per hour is recommended.
8-10 air changes per hour for locker rooms is recommended. POOL STRUCTURE
See diags. for reinforced concrete design. POOL SUPERSTRUCTURE
Economy: Must be a good value in terms of initial capital
costs and maintenance costs.
Use: Must withstand heavy use.
Corrosion: Must withstand the corrosive effects of the
internal warm, humid, chlorinated atmosphere.
Insulation: Must have good insulation values to prevent
condensation, heat-loss in winter and heat-gain in summer .
Services: Must be capable of integrating and supporting
mechanical services, esp. air ducting.
Lighting: Has to permit natural lighting.
ROOF CONSTRUCTION
Exposed structure without a suspended ceiling offers the best solution to the problem of condensation. Any problem is readily visible and accessable and the closed air space behind a suspended ceiling doesn't exist. (Where the temp, is often cool enough to cause the wet air form below to condense.)
Reinforced concrete, anodized aluminium frame, or corrosion resistant timber offer the best types of structure.
WALLS
Walls must have appropriate U-value and a thermal insulating layer. Either on the inner surface of the structure of on the warm side of the main thermal insulating layer, could be a vapour barrier.
Interior walls must be:
Robust
Easily cleaned and able to withstand frequent hosing. Detailed to have min. dirt pockets.
Non-porous to prevent staining and absorption of body f ats .
Program


Smooth and with no projections Tile up to 5 ft. is often used
Program


SWIMMING CODE!
Colorado Department of Health
Division of Engineering & Sanitition
4210 East 11th Ave.
Denver, Co. 80220
TITLE: Regulations and Standards governing swimming pools,
swimming areas.
SECTION I
DEFINITIONS:
1:3 Swimming Pool means a body of water, other than a natural swimming area, maintained exclusively for swimming, recreative bathing, or wading, and includes appurtenances used in connection with the swimming pool.
1:5 Semi-Public Swimming Pool: means any pool which is neither a public swimming pool, nor private swimming pool, including by way of example and not in limitation hotel pools, motel pools, and contry club pools.
1:7 Person means person, firm, partnership, association,
corporation, company, governmental agency, club, or organization of any kind.
1:8 Swimming Area means a designated body of water of such
volume and depth that one or more persons can swim in it, and which is used for the purpose of swimming, recreative bathing, or wading and includes natural swimming areas and swimming pools.
SECTION III
3:1 Shape, Design, Slopes: The slope of the bottom of any portion of the swimming pool having a water depth of less than five feet shall not be more than one foot in 12 feet (1:12) and said slope shall be uniform. In portions at the break where the shallow end goes into the deep end of the pool, the slope shall not exceed 1 foot in 3 feet (1:3). Walls of a swimming pool shall be either (a) vertical for water depths of at least six feet; or (b) vertical for a distance of three feet below the water level below which the wall may be curved to the bottom.
The main drain outlet of the swimming pool shall be plainly vivible and located at the deepest portion of the pool
The depth of the water at the deepest point, shallowest point, the 5 foot depth, and at the break between the shallow end snd the deep end shall be conspicuously
Swimming Code


marked on the deck of the pool and on the vertical walls of the pool. Depth markers shall be in numerals of four inches minimum height and a color contrasting with background.
The minimum depth of water in the swimming pool shall be three feet except for special purpose swimming pools, or for restricted or recessed ares which are designed primarily for the use of small children.
3:2 Deck Areas: The deck of all swimming pools shall have a
minumum of five fett of unobstructed deck width measured from the pool edge of the coping.
The deck area shall be impervious and easily cleanable and entirely surround the swimming pool.
The deck area should have a slope of not less than one-fourth (.25) inch per foot directed away from the swimming pool's edge unless an overflow gutter is provided. The deck area shall have a non-slip finish.
3:10 Recirculation System and Appurtenances: The entire system and all of its component parts shall be capable of producing an eight (8) hour turnover of the swimming pool against the maximum head in the recirculation system.
3:17 Lighting Electrical Requirements: All swimming pools
constructed with underwater lighting shall have not less than 0.5 watts per square foot of swimming pool water surface area.
Area lighting shall provide at least 0.6 watts per square foot of deck area. If such light is used for night swimming, area and swimming pool lighting combined shall provide at least ten (10) foot-candies of illumination per square ffoot of pool area.
3:18 Dressing Rooms: The dressing rooms shall be located adjacent to the locker or checkroom and showers. The layout of the bath house for the exclusive use of swimmers shall be such that the bathers on leaving the dressing room shall pass the toilets and showers enroute to the swimming pool.
Floors of toilet and shower rooms shall be of smooth non-slip finish and shall be impervious to moisture.
The material used for walls, partitions, and furniture shall be such that it can be easily cleaned and will not be damaged by frequent hosing, wetting, or disinfection.
Bath houses or dressing rooms to be used simultaneously
5w imm i ng Code


by both sexes shall be divided into two parts separated by a tight partition; each part shall be designed for men or women. The entrances and exits shall be screened to break line of sight.
3:19 Toilets: Toilet facilities shall be provided for each sex.
The ratio of wster closets shall be one closet and one urinal for each sixty (60) men and one water closet for each forty (40) women expected st the time of maximum load.
3:20 Shower Facilities: Separate shower facilities shall be
provided for men and women and when provided for the exclusive use of swimmers shall be so located that bathers must pass from the shower room directly into the swimming pool area. The minimum number of showers provided shall be in proportion of one to each forty (40) bathers expected at the time of maximum load.
Shower rooms shall be provided with at least six (6) foot candles of light upon all surfaces so that all parts are visible for easy cleaning.
3:21 Swimmer Load: Swimming area: One person for each 24 square
feet of pool. This zone is that part of the pool deeper than 3.5 feet.
Non-swimming area: 10 square feet of pool required or each person in that part of the pool less than 3.5 feet deep.
SECTION IV
4:1 Chlorination Equipment:
Housing: A separate house or room at or above ground
level must be provided exclusively for chlorination purposes. The door should have a 1 foot square 'one-light' window to allow observation of conditions in the room prior to entering.
Swimming Code


CHLORINE GA5 STORES
AREA IOO S.E.
ADJACENCIES
1A to POOL WATER SERVICES 1A to EXTERIOR DELIVERY AREA
OPERATIONS
Room must be at ground level, remote from building entrances and exits.
Must have direct access to chlorine delivery.
No other storage to take place in space.
Ventilation outlets must be remote from public areas and from inlets to ventilation plants.
Escape door must open out into open air.
Natural or mechanical ventilation provided at low level due to heaviness of gas.
EQUIPMENT
Chlorine Gas Detector.
Warning signs.
Small window in interior door for visual access. AMBIENT EACILITIE5
Room must not be damp.
Room must be separated from rest of building by walls of brick, concrete or other fire rated materials.
Program


CHLORINE GAS STORES


GYMNASIUM
AREA*
8780 S.F.
*Spaces consist of:
BASKETBALL COURT 4700 S.F.
10 FT. APRON (RUNNING TRACK) 3280 S.F. STORAGE/OFFICE 800 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to LOCKER ROOMS 3A to AEROBIC ROOM, WEIGHT ROOM 3A to FITNESS CENTER LOBBY
OPERATIONS
Space for 1 full-sized basketball game, 2 half-court games, or volleyball and badminton set-ups.
Running track (1/16 mile) could fit in apron on same level as GYM or one level above, open to GYM in center.
See accompaning diags. for court layouts.
EQUIPMENT
Back boards (6)
Volleyball nets, poles.
Badminton nets, poles.
Ping-pong tables.
Basketballs, volleyballs, birdies, badminton racguets, ping-pong bails and paddles.
Desk, 3 chairs, bookshelves, cabinet files for office (100 s f )
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Standard guality for OFFICE
Lighting in OFFICE: 1000 lux, warm-white fluorescent. Hardwood floor or synthetic material.
Tartan surface on track.
Robust, durable construction and finishes.
Skylights desirable.
Lighting: 300 lux, high-intensity.
Program





Hi
BASKETBALL COURT
COLLEGE TRANSPARENT RECTANGULAR BACKBOARD
HIGH SCHOOL EITHER TYPE WITH PAN!
SHAPE REQUIRED IN NEW EQUIPMENT
SECTION SHOWING BASKET AND ENCROACHMENT6
!
VOLLEY BALL
USVE ASSOCIATION RULES AND GUIDE
U.S. Volley Ball Association, dimensions for unofficial games Court may be varied to suit players, (for children and the less agile) Mm. clearance 3'-0". See page on womens sports.


3 SQUASH COURTS
(1 Exibition)
AREA 1776 S.F .
ADJACENCIES
1A to other courts.
2A to LOCKER ROOMS
Exibition court 2A to public accessabiity.
OPERATIONS
See accompaning diags. for court dimensions. (NOTE: lm = 3.3 ft. )
EQUIPMENT
None required. AMBIENT FACILITIES
Construction: solid walls with plastered surface or prefab concrete panels or prefab framed panels faced with plastic.
Wall Finishes:
Preferably white.
Able to withstand impact.
Able to absorb a certain amount of condensation (see VENTILATION)
Special plasters with polymeric additives available. Glass rear wall 2134mm (7 ft.)high with a central glass door may replace a solid rear wall.
Floor material adjacent to rear wall on spectator side should be of same material as court floor (or painted white) for a distance of about 900mm (3 ft.)
A white painted small wall (700-900mm) should be positioned 900mm from glass if formal seating is provided.
Side walls should extend 900mm beyond glass (and be painted white) in formal viewing courts.
Floor of hardwood boards on softwood battens. Typically Canadian Rock Maple or Beech.
Ceiling: light colored, PVC-faced plaster board in white grid.
Ventilation:
Extract fans mounted centrally at high level in rear wall or ceiling.
One fan per court.
Air enters through "air bricks" behind the playboard (perforated at 10%, for SQUASH COURTS ONLY)
4 air changes per hour.
Radiant heat in ceiling eliminates condensation on
Program


ijisfir-
: v wir-

walls.
Lighting:
380 lux at lm above fin. floor. (6 reflectors with 2-75/83 watt fluorescent tubes ea.)
Program


LOCKER ROOMS


SPECIAL DESIGN ISSUES FOR SQUASH COURTS
Piayboard or "tin"
Front wall to height of 483mm.
6mm plywood, painted white, pierced for ventilation. Secured top and bottom by wood battens.
Must be slightly splayed to provide uneven bounce.
Sounding Board
Rear wall, 2.13m above fin. floor.
Gives audible indication that ball is out of play. Min. of 200mm deep (width up wall)
Alder-faced plywood 3.2mm thick.
Bottom 50mm painted red.
Program


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b Front wall
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6,7 Spectator accommodation for squash clubs
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elev of front wall
(REAR WALL DOTTED HOT D-7 -O S-6 -6")
DOOR HGT 5 -6 WIDTH DOUBLES3-0". SINGLES 2 -6"
ELEV. OF SIDE WALL
D AS- O"____S-32 -O"
D-DOUBLES S SINGLES
SPECTATOR GLASS WALL PANELS AVAIL.
WALL AND FLOOR LINES ARE I" WIDE. RED
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1600
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9754 between plaster faces
d Plan
8 Squash court dimensions
SQUASH


6 RACQUETBALL COURTS
(2 Exibition)
AREA
ADJACENCIES
Same as for SQUASH OPERATIONS
See accompaning diags. for court dimensions. EQUIPMENT
None required.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Same as for SQUASH.
4800 S.F.
Program


LOCKER ROOMS


( REAR WALL DOTTED I
ALL LIMES ARE I '/2" WIDE FLOOR LIMES ARE WHITE OR RED
RECEIVING LIME OM EACH SIDEWALL IS RED
Fig. 9 Handball court layoutFour-wall. All court markings to bo 1*/s in wido and painted white, rod, or yollow. For surfocing detail* see
Fig. 59.
FOUR WALL COURT
FOR HANDBALL AND RACQUETBALL


