Vasquez Mountain base facility

Material Information

Vasquez Mountain base facility
Mueller, Bonita J
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
approximately 250 leaves : illustrations chart, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Winter Park ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Winter Park ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bonita J. Mueller.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15686514 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .M82 ( lcc )

Full Text

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
FALL 1986

The Thesis of Bonita J. Mueller is approved.
Committe Chairman
Principal Advisor

Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight
Reduced Thesis
Thesis Statement
Building Code Analysis
Climatic Analysis
Publications and General Mountain Building Guidelines
Energy Data and Daylighting Diagrams
The Master Development Plan
Vasquez Mountain Ski Base Facility Building Program
Mountain Building Construction Techniques
Project Presentation Drawings


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For my thesis, I propose to explore a segment of the Master Development Plan for the Winter Park/ Mary Jane Ski Area in collaboration with the Winter Park Recreational Association (WPRA). WPRA is committed to long range planning for the continued development of an efficient and well-run year-round resort. This conversion from a mainly day-skier area involves the development of several mountains.
Because of the extensive skiable terrain and large capacity offered within the Vasquez Mountain Development Opportunity and the remoteness of this area from the rest of the Winter Park / Mary Jane ski area, a base area providing full services with public access is what I propose to study.
As the primary base area for Vasquez, the proposed facility will house all required visitor support facilities, vertical transportation facilities for access between the parking and staging areas, upper terminal facilities for the funicular system, and lower terminal station for the gondola.
These facilities may also include recreation and support spaces for the broader, year-round public use. The site is currently undeveloped, although a transportation study has been completed.
The client's (WPRA) preferred mode of access is the funicular train option. An economic analysis and operational analysis will| be performed during the summer of 1986 to determine the real) feasibility of this system. I will assume, for the sake of expediency, that the funicular train system will be selected.
In so doing, it would be prudent to include the lower access station in my overall project planning.
Total projected area for the base complex is 97,000 s.f.
The Funicular Center is 11,300 s.f. Of these 108,300 s.f., my attention will be focused on the design and development of the 80,500 s.f. base building(s).
This project provides the vehicle with which to explore mountain architecture, unified image in a natural context, severe weather considerations and mixed-use recreational building types.
The advisors for this project have not yet been selected. Steven H. Amsbaugh, Director of Planning at Winter Park Recreational Association has agreed to function in the capacity of client, as he will do upon actual implementation of this project.



The intent of this thesis is to explore a series of related
concept 3 and to test thir validity. A base facility for the Vasquez
parcel jf the Winter Park ski area is the vehicle in which to explore
the fol .owing ideas. - the response to natural context - the notion of modes of transition - architecture which creates and responds to emotional sensations. This project begins with a previously undeveloped parcel
of land . The context for response is the natural surroundings. The
built ei wironment as a context does not exist except at a distance.
Site an d environmental forces will play a dominant role in the
determi nation of the final design. The finished design should be
harmoni dus with the topography. The site is mountainous. Thus, the
solutio n may potentially take into account a grade change of eighty
feet. functional and aesthetic integration with the landscape
will be a challenge. The exterior shape and appearance should be
sympath etic in terms of materials and colors, with the surrounding
context It is necessary to consider forces of several scales
in orde r to derive the fullest benefit from the analysis process.
This pr ocess of three-scale analysis is borrowed from G. Cabell
Childre ss, F.A.I.A. He has developed it during his years of architectural
practic e in Denver. These scales are the universal, the intimate
and the architectural. The universal scale takes into account everything around
us whic ti is at the macro-scale. It includes the influences of the

world, the country, the city and the neighborhood. The intimate scale is that which is immediately around us. It extends to what one person might Experience in one room. It is the detail and the interior.
By relating the universal influences and the intimate considerations to eacl} other, we arrive at the architectural scale. This scale is the combination and synthesis of the first two scales.
This thesis will evolve through specific consideration for enyironmental forces such as sun, wind, temperature and precipitation. The influence of severe climate considerations cannot be underestimated with a project in the Rocky Mountains. Ski resort buildings, by natpre of their locations, experience the brunt of one of the most bfrutal climates in existance. A Healthy respect for the force which nature can bring to bear on the built environment is absolutely necessary.
Ski resorts wxist because people enjoy the transition they experience wher. they move from city to country. As a contrast to their everyday lives, they enjoy spending their leisure time away from the urban environment. Transition is defined as a movement or passage from one position, state, stage, subject, concept, etc. to another. The word transition is derived from the latin word meaning "a going across". In architecture, transition can mean movement or change of ambiance.
The way the architect analyzes a problem and designs a buildpng must take into account movement. People move by means of
traind, buses, automobiles, gondolas, chair lifts, escalators,

elevatqrs, skis and feet. With so many varying modes of transportation, it is imperative to consider the notion of transition in design.
We can describe transition by means of scale, time and perception of change (as it takes place). We can formalize transition by calling it progression. Progression takes us away from one place with the understood goal of reaching another specific place.
In giving transition another name, we also give architectural expression to the necessary, utilitarian function of circulation.
This is: the basis around which the sporit of the building will be formed. The spirit or the "architecture" is the higher goal to reach once the functipnal needs are met.
Scale is expressed by combining pieces of a whole.
These pieces are deliberately arranged according to size. They occur in rhythm and are repeated in a certain manner to facilitate an awareness of movement. Time is a matter of "how long".
How lopg does it take to meve from here to there? How long does it take tp notice something as it comes into view? How long does a mountain exist? Time is an ever-present factor which spans from the immediate to the infinite. We can perceive subtle and obvious changes around us. The degree of subtle change we experience in any onp thing, is governed by the amount of time we have to understand the transition. Our mode of travel affects the time we have to visually experience our surroundings as well as our destinations.
A fast method of travel, such as the automobile and train, is appropriate for the understanding of objects at a distance and momentary glimpsing

of objdcts in the foreground. Pedestrian travel allows for careful, unhurried attention to either the immediate or the distant view. It
is at tjhe beginning or at the end of a journey, be the time frame
moment^ or hours, that we take note of specific changes in our environment. The more gradually transition is perceived, the smoother and thus more comfortable is the change. Of course, we can induce either a sense of well-being or a feeling of uneasiness by consciously working with the transition zones. How to create emotional sensation through architectural design is the next topic with which this thesis proposes to deal.
Our most memorable experiences are those which have caused us to react emotionally, in one fashion or another.
Going 1:o the mountains is deeply enjoyed by some, while it is strongly feared by others. We might experience beauty, serenity, challenge or omnipresent natural power, depending on our personal disposition.
One peirson can understand all of there as a consequence of his vantagb point. An architect can set up sequences or spaces in a building which will cause most users to experience a range of different emotions. Joy, comfort or awe, for example, might be the emotions to be inspired in users of a ski base facility.
A ski lodge is geared to the visiting skier, who is participating
in a leisure activity. A satisfied, happy skier will probably
make a return trip to the ski area. This is the goal of any marketing
Consider the reason for producing emotion on a less capitalistic and more humane level, however. People go to the mountains

to experience what is not available to them near their own homes.
The architect must recognize those searched-for needs and cause their bealization in the designed space. If the sensation a person feels is actually the intended and common sensation among building users, then ttye building is a success in that aspect. The more ways in which a building extracts the appropriate response or solves activity problems, the stronger an architectural work it really is.
Good design does not accur as a consequence of theory alone. What is required is a balance between conceptual thinking and functibnal requirements. It is appropriate that a functional solutipn should extract itself from a strongly conceptual process. Vernacular and traditional methods of building are valuable because of their time-worn functional and aesthetic proof. The architectural solution to a particular problem develops and changes, over time, from a simply functional response to the fruition of a style which embodies an essential richness we may term architecture.
These ideas will be used to gain a partial understanding of the bboad scope of architecture, in general, as well as a focussed understanding of one building type, in particular.

Codes do not apply to this project since the parcel of
land i$ located on National Forest land.


12^*41 fA. J. MUELLER
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1. Fire
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F ire resistive requirements: 1
Exit -rior bearing walls hours 4 o(U SI&D CaT)
inte rior bearing walls hours 1 %
exterior non-bearing walls hours 4 ^oo %*)-
structural frame hours |

pe:~r nanent partitions hours 1
vert ical openings hours i
floe rs hours |

rooi s hours 1

exterior doors hours .SO */* \OsK 'Zo1 W- ojW J'K
inn* >r court walls hours
meizanine floors (area allowed) hours
roof coverings hours -f.t£ T2J(W - 2>2o3-f
boi er room enclosure hours / kir
Strbctural requirements: C ^ kdfr
framework: hours 1 ' zkdX-' rcrr\) 27 Cj>AO(ek- L&>)
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15. Exits
Occupancy load basis(square feet/occupant)
Occupancy type Basis
Actual load
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Maximum allowable travel distance to exit
3 3030^ ^ iso
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( 330 3 b)
required to have exit at each end of corridor?Ye3 -*- o^^74
Dead end corridors allowed? ^ Maximum length 2^'-^ '
wall fire resistance required 1
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and frame:, fire resistance required 4 p^Ahb. *
mum width K'
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mum tread allowed 11 Winders allowed ngs:(3^ (a^)
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mum size
maximum size required
jimum vertical distance between landinas 1*2.-o' C h)
( 3 to < f)
minimum vertical distance between landings
required height of rails 3o" >)niO
required at each side (3^>oCpj-0
intermediate rails required at stairs if vuipth- elecpo/rcp ^ &£>';
[ UMTE maximum width between int. rails exceptions applicable
height above nosing 3o"> 3^ (33c> J^)
balusters required

rmediate rail required
(mum post spacing allowed rails return to wall at ends j")
rails extend beyond stair 611 ( to roof required'^ ^ on-noe.e- 5r?p-is^ 3
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Stair to basement restrictions C ^>7?oc, appp-o^d &*jip-i£FZ'
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rental exit requirements Ndm£. 3[ (k>")
4 b
Ramps 33o7
maximum slope ( ve^T 12. RaKr*.
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7. Toilet room requirements (code utilized?). puumpi*k6

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drirkinq fountain requirements
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handicapped requirements
18. Use
of public, property
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doors prohibited from swinging into city property? u/A
frictions on marquees, canopies, etc.:
other projections

"Climate" pages 1 4 are from Base Facilities for Winter Park, by Robert Lesnxck, 1982University of Colorado at Denver.
General Climatic Conditions for Winter Park, Colorado -aticude: 39 54' North Longitude: 105 46' West llevation: 9080 feet MSL
\ -/inter Park is located along the Fraser Fiver Valley in a High Mountain Climatic Zone (Colorado Solar and Weather Information).
On average the region receives precipitation(.1 inch,or greater)
84 days out of a year. The majority of which is snow, which exists for, on average, 190 days out of the year. Some of the effects of snow,in. this region, are heavy loads on roofs ( design to 100 psf ) road closures and the effects of reflected radiation. Sunshine bouncing off clouds and off snowbanks reaches very high levels of intensity. As such, though air temperatures are relatively low; one will feel comfortable during'the daylight hours while remaining in the sun. At night or during periods of cloud cover the climate is harsh.
The prevailing winds are up the Fraser River Valley from the nothwest, with occasional strong southwest winds coming down the ski mountain; rare winds are from the southeast are experienced in the winter. Valley mountain winds may also affect the site.
During mid-day winds heated in the lower valley floor may flow up the valley and depending on the valleys shape may move directly up the sides of the mountain, slope winds. At night the situation is reversed and winds cooled at mountain altitudes will flow downward toward the lower valley floor. It is for this reason that the temp--eratures for Fraser, indicated on the following page, are generally regarded as too low for the Winter Park area.
As the Sunpath Diagram reveals, though the 3ase Facilities are located close to the ski mountain solar access is fairly good.

Summary of Monthly Climatic Data for Winter Park, Colorado Latitude: 39 54 Longitude: 105 46'
Elevation: 9060 feet Substation No: 59175 Division 2 For Years: 1942-1979
Monthly i Preci pitation (inches) Jun Jul Aug Oct Nov Dec
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Sep
Ave. 2.41 1,98 2.69 3.00 2.77 2.06 2.02 2.31 1.69 1.83 2.10 2.25
Max. 4.73 3.52 4.27 5.41 5.15 5.69 4.40 5.23 7.14 5.56 4.19 6.64
Min. .85 .65 .98 1.22 .50 .12 .40 .82 0.00 .29 .53 .35
Average annual Precipitation 27.12" Max. 38.64 Min. 20.30
Monthly : Snowf all i (inches)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ave. 38.3 32.1 38.1 31.5 10.2 1.9 0.0 .0.0 2.3 12.3 29.4 34.9
Max. 81.5 62.0 61.0 72.0 34.0 26.0 0.0 0.5 36.0 51.0 63.5 95.0
Min. 17.0 10.5 13.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 13.0
Average annual snowfall 228.6 i" Max. 308. 0 Min. . 150. 0
Data for temperatures and degree days will be taken from Fraser. Colorado ( Latitude 39 57' Longitude 105 50' Elevation 8560 ). Although Fraser .is lower than Winter Park its temperatures will actually be lower than would be expected for Winter Park due to its location in the mountain valley. Cold air tends to settle in Fraser.
Monthly Mean Maximum Temperature (F)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ave. 29.1 32.6 37.3 47.3 58.8 63.6 74.6 72.8 66.4 55.2 39.5 31.2
Monthly Mean Minimum Te moerature (F)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ave. -5.9 -2.3 3.6 16.0 24.3 29.6 34.3 32.5 24.1 16.! 5.3 -3.2

Monthlv Mean Average Temperature (F) V 1 U 1 1 v i r V 1
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ave. 11.7 14.6 20.5 31.6 41.6 49.1 54.5 52.6 45.3 35.8 22.4 14.0
Degree I Days (Base 65F )
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Ave. 1671 1450 1428 1037 727 484 334 396 625 921 1298 1640
Max. 1885 1736 1650 1260 812 573 410 484 741 1181 1520 1775
1357 1157 1245 819 612 380 235 284 511 772 1103 1457
Average Heating Degree Days 12016 Max. ! 12879 Min. 10653
Data for solar insolation will be taken from Eagle, Colorado ( Latitude 39 39' Longitude 106 55' Elevation 6497 feet ). The actual amount of solar insolation for Winter Park should be more than the Eagle fiqures due to its higher altitude and location in a high mountain valley with a high percentage cf reflected radiation.
Total Horizontal Insolation (KJ/m^-Day)* (3TU/ft^-Day)**
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
* 8559 12234 17C43 21933 25595 28473 27062 23649 20051 14335 9353 7841
** 754 1078 1501 1933 2255 2508 2284 2084 1767 1307 367 691
Annual average 13094 KJ/m Day 1595 BTU/ft_-Day
2 2
Direct Beam Normal Incidence (KJ/m -Day)* (3TU/ft-Day)**
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
* 16196 20154 24833 28792 33111 35630 35270 32751 29512 25153 19435 15336
** 1429 1778 2190 2540 2921 3143 3111 2889 2603 2222 171! 1397
Annual average 26409 KJ/m^-Day 2330 BTU/ft-Day

I_ L. 11VI/A !
of Possible Sunshine
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oc t Nov Dec
37 70 69 73 73 83 77 75 83 86 74 72
Annual Average 73%
The Sunpath Diagram below describes Che effect of the surrounding topography on the available sunshine;on the site,at a height of 9090 feet SSL. The dark regions are surrounding topograhy.
40 North Latitude

I. Keep Heat In
- Minimize surface area
- Cluster buildings and functions tightly
- Use earth/ site to minimize heat loss
- Place secondary spaces on cold and windy sides
- Insulate entire perimeter
- Use double/ triple glazing, insulating shutters/ curtains at night
- Avoid cold air pockets, utilize slopes
- Minimize number of doors, provide airlocks
- Centralize stoves/ furnaces/ fireplaces
II. Let the Sun In
- Build on south slopes
- Avoid sun obstructions in winter
- Use sunspaces/collectors on south side
- Collect solar heat and store in building mass
- Locate most windows on S, SE, and SW sides; minimize N, NW, and NE windows
III. Protect from wind
- Site building to minimize exposure to wind, provide windbreaks
- Doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds by roofs, walls and landscaping
- Protect entries and south facing windows from drifting snow
IV. Utilize Mass to Dampen Temperature Fluctuations
- Use thick south walls to store solar heat
- Use earth, masonry materials, and water for thermal mass/ storage

V. M
iscellaneous Guidelines
- Provide SE and east windows for early morning warm-up from solar gain
- Provide west and SW sun protection in summer
- Place outdoor spaces on south sides of buildings
- Provide steep pitched roofs for optimal winter solar gain and minimal snow load
- Utilize natural daylight to reduce electric light loads
- Use natural ventilation to reduce overheating (operable windows, building configuration)
- Keep room widths less than 15-20 ft.
- Orient building along east- west axis
- Provide adequate window areas for each space
- High windows will allow light penetration more deeply into spaces
- For each 4' overhang, daylight in room is reduced 50%
- Toplighting : Effective to increase general illumination, but must be balanced against undesirable summer heat gain

"Building Materials and construction" if from Robert Roger's Steamboat Ski Area Lodge, 1984, University of Colorado at Denver.
climate of anv geographic location and site is probably the
most important concern in determining functionabl e construction o-f places -for people. Changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, precipi tation either as rain or snow affect the requirements of design
as to how the building is experienced and percieved. Steamboat

Springs is a cold alpine climate characteri2ed by heavy snows and cold winter temperatures. Building form and Construction methods will have to succesfullv deal with the problems encountered in a climate where excessive freezing takes place.
A problem encountered quite often is snow sliding into places of circulation and entryways. The Gable roof is a perfect method of directing snow fall to planned areas for winter storage, however without good planning snow sliding into unwanted areas can also happen. A rule to allways remember is that no roof should be pitched anywhere that people are planned to be.
Ice Dams can also be quite a problem in a cold climate; they are caused bv heat from inside the building melting the snow on the roof. The surface of the roof thus must be kept either very cold or warm so that there is no termperature differential. The European cold roof system is a two layer roof system with outside air flowing through the two lavers. If there is going to be a sloped roof, either a cold roof system or carefully detailed warm roof system should be used.
Flat roofs or almost flat roofs are sometimes preferable in the

mountains -from an engineering point o-f view. This is exceptionally the case when snow depth is great and the loads are heavy. If there is wind, snow can build up on the leeward side and be scoured off the windward side like a snow fence. This can cause unequal loading which can cause the building to collapse. For this reason, the ridge should always point toward the prevailing wind. On the other hand, in a flat roof, wind will tend to blow snow off the roof surface thus keeping loads to a minimum. Flat roofs should be internally drained meaining drainpipes being taken down through the warm part of the building.
Flat roofs typically do not develop ice dams, however they can develop leaking at the flashings along the perimeter. This is due to the expansion and contraction of the flashing metal against the roofing, which has less expansion and contraction characteristics. In this case flashings can be installed on top of the roofing to allow them to move independently.
Insulation usually means less heat loss, also a well insulated roof. will prevent quick snow melt and will avoid the problems discussed previously. Insulation which will not absorb moisture should be used with an impervious vaoor barier toward the inside.
This will allow the wall to breathe, and interior moisture not to be trapped within the wall.
Plumbing fixtures should always be located on interior walls to avoid the obvious problem of freezing. Plumbing lines should be placed below the frost line outside of this building for the same freezing problems.
A standard practice in almost all base lodges is to try to avoid a
walking deck with occupied space beneath leak and are not very dependable.
Almosty always these decks

coils must extend -from 6 inches above the exterior -fall line to the
bottom edge of the overhang. Loops should be spaced no -further than 24 inches apart or ice will -form between them, heat should be either
controlled by a thermostat or set to run continuously -from November to May.
Energy E-f-feciency E-f-fective cold roofs will draw large volumes o-f air across the warmed bottom deck. This air movement removes the air -film phenomenon and greatly increases heat and loss through the roof. Roofs must be well insulated and a sound vapor barrier must be installed or infiltration -from the inside o-f the building to the roof vents will increase dramatical 1y.
Cri teri
a cold
are as
a For Warm Roo-f Design
The properly designed warm roo-f offers just as much performance as
roof with much less cost. The objectives of warm roof design foilows:
Roof surface should be designed to maintain a 36 degree temperature or lower when it is snowing and the building is heated to 68 degrees.
Bar joist and metal deck roofs are expecially prone to heat distribution problems. Often the cold.roof system is applied directlv over the metal deck, this creates a condensation problem. The cool air moving through the cold roof cools down the metal deck and bar joists below the dew point. Batt insulation between the joists may keep condensation from forming on the metal deck but the exposed bottom cord of the joist will have heavy condensation.

One 2 1 ayer roo-f i ng than on
o-f the best ways to insure a uni-form temperature is to install s o-f 1.5" rigid polyurethane insulation between the -final surface and the roo-f sheathing. Two layers are much better e because the joints can be staggered 50% to reduce
in-f iltr
at i on



Page 30
Which code edition is currently adopted by your jurisdiction? NO BLDG. DEPT. 1982 UBC 1982 UBC 1982 UBC 1982 UBC
If not the 1982 UBC, when is it expected to be adopted? NA NA NA NA
What is your basic snow loading requirement? If more loading criteria are in effect, please describe them. 30 PSF 30 PSF 30 PSF 100 PSF
Does your jurisdiction allow snow load reductions for roof pitch per UBC 2305(d)? YES YES YES, ON INDIVIDUAL BASIS. YES, BUT WITH APPROVED DESIGN
List the acceptable load duration factor for wood elements supporting snow per UBC 2504(c)4. 1.15 1.15 1.0 1.0
What is the minimum basic wind speed as defined and used by 1982 UBC Sec. 2311 80 MPH 85 MPH 100 MPH NOTE A 80-85 MPH
Is "Exposure B" wind loading permitted in your jurisdiction? YES-VARIES NOT MANY AREAS. NO NO YES, BUT SITE SPECIFIC
If 1979 or prior year UBC is in effect, what wind pressures do you require on gross area of vertical projection? NA 1 NA NA NA
Are there other amendments in your Jurisdiction with respect to wind loading? NO NO NO NO
What is minimum frost depth required from grade to bottom of footing? 30" 36" 36" 48"
Any special loading criteria for balconies to resist firewood stacks, icicle impacts, etc.? NO NO NO 100 PSF
Any special loading criteria for roof eaves to resist wind loads, hanging icicles, etc.? NO NO NO NO
Any local requirements adopted that differ from UBC that affect foundation design or structural design? NO CITY REQUIRES AN ENGINEERED DESIGN. NO NO

If *>/ / Jlli httlj M % otrl Ci l ulintjtni \i% iJ l. Pjoli 41A 1L>7 fl T FIELD .(rehitstHtrt C.' VI.unit" Minin /'/j ffti r.Wific Avtnir Kur Ffjrtcilto Califori 94"
4 C,jrr u ini l. Uorrob VOLKMANN STOCKWELL Ttltplront 411
' t 10 November 1978
< < // i >ncw Movement >now or ice moves down hill always! This is referred to as glacial iction, snow creep, or avalanche. It moves faster on steeper slopes, >ut will hang on for awhile to 60 roof pitches or conversely slide on
4 and 12 roof pitches, depending on temperature, exposure, and roof materials. The slicker the surface, the faster the snow moves. Coated metal roofs are the slickest, which means that the snow can project horizontally a considerable distance. Falling snow can be dangerous or even deadly.
Snow and Ice vs. People
Snow on a roof melts from sun and especially from heat escaping from the inside of a building. This water also travels 'downhill until it reaches the edge of the roof where it either drips or forms ice if the temperature is below the freezing point. Ice coTd'water dripping at an entrance way can be annoying, but a falling icicle can kill you. Do not let this happen at entrance ways, and avoid it if at all possible wherever people may be. , \
- always! This rule at the least because
must never be it means you
Plumbing Location Avoid plumbing on broken. A frozen
have no water. A frozen, broken pipe is a disaster which means you have v/ater everywhere. When pipes in your building are frozen, ,the pipes in dozens of other buildings will also be frozen, which mehns there are no plumbers available. Heat tape is po answir, only $ome: fai1/safe insurance. When something goes Wrong everything goes wrohgr accordi ng to Murphy's Law. The electricity out, pr the thermostats, or someone has turned off the circuit, etc.
an outsjde wall -pipe is annoying frozen,

rage c
Snow Drifting and Sun Exposure
Snow will drift on the lee side of any obstruction. If a gable roof ridge is perpendicular to the direction of the wind, snow will pile up on the lee side, causing unequal weight distribution. If this is also on the shady side, the snow will more likely stay put, and the ice dam problems are greater. Generally speaking, in the high Alps the ridge line points into the prevailing wind, so that the weight distribution is equal and the wind tends to scour away the deeper snow during blizzards. Entrances to buildings are almost always at the gable end, and usually on the sunny side, which ideally is also to the windward.
Heat Rises and Cold Sinks
If at all possible, loft areas should be avoided for human habitation, unless you recirculate the hot air that will build up toward the top of the space. This is particularly true in cold weather areas where the simple venting out of this hot air is not desirable from an energy conservation standpoint.
If possible, it is desirable to have entrances at a level lower than the occupied floors. The cold air will sink down, and v/hen the doors are open the warm air will not escape. Weather locks or "decompression chambers" should be used at all entrances. This means double sets of doors at a minimum, three are even better. These should be placed far enough apart so that the same person will not cause both sets of doors to be opened at the same time.
How much does snow weigh?
Snow is a form of solid water, and can weigh anything from 5 lbs. per cubic foot to solid ice, about 55 lbs. per cubic foot. "Sierra Cement" is over 50% water, which means that 3 feet of depth is about 100 lbs. per square foot. Whatever the Building Code, the Ski Colorado Association, or even the Beaver Creek advertising might say, snow live loads could easily exceed 100 lbs. per square foot. This means that the snow weight will be very 1ikely considerably greater than the entire weight of the building itself. A building with a roof area of 20,000 sq.ft, would be supporting 2 million pounds of snow or 1,000 tons. If you have under designed, someone may have to shovel this weight (at best), and they will not be happy with the architects. With the roof pitches recommended in the design guidelines, this same weight of snow will very likely slide off the building which means it will have to be disposed of by other means.

H.:ge s
Snow sTides down from both sides into the roof valley where it gets stopped. The snow builds up which causes large ice dams at the low end of the valley. Since valleys are the Achilles heel of roofing under the best of conditions, the problems are even worse in the mountains. The best way to avoid the problem is to design buildings without any valleys at all. This is often difficult especially when entrances need to be protected. If you must have valleys, the design should be very conservative and redundant. Flashing should extend to both sides far more than is normal practice. There should be a healthy ridge broken into the bottom of the valley at least one inch high so that streaming water does not shoot up the other side. It is probably a good Idea to underlay the valley with a flexible non-brittle plastic heavy gauge flashing.
Chimneys, dormers, and other obstructions
Any obstructions on a roof will stop snow from sliding. This includes plumbing or furnace vents, as well as more major chimneys. If at all possible, plumbing vents should be led up to the ridge of the roof so that they will not be sheared off as the snow slides. This will also make the roof cleaner. Obviously the larger of the obstruction the more force there is. If at all possible, chimneys should be located at the ridge or at gable ends outside the roofing surface where the snow can slide by. If this is impossible, large crickets should be used to lead the water around the obstruction, but you should not think that this cricket will deflect any but the very lightest snow. The kind of snow that causes trouble is more a solid than a fluid. This hangs up on the obstruction, exerting great force, and creating ice dams, causing leaks. Gable-type dormer windows should be avoided for reasons stated above. A shed type is preferable.
Roofing Materials
There are two basic sloped roof categories, lapped, or continuous. Lapped roofing includes shingles, shakes, slate, and tile. Continuous roofings include built up composition roofs, various plastic roofings like neoprene/hypalon, urethane, etc. and metal roofings like copper, terne, galvanized metal, rusting steel and aluminum, coated and uncoated. The lapped roofing systems on the principal that water does not travel uphill, which is true, except when you have ice dams. If the continuous roofing system is truly v/aterproof and does not have joint and intersection problems, it has advantages relative to ice dams. The two systems can be combined, for example, with continuous roofing at the eaves where the ice dams form and lapped roofing for the main body of the roof. Another combination is continuous membrane roofing below a lapped roof with air in between. This is the European cold roof which works very well when done properly. There is no way to anchor the upper roof to the building without piercing the lower membrane, so that is should be self sealing as possible. Beware of manufacturers representatives. There are many products that simply will not hold up under mountain conditions. This includes the entire Reynolds Aluminum line.

