Citation
Swedish Hospital Outpatient Surgery-Emergency Center

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Title:
Swedish Hospital Outpatient Surgery-Emergency Center
Creator:
Novick, Beth
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
80, [12] leaves : illustrations (some color), maps, plans (some color) ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Medical centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Englewood ( lcsh )
Medical centers ( fast )
Colorado -- Englewood ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 80).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Beth Novick.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09206272 ( OCLC )
ocm09206272
Classification:
LD1190 .N68 ( lcc )

Full Text
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SWEDISH HOSPITAL
OUTPATIENT SURGERY/ EMERGENCY
CENTER
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
BETH NOVICK FALL 1982
)
Date Due
t n Ve.
Thesis
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M(n %


PROJECT: Swedish Emergency Outpatient Surgery Center
ADDRESS: South Wadsworth Blvd. at West Bowles Ave.
CLIENT: Swedish Medical Center 501 E. Hampden Ave. Englewood, Colorado
ADVISORY BOARD: G. K. Vetter, Architect, Thesis Advisor Gary Long, Architect, Advisor Jim Burridge, Architect, Hospital Design Marlin Meador, Architect, Hospital Design Mark J. Marosits, Vice President Planning for Swedish Mddical Center
Neal David, Architect, Marketing Department, Auto-Trol Technology Corporation


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introducti on
Personal Goals Product of Thesis
The Outpatient Surgery Emergency Center, An 0ve rvi ew
Swedish Hospital History and Overview
Use of Computer -Aided Architectural Design
Computer Aided Architectural Design An Ove rvi ew
SPDS Spatial Programming Design System
Steel Design and Architectural Drafting
Goals Related to the Use of the Computer in the Thesis Project
General Planning Considerations Hospital Planning The Certificate of Need The Design Process
Structural Considerations
Mechanical and Electrical Considerations
S i te
Service Area Locati on
Climatic Information and Considerations
Codes
Financial Analysis


TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd.)
Programming
Goals and Objectives Specific Spaces Needed
Gross Square Feet Projections and Departmental Requi rements
Adjacency Matrix
Bib!i ography


r zzi


INTRODUCTION


Personal Goals
I am currently employed at Auto-trol Technology Corporation, a computer graphics company whose headquarters are based in Denver. My purpose there has been to develop applications of our graphics system to Architecture and Space Planning.
For the past year and a half, I have been working on a project entitled SPDS, Spatial Programming Design System. SPDS allows the user to input results of the Architectural Programming process, including desired square footages, proportions, and proximity relationship weights. The software package produces cluster diagrams, bubble diagrams, relationship matrixes, and allows the user to build a block plan with the help of graphic aids in the package.
An improvement routine looks for ways of better arranging the plan so as to best
satisfy the user's input requirements. The improvement routine has the capacity to take into account desired adjacencies of rooms to hallways and to exterior walls.
Site considerations such as wind, sun, and pedestrian access may also be taken into account.
SPDS is now completed and is an Auto-trol product being used by two major architectural firms and by two manufacturers of office panel furniture who do in-house space planning for their clients.
One aspect of my thesis project involves the application of SPDS to a real architectural problem. The problem will be taken to the preliminary design stage with the help of SPDS. If feasible, I would also like to make use of two other Architectural packages that have been de-


veloped at Auto-trol. One is an aid in structural steel design, the other is an automated drafting package.
The specific problem that I have chosen is the Swedish Outpatient Surgery Emergency Center. The client is Swedish Medical Center, 501 E. Hampden Avenue, Englewood, Colorado. The project is located at S. Wadsworth and Bowles.
I have chosen a health care facility of this type for several reasons. First, the size and complexity of the problem lend themselves well to the use of SPDS. Also, hospital design is of particular interest to me. Because of the complexity involved in circulation patterns, system design, and the need for flexibility and expandability, hospital design is one of the most challengine areas in ar-
chitecture. Both cost constraints and energy considerations are important factors to take into account. At the same time, aesthetic quality of the design has a direct effect on both the well-being of the patients and on the degree of comfort of the staff. Hospital design seems an excellent candidate for the use of the computer. By familiarizing myself with hospital design, I hope to establish a channel for developing further my area of expertise. By choosing an outpatient center, as opposed to an inpatient hospital, the project scope is a reasonable one.
My personal goals are to begin to understand the complexities of hospital design and to explore the uses as well as the limitations of the software packages discussed above. I hope to derive some ideas as to future directions for


such software. It is also a goal to consolidate and review my architectural education through this thesis project.
I would like to mention that the Swedish Emergency Outpatient Surgery Center is a problem that has already been tackled by Rob Davidson. He has been of great assistance in helping me obtain much of the necessary information on the project. With his permission, I have adopted much of his specific programming results.
-3-


Product of Thesis
The product of my thesis will include a presentation of the project using plans, sections, elevations, and perspectives. A scale model will also l>e presented. Slides will be used as part of a discussion of the use of SPDS (and possibly two other software packages). The process involved the use of SPDS will be discussed and evaluated. There is a possibility that a demonstration of the use of the graphics system will be included if convenient. If time permits, some of the final drawings will be produced with the help of the computer. There is a possibility that a part of systems synthesis involving steel disign will be done with the aid of a software package.
4


The Outpatient Center
Before the turn of the century, the hospital was used mainly as a charitable institution for the care of the poor.
As medical technology began to develop further, the more affluent and their doctors began to make greater use of the inpatient facilities of the hospital.
In the last decade or so, serious changes have taken place in the planning approach to hospital design. Important medical advances have resulted in a greater variety of treatments and in the use of more advanced equipment, causing the medical profession to rely more heavily on the use of the hospital for ambulatory care, and causing hospital design to respond to more complex situations. Federal government financial involvement and health insurance programs
such as Medicaid and Medicare have also had a hand in changing trends, Whereas in some areas the development of these programs has allowed the lower income population to seek out the private doctor, in metropolitan areas it has caused a large percentage of the population to turn to hospital clinics for care.
There has been an increasing trend towards a hospital-based approach to group practice. The increasing need for more costly and diverse equipment has made it financially more attractive for the doctor to rely on the hospital for treatment of the ambulatory patient. There are also legal aspects of medicine that currently make this alternative an attractive one.
Hospital design has also had to respond to changing population trends. The


movement of large segments of the population to the suburbs has created a need for local hospital facilities to supplement the central general hospital.
All of these trends have meant that flexibility and expandability have become increasingly important factors in hospital design. Mechanical systems design must respond both to the need for flexibility and to the increasingly complex needs of more advanced equipment and techniques.
Recently, the outpatient emergency department has assumed more importance. There has been a decrease in the number and availability of general practitioners. It is often difficult for people to find a doctor whose office hours extend into the evening hours. Increased mobility of the population has caused people not to
maintain a tie to a family doctor. As a result, many misdirected patients began to look towards the emergency center as a convenient 24>hour clinic for non-emergency ailments.'1 Needless to say, this situation has caused confusion and overcrowding in the emergency departments, making it difficult for the doctors there to deal effectively with the serious emergencies. Several approaches have been taken to solve this problem. In some cases the outpatient clinic has been established to deal with non-ernergency cases. In some cases an effort has been made to better educate the public as to the use of the emergency department and an effort has been made to investigate and improve the availability of doctors to deal with the non-emergency. A good solution has been to incorporate a triage facility into the emergency center, to re-direct the non-


emergent cases. It has also worked well to establish several areas within the emergency area to deal with differing degrees of illness or accident.
The Outpatient Surgery Emergency Center is a relatively new concept in health facility planning. There are currently no such centers of this type in Colorado.
The Emergency Center is intended to serve the seriously injured or ill. There-are no overnight beds in such a facility. Those requiring overnight care are intended to be taken to a central general hospital. The Outpatient Surgery Emergency Center is generally located fairly remotely from the central hospital(s) and is intended to help deal with a disperse population and to remove some of the burden from the main hospitals.
The outpatient surgery department is used to perform surgery for ambulatory patients. It has been found that a large percentage of surgery cases may be handled successfully without hospitalization. Studies have shown that between 20% and 45% of all surgeries may be performed on an outpatient basis. There is an increasing trend towards surgery of this nature, and it applies to patients of all ages. By performing this type of surgery at an outpatient center* a burden may be taken off of the centrally located hospitals. The Ambulatory Surgery Center has been shown to reduce cost per procedure. A center specializing in outpatient care can utilize simpler means of access and egress, simpler circulation patterns* and simpler utilization of equipment.
The emergency center should have se-


parate access for the ambulance. There should be space for stretchers and wheelchairs, a treatment room and a set of utilities and supply cabinets. The service should be located near X-ray, laboratories, and the operating suite. The emergency service should be provided with storage for sterile supplies and a location from which used supplies can be collected. There should be ample sinks, a janitor's closet and at all treatment stations there should be outlets for electricity, oxygen, and compressed air.
A surgery department should have it's own independent circulation in the interest of asepsis and order. Operating suites are currently designed to be under positive air pressure so that air will leak out rather than in, they are currently designed to be windowless.
Asepsis is an important design consideration.
-8-