WEIGHT TRAINING
AREA 3000 S.F.
ADJACENCIE5
3A to LOCKER ROOMS 3A to other DRY SPORTS AREAS
OPERATIONS
Must be on lower level due to noise of weights on floor. 11 ft. headroom recommended.
Storage (10% of ft. area) 300 s.f.
EQUIPMENT
Nautilus-type weight training equipment.
Standard weights.
Wall-mounted weight racks.
Wiba weight training equipment.
Avita rowing machines T readmi11s Stationary bikes
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Mirrored walls.
Windows
Durable finishes.
Sound absorption on ceiling and walls. Lighting: 300 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
Program




AEROBIC ROOM
AREA 4000 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
3A to LOCKER ROOMS 3A to other DRY SPORTS AREAS
OPERATIONS
Aerobic exercises, Oazz-er-cise, dance instruction. EQUIPMENT
Individual mats (3' x 6') for floor exercises.
Mirrors on one wall.
AMBIENT FACILITIES
Windows desirable.
Good color, texture, curtains.
Floor: semi-sprung hardwood, protected from outside grit by entrance mats.
Ventilation: 2 air changes per hour.
Lighting: 200 lux, warm-white fluorescent.
Program




CARDIOVASCULAR ROOM
AREA*
300 S.F.
Spaces consist of:
EXERCISE ROOM 200 S.F.
CARDIOLOGISTS OFFICE 100 S.F.
ADJACENCIES
2A to RUNNING TRACK, WEIGHT ROOM 2A to POOL
3A to WELLNESS CENTER OPERATIONS
Part of WELLNESS CENTER
Needs to be near sports areas for testing on the various equipment.
EQUIPMENT
Executive desk and 3 chairs in OFFICE.
Bookshelf in OFFICE.
Exam table, treadmill, storage in EXERCISE ROOM. AMBIENT FACILITIES
Highest quality office furnishings.
Standard hospital quality in exercise room.
Open spacious feeling.
Possible windows either outdoors or into sports areas. Carpeting
Lighting: 1000 lux in OFFICE, 300 lux in EXERCISE ROOM,
warm-white fluorescent.
Program




2 OUTDOOR TENNIS COURTS (See following diags. for desgin details)
Program


STANDARD COURT PARTIAL ENCLOSURE DRAINAGE PLAN (2 OR MORE COURT
ORIENTATION
For the northern states the north-south orientation is recommended. North-northwest by south-southeast at approximately 22 (true north) is recommended for outdoor courts south of the 41st parallel. Particular site characteristics, length of tennis season, and latitude should be taken into consideration when deciding on the most desirable court orientation angle.
NOTES
1. SURFACE DRAINAGE: Pitch 1 in. per 10 ft porous and nonporous courts. Each court should in one plane and pitch side to side; never up down to middle court.
2. SUBSOIL DRAINAGE: Need for drainage syste depends on soil conditions.
ELEVATION OF ENCLOSURE
trtr


FENCE ENCLOSURE OR EDGE OF PAVEMENT
60-0-
COURT LAYOUT
Fig. 20 Tennis court. All m#aurementi for court markings or* to tho outside of lines except for those involving the center eorvice line which is equally divided between the right and loft service courts. All court markings to be 2 in wide. Fence enclosure, if provided, should be 10-ft-high, 11 -gouge, 1*/i in mesh chain link. For fence details see Fig. 55. Minimum distance between sides of parallel courts to be 12 -0". For net post details see Fig. 52. For surfacing details see Fig. 59, 60, or 61.
Recommended Area Ground space is 7,200 sq ft minimum.
Size and Dimension Playing court is 36 X 78 ft plus at least 12 ft clearance on both sides or between courts in battery and 21 ft clearance on each end.
Orientation Orientation of long axis is to be north-south.
Surface and Drainage Surface may be concrete, or bituminous material with specialized protective colorcoating, or sand-clay. Drainage may be from end to end, side to side, or corner to corner diago nally ot a minimum slope of 1 in. in 10 ft for pavement and level for sand-clay with underdrainage.
Special Considerations FencingRecommended 10-ft-high chain link fence on oil sides.


CODE CHECKLIST
GREENWOOD VILLAGE FITNESS CENTER Orchard Rd. & So. Quebec St., Denver, Co. Uniform Building Code 1982
1) Fire Zone:
2) Occupancy Classification: Group B, Division 2
3) Occupancy Separation Required: None
4) Construction Type: Type II (F.R.)
3) Maximum Allowable Basic Floor Area: 39,900s.f.
If adjacent to open area on two sides: 1.25%/ft. by which minimum width
exceeds 20 ft. but which increase is less than 50%.
If adjacent to open area on three sides: 2.50%/ft. if less than 100%.
If adjacent to open area on all sides: 5.0%/ft. if less than 100%.
If over one story: 200% of area for 1 story.
If sprinklered: Unlimited (providing 60ft. open perimeter). Allowable area can be doubled in buildings over one story.
6) Maximum allowable height: 160 ft., 12 stories
1 story increase if sprinklered (not possible if used to increase floor area.
7) Fire Resistance of exterior wall: 1 hr. less than 20 ft.
8) Openings in exterior wails: Openings not permitted less than 5 ft. from
adj. property line or center line of street or alley. Protected openings less than 10 ft.. Protected openings must be less than or equal to 50% of total wall area in each story.
9) Windows required in rooms:
10) Enclosed or semi_enclosed courts:
11) Minimum ceiling height in rooms:
12) Minimum floor area of rooms:
13) Fire resistive requirements:
Exterior bearing wails: 4 hrs.
Interior bearing walls: 2 hrs.
Exterior non_bearing walls: 4 hrs.
Structural frame: 2 hrs.
Permanent partitions: 1 hr.
Shaft enclosures: 2 hrs.
CODE CHECK


Floors: 2 hrs.
Roofs: 1 hr.
Exterior doors & windows: 3/4 hrs.when less than 20 ft. from PL or CL
Atrium openings: for 3_4 stories, min. clear opening = 20 ft., min. area = 400 s.f.
14) Structural reguirements:
Framework: steel, iron, concrete or masonry (2 hr. rated)
Stairs: reinforced cone., iron, or steel; brick, marble or tile may be used as a finish
Floors: for wood flooring with wood sleepers, on concrete slab, the space between must be filled with non_combustible material or fire_stopped every 100 s.f. (exception: no firestopping for gymnasiums at or below grade)
Roofs: non_combustible fire_resistive 13) Exits
Occupancy load basis (sguare feet per occupant)
Occupancy Type Basis
Dining Room 15
Gymnasiums 15
Lounges 15
Classrooms 20
Kitchen Commercial 200
Locker Rooms 50
Mechanical Eguipment rooms 300
Nurseries 35
Off ices 100
Swimming Pools 50 (for pool)
Number of exits reguired: 15 (on deck)
2 or more if occupancy load in any of the following is greater than 50:
Dining Room, Gyms., Lounges, Classroom, Swimming Pool
2 or more if occupancy load in any of the following is greater than 30:
Kitchen, Locker Room, Mech. Room, Offices
2 or more if occupancy load in any of the following is greater than 7 Nurseries
Handicapped access for: Dining Rooms, Gyms., Lounge, Classroom, Locker Room, Nursery, Offices, Swimming Pool
Each story with occupancy load of 501-1000 must have at least 3 exits.
CODE CHECK


Each story with occupancy load greater than 1000 must have at least A exits.
Total width of exits in feet: at least the total occupancy load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a percentage of the occupancy loads of adjacent floors.
Separation of exits: exits must be placed not less than .5 times the maximum diagonal distance in the space. 3 or more exits must be arranged reasonably.
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit: without sprinklers: 150 ft., with sprinklers: 200 ft.
These may be increased by 100 ft. when the last 150 ft. is within a corridor.
Rooms may have one exit through an adjoining room following same sprinkler guidlines as above.
Foyers, lobbies & reception areas, if constructed as a corridor, are not termed intervening rooms.
Exit doors: Must swing in direction of exit travel when serving an occupancy load greater than 50.
Min. width: 3 ft.
Min. Height: 6 ft. 8 inches.
Max. leaf width: A ft.
Landing at doors must be greater than 5 ft.
Exit corridors:
Min. width: AA in.
Min. height: 7 ft. clear
An exit must be provided at each end of corridor
Deadend corridors are allowable if they are less than 20 ft.
Fire Resistance: 1 hr.
Doors & frames: 20 min.
Interior openings other than doors: must be protected by fixed .25" wired glass in steel frame. Total such area in corridor must be less than or equal to 25% of the area of corridor wall of room.
Stairs:
Min. width: for 50 people or more: AA in.
Min. riser: A in.
Max. riser: 7.25 in.
Min. run: 10 in.
Winders allowable? No
Circular allowable? Yes, if min. run is 10 in. and the smaller radius of stair is greater than or equal to 2 times the width of stairway.
Landings:
length must be same as width of stair but need not be more than A ft. on a straight run.
Max. vertical distance between landings: 12 ft.
Handrails:
CODE CHECK


Each side? Yes
Intermediate rails are required if over 88 in.
Equal spacing required between interior rails Height above nosing: 30-34 in.
Must extend 6 in. beyond top and bottom risers.
Handgrip: greater than or equal to 1.23 in. but less than or equal to 2.0 in.
Spacing: 1.5 in. from wall to rail Stair to roof? 4 stories or more.
Headroom Clearance: 6.6in
Ramps:
Min. width: same as stairs Max. Slope: 1:12
Landings required if steeper than 1:13. Must have landing at top and bottom. One intermediate landing for each 5 t. of rise. Top and intermediate landings must be 5 ft. or more long. At bottom, landing must be 6 ft.
Handrails: if steeper than 1:15, must have handrails as for stairs.
17) Horizontal Exits:
Allowed as not more than 1 of two or more required exits.
Discharge areas: must lead into a floor area greater than or equal to the occupancy load served by such an exit.
Capacity: 3 s.f. clear floor area per ambulatory occupant.
18) Enclosures for stairs, ramps, and escalators: 2 hr. F.R.
Openings: not less than 1.5 hr.
Extent of enclosure: to include landings and corridor on ground floor leading to exterior.
Smokeproof enclosures required? No
19) Special Hazards:
Boiler, furnace snd incinerator rooms must have 2 exits if both of following conditions exist:
a) area of room exceeds 500 s.f.
b) largest piece of fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 BTU per hr. input capacity.
Reviewing stands, Grandstands and Bleachers:
Max. height: if combustible: 11 rows or 9 ft.
Row Spacing: 12 in. back to front
22 in. back to back (without backrests)
30 in. back to back (with backrests)
33 in. back to back (chair seating)
Rise between rows: max.: 16 in. unless horizontal seat spacing back to back is 40 in. or more.
Seating Capacity: bench type: 16 in. per person
Aisles: may be omitted if all the following conditions exist: seats have no backrests, the row rise is less than 12 in., the number of
CODE CHECK


rows is less than 11, the top seating board is no more than 10 ft. above grade, and the first seating board is not more than 20 in. above above grade.
20) Skyiights: if giazing in iess than 45%, the skylight must be mounted on a
4 in. curb.
Spacing between supports for flat wired glass shall be no more than 25 in. Corragated wire glass may have 5 ft. spacing between supports.
21) Penthouses:
Area limits: 33.334% of suppored roof.
Max. height: no more than 28 ft. for tanks and elevators above roof, 12 ft. above roof for all else.
Use limits: mech. eguipment storage and vertical shaft openings only. Contruction of walls and roofs: if 5 ft. or more from adjacent property line, construction may be of 1 hr. F.R. non-combustible material. Otherwise as exterior walls of building.
22) Fireplaces:
Must be constructed of masonry or reinforced concrete.
Walls: at least 8 in. thick, fire boxes at least 10 in. thick (except where lined with fire brick: 8 in.), depth at least 20 in.
Hoods: sloped at least 45%, extend at least 16 in. from face of firebox Lintel: non-combustible
Hearth: brick, concrete, stone or non-combustible material at least 4 in. thick.
Hearth extensions: at least 16 in. in front of face, at least 8 in. on
each side of face. If opening is more than 6 sg. ft., extension must be at least 20 in. in front and at least 12 in. at the sides.
23) Parapets: required at all exterior walls except for wails which terminate
at roofs, walls of 2 hr. F.R. construction, or or roofs that are entirely of non-combustible construction.
Construction: same as for wails Height: 30 in. above roof
24) Fire extinguishing systems:
Required where floor area is more than 1500 s.f. (see sec. in code for details)
CODE CHECK