Paye 4
Mall Materials
Granite mountains wear down in geologic time because ice freezes in the cracks of the rocks, literally blasting them apart. The same may happen to your stucco or concrete. You may not have specified exposed aggregate concrete but often that is what you get anyway after a winter's weathering.
Make sure all basically horizontal surfaces drain well. Keep water off of the walls if at all possible, even a short overhang will do a lot of good. Mood weathers beautifully at high altitudes if it is kept dry. If it is wet or partially wet, it will water stain unevenly.
Snow Guards
Snow guards sometime work. Light snow, which of course is not very dangerous, will simply slide by. Under certain conditions, a heavy snow will slide over, which couli be serious. Snow guards must be very sturdily constructed and anchored. Stock products from Europe are probably the best bet. There are several examples around Vail of snow guards that were not strongly enough designed to deal with the enormous forces, and are literally bent out of shape. The anchoring methods can also bring additional waterproofing problems. A riDped out snow guard is worse than none at all.
To gutter or not to gutter can be a big question. Gutters must be kept unfrozen or they will not work. This means dependence on electricity, which is not 100% dependable as noted under plumbing. If you must have gutters, locate them well below the eave so when the snow slides off, it doesn't take the gutter along with it.
Metal has a greater coefficient of expansion than composition roofing. Dont mix them up. Sheet metal must be cleated and loose lock jointed. Temperatures can change as much as 100 Fahrenheit in a matter of minutes. This means that the metal will move. If it is restrained, something will give, which again means leaking.

The Neglected Hazards of Snow and Cold
Coping with them demands special design techniquesand stronger codes. By Ian Mackinlay, FAlA
The cold country contains hazards as great as earthquake, wind, or flood, and architects need a basic understanding of risks from snow and ice. Codes must be modified to properly reflect the real threats to public welfare and safety.
Sipce the dawn of history, man has lived in severe climates such as the Himalayas and |the polar regions. He has learned techniques to conserve his body heat and to warm his habitats. Our forefathers comprehended this manipulation of nature intuitively with experience gained through generations of experimentation.
But as technology has accelerated in the past century man has lost touch with his surroundings. The remarkable relationships between man and his environment found in such traditional cold coujury forms as the chalet and the igloo are no longer understood.
The igloo is an intuitively correct design for its environment, using the natural properties of snow to the advantage of its occupants. Lisa Heschong has pointed out in Thermal Delights in Architecture that "the Eskimo essentially lives within a semitropical environment with the help of his fur parka and his igloo. The igloo has ja minimum surface area in relation to itjs volume, efficiently conserving heat. Thej blocks for the structure are cut from porous snow, and, after the igloos erection1, the inner surfaces quickly absorb the moisture produced by body heat and fire. The inside freezes, strengthening the igloo, preventing air infiltration and preserving the insulating properties of the snow.
Snow, a mixture of ice and air, is a semjisolid form of water. In cold country, the most rigid constraints on design are
Mr. Mackinlay is president of Mackinlay/ Winnacker/McNeil & Associates in Oakland. Calif.
imposed by changes in the density of water, not by freezing temperatures alone. Water expands when it freezes, and this reaction produces forces powerful enough to crack rocks, walls, and pavement, to tear shingles off roofs, and to force foundations out of the ground. It has been estimated that the force of crystallization of ice is as much as 30,000 pounds per square inch in a confined space. Few materials can resist such pressure.
Freshly fallen snow is as light and in-sulative as down. The plumes of snow crystals interlock with one another as they
Above: la) newly fallen flakes interlock:
lb) sublimation makes crystals mobile:
lc) mobilization increases by fracturing;
ld) they become granular and cohesive. Below, igloo spaces: la) entry, lb) tunnel. Ic) main room, id) cooking, le) rest, tf-h) three storage spaces, li) window. Ij) vent.
fall. The crystals entrap air and become immobile. Sooner or later, depending on temperature, humidity, and air pressure, the fine points of the snow crystals evaporate. and the air in their centers is filled with recondensed ice in a process called sublimation. The once delicate crystals can become as slippery and as unstable as a pile of ball bearings. No longer interlocked, they are mobile and can slide off roofs onto the heads of the unwary or avalanche down mountainsides into the works of man.
Should the temperature of the snow rise above freezing in the daytime, the melting and refreezing at night tends to glue the particles together into a living, plastic medium that cun be as solid as ice or can change into avalanche-prone, unstable crystals of hoarfrost. These complex and unpredictable changes can cause a sudden fatal event in a scene of picture postcard serenity.
The downward movement of snow on a pitched roof is determined by several factors, which include: the quantity and quality of the snow itself, the temperature of the air and the roof surface, the steepness of the slope of the roof, and the coefficient of friction of the roofing material. In general, wet or icy snow tends to stick to rough roofs of low slope, and loose dry snow tends to slide from slippery, unobstructed roofs of high slope angle.
The 1982 standards of the American National Standards Institute, whose recommendations for calculating snow loads attributable to structures are far superior to earlier building codes, permit the snow load on a roof to be neglected only when its slope exceeds 70 degrees. ANSI ullowt for some reduction in snow load for unobstructed slippery surfaces, but only where the slope of cold roofs exceeds 30 degrees.

Many think snow will adhere to asphalt
nr wood shingles and slip off metal roofing. but. in reality, depending on the angle of slope and the weather conditions, snow can stick |at times to the most slippery of roofs.
In contrast to ANSI, the 1982 Uniform Building Code permits snow loads to be set at the discretion of the building official and permits a reduction in loading in cscess of 20 pounds per square foot for each degree of slope in excess of 20 degrees, regardless of the roof design or material. JThis practice is unsafe, especially in life mountains or heavily snowed areas.
Ice danis (right), are the most common and unpleasant difficulty bedeviling pitched roofs. They can prevent the shedding of snpw from even very steep roofs. Radiant heat from the sun or convection heat from1 the building interior melts the snow on the roof. The moisture generated collects at the outer face of the roof and is prevented from refreezing by the insulation, of the snow blanket. It drains to the edgje of the roof and. if the air temperature is below freezing, it turns to ice where it exits from under the snow.
If the sr)ow blanket on the roof is thick, the temperature at the roof face will normally be below freezing (32 degrees Fahrenheit! e|en though the air temperature may be much colder. After several days, a drable pool of water will build up under he snow blanket behind an ice dam at me eaves. On a 40-foot-long. R20 sloping "I covered with three feet of snow, uglily two gallons of water will be depos-i ry lineal foot of cave every interior is 70 degrees, i 4 pitched 4 in 12 115 degreesl. .e dan three feet thick will back water re thar nine feet up the roof. This duces tydrostatic pressure that will or a ci nvenlional shingle roof to leak, nc of the building codes used in the S. today considers this problem, and et it is the most frequent defect of slop-ng roofs in cold country.
As the snow and ice slide from a sloping roof, as they will when weather conditions change, great danger can occur. An ice dam may hold snow, ice. and water attached to the roof through several storms un^il a great mass is accumulated. When it at last falls, it can crush anything in the way.
a .it cm o it the in a ri
five dangerous conditions that can result in a snowy clime: (!) falling icicles collapse side\wa!ls; 12) pressure from snow pack curls icicles into windows: (3) small overhangs contribute to water damage from freeze-thaw cycle: 14) falling icicles can be deadly: (3) melting snow can drip onto balconies, causing flooding.
Drawing! by Jocelyn Bales Hcliierson

Drawing by Jucdyn Bales Helgervoc
The ice dam and its family of icicles may break off, bounce off snow banks built up by previous slippage from the roof, and crush the lower walls of the building. This is a much more frequent cause of building collapse than roof failure in the deep snow country.
With sloping roofs in snow country, it is impossible to eliminate ice damming problems, but there are several methods for controlling them, including the cold roof, increased insulation, heat leaks at the roof edge, heated eaves, and, if all else fails, electric heat tape.
The cold roof is actually two roofs with an air space in between for the flow of outside air. The outer roof acts as an umbrella and holds the frozen snow, while the insulated inner roof keeps the heat within the building. The air space prevents building heat from melting the snow on the outer roof. However, the air space does not prevent melting from sun radiation or warm air. Snow is a good absorber of long wave length radiation (infrared), so although snow reflects visible light, it will absorb considerable energy from sunshine, especially at higher elevations. If ambient air temperature rises above freezing for any length of time during the day, this will cause the snow on the
B'flotv. ll) heal leak at eave stops ice dam; 12) healed overhang should extend out; (3) snow arrester and inside gutter prevent slippage and icicles; (4) cold roof insulated from heat prevents damming, as does flat roof.
Above, (I) ice dam forms when water from melting snow hits cold air; (2) ice dam increases with drop in temperature; 13) static pressure from backed up water enters building; (4) second snow adds new layer; 15) new ice dam forms farther up roof after removal of original ice dam.
upper roof to melt from below.
At a significantly higher construction cost, and at the loss of being able to utilize the natural insulative properties of the snow, the cold roof does tend to retard ice damming. But the cold roof only works well on shady sites where winter air temperatures rarely rise above freezing. In climates where the air temperature goes above freezing in the day and falls below at night, the cycle of freeze/ thaw will construct ice dams on a cold roof as large as those on a warm roof.
There is also a drawback to a cold roof in very cold climates. Fine wind-blown snow can collect between the inner and outer roofs, preventing free air circulation and causing leakage and ice damming. The wind-blown snow, which can be subjected to the freeze-thaw cycle because of the interior building heat, may even force the upper and lower roof layers apart.
The Swiss understand the principles of cold country design very well. The old chalets (right), were divided vertically into three thermal zones with the farm animals on the lowest level, which was often partly dug into the hillside for insulation. Considerable heat was generated by the animals and by the decomposition of their wastes. The heat rose to the next zone and warmed the spaces occupied by the family. Over the family zone was unheated storage for hay and grain that acted as insulation for the living creatures below. This upper space provided summer cooling, as well as a storage area for dry fodder to feed the livestock through the winter when snow was on the ground.
The broad wooden eaves with their stout bracing sheltered the exterior openings in the lower chalet walls, which were sometimes made of square-cut logs and sometimes of thick masonry, decorated with timber balconies. If ice dams did develop, the broad eaves usually kept the dripping water beyond the walls.
The close association between man and
beast has its redolent drawbacks. Less rural chalets are heated by beautiful "airtight stoves, often decorated in ceramic tile, but the attic is usually an unheated storage area. If the average winter temperature in the attic slays below freezing, there will be minimum ice damming at the eaves. Stones hold the snow on the roof, preventing the snow from falling onto people who may be standing below. In addition, the snow provides an insulative cover that retards the heating of the attic by the sun.
In most locations where there is a significant daily temperature swing through the freezing point, the best way to control ice dams is to use a warm roof with additional insulation (R30 or more) so that the building heat melts the snow at a slower rate. In fact, if the snow blanket is thin and the air is cold, there may be no melting from building heat.
Insulation thickness should be reduced at the roof edge, creating a natural temperature gradient so that the water at the eave line is less likely to freeze, and ice dam formation is controlled. A common maintenance mistake when ice damming occurs is to remove the snow a few feet back from the edge of the roof. As the dam is caused by melted water's contact with cold air, partial snow removal merely changes the point at which the ice dam forms. A sloping roof should either be completely shoveled or not shoveled at all. The building heat should be carried out to the roof edge even in cases where the roof extends out over unheated decks and balconies. A warm roof must never drip onto an unheated roof.
At least the lower 10 feet of all pitched

roofs should he underlain with an impermeable membrane, such as Jiffy Seal or Bituthene. tij assure water tightness. Side walls that abut the eave line of an adjoining roof shoiild be similarly protected.
I lie membrane should be carried up the ..ill above the top of the largest antici-i'iic'1 ice dam.
Ileal tape jis often seen laced into roof
i.'es to attempt to control ice dams. It
in Iv effective in piercing the face of e Jam and relieving the water pressure hat is causing leakage, but sooner or later the snow and ice will slip from the roof, often carrying the heat tape with it. It is not easy to replace the tape under winter conditions. Heat tape cannot be controlled by a thermostat, and manual control requires close attention to snow and temperature conditions.
Vents, chimneys, and other protuberances in the roof plane should be located at the ridge line or in flat portions of the roof. An alternative is to bring them through the side walls away from the roof slope. If a chimney or vent must be located at the eave line, it should be heav ily reinforced and completely waterproofed. and it should assume a knifelike shape to encourage snow to slip around it.
A rough or ribbed roof will prevent the snow from slipping around a chimney or vent.] so such obstructions must beset in a smooth, slippery field that lies well above and to the side of the obstructions. The tops of vents should he high enough above the roof so the snow will not plug their openings. Plugging can asphyxiate building occupants. Drip lines at roof edges should be beyond balconies and decks, and balconies and entrances below eaves should be protected by ropf overhangs. Overhead electrical and telephone lines should never he led into buildings under sloping eaves where sliding snow will break them. Underground Utility services are far more practical than overhead ones in the snow country.
If the building is designed to encourage snow tq slide off the roof, the roof should be steep and slippery. It should he arranged so the snow will slide off cleanly, falling into areas where it will not cause harm.
flat roof, generally defined as a roof! that has a slope of half an inch in one foot or less, eliminates ice damming, sliding snow, and icicle formation ^nd it takes maximum advantage of the insulating properties of snow. In most locations, wind stripping will control the snow buildup on the roof, and the 1982 ANSI standards permit a 20 percent reduejion in snow load in windy locations. The roof should slope slightly toward interior drains, which should be brass with copper pipe. The heat of the
Above, snow slides on metal roof. Unlike shed roofs, gable roofs I below) can build up snow drifts.
building will keep the drains free of ice as they are protected from extreme cold by the blanket of snow on the roof. Scuppers in the outer parapet walls should be located several inches higher than the drains. These scuppers only operate if an interior drain becomes plugged or if the water volume is too great for the drains to handle, as sometimes happens when warm rain falls onto a heavy snow pack on the roof.
A flat roof will be satisfactory almost anywhere in the snow country except those rare locations without exposure to wind or sun. Even under these conditions, it may be more practical to increase the structural strength of the roof than to make the roof steep enough to shed the snow.
The roof and walls of a building retain humidity as well as heat. Warm air holds more moisture than cold air. and air at 70 degrees can hold three times the water of air at 40 degrees. Outdoors, the moisture precipitates as rain or snow as air cools: indoors, it becomes dampness on walls, windows, and ceilings.
This condensation is often mistaken for leakage. Condensation is controlled by preventing warm moist air from coming in contact with cold surfaces. At any given temperature, the air can only hold so much water. When the temperature drops, the dew point is reached and condensation will take place. A vapor barrier must be created on the inner face of the outer walls and ceilings of the building to seal
in the warm moist air and prevent it from reaching cold surfaces that are below the dew point.
Condensed water vapor can become trapped in insulation in walls and roofs and freeze in cold weather. When the temperature rises above freezing, this trapped moisture melts, and the roof or walls appear to leak. The condensation may remain hidden until mildew, rot. delamination of plywood, or paint deterioration occurs. Any trapped moisture can permanently damage the building insulation. In the cold country, rain water must not be allowed to soak the construction, as it will freeze and damage will occur, come winter.
Windows are a major challenge to the architect in the cold country. Condensation sometimes occurs even between panels of double-pane glazing. Windows with metal frames often appear to leak, as metal is an excellent conductor of temperature and the cold is conducted inside, bringing the warm inside air below the dew point. One solution is to disconnect the window frame with a piece of plastic, so there is no thermal contact between the exterior and interior of the frame. Another is to use nonmetallic window frames. Condensation on the window glass itself can often be controlled by mounting the inner face of the glass flush with the inner face of the wall.
Except in the arctic winter, sunshine should always be considered as a source of winter heat. My flat-roofed mountain house, at an altitude of 6.400 feet near Lake Tahoe, has solar collectors mounted on all south facing walls. The vertical collectors function efficiently in the winter, catching the solar energy both from the low angle of the sun and reflections from the ground snow. The vertical collectors are never covered by snow. The structure presents its main face to the south and all major rooms are heated both actively and passively by the sun. The heat from the collectors is stored in an insulated 4.000-gallon basement tank for use on dark days. The tank usually stores

enough extra heat for a hot tub on the lower deck.
One reason my mountain house (top), is so energy-efficient is that it is well insulated and tightly sealed. Ten years ago, few architects concerned themselves with indoor air pollution because buildings were so porous that outside air infiltrated into them at rates high enough to provide adequate ventilation. Now the drive to conserve energy in the cold country has cut this infiltration to one-tenth or less of what it was.
In my mountain house, (drawings above), preheated fresh uir is injected whenever the fan circulates the air, but
in many buildings constructed recently, the inside air in the winter is 10 to 30 times more polluted than Los Angeles on a smoggy day. Unvented kerosene heaters can be deadly in tightly sealed dwellings. Any burning appliance, such as a stove or fireplace, must have a fresh air source near the combustion and a flue to the outside.
Architects already are concerned over outgassing of formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, and some foamed insulation. Now we realise that the emission of radon, a product of radium decay, from the stone masonry and concrete may constitute a deadly threat. This is a fac-
tor to consider when designing passively heated buildings in the cold country. Building codes must be revised to require sufficient interior air changes, proper venting, and to curtail interior use of toxic materials.
Airto-air heal exchangers are a promising way to avoid indoor air pollution. They extract heat from air being vented from the building and use it to warm the fresh air being brought in. They are well adapted to places where large volumes of air are needed, such as heated parking garages, or places where makeup air is required, such as in large office buildings where the interior is warmed by the lighting and the office workers themselves. Smaller exchangers can be used domestically. In the cold country, where air is very dry, health problems can arise front the injection of too much untempered outside air. If the interior relative humidity falls below SO percent, throat and eye irritation occur. To correct this, humidifiers should be added to makeup air in cold climates.
Foundation design depends upon the freeze/thaw cycle. Where there is no underlying permafrost, the architect must insulate all around the building to keep the ground underneath from freezing. When the ground outside the foundations freezes, the entrapped moisture expands, forcing the surface upward. This is particularly true with fine particle soil that contains a great deal of moisture. When the ground thaws, it sinks back. If the ground freezes in the fall and stays frozen until spring, the forces on the foundation are not as great as they are when there is frequent freeze-thaw. One solution is to sink the foundation far enough into stable material that can withstand the freeze-thaw forces. Another is to coat the foundations with a slippery material so that the frozen earth cannot adhere to the building and the ground can rise and fall around it without damage. Where there is no underlying permafrost, foundation insulation should be carried below the active freeze/thaw layer so that heat from the building affects the surrounding ground as little as possible.
Where the surface ground is permanently frozen during winter months and the buildings are constructed on underlying permafrost, it is critical to keep the interior building heat from melting the underlying layer. If the permafrost melts, portions of the building will sink into the mud. In downtown Dawson, a Canadian Yukon town that underwent rapid development during the Klondike gold rush at the turn of the century, one can see what cun happen when these principles are ignored. The foundation posts of the hospital must be cut off about every second year to keep the building reasonably level.

Above, melting permafrost can cause building shifts; below right, collapsed building in Redding, Calif,; bottom, a covered road in Houghton, Mich.
The 10-inch-diameter posts that supported a part of the original territorial commissioner's residence (now housing for elderly people) move up and down five inches a year. Settlements of as much as three feet have occurred along the walls of the public school.
In permafrost country, foundation movement can be avoided by elevating the building on stilts driven through the active layer with their bases permanently anchored into the permafrost. Cold air must be permitted free circulation below the structure. If the building is too large for stilts, it can be set on a thick pad of well drained crushed rock through which cold air circulates in large pipes. The pad does not trap water and is not active. It isolates the building from the underlying permafrost]
In Barrow, Alaska, an inflatable dome to be used as a garage was erected without a floor: the permafrost was expected to support the weight of the vehicles. Instead, the heat of the building melted the permafrost and the vehicles sank into the mud. S(tch air supported structures work better for temporary than for pee manent use in the far north.
Construction methods for water and sewage systems also depend on whether the area is underlaid by permanently frozen ground. In permafrost areas, the distribution systems should be constructed above ground on supports frozen into the permafrost. Domestic water should be heated and continuously circulated in insulated chases, called utilidors. Good sources of fresh water are hard to find in the frozen norih. and there is no completely satisfactory way to dispose of sewage. Compost toilets can solve the problems f solid wajstes: other waste water can be oored in avoiding tank, kept from freez-nc by the seated envelope of the build-ac until the spring thaw.
In areas not underlaid with permafrost, he pipes should be placed in trenches -el'os the ictive frost line and brought jp into the building inside the insulated : "'ling line]. Sewage is less likely to freeze ban domestic water as it contains water already heated to room temperature, but sewage lin^s should slope steeply until they reach a disposal site below the frost line.
he areas with the heaviest snowfall or the coldest weather often cope with snow and cold quite well. The snowiest large cities in the U.S. are in Minnesota, Michigan, and upstate New York, where storms come off the Great Lakes. Minneapolis, St. Paul, Calgary, and Edmonton have "skyways" connecting downtown buildings at the second-story level so that people can go about their daily business protected from cold and snow. Toronto and Montreal accomplish the same purpose with underground pedestrian systems. The ski resort of Snowmass, Colo., heats the pavement in its sloping main street, aptly called "Snowmelt Avenue." In Houghton, Mich., with an annual snowfall of more than 200 inches, the city built stout steel roofs over the main street, and even these must be shoveled from time to time.
The disasters usually occur in areas where heavy snowfall is not expected. In 1979, a record 88-inch snowfall in northern Illinois resulted in an estimated 37,327 claims of property damage. In Redding, Calif., in 1968, seven long span buildings collapsed and two others were declared unsafe and closed after a 23-inch snowfall was followed by heavy rain. At that time, the snow load on the roofs in Redding was calculated as at least 20 pounds per square foot; the city code required design for only 12 pounds. Even the 1982 ANSI standards show Redding as having a maximum of five pounds ground snow load from a 50-year storm.
The 300x360-foot Hartford. Conn., Civic Center Coliseum collapsed in January 1978 under a snow load variously estimated at from 11 to 18 pounds per square foot, although it was designed to support a snow load of 30 pounds per square foot. Foe tunately, the coliseum was empty at the time. It has been suggested that the design and/or construction of the coliseum was faulty, but I feel part of the cause of the collapse came from a lack of recognition in the building codes of how snow loads affect structures, especially highly flexible
buildings subject to sizable horizontal forces. This might be called the inverse pendulum effect," where the weight of the snow on the roof acts under wind or earthquake force to amplify the stress in the structure. The 1982 ANSI standards for earthquakes state that the authority having jurisdiction may allow the snow load to be reduced up to 75 percent."
Such reductions are common in such places as Redding and Hartford, where heavy snows are uncommon. I suggest this is a dangerous practice, and places of public assembly should be designed for at least 80 percent of the ground snow load; and at least 50 percent of the snow load should be used in computing the lateral force loading. This is an aspect of structural design where more investigation is needed. The next failure of a coliseum may happen when the building is filled to capacity.
None of the codes require a building to withstand a maximum snow load combined with a maximum wind load or with a maximum earthquake load. This may make sense for wind loads on buildings with steeply pitched roofs. Strong winds rarely occur without warning, and the wind itself tends to strip the snow off the roof
Cou r I ex v of Houghton. Vfichiunn

prior 10 reaching maximum intensity. However, earthquakes cannot be predicted ini advance, and the lull (orce of the shock may take place while a large snow load is on the roof.
j Sensitivity to the microclimates and weather history of a particular site is vital in the cold country. Zermatt, Switzerland, is a beautiful mountain village that takes full advantage of its special climate. It is at only 5,000 feet elevation, but it is encircled by giant mountains, such as the Matterhorn and the Zinal Rothorn, which shadow the town in the winter except at midday. Although the snowfall in the town itself is not heavy, there is very little solar melting, and air temperatures remain cold in the winter.
The snow sits charmingly on the cha-kjt roofs and the streets. No cars are permitted. Skiers can slide right to (heir hotel doors, and guests are conveyed to their abode by horse-drawn sleighs.
[ In contrast to Zermatt, modern towns in mountain settings can be insensitive to environmental factors. Tall buildings can create their own negative microclimates. They can block solar access and shadow streets and parks, making them cold and uninviting. At Snowmass, Colo., the main shopping mall rises three stories high along the south side of a central plaza. Shops with entrances in the shade are not as prosperous as those with entrances in the sun.
Modern cities in the cold country have a problem from the phenomenon known as "aerodynamic shade," created when tall buildings alter wind patterns, shelter itlg lower roofs from prevailing winds. Unanticipated snow loads cun build up on the lower, shadowed structures. Until building codes deal with this special problem, the only solution is to design
all buildings for higher snow loads.
Avalanches arc a hazard mu adequately considered by cities in North America. The typical avalanche slope is a barren, north-facing slope with an angle of 30 to 40 degrees, although avalanches have occurred on hills with all exposures and with slopes from 10 to 60 degrees. Sleeper slopes seldom avalanche because the snow slips off before dangerous depths accumulate.
luneau, Alaska's capital, faces the most severe avalanche danger of any sizable city in the U.S. Major avalanches have swept the west-facing Behrends Chute on Ml. Juneau six times in the past century. Before 1946, there was only one building in the slide path; today there are 30 houses, a 500-boal marina, part of a high school, and a motel.
In 1972, the Borough of Juneau made an extensive study to define the potential avalanche hazard. One expert predicted that a Juneau house under the Behrends Chute has a % percent probability of being hit by an avalanche if it stands for 40 years. The study suggested such precautions as monitoring snowfall, developing warning and evacuation systems, controlling the removal of vegetation and reforesting certain areas. The most practical solution is to construct snow support structures high up on Ml. Juneau and on the other high hills above the city. So far, little has been done, and the people of Juneau seem nonchalant about the danger.
The majority of people in Juneau, together with many others who live on avalanche prone sites, appear to feel that the dunger is overstated. This is a curious attitude in a nation that has building codes and zoning laws to protect people from their own folly in choosing to live
Above, snow-support structures above l)u vos, Switzerland, are used to control uvulanches. Across pane, slopes above Juneau, Alaska, pose a threat in an area subject to both uvulanches and earthquakes.
in the paths of floods, over earthquake faults, or in buildings that are firetraps. Unfortunately, the codes probably will not be changed until possibly hundreds are killed by a great avalanche.
The American Planning Association has no reference manual on avalanche ordinances. A survey of 20 suites, 165 counties, and 14 municipalities found that only four states, 15 counties, and six municipalities had any sort of avalanche zoning regulations. The models for the avalanche zoning ordinances in Vail, Colo., and in Ketehum, Sun Valley, and Blaine County, Idaho, came from Switzerland, where the national government even provides funds to help communities build snow support structures and diverters to keep avalanches from populated areas.
All of the major building codes in the United Stales have shortcomings in their treatment of snow loads and the special problems of cold country design. Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA) and Southern Building Code Congress (SBCC) have almost identical methods for calculating nonuniform accumulations of snow on pitched, curved, or multispan roofs and increased loads caused by snow sliding off sloping roofs onto adjacent roofs, or by projections such us penthouses, cooling lowers, and parapet walls. The codes reflect many of the provisions of the 1972 ANSI standards. At a minimum, these