Swedish Hospital History
The Swedish Outpatient Surgery Emergency Department is being developed by Swedish Health Corporation and is part of what is called the Health Park Development program. Swedish Health Corporation was chartered in April, 1981 and is the designated corporation governed by an independent Board of Trustees. It is the owner of Swedish Medical Center, but Swedish is also governed by a separate Board of Trustees and retains its nonprofit status. The purpose of Swedish Health Corporation is the furtherance of charitable, scientific, and educational purposes pertaining to health, medical, and hospital services and issues.
The proposed project is part of what is known as the Health Park development program. The approach involves
the refinement of the emergency medical system, the development of the hospital system, and the establishment of Health Parks at strategic locations throughout the service area. The concept calls for the development of campus-like centers for the delivery of a graduated range of health services from preventative to rehabilitative. The development is to involve the gradual development of sites based on community needs and growth, the incorporation of multiple providers, emphasis on preventative as well as restorative care, and definition of multiple entry and triage points assuring that persons can enter the system and be referred to the appropriate location for care.
Long and short term development plans call for expanding specialized and high acuity services at the main campus and extending outpatient and other low acuity


programs to satellite, community based locations, thus promoting sharing, cost containment, good access, continuity, and non-duplication of servi ces.
Swedish Health Park sites are currently planned or under development in Englewood, at the Denver Technological Center in Denver and at Silver Heights near Castle Rock in Douglas County. The proposed project is to be developed at the Grant Ranch property located at Wadsworth and Bowles.
The existing health system for the south area is anchored by Swedish Medical Center and Porter Memorial Hospital. In the vicinity of the proposed project is a Medical Center at Ken Caryl, a minor emergency clinic at Wadsworth and Hampden, and several physician's offices.
-10
The established cost and quality record of Swedish is unequalled in the region. The success of the Swedish system has resulted from the continued development of a well coordinated system of care. The physicians who practice at Swedish are highly accountable to the public and professional community.
Serious overcrowding of the facilities at Swedish Medical Center and at Porter Memorial Hospital is one of the major motivations for the proposed project. Swedish medical-surgical occupancy is frequently in excess of 90%. Current and projected utilization levels of Swedish Medical Center surgical suites thus meet or exceed optimum levels. Bed availability is an increasing problem. Surgical caseload has grown increasingly complex and specialized, necessitating some redesign of surgical suites. There is currently


no existing under-utilized space.
The Swedish Medical Center area is at the same time one of the fastest growing in the region. Population is expected to grow from current levels of approximately 400,000 to nearly 800,000 by the year 2000. Some areas of the service area are adequately served by existing services and facilities, others are not. The short and long range plans call for a comprehensive and coordinated approach. The Swedish Health Corporation must expand to meet the needs of the rapidly growing service area. The population served by Swedish Medical Center and by the proposed project is geographically dispersed. Many residents of the service area are outside
of a 20-30 minute travel time radius.
The ambulatory surgery center is a major new link in the established system that is based on having multiple levels of service available, ensuring that the patient receives care at a level that meets his need. Entry and triage points should refer the patient to appropriate services. The concept of the ambulatory surgery center evolved out of an interest in cost containment, community-based services, and as an alternative to major construction and expansion projects.
A free-standing outpatient center has the advantage of being able to function more efficiently in terms of scheduling and communications. It is easier for a patient to find his way around such a facility. A free-standing unit is easier to expand. It is more centrally located in the service area and is less


expensive to build. Such a center also allows the refinement of specialized surgical equipment and procedures. By decreasing the demand for lower acuity surgical time at Swedish Medical Center, it will be possible to increase the availability of operating room time for more complex cases, averting the need to construct new, high cost operating suites at a main complex. The ambulatory surgery center has been demonstrated to reduce cost per procedure. Savings are achieved by eliminating the need for an over-night stay, removing the facility from the hospital cost account structure thereby decreasing overhead, and by providing laboratory and other services at a level most appropriate to patient acuity.
It is intended that the primary
staff of the proposed outpatient center be retained directly by the ambulatory surgery center. There will however be a staff pooling agreement with the Swedish Medical Center which will permit swing staffing of appropriate crosc-trained surgeons and anesthetists.




USE OF
COMPUTER AIDED
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN


CAAD-An Overview
Although architects are an innovative class of people, architecture has lagged behind many other professions in applying computer techniques. Architectural offices are typically small and have lacked the capital necessary for computerization.
Also, architects are primarily interested in the visual world. They feel more comfortable with a pencil and a roll of tracing paper than they do with alphanumeric computer simulation. Furthermore, most design problems seem toocomplex to be handled with a computer or with any method that requires systematized completeness.
The variables involved in a floor-plan study include space affinities, circulation, structural and mechanical systems, topography, etc. Even if it were possible to express parts of the problem in terms acceptable for computation, data
are often unobtainable or too vast for eco-
nomical collection. Engineering disciplines have for a long time possessed technical theories on which their analysis and design procedures have themselves been well-defined and widely accepted as the basis of professional practice. No commonly held theoretical and analytical base has existed in architecture, nor have there been correspondingly well-defined design procedures .
Thus, there have been reasons why progress has been slow towards the acceptance of the use of the computer by the architectural profession. Recently, however, their reasons have begun to dissolve, and progress is rapidly being made.
The cost of computer hardware has continually been decreasing. The cost of


computerization is now well within the reach of the larger firms. As costs continue to decrease, computer aided design will become feasible for smaller offices also. Through the introduction of intensive computer graphics, architects can relate visually to the results they obtain with the computer and can interact easily with the system in a manner not dissimilar from his experience with pencil and tracing paper. Research over the past ten years in the field of computer-aided architectural design has begun to define more clearly ways in which both design processes and other processes encountered in the architectural firm may be qualified and defined mathematically for analysis by the computer. As interactive techniques become increasingly sophisticated and user friendly, the architect may edit results often, inputting creative ideas that are bound to conflict
-14
at times with any mathematical definition of a design problem.
At the very least, we can expect to see the computer being used increasingly by architects to obtain high productivity in drafting applications, accounting, cost estimates, specifications, and structural analysis. Our most optimistic expectations involve changing the heart of the design process, giving the architect new tools for creativity, and expanding and radically altering the design process itself.


SPDS
Within the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design, the so-called layout problem is perhaps one of the most challenging and one of the most controversial. Computer programs for the automated solution of spatial allocation problems were first developed 20 years ago. The purpose of these programs has been to locate a set of activities in a facility, or on a site, so as to best satisfy a set of architectural design criteria and constraints.
Often the design criteria are defined in terms of weights between pairs of activities specifying either adjacency or proximity requi rements.
These programs have not been as well accepted as was hoped for the following reas ons:
It is difficult to translate all
architectural requirements into mathematical terms. Often the more easily form-ulatable goals are achieved to the detriment of the more nebulous aesthetic criteria.
The combinatorics of such problems often necessitate a suboptimal solution or a severe limitation in problem size.
Collection of input data is tedious.
Even those goals that can be easily described mathematically are often dealt with intuitively by the designer who may typically not formulate all criteria and constraints until well into the solution of the problem.
The controversy surrounding computerized spatial allocation involves a feeling of distrust and constraint on the part of the architect. An automated system has not followed the accepted design process.
No matter how accurate the mathematical


definition of the problem, the designer may feel robbed of his creative input.
The problems and controversy implicit in automated layout planning have motivated the development of several interactive graphic approaches. SPDS is such an interactive approach. The system is intended to be an answer to some of the problems discussed above. SPDS is interactive enough and user friendly enough to allow the process to more closely resemble the traditional design process.
The steps that an architect typically follows in building design are described below:
1) Gather Information.
One of the first steps in building design in programming. Architectural
programming is a research process resulting in a preliminary list of the necessary activities, their approximate square footages, and a preliminary set of design criteria and requirements.
2) Organize the Information.
Once the programming is complete, the designer begins,preliminary design. If the project is a large one, he is at first confronted with too much information and must sort it out* organizing it before he can be creative in his design approach.
3) Begin to Think in Rough Spatial Terms.
This stage is also part of preliminary design. The designer examines various possibilities, configurations, and concept. Most perform this step in a spontaneous, whatever-comes-to-mind fashion. Often the designer cannot totally formulate the problem at once. He may go back to one of the earlier steps,