SUGGESTED ILLUMINATION LEVELS (lux = SI unit equal to 0.0929 footcandles)
AREA LUX
BASKETBALL 300
HANDBALL (SQUASH, RACQUETBALL) 300
SWIMMING 300
TENNIS (OUTDOORS) 200
LOCKER ROOMS 200
TOILET/BATHING 300
SPORTS MED. 200
NURSE STATION 500
UTILITY 200
CORRIDORS (MEDICAL) 200
X-RAY 100
PRIVATE OFFICES 1000
EXAM ROOMS 300
CONFERENCE ROOMS 300
ADMINISTRATION/LOBBY/RECEPTION 500
ENTRANCE FOYER 300
FRONT OFFICE 500
LOBBY (GENERAL) 100
OFFICES (ACCOUNTING) 1500
OFFICES (GENERAL) 1000
DINING AREAS 100
KITCHEN 700
LAUNDRY 300
POWER PLANTS 100
STOREROOMS 100
Program


8
Handicapped
1 Ado Visual Signals ana Displays To Audio Signals
2 Emphasize Printed Matter, Symbol*
DEAF AMD HARD OF HEARING
And Pictures Uv Telecopy 3 increase Volume 01 Auoio Signed e g Amplify Phones ant! F.ngen
2. Project Characters e.g. Room Numbers
( 10 .4 Thick And i 1575 1 60 Above Floor
3. Knurl Back Surfaces Of Handies Ana Knobs On Doors Opening To Dange-
4 Add Audible Signals To Visual S.gnats.
5 Prefer Gas Ranges F or Audible Clue
6 Hard Surfaces Aid Sound Detection.
BLIND
7. Ute 1065 143 WithnSTTl 6
Curbs Arouno Dangerous Areas 8 Avoid Open Stairs And Stair Nosings 6 Avoid Proiections. Tripping Hazards And Low Hanging Obstructions 10. Floor Openings [JT] 0.6 Exclude Cane Tips 11 Right Angle Grid Patterns Are Easie' To Comprehend Than Curve & Serpentine
High Forward Reach
Men Women
1495 58.6 1425 56 1
142C 560 1360 53 6
1360 53.5 1310 5i.i y
WHEELCHAIR DISABLED YOUTHS
Ages High Forward Reach A Head Height B Eve Leve1 C Shoulder Pivot D Forward Reac* E High Shell Reach Low Shelf Reach I
9-12 1130 44.5 1165 45 8 1060 41.8 83 C 326 460 18 1 1135 446 370 14
6-9 965 3B.0 1140 44.8 1035 408 860 33 8 390 15.3 955 37.6 510 20
4-6 None - 1065 42.7 985 386 B30 32.7 345 136 None - 620 24
1420 1345 1280 55.8 53.0 503 1345 1280 1190 53 0 S~ 50.3 B
' '
46.8 4^*
1310 51.1 1235 48.6 S" ft'
1235 48 6 1175 46.3 L l'
1175 46.3 10B5 428 1 r
Shelving Depth 230-305 19-12
High Shelf Reach
Men Women
1720 67.7 1500 59.0 Se
1500 59 0 1410 55 5 F
1410 55.5 1230 48 5
For 36Cf Turns
1905 75 0 1790
1775 69 F 1665
1640 646 1640
female slanting heights (including shoes*
70 4 large = 97 i percentue | include 65 5 avereo" 50 percentile V 95 v U S 60.6 small 2.6 percentile J adu'ts
Dimensional notation system
1000 j 39.3) Numte' appearing in boxes are measurem 1001 39 } in millimeters Numbers outside boxes are
25 4 | 1 0 I measurements in inches
Niels Diffnent. Alvin R Tilley. Henry Dreylim Associates. New York New York
t
DESIGN ELEMENTS


HANDRAIL height
Vertical Movement
9
NOTES
1. Codes end standards used on this page
ANSI American National Standards Institute. BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators NBC National Building Code.
SBCC Southern Building Code Congress UBC Uniform Building Code T tread, R riser.
3. Maximum height between landings is 12 ft (most codes).
handrail
RULE-OF-THUMB FORMULAS
INTERIOR STAIRS
1. Riser tread 17 or 17Va in.; 7Va in R 10 in. T 17Va in.
2. Riser x tread 70 or 75; thus 7.5 in. R x 10 in. T *
75 in.
3. 2(riser) tread >. 24 in. S 25 in.
4. Within any flight 3/ie m. max. variation in riser or tread height or width is permitted.
EXTERIOR STAIRS
Exterior stairs generally are not as steep as interior stairs, since space for wider treads and lower risers is usually available outdoors Also, more dangerous conditions exist (ice, snow, ram). Wider treads and lower risers make exterior steps safer The following formula has been devised by Thomas Church in "Gardens Are For People' 2(riser) + tread = 26 in.; thus for a 6 in. riser, 6x2 12 in., subtracted from 26 14 in. tread
A TO B: FOR GREATER ACCURACY USE THE FOLLOWING FORMULAS T* 20-4R. R = IS-3T 3
-llisj TREAD FOR HANDICAPPED (ANSI)
TREAD MINIMUM. RiER MAX., HANDRAIL HE I OH T RAMP INCLINE ARE GOVERNED 0V LOCAL OR STATE CODES CHECK LOCAL CODE
TRIAD AND RISER
Paul Vaughan, AIA, Charleston. West Virginia
DESIGN ELEMENTS
u


Clearwater
Constructors
GREENWOOD VILLAGE FITNESS CENTER QUALIFICATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
1) Assume bedrock to be 5' below lower level floor.
2) Assume 30" diameter caissons at 20' on center all two story walls, interior and exterior.
3) Assume 24" diameter caissons at one story walls.
4) Assume 36" high grade beam at all exterior walls and interior bearing walls.
5) Structural frames, assume steel.
6) Exterior wall, assume face brick, 2" rigid insulation and reinforced block back up.
7) Interior walls in gyamnasium and pool area, concrete block.
8) All walls below grade to be poured to place concrete.


DAYLIGHTING 1
Introduction
Data on this and the following pages hove been derived from Recommended Practice of Dayfighting by Illuminating Engineering Society (1962): revisions from IBS L/ghtmg Handbook (1972).
DAYLIGHT AND ARCHITECTURE
Daylight is an integral part of the architectural design of the vast majority of modern buildings. It determines, in large part, the utilitarian as well os the esthetic environment provided by the designer. Consequently, it calls for the most careful planning and the highest skill of the architect and his engineers.
The requirements for good lighting design con be achieved by skillful application of doylighting techniques. These differ from the design methods for electric lighting because of the variations in the amount of daylight, the changing position of the sun, and the deep-seated desire of many persons for o view of the outdoors. The window, and/or other means for admitting daylight into an interior, can be treated much like any other light source, and effective correlation can readily be achieved between daylighting ond electric lighting. The variations in the amount, the direction and the color of incident daylight, however, add an interest to the daylighted interior which no static lighting system can possibly produce. Daylight, skillfully employed, provides the architect with one of his most effective modes of esthetic architectural expression.
DESIGNING FOR DAYLIGHT
In order to use daylight to advantage, various design factors must be taken into account. These include the following:
1. Variations in the amount and direction of the incident daylight
2. Luminance (photometric brightness) ond luminance distribution of clear, partly cloudy, and overcast skies
3. Variations in sunlight intensity ond direction
4. Effect of local terrain, landscaping, and neorby buildings on the available light
The incident daylight which enters and is made available for use inside the lighted space depends upon (1) the architectural design of the fenestration ond daylight
control systems, and (2) the decorotion ond
furnishings of the interior.
Daylight variability
The amount of daylight available for use is continually variable. The daily and seasonal motions of the sun with respect to a particular building surface, for the latitude at which the building is located, produce a regular and predictable pattern of gradual variation in the amount ond direction of the available light. Superimposed, however, is another variable pattern coused by the less regular changes of the weather, particularly the degree of cloudiness. Finally, there are rapid changes often occurring in a matter of seconds, resulting from cloud movements and other local conditions which affect the amount, color, direction and character of the daylight received at the building.
This variability may seem the most difficult factor with which the daylighting designer must cope. However, it is precisely this variation which odds so much interest to the daylighted interior. Moreover, the seasonal variation in day length can be determined readily, and data on the number of clear and cloudy days, and the number of annual and daily sunshine hours have been collected for many years (see Fig. 1). These data, compiled for various points in the continental United States by the U.S. Weather Bureau, have been reviewed by various investigators and found to provide a statistically reliable guide to the daylight which can be anticipated in any area.
Table 1 shows the results of a continuous record for an entire year of the daylight illumination received during the working day on exterior surfaces at Ann Arbor, Michigan. This study, conducted in one of the cloudier regions of the U.S., indicates that the daylight available during normal working hours is an important light source.
The sky as a light source
The primary source of light for doylighting is the sun. Light from the sun is scattered in its passage through the earth's atmosphere by dust and by the gaseous molecules of the oir itself. As o result, the sky appears more or less bright during the daylight hours, and is a major source of daylight illumination on exterior surfaces.
As compared with the sun, the sky has c large visual orea and a relatively iow brightness. The relative amounts of daylight received from the sky and the sun depend on the atmospheric conditions ond position of the sun. For design evaluation, one or more of three conditions are usually considered:
1. Incident light from overcast sky
2. Incident light from clear sky only
3. Incident light from clear sky plus direct sunlight
The amount of light received from on overcast sky, and the directions from which this light reaches the windows of a building, depend on the cloud partem of the sky; the cloud pattern defining the luminous distribution. The luminance and luminous distribution of an overcast sky vary with the location, time, density, and uniformity of the overcast. A "uniformly" overcast sky is normally 2Vi to 3 times as bright overhead as near the horizon. As a simplifying assumption, however, a single value representing equivalent uniform sky luminance may be employed for design purposes (Table 2). The sky luminance on clear days varies with the position of the sun and the amount of atmospheric dust or haze. Except in the immediate vicinity of the sun, the clear sky is normally brighter near the horizon than overhead. The concept of equivalent sky luminance may also be used for clear skies (Table 3).
The sun as a light source
Only about half the solar energy which reaches the earth's surface is visible. When absorbed, virtually all of the radiant energy from the sun, visible and invisible, is converted into heat. Thus sunlight ond solar heat are merely different names for radiant solar energy. The proportion of visible light in the solar spectrum varies with the depth of atmosphere the light traverses. It depends upon both the elevation of the sun obove the horizon and the variable atmospheric factors such os dust and moisture.
The position of the sun with respect to ony reference point on the earth's surface at any instant is usually expressed in terms of two angles. One of these is the solar altitude, which is the vertical angle of the sun above the horizon. The second is the
921