Ian Mackinlay
codes should be upgraded to completely comply with 1982 ANSI standards.
The Uniform Building Code, used throughout the Western states, whose mountain areas have heavy snowfalls, and in Alaska, which has both drifting snow and freezing ground, permits the local building official to determine the snow load. The justification is that snow loads vary too much for a standard requirement to be useful. However, no special training or Credentials are required for building officials, and they vary widely in their abilities, knowledge, and judgment. Many mountain counties have adopted their own snow load standards, and it is not uncommon to find snow load requirements in excess of 200 pounds per square foot in one yountrv and 20 pounds per square foot ,the next.
All of the building codes are inadequate in recognizing the greater fire dan-r in cold country, where snow may block ilding exi s and make roads impassable lirefighl ng equipment. Additional ling evts should be required, and nklcrs Mould be mandatory in areas they would otherwise be one of ral lire ulcty options, lit arctic areas, sprinklers can cause as much dam-mi where direct egress from alien hazardous, places of ref-I life support systems should
c that aiehileels. building i.ils, and the public as a whole have
is lire ; imgs is w it h 111 -landau i is non
' 1 III! W III i
dread of sleep thro and leavin'
I the techniques and responsi-
tics of building in the cold eounlrv.
u 11
ill earthquake /.ones live the next big tremor. Winds jgh the Midwest, killing many
(more homeless. Floods cause ing and loss of life. Fire is an l risk. All of these plagues are >v our building codes. But for me icum n the hazards and inconve-.nce of t ie cold country have received attention. No standards arc set to cut in on snow-laden roofs from shine into public spaces or wrenching iiintys i iff roof slopes.
No stain arils lune been established to .:' vents from becoming closed by snow a icc sickening or even killing the huild-lc occupants. No standards prevent ice mi leaks. The I9H2 Uniform Building (* tie has ijcxoled % pages to fire risk and 2d pages to earthquake risk, but only one clause to all cold weather and snow considerations, and this code applies to Western rtjountains and Alaska.
With more and more people moving
imates. where massive amounts ;ln fall in the streets, where cities can he swept hy avalanche, where the .round can boil with frost, it is high lime icileiolcil tile attention to these hazards that they deserve. The cold country has ns special appeal. We architects must help see that the attraction is not fatal.
into cold cj of snow e

:0! HIS" "IFT 'IN" "ITT 'LS

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GUSS DOUBLE ADVANTAGES 125 84 .3 400 4 2. 1 00 X 1 60
STRENGTH Excelleril Transmissivity Charerterlsllcs Superior Resilience to Heal. U V Abrasions
INSULATED UNITS Low Thermal Eipsnsion/Conlraclion 621 71 3 Zff 2. 350 X 5
Traruparent 700
LO IRON Dillicult to tile fabricate Low Impact Resilience Coe! IB7 91 3 400 2 32 X 24
ACBTUC PLEXIGLAS ADVANTAGES 12 89 .5 190 204 300 X .73
LUCITE Eicellen! Transmtolvlty Charaderietlce 300
ACRTLITI Superior U V. A Weather Resistance Won't Tallow t.
DOUBLE WAU: Lightweight 635 13 .5 160 X. 300 X 1.
EXOLITE East to Site Fabricate 400
Susceptible to Abrasions High Expanalon/Contraction Rate Slight Embrittlement with Age Coel Relatively Low Service Temperatures
MERLON Excellent Service Temperature* * Highly Resistant to impacts IS
TUFEAX Poor Weelherablllty A U.V Resistance (Tellows)
TWTNWALL Scratches Easily 220 79 e 770 5-7 1.75- I .25
Not Easily Available 300
OUAALEX High Ex pa nsion/Cor traction Rate
ran LASCOUTE ADVANTAGES 040 91 .10 160 15 60 I
REINFORCED F1LON Low Coat 040 93 160 15 .85 X 4 or
POLTESTHER IALWALL High Strength Superior Waatherabtltty Tadlar coated panels only Easy to Fabricate and install 040 m 300 12 .95 I 5 OK.
KALWAU Susceptible to U.V., Duat A Pollution Degradation
ROOF PANELS Tallows with Age High Eipa ns ion/Ccntr action Rate
ACATUC/ FLEX1GARD Combines Weatherebillty of Acrylic srtth 007 19 95 775 X
POLTESTHER High Service Tempereture o! Polyeether Good Transmissivity Figures DISADVANTAGES
Non Reversible Susceptible to Wind Flapping
POLTETHTLENE VISOUEEN ADVANTAGES 006 .95 70 12 8 mo* 03 I .5 cn
Inexpensive Easy to Install 2 3 yrs OB 5 a

MONSANTO 602 Easily Available 006 97 .190 X
Poor U.V. and Weather Resistance Low Service Temperature Cats LOVE to climb on the etuH

Low Coal. Clear Glazing
High Service Temperslure DISADVANTAGES
LLUMAB U V Degradable Unites Trailed (U.V. RESISTANT) Optical Clarity la Distorted due to Thinneas of Malarial
10 oa
Eicellenl Weetherabillty
High Solar Tranamlaaton DISADVANTAGES
High 1 R Trensmtaslon
Not Easily Available
Susceptible to Wind Flapping TEFLON FEP ADVANTAGES
High Solar Transmission
High Semce Temperatures
Same as Ted Ur PVF
Poor Tear Resistance
5 at
COATED CLOTH Good Trenemtsstvity Characteristics
Eicellenl Service Temperature
Extremely Weetherable DISADVANTAGES
Susceptible to Wind Flapping and Tearing
.5 as
WILsoM; rr

Properties of Solids and Liquids
1. Properties of Solids
(Values are lor room temperature unless otherwise noted in brackets.)
Material Description Specific Heat Blu/(lb)(F) Density Ib/ft1 Thermal Conductivity Bluh/fftXF/ft)
Adobe 0.24 106 0.3
Aluminum (alloy 1100) 0.214 171 128
Aluminum bronze
(76%Cu, 22%Zn, 2%Al) 0.09 517 58
Alundum (aluminum oxide) 0.186
fiber 0.25 150 0.097
insulation 0.20 36 0.092
Ashes, wood 0.20 40 0.041 (122]
Asphalt 0.22 132 0.43
Bakelite 0.35 81 9.7
Bell metal 0.086(122]
Bismuth tin 0.040 37.6
red (85%Cu, 15%Zn) 0.09 548 87
yellow (65%Cu, 35%Zn) 0.09 519 69
Brick, building 0.2 123 0.4
Bronze 0.104 530 17 [32]
Cadmium 0.055 540 53.7
Carbon (gas retort) 0.17 0.20(2]
Cardboard 0.04
Cellulose 0.32 3.4 0.033
Cement (Portland clinker) 0.16 120 0.017
Chalk 0.215 143 0.48
Charcoal (wood) 0.20 15 0 01(3921
Chrome brick 0.17 200 0.67
Clay 0.22 63
Coal 0.3 90 0.098(321
Coal tars 0.35 [104| 75 0.07
Coke (petroleum, powdered) 0.36 (752) 62 0.551752]
HAZkIA |V' Me '.VT7


Material Description
Concrete (stone)
Copper (electrolytic)
Cork (granulated)
Cotton (fiber)
Cryolite (AIF;,-3NaF) Diamond
Earth (dry and packed)
Fireclay brick Flourspar (CaFJ German silver (nickel silver) Glass:
crown (soda-lime) flint (lead)
"Karbate" (impervious) powder Gypsum Hemp (fiber)
Leather (sole)
Btu/(lb)(F) Ib/ft3 Btuh/(ft)(F/ft)
0.156 [392] 144 0.54
0.092 556 227
0.485 5.4 0.028 [23]
0.319 95 0.024
0.253 181
0.147 151 27
95 0.037
20.6 0.03
0.198 [212] 112 0.58 [392]
0.21 199 0.63
0.09 545 19
0.18 154 0.59 [200]
0.117 267 0.79
0.20 139 0.591200]
0.157 3.25 0.022
0.0312 1208 172
0.16 117 75
0.165 0.106
0.259 78 0.25
0.323 93
0.487 57.5 1.3
0.465 1.41
0.12 [212] 450 27 6[129]
485 34.9
0.0309 707 20.1
62.4 0.092
103 0.54

Specific Heat Density Conductivity
Material Description Btu/(lb)(F) Ib/H* Btuh/(ft*)(F/ft)
Linen 0.05
Litharge (lead monoxide) U.UD D 4VU
light carbonate 13 0.34
powdered 0.234 (212) 49.7 0.35[117)
Magnesite brick 0.222 [212) 158 2.2 [400]
Magnesium 0.241 108 91
Marble 0.21 162 1.5
Nickel 0.105 555 34.4
Paint: black shellac 63 0.15
Paper 0.32 58 0.075
Paraffin 0.69 56 0.14 [32]
Plaster 132 0.43 (167|
Platinum 0.032 1340 39.9
Porcelain 0.18 162 1.3
Pyrites (copper) 0.131 262
Pyrites (iron) 0.136 [156] 310
Rock salt 0.219 136
vulcanized (soft) 0.48 68.6 0.08
(hard) 74.3 0.092
Sand 0.191 94.6 0.19
Sawdust 12 0.03
Silica 0.316 140 0.83 [200]
Silver 0.0560 654 245
freshly fallen 7 0.34
at 32F 31 1.3
Steel (mild) 0.12 489 26.2
Stone (quarried) 0.2 95
bituminous 75 0.41
pitch 0.59 67 0.51
Tin 0.0556 455 37.5
Tungsten 0.032 1210 116
Hardwoods: 0.45/0.65 23/70 0 065/0.148
ash, white 43 0.0992
elm, American 36 0.0884
hickory 50
mahogany 34 0.075
maple, sugar 45 0.108
oak, white 0.570 47 0.102
walnut, black 39

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and more uniform distribution. Even electric luminaires are not left exposed, naked to the eye. They are surrounded with devices to filter or reflect the light so that its intensity is spread and softened. Trees, shrubs, vines, curtains, reflective "shelves," and louvers are effective tools for filtering daylight as it enters building spaces.
Integrate Daylight with Other Environmental Concerns
Design for daylight should be modified by, and integrated with, other environmental concerns. View, natural air movement, acoustics, and electric lighting are all elements which must be considered when designing openings for daylight. A change in
fimt 4-6. WTU6UT
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FIGURE 6-31. A cross section of the developed design of a typical office for the Shell Oil
EVAM V pp lo 7l, 7&-&Z- i I'M

Figure 4-6. Mount1 Airy Public Library, Sawtooth Roof Section

Light Shelf, Winter Condition

Light Shelf, Winter Condition

Ill ill.
Figure 4-37. PPP, Daylighting Section
Figure 4-38. PPP, Natural Ventilation Section
I EnNOELY J pp. j \? 7


A. Historical Development
Winter Park Recreational Association (W.P.R.A.) was organized in 1950 as a nonprofit corporation to assume the responsibility for operation, development and maintenance of the Winter Park Ski Area which was originally opened as part of the Denver Mountain Parks System in January of 1940 and operated by the Parks and Recreation Department of the City and County of Denver until that time. The Association operates under an agreement with the City and County of Denver, Colorado, contained in Ordinance No. 247, Series of 1950 and supplemental amendments to the "Ordinance". As directed by this Ordinance, the Association was organized to operate Winter Park as an agency of the City and County of Denver, to administer the same through its Board of Trustees and to apply all income derived from the operation of Winter Park exclusively for the development, operation and maintenance of the recreational area.
Between 1969 and 1973, expansion planning was done for both Mary Jane and Vasquez. In 1973 the final Environmental Impact Statement on the Winter Park Management Unit was completed and the decision to expand into the Mary Jane was made. Construction was started in May, 1974 and the Mary Jane area was open to the public in December of 1975.
In 1976, W.P.R.A. began to give serious consideration to expansion into Vasquez. The "prospectus" issue was raised by the Forest Service. Briefly, the prospectus issue was whether the Vasquez area should be an expansion area for Winter Park, or whether it should be viewed as a separate, independent ski area on which prospective developers could bid. After two years of consideration, in 1978 the Forest Supervisor requested approval not to issue a prospectus on Vasquez and the Regional Forester determined that planning for Vasquez could proceed with W.P.R.A. as the proponent without a prospectus. The Chief, Forest Service, concurred with this decision.
In 1979, W.P.R.A. began to investigate, in detail, the potential for expansion into the Vasquez area. A team of environmental and transportation specialists was engaged by W.P.R.A. to conduct a new reconnaissance level assessment under a Study Permit issued by the Forest Service on June 2, 1981. Initial coordination with the Forest Service was made to obtain input for identifying potential areas to be addressed. The reconnaissance level studies were followed by detailed studies in several areas where potential impacts were identified. A package of preliminary Vasquez Environmental Studies was completed in January, 1981.
In June, 1980, the Regional Forester confirmed the Land Use allocation of the Vasquez area for development of an alpine ski area and related winter sports activities and authorized the Forest Supervisor to proceed with an analysis of the proposal.

On October 16, 1981, W.P.R.A. entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the Forest Service for implementing the Joint Review process in analyzing the expansion of the Winter Park Ski Area and drafting an Environmental Assessment for the proposed expansion.
B. The Vasquez Environmental Assessment
The Vasquez Environmental Assessment was approved by the U. S. Forest Service on April 27, 1983, when a Decision Notice was issued selecting Alternative One, the Full Development Option, W.P.R.A.'s preferred alternative for the expansion of Winter Park/Mary Jane into the area known as the Vasquez. The Permit Boundary was expanded on December 9, 1983 from 2,400 acres to 7,027 acres of National Forest land for downhill skiing and other recreation activities.
This Master Development Plan sets forth W.P.R.A.'s plan for future expansion. This Master Development Plan addresses all of Winter Park, Mary Jane and the four development opportunities of the Vasquez: Parsenne Bowl, Cooper Creek, East Ridge, and Vasquez Mountain which, when combined, constitute Alternative One. (See Chapter II, Vasquez Environmental Assessment, April, 1983.) This Master Development Plan, when approved, becomes a companion document to the Vasquez Environmental Assessment.
W.P.R.A. does not desire to build the entire Vasquez at one time. Our strategy is to build Vasquez in a series of logical, economically viable steps. Those steps are highly influenced by the topographic constraints. Consequently, Alternative One, the selected alternative, must be divided into its logical pieces. The result is that Parsenne Bowl, Cooper Creek, East Ridge, and Vasquez Mountain surface as individual development opportunities.
To completely understand the interdependency of one development opportunity upon another, one must portray and follow topographic constraints as realistically as possible. For example, Parsenne Bowl terrain has a fairly distinct division between itself, East Ridge, Winter Park, and Mary Jane. By recognizing these boundaries, W.P.R.A. has focused upon the interconnect relationships between the development opportunities in the Master Development Plan.
The Environmental Assessment did not address, as alternatives, the independent development of East Ridge or the independent development of Parsenne Bowl. However, the Master Development Plan format does address these development areas as individual development opportunities since they are a pjrt of the selected alternative. The Environmental Assessment addressed all of the environmental impacts associated with these development opportunities.
C. Planning Philosophy and Methodology
W.P.R.A. is committed to long range planning for the continued development of an efficient and well run year-round resort. W.P.R.A.'s planning staff prepared this Master Development Plan, which not only meets the requirements of the Forest Service, but more importantly, becomes a tool for assisting with and providing direction for all facility improvement and expansion decisions for the whole complex including Winter Park and Mary Jane.

In an effort to gain valuable planning input from a broad cross section of W.P.R.A. employees, an internal corporate "Planning Commission" was created to assist in the identification of issues and concerns related to development issues. Seven planning workshops were conducted and the eighteen member planning workshop group developed over one hundred specific ideas, or issues and concerns, which are reflected in this document. This broad cross section of input initiated thought on issues and ideas never previously considered.
As a result, this Master Development Plan is a document which reflects all previous planning efforts, the latest in ski area planning technology, a firm commitment to well defined corporate goals and philosophy, and a fundamental consideration of a broad level of issues and concerns. Specific planning documents which led to the completion of this Master Development Plan are the existing Master Plan, 1978; the Economic Analysis of Winter Park/Mary Jane/Vasquez, October, 1983 (Technical Supplement); and the Vasquez Environmental Assessment, April, 1983.
This Plan is intended to serve as the general guide to the future expansion of the Winter Park Resort and as a summary document. General commitments to size, scale, location, and intent are discussed here; however, specific engineering studies will need to be conducted during the implementation of any individual development opportunity to provide the exact development process and address mitigation measures, if any. (See Chapter IX, Implementation Plan.) This document explains "what" will be done to implement the expansion components. Future site specific engineering studies will explain "how" the individual projects will be constructed.
Detailed environmental studies and planning analysis are documented as support to the conclusions found herein. It is intended that this Plan be clearly understandable, informative, and interesting.
Winter Park Recreational Association Goals and Objectives
During the past two years, the Board of Trustees and W.P.R.A. management have undertaken a review of all earlier goals and objectives. Although this is and should be an on-going process, several significant new goals and objectives have emerged which will set the direction for growth into the next decade. The following general goals and objectives have been used to set the tone for this Master Development Plan:
1. It is the purpose of Winter Park Recreational Association to develop and market Winter Park as a complete year-round resort.
2. Winter Park Recreational Association will maintain an aggressive growth posture.
3. Winter Park Recreational Association must operate economically year-round.
4. Any new expansion must be cost effective, marketable, and economically viable.

E. Relationship to the Current Master Plan
A Master Plan for Winter Park and Mar/ Jane was approved in 1978. This document has been the general guide for improvements and operation over the past five years. A number of the major projects shown in that Plan have been implemented. Those projects which have not yet been implemented and are still considered compatible with future growth directions have been extracted from the existing Master Plan and are incorporated into this Master Development Plan.
F. The Economic Analysis
During the past two years, economic feasibility studies have been developed. These studies assessed the physical development concept as portrayed in the Environmental Assessment document and in this Master Development Plan to determine its economic feasibility. The analysis included theoretical balance of all trail classifications and acreages, lift capacities, and all facilities needed to support mountain development. The Economic Feasibility Study concluded that the combination of Winter Park/Mary Jane/Vasquez is economically viable if the right set of economic and growth conditions exists. This study also confirmed that not all development opportunities needed to be constructed at one time. It should be noted that the Environmental Assessment does not address the financial feasibility of implementation.
G. Local and Regional Context
The existing Winter Park/Mary Jane Resort complex is located in the Sulphur Ranger District of the Arapaho National Forest, 68 highway miles west of Denver, partially within the corporate limits of the Town of Winter Park in Grand County, Colorado. U. S. Highway 40 and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, which run past the Area, provide major transportation access from both east and west. (Map I)
The existing ski complex lies in Section 8 to II, 14 to 17, 20 to 23, 26 to 29, 32, 33, and Tract 37; all in the unsurveyed portion of Township 2 South, Range 75 West, 6th Principal Meridian. (Map 2)
Winter Park/Mary Jane and the proposed Vasquez expansion components all form the southern terminus of a high alpine park known as the Fraser Valley. Housing and commercial development in the Fraser Valley is concentrated, generally, within the incorporated Towns of Winter Park and Fraser and in subdivisions within the forested private land surrounding the grassland valley.

H. Relationship to the Community
W.P.R.A., which operates the existing Winter Park/Mary Jane complex, has played an active role in the recent development of the Fraser Valley and the Town of Winter Park. As the largest employer in the Fraser Valley (over 700 employees in the peak winter ski season), the Ski Area has a large impact on community resources, payroll, and lifestyles.
W.P.R.A. has supported logical, high quality Valley growth and has contributed to such planning documents as the Fraser Valley Master Plan, the Town of Winter Park Master Plan, the Town of Winter Park Transportation Plan. W.P.R.A. also supports many public and private organizations committed to the destination resort image and development.

Location Map
uoyden (40) Wilder
"% V /
fc \ f
"Steamboat Springs^^i

K% M* V-4-- ^
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10 20 30 MILES
[^Silver Cr&ek ;
r Sr,
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Vicinity & Permit Boundary Map



A. General Description
This Chapter describes the total Master Development Plan which is comprised of the Winter Park/Mary Jane, Parsenne Bowl, Cooper Creek, East Ridge, and Vasquez Mountain development opportunities. Each succeeding chapter will describe the individual development opportunities; therefore, the narrative in this chapter is broader and more general in context.
It is important to recognize that implementation of the Master Development Plan does not necessitate nor envision following a prescribed phasing sequence. The development opportunities can be implemented individually or simultaneously and in any order.
The total plan represents up to 42 lifts, 7,027 permit acres^approximately 1,168.8 acres of trails, and a comfortable capacity of 23,500 skiers at one time. The plan is representative of a balanced mountain design of lifts, trails, and support facilities. This plan provides varied opportunities for expansion and identifies the interrelationships between development opportunities.
As implementation of this Plan proceeds, it is understood that construction of one development opportunity may not occur within a single season. Therefore, there is potential for a temporary imbalance in trail and lift conditions as the individual development opportunities are constructed. Specific management techniques and mitigation measures will be identified to address these out-ofbalance situations. Project Proposals developed for project implementation will address short term measures which address any temporary imbalance situation that may occur during the buildout of any one development opportunity.
B. Base Facilities
Facility locations are influenced by topographic constraints which develop skier flow and skier access patterns. Facility sizes are influenced by the availability of parking, off-site access, and land ownerships.

Vasquez Mountain Base Area
These facilities are located in a meadow area 10,000 feet south from the National Forest Boundary, up the Little Vasquez drainage. This area is essentially where the yo-yo skier traffic on Vasquez Mountain terminates with the exception of skiing terrain continuing to lifts IV and IE.
The design concept for these facilities is to create a multi-activity recreation center for year-round use. These facilities will change in scope depending upon the access mode selected to this Base Area.
Mountain and Support Facilities
Mountain facility locations are influenced by topographic constraints, resultant skier flows, and terrain capacity. Facility locations can also have a significant influence upon skier flow patterns which impact lift demand and trail densities. The goal is to create a comfortable and effective skier dispersement. The reader will notice that the same facility in different development stages and opportunities will differ in size. This is due to the terrain, trail and lift influence upon those facilities. Facility size for various combinations of development opportunities will be identified by the use of computer modeling and staff analysis in later stages of planning.
Access, Parking, and Transportation
1 Access
Vasquez Mountain
The Vasquez Mountain access is best described in two segments. The first segment is access from U.S. 40 to the point where the Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary. This is the location of the proposed Funicular Center. Access to this point can be accomplished by two routes. (See Map 3.)
(1) From U.S. Highway 40 at the Maryvale entrance, under the Denver and Rio Grade Western Railroad mainline, up the Leland Creek drainage through Denver Water Board property to the National Forest boundary and the Little Vasquez drainage; or,
(2) From U.S. Highway 40, 1/2 mile south of Beaver Village, under the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad mainline, west through a saddle into the Little Vasquez drainage.
The second segment is access from the National Forest boundary to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area. (See Map 3.)
From the point where the Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary and up the Big Vasquez Creek drainage; or.
From the point where the Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary and up the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.

Two access modes are being considered for the Little Vasquez
Creek drainage.
(a) Of several access modes being considered, the gondola option is most strongly supported by the Winter Park Recreation Association. It is the most environmentally sensitive, economically feasible solution which satisfies the volume of people required.
(b) Private automobile and bus transit system to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area is a second acceptable option. This one does, however, delete a small portion of beginner skier terrain.
Selection of a route and access mode will be made after an EA, economic analysis, and operational analysis have been completed.
The gondola option will be developed for the purposes of the project.
Parking is provided in this Plan on the Basis of current ridership characteristics for various access modes, as shown on the following table. Parking continues to provide a means of controlling skier densities, although the effectiveness of that controlling method diminishes as the local bed base increases and the transit system expands and becomes more efficient. Parking design guidelines and requirements must remain flexible to accommodate changes in ridership patterns, new and expanded equipment, and variable growth patterns.
Total parking provided in this Plan is adequate for total Vasquez/Winter Park/Mary Jane development based upon current design criteria. The access and staging alternatives for vasquez create an either-or s tuation for parking at the Vasquez Mountain Base Area site or the Little Vasquez Funicular Center site and Cooper Creek Base Area or the Beaver Village gondola.

Acces s Points Winter Park Mary Jane Vasquez T otals
Total Skiers (by Access Point) 7335 3682 7969 18986
Mode of Access: Proportion
(Va cation) Shuttle Bus 22% 2498 2670 5168
(Va cation) Accom Lift 25% 1373 1373
(Va cation) Charter Bus 7% 137 1507 1644
(Vacation) Pvt. Auto 10% 783 825 741 2349
(Da y Use) Pvt. Auto 28% 3154 1150 2272 6576
(Da y Use) Charter Bus 8% 900 197 782 1879
Tot al 100% 7335 3682 7989 1 8989
Employees 631 159 339 1129
Autos to Park: Per Vehicle
Vac ation Skiers 3.5 224 236 212 672
Day Skiers 2.5 1262 460 909 2631
Emp doyees 1.5 421 106 226 753
T ot al Autos 1907 802 1347 4056
T otal Buses 40.0 23 9 58 90
Space Requirements: Sq. Ft. Per (000) (000) (000) (000)
Aut os 400 763 321 539 1623
Bus es 800 18 7 46 71
T ot al 781 328 585 1694
Space Available (000) (000) (000) (000)
Sur face Square Feet 743 319 1045 2107
Differ ence in Square Feet -38 -9 460 413
Propo rtion -5% -3% 44% 20%

Public transportation is currently provided by "The Lift" shuttle system paid for by W.P.R.A. and subsidized by the Town of Winter Park. Private lodge vans and buses, and private automobiles complement the transportation system. Planning is currently in progress for establishment of a transportation district which will have taxing authority. It is anticipated that this district will have revenues and other financial resources to allow it to provide improvements and expansion in the existing system. It is not anticipated that the district will be capable of assuming full financial responsibility for the shuttle system.
Transportation modes which can complement the system are the proposed gondola from Beaver Village to Cooper Creek, the funicular from the Little Vasquez Funicular Center to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area, an enclosed cabin system from Old Town to the Village at Winter Park, an enclosed cabin system from the Vintage Hotel site to the Mary Jane Base Area, and an aerial, rail or bus system from the Vintage Hotel site to the Village at Winter Park.
The enclosed cabin transportation modes which link Old Town to Winter Park Base, Winter Park Base to City Land and City Land to the Mary Jane Base provide an all weather, year round transportation opportunity which is unique and highly desirable. It is proposed that this transportation link will offer evening operation so that a guest staying in Old Town can travel by the enclosed cabin system to dinner or shopping at Winter Park base, City Land development, and the Mary Jane Center. Also, summer operation of these transportation lifts will assure use of facilities normally only used during the winter season. This system addresses base area parking limitations and enhances the viability of future ski area development expansion in a situation where no private land is immediately adjacent to the base of the ski area.
Daily passenger rail service to the Valley is provided by the Amtrak stops in Fraser and Granby. The opportunity exists for increased rail passenger service in addition to the current weekend ski train.
Bus service is provided into and out of the Valley by Gray Line, Continental Trailways, the Coors/Gart Ski Lift, and the Grand Connection. The Grand Connection also provides an intervalley transportation service.
Berthoud Pass improvements are anticipated in the future, although no construction is currently scheduled by the Colorado State Highway Department. An EA for those improvements was initiated in the summer of 1984 by the Colorado State Highway Department.
A total of 42 lifts comprise the Plan. Thirty-one (31) lifts are addressed in the Technical Supplement and are shown with the following lift system inventory.