reformulate part of the problem, then continue. Often the designer will work back and forth between detail and general concept.
4) Work Towards a Final Solution.
The designer begins to solidify his rough spatial concepts into a specific architectural solution.
5) Complete Design Development and
Working Drawings.
Design development entails the working out of necessary details for plumbing, structures, heating, and air conditioning, etc.
The SPDS system addresses steps two through four above, the preliminary design process. One of the major goals for SPDS was that the flow of the system mirror as closely as possible the design process. We did not want to block the users spontaneous creative approach.
We wanted the designer to be involved at each stage of the process, defining what he means by "optimal." We wanted to give the designer the option to go back and change his mind. We wanted the system to be as user friendly as possible, not requiring a programmers background to operate.
A four stage process for SPDS was used
1) The first involves the initial input of the results of the programming process. The user is prompted for the name of activity, corresponding square footage, proportions, and proximity requirements of the pairs of activities. Six weights are available. The system produces a Relationship Matrix.
2) A cluster routine allows the user to break the design problem down into tightly related subsets of activities.
3) The system allows the user to produce


a bubble diagram either automatically or in stages. The bubble diagram is a two dimensional representation of the weights between activity spaces,
4) The system next provides the user graphic aids to help him produce an initial rough floor plan based on the bubble diagram. At this stage, the user defines adjacency (as opposed to proximity) requirements, and defines circulation ways. An improvement routine looks for ways to rearrange the plan so as to better satisfy the users requirements. Parameters may be redefined, partial solutions saved.
In any stage described above, the user may edit or evaluate the design.
The user may change his mind regarding initial input at various stages through-
out the process.
The philospphy behind the use of SPDS to design a layout plan implies that the system is designed to allow the user to interact enough, and at the correct times to allow him both to incorporate all intuitive and aesthetic considerations into the layout plan and to obtain feedback from the computer at the appropriate times regarding analytic considerations.


Steel Design and Drafting
It is anticipated that the structural system used in my thesis project will be steel (see section on structural considera-tions). There is a package available that aids the user in structural steel design.
If it is convenient to do so, I would like to make use of this package in some of the drawings necessary for thesis and for systems synthesis.
There is also a package available that aids the user in drafting floor plans for preliminary design. The package is a simple one, aiding in drawing walls, doors, etc. Again, if it is convenient, I may take advantage of this package to produce some of the thesis floor plans.
19-


Goals Related to CAAD
It is by no means my intention to rely totally on the software discussed above to design the project. In fact, I see the design of the thesis project as progressing almost as it would if I were not involved with the packages discussed above. Those aspects that appear valid will be accepted, those that do not will be rejected, but will be discussed. The validity of the packages will be investigated, and the presentation will include a discussion of their use.
-20-




GENERAL PLANNING
CONSIDERATIONS


Hospital Planning
In order for a hospital design to be successful, a considerable amount of planning must take place. Planning in the health care field has in the past been poor. Obtaining an optimal long-term outcome depends directly on the quality of the planning effort. Over the past decade, what is known as the systems approach has been one of the most widely used methodologies for the planning of operational health systems. The systems approach involves problem solving and planning tackled according to a predefined methodology. Planning problems are analyzed as a total process rather than on a piecemeal basis and conclusions drawn are utilized in the decision making inherent to planning.
The complexity of hospitals implies that their planning and design demands the
efforts of a multidisciplinary team. Guidelines for teamwork and decision making should be agreed on early. In the case of hospitals, functional complexities far outweigh physical complexities. These demand the inclusion in the planning and design team of persons who understand not only the work processes of the individual departments, but those of the hospital operating as a single functional system. Quality of care and treatment are directly affected by the degree to which design accommodates both inter- and intra- departmental functions. Functional planning is a new discipline in itself, developed over the past two decades. People trained and experienced in this field are making substantial contributions to the planning and design process. Functional planning involves the following steps:


1) Perception of need for building program.
2) Need survey and feasibility evaluati on.
This step involves analyzing local, community, and regional needs. The needs of the specific health care center are considered as part of a larger health care system. Sharing services and facilities with other components of the system should be clearly outlined. Medical personnel requirements must be carefully determined in conjunction with an analysis of the existing medical staff.
After the need survey has been completed and accepted by the hospital governing body and appropriate governmental agencies as the planning guide for the future, capital costs and the projects basic financial feasibility must be determined. This can begin to take place
even prior to actual creation of drawings The primary criterion in evaluating finan cial feasibility is a hospital's ability to generate cash payments to repay a loan
with interest according to a schedule.
3) Organizing for Planning
In order to organize to undertake the
project, the following must occur:
develop a decision making mechanism
appoint a director of planning
organize for internal review of planning documentation
select the professional planning team
organize the planning team and formulate operating procedures
The team should include a financial feasibility consultant, a functional planning consultant, an architect/engineer, and a construction manager.
4) Determine the planning, design and construction approach.
5) Scheduling, planning, design, and construction.
Today, most hospital officials recognize that planning, from a programmatic standpoint, is a management respon-


sibility. In program planning, plans with other providers of health care should be taken into account. Related community char acteristics such as economy, highway systems, transportation facilities, and housing problems should be considered. In order to predict demands, patient origin stud ies should be made, and the service area of the proposed facility identified. The rate of visits per 1000 population can be a useful figure. Population trends help predict demands. An examination of the historical pattern of utilization trends should be made. Average length of stay, average patient days, average daily census, and bed requirements are relevant. An analysis must also be made of the medical resources available in the area, what specialties are represented.
Planning the financing of large con-
struction programs has become increasingly complex and demanding. Steps in financial planning involve:
1) Initial steps involving assessing the probable financial feasibility of the project. An investment banker should be selected and a preliminary evaluation of the situation made.
2) Workload projections.
3) Refining estimates of department capacity and determining a financial method.
4) Certificate of need.
5) Establishing construction costs and determining feasibility.
6) Formalizing documentation.
7) Obtaining the funds and starting cons tructi on.
The next step in planning involves physical and functional evaluations, i.e.: the determination of necessary specific physical aspects of the building and how they must function and relate to each other. Physical evaluation can be broken down fairly successfully into the following


categories:
1) Site characteristics and parking
2) Fire safety
The "Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures" contains the necessary reference standards.
3) Plumbing System
Most older hospitals do not possess adequate plumbing systems. Considerations should be given to adequacy of water supply, distribution throughout the building, hot water supply, steam lines, fixtures, and sewage systems.
4) Medical Gas Systems
5) Electrical System
6) HVAC
7) Transportation System
8) Disposal Systems
The functional evaluation is concerned with functional features of the proposed facility. It concerns the way in which the physical components of the building are used and how they relate.
It emphasizes people and processes rather than physical mechanisms. Functional analysis involves the determination of
departmental relationships, planning for expansibility and flexibility, and determination of circulation patterns. The following types of internal traffic should be considered:
1) Emergency traffic from other traffi c
2) Inpatient from outpatient
3) Visitor from patient
4) Supply from pedestrian
5) Soiled from clean
6) Entering personnel from other traffi c
7) Entering doctors from other traffi c
8) Traffic of one department from another
In order to perform a functional evaluation,a spatial analysis must be made, and analysis of pedestrian,supply and vehicular traffic patterns must be determined and departmental relationships analyzed. A relationship matrix is use-


ful. A systems analysis and equipment analysis and equipment analysis must be pe rformed.