DAYLIGHTING-2
Sky luminance
Fig. 1. Average annual amount of sunshine in hours
Table 1. Daylight availability, Ann Arbor, Michigan, for hours 8 AM
to 5 PM, inclusive, throughout calendar year
Incident Exterior Illumination, I Footcandles Percentage of Total Time Incident Illumination Exceeded Value in Left Column
North Vertical Surface East Vertical Surface South Vertical Surface West Vertical Surface Horiion*al Su^ace
500 83% 85% 86 85% 3 2%
1000 58% 65% 74% 63% 82 %
1500 | 35% 48% 66% 47% 74 %.
2000 20% 38% 59% 36% 67%
Table 2. Equivalent sky luminance in footlam-
berts for average overcast day
8 A.M. 9 A.M. 10 A.M. 11 A.M. Noon
Latitude 4 P.M. 3 P.M. 2 P.M. 1 P.M.
December 21
80 N 420 740 1020 1210 1270
32 350 700 960 1150 1200
34 320 650 910 1100 1140
36 260 600 840 1020 1070
38 230 550 790 940 1000
40 190 500 740 900 930
42 150 450 660 820 860
44 100 380 600 760 790
46 60 340 550 680 730
48 40 2S0 470 630 650
50 0 240 420 560 580
March 21 or September 21
30' N 910 1320 1710 2010 2140
32 880 1290 1650 1940 2070
34 860 1250 1600 1870 1980
36 840 1220 1560 1800 1900
38 800 1200 1500 1740 1840
40 790 1140 1460 1670 1760
42 760 1120 1410 1600 1690
44 740 1080 1340 1540 1620
46 710 1030 1229 1470 1550
48 690 990 1240 1410 1480
50 650 940 1180 1330 1400
June 21
30 N 1270 1730 2250
82 1280 1730 2240
34 1290 1730 2220
36 1290 1730 2200 2960
88 1290 1720 2160 2840
40 1290 1700 2120 2650 3060
42 1300 1690 2080 2540 2860
44 1290 1670 2050 2430 2660
46 1290 1640 2010 2330 2520
48 1290 1620 1960 2250 2400
50 1260 1590 1900 2160 2280
Table 3. Equivalent sky luminance in footlamberts for clear days*
December 2 1 March and September 21
Latitude 8 AM 10 AM Noon 2 PM 4 PM 8 AM 10 AM Noon 2 PM 4 PM
June 21 8 AM 10 AM Noon
2 PM 4 PM
North
30N 450 600 600 600 450 700 1000 1050 1000 700 1550 1400 1000 1400 1550
34N 350 550 550 550 350 800 800 900 800 800 1350 1400 950 1400 1350
38N 300 550 550 550 300 750 800 900 800 750 1350 1300 950 1300 1350
42N 250 500 500 500 250 700 750 800 750 700 1300 1300 950 1300 1300
46eN 150 450 500 450 150 700 750 750 750 700 1300 1250 950 1250 1300
South
30N 1100 1950 2250 1950 1100 1700 2300 2800 2300 1700 1200 1600 2400 1600 1200
34N 1100 1900 2200 1900 1100 1700 2650 2900 2650 1700 1350 1650 2300 1650 1350
38N 900 2300 2200 2300 900 1700 2700 2950 2700 1700 1350 1650 2300 1650 1350
42 8N 600 2100 2150 2100 600 1700 2700 2450 2700 1700 1350 2000 2500 2000 1350
40 8N 400 1900 2100 1900 400 1700 2700 2900 2710 1700 1350 2100 2700 2100 1350
East
80*N 1550 1500 1000 700 400 2000 2500 1500 900 700 2800 2650 1400 1000 700
84*N 1350 1400 950 700 400 2400 2600 1600 950 650 2800 2700 1450 1000 700
88*N 1200 1300 900 650 350 2500 2600 1500 900 600 2800 2700 1400 1050 700
41'N 750 1200 850 600 250 2400 2400 1450 800 600 2900 2600 1400 1000 700
40*N 500 1100 800 500 150 2300 2100 1400 700 600 2850 2600 1400 100 700
West
80*N 400 700 1000 1500 1550 700 900
84*19 400 700 950 1400 1350 650 900
88*19 850 650 900 1300 1200 600 900
4**N 250 600 650 1200 750 600 800
46*N 150 500 800 1100 500 600 700
*Averaf taJum, direct unlifht excluded.
1500 2500 2000 700 1000 1440 2050 2800
1600 2600 2400 700 1000 1400 *700 *800
1600 2600 2500 700 1050 1400 2700 2600
1450 2400 2400 700 1000 1400 2600 2000
1400 2100 2300 700 1000 1400 2600 2850
922


DAYLIGHTING 3
Solar illumination; reflectance
Table 4. Average solar illumination as a function of altitude
Latitude Illumination (F-ootcandles)
Dafe December 21 March, September 21 June 21
Hour 8 AM 10 AM Noon 8 AM 10 AM Noon 8 AM 10 AM Noon
Plane 4 PM 2 PM 4 PM 2 PM 4 PM 2 PM
30 N Perp 4200 7000 7700 6400 8300 8600 7700 8600 8900
Horiz. 700 8400 4400 2600 5900 7000 4400 7200 8500
34e N Perp* 8100 6500 7100 6300 8100 8400 7600 8600 8900
Horiz. 400 2700 8700 2400 5600 6700 4700 7100 8400
38 N Perp 2500 6000 6900 6100 8000 8300 7600 8500 8900
Horiz. 100 2000 8000 2100 5400 6200 4400 7000 8300
42- N Perp . 2000 5500 6400 6000 7800 8200 7600 8400 8800
Horiz. 100 1600 2700 2000 4800 5800 4700 6800 7900
46 N Perp 500 4500 5800 5800 7600 8100 7600 8100 8800
Horiz. 1000 1800 1800 4400 5500 4400 6700 7400
Perpendicular to buds rays.
solar azimuth, which is usually taken as the horizontal angle of the sun from the due south line.
The illumination produced on an exterior surface by the sun is influenced by the altitude angle of the sun, the angle between the incident sunlight and the surface on which the sunlight falls, and the amount of dust and haze in the atmosphere. Data on solar azimuth and altitude for various latitudes may be found in the section on "Solar Angles." Solar illumination on exterior surfaces at selected seasons and hours is given in Table 4.
The ground as a light source
Light reflected from the ground, or from other exterior surfaces, is important in daylighting design. As with other light sources, it may require brightness control. The light reflected from the ground on sunny elevations commonly represents 10 to 15 per cent of the total daylight reaching a window area. It frequently exceeds this proportion if reflected from light, sandy soils, light vegetation, or snow cover. On non-sun exposures, the light reflected from the ground may account for more
than half the total light reaching the windows.
The direction from which the ground light is received is such that it can be utilized most effectively in the interior of the space, particularly at points well remoyed from the window area. Furthermore, ground light is under the control of the architect or engineer to a considerable extent. By use of light-colored ground-surfacing materials near the building, the daylight incident on the window areas and reaching the inner portions of the rooms can be increased significantly. Reflectances of various ground-surfacing materials are shown in Table 5.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Because it influences building structure, daylighting design is a major concern of the architect. It must be incorporated into the building design in such a way that the building and its occupied spaces provide satisfactory visual and thermal environments. Daylight affects the architect's choice of the basic building section, the building arrangement on its site, and the architectu-
ral elements to be incorporated into the design for daylight control. Consequently, it affects profoundly the esthetic as well as the utilitarian aspects of the design the exterior appearance, as well as the interior atmosphere.
Building sections
Most of the "classic" building sections derive directly from daylighting considerations; virtually all are affected by them. From the daylighting standpoint, the items to be considered in selection of a particular building section are that it should admit enough light to all parts of the interior space, ond that it should allow for adequate control of brightness to meet the visual requirements of the intended occupants.
Sidelighting. The placement of windows in the sidewall of the daylighted space has both advantages and disadvantages. In addition to admitting the daylight, the window area can provide for natural ventilation and can afford the room occupants a view of the outdoors, which is desirable. However, the distance from window to farthest work area is a design limitation, and the window, which is the light source for the room, is prominent in the field of view. Its brightness may be troublesome unless controlled.
Toplighting: Toplighting arrangements have the advantage that they can be used withbut limitation on the width of the lighted space. The daylight openings afford only a view of the sky, however, and even this is usually obstructed by diffusing or shielding elements. Consequently, buildings of this design are usually provided with some side-wall fenestration, to provide o view of the outdoors. Toplighting can be effectively controlled, so that illumination can be distributed throughout the lighted space and brightness can be held within desirable limits. In addition, the electric lighting design con be correlated readily with toplighting designs
Table 5. Reflectances of building materials and outside surfaces
Material Reflectance, per cent Material Reflectance per cent
Biuestone, sandstone 16 Glass (cont.)
Brick Reflective 20-30
Light buff 48 Tinted 7
Dark buff 40 Aspholt (free from dirt) 7
Dork red glazed 30 Earth (moist cultivated) 7
Cement 27 Granolite pavement 17
Concrete 55 Grass (dark green) 6
Granite 40 Grovel 13
Marble (white 45 Mocodom 18
Paint (white) Slate (dark gray) 8
New 75 Snow
Old 55 New 74
Gloss Old 64
Clear 7 Vegetation (mean) 25
923


DAYLIGHTING-4
Building sections
Unilateral section: The unilateral sidelighting design is shown, in section, in Fig. 2a. It is the simplest of the architectural sections, and the most common. The design lends itself to continuous fenestration and to curtain wall construction. In contemporary design, window heads are usually placed close to the ceiling line. In order to achieve recommended brightness ratios the effective width of the room should be limited to the range 2 to 2}/i times the height from floor to window head.
Bilateral section: The bilateral doylight-ing design doubles the fecsible room width. For a given ceiling height, it is possible to design a wider room by adding a window in the wall opposite the main window wall. This second window often occupies only the upper part of its wall, as shown in Fig. 2b. The two sets of windows afford a path for natural cross ventilation if both can be opened. The use of a reflecting roof under the secondary windows contributes materially to the total light entering the room. Since at least one set of windows in the bilateral design faces a sun exposure, sun controls are required with this design. It is also necessary to provide effective brightness controls, since persons in the room will face a window more often than in the unilateral design. Sloping ceilings sometimes employed with this design have little effect on either quantity or distribution of illumination.
Roof monitor section: The building section employing a roof monitor as shown in Fig. 2c is usually an industrial building section. It is particularly advantageous for designs where a center high-bay area is needed between two low-bay areas. The roof monitor usually has windows only on opposite sides, but in some cases is provided with windows in all four sides. Consequently, sun controls are necessary on some of the window areas, and brightness controls are often more important. The roof surfaces below the monitor window should be treated as reflecting surfaces for maximum efficiency of the design.
Clerestory section: A clerestory window facing in the some direction as the main window is sometimes employed to overcome the room width limitations of the simple unilateral section. The clerestory window is used in a roof monitor in some designs, and with a sloping roof in others, as shown in Fig. 2d. Sun controls must be employed on sun exposures, but brightness control is not so prominent a problem as with the bilateral design. The roof under the clerestory window should be treated as a reflector. A more detailed consideration of clerestory lighting may be found in the following pages.
Sawtooth section: The sawtooth section shown in Fig. 2e is used principally for industrial building construction. It is suitable for low roofed structures extending
L=
(fi) Unilateral
5 fc
(c) Monitor
Fig, 2, Typical building sections for daylightin
over a considerable area. The sawtooth windows usually are faced to the north in northern latitudes, so that sun controls are not required. The windows are sometimes slanted, which increases the admission of skylight. However, such slanting results in increased dust collection, adding to the maintenance problem.
Skylight section: Modern skylights assume many forms (Fig. 2f) and are widely used in contemporary architecture. Several recent developments in the field of toplighting design have added to the architect's range of choice. Among these are the plastic "sky dome," the roof panel of gloss block with integral sun and brightness control, and the roof panel of glass-fiber reinforced plastic. Toplighting by means of skylights is an efficient method of admitting daylight to an interior.
Building arrangement
Orientation: In northern latitudes of the United States and Canada, consideration should be given to orientation of the windows in a southerly direction Assuming suitable sun controls, this orientation af-
(6) Bilateral
(d) Clerestory
(f) Skylights
9
fords the maximum daylight, particularly in the winter months, and permits the effective utilization of solar energy as an aid to heating. In southern latitudes of the United States, northerly exposures should be considered to limit the solar heating.
As a general rule, east-west orientations present the most difficult problems of daylight control, and complicate heating and air-conditioning designs.
Single-story construction: This type of construction greatly increases freedom of daylighting design. Almost any version of sidewall lighting or toplighting, or combinations of the two, can be used.
Multiple story construction: In modern multistory buildings with large expanses of glass daylighting designs obviously are the sidewall type.
Where light courts are employed in the design, or tall buildings are located in close proximity, high-reflectance exterior walls and setbacks increase the daylight received at the lower floors.
Materials and control elements
Materials and control elements are se-
924