Master Development Plan Lift System Inventory (of lifts serving skier terrain)
Arrow 2W B Tri 2,388 629 1800 1,132,200
Gemini 4W C Dou 2,455 551 1200 661,200
Apollo 6W D Dou 4,517 ' 1,180 1200 1,416,000
Zephyr IW E Tri 5,660 1,615 1800 2,907,000
Eskimo 8W F Dou 5,130 1,239 1200 1,486,800
Outrigger I0W G Tri 5,375 1,170 1800 2,106,000
Discovery 7W H Dou 2,100 250 1000 250,000
Prospector Looking 9W J Tri 3,065 710 1800 1,278,000
Glass 1 IW K Tri 1,896 450 1800 810,000
Olympia I2W L Dou 5,600 950 1200 1,140,000
Challenger 4M M Dou 4,739 1,461 1200 1,753,200
Pony Ex. 2M N Dou 1,244 130 1200 1,262,400
Iron Horse IM 0 Dou 5,659 1,676 1200 2,011,200
Lunch Rock 5M Galloping P Quad 7,000 1,780 1260 2,242,800
Goose Lonesome 3M Q Dou 3,411 1,052 1200 156,000
Whistle 7P R Quad 5,600 760 1500 1,140,000
Main Mt. 10V .S Tri 4,780 820 1200 984,000
Parsenne IP T Tri 2,650 520 1000 520,000
Parsenne 2P U Tri 3,500 750 2000 1,500,000
Parsenne 3P 7 Pla 2,850 820 1200 984,000
Parsenne 4P V Tri 4,800 880 1800 1,584,000
East Ridqe ! IE X Quad 6,800 1,200 2200 2,640,000
Main Mt. IV Y Tri 6,000 800 1800 1,440,000
Main Mt. 2V 2 Tri 4,850 780 900 702,000
Main Mt. 3V 1 Tri 8,200 1,500 1000 1,500,000
Main Mt. 4V 3 Tri 3,700 630 1200 756,000
Beqinner 5V 9 Dou 600 70 1000 70,000
Main Mt. 6V 6 Dou 5,320 1,210 1200 1,452,000
Main Mt. 7V 5 Tri 4,280 950 1500 1,425,000
Main Mt. 8V Z Tri 4,800 1,275 1500 1,912,500
Main Mt. 9V 8 Tri 3,250 950 1800 1,710,000 40,932,000

Vasquez Mountain/Winter Park/Mary Jane
a. Lifts
Skier access from Winter Park/Mary Jane to Vasquez Mountain can be provided lift IV located in the Cabin Creek Interchange and lifts 8V and 9V out of the upper Little Vasquez drainage.
Skier access from Vasquez to Winter Park/Mary Jane is provided by lifts IE, 3C, IIW, and 10V.
b. Trails
Skier access to lifts from Winter Park/Mary Jane to Vasquez Mountain is provided through the Olympia Basin to the Cabin Creek Interchange via the Cooper Creek and Fairyland trail network and from Lunch Rock to the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.
Skier access to lifts from Vasquez Mountain to Winter Park/Mary Jane is provided from Vasquez Mountain summit, Center Ridge, and Vasquez Mountain Base Area to Cabin Creek Interchange.
Skier access to the Little Vasquez Funicular Center will be down the Little Vasquez Creek drainage from the Vasquez Mountain Base Area.
Mountain Roads
13.9 miles of new mountain roads will be required to service all new facilities. This plan proposes that the existing gravel pit below the top of Cooper Creek and the Olympia Spur gravel pit be studied as a gravel source for all existing mountain roads and mountain roads in Parsenne Bowl, Cooper Creek, and East Ridge. A third gravel pit site must be located in the Vasquez Mountain development opportunity for mountain roads necessary for that expansion.

Water will be provided to the following sites by one of two methods: either by the development of well systems and the purchase of that water under the current Denver Water Board water contract, or by one of two water and sanitation districts Winter Park Water and Sanitation District or Grand County Water and Sanitation District #1.
Facility Location
Mary Jane Campground Lunch Rock Restaurant Snoasis Restaurant Mary Jane Base Area The Village at Winter Park Cooper Creek Summit Restaurant Cooper Creek Base Area Vasquez Mt. Base Area Little Vasquez Funicular Center Little Vasquez Cross Country/ Equestrian Center Vasquez Mt. Summit Restaurant Vasquez West Ridge Restaurant
Apollo Flats Warming House Apollo Flats Maintenance Shops Sunspot Warming House Little Vasquez Restaurant Vasquez Maintenance Facility Vasquez Campgrounds WP Maintenance Facility Parsenne Creek Restaurant
Served by
WP Water & San. New Wells Existing Wells WP Water & San. WP Water & San. Snoasis Wells Grand Co. W & S New Wells Grand Co. W & S
Grand Co. W & S # I New Wells Same Wells as Vasquez Mt. Base Existing Wells Existing Wells New Wells Grand Co. W & S # I New Wells Grand Co. W & S #1 WP Water & San. New Wells
Projected Water Usage
Peak Demand Gallons/Day (8.1 G.P.D./Skier) Existinq 93,000 Additional 93,439 Total 186,439
Average Daily Demand Gallons/Day (45% of Peak) 42,000 42,046 84,046
^otal Average Annual Demand 6,675,000 9,188,614 15,863,614
2. Sewerage
Sewage disposal and treatment will be provided by two water and sanitation districts Winter Park Water and Sanitation District and Grand County Water and Sanitation District #1. No on-site sewage treatment is anticipated.

The following facilities will be served by Winter Park Water and Sanitation District.
a. Mary Jane Campground
b. Lunch Rock Restaurant
c. Snoasis Restaurant
d. Mary Jane Base Area
e. The Village at Winter Park
f. Cooper Creek Summit Restaurant
g. Winter Park Maintenance Facilities
h. Apollo Flats Warming House
i. Apollo Flats Maintenance Shops
j. Sunspot Warming House
The following facilities will be served by Grand County Water and Sanitation District #1.
a. Vasquez Mountain Base Area
b. Little Vasquez Funicular Center
c. Little Vasquez Cross Country/Equestrian Center
d. Vasquez Mountain Summit Restaurant
e. Vasquez West Ridge Restaurant
f. Vasquez Campgrounds
g. Vasquez Maintenance Facility
h. Cooper Creek Base Area
The following facilities will be served by holding tanks.
a. Parsenne Creek Restaurant
b. Top of Challenger
c. Top of Eskimo
d. Bottom of Looking Glass
e. Top of Lift 3P
f. Top of Lift 4P
g. Top of Lift IE
h. Bottom and top of Lift IV
i. Bottom and top of Lift 7V
Projected Sewage Volumes
Existing Additional Total
Daily Peak Flows
@ 8.1 G.P.D./Skier 93,000 93,439 186,439
3. Power
Primary power is supplied by Mountain Parks Electric, Inc. The transmission line capacity is not adequate for all mountain development opportunities and other anticipated developments within the Fraser Valley. It is known that full development, as identified in this Master Development Plan, will require a new transmission line from the Fraser Substation to a substation site adjacent to the Little Vasquez Funicular Center area. This transmission line is currently proposed to cross National Forest land and the substation is also proposed to be located on National Forest land. All mountain distribution systems will be underground and will T>e installed, owned and maintained from the primary meter location by W.P.R.A.

Power requirements for the Master Development Plan are as follows.
Winter Park/Mary Jane Existing
Winter Park/Mary Jane Projected
Parsenne/Cooper Creek/East Ridge/Vasq. Mt.-Projected
TOTAL 19/700
4. Gas
Public Service Company has indicated that supplies of gas are plentiful and no restrictions in supply or distribution capacity are anticipated. Public Service Company will provide gas service to the following existing and proposed facilities.
a. Snoasis Restaurant
b. Mary Jane Base Area
c. Mary Jane Maintenance Shops
d. Lunch Rock Restaurant
e. The Village at Winter Park
f. Sunspot
g. Cooper Creek Summit Restaurant
h. Cooper Creek Base Area
i. Vasquez Mountain Base Area
j. Little Vasquez Funicular Center
k. Little Vasquez Restaurant
l. Little Vasquez Cross Country/Equestrian Center
m. Vasquez Maintenance Facility
n. Vasquez Mountain Summit Restaurant
o. West Ridge Restaurant
Telephone and Communications
W.P.R.A. will install and maintain all mountain phone systems from their main switchboard. All phone line installation will be adjacent to primary power and will be underground.
Snowmaking is proposed in this Master Development Plan for a number of areas within this Plan to complement the existing system. These proposed expansions are primarily in high traffic areas. These areas are identified in each individual development opportunity and on each individual development opportunity map.
Safety considerations are addressed in the individual development opportunity descriptions.

Community Factors
As a result of this plan, increased demand for community services will occur. Those demands for employee housing, schools, health services, and general municipal services are identified and quantified in the Vasquez Environmental Assessment.
This plan can create an additional 502 jobs. W.P.R.A.'s current employee housing program provides employee housing in two ways. Condominium units are leased directly and employees are required to pay W.P.R.A. monthly rent. Demand for those units varies and W.P.R.A. will respond to employee housing demands. Secondly, W.P.R.A. provides employees housing within their facilities. As new facilites are constructed, employee housing will be provided within those facilities for employees responsible for security, overnight operations, custodial services, and those services which require late night or early morning attention. Those facilities will be located in the proposed shops sites and base facilities sites.
Signage for all development opportunities will be consistent with the signage and graphics standards to be submitted to the U. S. Forest Service in 1985. Main entryway signage will be consistent in design, varying only in scale. Signage kiosks providing mountain, base, services, weather, and marketing information will be located in the Sunspot area, Lunch Rock Restaurant area, Vasquez Base Area, Cabin Creek Interchange, V^quez Mountain top restaurant area, the top of the Cooper Creek area, the top of the Olympia, the Village of Winter Park, the Mary Jane Base Area and the Cooper Creek Base Area. Lift line time signs will be added in the locations of the existing "You Are Here" trail signs.
Summer and Winter Activities
W.P.R.A. will continue to broaden the scope of recreational activities and opportunities it provides the public through economically viable and high quality programs and activities. Emphasis must be placed upon W.P.R.A.'s need to broaden its revenue generating opportunities. The following existing and proposed programs and activities are described in more detail in each development opportunity chapter.
Existing Program or Activity
Hiking Horseshoes Exercise Facility Fishing Volley Ball Jeep Tours Concerts Lift Rides Horseback Riding Alpine Slide Camping Picnics Windsurfing
Mary Jane/Vasquez
Mary Jane/Vasquez
Winter Park/Vasquez
Winter Park/Vasquez
Winter Park/Mary Jane/Vasquez
Winter Park
Winter Park/Vasquez
Mary Jane/Cooper Crk/Vasquez
Winter Park/Vasquez
Winter Park
Mary Jane/Vasquez
Winter Park/Mary Jane/Vasquez
Lake Granby

New Program or Activity
Llama Treks
Cross Country Skiing
Ice skating
Dog Sledding
Sleigh Rides
Mary Jane/Vasquez Winter Park/Vasquez Winter Park/Vasquez Vasquez Vasquez
Winter Park/Vasquez
Winter Park/Vasquez Vasquez
Winter Park/Mary Jane/Vasquez Lake Granby/Colorado River Mary Jane/Vasquez

General Description
The expansion of the Winter Park Ski Area offers the majority of its skiing within that portion known as Vasquez Mountain. This area consists of two parallel north-south ridges sharing a common drainage basin known locally as Cabin Creek. This drainage forms a collector trail for most of the skiable terrain, which ranges from an elevation of I 1,800 feet to an elevation of 9,700 feet, terminating in a large meadow. Below this meadow, the valley narrows and falls an additional 700 vertical feet in a distance of 10,000 feet. The resultant 7% average grade provides a corridor through which a funicular railway or automobile road could access the pronosed base facility just above and to the north of the meadow. Also through this corridor,
skiers could, on a groomed trail, ski back to parking, the Funicular Center, and the Town. A secondary access option exists along the Big Vasquez Creek drainage and west side of West Ridge.
Because of the extensive skiable terrain and large capacity offered within the Vasquez Mountain development opportunity, and the remoteness of this area from the rest of the Winter Park/Mary Jane ski areas, a base area providing full services, with access, will be mandatory. Furthermore, some development of the East Ridge development opportunity is required to provide interchange capabilities between Winter Park, Mary Jane, and Vasquez.
The two ridges, called West Ridge and Center Ridge, join at the Vasquez Mountain summit forming a large, steep, northeast facing cirque, which offers 800 vertical feet of demanding expert terrain and above timberline alpine views and environment. Large, east facing cornices are formed by the wind in the cirque. Avalanche control will be required in this area.
From its upper terminus at the cirque, Vasquez Mountain offers long ski trails of 15,000 feet or more, and a ski back opportunity to the Town of Winter Park of nearly five miles. With the installation of a high capacity lift from the base lodge to a mountain top facility, Vasquez Mountain offers the alpine experience and scenery to skiers and non-skiers alike.
With its excellent snow accumulation, long trails, and large amount of terrain for all skier levels, the Vasquez Mountain development opportunity superbly balances and enhances the existing Winter Park/Mary Jane skiing complex.

Base Facilities
Vasquez Mountain Bose Facilities
These facilities are located in a meadow area 10,000 feet south from the National Forest boundary, up the Little Vasquez drainage. This area is essentially where the yo-yo skier traffic on Vasquez Mountain terminates.
The design concept for these facilities is to create a multi-activity recreation center for year-round use. These facilities will change in scope depending upon the access mode selected to this base area.
Conceptual plans of the base facilities at Vasquez Mountain are outlined in Chapter VIII.
Vasquez Maintenance Facilities
These facilities, which are located on a large bench to the north of the base facilities, would house slope grooming equipment, lift maintenance, plumbing, electrical and carpentry shops, warehouse, and heavy and light vehicle maintenance. Cold storage, fuel storage, and sand storage would also be located at this site.

The first segment is access from U. S. 40 to the point where Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary. This is the location of the proposed Funicular Center. Access to this point can be accomplished by two routes.
a. From U. S. Highway 40 at the Maryvale entrance, under the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad mainline, up the Leland Creek drainage through Denver Water Board property to the National Forest boundary and the Little Vasquez drainage; or
b. From U. S. Highway 40, 1/2 mile south of Beaver Village, under the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad mainline, west through a saddle into the Little Vasquez drainage.
The second segment is access from the National Forest boundary to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area.
a. From the point where the Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary and up the Big Vasquez Creek drainage; or
b. From the point where the Little Vasquez Creek crosses the National Forest boundary and up the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.
Two access modes are being considered for the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.
(1) Funicular transportation system to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area. This will require a service road using either the Little Vasquez or Big Vasquez routes; or
(2) Private automobile and bus transit system to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area.
Selection of a route and access mode will be made after an EA, economic analysis, and operational analysis have been completed.
The following parking evaluation indicates an excess in land available for parking in order to implement this development opportunity. Parking can occur at either the Little Vasquez Funicular Center (21 acres) or at the Vasquez Mountain Base (24 acres) and adequately accommodate expected parking demand.

Current Winter Park/Mary Jane Design with Vasquez Mountain Parking Evaluation
Access Points Winter Park Mary Jane Cooper Creek Vasquez Totals
Total Skiers (by Access Point) 8754 2100 0 7969 18823
Mode of Access:
(Vacation) Shuttle Bus 3074 2670 5744
(Vacation) Accom Lifts 0
(Vacation) Charter Bus 643 117 1505 2265
(Vacation) Pvt. Auto 2497 753 740 3990
(Day Use) Pvt. Auto 2101 1024 2272 5397
(Day Use) Charter Bus 439 206 782 1427
Total 8754 2100 0 7969 18823
Employees 570 120 690
Autos to I ark: Per Vehicle
Vacatior > Skiers 3.5 714 216 0 212 1142
Day Skiers 2.5 841 410 0 909 2160
Employees 1.5 380 80 0 0 460
Total Autos 1935 706 0 1121 3762
Total Busses 40.0 28 9 0 58 95
Space Requirements: Sq.Ft.Per (000) (000) (000) (000) (000)
Autos 400 774 282 0 448 1504
Busses 800 22 7 0 46 75
Total 796 289 0 494 1579
Space Available: (000) (000) (000) (000) (000)
Surface Square Feet 743 319 1045 2107
Different s in Square Feet -53 30 0 551 528
Proportioi 1 -IX 10X 33X
3. Transportation
All transportation systems described in Chapter II would provide service to this development opportunity.

In addition to the continued upgrading of lift facilities explained in Chapter III, Winter Park/Mary Jane, the following additions will be provided to implement Vasquez Mountain:
TyPe Approx. Capacity Approx. Lenqth Ref. Number
1. Cabin Creek Interchange-Center Ridge T riple 1800/hr. 6000' IV
2. Vasquez Base Area-Center Ridge Triple 900/hr. 4850' 2V
3. Vasquez Base Area-Vasquez Mt. Summit Triple 1000/hr. 8200' 3V
4. Vasquez Base Area-West Ridge Center Triple 1200/hr. 3700' 4V
5. Beginner area Double 1000/hr. 600' 5V
6. Mid Vasquez Mountain-Vasquez Mt. Summit Double 1200/hr. 5320' 6V
7. Mid Vasquez Mountain-Upper West Ridge Triple 1500/hr. 4280 7V
8. Mid Little Vasquez-Vasquez Mt. Summit T riple 1500/hr. 4800' 8V
9. Upper Little Vasquez-Vasquez Mt. Summit T riple 1800/hr. 3250' 9V
10. Upper Little Vasquez-Lunch Rock T riple 1200/hr. 4780 10V
F. Trails
The Vasquez Mountain offers 331.6 acres of excellent terrain for all skier levels. The opportunities for development allow for design adjustment over a period of time to accommodate for changes in market demand.
The area between the West and Center Ridges provides uniform intermediate terrain with ideal exposure. Consideration must be given to the topographic tunneling effect which occurs for 2,400 lineal feet above the base area meadow. The terrain to the east of Center Ridge and in the cirque provides excellent expert skiing. These areas also experience the tunneling effect which may cause skier congestion.

A cross country trail system will be developed and maintained beyond the permit boundary. This system will tie together with mountain facilities, but in a manner which does not create conflicts between cross country skiers, downhill skiers, and snowmobilers.
Trail Acreage:
Beginner Novice
I0%-I5% l5%-25%
50. Oj Acre 40.0/Acre
A_res | Skiers Acres Skiers
38.5 1923 35.0 1401
2.8 133 31.1 1240
41.3 2061 66.1 2641
Low Int Intermed
35%-35% 30%-40%
30.0/Acre 20.0/Acre
Acres Skiers Acres Skiers
84.6 2538 131.2 2624
54.6 1636 134.4 2689
139.2 4174 265.6 5313
High Int Advanced
35%-45% 45%-60%
15.0/Acre 10.0/Acre
Acres Skiers Acres Skiers
131.7 1975 86.4 864
12.3 184 57.4 574
144.0 2159 143.8 1438
Expert 60%-+ 10.0/Acre Total
Acres Skiers Acres Skiers
63.0 630 570.4 11955
40.7 407 331.6 6868
103.7 1037 902.0 18823
Mountain Interconnect Requirements
Vasquez Mountain/Winter Park/Mary Jane
1. Lifts
Skier access from Winter Park/Mary Jane into Vasquez Mountain is provided by lift IV located in the Cabin Creek Interchange and lifts 8V and 9V out of the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.
Skier access from Vasquez to Winter Park/Mary Jane is provided by lifts IE, 3C, and 10V.
2. Trails
Skier access to lifts from Winter Park/Mary Jane to Vasquez Mountain is provided through the Olympia Basin to the Cabin Creek Interchange via the Cooper Creek and Fairyland trail network and from Lunch Rock to the Little Vasquez Creek drainage.
Skier access to lifts from Vasquez Mountain to Winter Park/Mary Jane is provided from Vasquez Mountain summit, Center Ridge, and Vasquez Mountain Base Area to Cabin Creek Interchange.
Skier access to the Little Vasquez Funicular Center will be down the Little Vasquez Creek drainage from the Vasquez Mountain Base Area.

Mountain Roads
6.4 miles of mountain roads are required to service this development opportunity. This does not include the access or service road from the National Forest boundary to the Vasquez Mountain Base Area. A gravel pit site must be located in the Vasquez Mountain development opportunity for mountain roads necessary for that expansion. (See Chapter IX, C. 6.)
I. Water
Water will be provided to the following sites by the development of well systems and purchase of that water under the current Denver Water Board water contract or be supplied by the Grand County Water and Sanitation District it I.
Facility Location
Vasquez Mountain Base Area Little Vasquez Funicular Center Little Vasquez Cross Country/Eques. Center Vasquez Mountain Summit Restaurant Vasquez West Ridge Restaurant
Little Vasquez Restaurant Vasquez Maintenance Facility Vasquez Campgrounds
Projected Water Usage
Peak Demand
Gallons/Day(8.1 G.P.D./Skier) 93,000
Average Daily Demand Gallons/Day (45% of Peak) 42,000 25,033 67,033
Total Average Annual
Demand 6,675,000 6,483,547 13,158,547
2. Sewerage
Sewage disposal and treatment will be provided by the Grand County Water and Sanitation District it I and holding tanks. No on-site sewage treatment is anticipated.
Served by
New wells Grand Co. W & S it I Grand Co. W & S it I New wells Same wells as Vasquez Mt. Base Grand Co. W & S it I New Wells Grand Co. W & S // I
Additional Total
55,630 148,630

The following facilities will be served by Grand County Water and Sanitation District #1.
a. Vasquez Mountain Base Area
b. Little Vasquez Funicular Center
c. Little Vasquez Cross Country/Equestrian Center
d. Vasquez Mountain Summit Restaurant
e. Vasquez West Ridge Restaurant
f. Vasquez Campgrounds
g. Vasquez Maintenance Facility
The following facilities will be served by holding tanks.
a. Bottom and Top of Lift IV
b. Bottom and Top of Lift 7V
Projected Sewage Volumes
Existinq Projected Additional Total
Daily Peak Flows
@8.1 G.P.D./Skier 93,000 55,630 148,630
3. Power
Power requirements follows. for this proposed development opportunity are as
Existing Projected Total
Kilowatts Additional Kilowatts
9,500 4,700 14,200
4. Gas
Public Service Company has indicated that supplies of gas are plentiful and no restrictions in supply or distribution capacity are anticipated. Public Service Company will provide gas service to the following proposed facilities.
a. Vasquez Mountain Base Area
b. Little Vasquez Funicular Center
c. Little Vasquez Cross Country/Equestrian Center
d. Little Vasquez Restaurant
e. Vasquez Maintenance Facility
f. Vasquez Mountain Summit Restaurant
g. West Ridge Restaurant
5. Telephone and Communications
W.P.R.A. will install and maintain all mountain phone systems from their main switchboard. All phone line installation will be adjacent to primary power and will be underground.

Snowmaking is planned for the Vasquez Mountain intermediate trails. This represents approximately 100 acres of snowmaking. Snowmaking will also be required for the Olympia Basin area and Cabin Creek Interchange which interconnects Winter Park with Vasquez Mountain.
Avalanche hazard is present in the Vasquez Cirque at the southern edge of the permit boundary. This area will need to be controlled, if skied. Patrol facilities will be located at the top of Vasquez Cirque, the top of Vasquez Mountain, and in the Vasquez Mountain Base Area. Skiing in the Cirque would be accessed via snowcat and would be controlled by skiing guides.
Community Factors
As a result of this Plan, increased demand for community services will occur. Those demands for employee housing, schools, health services, and general municipal services are identified and quantified in the Vasquez Environmental Assessment. Approximately 263 seasonal jobs are created by this development opportunity.
W.P.R.A.'s current employee housing program provides employee housing in two ways. Condominium units are leased directly and employees are requirred to pay W.P.R.A. monthly rent. Demand for those units varies and W.P.R.A. will respond to the demand changes. Secondly, W.P.R.A. provides employee housing within their facilities. As new facilities are constructed, employee housing will be provided within those facilities for employees responsible for security, overnight operations, custodial services, and those services which require late night or early morning attention. Those facilities will be located in the proposed shops sites and base facilities sites.
Summer and Winter Activities
Extensive summer and winter activities will occur in the Vasquez Mountain Base Area. If the funicular access option is implemented, athletic club and recreation facilities will be developed in the Vasquez Mountain basefacilities in the Meadow area.
damping and picnic locations are adjacent to the National Forest boundary near rhe confluence of the Little Vasquez Creek/Vasquez Creek and also in the Little Vasquez Creek drainage in the vicinity of the Denver Water Board siphon. Tent camping and recreational vehicle spaces with utilities would be provided with adequate separation. Fees would be charged for use of these facilities.

Llama treks and horseback riding will be staged out of the cross country/equestrian center in the summer. Separate hiking and horseback riding trails will be established to provide visitors varied experiences.
Snowmobile rentals will be staged in a facility separate from the cross country/equestrian center. Snowmobile trails will be clearly marked and separated from the cross country trail network. Both trail networks will be maintained and patroled. Dog sledding races will be accommodated as demand dictates on a limited portion of the cross country and snowmobile trail networks. Sleigh rides will be staged out of the cross country/equestrian center and will be available for both day and evening rides.
Volleyball, handball, tennis, basketball, and horseshoes will be developed outside the Vasquez Mountain base facilities. Locker rooms, showers, whirlpools, and exercise facility will be provided in conjunction with these activities.
Jeep tours, concerts, and lift rides will be staged out of the Vasquez Mountain Base Area.
Ice skating will be developed northwest of the base facilities and an indoor-outdoor pool will be incorporated with the base facilities on the south facing side.
Activities List
Hiking Llama Treks Basketball Jeep Tours Concerts Lift Rides Ice Skating Dog Sledding
Fishing Tennis Handball Camping Picnics Bicycling Cross Country Skiing Archery
Horseback Riding Volleyball Swimming Horseshoes Exercise Facility Snowmobiling Sleigh Rides

Property Ownership
NOTE: Shading indicates pnvate land.
Recess Road
.Access Road a
Tract 3
D.W.B West Conduit Line Easement
R.R. Tunnel
D.'W.B. Siphon No. 1 Easement
Moffat Tunnel R.O.W.

MAP 18

Development Opportunity VASQUEZ MOUNTAIN
3200 FEET

Winter Park Recreational Association
MAP 13

A. Introduction
This chapter defines the planning, design, engineering, and the review and approval process associated with the implementation of this Master Development Plan. The approval of this Master Development Plan under the terms of W.P.R.A.'s Special Use Permit constitutes an agreement between the W.P.R.A. and the U. S. Forest Service. This Master Development Plan approves conceptual level plans to expand the Winter Park Ski Area to provide a total of
23,500 skier day opportunities. Phasing the construction of facilities will be based upon the Master Plan "development opportunities" in light of then existing skier demand and economic conditions. It is the intent that this Master Plan, with approved amendments, will guide planning and construction "build out" of facilities required to satisfy the projected demand of 23,500 skier day by December 30, 1995. Should "build out" not be completed by December 30, 1995, a reassessment will be jointly developed by Winter Park and the Forest Service. The results of this reassessment will be used to modify this Master Development Plan or develop a new plan.
Interim amendments to this Master Development Plan may be initiated as jointly agreed to by the W.P.R.A. and the U. S. Forest Service.
B. The Process
It is the intent that the Master Development Plan constitutes conceptual approval of the buildings, lifts, and trails, and associated utilities identified in the narrative and maps. Accordingly, the Forest Service will require various levels, to be further defined, of engineering plans, details, and specifications for such projects. Environmental Assessments will not be required, except as stipulated in Sections C-3 through C-6 of this chapter.
The following outline will guide the development, processing, and approval of annual construction plans for components of the Master Development Plan.
. Project Implementation Schedule
Time Frame Activity
a. One year in advance of planned start construction a. Project Proposal Submittal W.P.R.A. will provide Forest Service with a Project Proposal description for planned activities in accordance with the Project Proposal Development Guide, set forth below.

Time Frame
Within 30 days after submittal to U. S. Forest Service
b. Project Proposal Approval
Forest Service reviews and returns the approved Project Proposal Description to W.P.R.A., identifying any known concerns and/or mitigation reguirements. This will constitute preliminary project approval and allow W.P.R.A. to proceed with detailed design, engineering, and specifications for construction.
90 days prior to construction
c. Design, Engineering, and Specifications
60 days prior to construction
30 days prior to construction
15 days prior to construction
W.P.R.A. will schedule field engineering and administration support necessary to complete the identified design engineering specifications and documents for project implementation. The engineering design and specification package will be accompanied by a narrative which describes how the plans satisfy the site-specific mitigation requirements and includes the applicable mitigation measures and monitoring requirements referenced or listed in the Vasquez Decision Notice issued April 27, 1983, and amended July 11, 1984, by the Forest Supervisor.
d. Design, Engineering, and Specifications Approval
Forest Service will review and approve identified plans and specifications and document any further requirements for the project and return them to W.P.R.A.
e. Letter of Intent
W.P.R.A. will confirm, by Letter of Intent, their construction plans and schedule based on their approved budget.
f. Project Inspection Schedule
Forest Service will review any field work necessary and commit to a project inspection schedule based upon project schedule.
The schedule, as outlined above, may be accelerated as mutually agreed between the Forest Service and W.P.R.A. during the first year following approval of the Master Development Plan.