The Certificate of Need
In order to construct a medical facility a proposal must be submitted discussing the project and its service area. It must list figures outlining financial feasibility and must discuss the way in which those figures were derived. The proposal is reviewed and either passed or rejected by the Colorado Department of Health Medical Care Licensing and Certification Division. The purpose for such a review process is to avoid overbuilding of hospital space. The Certificate of Need Appl i cati on for this project was approved in July of 1981.
An Ambulatory Surgery Center with provisions for future development of emergency center and hospital was approved. Much of the programming, history, site information, and goals were derived from the Certificate of Need Application.
-26-




STRUCTURAL


Structural systems should be designed to adopt a multiple use of spaces served. Due to highly restrictive fire protection associated with hospitals, basic structural frame will generally be concrete with nonload bearing walls, For this project, steel construction will be used. Traces allow for depth of mechanical space and provide long spans. Steel construction is generally less expensive than concrete. The use of steel construction would also include a fire proofing agent. Spans should be as wide as possible with as few columns as possible. Shallow roof construction is recommended for multi-story facilities.
27-




MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSIDERATIONS


The design of hospitals has been significantly affected by the increasing complexity of mechanical and electrical considerations. One half of total construction cost is now typically accounted for by mechanical and electrical systems. In general, mechanical and electrical systems should be designed to account as much as possible for multiple use of spaces served. This may be accomplished in part by designing for the capability of taking greater loads should use change.
In designing mechanical and electrical systems, an important consideration involves planning for the future, both in terms of expansion and introduction of new technology.
Finding space requirements for more and more utility lines is an increasing
problem. Ducts, pipes, conduits, medical gas systems, HVAC, and communication systems must be taken into account. There is an increasing tendency towards use of piped medical gases. One solution to these problems has been the introduction of interstitial floors devoted totally to mechanical and electrical systems. The ceiling height is generally enough to allow man-euverabi1ity.
Electrical systems typically include a hospital communication system, a telephone system, a dictating system, an emergency power supply, and a doctor's registry system. Two separate sources are usually needed with automatic throwover to the second side. General lighting, in terms of footcandles, should be designed for work levels as stated in applicable codes. Typically, fluorescent lighting


with 100 footcandles for general lighting, and 2000 footcandles (adjustable) in operating rooms is sufficient. The number, location and type of outlets is dictated by code and by need. A hospital emergency standby source is necessary. There should be 220 volt available at X-ray and all surgery equipment and an isolated transformer in the cardiac room.
HVAC requirements include the following
1) distribution system,
2) thermal and acoustical insulation,
3) ventilation system,
4) air-conditioning system,
5) humidity controls,
6) f i 1 te rs ,
7) thermostats, and
8) air pressure.










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SITE


Service Area
The primary service area is comprised of a population of 100,000 residing within the area bounded by the foothills to the West, Highway 285 to the North, Santa Fe Drive and the Platte River to the East, and the Chatfield Reservoir to the South. This population is expected to grow to 115,000 by 1985 and 130,000 by 2000.
There are three secondary service areas. One contains approximately 32,500 residents in the foothills communities, from Morrison through the 285 corridor.
The second contains 77,000 in the area from the foothills to the West, Alameda Avenue to the North, Santa Fe Drive to the East, and Highway 285 to the South.
The third contains 82,800 persons in the area bounded by Santa Fe Drive to the West, Hampden Avenue to the North,
University Boulevard to the East, and County Line Road to the South.
-30-


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POPULATION GROWTH
1 980 1983 1984 1985 1986
Southwest 100,000 109,270 112,550 115,920 119,400
Foothi11s 32,540 35,550 36,620 32,430 38,250
Lakewood 76,970 82,160 83,970 85,800 87,700
Arapahoe County 82,830 98,930 104,960 109,370 113,160
SERVICE AREA PERCENT OF SERVICE ALLOCATIONS
Southwest .37
Foothi11s .60
Lakewood .10
Arapahoe County .10
-31-


Location
>
The specific site is bounded by Wadsworth Boulevard to the West, Bowles Avenue to the North, Pierce Street to the East, and the residential property lines to the South. It is located on the south half of Section 56 on Grant Properties. Swedish Health Corporation has a formal agreement with Grant Properties One, Inc., to jointly develop a site on that location that is not to exceed 37 acres.
Wadsworth Avenue is the major North-South arterial for the southwest quadrant. The site is located within a half mile of the Southwest Plaza Mall, the largest regional shopping center in the area. Bowles Avenue is one of the three major East-West arterials in the quadrant. The site is one mile south of Highway 285 and one mile north of Colorado 470.
-32-
Future plans for the site call for a 120 bed hospital if justified. The site has an excellent view of the mountains and is adjacent to a small lake.


Climatic Considerations
Denver is located on the South Platte River on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is characterized by low relative humidity, light to moderate winds, mild temperatures, and light precipitation. The average monthly temperature varies from 30.4F in January to 73.3F in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate Winter temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inches, but persistent snow cover is unusual. Precipitation averages about 15.5 inches per year. Thunderstorms are frequent on Summer afternoons.
Design considerations for this climate include:
Protection from cold NW winds.
Place secondary functions along the north wall to buffer against the cold. Berming
and coniferous trees may also be used.
An attempt should be made to block the sun between April and October. The use of shading devices, overhangs, plants is suggested.
Orient the building along an East-West axis.
Use minimum glazing. The walls and roof should be of a light color to reduce the effect of solar radiation.
A heavy roof of over 8 hours time
lag is recommended.








DENVER
* yi-i
Denver is located on the South Platte River on the eastern slope 4 cm Rocky Mountains. The climate is characterized by low relative ^**Uy. light to moderate winds, mild temperatures, and light precipl-The average monthly temperature varies from 30.4 F in January a H.3* in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter eertures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inchesbut persistent snow-amfr is unusual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation tmrvjts about 15.5 inches per year. Little precipitation falls during cm winter. More than 50 percent of the annual precipitation occurs *- April through July. Thundershowers occur fairly frequently on *mtr afternoons.
SaiFTION OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA
The Public Service Company of Colorado established two solar radia-easurement sites in Denver early in 1977. These two sites are a ^ of an extensive network in the Southwest established for the purpose r* supplying solar radiation data to public utilities who use the infor-tion for heating load calculations and for design and evaluation of -*r energy projects. Spectrolab SR-75 pyranometers are used to
hemisperic radiation. A regular maintenance schedule is em-
* *red and thorough calibrations are performed at 6-month intervals ,ft9er, 1978). Although the period of record is short, the data quality
CDWPS To be excellent.
The 1978 data were not yet available in a useable form at the time -1* Publication was prepared.


I climatological Data
_CJry With Comparative Data
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Climatological Summary
^ H,lt)t sunny, semi-artd climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys ^7, p.f-r of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm u usually of short duration.
^ Jf i,aat four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and ut ,ir from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific Sf its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
, .. rssults largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky i*e bait of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds ,dry that temperatures of 90* or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days md la only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100*. mark.
----- the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate
Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt 0e the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over *a**r reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of the vest are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and aulrlag from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that w expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering au to an average temperature above chat of ocher cities situated at Che same latitude.
* outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from Che Gulf ?he Juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches
! i
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-* distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and conalder-
ettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total ~ Ul*c occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of chat season. *r# ften interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow
tation (about 32 percenc of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually _'ro* scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are *r and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off Che sunshine ac what *** the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
W *,E Pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold "****** are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percenc of ,_i^ae t*lan at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally -r.cation amounts to about 20 percenc of the annual total.
Precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all r pltacion frequency, however,' is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudi- ative humidity averages higher chan in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but
e the severity doesn't last long.
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC administration
/
environmental data ano inpormation service
/
NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER ASHEVILLE. N.C.