DAYLIGHTING 6
Transmittance and shielding
Table 6. Transmittance data of glass and plastic materials
Material Transmittance, per cent
Polished plote/floot window gloss 80-90
Sheet window glass 85-91
Heot-obsorbing plate glass 70-80
Heat-obsorbing sheet glass 70-85
Tinted polished plate gloss 40-50
Reflective glass 23-30
Figured glass 70-90
Corrugated glass 80-85
Glass block 60-80
Clear plastic sheet 80-92
Tinted plostic sheet 30-42
Colorless patterned plastic 80-90
White translucent plastic 10-80
Glass fiber reinforced plastics 5-80
Double glazed2 lights clear glass 77
Double glazed tinted plus clear 37-45
lected for their ability to transmit, diffuse, refract, absorb, or reflect light.
Transmitting materials: (see Table 6).
Transparent materials: The transparent high-transmittance materials include sheet glass, polished plate and wire glass, acrylic plastic sheet and formed panels, and clear glass block.
Low-transmittance glasses and plastics offer a measure of brightness control which increases as their transmittance is decreased. With such materials, view out is not noticeably affected during the day but view in is materially reduced. The reverse is true at night. Reduction in radiant solar heat transmittance accompanies the reduction in visible light transmittance. If these materials are neutral in the visible region, color distortion is avoided. The reduction in daylight which accompanies the use of low-transmittance materials must be allowed for in over-all lighting design.
Diffusing materials: Included in this category are the diffusing glasses such os opal
Fig. 3 Shielding of exterior view by use of darkened metal screening with minute horizontal louvers
and surface-treated glasses, diffusing and patterned plastics and sheet glass, corrugated glass and plastics, and diffusing gloss block. All are characterized by a predominantly nonselective diffusion of the transmitted light, and by the fact that they prevent clear vision through the medium. As a rule, transmittance and brightness decrease as diffusion increases. Some types may become excessively bright on sun exposures, hence require brightness control.
Directional transmitting materials: These materials produce a definite, controlled change in the direction of the transmitted light by refraction. They include prismatic sheet glass and plastics, but the most widely used types are the light-directing glass blocks. They are also designed to restrict the brightness seen from normal viewing angles.
Selective transmitting materials. There are two types of selective transmitting materials used in daylighting: those which are directionally selective and those which are spectrally selective.
The directionally selective transmitting materials include two types of prismatic glass block; one for sidelighting, the other for toplighting installations. The materials ore designed to reject most of the light from the directions along which the strongest sunlight arrives at the panel, admitting a greater proportion of the more diffuse light from the rest of the luminous exterior. Certain louvered materials and toplight closures described in later sections con also be considered as directionally selective transmitting materials.
The spectrally selective transmitting materials include the various colored and heat-absorbing transmitting materials. The heat-obsorbing glasses are designed to pass the visible light but absorb the infrared radiations. Considerable research effort has been expended on most daylight-
transmitting materials, so that they will not be color-selective in the visible part of the spectrum, both initially and after exposure to sunlight ond the weather. However, In some of the glass and plastic materials employed in daylighting, colors are incorporated deliberately. The esthetic effect of stained glass windows is a major attribute of the doylighting design in some of the finest church architecture.
Shielding elements and materials: The shielding elements and materials employed in daylighting practice include the various opaque structures, shades, and draperies which intercept light. They include building overhangs, vertical fins and similar building elements, as well as opaque ond translucent screens, shades or curtains, and landscaping elements including trees. (See section on "Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Design of solor shading.")
Properly designed overhangs shade the windows from direct sunlight, and reduce the brightness of the upper port of the windows. They do this, however, at a sacrifice in the amount of light reaching the window. Overhangs of practical length do not provide complete shading at all times. In multiple-story buildings, a balcony can serve as overhang for the window of the story below.
Vertical elements have been employed effectively on east and west walls as sun controls. Combinations of vertical and horizontal elements have been used in some designs. They have been most common in tropical applications.
Shielding materials also include opaque shades and draperies used when it is desired to exclude daylight from a room.
Landscaping: Trees are effective shading devices when properly located with respect to the building and its fenestration. Deciduous trees and vines provide shade and protect against sky glare during the warm months but allow the sun to reach the building during the winter. The use of vegetation as a seasonal daylight control has not been exploited as imaginatively as it might be.
Louvers Louvers are widely used os shielding elements in daylighting design. Practical louvers commonly embody slats which are reflecting elements as well as shielding elements. Some use slats which ore mode of diffuse transmitting materials. Louvers ore found in many forms, located inside or outside the lighted space or serving as the weather closure itself. Slat widths range from minute dimensions to major dimensions os great as several feet. Slats con be either horizontal or vertical.
The adjustable horizontal louver is found as the interior Venetian blind, the jalousie, and the exterior adjustable blind. It can be adjusted as needed for the varying solor altitude to prevent entry of direct sunlight, while reflecting a high proportion of sun
925


DAYLIGHTING 6
Calculations
and sky light into the interior. It permits ntry of light reflected from the ground with minor obstruction. It also permits the passage of natural ventilation in warm weather periods.
The fixed horizontal louver is frequently employed os an exterior sun control and as a shield for high sky brightness. It is found with slots of oil sizes, and it can be o very effective heat control as well os light control device. It permits the entry of ground light and light reflected from the top of the slats as well as natural venti-lotion. One type of horizontal louver employs minute louver slats, spaced so closely that they blend unobtrusively into the view, minimizing the psychological barrier presented by many other daylight controls (see Fig. 3).
Overhangs meant primarily for sun control are sometimes made of louver elements, so that more of the sky light can reach the windows than would be the case with a solid overhang (see Fig. 4). Louvers are also employed both above or below the skylight or other toplighting arrangement.
Light-reflecting materials and elements: All materials encountered in lighting practice reflect some light. Those which are employed specifically for their reflecting qualities are largely diffusely reflecting. Shiny surfaces which produce specular or mirror reflections are apt to cause disturbing brightness in the field of view and should be avoided where good visual conditions are desired.
Reflecting elements can often be incorporated effectively into the over-all architectural design. Reflecting pavements and similar treatment of the terrain surrounding the building can be particularly effective at distances from one-half to twice the height from the ground to the top of the windows. Reflecting materials or finishes on roofs and similar projections below window areas and vision strips can also add to the total daylight entering the space.
The interior reflecting surfaces of the building should be controlled by the architect. The use of white or near-white ceilings contribute to the effective utilization of ground light in the room. Wall finishes of 50 to 60 per cent reflectance make for effective daylight utilization and for good brightness control in the surroundings of visual tasks. Light finishes on the floors and on the interior furnishings are also recommended.
DAYLIGHTING COMPUTATIONS
Various computation methods hove been developed for the design and evaluation of
Fig 4. Louvered overhangs may be used to prevent entry of direct sunlight or to provide indirect sunlight
daylighting systems. Such a procedure involves: (1) determination of the daylight incident on the windows. (2) the light flux actually entering the lighted space, (3) the distribution of the light flux within the room, and (4) the illumination produced on the surfaces of interest.
Determination of incident daylight
The daylight incident on the fenestration of a building consists of light received directly from the sky, directly from the sun, and by reflection from the ground or other surfaces visible from the windows. The actual amount is influenced by the location, the orientation of the windows, the date and time of day, the weather conditions and the local terrain. Consequently, tabular data for a geographic area should always be modified as necessary in order to account for the local conditions.
Sky light: The daylight received in the plane of the fenestration directly from the sky can be obtained from Tables 2 and 3. For purposes of comparative evaluation, it is sometimes assumed that the sky produces some arbitrary value of illumination at the windows. One such basis is that of a sky having a theoretically uniform brightness of 1,000 fL. Such a sky would produce an illumination of 1,000 fc on a horizontal skylight and 500 fc on a vertical window. Some publications have used as an alternate basis an overcast sky which provides 1,000 fc on vertical windows, and 2/, times this value, or 2,500 fc, on toplighting panels.
Sunlight: The direct sunlight incident on the fenestration can be obtained from Table 4. Given the exact angle of incidence, the illumination on a plane perpendicular to the sun's rays (Table 4) multiplied by the cosine of the angle of incidence, will give the illumination produced by the direct sunlight on the plane of the fenestration.
Ground light: The illumination produced at the plane of a window by reflection
from the ground is influenced by several factors. These include the illumination produced on the ground by the sky and the sun, the reflectance of the ground (Table 5), and the slope or tilt of the fenestration. There is, of course, no ground light reflected onto a horizontal window or skylight.
A vertical window, however, receives illumination from a uniformly bright ground equal in footcandles to one-half the ground brightness in footlamberts. For example, a uniformly bright sky of 1,000 fL, which produced 500 fc directly on the window, would also produce 1,000 fc on the ground. With a diffuse ground reflectance of 20 per cent, the ground brightness would be 200 fL. The illumination produced on a vertical window by this ground brightness would be 100 fc, which is one-fifth as much as was directed to the window from the sky alone.
With higher ground reflectance values, as for reflecting roofs under clerestory windows, or for cases where there is sun on the ground but not on the windows, the proportion of ground light to sky light may be much higher.
Determination of light flux entering room
Only a portion of the light flux incident on the fenestration area actually enters the lighted space. The gross fenestration area is reduced by the mechanical supports of the glazing material, such as mullions, window members, or mortar joints. The reduction in transmission area is a matter of simple geometry and can be readily determined.
There is also a transmission loss in the glazing material itself. Data on transmittance of glazing materials are included in Table 6. There is a further loss attributable to dirt collection on the glazing material (Table 7), which should be included in computations as a light loss factor. Finally, there is absorption or reflection by daylight controls, such as shades, lou-
926


DAYLIGHTING 7
T (flighting
Table 7. Typical light loss factors for daylighting design
Location Glazing position
Vertical Sloped Horizontal
Clean oreos 0.9 0.8 0.7
Industrial oreas 0.8 0.7 0.6
Very dirty areas 0.7 0.6 0.5
vers, prismatic devices, overhangs, or by the light wells of toplighting orrongements.
It should be emphasized that daylight is generally abundant, and that simple efficiency of transmission into the room con ond must often be compromised with other factors such as control of sunlight, heat gain, or glare, in the over-all daylighting design.
Toplighting Illumination
For toplighting systems of daylight design, employing lighting elements or areas mounted horizontally or in the plane of o neorly level roof, determination of the overage illumination produced in the lighted space con be made by much the same principles as are used for electric lighting proctice. The basic relationship is
Fig. 5. Efficiency factors for various depths of light wells based on well interflectance values where:
W.ll index = d*Pth (l*nth + width>
2 X length X width
Ku = utilization coefficient, dependent on room geometry, reflectances, design of toplighting element (from Tobies 8 and 9)
#(*, light loss factor (from Table
7)
A, = room area, sq ft.
Toplight transmission: The net transmittance of o toplight can be obtained from the manufacturers of prefabricated units (see Table 10).
Room Length in Feet Room Width in Feet Ceiling Height Above Floor in Feet
6 10 12 15 19 23
12 1 1 0.8 o.c 0.5
16 1 3 0.9 0.7 0.6
12 20 J 4 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6
24 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.5
80 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5
40 1.7 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.5
20 1.8 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.6
24 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.6
20 80 2.2 1.6 1.8 1.0 0.7 0.6
40 2 4 1.8 14 1.1 0.8 0.7
60 2 7 2.0 1.6 1.2 0 9 0.7
80 2 9 2.1 1.7 1.8 1.0 0 8
80 2.7 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.9 0.7
40 8.1 2.8 1.8 1.4 1.0 0.8
80 CO 8.6 2.7 2.1 16 12 1.0
80 4 0 2.9 2.8 1.7 1.3 1.1
100 4.2 8.1 2.4 1.9 14 1.1
120 4 4 8.2 2 5 1.9 1.6 1.2
40 8.6 2.7 2.1 1.6 12 1.0
CO 4.4 8.2 2.6 1.9 1.6 1.2
40 80 4 9 8.6 2.8 2 1 16 1.8
100 s+ 3.8 8.0 2 8 1.7 1.4
120 *+ 4.0 8.2 2.4 i. l.s
140 S+ 4.1 t.S 2 6 1.9 l.s
Fa X Ait X K X
F* i =------------------------
Ar
where Eti = overage illumination produced on the work plane by the toplighting system, lumens per sq ft (fc)
Fa = incident illumination on exterior of toplighting element, lumens per sq ft
At i gross orea of toplighting element, sq ft
Table 8. Room ratios: toplighting
Light well effect: A toplight panel is usually located at the roof level, with a light well below it extending down to the ceiling level of the room. This depth may be in a range from a few inches to several feet, depending upon the depth of the roof trusses and other factors. The interflections of the light in this well result in a decrease in the net transmission of the total assembly. The magnitude of the light-well effect is shown in Fig. 5.
Uniformity: The formula above permits the calculation of the average illumination produced on the work plane for the os-sumed exterior lighting conditions but gives no information concerning the uniformity of the lighting distribution over the work area. Uniformity of multiple toplighting will usually be adequate if the spacing between centers of adjacent toplighting elements does not exceed twice the height of the ceiling above the work plane for large orea sources and one times the ceiling height for small area sources.
Toplighting example: As an example of the procedure, determine the overage illumination for a toplighting design based on the following assumed conditions:
Room 20 x 30 ft, with 12-ft ceiling height Reflectances: walls, 50 per cent, ceiling, 75 per cent; floor, 30 per cent Overcast sky, producing 1,500 fc horizontal surface illumination Toplighting panels: six, each 3 x 5 ft, of hammered heat-absorbing wire glass, with shallow light wells ond egg-crate louvers
$27