2. Project Proposal Development Guide Document
A Project Proposal shall be developed for all anticipated projects consistent with the Master Development Plan. This document shall contain the information listed below in such detail as to give the U. S. Forest Service adequate understanding of the project(s) so that preliminary project approval can be given to W.P.R.A. After preliminary project approval is granted, W.P.R.A. will then prepare detailed design, engineering, and specification documents as outlined in Section 3, below.
a. Briefly describe the proposed project relative to Master Development Plan direction. Quantify how the project proposal will meet the objectives of the Master Development Plan.
b. Address preliminary U. S. Forest Service site specific concerns.
c. Identify known environmental factors which are a concern and how it is proposed to mitigate those impacts if it is known at that time. Each project proposal will identify the applicable Mitigation Measures and monitoring requirements referenced or listed in Section III of the Vasquez Decision Notice issued April 27, 1983, and amended July I I, 1984, by the Forest Supervisor.
d. Include a vicinity map and any other related conceptual designs of the proposed project.
e. The Forest Service will review and approve agency involvement needed for approval of project.
f. Specific design balance documents will be developed which portray the project's relationship with the short term and ultimate design balance. A description of interim management and operational action to be taken to mitigate the effects of this imbalance during orderly construction shall be included.
2. Design, Engineering, and Specification Document
These plans, specifications, and documents shall be provided after preliminary project approval and prior to construction, as outlined in the preceding schedule.
a. Mountain roads
(1) Alignment plan I" = 200' with topo (or appropriate scale)
(2) Typical construction details 8 1/2" x I I"
(3) Typical sections 8 1/2" x II" as required for site specific conditions and mitigation requirements
(4) Drainage calculations
(5) Drainage structures typical sections 8 1/2" x II"

(6) Re-vegetation plan
(7) Standard construction specifications
b. Access roads
(1) Alignment plans, profiles, and sections as per alignment survey -I" = 50' (or appropriate scale)
(2) Bridge and structure plans, sections, and details
(3) Drainage calculations
(4) Drainage structures plans, sections, and details
(5) Re-vegetation plan
(6) Standard construction specifications
c. Lifts
(1) Alignment plan and profile I" = 100' (or appropriate scale)
(2) Technical performance specifications
(3) Design calculations
(4) Standard design details and sections
(5) Standard construction specifications
d. Utilities
(1) Alignment plans and profiles I" = 50' (or appropriate scale)
(2) Typical construction details
(3) Design calculations and sizing
(4) Site specific construction details and sections
(5) Re-vegetation plan
(6) Standard construction specifications
e. Trails
(1) Alignment plan I" = 200' with topo (or appropriate scale)
(2) Typical construction details
(3) Typical sections 8 1/2" x II" as required for site specific conditions and mitigation requirements

(4) Drainage plan
(5) Re-vegetation plan
(6) Timber quantity calculations
(7) Logging plan
(8) Standard construction specifications
f. Facilities
(1) Site plan
(2) Environmental constraints plan
(3) Pedestrian, skier, and vehicular access plan
(4) Building program
(5) Conceptual design plans
(6) Schematic design plans
(7) Design development plans
(8) Construction document plans
(a) Architectural
(b) Structural
(c) Mechanical
g. Design balance
C. Other Requirements
I. Vegetation Management Plan
As part of this Master Development Plan, a Vegetation Management Plan will be developed by W.P.R.A. and approved by the Forest Supervisor. This Plan will be completed by October I, 1986, and appended to the Master Development Plan. This Plan will schedule activities to maintain or introduce appropriate vegetation cover types, age, class, and patterns (refer to Forest Land and Resource Management Plan Forest-Wide Standards and Prescriptions). Mitigation requirements and measures will be developed for each specific management area (vegetative type).

2. Drainage, Erosion Control, and Stream Improvement Plan
As part of this Master Development Plan, a Drainage, Erosion Control, and Stream Improvement Plan will be developed by W.P.K.A. and approved by the Forest Supervisor. The Winter Park/Mary Jane Plan, including Lonesome Whistle, will be completed by October I, 1985. This plan will also expand upon general drainage and erosion control concepts identified in the Vasquez Environmental Assessment. Drainage, Erosion Control, and Stream Improvement Plans will be submitted and approved by the Forest Supervisor prior to commencement of construction in Parsenne Bowl, East Ridge, Cooper Creek, and Vasquez development opportunities. (Reference Section II, E-l, pp. 2-30 of the Vasquez Environmental Assessment.)
3. Funicular Environmental Assessment
An Environmental Assessment will be required to address the selection of a transportation facility to access the Little Vasquez base area. The Master Development Plan currently identifies road and/or funicular (rail) options for further analysis.
4. Assessments for Projects Not Included in Master Development Plan
An Environmental Assessment will be required for any project proposal which is not mapped or addressed conceptually in the Master Plan or covered in the final Environmental Assessment. Other permittees' project proposals within the W.P.R.A.'s permit boundary will be addressed by an Environmental Assessment, except for facilities shown in the Master Development Plan which exclusively serves W.P.R.A.
5. Assessments for Projects Outside Permit Area
An Environmental Assessment will be required for any project proposal or activity which, upon initial examination, is beyond the scope of the Vasquez Environmental Assessment and is shown to create impacts upon National Forest land outside of the W.P.R.A. permit boundary which were not addressed in the Vasquez Environmental Assessment.
6. Gravel Pit Environmental Assessment
An Environmental Assessment will be required to address the selection of gravel pit locations within the permit area.

This base area and skier portal to the mountain is located at the base of Vasquez Mountain on National Forest land. The proposed site is at a natural collection point for the majority of skier traffic on the West Ridge and Center Ridge development pods. The site is located at the headwaters of the Cabin Creek branch of the Little Vasquez Creek. It is a southeasterly facing slope, with a large meadow and staging area on the south. There are 24 acrew available for parking at an elevation 90 vertical feet above the staging area.
Vasquez Mountain Base Area is located approximately 10,000 feet south, and 700 feet higher in elevation than the proposed Little Vasquez Funicular Center at a resulting average grade of 7.0%. Access will be provided within a corridor paralleling Vasquez Creek or Little Vasquez Creek drainages.
This base area can vary significantly in configuration depending upon the access modes and route selected.
If gondola access is provided, the parking lot becomes beginner terrain and public parking is provided at the Little Vasquez Gondola Station and at several private development sites within the town of Winter Park. The determination of these sites depends upon current negotiations. For the purpose of this project, only the initial gondola station will be considered.
Public Facilities
As the primary base area for the Vasquez development opportunity, this proposed base facility will house all required visitor support facilities, vertical transportation facilities for access between the parking and staging areas, upper terminal facilities for the gondola system, and lower terminal facilities for the gondola serving skiable terrain. These facilities will also have recreation facilities and support spaces for the broader recreational use.

Faci ities Program Proposed Square Feet
a. Ticket Sales: Ski School Lift Tickets 1,000 2,000
b. Public Restrooms 3,200
c. Ski Rental 6,000
d. Ski Repair 1,200
e. Ski School Lobby 2,000
f. Employee Lockers 2,300
g. Seasonal Rental Lockers 4,000
h. Daily Rental Lockers 2,000
i. Employee Nursery/Daycare 3,200
j- Public Nursery 4,000
k. Retail Space 5,000
l. m. Security Offices First Aid/Patrol: First Aid Clinic Patrol Locker Office Storage 800 2.400 2.400 2,000 200
n. Handicap Program 1 ,000
0. Restaurant Seating/Bar 6,000
P- Cafeteria Seating 6,500
q- Kitchen/Scramble 3,627
r. Back of House 4,200
s. Overnight Ski Check 2,000
t. Employee Housing (3 apartments) 2,400
u. Storage 7,200
V. Laundry 800
w. Administration 3,000
X . (trounds Maintenance Shop First Subtotal 3% : janitorial closets 4% : circulation 2.5%: trash Second Subtotal 0 : mechanical, electrical, phone 13% : circulation j0% : walls, wasted space 1 ,600 77,827 2,335 3.113 1 ,950 85,225 5.114 10,080 8,523


SQ. F :T.
Accounting, work area and video room can be in a basement.
SECURITY ISSUES: Employees only.
Ski school lockers separate from student areas.
Ski school and ski patrol employees need separate locker facilities. Video room remote from locker room.
Arrive toilets/breakfast ticket sales ski school ski rentals ski.
Ski school ticket sales is a high-visibility destination. Make it easy and fun to purchase tickets. Ticket sales could all occur at gondola station below.

The existing sales offices are located in the Balcony House and a small outdoor ticket booth. The Balcony House facility utilizes indoor space for queuing at eight windows and exterior decks for three additional windows. Due to space restrictions on the deck, these three windows are used primarily during summer operations for Alpine Slide ticket sales. There are three additional windows at the outdoor ticket booth, for a totai of eleven winter sales windows.
The ticket sales offices include an accounting office, storage room, and change dispensing office, with a safe in each. The change office dispenses change, both to selected Winter Park Recreational Association staff and concessionaires at Security Lobby I. Transfer of daily receipts from this facility to the local bank is by WPRA Security personnel.
The ticket sales area is considered a high security area; Security Lobby I is an intermediate security level area and is accessed by limited, authorized personnel. This area includes restroom, kitchen and lunchroom facilities for the staff.
The remote ticket sales building has no support restrooms or lunchroom area; resulting staff movements compromise security and present operational difficulties.
Proposed Facility
The proposed ticket sales facility should reflect the functional organization diagram, the program area requirements, and the security requirements diagrammed in this chapter. Related functions should be respected in schematic design insofar as possible. The following design goals should be examined and addressed in schematic design.
Lift Ticket Office
Ticket Windows
Tickef windows should be placed on a south or west exterior wall adjacent to the plaza and protected from prevailing winds. Allow at least 40 feet of plaza depth outside of primary pedestrian circulation for peak time lift ticket queuing in sunshine. Provide twelve ticket windows at 5'-6" O.C. spacing. Ticket windows snail be located in an area protected by overhanging decks or balconies ten to twenty feet in depth.
The building face on which the ticket sales area is located need not be continuous; in fact, a stepped facade may be desirable. Provision for ticket line control and flows shall be addressed. Provision for trail map/trash receptacle/wire bale modules should be addressed. Finally, the ticket sales area shall be located and planned so as to be easi 1 >f recognized by arriving guests.

Staff Office
The ticketing staff office provides shared accommodations for varied functions by the entire ticketing saies staff, as well as workspace for the office manager and accountant functions.
The office should be adjacent to the ticket sales area, Change Room 2, and be accessed only from Security Lobby 2.
Existing office furniture will be utilized in the new facility.
Group Sales
A discreet, but not hidden, entrance to the group sales lobby should be provided proximate to the ticket windows, but away from ticket queuing areas. The group sales lobby shall be adjacent to the lift ticket sales area, photo pass, and Ski School desk, expediting multiple services. Furthermore, the group sales lobby should be accessible from the Great Hall adjacent to the Ski School desk.
Photo Pass
The photo pass facility should be adjacent to ticket sales, and provide for a "flow through" circulation pattern for pass holders, separated from staff by a counter.
Ticket Storage
Ticket storage should be adjacent to ticket sales, the ticketing staff office, and possibly the Ski School desk or office, providing for large volumes of a variety of ticket types. Lift and Ski School ticket storage areas shall be distinct and separate.
Security Lobbies
Security progression is highly important in the ticket sales complex. The following sequence must be resolved in schematic design.
1) Small vestibule adjacent to the Great Hall or a service corridor. No security required.
2) Security Lobby I. This lobby provides staff and concessionaires a secure area adjacent to Change Room I where daily receipts are deposited and change is issued. Additionally, this lobby shall access an employee restroom, and the lunchroom/kitchen area. This lobby is controlled by keyed access.
3) Security Lobby 2. This lobby is one level higher in security and is accessed by a "punch lock" or other control system. Visual verification from Change Room I and/or the ticketing staff office may be desirable. Access from this lobby to Change Rooms I and 2 and the ticketing staff offices will be controlled by punch locks or other security control systems.
Change Rooms I and 2
Change Rooms I and 2 should be provided with transfer windows to Security Lobbies I and 2 respectively. Safes will be installed in each change room, the ticketing staff and Ski School offices, and ticket storage room.

Two employee restrooms shall be equipped with one toilet and one sink each. One should access from the ticket sales office; one shall access from the lunchroom or Security Lobby I.
Coat Room/Lockers/Dressinq
A small locker/dressing room should be provided for the ticket sales staff. It may access either from Security Corridor I or the staff office adjacent to the restroom entry.
Ki tchen/Lunchroom
A full service "residential" kitchen shall be provided adjacent to the employee lunchroom. Windows/views to the mountain or plaza from the lunchroom would be a desirable feature, if possible.
The restroom/lunchroom/kitchen facilities could be located above the ticket offices, with a discreet, secure deck area for staff.
It would be desirable to provide a discreet corridor to the security office or under plaza parking for the secure transfer of daily receipts entirely separated from any public contact.
Ski School
Completing the ticketing complex is the Ski School facility.
Ski School Desk
Ski School registration takes place indoors, preferably the Great Hall. The "Ski School desk" should provide at least 40 feet of "frontage" onto the Great Hall, with teller stations for eight sales representatives at 5'-0" on center. Unobtrusive security provisions should be addressed in schematic design. Queuing for up to 24 persons should be provided for at each teller station, with discreet crowd control systems. A grou^ ticketing station should be provided at the group sales lobby.
Ski School Office
The Ski School office should access through the desk area and should, in turn, access the ticket storage room. Access to Security lobby of the ticket sales area shall be provided.
An office anteroom adjoining the Ski School desk shall be provided for teller accounting functions.

Existing Proposed Const.
Function Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft.
Ticket Sales Windows 8 windows 2 windows
270 400 400
Remote 1 'icket Sales Kiosk 3 windows
124 0 0
Staff Off ice 180 200 200
Group Sales Lobby 0 200 200
Photo Pass 200 200 200
Ticket Storage 100 200 200
Security _obby 1 17 40 40
Security _obby 2 30 40 40
Change Room 1 180 180 180
Change Room 2 0 100 100
Restroom 1 20 40 40
Restroom 2 0 40 40
Coat Roc^m/Lockers 0 80 80
Lunchroom/Kitchen 150 180 180
Circulation 0 200 200
SUBTOTAL 1,275 2,100 2,100
Ski Schoo 1 Desk 150 300 300
Ski School Office 75 100 100
Anteroonr T _0 100 100
SUBTOTAL 225 500 500
TOTAL 1,500 2,600 2,600

Proposed Facility
The proposed Ski School administrative/locker center should reflect the functional organization diagram, the proposed area requirements, and the locational requirements outlined in this chapter. Related functions should be respected in schematic design insofar as possible. The following design goals should be examined and addressed in schematic design.
Administrative Offices
The administrative offices serving the Ski School locker complex consist of the administrative supervisor's office, work stations for two assistants, and a common office space for four supervisors. The functional relationship diagram illustrates the desired proximity and circulation needs within the administrative offices.
Administrative Supervisor's Office
The administrative supervisor directs day to day operations of the Ski School and .. .-interacts frequently with the instructors. The administrative supervisor's office shall, therefore, be adjacent to offices for the four supervisors and the instructors' check-in desk. The clothing storage room (warehousing ski clothing for sale to instructors and other employees) should be accessible from both the administrative supervisor's office and the assistants' work area. (Sales of clothing will occur at a counter to the instructors' check-in room.)
Administrative Assistant's Work Station
Work stations for two administrative assistants shall be provided in close proximity to the administrative supervisor's office and in a position to serve the instructors checkin room. This area can be an anteroom between the administrative supervisor's office and the instructors' check-in room. The clothing storage room shall access from this area. Work stations may be configured from Herman Miller open office components.

Instructors' Check-in Desk
Adjacent to the administrative supervisor's office shall be the instructors' check-in desk, an area where instructors complete daily time cards, receive assignments, and check for daily messages and announcements.
This desk, located out of the circulation area, with countertop access to the administrative assistants' office shall be provided for instructors' check-in/check-out. Nominal seating and provisions for time card completions shall be provided. This area should be directly adjacent to circulation between the locker room and mountain.
Supervisors' Offices (4)
Offices shall be provided for four instructor supervisors. Visual and acoustical privacy shall be considered in conceptual design. These offices shall be directly accessible from general circulation.
The administrative core shall be configured so as to permit independent security from the circulation and locker areas.
Admipistrators' Lockers
The architect shall provide for two clothing lockers and ski storage for each staff member. Additionally, a clothing locker or closet of at least 4 square feet shall be provided at each administrative supervisor's office. Adequate space for seating, dressing and circulation shall be illustrated in schematic design.
Instructors' Locker Room
The instructors' locker room shall be sized to accommodate 300 I5"w X I8"d X 96" tall lockers: adequate space for seating, dressing and circulation shall be provided between locker rows. Schematic design should reflect consideration for avoiding a single large locker facility, without actually breaking the area into "rooms". Wall mounted, lockable ski and pole racks, each with capacity for two pairs of skis will be provided for each locker space (programmed at approximately 8 square feet/instructor, excluding circulation space). Finish materials, including walls, ceilings, and floors should respect the type of equipment in use in the facility, acoustics, and wet ski boots.
Internal circulation and access to outdoor circulation should respect the physical requirements of the equipment stored in this facility. Insofar as possible, the architect should arrange the functions outlined in the program to minimize the need to move skis through high finish areas and manual doorways, especially at vestibule entryways.
"Coat Room"
Provisions for 20 linear feet of built-in coat hangers, with overhead accessory storage shall be provided within the locker room.
A nominal kitchen facility including an under counter refrigerator, a small bar sink, nominal counter and cabinet space, and coffee center shall be provided at the circulation area.

Heated, interior storage of approximately 100 square feet shall be provided at the entrance to the Ski School center. Unheated storage needs will be addressed in a separate chapter of the program.
Convenient access to a common employee restroom area is required. Restrooms within this facility are not indicated in the program unless such common facilities are inconveninet or remote.
No special circulation needs are indicated in the program, except as described in earlier sections. The locker rooms will be secured at night, independently of the office/lounge area. A central circulation area of no less than 600 square feet shall be presented in schematic design. This area will provide an informal meeting, paperwork, lounge, and training area for instructors. The feasibility of shared use by Ski Patrol should be examined in schematic design.
No special janitorial needs are indicated in the program.
Although it has no extraordinary mechanical requirements, heating and ventilation of the locker room adequate to ensure daily drying of clothing, boots, and equipment is an important consideration.
Vending Machines/Public Phone
Vending machines and pay phones should be conveniently accessible from the Ski School administrative/locker center for employee use.

strative Supervisor's ffice/Conference
Administrative Assistants' Work Stations (2) Instructor's Check-in Desk visor's Office visor's Office visor's Office visor's Office Clothing Storage Locker Room/Ski Storage Coat Room Circu ation
Meeting/Lounge/Video Room
Ski School Sales TOTAL
Proposed Square Feet 120
3,525 s.f.

SQ. rT. 30 s.f./fixture DIMENSIONS
40 s.f./fixture
includes circulation and lavatories
UNIT SIZE: 3:1/women:men

102 women, 33 men. Additional fixtures may be added. This is an average taken from the 3 calculation standards suggested in the provided building program.
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Quarry tile floors; floor-mounted or masonry toilet paritions.
Use more than code minimum for air changes required here and in locker room area.
Fixture count based on dining occupancies. Might need more fixtures.
Preferable near lockers, dining and staging area. Restrooms should be spread out over several levels.
Accommodate skier flow patterns relating for different skill-levels.
PERFORMANCE GUIDELINES: 40 year durability.

ng Facilities
Restroom facilities at the Winter Park Base Area presently serve both public and employee needs from three locations. The most heavily used facilities, in the basement level of West Portal Station, are generally overcrowded, due largely to demand by cafeteria users. The women's restroom often experiences long lines the basement location, remote from the second floor cafeteria is inconvenient for guests.
The following inventory and data analysis relates restroom facilities to design,
average, and peak day skier numbers, and to dining facility seating capacities
Toilets Urinals Sinks Dressing Rooms
Balcony House
Wor men 20 0 19 0
Mei 8 12 12 0
Subtol :al 28 12 26 0
West F :>ortal Station
Women 13 0 8 5
Mer 1 5 6 8 5
Subtotal 18 6 16 10
TOTA _ 96 18 92 10
Snack Bar/ Sack
Cafeteria Lunch Restaurant Bar Deck
Balcor y House* 50 150 90 12 120+
West F ^rtal Station** 950 200 0 80 180+
TOTA l 500 350 90 92 300+
TOTAlp Interior TOTAL Exterior
982 300 +

* Maximum occupancy of the public space in the Balcony House is unposted.
At peak times (early morning or at lunch hour combined with poor weather conditions) occupancy is probably in excess of 400 persons.
** Maximum occupancy of the cafeteria area of West Portal Station is posted
at 620 persons. At peak times (lunch hour combined with poor weather conditions) occupancy is probably in excess of 1200 persons.
The following chart lists skier statistics for 1984-1985.
Mountain density capacity 11,500
Average daily attendance 7,969
Maximum daily attendance 13,000
Skier split statistics
Arrival % at Winter Park 80
Arrival % at Mary Jane 20
Arrival % at Vasquez 100
65% Male skiers 35% Female skiers
T otal Skiers
Mt. design capacity-11 ,500
Average daily 7,969
Maximum daily 13,000
100 65 33 35 102 226 39
100 65 33 35 102 172 27
100 65 33 35 102 256 45
Recommended square footage (Farwell): 5,975 square feet.
One standard suggests that women's fixtures outnumber men's by a 3:1 ratio, with no recommendation per skier.
Another standard suggests restroom area be allocated 10% of restaurant area being served, at approximately 30 square feet per fixture.
A third standard suggests 0.5 to 1.0 square feet of restroom area per design day skier (allowing approximately 30 square feet per fixtures).
The first standard would suggest essentially replacing men's fixtures while tripling ladies, or 31 men's to 93 women's 124 total).
The second standard suggests the following formula:
7969 Skier design day x 3 s.f. per skier dining = 23,907 s.f. seating
(23,907 x 1 0%) / 3 0 s.f. per fixture= 80 fixtures
25% male = 20 fixtures 75% female = 60 fixtures

The third formula suggests that fixtures should average 130 to a maximum of 266 fixtures, or 50 men's to 150 women's on the average. 200 fixtures = 5,975 s.f.
x 1.0 s.f./30 s.f.
= 266 fixtures;
7,969 x .5 s.f./30 s.f.
133 fixtures
The architect may wish to apply another recognized design standard to restroom planning. However, the three formulas suggest similar facilities needs. Empirical judgments by Winter Park Recreational Association staff generally confirin those results.
Proposed Program Public Restrooms
18-50 units will be required to serve several locations for Men's restroom facilities.
Women's restroom facilities should have 52-150 fixtures, in several locations.
Provisions for vandal resistant toilet enclosures should be considered as early as the schematic design phase.
Provisions for restrooms at the cafeteria level shall be addressed for an early phase of construction. At no time may demolition of existing facilities reduce total available restroom fixtures.
Dressing Rooms
Existing dressing rooms at Winter Park are not regularly utilized. The architect may consider enlarging toilet stalls to accommodate clothing change and eliminate dressing rooms in future restroom planning.
Restrooms shall be planned proximate to public locker rooms, dining and drinking areas, and at each floor level on which there is public access.
Janitorial Supply
Adequate janitorial supply rooms should be provided at each restroom facility to allow stocking and cleaning of restrooms on a frequent basis.

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Non-slip floor surface needed due to wet areas.
Abundant moisture required 2-3 times code-required air exchanges. Need a heated air circulation system to dry 600 pairs of rentals/day.
Operational needs are in excess of code requirements.
Front desk controls whole flow pattern.
Near ski repair; along ticket-toilet-ski sequence.
Organized corral area registration desk (screening) boots skis (fitting station, binding adjustment) outside (near 50-100 lockers) Reverse flow at the end of the ski day.
Provide seating and adequate circulation space (wider than 6 feet). Staging for peak times will be required at each end of the flow line.
Use depends on time of day and prevelant activity (pick-up or drop-off).

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Large sanding and ski maintenance equipment.
This is a concessionaire and this will be a very retail-oriented space.
See retail occupancies
Locked at night.
Near ski rental. This should be a really visible storefront (e.g. if you need a new boot buckle or pole, this shop will invite you in.)
Doesn't have to be located within the primary customer sequence, but must be visible to skiers on the mountain.
Should be visible from staging area and mountain.

SQ. F :T.
15" x 18" x 96"
Blocks of 400 s.f. locker area
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Same as seasonal lockers have mirrors, shelving, sinks, employee bulletin board.
In dedicated employee area (not keyed, but with a punch-lock). Series of locker rooms so that specific worker groups have access to only one part of the locker area. Theft is a problem.
Basement area, back of house area.
Employee restrooms, employee lunchroom (maybe).
Locker area near exit. Segregate ski carrying area from non-ski-carrying area. Should be part of the durable circulation flow pattern occuring between the gondola and skier staging.
For grounds maintenance crew, office workers, food service employees.

Existing Facility
Employee locker, ski storage, and dressing areas at the Winter Park Base are presently widely spread. Although several groups (Ski School instructors. Ski Patrol staff, lift operators. Food Service staff, and the building attendant staff) are well consolidated, most other employee groups store skis and clothing, and dress in offices, shops, work areas or other scattered locations. This situation introduces skis, clothing, and eguipment into the office environment, often inappropriately.
Proposed Facility
To encourage interaction and communication between members of the various work groups, to avoid duplication of common facilities, and to provide facilities consistently for employees of Winter Park Recreational Association, the architect shall, insofar as possible, consolidate locker, ski storage, and dressing areas for the following groups.
No. of Lockers Proposed Sq.Ft.
Croup One
* Sjki School instructors 40 320
* Ski Patrol staff 25 200
Handicap Program staff 20 160
SubT otal 680
Group Two
Food Service staff 60 480
Building Attendant staff 40 320
SubT otal Croup Three . 100 800
Administration management
supervisor 10 80
Senior Staff and families 10 80
Marketing staff 5 40
Computer center 5 40
Operations management 20 160
Business Office staff 16 128
Employee Nursery staff 4 32
Ticket Office staff 20 160
* Ski School Office staff 10 80
* Security Office staff (full-time) 6 48
* Security Office (week-end) 20 160
Host/ Hostesses 12 96
* Lift operations staff 80 640
Traffic Control staff 10 80
Grounds Maintenance staff 18 144
Shops personnel, mechanics, operators 25 200

No. of Lockers
Proposed Sq.Ft.
Building management 10 80
Race Crew staff 5 40
Slope Management staff 16 128
Employee guests Special consultants/media/ vendors/ 20 160
contractors Concessionaires 12 96
SubTotal 334 2,672
TOTAL 539 4,312
* NOTE: Croups designated (*) are included in respective program square
footage calculations.
Employee locker center total 423 3,384
excluding those fuctions
Croup One
Croup one employee lockers shall be located in a basement level of proposed building. Provide for security at each locker group.
A common meeting room of not less than 900 square feet, with capabilities for division into two meeting rooms will be provided.
Common men's and ladies' restrooms of adequate capacity will be provided. These facilities should not reduce the public restroom requirements presented in that chapter. A common entry and circulation system accessing each of the above functions will be provided. Vending, seating, public telephones and announcement boards will be provided within the circulation area.
Group Two
Food Service staff lockers and building attendant staff lockers will be located near the proposed food preparation areas.
Group Three
Croup three lockers will be consolidated to a single locker/ski storage/dressing facilijy to be located in a basement level of the proposed building.

Function Existing Sq. Ft. Proposed Sq. Ft. New Const. Sq. Ft.
* Emp oyee Locker Rooms 1,300 5,000 3,800
Not including Ski Patrol, Ski School Instructors, Security Personnel, or Lift Operations Staff

UNIT SIZE: 15" wide x 18" deep x 96" high
NUMBER REQUIRED: 400 lockers @ 8 s.f./locker + 800 s.f. for circulation.
More lockers if possible.
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS High usage areas. Carpet or non-slip surfaces.
10 foot circulation path.
Could be (4) 1,000 s.f. locker areas in different locations.
Use upgraded fluorescent fixtures between locker rows.
Introduce air changes, exhaust and make-up air. Should be heated, well-lighted.
Sufficient exits.
Lost and found attendant present to answer questions.
Should access via the overnight ski check lobby near clothing/parcel drop-off, lost and found. Could be in basement. Near public restrooms.
Entryways and circulation to and from these areas should respect the nature of the user and the equipment used. Try not to have people going the long Way through a high-finish area. Direct outdoor access desireable.
High visibility or good directional signage.