I
Normals, Means, And Extremes
V-f\
On
!
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/
Temperatures 9 Normal Degree days fee. 44 *f Precipitation In Inches Naiathe humfcAty pet And { Maan nundm. el days Aaereea nation
Normal l.awiei Wste* aquNelent 4 now, lo peilet i 1 1 1 f wwn n dN 1 ii Sunrist to auneet 1 i, t* i! Tempera Idas. tune *P Min . pressure mb
i ii il 1 n l II 1 1 1 I II ! II 1 Ii 1 Ii 1 ii 1 1 01 it I II joce I IT dm 1 14 I if fl is 1 1 i J il Ii J fi j 0 f s ii 1 lb) hi l\ 11 fie*. Uf mi 1
U) 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 14 14 11 14 40 If 49 40 1
J 9 N A N J .9 44.1 90.1 41.0 TO.? 40.| 14.1 19.4 11.4 II.t 49.4 II.t If.9 Il.l 17.0 11.1 17.0 44.0 71 74 4 M *4 104 t* i**i i*n 1**0 1**1 l** *H >0 11 .1 It 10 1941 1114 194| 1993 1914 I9I| 10*0 901 IM ft) HI o 0 0 0 0 110 i;i! .* I.M I..I 1.44 1*94 1.19 4.P Tall 4.49 I94f |940 1944 1941 IH7 L**' 0.01 0.01 0.11 0.09 0,04 0.10 lH MM !* i** n* l* I.M I.M .* i.i* I.M .l 1*01 IMI 1*1* 1*.* 1**1 1**0 11.7 11.9 19.1 14.9 19.4 9.9 lt4 1440 1441 1991 1410 1411 i 10.1 n.i M.l ... MM Ml* MIO Mil 41 44 49 44 90 n o 49 41 If 94 M *1 1 40 99 4 14 ii It IS 1:1 10.0 104 0.4 0.1 I * 91 19 99 14 14 09 NM MM MM fl 1 till MM M*0 Ml* IM* It 91 90 09 19 91 *. .i .i *.i *.i 10 I 4 7 4 9 10 10 It II i! 19 II II 0 0 0 10 t i I 4 9 s 0 e e 1 0 10 1 l 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 4 e 0 0 10 19 II 11 1 0 4 t 1 e 0 0 i*.i Mt.i Ml.. III.* m.o Ml.*
4 A 5 N M il.l ii; 10.4 1.4 *1.1 Il.l 11.4 11.9 71.0 91.0 41.0 91.0 19.4 11.4 104 101 7 M 99 94 l l.l> l*0 ,** **l .** 41 41 to 1 9 ! I99| 1944 199| 1949 1110 1971 io 401 7*9 1004 141 tol 4 f l.t* I.M I.I* I.M .* 0.41 4.47 4.47 4.17 1.97 1.44 i**> i*n i** *? *** .1* 0.0* 0.0* 0.01 O.ll 1*19 1910 194* 94j 19*9 i9|T 41 9.49 1.44 1:21 I.M ll 19I| 1994 1947 l9t| 1971 4.4 .9:9 i.i M.l 10.* 1414 1949 lf*i 147* 4.4 it.* M.l II.* Ml. Ml* 1*4* 1**1 ;? 49 44 41 49 4 14 M 99 44 44 M II > o 97 II 14 94 44 l 0.9 1:1 1:1 o.o 1 i i * 04 SI 41 10 I IN N MM AM M Mf !* Ml* MM mm MM Ml* 91 91 99 91 If II *.* *.* .* ** i.i *.* 10 IB |4 11 It II IS 9 10 4 9 T 10 10 9 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 I *1 9 1 4 0 e I i i i IP 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 s 1 1 0 0 1 t It 90 0 0 0 0 e 1 *.. M.l M.l M.l III.* III..
Yt 44.V 14.t 90.| 104 |UL l*M 10 *! IHI 4014 4 If Haft 9.41 IAV iff f t HP 1944 f.f ay 1991 44.1 NOV 19** IIP Iff* 49 40 *0 *i 4.0 * ** IM <. 90 1.9 III III 111 00 l* 41 10 91 II * 9 .*
Itoana and abovt ere flam existing and comparable expoeurea- Annual utruMl have been sacaadad at otbar altaa In tha
locality aa follows* llghaat temperature 105 In kuouat llTlj uilaua monthly precipitation 0.57 in May 1I7I| aiolaua monthly pracipi tat ion 0.00 in December 1111) Hiiaua praclpltatlon in 24 hour* 4.53 In May 1I7C| aulaua Monthly snowfall 47.4 in Dacaa-bar 1913j aaxlaua snowfall in 24 hour a 21.0 in April 1013 j faatsst alls of wind <5 from (Seat in May 1939k
(a) Length of record, years, through the H0MM.S fated on record for the 1941-1970 parted.
currant yaar unlett otharwlte noted, 0AT1 Of AN [XTRCW Tha most recant In catat of aultlpta
hated on January data. occurrence,
i (h) 70* and above at Alatkan aiatlont. PMVAIUNt WIN0 0IMCTI0N Record through 1943.
* Lett than one half. MINO OIRfCTION Mum rail Indicate tent of degreel clockwise
? Tract. froa true north. 00 Indicated cals.
fASTIST Mill MIND Speed It fastest observed 1-elnute value whan tha direction 1a Is tans af degrees.