DAYLIGHTING-8 Toplighting; sidelighting
Net tronsmittonce: 40 per cent of incident light
Light loss factor: 0.7 Computation:
From Table 8, room ratio = 1.3
From Table 9, Ku = 0.30
Therefore, Er i
1500 X (3 X 5) X 6 X 0.30 X 0.7 ' (20 X 30)
= 47 fc average
Sidelighting Illumination
The calculation of illumination produced by sidelighting is somewhat more complex than for toplighting. First, the light source is located asymmetrically with respect to the work plane. Second, light reaching the fenestration from above the horizontal is affected differently than light from below the horizontal in most daylighting systems.
The basic approach is the same as for toplightirg. A coefficient is applied to the light flux incident on the fenestration, to determine the illumination on the work plane in the room. Since the work-plane illumination varies with the distance from the window, coefficients are determined for three points on the work plane in a line at right angles to the middle of the window. Five feet from the window gives a value E,r. The midpoint of the room gives a value E,nid. Five feet from the inner wall gives a value Emin. For each point, separate computations must be made for sky light and ground light, and the results added to obtain the total work-plane illumination at the point.
The basic relationship for illumination produced by sidelighting is
Ep- Fi X A* X Ku XKm
where EP = work-plane illumination at point P, lumens per sq ft F< = illumination from sky or ground
Table 9. Coefficients of utilization for toplighting
Ceiling Reflectance
Net Toplight Transmittance (Including Light Well Effect, Controls, Etc.) Room Ratio 75 Per cent 50 Per cent
Well Reflectence
50 Per cent 30 Per cent 50 Per cent 30 Per cent
0.6 \ 0.8 (i) .45 .42 44 .41
/ \ 1.0 (H) 49 ,46 .48 .45
/ \ 1.25 (G) .52 .50 .51 .49
/ . \ 1.5 (F) .55 .53 .53 .51
70% 2.0 (E) .58 .56 .57 .55
2.5 .61 .59 .60 .58
3.0 (C) .63 .61 .62 .60
4.0 (B) .65 .62 .63 .61
0.6 (J) .26 .24 .26 .24
0.8 (I) .32 .30 .31 .29
1.0 (H) .35 .33 .34 .32
1.25 (G) .37 .36 .36 .35
( 1.5 (F) .39 .38 .38 .36
50% 2.0 (E) .41 .40 .41 .39
2.5 (D) .44 .42 .43 .41
3.0 (C) .45 .44 .44 .43
4.0 (B) .46 .44 .45 .44
0.6 (J) .16 .15 .16 .15
X 0.8 (I) .19 .18 .19 .18
/ \ 1.0 (H) .21 .20 .21 .19
/ \ 1.25 (G) .22 .21 .22 .21
/ .. 'i 1.5 (F) .24 .23 .23 .22
30% 2.0 (E) .25 .24 .24 .24
2.5 (D) .26 .25 .26 .25 26
4.0 '28 .27 .27 .26
0.6 (J) .05 .05 .05 .05
X 0.8 (I) .06 .06 .06 .06
/ \ 1.0 f \ 1.25 (G) .07 .07 .07 .07
[ 1 1.5 (F) .08 .08 .08 .07
V 10 Vo 1 2.0 (E) .08 .08 .08 .08
2.5 (D) .09 .08 .09 .08
a o (_C> 09 09 09
4.0 (B> .09 .09 .09 .09
incident on vertical windows, lumens per sq ft
Ate ~ gross area of fenestration, sq ft
= I ight loss coefficient KI, = utilization coefficient, which includes the effect of fenestration design, daylight controls, interior reflectances, and room geometry
Utilization coefficient tables: Values of the utilization coefficients K,( ....,r, K mid, and Ku mtn are given for several conditions in Table 11.
Combination designs: Daylighting designs which have side-wall fenestration in more than one wall or combined with toplighting, may be treated by superposition. That is, the values obtained by the several calculations may simply be added.
Table 10. Net transmittance of white translucent plastic dome skylights, wells, and ceiling diffusers expressed as fractions of equivalent overcast sky luminance (well wails and axes of domes vertical)
928


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Table 11. Coefficients of utilization for sidelighting for rooms with a ceiling reflectance of 75 per cent and a floor reflectance of 30 per cent
0.8 rafin of net transmission area to gross window area 80 per cent transmittance of cleat glazing medium no other daylight control
10
o
K. Room Length in Feet 800m Widfh in Fe light from Clear Sky Overcoat Sky Uniform Ground
Ceiling Height in Feet Ceiling Height in Feet Ceiling Height in Feet
10 u 10 14 10 u
Wall Reflectance in Per Cent Wall Reflectance in Per Cent Wall Reflecton ice In Per Cent
70 30 70 30 70 30 70 30 70 30 70 30
Max 20 .00101 00165 00140 00123 .00210 00223 .00197 .00176 .00147 .00109 00096 00076
JO 30 183 I6J 130 126 239 216 185 173 142 116 94 71
40 104 162 139 120 254 223 189 172 138 115 92 71
20 .00133 0011 .00101 .00087 00167 .00154 00137 .00122 .00103 00086 .00067 00064
.10 30 123 113 93 87 165 150 128 121 98 90 65 55
40 127 115 91 85 171 155 127 121 94 78 63 59
20 110102 norm 00080 00070 00125 .00121 00102 00095 00082 00062 00053 00044
40 30 87 H6 67 67 120 114 93 91 78 72 50 44
40 03 88 66 65 126 118 94 92 73 70 49 9
Mid. 20 00128 .00094 00113 00061 .00122 00097 .00120 .00102 00112 00084 00092 00017
?0 30 85 50 66 47 39 41 51 48 64 46 66 43
40 46 27 47 28 34 20 38 24 40 28 47 31
20 .00081 .00072 .001171 .00062 01X178 00071 .00077 00076 00083 00066 00068 00046
30 30 50 40 .V) 37 37 33 47 39 48 38 so 36
40 35 21 36 24 27 18 37 22 32 26 38 28
20 00070 .00000 .00062 00052 00062 00059 .00062 .00062 .00065 00056 00063 00041
40 30 :w 34 37 31 23 27 30 32 38 33 39 31
40 26 20 26 21 20 15 22 18 23 20 27 23
Min 20 firms .00056 .00084 .00050 00059 .0001.1 .00073 00061 .00083 00058 00082 00064
20 JO 42 25 12 25 23 16 29 18 36 19 45
40 20 12 20 12 18 07 19 08 20 13 26 17
20 00061 .00015 00063 00041 1X1044 .00035 . 01X154 00012 .00065 00045 00063 00041
30 30 36 21 36 21 21 14 26 15 29 18 36
40 25 11 23 11 14 07 15 08 18 09 23
20 00054 00010 00053 00036 00034 .00030 00012 00035 00053 00037 00051 00034
40 30 25 10 25 19 15 12 18 13 24 16 18
,0 i 10 18 10 11 06 12 07 15 08 20
00
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I


DAYLIGHTING 10 Overhangs; glossary
DRAWINGS SHOW CASE WHERE *N IS GREATER THAN ZERO WHEN *hZERO, IS SUNLIGHT PENETRATION ANGLE, TAN Dn/h.
Fig. 6. Sunlight shading from a horixontal overhang. Drawing* show cat* whore 0. When = 0, Ws sunlight
penetration angle, tan ¥5 = Dn/h.
into the field of view. The luminance of the exterior viewed through such o material con be closely approximated by multiplying the luminance of the unshielded view by the proportion of the view unimpeded by the louver slats from Fig. 3. A sky having a luminance of 1.500 fL viewed at on angle where only 20 per cent of the view is visible through the slats, will hove an apparent brightness of only 300 fL.
OVERHANGS
The amount of window shaded from a long horizontal overhang mounted above the window (Fig. 6) can be calculated from the formula:
h = Dn sec (Y2 ) ton 9
where h = height of shadow below overhang
Dn = depth of overhang from the window surface = solar azimuth
angle between a line drawn (outward) normal to the window and true south 6 = solar altitude above the horizon
The amount of shading from a vertical projection mounted at the side of a window can be obtained from the formula:
W = Dv tan {"9Z T y)
where W = width of the shadow from the side projection
Dv = depth of vertical projection In planning fixed horizontal and vertical projections for sunlight control, it is advisable to calculate the window shading for severol different months and times.
See also Sheets 2 and 3 in section on "Solar Angles" and Sheets 91-21 in section on "Heating, Ventilating, and Air-conditioning."
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Altitude- Angular distance of the sun measured up from the horizon of the great circle that passes perpendicular to the plane of the horizon through the sun and through the zenith.
Azimuth: Angular distance between the vertical plane containing the sun and the plane of the meridian.
Clear sky. Sky having less than 30 per cent cloud cover.
Clerestory: Part of a building rising clear of the roofs and whose walls contain windows for lighting the interior. Daylighting factor: Ratio of the daylight illumination on a plane to the exterior illumination on a horizontal plane from the whole of an unobstructed sky of assumed or known luminance. Fenestration: Any opening or arrangement of openings (normally filled with media
for control) for the admission of daylight.
Orientation: Position of a building with respect to compass directions.
Overcast sky: One that has 100 per cent cloud cover; the sun is not visible.
Partly cloudy sky: One that has 30 to 70 per cent cloud cover.
Sky factor Ratio of the illumination on a horizontal plane inside a building due to light from the sky to the illumination due to an unobstructed hemisphere of sky.
Sky light: Visible radiation from the sun redirected by the atmosphere.
Solar constant. Irradiance from the sun at its mean distance from the earth, before modificaton by the earth s atmosphere.
Sun bearing: Angle measured in the plane of the horizon between a vertical plane perpendicular to the window wall and the position of the plane after it has been rotated to contain the sun.
Sunlight: Direct visible radiation from the sun.
REFERENCES
Recommended Practice of Daylighting. Illuminating Engineering Society. New York, 1962. Includes a very comprehensive bibliography.
Walsh, J. W. T The Science of Daylight. Pitman Publishing Co.. New York. 1961.
Turner, D. P. (ed.). Windows and Environment. Pilkington Bros Ltd., Newton-le-Wiltows, 1969.
Daylight International Recommendations for the Calculation of Natural Daylight, CIE Publication No 16, Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage, 1970
Henderson, S. T. Daylight and Its Spectrum. American Elsevier Publishing Co New York. 1970
930