UNIT SIZE: 12"w x 18"d x 14" h (x5) = 1 bank
High durability a necessity.
Accessible at all hours.
Between entrance, toilets and eating areas.
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Very crowded area at peak times.
Lots. Many locations. Convenient, lieave space between every 6 banks.

SQ. FT. 2,000
UNIT SIZE: 7' vertical space
DIMENSIONS 6"-8" wide
Better indorss, but uses expensive space.
Outdoor Ski Check: concession type operation.
Indoor: Need lobby with easy in-out access.
Need durability and attractiveness. Warm, lighted.
Storage area: concrete floors and walls.
If lobby is created, must have automatic door. Lobby: 8' wide x 12' long.
Itass skis to attendance through keyhole shaped pass-thru.
Rentals (but not right next door).
Next to parking lot or adjacent to mountain.
Keep beginners w/skis out of building.
Be aware of cross-selling of service.
Leave skis at repair facility-transfer skis to overnight storage (complimentary).
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Incorporate one-way circulation.
Clearly visible to the people on their way home before they get onto the gondola. Must invite skier in. Really simple. Need a barker to draw people.

Existing Facilities
Existing parcel check/overnight ski check facilities consist of two separate elements. Rental lockers, provided by the ski area, are available in several locations within the base area and on the mountain. Limited check facilities are also available from concessionaires.
Ski check services are available to the general public from concessionaires or at individual, lockable racks located throughout the base area, both freestanding and affixed to buildings. Rental customers are also offered overnight ski and parcel check services at an indoor facility operated by the rental concessionaire.
Finally, many skis are simply locked to racks, etc. with individual locks.
Proposed Facilities
The architect will consider during schematic design, the physical requirements of several thousand pairs of skis, and the nature of the user. Any surface that can be used for a ski rack will be, including windows, posts, building walls, signage, kiosks, trees, and fences, as well as snowmobiles and vehicles. Provisions for adequate ski racks, and protection of fragile building elements should be addressed conceptually in schematic design. It is a policy of Winter Park Resort to prohibit skis and poles from building interiors, yet this is in conflict with the need to store skis (especially employees skis and seasonal locker holders' equipment) indoors. Therefore, the architect should consider consolidating ski locker and check rooms to the greatest extent possible; entryways and circulation to and from these facilities should respect the nature of the user and his equipment.
Overnight Ski Check (Indoor)
The overnight ski check facility shall be located at the "exit" from the base area complex, be highly visible, and easily accessed at grade level. Ski check is provided by an attendant separated from the customer lobby by a counter.
Overnight Ski Check (Outdoor)
Outdoor ski check facilities, currently operated by a concessionaire, are being expanded and grouped in a common facility. Operation of this facility during the ski season should be observed by the architect and addressed at a later stage of schematic design.
Ski Racks
"Built-in" ski racks should be a design consideration at the building faces. The plaza shall be kept clear of freestanding ski racks to facilitate snow removal.
Consolidation of ski racks in the skier staging area will facilitate periodic snow grooming operations.

Clothing/Parcel Check Room
Winter Park does not presently operate a check room facility. The architect shall locate the check room adjacent to ski check and locker facilities. The check room shall be secured at night, but with an open customer service counter during hours of operations. The attendant shall have access to the large day locker facility adjacent to the check room.
Public "Day Lockers"
Each locker is 12" wide by 18" deep by 14" high. With seating and circulation allowances, each bank occupies six square feet. The architect will provide for 240 banks of small lockers.
Winter Park Recreational Association presently has six banks of three large coin operated lockers each, available to the general public. These are located in West Portal Station. Each locker is 19" wide by 31" deep by 24" high. With seating and circulation allowances, each bank requires 11 square feet. The architect will provide for 12 banks of large lockers.
Finally, 40 lockers 15" wide by 18" deep by 96" high will be provided for daily and weekly rentals. Although these lockers will be administered by the lost and found attendant, the facility should access via the overnight ski check lobby.
All of the coin lockers shall be consolidated in a common area in an expansion of the base area complex. The West Portal Station basement area vacated by the removal of the coin lockers will be utilized for expanded seasonal rental lockers.
Lost and Found
The lost and found center will be proximate to the public locker facility. The lost and found attendant should be able to monitor traffic at the coin locker area, administer daily locker rentals, and serve as an information station.
Ski Racks (Outdoor)
The architect may address ski rack design and location in schematic design. Provisions for up to 2,500 pairs of skis, in many locations shall be made.
"Ski Check" (Outdoor)
This concession facility is to be enlarged and enclosed for the coming ski season. The architect shall observe the operation of this facility and address in later schematic design.

OVERNIGHT SKI CHECK/ Internal Functions
Overnight Ski Check Clothing/Parcel Check Coin Locker Room(s)
Seasonal Rental Lockers Daily/Weekly Rental Locker Room Lost ^nd Found/Security Office Circu ation TOTAL
2,000 4,000 400 400 600 9,800

Children in Program:
(14) 6 weeks 18 months old (30) 1 year 3 years (18) 3 years 6 years
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Best to have this daycare facility at gondola base.
Have gondola developer incur capital costs.
Minimum Rules and Regulations for Child Care Centers issued by the Colorado State Department of Social Services. (25-40 s.f./child)
Protect children from danger of vehicles and machinery. Need to provide small dedicated ski area. Need to protect kids so only parents can get to them (avoid kidnapping).
Lobby or screening area so parents can be identified before walking into the nursery area.
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Accessible from main traffic drop-off.
Respect regulatory guidelines while addressing program and functional location. Parents want to have kids safe.

Existing Facility
The Employee Nursery at Winter Park operates from facilities at the Winter Park and Mary Jane Base Areas. Serving a growing potential population of children aged 6 weeks to 6 years, enrollment in the program is artifically limited by existing space allocations. Present winter season enrollment consists of 8 children in the 6 weeks to 18 months age range (infants), 20 children in the 1 year to 3 year age range (toddlers), and 12 children in the 3 year to 6 year age range. An adjacent ski slope and play yard, as well as a spacious south facing deck area, provide outdoor play opportunities. The program is well located within the base area and is easily accessible from automobile or pedestrian circulation.
These facilities operate under the guidelines established in the Minimum Rules and Regulations for Child Care Centers issued by the Colorado State Department of Social I Services. (See enclosed Addenda.)
The proposed Employee Nursery should be sized to accommodate a 50% increase in enrollment, under the guidelines of the Minimum Rules and Regulations. The facility should be easily accessible from a vehicular parking or standing area or gondola drop-off to facilitate drop-off and pick-up by parents. A south facing deck area and adjacent outdoor play area should be identified in schematic design. Grouped around a central informal check-in area and common play room, the remaining functions should respect the regulatory guidelines, while addressing the program and functional location requirements outlined below.
Note: Narrative of proposed facilities to follow.
Function Proposed Square Feet
Employee Nursery 3,200

Existing Program
Nursery, dcy core", and children's ski school functions at the Winter Park Base Area presently operate in three separate, poorly located, and undersized locations.
The nursery/day care facility, serving children from infant to 18 months and toddlers from 18 months to 4 years of age is located on the ground floor of the ski crea Administration Building. Access to the nursery is via the "back door" of the building and is difficult for the public to find. The facility has been expanded into neighboring offices and a remodeled apartment to serve a growing customer need and, as a result, suffers from space utilization, functional duplication and circulation problems.
The "SKIwee" program, serving children from five to seven years of age is located on the second floor level of the former Balcony House cafeteria. Access to the SKKvee program is via a service corridor from the lobby of the Balcony House. Remote from the nursery/day care center, the facility is difficult for the public to find and inconvenient for those persons with children from both age groups.
Additionally, the SKIwee program is housed in a functionally undersized room, remodeled from its prior use as a records storage area. Check-in/registration provisions for the public are inadeguate and functionally poorly organized, largely as a result of the physical limitations imposed by the existing building.
The final children's program, the "Ski Rangers", serving children 8 to I 3 years of age, bases its operation from a third, separate location in a reserved section of the West Portal Station cafeteria. This third and remote facility further inconveniences the guest with children of different age groups, by reguiring that they register Rangers at a separate location.
Children's ski rental currently takes place at a fourth location, the Winter Park Ski Rental Shop. This reguires guests registering children for ski lessons to visit a fourth location for this service. Provisions for children's ski rental facilities will be addressed in this chapter.
Children's ski lessons currently are held primarily at Mt. Maury, a small teaching hill at the northern end of the Winter Park Base Area. Instructors must move groups of children from the three remote nursery/registration locations, through the base area, to Mt. Maury. This poses operational difficulties for the program instructors.
Proposed [Program
The Children's Center, as the nursery complex is identified in this document, will be a consolidated facility housing expanded nursery/day care/children's ski school operations to meet increasing public demand for child care services.

The architect, in schematic design, will examine the feasibility of locating the Children's Center near the teaching hill. The configuration and slope of the site may be altered slightly by the architect to accommodate the building mass. Finally, to accommodate the functions programmed for this proposed building, the architect may examine the feasibility of one or more basement levels to accommodate program square footage.
Within the Children's Center, the architect should consider the following general guidelines in the development of schematic design.
Access to the center from the plaza or base area core should consider the physical limitations of the user group, particularly when equipped for skiing. Direct access to the probable location of the Ski Patrol/clinic facilities suggest that the Children's Center will be located at the lowest floor level. If so, long stairways should be avoided, if possible, in favor of ramps or other means of grade change.
The architect shall consider the need to hold children in a temperature moderated area while being processed from one temperature extreme to the other.
Daylight and mountain exposure are important considerations in the Children's Center and should be addressed in schematic design.
Flexibility of space to meet the changing needs or sizes of the four age groups utilizing the center is a primary consideration and should be addressed beginning at the schematic design level.
Central check-in, allowing simultaneous registration of children from all four age groups should be addressed in schematic design.
Segregation of parents and arriving guests from children en route to lessons shall be resolved in schematic design; however, the architect shall provide for inconspicuous parental observation of children both within the center and outdoors.
Unlike a licensed day care facility, the Children's Center operation at Winter Park is losely regulated, both in terms of mandatory space requirements for participants, as well as personnel requirements. Therefore, provisions for maximum attendance become subjective, while provisions for ayerage daily attendance may be based on building code requirements, budget op space restrictions, reasonable personnel expectations, and the good judgment of the architect or client. The space allocations prsented in the remainder of this program chapter are, therefore, subject to interpretation or modification. Furthermore, maximum projected attendance may be reduced by alternative facilities, operational limitations or actual growth rates below projections.
Square footage requirements for assembly areas presented in this chapter are based on projected 1995 attendance. The architect may suggest alternative space allocations upon review of this document.
A relatively flat outdoor play area of approximately 800 square feet shall be created immediately adjacent to the building exit. This play area should be located so as to permit solar exposure at least four hours a day.

Ranged Program
The Ranger program currently serves a daily average of 140 participants. Average daily attendance has grown from 98 in 1982-83 to 139 in 1984-85, a 15 participant per day annual growth.
Peak day attendance has grown from 207 in 1982-83 to 282 in 1984-85 or approximately 38 participants per day annual growth.
Extending these trends indicates an average daily attendance in 1995 of 290 and peak day demand of up to 660 participants.
Provisions for 250 participants at 7 square feet per participant suggests that approximately 1600 square feet be preliminarily allocated for the group assembly area.
SKlwee Program
The SKlwee program currently serves a daily average of 66 participants. The average daily attendance has grown from 40 per day in 1982-83 to 66 per day in 1984-85, a 12 participant per day annual growth.
Peak day attendance has grown from 63 in 1982-83 to 110 in 1984-85. Peak day attendance was artificially limited to I 10 participants because of current space limitations.
Projected attendance trends indicate average daily attendance in 1995 or 180 participants, and peak day demand of up to 500 participants.
Provisions for 180 participants at 7 square feet per participant suggests a preliminary allocation of 1,260 square feet for the group assembly area.
Child Care Program
The child care program at Winter Park is subdivided into three age groups requiring two program rooms.
The first, a distinct day care program, attends "infants" to 18 months of age, and "toddlers" between 18 months and 3 years of age. Projected attendance for 1995 is up to 40 children. The group play area for this group shall be 1200 square feet. Adjoining the play area shall be a 500 square foot crib room and a 200 square foot cot room. These sleeping areas shall be physically and acoustically separated from the play room.
Adjoining the children play area, but separable by folding wall panels, shall be the second program room. Serving the youngest skiing group, the "penguins", aged 3 to 4, this space will accommodate up to 60 participatns at one time. This facility should provide approximately 1000 square feet for assembly, play, and feeding.
Flexibility of space to meet changing age group sizes shall be addressed in schematic design.
Administrative Offices
Two administrative offices shall be provided within the Children's Center, and adjacent to the day care program space. At least one office shall be located in such a manner as to permit observation of the customer lobby area.

Two separate restroom pods have been requested by the users, each with separate boys and girls restrooms. One pod will serve the Ranger/SKIwee age groups and employees; the second pod will serve the Penguin/day care age groups. The Ranger/SKIwee pod, serving children 5 years to 13 years, will have the following fixtures: the boys restroom shall have four toilets, two urinals, and two sinks. The girls restroom shall have six toilets and three sinks. Standard restroom layout, with modesty screens and stalls shall be followed.
The second restroom pod will serve children from birth through 3 years. Although two separate (boys and girls) restrooms are required, modesty provisions are not indicated. Each restroom shall have four toilets and a sink; one restroom shall be provided with an additional laundry sink and provisions for washer and dryer.
Kitchen/Food Preparation/Dininq
The Children's Center provides food service as a function of the program. Children enrolled in the programs will dine in their respective assembly areas.
Food preparation for all age groups will occur in the kitchen at the Children's Center. The architect will provide for an appropriately sized commercial kitchen to comfortably accommodate the needs of projected 1995 average daily attendance.
Bulk food and disposable serviceware storage can occur in storage areas.
Trash disposal will be via the existing compactor. Provisions for temporary holding and transportation shall be addressed in schematic design.
Circulation at the Children's Center can be divided into three separate areas: the guest lobby/registration area; the program assembly areas, and the children's mountain access/kitchen/restroom/skier access corridor.
Guest Lobby
Guests arriving at the Children's Center to register for nursery or children's ski school program will enter the facility at the guest lobby. The lobby should enjoy sun exposure and views of the lower mountain to the west. The lobby will allow general circulation, while providing for orderly, well-defined queuing for guest registration.
The lobby will be adjoined by a service desk staffed by program personnel. Following their registration and completion of the required paperwork, children will enter their respective assembly areas through the service desk/staff area.
Program Assembly Areas
The program assembly area for the three older age groups will serve as meeting, dressing, and ski fitting rooms in the morning, dining areas for noon meals, and waiting rooms in late afternoon. Additionally, when skiing is restricted by weather conditions, these areas will provide space for indoor recreation activities. Clearly, as stated earlier, flexibility of space will be of paramount concern.

Children enrolled in the day care program will not participate in the children's ski school or sustained outdoor activies. That portion of the facility allocated to the day care center will function at a relatively constant occupancy throughout the day. Activities and equipment at the day care center will be of the nature normally associated with full time nursery operation. The fixed equipment and activities will require less flexibility than those of the adjoining program areas.
Kitchen/Restroom/Skier Access Corridor
A combination service/skier access corridor shall be developed at the "rear" of the assembly areas, opposite the guest lobby.
This corridor will provide skier (student) access to the Teaching Mountain separate from the lobby/registration area; access to the ski equipment shop; access to restrooms; access to the kitchen facility; and access to one administative office.
The architect shall examine the feasibility of connecting this corridor to the main cafeteria facilitating food, trash, and equipment transfers.
Rental Ski Equipment Storage
The children's ski school program will incorporate an equipment
rental/fitting service at the time of relocation to the proposed facility.
Equipment rental will occur at the time of registration into the program. Equipment fitting will take place on an individual basis in the assembly rooms.
Equipment storage, with provisions for a limited repair/adjustment shop shall be provided at the Children's Center. Equipment storage may, if required by available space, be located one floor level below the Children's Center; however, equipment storage shall be convenient to the teaching mountain access corridor.
A janitorial supply closet, with utilities, shall be provided at the Children's Center, adjacent to the restroom/kitchen area.
Mechanical systems allowing maximum flexibility of the program space will be considered by the architect during schematic design. The nature of the functions at the Children's Center will require independent air handling systems to avoid intermixing make-up or exhaust air between this facility and others.
Mechanical rooms will be sized and located by the architect as schematic design develops.
Ajn observation deck will be developed adjacent to the teaching area, accessed fj'om the guest lobby permitting parental observation of students. The architect will examine the feasibility of a deck or decks adjoining the lobby area, facing the lower mountain, and adaptable to a stage configuration for summer concerts or plays. This function will be addressed more fully in another chapter of the program document.

Functi on Proposed Square Feet
Age G roup Assembly Areas
Range rs 400
SKI we ss 680
Pengu ins + 400
Day Care + 1 ,220
Office 1 80
Office 2 100
Restro E c oms loys (1) iirls (1) loys (2) iirls (2) 300
Kitche n 200
Food storage 0
Equipment Storage 200
T rash 0
Equipment Storage and Shop

UNIT SIZE: 100 s.f. 1,200 s.f. spaces.
NUMBER REQUIRED:To make up approximately 5,000 s.f.
the retail spaces may be anywhere because they pay for themselves.
Use concept of retail/food plaza to create a hub of excitement and activity
Cross section of space sizes. 1,200 s.f. 100 s.f.
Pick out uses that would work: gift, essentials, accessories, food service ice cream.

As Winter Park continues to mature into a multi-seasonal, destination resort with the addition of the Vasquez development opportunity, a variety of
alternative activities becomes increasingly important. Through the provision of suitable retail square footage in and around the base area. Winter Park Recreational Association provides the opportunity for entrepreneurial response to market needs, shares the economical benefits of successful business ventures, increases the variety and richness of the guests' experience at Winter Park, and creates an atmosphere of excitement and "happening" without the staffing, operational, or financial responsibilities involved in directly operating a business. Winter Park Recreational Association may solicit the specific types of retail activities desired at the base, without being required to have on staff, the personnel required to plan, manage, and operate the variety of businesses.
The Vasquez base facility will include 5,000 square feet of retail development in a variety of locations.
Emphasis will be placed on small (400 square feet to 800 square feet) specialty shops; freestanding, self-contained kiosks or portable modules; specialty food service outlets with little or no vendor supplied seating; two or more small bars or cafes with seating opportunities expandable onto the plaza or decks as weather permits; and others.
As tljie size and configuration of the large public seating/circulation area (a Great Hall) develops, the architect should consider the possibilities of incorporating retail opportunities into that space, vitalizing it, and avoiding a "retail corridor" (e.g. like a food court at Tabor Center).
As the size and configuration of the plaza develops, the architect should consider the exposure opportunities on several levels (plaza level, gondola station exposure, second story promenades or decks) as the various retail spaces evolve during schematic design.

An important component in the success of a resort village is the retail/commerciai development. It provides to skiers the essential services expected at the ski area base; it provides the non-skier an alternative form of recreation (dining and window shopping); creates an active village atmosphere; and provides revenues to tne developer.
The following retail opportunities represent potential revenues of:
I) $12 to $25/sq. ft./year lease revenues to Winter Park Recreational Association.
2) $2 to $4/skier visit in Recreational Association. direct food/beverage revenues to Winter Park
3) $2/ to $4/sq. ft./year in Recreational Association. percent of gross sales revenues to Winter Park
The following is a list of potential viable in the base area village. Potential Retail Developments commercial activities considered Existing Sq. Ft. appropriate and Proposed Sq. Ft.
1) Ski Rental - -
2) Ski Repair - -
3) Cafe 1,260 2,400
4) Bars - 3,200
5) Deli - 1,200
6) Peak Productions 494 1,200
7) Ice Cream Parlor - 1,200
8) Nut Shop - 400
9) Pizza Shop - 1,200
10) Cookie Shop - 800
II) Gift Shop - 1,200
12) Gourmet Food Shop - 800
13) Sharpshooters Shop/Darkroom 100 400
14) Snow Tours Shop 100 400
15) Mini Teller - 100

Potential Existing Proposed
Retail Developments Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft.
16) Travel Agency - 400
17) Amusement Center-Game Room 690 800
18) "Used Signs" Shop - 200
19) Art Gallery - 600
20) Realtor's Office - 600
21) Bakery - 800
22) Barber Shop/Beauty Salon - 400
23) Bicycle/Moped Rentals (Summer) - 800
24) Book Store - 600
25) Cheese Shop - 400
26) Ethnic Restaurant(s) (Chinese, Mexican, Italian, etc.) - 4,000
27) Fireplace Bar - 1,600
28) Tennis Court - Rooftop
29) Sun Tanning Salon - 600
30) Jewelry/Metalsmithing - 400
31) Drug/Sundry Shop - 400
32) Ice Skating Rink & Rentals - 800
33) Museum _ + Rink 800
34) Indian/Western Crafts - 600
35) Pottery Shop & Store - 400
36) Leather & Fur Clothing - 800
37) Film & Photo Shop - 200
38) Popcorn Wagon Plaza
39) Crepe Wagon Plaza
40) Pretzel Wagon Plaza

Retail Developments
41) Fondue Hut
42) Burrito Wagon
43) Theater (Movie or Live)
44) Card Shop (Stationery, paper goods,etc.)
Existing Sq. Ft.
Proposed Sq. Ft.
Plaza Plaza 1,600-2,000 300

Primary clothing/accessory Gifts/amusement/other
Proposed Square Feet
1 ,200
ee lounge/restrooms

Key Making 40 s.f.; Desks/Clerks 140 s.f.; Lobby 40 s.f.; Lost and Found 100 s.f.; Safe 20 s.f.. Locker 64 s.f.
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Key making, desks, safe, small loby, lost and found or near.
24 hour security is provided from this base office.
Centrally located.
One of the apartments would be occupied by this person. One apartment would be for the food service personnel. The office definitely can be separate from the apartment.
Locate within the main activity core so that the security office is "an identifiable cubicle", as are the retail spaces.
Insure view to pedestrian area to insure ability to monitor activities. Office should be recognizable and accessible by the staff and public.

The existing Winter Park Security program offers a broad range of operational and public services from a small, but centrally located office on the ground floor of the Balcony House.
Twenty-four hour security at the Winter Park Base Area is supplemented in part by the following activities and services:
1) National Weather Service reporting station
2) Winter Park/Mary Jane security
3) Escort and transport ticket sales and daily receipts
4) Motor pool
5) Seasonal locker rentals
/ 6) Lost and Found
7) Information/public contact
8) Vehicle starting/towing referrals
k?) Issue and duplicate all keys, vehicle access authorizations, etc.
10) Monitor and assist local law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and search ana rescue agencies
I I) Assembly point for employee groups before and after regular business hours.
12) Telephone contact before and after regular business hours
These operations and services, with a staff of 25 full and part time persons, are based from a facility of 550 square feet, with three remote weather recording or observation stations, and a small vehicle pool complementing the existing physical plant.
Proposed Facility
The proposed Security offices shall reflect the program narrative, and functional relationship requirements to the greatest extent possible. The facility shall again he located within the base area complex in such a manner that commanding views of the
and pedestrian/skier staging areas are preserved. The offices should be recognizable to and easily accessible by the public and staff.
The Security office
iTseu should meet the following program goals:

An entrance lobby, separated from the adjoining staff office(s) by a "teller's counter", shall serve as a public waiting area, staff entry/circulation, and an off-hours employee assembly point. Provisions for a public telephone and vending machines shall be addressed at an adjoining interior hallway, alcove or anteroom. The "teller's counter", or "service counter" shall subtly limit access to the staff area, while permitting unrestricted communications between Security staff and resort guests.
Duty Office
Adjoining and serving the entrance lobby, the duty office consists of a single open room housing one attendant work station. The one work station should be adjacent to windows facing the pedestrian entryway to the plaza to monitor activities in the plaza.
Vertical circulation to a small loft which permits 360 degrees views of the base area complex, as well as circulation to the weather equipment room, key room, *locker room, restroom, and storage areas may occur in the duty office. Provisions for a small semiprivate seating area adjacent to the supevisor's office should be addressed in schematic design. This may not be necessary.
A single fixture restroom shall be provided within the Security office.
Supervisor's Office (combine w/Clerk Office w/1 work station)
A private office for the Security Supervisor will be provided. Views into the entrance lobby shall be possible. Views of the Plaza or parking areas are desirable.
Key Storage Room
A small room accommodating day storage lockers and duplicating equipment shall be provided. Immediate access from the duty office is desirable.
Weather Monitoring Equipment Room (This will remain at the Village)
A small room for the consolidation of weather recording and reporting equipment shall be provided.
A single storage room, accommodating "found" equipment, and operational supplies shall be presented in schematic design.
Obseryatin Loft
A smajll, elevated observation loft enjoying a 360 degree view of the area is required.
Provisions for a perimeter deck are desirable, but not essential.

* Locker Room
A loc
ker/dressing area, with provisions for (8) 15" wide by 18" deep by 96" high
locker^ is to be addressed in schematic design. This facility may be combined with others in a single employee locker area.
General (Guideline)
The Security office should be located within the base area complex so that it is
provided. Mechanical
located and accessed from either the parking lot or plaza areas. Secure from below grade parking or service areas, if developed, should be
No special mechanical needs are indicated in the program. Janitortial
No provisions for janitorial services are indicated in the program.

Public Clerks Key Locke Lost Circu Safe TOTA
Lobby Offices Locker r Room
and Found and Equipment Storage lation
ae remote
Proposed Square Feet 40 140 40 64 100 20 20 424

(Could be below administration offices. See following section.)
Meeting room, locker room, storage for sleds, first aid mainly triage.

FUNCTIONS: First Aid Center/Medical Clinic
Ski Patrol Lockers/Dressing Ski Patrol Offices/Meeting Room
Existing Facilities
The Ski Patrol program at Winter Park currently stages its operations in two separate locations. Locker and dressing rooms for both the full time core staff, as well as the part time and volunteer patrollers are located in the basement of the Administration Building along with administrative employees and Ski School instructors locker rooms and restrooms. The program administrator's office is located on the second floor of the Administration Building, close to secretarial and support functions, but remote from his staff.
The first aid facility and patrol "squad room" or meeting room are located on the ground floor of the Balcony House, adjacent to West Portal Station.
Within the first aid complex in a functionally and circulatory poor configuration are: office stations for the nurse, doctors, and staff; receiving and triage; a single, large treatment room divisible by ceiling hung curtains; public waiting area; laundry and storage areas; a single restroom; and the patrol ski storage area. The open treatment/ waiting area also serves as a patrol squad/meeting room and lecture/classroom.
Adjacent to the first aid facility is the illness/trauma recovery room. A single large room equipped with 12 cots, this area serves as a rest area for mildly ill patients, a recovery room for patients treated at the ski area and awaiting private transport, and a staging area for patients awaiting ambulance transport to medical facilities.
Circulation to and within the existing facility is adversely influenced by both its location and configuration. The area of greatest concern is that of incoming patients arriving on Ski Patrol sleds. Presently, these persons are puiled by snowmobile through the heart of the base area, an area crowded with skiers and pedestrians.
From the sheltered unloading area, patients are brought into the communal triage./' waiting/treatment area, prior to isolation for examination and treatment. Patient privacy and dignity is minimal through this process. Following first aid treatment, patients again pass through this area to the resting/recovery room, where they await discharge or transport.
Ambulance or private transport occurs discreetly at the reserved parking lot between the Administration Building and Balcony House.
Proposed j Facilities
It should be noted at the outset that two specific functional criteria of the first aid/clinic facility have influenced the proposed location of the facility within the base area complex. These two criteria are:
I) It is desirable to locate the facility's entrance such that incoming patients be exposed to minimum public interface during passage through the skier staging areas and at the first aid facilities entryway.