Heating Degree Days

Oct | No* | Ow ; Annul SMM41 I July *f sol I Oct | Woe Ott I Jan Fab Mar Apr *y JutMl Tote
1M *1.3 31.0 11.3 |4. 1* * 104 >*f 77* 494 10*1 49 9*1 172 171 25 994#
4.d 11.1 31*1 30.3 1944.00 0 191 31# 413 74 11*1 1197 927 *3 2*9 > *240
*94 .... 90.* *11*0-#1 1 13 0 19* 749 1137 1024 2 so* 140 299 49 *09*
51. fl t.a *9,| 14*1-42 1* n : *3* 902 115011411 17* #1* *37 171 Tf *01
3. a *0.1 >*. 11.9 1.*2.*) 0 19 1 w 337 .701 *lll*17 1** Ml **2 13* 30 3*2V
5*.* *0,1 >0.3 *9.7 1**>-* * 7 29 729 *90 1123 10>4 10M 2 1*3 210 71 *09*
. *1.1 ... *9.4 14**.*3 0 1* 122 37# 7*3 901 421 1 0** 110V Ml 2*9 49 *0IO
>1.4 39.4 31.2 19*3.4* 4 7 244 107 4*3 7* Hit 1017 4*1 *0# 20* 2 3400
JV. 4 11.' >3. **.* 1#**.*7 0 * *1 19. *49 101* 13* 32 * 74 *# III 135 3**4
51.. 1*.* *9 * *9.1 t4*7-*4 * 1* 10# 10# 779 113* 10*4 VI HI *1 >*> )l *140
4M *,* 3t 1 *9.4 l4**-*9 10 31 1*1 19* 71 111* 123 21 1011 17V 20* 1** 4097
9.| 31.1 30.4 19*9.70 2 0 34 301 749 94 10*1 4*4 432 200 TV 4*00
H.l *C *1.1 1970-71 0 0 1*4 10* 70 9T7 1019 99 17 0* 124 19 *19*
11.1 it.: . 30. * 1971.72 2* 0 213 *79 771 1*19 lft*l 31 *21 *4 2** *
s... **. 11.4 31. 1972.73 *2 11 107 197 4*0 111* 11*2 to 77] *** 240 14 *101
31.9 **.! 3*.3 31.3 19VJ.7* 4 0 1*4 >21 744 1*29 1177 31 *71 0 7 117 *7 577t
S*.f Ib.J 30.2 197*.73 0 9 149 301 #9 104) 102* 3* 12 *11 m 99 430*
!M 9.j 33.1 U.9 1993-74 0 * 191 144 3*0 9*1 1009 7*0 199 ** 23* 4* 5497
11.4 1* 4 39.4 30.2 197*.77 0 7 1*2 30* 739 07 1109 7*4 771 M* 197 0 3300
11.9 *o.a 33.1 31.* 1977.73 2 1* >* >> 737 to 10* 3* *3 MS 111 7 3733
#.1 19.* >#.l 30.0 1970.79 0 20 4 34* 111 11*3
it.a 19,1 .... ...
50.0 iMi 1* 3 *1.1 29.1 3*.l *9*9 *9.9 Cooling Degree Days
39.1 It.9 39.1 21.1 31.1 I0.C *9.9
*.fl Ymt Jon F Mar j Apr Mory JUVM Auf Pt Oct Nov Dec Tout
1949 0 e 0 0 33 44 912 to* *4 0 0 0 ttl
ft.i *1.' l. 10.1 1970 0 0 0 0 1* 41 222 192 *0 0 0 0 *93
11.9 *0. ! 24*! *9,*
31.9 *3.3 24.4 *1.1 1971 0 0 0 0 0 1*4 201 t*o 33 0 0 0 *93
it,a l.l It.! *9.9 1972 0 0 0 * * 110 210 20 7 21 l 0 0 1*t
#.9 l. 33.1 *9.1 1973 0 0 0 e 2 !> 177 f 70 21 1 0 0 *11
197* 0 0 u 0 34 17* 307 tot 39 0 0 9 711
9.1 39.1 31." *9,| 1971 0 0 0 * 3 44 2*4 142 39 1 0 0 99*
It 1 >1.1 2*. 9.9
3*.l ). 31.4 .... 1970 0 0 0 0 3 111 It* 17* I 0 0 0 *4 7
51.4 3V.0 31 l 10.f 1977 0 0 0 f U tl* 2*7 192 0 0 0 T99
3i.a M.I 9.| *9.* 1970 0 V 0 12 191 309 IT1 109 t 0 7*9
4t.4 9,i l.l 31.0
3*.l *0. 11. St.l
11. 19.1 ... 9.9
lad 19,4 31.1 39.2
#1.1 It. **' *1.*
lt,d 1*.4 1T.I
:*wocrtiti
Snowfall
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ui* *.U
i.Ht ** ..l *. '* *.** 9.2*
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*.M1 o.t* l.ll i.m *.m Mi *.n| uee
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** .99| 1.79
t.nl o.u
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t.974
1.21
^ M| 9.39
-Jll 9.7* 2* .it| o,i
v.iol 0.01
l.9f| 0.7V
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_ O.IT
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Mar JL. # Juna J*ty A* apt Oct Nov Doc Aim.
1.0* 1.09 1.19 l.o*| O.ITt 9.191 0.871 o.mi o.ovi 0.391 9.*9
2.24 I.** 1.99 o.io 1.8* 0.89 4.09 0.50 0.74 0.44 14.90
1.29 2.19 9.71 2.9 1.87 I.M 8.40 8.*b 0.481 O.b* 28.09
0.4V *.lT 1.12 9.0* 1.02 0.77 0.91 1.9* 0.29 0.19 14.99
0. *1 1.0* 2.V* 1.2* 0.72 1.20 0.07 0.87 0.41 0.37 9.18
2.9* 3.92 1.79 0*92 9.3* 0*4 T 0.0* 0.51 0.27 19.9*
9.19 2.5 2.92 8.02 8.17 8.59 1.17 0.70 0.40 0.07 19.97
9.SV 8.M 1.V9 0.98 1.49 1.50 1.1* 0.00 8.77 0.04 1*.54
l.o* 1.10 .4l 1.74 1.S8 1.87 0.41 3.M 0.73 0.27 17.0*
1. Tl 2.12 1.9* 1.9* 0.90 o.*i 0.49 0.1* 0.49 0.2* 12.*2
2.2* !.* 9.21 *.87 1.39 0.72 0.29 1.54 0.01 0.21 1*. 7§
9.21 2.99 2.90 9.9* 0.54 0.87 1.59 0.11 i.oo 0.58 15.79
l.*7 2.01 1.79 8.87 0.99 *.*T 0.99 8.1* 1.17 0.47 17,49
2.11 1.79 3.0* 0.1* 1.04 l.*t 0.94 0.19 1.81 0.17 13.*3
1.19 l.l* 2.4* l.** 1.79 1.89 0.20 0.** 1.00 1.01 14.28
0.44 0.99 0.40 0.4* 1.77 0.11 0.77 0.0* 0.J7 O.l 7.91
1.1* o.*v t.*7 1.1* 8.79 8.*1 8.78 0.4* 0.5* 0.19 14.05
0.99 0. TV 1.9* 7,4*1 4.17 l.t 0.01 0.17 1.89 0.*8 15.78
1.0* *.19 7,91 1.9* 1.87 1.09 0. *8 2.M 0 *7 O.u* 21.99
1.491 1.79 *** l.*7 9.90 !.! 1.91 0.27 0.7* 0.4* 19.ve
I.M l 9.93 0.** 0. 1 0.89 1.98 8. * 0.*o 0.2* 14.3*
0.99 2.94 l.|7 0.4> 1.91 0.0* 0.29 8.4* 0.47 1.50 14.79
2.91 1.04 4.12 1.11 1.40 1.81 .7 0.77 0.73 0.30 17.01
0.91 1.19 0.9* 1.9* 0.3* 0 0.19 0.01 0.49 0.17 *
l.*l 0.03 0.49 9.9* 0.91 1 It 1.85 0.21 0.41 0.51 12.23
1.5* 1.2* 1.99 0.9* 0.72 0.87 0.*l 0.1V 0.99 0.40 10.1*
1.29 1.9* 1.9 4.1* 4**1 1*04 8.59 0.*9 0.5* 0.59 21.97
0.21 1.49 9.9* U*1 1.04 8.0* 1.15 0.7*1 0.88 0.17 10.01
0, 74 3.49 *.77 *.* 9.29 0.99 0.40 1.13 1.01 l.Obl 29.91
0.99 !. 0.71 0.90 1.9* t 99 0.5* 0.79 0.71 0.31 12.11
1.10 1.91 4.12 2.97 1.91 0.77 l.*7 *.17 0.92 0 .it 21.52
1.9* 0.97 0.9* 1.1* 1*97 0.5* 1.47 0.90 la l* 0.09 19.79
0.19 1.99 1.5* 0.89 1.80 0.99 8.99 0.** 0.14 0.29 10.7*
0.90 9.11 0.** 2.7* 0.49 1.71 2.07 0.*t 1.4* o.o 14.97
1.7* 2.79 9.0* 0.20 l.*7 1.89 2.99 0. *7 0.93 2.9* 21.74
1.2V 1.29 0.0* 2.01 2.2* 0.1* 0.79 !.* 1.0* 0.291 1* *09
1.1 1.1* 2.90 X.U 1.79 8.00 0.84 0.20 1.99 0.*71 19.91
1.2* 1.17 I.M 0.49 8.91 8.50 I.M 0.79 0.38 0*1*1 19.41
U2* 2.19 0.9* 1.0* 2.79 1.00 0.10 0, * 0.57 0.03 19.24
1.04 1.01 9.4* 1.17 0.9* 0.8* 0.07 l.* 0.90 0.91 11.70
l.ia 2.01 1.9 1.47 1.70 I.M 1.18 I.M 0.4b 0.91 14.50
t..onj i A>H iSwtj Oct |tUy|Pmj Jr i Fto i Ittorl Apci ItorUt^Tot.
199*^0 0.0 0.0 0.7 T.b 7.8 *. 13.T b.l II.T T 0,0 0,0 44.1
19*0^1 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 *7.0 9,0 4.0 1.7 10.2 9.2 0.0 0,9 *ta*
l4*1*( 0.0 0.0 T T 2.2 1.7 9.0 11.3 7.4 V. 9 1.7 0.0 40.1
HMmI 0.0 9.0 0.* *,* *.l 4.9 9.0 1.* 7.3 r 4.1 0.0 9*.4
14*3** 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 il.l 9.9 29.1 29.9 7.7 0,0 l.l
19**^9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 9.8 1.9 18.2 7.2 8.0 23.0 9 0,0 99.9
17*9.04 0.0 0.0 7 8.9 9.9 0.9 10.2 *.b 9.2 T * 0,9 27.7
14**^7 0.0 0.0 0.* 3.* 9.1 8,7 7.1 18.9 12.0 4.7 1.2 t 1.4
14*7.*4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 9.* *.* 23.7 7.9 18.0 1.3 7 0.0 74.*
19*4^9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.7 *.i 80.f 0.4 14.2 12.7 T 0.0 90.1
19*9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 0.0 9.0 9.7 1.7 3.* 7.0 12.7 0,0 21.9
1440.21 0.0 9.0 0.0 0,0 it.* 9.9 19.7 10. 17.* 18.7 O'.O 0.9 74.9
1491.98 0.0 0.0 *2 7.4 1*. 3 11.2 0.2 10.2 23.2 11.2 t 0,0 9*. 1
194I.V9 0.0 0.0 o.u l.t 14.3 9.1 7.4 i*. 11.9 12.0 1.7 0,0 49.1
1493.9* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 T.2 1*.* 2.T 0.* 4.9 7.* 2.4 0,0 *1.9
1790.99 0.0 0.0 0,0 .* 9.9 9.9 1.2 18.2 17.3 4.* 0.0 0.0 39.0
1999-9* 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 7.1 *.7 4.2 10.9 12.0 8.7 T 0,0 *7,9
1494-37 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.4 81.3 *.l 9.2 l.* . V 29.3 0.9 0.0 79.9
1417.4* 0.0 0.0 T I.* 3.0 0.9 9.7 12.0 14.4 l*.l 0.0 0.0 37.1
l49*9* 0.0 0.0 T 1.4 4.7 7.7 17.4 17.9 14.9 17.4 T 0,0 77.1
1994^0 o.o 0.0 12.9 11.9 9.2 8.7 lO.T 17.9 9.0 7.2 T 0,0 97,0
14*0*l 0.0 0.0 o.u . 9.1 17.9 uo 7.* 87.2 9.4 *. 0.0 90,4
17*1-41 0.0 0.0 9.2 V.f 11.* 1.9 17.2 11.9 4.9 10.0 0.0 0,0 71.1
17*1.*> 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 9.0 1.2 4.1 a.i IV.0 0.2 0.0 0,0 94*1
19*3^* 0.0 0.0 0.0 l.l >.9 9.9 2.4 12.7 19.* 12.1 1.0 0.0 94,3
1**-! 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 2.0 4.4 11.2 17, l 14.* 0.2 T 0,0 39.9
19*9-0* 0.0 0.0 9.5 0,0 9.8 1.4 l.bj [l*.* 2.9 4.4 2.7 0,0 *7.4
1***^1 0.0 0.0 T 9.9 1.0 1.7 9.9 *.* 4.4 9.4 9.0 0,0 9.7
I4*7.a4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 9.4 19.1 2.0 7.9 V2 11.1 T 0.0 99.9
l** 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,4 9.1 4.4 2.9, 4.2 13.2 T 0.0 0.0 19.9
1729.70 0.0 0.0 0.0 81.2 9.1 9.1 0.7 0.9 20.1 4.7 T 0,0 99.9
1990.71 0.0 0.0 *2 9.9 4.2 9.4 t.b 11.* 7.4 4.0 4 0,0 4.4
1991.72 0.0 0.0 IT.2 9.1 1,* V 4 10.7 4.1 7.1 17.2 0.0 0.0 7*.*
1992.73 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.7 1*.* 9.9 12.1 >.0 13.1 24. 1.0 0.0 4.4
1993-7* 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5- 4.1 30. 9.2 10.9 11. 17.9 0,0 T 1.9
1994.73 0.0 0.0 1.9 i.o II.9 1.1 1.7 4.0 14.8 10.7 9.1 0,0 99.7
1499-7* 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 19.2 7.8 2.2 4.4 18.7 l,| 0.0 0,0 94.7
1994.79 0.0 0.0 0.0 7,7 *.3 >1 I.* 1.1 9.4 *.7 0.0 0,0 94.*
1997.72 0.0 0.0 o.c 1.1 *.l 0.7 9.2 4.2 V .4 4.9 11.2 0,0 44.9
1992.77 0.0 0.0 . t 8.7 2.9 l*.l
IC070
H|2N 0.0 0.0 1.7 8.9 T.T 4.4 T.t T.T 18.4 7.4 Ua T 97.0
# Indicate# scat ton move or relocation of Lnurwtnti. Sm Station Location cable.
Record naan value# above are neon# through the current year for the period beginning in 1872 for tper#cure end precipitation, 1933 for enowfall. Temperature end precipitation are fran City Office location# through 1934. Heating degree day# are from City Office location# through Jieia 1939. Snowfall if from City Office location# through J in# 1934. Ocharwlaa th# dace are fron Airport location#.
f
57