DAYLIGHTING-11
Clerestory windows
By BERNARD F. GREENE, Lighting Consultant, New York
Designing for Daylight with Clerestory Windows
Natural lighting is an important part of the design of a building. For good lighting the type, area and dimensions of the window openings must be carefully planned to obtain adequate, well distributed illumination which is free from glare. To meet this challenge the science of daylighting is steadily being developed. Daylighting designs based on intuition and fancy are gradually being replaced by products of sound engineering methods.
Designing for daylight can be accomplished today by the same rules used in artificial lighting systems. However, because of the many more factors involved in daylighting design, it is important to follow a systematic approach in which each phase of the problem is
Fig. 7. Clerestory, tide-well window
arrangement
considered separately. The purpose of this section is to describe one phase of daylightingthe clerestory window. Other problems such as sunlight control, window spacing, skylight and monitor design, etc., can be discussed separately.
The design of cletpstory windows lends itself to engineering analysis; by the application of mathematical methods, clerestory window arrangements can be designed which are applicable to schools, offices, factories or homes.
Approach to Daylighting Design
In the design of a system of lighting utilizing daylight, certain criteria must be established in order to insure that there is enough light at different times and for different locations and weather conditions. One criterion, which is easy to use and which yields accurate results, is the assumption that the sky is a uniform source of light with a known luminance value. This can be taken as equal to that obtained in the late afternoon on an overcast day in December. If we assume this value to be 600 footlamberts, then the sky would be brighter than this value approximately 85 per cent of the daylight hours in the vicinity of 42 north latitude. Values of twice this brightness would be obtained 50 per cent of the daylight hours and values of three times this brightness 15 per cent of the daylight hours.
The assumed value of 600 footlamberts is the basis for design. Recommended levels of light throughout a room can be obtained for this condition, and when the sky is brighter the illumination levels are proportionately higher. When the sky luminance is less, however, an artificial lighting system should be used to maintain the desired illumination.
Once the problem of daylighting has been reduced to that of calculating the light distribution from a source of uniform brightness, light distribution from different window arrangements can be obtained by the use of mathematical formulas. Following this procedure, the direct component light distribution from side-wall and clerestory arrangements was calculated, and the results were compiled to yield the recommended design principles for clerestory windows which are described below.
The Clerestory Arrangement
A clerestory arrangement usually consists of a ride-wall window and a clerestory window mounted overhead (Fig. 7). The problem is then to find the proper relationship between the side-wall and clerestory window, and to determine the clerestory setback, the height of the clerestory window, the room depth, the window positions, etc., in order to obtain the desired illumination level and nearly uniform light distribution. Once these are obtained.
Figs. B, 9. Daylight from sido-wall windows is maximum noar tho window sill and docroasos as tho distanco incroasos. Amount and distribution of light varias with window hoight, width as shown hors
931


DAYLIGHTING-12
Clerestory windows
Fig. 13. Improper clerestory arrangement
When clerestory faces opposite direction from side-wall window, illumination is high near wall and very low near clerestory.
1
Fig. 14. Correct clerestory arrangement
Light from clerestory complements that from the side-wall window to get more even distribution. Window widths were taken as 6 ft for Figs.
IS, H. Curves for wide windows are similar Isee Fig. 16).
it will be found that for the condition of an overcast sky, the luminance contrasts through the room for almost all daylighting designs will be less than those usually encountered in artificial lighting-system designs.
Light Distribution from Sid*- Wall Windows
First let us consider the case of the side-wall window. The daylight distribution from such a window is at a maximum near the window sill, and drops off as the distance from the window increases (Figs. 8, 9). The amount and distribution of this daylight for any particular time varies with respect to the window height and width and the material in the window opening. The
window widths given are for small windows (where the window width is approximately equal to the height) and for wide windows (where the window width is greater than four times the height).
The type of material in the window opening has little effect on the daylight distribution for overcast sky conditions. The light-distribution curves in Figs. 8 and 9 are based on clear or diffusing flat glass or acrylic plastic in the window opening.
Light Distribution from Ovorhood Windows
Now let us take the case of overhead or clerestory windows. By the use of the mathematical formulas by which light
932


DAYLIGHTING -13
Clerestory windows
Fig. 15. When clerestory setback equals the side-wall window height, illumination is high near wall and clerestory, but distance to the opposite wall is limited-illumination of 26 ft is about 15 fc.
y
Fig. 16. When setback is twice side-wall window height, illumination is well distributed and wall-to-wall distance can be greater than in Fig. 15. Illumination ot 28 ft is obout 35 fc.
Fig. 17. When setback is too great, illumination is not well distributed. At lowest point, illumination is about 15 fc.
distribution from side-wall windows was calculated, the illumination from overhead windows can be similarly obtained. The results of these calculations for
different arrangements of overhead windows are shown in Figs. 10-12.
From these diagrams it will be noted that the illumination directly below the overhead windows is zero when the window is mounted on a vertical plane, and that it increases to a maximum value before tapering off. The position of the maximum varies with the mounting height of the window sill above the working plane (Figs. 10 and 11). Increasing the height of the window itself (distance from sill to top of window) also has some effect on the distribution of illumination (Fig. 12).
Combination of Side- Wall and Overhead Window Arrangements
The illumination obtained from the combination of a side-wall window and an overhead or clerestory window can be calculated by adding the values of illumination for each window. Following this procedure, let us consider what is the most desirable plane for mounting the two windows. The combination of a side-wall window on one side of a room with the clerestory window mounted on the opposite wall results in an illumination which is at a minimum at the rear of the room and which is non-uniform throughout (Fig. 13). Now by mounting the clerestory window on the opposite wall, or on the same side as the window wall, but set back from it. a more uniform light distribution can be obtained (Fig. 14).
It will be noted from Fig. 14 that the illumination from the clerestory window complements the illumination from the side-wall window so that a more uniform illumination is obtained. For our first rule, therefore, we can say that for typical clerestory and side-wall window arrangements, the clerestory window should be mounted on the same side as the side-wall window.
Setback of Clerestory from Side Wall
The next step in clerestory window-design is to determine the required
WOGKIMQ ca.nl
--------------------------------1________________
Fig. 16. Mounting Haight of tba clerestory window affects light distribution, while height of the- window, for a specific mounting height above the working plone, has greater effect on the amount of daylight
setback between the window wall and the plane of the clerestory. The spacing between the planes of the clerestory and side-wall window- wall are related to the
window- heights and w-idths. Figs. 14-17 show the effects of different clerestory setbacks and window- widths.
From these diagrams it will be noted that there is an optimum relation between the side-wall window height and the setback for near-uniform illumination. For narrow windows, the recommended setbacks are of the order of one and one-half limes the side-ivall window height (Fig. 14). For wide windows these setbacks should be about twice the window height (Fig. 16).
Distance to Back Wall
Another factor in the design of clerestory windows is the effective room
Fig. 19. Light from sloping clarostory window is zero at the point of intersection of the window plane and the working plane
933


DAYLIGHTING-14
Clerestory windows
width measured from the plane of the overhead window to the opposite wall. From inspection of the light-distribution curves from overhead windows (Figs. 10-12) it will be noted that this effective width (flatter curves give better light distribution) depends upon the clerestory window mounting height. For typical clerestory arrangements utilizing narrow windows, recommended depth from the plane of a clerestory window to the opposite wall should be approximately equal to the mounting height of the clerestory window above the working plane. For wide clerestory windows, the room depth from the plane of the clerestory window should be approximately one and one-half limes the clerestory mounting height. When the area near the back wall is not to be used for critical seeing, these values can be exceeded.
Height of Overheod Window
It will be noted that the mounting height of the clerestory window has a pronounced effect on the light distribution (Figs. 10 and 11), while the height of the clerestory window for a given mounting height above the working plane has a greater effect on the amount of light (Fig. 12). In order to obtain a uniform and adequate level of light, the height of the clerestory window should be approximately equal to one-half the side-wall window height, where the sill height of the clerestory window above the working plane is no greater than one and one-half times the side-wall window height. Where the sill height of the clerestory window is of the order of three limes the side-wall window height, the clerestory window should be equal in height to the side-wall window.
Figs. 20-23. Changing the slope of the clerestory affects the light distribution from the clerestory
window
For obtaining the best light distribution from side-wall and clerestory windows combined, a clerestory sloi>e of 30 from the vertical is best. When the clerestory window is vertical, the combined illumination curve has a dip in it I see Fig. 16) because the maximum point of the clerestory curve is almost directly above the minimum point. When the maximum point shifts to the right tthis occurs with a 30 slope) the combination curve becomes flatter )see Fig. U).
fig. 24. best slope for a clerestory win* dow is 30, giving even light distribution
Sloping Overhead Windows
Changing the slope of the clerestory window also affects the light distribution. In the case of sloping overhead windows, the point of zero illumination is located at the point of intersection of the working plane and the plane of the sloping window (Fig. 19). Changing slope of the window changes the point of zero illumination as well as the light distribution. Distribution from clerestory windows arranged at slopes of 0. 30, 60, and 90 are shown in Figs. 20-23.
The combination of sloping clerestory windows with vertical side-w all windows permits greater variation in room sizes By the use of a sloping clerestory window arrangement at an angle of 30 from the vertical, the distance from Ihe side-wall window lo the clerestory window can be increased lo twice the side-wall window height when narrow windows are used, and iwo and one-half times the side-wall window hciplit when wide windows are used (Fig. 24).
Conclusions
The design principles for clerestory lighting described above illustrate how a rigid theoretical approach can be applied to yield simple and useful rules of thumb for dayligbting designs. These principles can be applied in the design of clerestory windows for all types of buildings. Engineered duylighting designs make it both practical and economical to achieve buildings well lighted throughout most of the daylight hours.
934


Chapter I
CLIMATE AND PLANNING WITH EMPHASIS ON DENVER
WHAT IS CLIMATE?
The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation and cloud cover.
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
TEMPERATURE
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Table I gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
TABLE I
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY IF] DENVER, COLO.
Month Daily Maximum Daily Minimum Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Normal Degree Days Base 65F
90F and above 32F and below
(Heating) (Cooling)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 902 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
May 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Ju] 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 248 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sep 77.7 47.8 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - 8 768 0 o 25
Dec 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50.1 104 -30 6016 625 32 162
* Less than one half.
Source: Department of Commerce, 1977
6


PRECIPITATION
WIND
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Table II shows Denvers precipitation characteristics.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 inches, respectively.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in Table III. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is func-
TABLE II
DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA linchesl DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Precipitation Mean Number a of Days with Precipitation >, ,01 inch Snow Mean Number a of Days with Snow 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Monthly Mean Maximum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Apr 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 *b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 TC 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aug 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 1 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 TC 3.55 88 58.9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. b*Denotes less than one-half. cTT>notes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1977
7