The progr essent possi limitat archi
First Aid/Clinic facility should reflect the functional organization and the am area requirements presented in this chapter. Ski Patrol functions ial to the First Aid/Clinic facility will be consolidated insofar as e. Less immediate patrol and support facilities, may, if space ions dictate, be located elsewhere withi;n the Base Area Complex. The shall coordinate remote locations with the owner.
C inic
Provisions shall be made for the development of a small, but fully equipped, private medical clinic within the Ski Patrol/First Aid Complex. Preliminary program requirements and function presented in this chapter are intended as planning guidelines only. This facility will be refined in the early stages of construction document development with the advice of a selected operator or medical consultant.
Operationally, the clinic will operate as a sophisticated and immediately
accessible medical facility in support of the Triage/First Aid treatments
available through the Ski Patrol Program. In general, as a resort guest service, patients will be treated and held for recovery, release or private
transport in the Patrol First Aid Facility. Only those patients requiring
or requesting additional medical treatment or ambulance evacuation will be transferred to the private medical clinic. This sequence will become an important guideline as functional relationships and circulation develop in schematic design.
thin an applied guideline of 2400 square feet maximum, the architect shall
present, in schematic design, the following medical clinic program.
Public Lobby/Waiting Room Receptionist/Nurse's Office Doctor's Office Patient's Restrooms 3 Examination/Treatment Rooms 2 small exam rooms 1 large exam/x-ray room X-ray Control Booth X-ray Film Lab
Storage (Records, Office Supply, Linen, Drugs)
Janitorial Closet
heated ambulance garage/loading area, and a private vehicle "Pick Up Point", both accessible from the clinic as well as the First Aid Facility, and utilizing athe adjacent access controlled parking lot to the northeast shall be provided.

Provisions for a rooftop or ground level helicopter landing pad shall be examined by the architect during schematic design. Patient transport to the selected locataion, including elevator transport to a rooftop facility shall be addressed in schematic design.
First Aid Complex
A First Aid Complex, with critical Ski Patrol support facilities will adjoin the clinic facility. As previously discussed in this chapter, patient sequencing will direct the configuration of the First/Aid Clinic relationship. This sequencing is further defined in the following flow diagram:
Patient sequencing, and the interrelationships presented in the functional diagram should be reflected, insofar as possible, in the schematic design.
Within an applied guideline of 2400 square feet maximum, architect shall present the following first aid program.
Ski Patrol Supervisor's Office Ski Patrol Nurse's Station Triage Area
2 Examination/Treatment Rooms
Resting/recovery room
2 Patient/Public Restrooms
Public Waiting Room
Parking Lot Access
Patrol Ski Storage Locker
Patient Ski Storage Locker
Office Storage
Linen Storage
Medical Supply Storage
Mountain Equipment Storage
Accident Investigation Equipment Storage
Drug Storage Locker
Ambulance Garage
I be Machine

Additionally, the first aid facility will incorporate a screened, protected patient arrival/unload area fully accessible by snowmobile; and a heated ambulance garage and loading area.
Most patients being evacuated from the mountain arrive at the first aid facility on Ski Patrol sleds towed by a snowmobile. The normal evacuation route is via the Practice Hill directly west of the proposed facility. Ambulatory patients, it can be assumed, will arrive principally from the south. The Patrol/first aid center should be visible, recognizable, and easily accessed.
The patient unload area, though outdoors, should be weather protected and screened from public view. Drive through of snowmobiles with sleds shall be provided, along with provisions for vertical storage of unused sleds. A conveyor/roller assembly may assist moving of patients into the triage area.
Immediately adjacent to the unload area shall be a patient triage room. It is at this point that the attending patroller, patrol supervisor, and patrol nurse will preliminarily diagnose the patient. The patient will then be moved to examination rooms in either the first aid center or medical clinic for treatment. The triage room, therefore, shall access both the first aid center and medical clinic. The patrol nurses office should monitor the arrival and triage areas.
Examination/Treatment Rooms
Two examination and treatment rooms will be provided at the first aid center. Circulation from the triage area to and within the exam rooms may be by gurney, or wheeled table, or by wheelchair. Each exam room will be sized for, and equipped with, adequate medical supply storage areas; sink and layout counter; desk and seating; and an examination table.
Restinq/Recovery Room
The first aid center is provided to treat guests with minor injuries, high altitude reactions, exhaustion, colds, and other similar non-threatening situations. A recovery room, equipped with eight cots, and monitored from the nurses' station will be provided for these patients.
Patierjit Restrooms
Patient restrooms, fully wheelchair accessible, shall be provided at the first aid center. Each restroom shall be equipped with two fixtures (toilet and urinal mens'; two toilets womens') and one sink. Restrooms should be easily accessible from both the exam rooms and the recovery room.
Super'l/isor's/Doctor's Office
A private office for supervisory staff, doctors, or patients' companions shall be provided at the first aid center.

Ski Patrol Nurses' Station
Proximate to the supervisors office, and in a location permitting visual monitoring of the recovery and triage rooms shall be a designated nurses' station. An open office system, with work station and files, adequately addresses this requirement.
Public Waiting Room
A small waiting area for relatives or companions of patients will be provided. This area should face onto the mountain, and be adjacent to the office/nurses1 station.
Parking Lot Access
The architect will provide direct access to the controlled access parking lot immediately to the north and east of the proposed facility, permitting convenient transportation of guests.
Additionally, direct access to the ambulance garage shall be provided for rapid evacuation of patients.
Ski Storage Lockers
Immediately within the facilities' entry, the architect will provide for locker storage of patrollers' and guests' skis.
A small laundry area, accommodating a standard residential sized washer and dryer shall be provided at the first aid center. Provide a clear area for hanging storage of blankets and roll covers.
A single storage room meeting the following program storage needs may be provided. Alternatively, the architect may elect to provide a series of "lockers" or storage closets, opening onto circulation areas.
Linen Storage
Permitting bulk storage of sheets, blankets, etc.
Medical Supply Storage
To accommodate storage of bandages, splints, and other treatment equipment
Also sized to provide for the storage of equipment and supplies used for first aid,
C.P.R., and E.M.T. training courses.
Mountain Equipment Storage
Search and rescue supplies, and other large or bulky mountain equipment.
Office Supply Storage
Nominal stocks of paper products, forms, office supplies.

Drug Locker
Secure storage of working supply of drugs, ointments, etc. Provisions for refrigeration required.
Accident Investigation Equipment Storage
Provide a small capacity ice maker/storage machine for compresses. Ambulance Garage
n enclosed, heated ambulance garage shall be provided, with direct access om the controlled parking area to the northeast of the proposed facility, he gara shall be configured so as to permit floor level loading of the mbulance from both the first aid and medical clinic facilities.
A small darkroom for film storage and the rapid development and printing of accident investigation photography shall be provided.
Ice Machine
C rculation shall respect the program narrative, the patient flow diagram, and the functional relationship requirements, insofar as practical Doorways, corridors and room layouts shall be sized and configured to permit patient transport by wheelchair and gurney, or wheeled stretchers.
A small janitorial supply closet should be provided within the first aid center. A mop sink shall be included.
No special mechanical requirements are indicated the mechanical chaper of the program document, handling, exhaust, lighting, and public address accommodate area specific control.
in the program. As noted in however, heating, cooling, air systems should be designed to
Ski Patrol
FaciIitjies for Ski Patrol would ideally be located immediately adjacent to the first aid and medical clinic programs.

Pro Patrol Lockers and Dressing
A single large locker/dressing room accommodating 90 lockers 15" wide by 18" deep by 96" tall shall be provided. Adequate space for seating, dressing, and circulation shall be provided between locker rows. Schematic design should reflect consideration for avoiding a single large locker facility, without actually breaking the area into "rooms". A wall mounted, lockable ski and pole rack, each with capacity for two pairs of skis will be provided for each locker space, which are programmed at approximately 8 square feet/patroller, excluding circulation space. These ski racks should be provided immediately inside the entry door to the facility, regardless of the location of lockers. Finish materials, including wails, ceilings, and floors shouia respect the type of equipment in use in the facility, acoustics, and wet ski boots. Internal circulation and access to outdoor circulation should respect the physical requirements of the equipment stored in this facility. Insofar as possible, the architect should arrange the functions outlined in the program to minimize the need to move skis through high finish areas and manual doorways, especially at vestibule entryways.
Although it has no extraordinary mechanical requirements, heating and ventilation of the locker room adequate to ensure daily drying of clothing, boots and equipment is an important consideration.
Volunteer Patrol Lockers and Dressing
The Volunteer Patrol locker and dressing room shall be sized to accommodate I 10 15" wide by 18" deep by 96" tail lockers. Adequate space for seating, dressing and circulation shall be provided between locker rows. Schematic design should reflect consideration for avoiding a single large locker facility, without actually breaking the area into "rooms". A wall mounted, lockable ski and pole rack, each with capacity for two pairs of skis will be provided for each locker space, which are programmed at approximately 8 square feet/patroller, excluding circulation space. These ski racks should be provided immediately inside the entry door to the facility, regardless of the location of the lockers. Finish materials, including walls, ceilings, and floors, should respect the type of equipment in use in the facility, acoustics, and wet ski boots. Internal circulation and access to outdoor circulation should respect the physical requirements of the equipment stored in this facility. Insofar as possible, the architect should arrange the functions outlined in the program to minimize the need to move skis through high finish areas and manual doorways, especially at vestibule entryways.
Although it has no extraordinary mechanical requirements, heating and ventilation of the locker room adequate to ensure daily drying of clothing, boots and equipment is an important consideration.
Squad Room
A squdd room, or meeting room, will not be provided within the patrol locker room. Rather, meetings and audio/visual presentations will occur in special events meeting or convention rooms provided elsewhere in the base area complex.
Separate restroom faciiites at the ski patrol locker room will not be provided within the patrol locker area. Rather, convenient access to shared facilities shall be addressed in schematic design.

Offices for a patrol supervisor, and assistant shall be provided within the facility. Natural light or views are desirable, though not essential. The offices shall be accessed via the entry/circulation area.
Note that the supervisors' office will be duplicated at locker first aid facilities are located on separate floors,
the first aid center if the
An system; mount docum
uipment storage room, with large lockers, shelving, and modular storage s will be provided. Cold storage provisions for snowmobiles, sleds, and ain equipment are addressed specifically in the applicable sections of this ent.

Public Lobby/Waiting Room
Receptionist/Nurse's Office
Doctor's Office
Patients' Restrooms 2 @ 120
3 Examination/Treatment Rooms small @ 160 1 large @ 180
Proposed Square Feet 200 140 180 240
Control Booth Film Lab
ecords )ffice Supply
400 ( 100) ( 100)
_inen )rugs ( 100) ( 100)
Janito rial Closet 60
Laund ry 100
Circu ation 430
TOTA L 2,400

Supervisor/Doctor's Office Nurses' Station
Patro Patrol T riage
Exam Rooms 3 @ 120 Resting/Recovery Room(s) Restroom(s) 2 @ 50 Waiting Room /Patient Ski Check
Medical Supply Mountain Equipment Drugs
Accidental Investigation Equipment
Ice Machine Film Lab
Proposed Square Feet
140 ( 20)
( 30)
( 25)
( 35)
( 10)
( 20)

Pro Patrol Locker Room Volunteer Patrol Locker Room Patro Supervisor's Office Assistant's Office Circu ation
Proposed Square Feet 800 900 100 60 400 140 2,400


P^vA / FK^t A'D /^L,hil

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Nominal, mainly from Winter Park and (new) Zephr Village.
Ski fitting, office, restroom, office, storage, reception, ticket sales.
Handicap Code. Restrooms, ramps, no barriers.
Location should be down near the meadow. It could have its own outside entrance.
Accessible in a barrier-free zone (e.g., handicap restrooms).
Within the physical and economic limitations to be established by the architect and Winter Park Recreation Association. The base facilities at Vasquez shall be planned and designed to accommodate, to the highest degrees, the handicapped populations using this facility.

Proposed Facilities
Administrative Offices
The architect will resolve, in schematic design, the organization of administrative offices at the Handicap Program. These offices consist of an administrative secretary's work station and the program director's office.
Instructors' Work Center
The instructor's work center will be located adjacent to the program center. This "office" would provide two open office work stations for instructors d£ily reporting, a staff meeting/lunch room, and clothing locker/ski storage/dressing space for instructors. This office would access from the program office waiting room.
Large Croup Meeting Area
It is anticipated that such functions will occur in the Great Hall, or meeting/convention center.
Barrier Free Access and Circulation
The rigorous climate, significant annual snowfall, and magnitude of the facilities at the Winter Park Base Area combine to make circulation for some handicapped populations difficult at best. However, Winter Park with its commitment to handicap recreation, should be viewed as being a leader in barrier free access and circulation.
Within the physical and economic limitaitons to be established by the architect and Winter Park Recreational Association, the base facilities at Vasquez shall be planned and designed to accommodate, to the highest degree, the handicapped populations using this facility.
As it is presently conceived, the base area complex will be oriented around a large open central plaza, which will function as the primary pedestrian circulation zone. The building itself will need to address the severe grade change of the site. The architect must sensitively address the needs of the handicapped users. The architect shall provide continuous, internal circulation systems tying all essential skier services together in a barrier free system. The system shall link all building levels, gondola station, plaza, and skier staging areas together in a barrier free system, insofar as isj practical.

Administrator's Office Restroom (Employees)
Reception/Ticket Sales Instructors' Work Stations/Locker Area Lobby/Waiting / Fitting Handicap Storage Circulation TOTA
Proposed Square Feet 200 40 65 100 425 85

SQ. FT. 4,000 DIMENSIONS 63' x 63'
Soft interior to muffle sounds, decrease loudness of skiers walking around in ski boots.
Could be a real theme restaurant (solar exposure or view, or mountain-type tneme).
High quality, people could make reservations for this area.
Maitre 'd hotel present.
Could be reopened at 7:00 pm to bring people up for evenings and summers. Near the possible summer conference area.
Cafeteria, kitchen, public restrooms.
Not far from lockers. Customers want to store all heavy duty items. (This is a real sit-down restaurant.)
Volume of patrons will occur in peak periods at early morning and at noon.
Spead out customersas well as possible by using reservation system.
Keep restaurant seating intimate. Create smaller areas within the whole. 8 am to 4:30 pm operation. Later food service will occur at the Village at Winter Park.
View of mountains is required. -

Dancing/Bar 3,600 s.f. with 20' x 30' dance floor.
Restaurant/Bar 1,500 s.f. a place to watch people from near the scramble.
The highest finish (produces good cash flow).
Full bar at each use, vary the thems.
Small stage.
Dance floor 20' x 30'
3,600 s.f. bar will have minimal food preparation area (serving snacks only.)
Could have a fireplace put in (a quieter area of the bar)
See building code section for occupancy separations, toilet facilities, etc.
Operates after skiing is finished for the day, unless night skiing will be implemented.
1,500 s.f. restaurant/bar should back up to the main kitchen (so as not to duplicate service ares.)
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Easy visual connection to base of mountain, yiew of mountain required.
Good for money.
Late afternoon til 6 pm for bar.

Area should be adequate to serve 730 people at approximately 9 s.f./person
Should be partitionable. We don't want the appearance of being empty. Moveable walls or something else.
This would be a multiple use area for meetings.
High durability for circulation areas is necessary.
Safety issues: finishes must really be durable. If using carpet -maintenance and control will be required.
Kitchen, restaurant seating, auxiliary bar, scramble. FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW
For dining meeting, resting and entertainment of skiers and non-skiers alike. Need rich texture and quality for the corporate user of the ^multi-use facility (summers).

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Store fronts on the different food areas needed.
Make it not look like a scramble really important
Lots of little bays which are separated enough so that people will not have to wait in the wrong lines.
Commercial kitchen
Restaurants bank up to kitchen, next to cafeteria seating.
Must avoid congestion and indecision in waiting lines.

Cafeteria Seating
Guests at the Vasquez Base Area will be offered five separate dining facilities; these consist of the cafeteria, two full service restaurant/bars, as well as varied concessionare shops for lighter snacks.
Seating approximately 730 persons in approximately 7,200 square feet, the largest cafeteria should be adequate for all but the most busy winter days, or during periods of unusally inclement weather.
As the largest and most inviting public gathering, dining or day lodge area at the Vasquez base, the cafeteria can be particularly subject to peaking characteristics and overcrowding. With few alternative dining, strolling, shopping or diversionary activities at the base area, the cafeteria is at once a dining, meeting, resting and entertainment area for skiers and non-skiers alike. Alternative seating, dining, or diversionary activity spaces should be addressed for around the base area complex. The future development of additional mountain restaurant points (new base areas) or increases in on-the-mountain restaurant capacity will effectively reduce demand for further seating at the Vasquez base area.
Sack Lunch Areas
Guests have traditionally, and in significant numbers, utilized the cafeteria at Winter Park for sack lunch dining. This guest convenience may continue unrestricted in the future Vasquez.
Cafeteria Service
Cafeteria service at the cafeteria is based on the "scramble area" concept. In this system guests are offered a range of food products at specific pick-up points within a large circulation area. Modifications to the existing scramble area to address operational problems should be addressed. A broad offering of food products will introduced. Pick-up points should be organized accordingly.
Secondary Food Service Facilities
Vasquez base facility concessionaires will operate to serve both retail and food service needs of the skier. These shops should be located adjacent to the retail concessionaires.
The food preparation and kitchen facilities should accommodate the needs of the cafeteria and two adjacent restaurant/bars.
The 'full service restaurants will offer customers a more elegant, quiet and relaxed atmosphere than will the cafeteria. The restaurants should be acoustically separated from the cafeteria and general circulation area, while maintaining close physical proximity.

Employee Lunch Room/Lounge
At the present time employee lunch room/lounge facilities are available in several locations throughout the Base Area, primarily in conjunction with locker room or work areas. Additionally, a very small semi-private lunch area is provided at the West Portal Station cafeteria.
Bulk food product delivery and storage facilities for the entire Winter Park Food Service operation are located at West Portal Station.
This storage includes frozen and refrigerated foods; soft drink supply and delivery systems; refrigerated beer storage and delivery systems; bulk dry food storage; bulk dry goods and paper storage; bar supply and liquor storage.
Administrative Offices
Administrative offices should be located along with other operations management offices.
Food Service administrative and accounting offices are presently divided between the Administration Building and the kitchen area at West Portal Station. Consolidation of, additions, or changes to these offices will be identified in the proposed program.
Proposed Facility
The provisions of separate employee dining areas or lounges will reduce otherwise large seating requirements at peak dining hours in the cafeteria.
Based on these factors, projected skier attendance increases in future years may not proportionally increase Food Service seating requirements at the Winter Park Base Area. Proposed facilities requirements will reflect this consideration.
Proposed Food Service facilities should reflect the proposed program area requirements outlined in this chapter. Related functionsa should be respected in schematic design, insofar as possible. The following design goals should be examined and addressed in schematic design.
Cafeteria Expansion
Total projected expansion requirements should occur in no more than two construction phases, with a first phase expansion of approximately 1 200 square feet; the ultimate increase shall not exceed 2,400 square feet total.
If the need arises, cafeteria seating capacity could be effectively increased through a combination of the following measures:
1) Provision for children's dining in the public nursery.
2) Provision for specific sack lunch areas at other locations in the base area.
3) The provision of additional deck level or plaza level outdoor seating..
Increased seating densities or opportunities within the existing cafeteria and day center.

5) Operational inducements (i.e. discount dining hours, etc.).
6) Expansion of, or additions to, concessionaire seating areas.
Sack Lunch Area
A designated sack lunch area of limited size, generally lower finish level, and accessible from, but not directly visible from the cafeteria, shall be identified in schematic design. This area, if possible, should enjoy some view of the lower slopes and solar exposure.
Cafeteria Service
An independent study of the scramble area at the West Portal Station cafeteria is underway as this document is being prepared.
Kitchen/Food Preparation
Kitchen and food preparation areas will serve the cafeteria as well as both restaurants. Care should be taken to organize efficient flow of food for each service, avoiding congestion problems.
Additional satellite food preparation areas may be required at the following locations:
1) Special events/convention complex
2) Board Room lounge
3) Public nursery
4) Employee nursery
5) Restaurant(s)
6) Bar/lounge
7) Designated Food Service commercial lease areas
8) Employee housing units
Bar, or lounge facilities, at the Winter Park Area will fall into two categories.
The Food Service branch of the Winter Park Recreational Association Operations Department will continue to operate the primary bar facilities. Portabel beer islands as needed (primarily winter operations), temporary set up bars for special events, as needs, and one or more concessionaires may offer bar service to supplement restaurant operations.
A major restaurant, seating 150 to 200 persons will be developed in schematic design.

The architect should consider the following program considerations:
1 Utilization of the existing West Portal Station food prep and kitchen facilities.
Utilization of existing West Portal Staiton service and pedestrian circulation systems.
Proximity to the proposed convention/special events facilities.
Deck level seating.
Solar exposure.
Views onto ski trails.
Provisions for waiter/waitress service stations.
Provisions for satellite food prep or kitchen facilities.
Bar seating and liquor service.
8 9
Other of design
specific requirements for the restaurant will be provided in later stages

Food Service Kiosks or Snack Service
Individual food service kiosks, snack bars, wagons or other free standing outlets will be accommodated within the spaces defined in the central plaza or pedestrian circulation areas. Specific requirements for free standing food outlets will be provided in later stages of design.
Temporary Portable Bars and Beer Carts
Temporary portable bars and beer carts can generally be accommodated in the program spaces in which they will be used. No special requirements for these facilities need be identified in schematic design.
Commercial or Concessionaire Food Service Facilities
Specific program requirements for concessionaire facilities have not been developed at this time. Market or operational factors will influence the utilization of the programmed retail space within the base area complex. Specific requirements for concessionaire facilities will be provided in later stages of design.
The dishwash facility will have to accommodate the separate food service options. Specific requirements will be provided in later stages of design.
Trash Disposal
Holding, compaction, and trash disposal facilities will be required. Trash generated by any restaurant or other facilities should be considered by the architect during schematic design.

Cafeteria Seating** Restaurant Seating/Bar Kitchen/Scramble*** Back of House Trash Disposal
k k
k k k
Proposed Square Feet
6,000 3,627 4,200 500
Program square footages do not reflect facilities leased or operated by tenants or concessionaires. Refer to retail space program chapter.
ncludes circulation and busing stations.
ncludes primary/circulation/register islands, condiment counters, and soft drink dispensing area.

SQ. F 1
2 bedroom apartment 900 s.f. 1 bedroom apartment 600 s.f.
NUMBER REQUIRED: 2 @ 900 s.f., 1 @ 600 s.f.
SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Warm durable living spaces, medium level of finish.
Should have an outdoor deck and/or view.
Should be situated to give residents privacy from customer traffic. Some residents are security personnel.
At an edge of the complex, perhaps near access road.
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Off on the side or at top of complex.
Should be out of the flow of traffic.
Design for either year-round or winter-only occupancy. Confer with Winter Park Recreation Association.

Existing Facilities
There are presently two individual employee apartments at the Winter Park Base Area, both located in the Balcony House. The first, provided for the resident groundskeeper, is a ground level, two bedroom apartment of modest size.
The second, provided for the resident facilities supervisor, is a three bedroom apartment located at the third floor level, and furnished with a west facing deck.
The two apartments accomplish the goals of added security through the constant presence of personnel, and rapid response to unusual or emergency circumstances.
Proposed Facilities
Three separate employee apartments shall be developed in schematic design. The apartment entrances should be inconspicuous and not readily accessible by the public. The apartments may be grouped or separated, as the architect requires. Two of the apartments shall be two bedroom, I 1/2 bath units with full kitchen, living room, and private deck or patio. One unit shall be provided with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, dining area, living room, and private deck or patio.
The smaller apartments should not exceed 750 square feet and the larger should not exceed l,Q00 square feet in the area (excluding decks, patios, and access or circulation.

Employee Apartments
New Const. Sq. Ft.

Food supplies, chairs and tables toilet paper
UNIT SIZE: Various sizes depending upon location
NUMBER REQUIRED: 3 main areas
I .. '
Employee access only.
Near restrooms (toilet paper)
Near food service (food supplies)
Near cafeteria seating (tables and chairs)
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Restricted access employees only
Make these areas unobtrusive and yet, highly usable.

Existing Facilities
storage areas at Winter Park are inadequate in almost every category, y, storage areas are poorly located, difficult to access, or poorly sized and
for the physical requirements of the type of items stored, occurs outdoors in unsecured, unprotected, and view exposed locations.
Proposed Facilities
Some storage
Detailed storage requirements will be developed at a later date.

Snowmobile Garages (with "artificial snow" floors) Concert Grounds Playgrour Seasonal Furniture
Maintenance Equipment nd/Ski Rack Equipment igns
Records/Documents Brochures, Stationery, etc.
Sq. Ft.

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Uniforms, kitchen, linens (only for special events).
A lot of storage/durable finishes not glamorous.
Just one controlled access point, only for employees; a secured area.
In a service core/employee lockers. Handles uniform check-in and check-out. Sells employee uniforms, alterations done. Near janitor and grounds crew.
A lot of storage here.

SPECIAL FEATURES: FINISHES, FURNISHINGS, MECH. REQUIREMENTS Landscaping, snow removal, snow blowing operations out of this area.
Gas engines, front-end loader, sand spreader, snow shovels, sand shovels, lawn mowers, weed eaters housed here.
Local to Vasquez base facility.
Slope maintenance is separately operated out of the Mary Jane base facility. Image: Concrete walls in a well ventilated basement.
Air changes per hour above code requirements because of fumes associated with stored machinery.
Next to engine room of gondola station, if in that building, because the highest intensity of maintenance will occur near the base.
FLOW: DIRECTION, VOLUME, BASE OF ACCESS, FLOW Out of direct skier flow, if possible.
Otherwise, operations can occur before or after the ski day, or with the use of warning signs.

Existing Facilities
Existing service, delivery, and trash facilities at West Portal Station are adequate for current needs. Circulation from the delivery dock is addressed in the program chapter Circulation. Also see Winter Park Base Facilities plans, Muchow, Haller and Larson, 1980.
Proposed Facilities
Components of the proposed Winter Park Base Area development will benefit from the existing loading dock and delivery area and trash handling facilities by utilizing or expanding circulation provided for future expansion. Where access to these facilities cannot be adequately addressed, the architect will provide duplicate facilities. Requirements for these additional spaces will become more clearly defined during schematic design development. The architect will examine the feasibility of service areas beneath the base area structures or plaza. Considerations for deliveries and refuse, in conjunction with retail and restaurant developments, shall be illustrated in schematic design.

Function Sq. Ft.

Existing Program
External circulation at the Winter Park Base Area consists of vehicular circulation, including guest and employee automobiles; over snow vehicles, including snow cats, snowmobiles, and grooming machinery; delivery service, and refuse hauling; pedestrian circulation, including employees, skiers, non-skiers, summer visitors, and others; skier staging and outrun areas; and, peripherally, rail traffic on the Denver and Rio Granae Western Railroad and road traffic on neighboring Winter Park Drive.
Internal circulation at the Winter Park Base Area consists of pedestrian movements between functions within and between the various base area buildings; movements of supplies, deliveries, food services and trash; the movement of ski gear to and from locker and rental facilities; and large eguipment movements associated with special events.
Pedestrian and freight movements within West Portal Station are assisted by hydraulic pedestrian and freight elevators servicing all main floor levels.
Trash movement in the cafeteria is assisted by a dumbwaiter, gravity trash chute, and large trash compactor at a high capacity trailerable container.
Deliveries are assisted by an adjustable height truck loading dock which directly accesses the freight elevator. However, through building movements are hampered by restricted hallways and doorways (2'-ll!fe" minimum width) between the dock/elevator area, and functions elsewhere in the building. Furthermore, all deliveries to the main floor level via the loading dock must pass through the sales floor area of the Wnter Park Ski Shop, and all deliveries to the cafeteria level must pass through the kitchen/food preparation area. Finally, maximum entry door widths of 2'-1 Ik" effectively prohibit the entrance of any equipment exceeding that dimension.
As the home of the premier handicapped recreational skiing program in the nation, Winter Park Should be at the forefront of barrier free design. Yet handicapped access and circulation at the Winter Park Base Area is adversely impacted by both natural and man made obstacles. Extreme environmental conditions, distances from handicap parking, and architectural barriers combine to compromise access and circulation for the physically handicapped. The existing buildings at the Winter Park Base Area address barrier free access to different degrees. The oldest facility, Balcony House, offers most of its services at the second floor level, with single flight stairs and difficult doorway openings at all access points. Built in the 1950's, before today's awareness of special needs for certain segments of the public, Balcony House presents the most significant problems to the handicapped guest.
The Administration Building at Winter Park built in 1967 (?) is a three story facility housing administrative functions for Winter Park Recreational Association. Although entry level access, doorways, and stairway configurations are improved over the older Balcony House, a planned elevator to serve the three office floors and the basement level locker area has not been installed. Consequently, handicapped circulation within the building remains difficult.