STATION LOCATION
DENVER, COLORADO

P See Ground

f T t 4 1 i 1 ill 5 § .2 J -5 C j 9 £. north Lon^terta eet e e e a a a fa i: l z a 3 a a 1 i 8 5 a a 8 e £ j l 8 I 1 £ 8 1 § 1 "J - V 1. If i 9 i ! a i 1 1 0 & leaarks

,tl2/?/73 Voluntary observers, broken
record.
i;.;C/Jij 3/13/73 38* 45' 105* 00* 5177 51 20 20 48 a Estimated.
U/J0/7S i 400' WNW 38* 45* 105* 00' 5212 71 37 34 52
n:mi 3 7/01/77 350' ESE 38 45* 105* 00' 5214 e70 e32 e32 e50 a Estimated.
I/R1/7T 6/13/81 200' ENE 38* 45' 105* 00* 5214 so 45 44 40
WIS/S1 12/01/17 2U0' W5W 38* 45* 105* 00* 5204 108 73 72 84
U/vl/17 5/01/81 1100' ESC 38* 45' 105* 00* 5218 103 84 4 79
WSI/TL 10/01/85 375* N 38* 45' 105* 00' 5228 121 108 107 97 87
10401/*! 12/08/04 400* SW 38* 45' 105* 00* 5214 151 a78 a78 74 74 a 83 feet to 4/13/94.
li/mtoi, 1/28/14 00' t 38* 45* 105* 00' 5218 >172 128 128 119 119 b 134 feet to 3/1/10.
W28/U Present 1000' EMC 38* 45' 105* 00* 5221 - L13 104 108 c88 d88 c9* c Bsivi 4/1/50. 4 Added 4/1/50.
/I8/J1 4/25/47 38* 48' 104* 53* 5282 58 44 44 5 42
4/23/47 5/07/48 0.3 ai.MW 38* 44* 104* S3* f5283 >20 4 4 4 4 5 5 e Coast a atoned 3200 feet ESE
of chersoaeter site 8/1/60.
f 5282 feet co 8/1/40. I 72 feet to 7/8/40. Fastest
1.7 ni.ESE 38* 45* 104* 52' 5283 h20 h5 lie date from 40 feet prior to 7/12/60.
5 5 4 h Sees atts aa prior co nova
of 5/7/68.
-- .. , frOPtMy a. ^r<* SJ-O fr or0.r of *h.l f-,toekod loouoa of publication.. Hat
* 1 0*0*1 rot to Pu.Uc.tlaw, Natlawi Cllwtlc Loo cor. FoOorol ><*11011*1,
u official pu.llc.tlo. of eft# Haefoool r-------- ^
' ~-r. taoowllla, Hortf. Carolina 2M01.
Single copy: 20 cone* for Heke chocks payable co Departs Asheville, NC 28*01.
nchiy or annual me of fn-irct,
oepharic Adulate tret ion, end
caMlled from records on file ac the
Director, National Climatic Caster
1 **MI*IW Of COMMfRCE ** CUMAflC CEN1ER *. muonic
21101
AM (OUAIoAkORTuMirr imen*
POSTAGE AMO PEES PAID U*. DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCE
210
FIRST CLASS
58
I \\
? 1 \ I


ELEVATION 5330 FEET HSU

OlNVl* IHOLLvl
LTUUOE 39 DtO 93 H | N LONOITlIOT. |H 010 3* H | H
SOURCE or solar RADIATION DATA -- PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF COLORADO INSTRUMENTATION SPEC TROL AB MODEL SR-TS PYRANOMETER
OBSERVED solar RADIATION DATA AVERAGE DAILY TOTOL HEMISPHERIC RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURfACF.
MARCH |97TDECEMBER I9TR.
TILTED SURFACE RADIATION DATA CALCULATED FROM THE OBSERVED HORIZONTAL DATA USING IMF METHOD DEvISEl) MY LIU ANO JORDAN 119601. VALID FOR SOUTH-FACING SURFACES, REFLECTIVITY 0.2
CLIMATIC DATA all data COLLECTED AT DENVER STAPLETON AIRPORT. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIP|I*T|0N AVERAGES arc FOR THE |5l-19tO PERIOD. DEGREE DAY AVERAGES BASED ON 19*1-1970 OAT*. MEAN AINU SPEEDS. LlOUU COVER. AmD POSSIBLE SUNSHINE OBTAINEO FROM HOURLY OHSERVATIONS. 19*9-1977. AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE *1 ELEVATION 337? FEET BASED ON 1973-1977 DATA.
SOLAR RADIATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOv DEC ANN RECORD
(TEAMS!
HEMISPHERIC IKWM/SOH/OAYI 4.6? 4.65 6. ?5 6.31 5.AT 5.27 5.01 3.65 2.45 1./5 1
HEMISPHERIC IBTlI/SOFT/OAY) 1*65 1475 198? 2001 1862 |67| 1167 ITT 535 1
HEMISPHERIC / ETR) RATIO 59 .4# .56 .54 .52 .51 .59 .56 .5? .*5
CORPUTEO TILTED SURFACES IKWM/SQM/DAYI
LATITUDE 15 DEG. 5.58 4,88 6.10 5.93 5.59 5.33 S.t>6 4.7| 3.M ?. 7 3
LATITUDE 5.TT 4.71 5.64 5.38 5.11 5.04 5.67 5.02 4.or 3.|4
LATITUDE 15 DEG. 5.64 4.32 4.95 4.62 4.43 4.52 5.38 5.05 4.29 3.37
VERIICAL 4.21 2.72 2.69 2.40 2.38 2.6S 3.6T 4.08 3.B6 3.15
IHATE
ExTREMl MAXIMUM 1Emp, I0E0 FI 72.0 76.0 R3.0 85.0 91.0 102.8 102.0 | 100,0 97.0 87.0 76.0 71.0' 20
average mximuh temp, ideo rt 44.0 46.5 49.9 60.8 71.0 80.0 BT.H 85.8 17.6 66*5 53.0 46. 1 ?0
mean TEmP, 30.4 41.1 36.9 4 T 1 ST.5 66.5 73.3 71.6 62.7 51.T, 39.| 3 (.* 50.2 ?n
AVERAGE MINIMUM temp. 16.0 19.T 23.6 33.3 43.9 52.1 58.8 5T.3 4 7 H ?S.? |h.T ?o
extreme minimum temp. -25.0 -25.0 -8.0 7,0 22.0 30.0 41.0 41.8 29.8 .1.0 -7.0 -|6.0 ?0
degree oats
HE A T1nG165 DEG. RASE) 1000 902 66B 525 253 BO 0 120 4on 7 68 1 004 60 | 6 30
HEAT ING160 DEG. RASE) 933 762 713 386 123 26 0 0 47 f 1 ft H&9 47?J 10
HEAT 1NG155 DEG. RASE| TTB 622 565 256 41 T 0 0 12 153 4T3 694 l.0| 10
COOL ING t 65 DEG. RASE) 0 0 8 0 110 248 208 54 * ft ft 625 30
PRECIPITATION (INCHES) .52 , 1.25 1.62 2.64 1.T3 1.04 1.3R 1.25 I.OT .76 .49 16.46 20
SNOWFALL TlNCHESI T.I *. 14.6 .0 1.3 .1 0.0 .1 1.? 4.6 T.6 6.1 62.0 20
mean cloud cover ipercenti 55 50 60 60 61 50 So 49 44 <4 53 51 51 29
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT) 72 u TO frb 65 M 71 72 74 71 ## 6" t>9 29
average wIno speed imph> 9.2 9.4 10.| 10.4 9.6 9.? 8.5 8.2 0.2 8.2 6.7 9.0 R,l 29
average sEation pressure imri 34.0 B34.T 030.3 033.2 B34.I 836.1 619.1 RIB.8 HJT.9 BIS.5 "14.| V 9 9.0 H -4. H 5