TABLE HI
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
, Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 S 45 NW
Nov 8.7 S 48 W
Dec 9.0 S 51 NE
Annual 9.1 S 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977
TABLE IV
AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
Mountain Standard Time JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
Dir. mph-' Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir mph Dir. mph Dir. mph Dir mph Dir mph Uir. mph
AM 1:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 S 7.0 S 6.5 S 6.3 s 6.3 S 6.2 S 6.3 S 6.7 S 7.0 S 7.3 S 6.7
2:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 s 6.9 s 6.8 S 6.3 s 6.1 s 6.1 s c.o s 6.3 s 6.5 S 7.1 s 7.4 S 6.6
3:00 S 7.2 s 6.9 s 6.8 s 6.8 S 6.0 s 5.9 s 5.7 s 5.9 s 6.1 s 6.5 S 7.1 s 7.4 s 6.5
4:00 S 7.2 s 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.7 S 5.8 s 5.7 s £.4 s 5.6 s 6.0 s 6.4 c 7.2 s 7.5 s 6.4
5:00 S 7.2 s 6.7 s 6.8 s 6.5 S 5.7 s 5.5 s 5.2 s 5.5 r, 6.0 s 6.5 S 7.3 s 7.5 s 6.4
6:00 S 7.3 s 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 s 5.3 s 5.1 s £.3 s 5.9 s 6.6 s 7.3 s 7.6 s 6.4
7:00 S 7.5 s 6.8 s 0.9 s 6.6 s 5.7 s 5.3 c 5.0 s 5.1 s 5.9 s 6.6 s 7.4 s 7.6 s 6.4
8:00 S 7.5 s 7.0 < 7.0 s 6.9 c 6.2 s 5.7 s 5.3 s 5.0 5 5.6 s 6.4 s 7.a s 7.7 s 6.5
9:00 s 7.7 s 7.3 5 7.5 M 7.4 s 6.8 s 6.1 s 5.5 s 5.1 S 5.7 J 6.4 s 7.4 s 7.7 s 6.7
10:00 s 7.7 s 7.6 S 8.0 N 8.0 N 7.6 N 6.7 N 5.9 NE 5.4 5 5.9 c 6.5 s 7.1 s 7.7 s 7.0
11:00 s 8.0 s 8.2 N 8.7 NE 8.8 WE 8.3 NE 7.6 HE 6.6 NE 6.3 NE 6.5 0c 7.0 s 7.4 s 7.8 NE 7.6
12:00 s 8.3 I.E 3.8 N 9.5 NE 9.4 UE C.9 NE 8.3 NE 7.2 NE 6.9 NE 7.1 NE 7.6 s 7.8 s 8.1 wE 8.2
PM 1:00 s 9.1 WE 9.5 NE 10.2 NE 10.2 NE 9.6 HE 9.1 NE 7.9 NE 7.7 NE 7:6 NE 6.2 NE 8.4 s 8.6 HE 8.9
2:00 NE 9.3 NE 10.0 N 10.7 NE 1C.6 iE 10.3 NE 9.6 N 8.6 NE 8.1 NE 8.1 ..E 8.7 iiE 8.5 N 8.7 it 9.3
3:00 NE 9.5 NE 10.1 NE 11.C NE 10.9 NE 10.6 NE 10.2 N 9.4 N 8.7 NE 8.6 NE 9.0 NE B.6 NE 8.7 NE 9.6
4:00 N 9.1 NE 10.2 HE 11.2 UE 11.2 i.W 10.8 NE 10.5 N 9.6 N 9.1 N 8.0 NE 8.8 N[ 3.5 N 8.3 HE 9.7
5:00 NE 8.4 NE 9.7 NW 11.1 iiE 11.2 uE 10.8 N 10.5 N 9.7 N 9.3 NE 8.7 NE 6.5 NE 7.7 N 7.6 NE 9.4
6:00 NE 7.7 NE 8.3 N 10.1 N 10.6 NE 10.2 NE 10.1 SW 9.3 NW 8.6 N 8.0 NE 7.5 N 6.e S 7.0 NE 8.7
7:00 S 7.3 N 7.2 N 0.7 NE 9.3 NE 9.3 NE 9.! s S. 5 SE 7.7 N 7.2 HZ 6.7 s 6.4 s e. NE 7.9
8:00 S 7.1 S 6.7 N 7.8 N 8.4 NE 8.4 NW 8.0 s 7.7 S 7 1 S 6.7 S 6.3 s 6.7 s 7.0 S 7.3
9:00 S 7.1 S 6.9 S 7.1 SW 7.7 SW 7.7 c 7.3 s 7.2 S 6.6 S 6.3 s 6.4 s 7.0 s 7.1 S 7.C
10:00 s 7.1 s 6.8 S 6.9 S 7.4 s 7.1 i. 6.8 s 6.8 S 6.6 S 6.4 s 6.6 s 7.2 s 7.2 s 6.9
11:00 s 7.2 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 7.1 s 6.8 s 6.7 s 6.7 S 6.4 s 6.5 s 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.3 s 6.9
12:00 s 7.1 s 6.9 s 6.9 s 7.0 s 6.7 s 6.5 s 6.5 s 6.3 s 6.3 s 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.2 s 6.8
JJSS2 to 1930
lieei to wo
Data Source: U.S. Uuther Bureau
Location of Wind Vanaa: Downtown Denver, rooftop elevations at or near Main Post Office
8



FIG. 1
s HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO
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DATA SOURCE: U.S. WEATHER BUREAU 1941-1970, DENVER
12
SUN ANGLE


PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES FIG. 3
14


FIG. 4
SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N
LONG 10450'W

ELEVATION 5280 FT.
15


I
Building Outline
i
Name
i Proprietor Management, j Location 1 Planning Management Builders Land Area Floor Area
First Floor Second Floor Third Floor Fourth Floor Roof
Building Area Entire Floor Space Construction
Construction Period
Ventilation (Xitline
Sanitation (Xitline
Electrical Outline
j
Nihon Aerobics Center
Nihon Tochikairyo Corporation
Nihon Aerobics Center Corporation
Chiba Pref. Cbosei Co. Nagara T. Ueno In Furusato-mura
Matsuyama Planning Corporation
Toda Construction Corporation
9,813 M2
3,948.796M2 4.4347.843M2 4,778.228M2 697.057M2 53.212M2 5,213.941M2 13,825.136M2
Reinforced concrete,part reinforced concrete over steel frame,steel frame structure September 1983-December 1984
Facility Outline
Method/single duct, fan coil, floor heater Heating-cooling source/hot water boiler 1,290,000 Real Cold water source/tulip unit 100 RT 1 Water supply/city tank, water reception tank 50M3 Hot water .supply/hot water boiler 800,000 Real Hot water holding capacity 4.5M3 2 Drainage/combination disposal tank Others/pool filter system 90M3
waterfall filter system 40M3 Total transformer capacity 1,750 RVA Generator/100 KVA
1
Elevator Outline Elevator / 13 person,900Kg capacity 60M/min.
Dumbwaiter/ 2, laundry and research use 30M/in. Information Outline Information Drainage Machine/Hitachi
HITAC L-470 computer system L-50/200 computer system (11)
Outdoor Facilities Outline
400 Meter Track 5 course All-Around grass field Super Circuit Comer Stretching Comer Finnenbahn Jogging Course
Tennis Court Artificial Turf 4 courts with lights
Other Exercise Facilities Manna Country Club Z7 hole golf course (Xitdoor Pool (Lac Leman)
Furusato-mura Tennis Courts 10 courts Large All-Around field Cycling Course


F Womens Toilet M Mens Toilet P Pipe Space/Duct Space E Elevator S Stairs D Dumbvaiter
1. Carport
2. Front Steps
3. Front Entrance
4. Entrance Hall
5. General Guide
6. Front Counter
7. Rendezvous Corner
8. Sport Shop
9. Lobby
10. Restaurant
11. Coffee Shop
12. Terrace Coffee Shop
13. Indoor Warm-Up Area
14. Outdoor Exercise Entrance
15. Pantry
16. Kitchen
17. Refrigerators
18. Employee Rest Area
19. Kitchen Office
20. Garbage Area
21. Garbage Area
22. Service Yard
23. Propane Storage
24. Water Tank Room
25. Air Conditioner System
26. Waterfall Maintenance Area
27. Clinic Entrance
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Employee Entrance Security Office Storage-Storage Cloak Room
44. Employee Cafeteria
45. Employee Cafeteria Kitchen
46. Storage
47. Employee Entrance
34. Aerobics Center Main Office 48. Boiler Room
35. Air Conditioning System
36. Computer Office
37. Systems Analysis Office
38. Aerobics City Office
39. Living Room
40. Presidents Office
41. Women Employee Locker Room
42. Women Employee Rest Area
49. Machine Room
50. Generator Area
51. Maintenance Office
52. Electricity Room
53. Laundry Area
54. Storage
55. Maintenance Area
56. Gardens
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F Women's Toilet M Hens Toilet P Pipe Space/Duct Space E Elevator S Stairs D Dumbwaiter
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1. Elevator Hall 16. Instructor Room 30. Womens Rest Area 44.
2. Clinic Lobby 17. Linen Storage 31. Womens Bath 45,
3. Overall Fitness Counseling 18. Activity Center Head Office 32. Womens Massage Bath 46.
4. Meeting Room 19. Conference Room 12 33. Womens Jet Bath 47,
5. Biochemical Analysis Area 20. Conference Room #1 34. Cold Water Bath 48,
6. Research Area 21. Strength* Measurement Room 35. Body Shower 49
7. Fitness Counseling 22. Dance Studio/ Seminar Room 36. Sauna 50
8. Nutrition 23. Air Conditioning System 37. Warming Area 51,
9. Kitchen Comer 24. Air Conditioning System 38. Veranda 52,
10. Stress Control Area 25. Womens Salon 39. Men's Locker Room 53,
11. Storage 26. Womens Locker Room 40. Mens Rest Area 54
12. Air Cendsitioning System 27. Women's Nassage/Solarium Area 41. Mens Sleeping Area 55,
13. Activity Lobby 28. Womens Pool Entrance 42. Mens Massage/Solarium Area 56,
14. Activity Front Desk 29. Womens Salon Area 43. Mens Salon Area 57,
15. Activity Counseling Comer
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Womens Toilet Men's Toilet Pipe Space Elevator Stairs Dumbwaiter
1. Elevator Hall 15.
2. Clinic Front Desk 16.
3. Clinic lobby 17.
4. Questionnaire Comer 18.
6. Blood Analysis Area 19.
7. Toilet 20.
8. Treadmill Rooms 21.
Eye Examination Area Spirometry Room Medical Examination Office Front Office
28. Circuit Start
29. 200M Indoor 3-Course Track
30. Treadmill
31. Ergometer
Womens Underwater Weighing Bath Area 32. Stretching Comer
Mens Underwater Weighing Bath Area 33. Nautilus Weight Training Area
Men's Locker Room
9. Medical Examination Offices 22. Womens Locker Room
10. X-Ray Rooms
11. X-Ray Office
12. Dark Room
23. Doctors Locker Room
24. Dental Examination Area
25. Indoor Training Area
34. Wiba Weight Training Area
35. Stationary Bicycle Area
36. Water Fountain
37. 25M 6-Course Pool
38. 15M Rehabilitation Pool
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
Sun Room Steam Rooms Solarium Comer Shower Room Disinfectant Bath Veranda
Sunlight Garden
3 1 ^ 0


F Womens Toilet 1. Elevator Hall
M Mens Toilet 2. Research Room
P Pipe Space/Duct Space 3. Library
E Elevator 4. Doctors Offices
S Stairs 5. Head boctors Office
D Dumbwaiter 6. Clinic Main Office 7. General Meeting Room 8. Machine Room 9. Sunlight Garden


1. Elevator Machine Room
2. Cooling Tover
3. Clinic Roof
4. Activity Center Roof
5. Sun Roof
6. Electric-Povered Windows
7. Chimney
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CONCEPTS

VIEWS TO WEST
EXISTING SITE PLAN
ORCHARD RD.


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Jeffrey H. Miller UNIVERSITY of COLORADO
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Jeffrey H. Milter UNIVERSITY of COLORADO
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Jellray H. Millar UNIVERSITY ol COLORADO Spring 1666 ________
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GREENWOOD ATHLETIC CLUB
Jalfiay H. Millar UNIVERSITY of COLORADO Spring 1886 ___________
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Jeffrey H. Miller UNIVERSITY of COLORADO Sfirjng 1966
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"Greenwood athletic club
Jeffrey H. Miller UNIVERSITY of COLORADO
Spiina. -1SP6___________
pp pp


INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE AT ENTRY
GAC
(JREENWCTOD athletic club
Jtflray H Millar UNIVERSITY of COLORADO
irlng
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exterior perspective from S.W.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Callender, John Hancock; editor. TIME-SAVER STANDARDS FOR
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DATA. McGraw-Hill Books, c. 1980
2. Colorado Water Conservation Office, Interview regarding flood
plains in the area, 8 Nov. 1985.
3. Cooper, Kenneth H.; author. THE AEROBICS PROGRAM FOR TOTAL
WELL-BEING, M. Evans and Co., c. 1982.
4. De Chiara, Joseph end John Hancock Callender; editors.
TIME-SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES! McGraw-Hill Books, c. 1980.
5. John, Geraint and Helen Heard; editors. HANDBOOK OF SPORTS
AND RECREATIONAL BUILDING DESIGN VOLS. I and 2, The Architectural Press, c. 1981.
6. Konya, Allan and Alewyn Burger; authors. THE INTERNATIONAL
HANDBOOK OF FINNISH SAUNA, Halsted Press, c. 1973.
7. Krum, Steve (new director of the Greenwood Village Fitness
Center, formerly director of the downtown IAC),
Interview regarding the relation of the Clinic to the whole Fitness Center, 22 Nov. 1985.
8. Perrin, Gerald A.; author. SPORTS HALLS AND SWIMMING POOLS,
E. & F.N. Spon Ltd., c. 1980.
9. Ramsey/S1eeper; editors. ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHIC STANDARDS -
7TH EDITION, John Wiley & Sons, c. 1981.
10. Ross, R.J. (Director of the Samaritan Center), Interview
regarding the function of Samaritan Center in Clinic Area, 18 Nov. 1985.
11. Smith, Suzanne (Membership director of the DAC), Interview
regarding sports facilities in general, 4 Dec. 1985.