Existing Program
External circulation at the Winter Park Base Area consists of vehicular circulation, including guest and employee automobiles; over snow vehicles, including snow cats, snowmobiles, and grooming machinery; delivery service, and refuse hauling; pedestrian circulation, including employees, skiers, non-skiers, summer visitors, and others; skier staging and outrun areas; and, peripherally, rail traffic on the Denver and Rio Granae Western Railroad and road traffic on neighboring Winter Park Drive.
Internal circulation at the Winter Park Base Area consists of pedestrian movements between j functions within and between the various base area buildings; movements of supplies, deliveries, food services and trash; the movement of ski gear to and from locker and rental facilities; and large equipment movements associated with special events.
Pedestrian and freight movements within West Portal Station are assisted by hydraulic pedestrian and freight elevators servicing all main fioor levels.
Trash movement in the cafeteria is assisted by a dumbwaiter, gravity trash chute, and large trash compactor at a high capacity trailerable container.
Deliveries are assisted by an adjustable height truck loading dock which directly accesses the freight elevator. However, through building movements are hampered by restricted hallways and doorways (2'-Illy minimum width) between the dock/elevator area, and functions elsewhere in the building. Furthermore, all deliveries to the main floor levei via the loading dock must pass through the sales floor area of the Wnter Park Ski Shop, and all deliveries to the cafeteria level must pass through the kitchen/food preparation area. Finally, maximum entry door widths of 2'-1 I'/y effectively prohibit the entrance of any equipment exceeding that dimension.
As the home of the premier handicapped recreational skiing program in the nation, Winter Park Should be at the forefront of barrier free design. Yet handicapped access and circulation at the Winter Park Base Area is adversely impacted by both natural and man made obstacles. Extreme environmental conditions, distances from handicap parking, and architectural barriers combine to compromise access and circulation for the physically handicapped. The existing buildings at the Winter Park Base Area address barrier free access to different degrees. The oldest facility, Balcony House, offers most of its services at the second floor level, with single flight stairs and difficult doorway openings at all access points. Built in the 1950's, before today's awareness of special needs for certain segments of the public, Balcony House presents the most significant problems to the handicapped guest.
The Administration Building at Winter Park built in 1967 (?) is a three story facility housing administrative functions for Winter Park Recreational Association. Although entry level access, doorways, and stairway configurations are improved over the older Balcony House, a planned elevator to serve the three office floors and the basement level locker area has not been installed. Consequently, handicapped circulation within the building remains difficult.

The final and newest facility at the base area, West Portdfl Station, is the most accessible of the existing facilities. Outdoor ramps, though unheated, allow wheelchair access to the main floor level. Air assisted handicap doors, on the otherhand, have proven unreliable in sub-zero temperatures; high maintenance requirements, and equipment failures will necessitate their replacement.
A pedestrian elevator serves each of the primary building levels of West Portal Station, allowing convenient handicapped access to all of the functions within the building. The lower level cafeteria seating areas, and Derailer Bar are accessed via a series of short stairways which do not present a significant obstacle to handicapped circulation.
General pedestrian circulation at the base area is constricted to an area between skier staging and outrun areas at the base of the mountain and the west face of the Balcony House, creating congestion and conflicts between pedestrians, skiers, and over snow vehicles. The arrival sequence, destinations (function points) and sense of "place" are poorly defined by the present circulation system. (See Balcony House report.)
Proposed Program
The proposed program is based on a percentage of total building area. Through schematic design, the architect will refine required circulation area requirements and relationships.
The architect should address, in schematic design, the following design goals.
Resolve existing conflicts between pedestrian, skier, and snow vehicle circulation needs at the mountainside/piaza interface.
Resolve existing arrival sequence, destination and entry definitions, and address sense of "place". Create spatially, a comfortable, well-defined pedestrian circulation plaza.
Resolve in schematic design, the conflicts between area policy relative to the exclusion of skis in any building, and the need to store skies and skiing equipment indoors.
Resolve in schematic design, freight, equipment and supply deliveries throughout the building and base area complex. Consideration of multilevel circulation needs shall be presented in schematic design, through the use of existing and additional pedestrian and freight elevators. Access from loading dock(s) and receiving areas should be addressed to eliminate the present need to pass through private shops or food preparation areas.
Building entrances and service corridors shall be sized and configured to allow the passage of larger equipment than is currently permitted by the physical limitations at certain points within the area.
Trash movements and storage, convenient to those functions generating large volumes of trash should be addressed in schematic design. These include commercial lease spaces and, particularly, food service areas.
Catering deliveries occur throughout the base area complex. It is desireable to minimize or eliminate the current condition requiring that food service delivery routes include stairways and outdoor circulation.

Barrier free access, and handicapped circulation within the base area complex shall be resolved to the highest practical aegree. Grade level building entrances, power assisted doors, elevator service to all floor levels, corridor, and doorway widths, ramped level changes, protected or heated outdoor circulaton areas, and other considerations should be addressed in schematic design.
It may be desireable to separate intensive employee circulation areas from those used by the general public, allowing employee lounge, announcement, and lunch facilities to occur away from public contact.

Existing Proposec Const.
Function Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft.
Circulati on
6% of 70, 000 Sq. Ft. Program 4,200 4,200


An Independent Study by Bonita J. Mueller University of Colorado at Denver December 1986

The intent of this independent study is to explore construction techniques of buildings in the mountains. The mountain environment provides many challenges for the architect. Climate is the single most important factor affecting architecture. Opportunities for dealing with the differences of scale as well as the mountain-town aesthetic are also present. The building must be able to serve as a form of enclosure before it can serve as aii item of high design. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this technical study will help to create an intuitive design base from which to draw in the future. Historic precedents will first be addressed. Examples of alpine architecture from the Swiss and Italian alps will be presented and analyzed for their practical contributions to current building practices. Specific environmental concerns will be discussed next. These include the problems of snow, ice build-up, solar orientation, wind, mud, moisture control, freeze thaw and thermal differential movement. Various structural systems and external envelope systems will be discussed. The practicability of building in the mountains depends on tjhe materials and the way they are used. A presentation of pertinent construction details will follow, with a summary and conclusion at the end of this paper.
"There are no doubts as to the fact that architecture in the mountains is not the result of the inspiration and education of one man: like all folk-art it is, on the contrary,

0 F
Intent and Scope of Project Snov
Climate and Construction Conclusion
Appendix : Construction Details and photographs
page 1 page 5 page 10 page 1A page 15 page 17 page 18
page 19

the sum of many experiences, the result of trial and error and of the
lessons taught by necessity." ^
One can not find refined buildings in Savoie, for example.
Savoie is bordered on the North by Switzerland and on the East by Italy.
The dips are as proximate as one's back door. In this mountainous
area, materials are hard to find and still harder to transport.
Making repairs is a continuing task when one is confronted with
brutal winters and the abundant, torrential rains of summer.
This climate if the high altitudes in the Rocky Mountains is much-the
same as that found in the French alps.
Most chalet buildings in the alps were constucted
with a stone base from the ground to the second floor or "rez de chausez".
Where wood was scarce, the entire building, including the roof
covering was stone. In forested areas, the rest of the walls would
be of vertically oriented planks. Roofs generally built with a
wood structure and cleaved schist surfaces, had enormous overhangs
to protect stair entries and proches below. Old houses built in
steep slopes often had entrances at several levels, taking advantage
of where the trade met the house instead of building numerous stairs.
Mario Cerghini, in his authoritative work, Building in the Mountains,
Architecture and History states, "The mountain house we like best
is the one that harmonizes so well with its setting as to almost
dissappear into it and become part of the landscape. And as it
melts into the living trunks of larches and pines, or makes one with the color of the rocks that are all around it, it seems

to be bathed into an atmosphere of homely intimacy that makes it dear and most precious to the hearts of those who seek rest and serenity in the mountains."2 Continuing his thoughts about the underlying spirit of mountain architecture, Cereghini writes, "As a structure of a mountain house goes up and shapes itself, it takes an active part inthe landscape. This should invite the architect to pause and think. In town the houses are aesthetically connected to each other: they compare with works made by man. In the mountains, man sets his own work into direct contrast and comparison with the work of the Architect of the Universe.
Mountain dwellers responded to the brutal forces of nature by deriving a building type to both suit their farming needs and shelter their families. The typical alpine house was built with a barn for animals at grade, living quarters on the second floor and hay and food storage on the third floor. Drying racks for the crops would be located on the sunny side of the structure.
The roof was a cold roof, similar in concept to the highly insulated cold roofs of today. "In Chamonix, where sonws are heavy, the roofs are slightly sloped, with a wide overhang and covered with wood shakes. The reason: Snow accumulates on the roof, clings to the wood, whereas a stronger pitch would make it slide. It soon builds up a cozy blanket offering a powerful insulation against the cold."^ The cold air flow which is necessary to keep snow on the roof circulated through the storage loft. The hay and provisions served as the insulation between the warm space and

the climate outside. The first floor, set aside for the animals
(the livelihood of the farmer) was entrenched in the slope of
the hill. The surrounding earth remains at a constant temperature.
The warmth of the animals rises to the level above, tempering
heat loss through the floor.
Historic architectural precedents are a good source
for common sense solutions to climatic problems. "There we
find man's mind at its clearest, joining with mature in
unpretentious teamwork. There we find no nonsense clothed in
words like fashion, style, or sophistication.
In the past, buildings took shaped according to the predominant archetype of the locale, In the current day, the appropriate use of materials and sensitve attention to environmental concerns have been ignored to a great extent. The trend in buildings is one of style or fashion. The traditional, responsible approach to architecture must be maintained. Yet, we must respond to new matetials. We must use them to the best of our abilities to produce buildings which function in the traditional, responsive way, without being retrogressive. Let us, therefore, address specific environmental concerns and discuss how new and old materials may be used to solve these problems.

Snow can be beautiful, insulative and destructive at the same time. In the high alpine environment, snow depths can reach an average of 230" per year as they do at Winter Park, Colorado. This means there will always be a problem of snow build-up and removal if these factors are not considered in the early part of the design process. The nost elementary considerations such as entry must respond to the possible build-up of snow. Buildings in snow country often have the entry elevated several feet from the summer ground line. Steps up the the door accumulat snow during the winter so that, effectively, the entry becomes lower to the ground relative to the snow line. This is one solution for buildings where grounds maintenance does not occur on a regular basis. Snow build-up can also ve a cause of worry regarding roofs.
Swiss and French chalets used to have large rocks placed upon
the roofs to keep both the roofing material and the built-up snow
on the roof. Today, fabricated snow guards are a prevalent substitution
for roof rocks. The danger of snow on the roof is of course,
the potential for the built-up mass sliding off the top of the
building. Since snow can weigh from 5 pounds per cubic foot
to 5j5 pounds per cubic foot for solid ice, this weight crashing
down form an unstabilized roof mass could cause great injury
to the passerby.^
The question which immediatedly comes to mind is "How can I avoid this situation?" Factors which one must consider in the design of a building, in this case, are roof pitch, roof material, temperature Variation and building orientation. Nature can dispose

of tl*ie snow herself if the ridge line of the roof is pointing
the direction of the prevailing winds. Temperature variation
due £o orientation can cause one side of the roof to retain a huge mass of snow. The snow on the other side may melt and slide off :he surface or blow off the building. The snow which remains on tjie roof is a major contributing factor to the sizing of the roof structure. "The 1982 Standards of the American National Standards Institute, whose recommendations are far superior to earlier building codes, permits the snow load on a roof to be neglected only when its slope exceeds 70 degrees."^
Otherwise the Structural Engineers Association of Colorado suggjests in their 1984 Structural Survey of Colorado Building Departments and Snow Load Design Data for Colorado that a basic
snovf loading requirement of up to 100 psf be used in roof design.
The 1982 Uniform Building Code allows a reduction in loading of over 20 psf for each degree when roofs slope more than 20 degrees. This can cause a potentially hazardous situation and should be noted by architectural design and structural design professionals.
Roof can be grouped according to how they respond to hea\ky snow conditions in distinctly different ways. These groups are steeply sloped roofs(60 and above), shallowly sloped roofs (4:12 and less) and flat roofs (less than or equal to V' / foot slope) Snow generally remains on a flat and shallow roof, whereas it usually slides off of a steep roof.

Ice damming is probably the most destructive situation whicfr is caused by snow accumulation. Four other dangerous conditions are: 1) pressure from the roof snow pack curls icicles into windows,
2)small overhangs contribute to water damage from the freeze-thaw cycle, 3) falling icicles can be deadly,and 4) melting snow can drip onto balconies, causing flooding. Ice damming is caused by the diurnal temperature swing and the indoor/outdoor temperature differential. Rising heat from the indoor space combining with the cold exterior temperature causes an intermediate zone where water accumulates. The cold air from the outside eventually freezes the melted water, forming an ice dam at the roof surface. A pool of water will build up behind the ice dam after several days.
Thi^ situation will find a way to relieve the static pressure.
Either a roof leak will occur orthe ice dam will break free presenting a missile hazard. There really is no way to eliminate ice damming of sloped roofs, but there are several methods of control.
Ian MacKinlay suggests the following: 1) the cold roof, 2) increased insulation, 3) heat leaks at the roof edge, and 4) heated eaves.
The flat roof is another excellent suggestion.
The original cold roof design was an archetype originating in the European Alps. There are numerous examples of this kind.
See figure 1 The most basic building organization was that with the stock animals at the unheated ground level, the heated living quarters above that, and an unheated level above the living quarters with hay and grain storage, effectively insulating the lev^l below. Air flowed through the upper level and snow accumulated

on the roof. A further development of this system is illustrated in figure This german design is actually one roof on top of another. Thert- is a convective current of air which circulated through the space between the two roofs. A vent for the rising air is provided the ridge of the roof. Snow is allowed to accumulate on the tapper surface. Snow guards, as shown, must be well-attached to the upper roof surface to assure snow will not slide off the surface of the roof. Openings have been traditionally located under gables, where snow is diverted away from peoples' heads.
The modern version of the European cold roof is about :|e as expensive as the more familiar warm roof. Figure showTs a typically detailed concrete tile roof with substantial insulation (R30 or above). Cold roofs really require a specialized Lronment to be effective. A shady site where temperatures rarely rise avove freezing is one good possibility. Cold roofs :ifically do not work in very cold climates where fine, windblown snow is then subject to freeze-thaw, which can cause leakage,
damming or even the separation of the two layers.
Some architects, through experience, feel that cold roofs not as effective as they could be. For those who decide not se cold roofs, another roof type is the warm roof with increased lation (R38 or better). Increased insulation will slow the melt and thus deter the formation of ice dams. A further ;ure is to reduce the amount of insulation at the roof edge.
to i
In this way, the tendency of water to freeze will be stopped as water will simply drip away.^ This can create a problem if overhangs are not sufficient to carry away the water. If gutters

the roof must in m
are being used, it would be wise to use a double gutter system, as shown in detail /; where the bottom layer contains electric
tape. The upper gutter surface remains warm enough to allow watej- to drain away. Additionally, all roof eaves should be heated, if they extend over unheated spaces. Dripping water from the jjarm roof falling onto another unheated roof surface will only n the ice dam problem again.
Architect, Craig Snov?don of Vail, Colorado suggests use of an impermeable membrane at the lower end of all sloped s and at all valleys. Detail' shows how th bituthane underlayment be well integrated with the vallyey flashing. One must keep ind that ice dams can cause pools as large as 9 feet and so underlayment at eaves should be carried up at least the lower 10 of any pitched roof. If the ice dam does occur, the roof shotjld be either fully shovelled or not shovelled at all.
Flat roofs essentially eliminate the problem of ice damming in all situations except where the roof is exposed to neither nor wind. A properly designed flat roof should be built slope towards interior drains. The roof drain should be brass with copper pipe. The heat from the interior of the building will keep the drain from freezing. The layer of snow above provides a barrier from the extreme cold temperatures. There is no sliding snow associated withflat roofs. The maximum benefit of the snow's jlative properties is also realized. The architect must insist a high quality of installation. Craig Snowdon has suggested that whether a sloped or flat roof is installed, if the workmanship is not up to par, the roof will not protect against the hazards

of regi poss
ow. Since the building season is severely shorter in mountainous ORIENTATION
"Two forces of nature influence the orientation of a building: one is the prevailing wind, which brings destruction; the other is the sun, that brings life. As a general rule, a building should be sheltered from the wing, and exposed to the sun. In these two predicates lie the most important requirements of orientation."^Orientation is what will make a buildings' users delighted or furious. The sun brings life-giving energy to building and human alike. Take, for example, the difference between the north and south sides of a building in the mountains after a snow storm. The wind works in conjunction with or in cpposition to the sun. Prevailing winter winds are from the NW,
direction from which sunlight does not come. If the entry of
a sti lodge faces the north or northwest, paths to it will always be Icy and doors may not be accessible without the help of a snow shovel. Examine the same building, this time facing south or southeast. Throughout the day, the entrance side will be bathed in warm, beneficial sunlight. Paths or plazas u?ill either be cleared of snow or be covered with a manageable amount of it. Major spaces on the interior which face the entry side, can benefit from the visual connection to the sun. The same spaces facing the north would be essentially lifeless, never experiencing the dynamic change in the color warmth and direction of light.

If at all possible, the architect should turn a building's back to the north. This may be accomplished by earth-sheltering.
If the site is flat one may consider limiting the size and number of qpenings on ht north side.
Snow will melt on the south side of a building.Thus, we nust be ready for the repercussions. We must be astute observers and design with preventative medicine. Freezing and melting snow and moisture in general, can be handled well without fear, provided we follow a few simple measures. We have considered roofs already.
The foundations, walls and areas surrounding the building must still be addressed.
Footings in general must be placed 48" or deeper from grace. Ground above this depth will freeze and thaw according to changing air temperatures. Footings must be protected from the very real possibilites of heaving soil. See details .
Thi^ detail indicates that water must drain away from the foundation.
It j.s standard practice to slope the grade away from the abovegrade building walls, also. Despite one's good intentions, nature is sometimes cruel and will work to discredit an architect's good name. Always try to expose at least two or three feet of wat^r-impervious material at the base of an^exterior wall. Accumulating snoy and/or splashed water can cause great damage if a wall is not designed to accomodate the deleterious effects of moisture.
Above the expected snow level, the architect should feel free to use less impervious materials. Water eill not affect the upper
wall surface as adversely as it will the wll base. This issue is
- ,{P - ;
illustrated in details and
Wood siding will be destroyed

or be in serious stages of deterioration of not held up and away from the moisture source. Likewise, stucco will deteriorate from moisture creeping up and under the lowest edge of the material. Stone, brick or concrete are excellent choices of base materials whicih also protect other less water-impervious materials.
Consider the difference between concrete and other pavdjng materials. Architect, Craig Snowdon prefers high compression brick pavers to concrete or other standard brick pavers. Standard pavers are place with mortar between them. The morter is adversely affected by freeze-thaw cycles. Water will be absorbed by the horizontally oriented bricks and joints. The ground below the pavers will heave up and down as the cycle goes on. Mortar will crack and the bricks will present an uneven surface, not being able to Return to their original positions. Concrete as a paving surface exposed to sonow plows and moisture will tend to form hairline fractures. Over a period of about two years, with expansion and contraction, spalling will begin to occur.12 This renders an unsightly as well as progressively deteriorating surface. Interlocking high-compression pavers are kiln dried and fired under pressure and are not prone to the above-mentioned problems. These pavers are also about three times as expensive as conventional pavers. Considering life-cycle costs and the nuissance of replacing old pavement, the better paver may well be worth the pripe.

Another issue to consider is the build-up of snow at the entry to a building. Snow will be compacted by each person entering the building. This ongoing condition will cause ice to form. Ice at an entry should be avoided at all times. This can
be i^itigated by providing a metal grate and pit in front of the door.
The pit should be at least four feet deep as shown in detail O.
The grate should be recessed in the deck material to create a flush walking surface. Snow grates are used extensively in snow country. Winter Park Ski Base Facility is one built example where this suggestion is practiced.
There are certain roof materials which perform better
than other materials A case in point is the overall development
at Reaver Creek Ski Area in Colorado. The design guidelines
established for the area dictated the use of clay tiles as
a roofing surface. Clay tiles evoke memories of European luxury
to many people. This aesthetic as lovely as it is, is not a
practicable one, as developers of Beaver Creek have found out.
The clay tiles become brittle due to temperature extremes.
Thej crack and limit the roofs' integrity. Concrete roof tiles
havd been used to replace the clay ones. The concrete tiles,
as shown in detaild, have a very similar appearance, are available in a range of colors, stand up to weather and are cheaper than the clay tiles. They are heavier than clay tiles, however. Therefore, their weight must be accounted for when sizing the building's structure.

While on the subject of roof materials and performance, thepe is an item of major importance which should be addressed.
The issue is skylights. Skylights are indispensible for bringing liglfit into rooms which might otherwise suffer from terminal darkness. As a puncture in a roof, skylights typically present leakage problems Skylights on buildings in snow country must stand up to both hea^y rains and snows, maintaining the seal between exterior and interior the whole time. The architect should specify a stem wall of ^ minimum height of 1'6" to accomodate eventual snow accumulation Detail illustrates this idea for a flat roof. The same principle
can be applied to a pitched roof, if one provides a cricket
on £he up-slope side of the skylight curb.
The season and climate have a great impact on the success or failure of a construction project in the mountains. The building season is short in comparison to what it would be in a mor^ temperate climate. Therefore, the materials used and the time allowed for ordering them is critical. Steel, for example, must be Ordered with enough lead time to allow delivery at the opportune tim^, climatically. This sometines means that the steel will be ordered before the building is really designed. The implication is that structure can govern design to a certain degree.
Steel is a popular structural material for large buildings. One must always keep a conscious eye on the schedule, however. Steel must be handled with cranes. Snow and ice will shut down a project,

as they make machine operation difficult. In addition, welding in severely cold temperatures isn't reliable. In the spring, meltiing snow and mud prevent the operation of machinery. It all com$s down to attention to climate and season.
The distance to the nearest batching plant must be considered when designing a building. If concrete is not available, concrete block will have to be considered. A person can make this into an opportunity, not a liability, if one is creative.
Since there are vey few suppliers in the mountains, cast in place concrete is used very rarely. High prices necessitate other construction materials, such as pre-cast concrete, in this case.
Wood construction is still a popular method, as it is in most locales. Large buildings framed in wood are probably more preValent in the mountains than in other areas due to the relative cost differentials for dkilled labor to do concrete or steel work. Since some building codes limit the use of wood for fire safety reasons, wood often must be chemically treated to be fire retardant.^ When wood is popular, however, the prices go up for materials.
An architect must be a master of technical aspects as well as aesthetic odeas when building in the mountains. The severity of climate, the distance from suppliers, and the relative difficulty of mountain soils and slopes all contribute to the challenge of designing and building a solid snow country building. The research

necessitated by this project has been interesting and extremely informative. The practical knowledge gained by conversing with experienced people in the fields of engineering and architecture has given me a great appreciation for the degree of professional accOmplishment they possess.
I would like to continue the direction begun with this stu As a concluding note, I would like to thank my academic advjLsor, Professor Robert Kindig at the University of Colorado, Denver for his continuing suggestions and support in helping me to complete thi^ project.

Field Volkmann Stockwell."Beaver Creek General
Mountain Building Guidelines',' 10 March 1978.
Cereghini,Mario.Building in the Mountains, Architecture and History, tr. by Lucia Krasnik,
Edizione del Milione, Milano, Italy, 1956.
Grillo, Paul Jacques. Form, Function and Design, Paul
Theobold and Company, publ., Chicago, Illinois,
Hunjnes, Bob. Johnson Voiland, Archuletta. Private Interview,
24 February 1986.
Kindig, Professor Robert. Independent Study Advising Sessions, January to December, 1986.
Mackinlay, Ian,F.A.I.A., "The Neglected Hazards of Snow and
Cold." A,I.A. Journal, February 1983, p.52-59.
Renpel,John I. Building with Wood and Other Aspects of
Nineteenth Century Building in Central Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, 1980.
Snowdon, Craig, Architect. Private Interview, 28 February 1986.
Structural Engineers Association of Colorado, 1984 Structural
Surtvey of Colorado Building Departments and Snow Load Design Data for Colorado, Denver, Colorado, 1984.
"Wachusett Mountain Base Lodge',' Princeton Mass., G.M. Anderson, Architectural Record. 172:188-91. 0'84.
White, Mark.Superinsulated Truss-Frame House Construction.
Tab Books Inc., Blue Ridge,Pennsylvania, 1984.

1. Cereghini, Mario. Building in the Mountains, p.49.
2. ibid., p.219.
3. ibid., p.219.
4. Grillo,Paul Jacques. Form, Function and Design, p. 93
5. ibid.,p.77
6. Bull Field Volkmann Stockwell. Beaver Creek General
Mountain Building Guidelines, P.!.
7. Mackinlay, Ian."Neglected Hazards of Snow and Cold",p. 52.
8. ibid., p.54.
9. ibid., p.53.
10. ibid., p.53.
11. Grillo, p.103.
12. Snowdon, Craig. February 28, 1986.
13. Kindig, Professor Robert. Advising Session, March 1986

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Alexander, Christopher; Ishikawa, Sara: Silverstein, Murray; et al.
A Pattern Language. Oxford University Press. N.Y.,N.Y.
Bacon, Edmund N., Design of Cities. Viking Press, N.Y.N.Y.1974.
Brown, G.Z. Sun, Wind, and Light Architectural Design Strategies.
John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.N.Y. 1985.
Cereghini, Mario. Building in the Mountains, Architecture and History.
tr. by Lucia Krasnik, Edizione del Milione, Milano, Italy 1956.
De Cljiara, Joseph and Callender, John Hancock. Time Saver Standards
for Building Types, McGraw-Hill Book Company, N.Y.N.Y.,1973
Intei+national Conference of Building Officials, Uniform Building Code, 1985, Whittier, California, 1985.
Passijni, Romedi, Wayfinding in Architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, N.Y.N.Y.,1984
1, John I. Building with Wood and Other Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Building in Central Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario,1980.
Taylor,John S. Commonsense Architecture, W.W. Norton & Company, N.Y.N.Y.,1983.
Whit^, Mark. Superinsulated Truss-Frame House Construction.
Tab Books Inc. Blue Ridge, PA 1984.
Winter Park Recreational Association. Master Development Plan. Unpublished program statement. Winter Park, Colorado.1985
Winter Park Recreation Association. Master Development Plan.
Unpublished program statement. Winter parkl985.


WINTER PARK RESORT Winter Park, Colorado
Winter Park Recreational Association
y VMOI67
. % __ -- Vaaqupz

Site Plan
Ground Floor Plan

fcilH-] t.J' Ilid-
bib iJ "H'ili tJ D IJtj'uu'p"
Third Floor Plan

First Fioor Plan
0 U.____________31' (
tWftm. Wi|-
L 5k. J
Gondola Cat-Storage

West Elevation

Ewt Elevation

North Elevation

Reflected Ceiling PUn
____jf----f (
Framing Plan

Gondola Section
Cafeteria Section

Wall Section
Wall Section

, I

As a concluding statement to this thesis project,
I would like to say that this was the most instructive process I have ever gone through. The learning came as a result of the synthesizing of information. This was necessary to bring harmony and unity to a potentially jumbled conglomeration of ideas. The amount of time and dedication which was necessary to bring everything together was something which I had never quite acknowledged before.
to render critical commentary as well as positive feedback. Their continuing support as well as the support of my friends kept me going.
I am very pleased that my advisors were able
Thank You to
Professor Gary Long
Ron Abo, Architect and
Ken Berendt, Architect
for making this thesis experience a pleasure.