OCNV* | IOUfootfI I
ttcvAfioN sj*o rcr.r h$l LAfMuoc n ntt j* hi. lonaituoc io% uit >i mi*
Source of solar radiation data public service company uf Colorado Instrumentation srectholau model sr-7s pyranoreier
observed solar radiation data average daily total hemispheric radiation on a horizontal surface, march I 9TT-DF.CEHRLR istr.
TILTED SURFACE RADIATION OATA CALCULATED FROM THE ORSCRVEO HORIZONTAL OATA USINQ the mETHUU DEvISEO HY LIU
and Jordan HV60I. valid fur souih-facino surfaces, reflectivity o.z
CLIMATIC OATA .. ALL DATA COLLECTED AT DENVER STPLETON AIRPORT. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AVERAGES Are fur the isi-19To period, degree oat averages based on 1941-1970 data, mean mind speeds, cloud cover, and POSSIBLE SUNSHINE OBTAIHEO FhOH HOURLY OBSERVATIONS, I9A4-1977. AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE AT ELEVATION 5132 FEET RASED ON |973-1977 DATA.
solar RAOIAllON JAN FED mar APR MAY JUN JUL ADO SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN RECORD
UEARSI
HCMISPHCRIC IRVH/SOR/OAYI 6.3? 6.01 5.23 A.46 3.56 ?.*i 1 .R2 1
HEMISPHERIC IRTII/SOF T/UAYI 2024 1906 1 65 4 1573 1129 764 577 1
IHtHISPHERIC / fTR| RATIO .55 .5) .51 .5* .5A 5n .46
CDHPUTEI) tilted surfaces IKVH/SQR/DAYI LATITUDE 15 DEO. S.9R 5.T2 5.2* 5.60 A.56 3.53 2.66
latitude 5.42 5.23 5.00 5.60 .6 3.V7 3.29
LATITUDE 15 OEG. 4.6A .S3 .AS 5.31 A.69 A. IA 3.54
VERTICAL 2.AT 2.M 2.63 3.62 3.93 3.75 3.32
CLIMATE
CaTREhE maximum temp. IDEO FI 72.0 76.0 R3.0 os.o 91.0 102.0 102.0 |00.0 97.0 07.0 76.0 73.0 20
average maximum temp, ides FI AA.O 6.5 4.9 60.0 71.0 00.0 N7.0 05. H 77.6 66.5 51.0 46.1 20
pEn tEmp. JO.A 33.1 34.9 97.1 57.5 66.5 73.3 71.6 62.7 51.7 19.1 32.4 50.2 20
average minimum TEMP. 16.6 19.7 ?1.0 31.3 3.9 52.| 50,6 57.3 47.6 36.0 ?>.? 10.7 . 20
ExTRchE minimum TEMP. -25.0 -25.0 .R.o 7.0 22.0 39.0 3.0 41.0 29.0 3.0 -7.0 -16.0 20
DEGREE OATS '
HE ATING165 OEG. RASE 1 1006 902 860 525 253 00 0 0 120 400 766 1 004 60 16 30
HE A T TNG 160 DEG. RASE I 933 762 T1 3 306 123 26 0 0 7 266 MO 649 4 f 23 JO
nEATlNGISS OEG. RASCl ITS 622 565 256 4| 7 0 0 12 153 73 694 36 01 JO
COOLING 165 UEG. RASEl 0 0 0 0 0 110 240 200 54 5 0 0 62a 30
PRECIPITATION (INCHES) .52 .01 1.25 1.62 2.64 1.73 1.94 1.36 1.25 1.07 .76 .*9 15.46 20
SNOWFALL MnCmESI T.l 9.6 |4.6 9.0 1.3 .1 0.0 .1 1.7 4.6 7.0 6.1 62.0 20
mEN CLUUO COVER (PERCEvTl 55 SB 60 60 61 50 SO 49 44 4 61 51 51 29
POSSIHCE Sunshine (PErCENTI T 2 T1 TO 66 65 71 71 72 74 73 AN A" n't ?9
AVERAGE *lND SPEED |MPH| 9.2 9.A 10.1 10.* 9.6 9.2 0.5 6.2 0.2 0.2 H.T 4.0 4.1 24
average station prfssure irri 1*.0 J34.7 030.3 03J.2 034,1 036.1 019.1 030.0 6 37.9 H35.S 614.1 949.0 64 0.0 5


CODES













c?07tycr\
Pro1ect^W^7^|4 Search by a^£;
Data 'sJigV- g?1
Building Official Consulted_ Address Phone
^ 3UILDING CODES
County________
Sal,___U3C_>/____
2. ZONE
OCCUPANCY GROUP (Table 5~A)
X-
3CLATI0NS
,, jcard of HealthX State Dept, of Ed._
JSign Code_____EHevator Other_____

(Chapter 5 and Table 5-0 TYPES si - R^MlTTg-
rt.--:t:on type Type(a)
Allow. Area (505a)
Icne 3 Increase (505b)
* Stories Increase (505b) a) Separation Increase (506a)(f4v fitting. System Increase C508b8cc)
Total Allowable Area Uf4 . _
.JEIDING AREA Existing

X O 1 H-fc.,
X-! x- 1 x-- 1
UHUYiTgr? 1 1 VO fs'frDO

- .
\% lgg . 0
jJHumhbp UNuwimitep Proposed '"V7 Fiiture '^??)oao Total
12.,TO
mn-i
X--!
.H,4ck7
1^7 ,CpgQ
h'^),cxz£>
auISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (Table 17-A, unless noted)
*tr-ction Type mar Searing Walls tor Bearing Walls fcn-3earing Walls al Frame sent Partitions Enclosures
*r-.cr Doors 8c Windows r" Court Walls (504c)
*te* *-s Required (1709a)
E*'~ Craftstops Required (5205b) L<*.: Ventilation Required (3205c)
X.
-^h-rrg=.



TL-1
T'UeT
-dL
_2l

Vi-tro- Bk-r ip^to i-f < <*2. Kie^.w4|
* l OPENING PROTECTION ('03 Sections Chapters 6 15) i ^Type ** 11 & 111 Actions *£03, 1903 & 2003) 8c (Type IV 8c V Const, see Table 5~A & Sections 2 0.
;' *?sistance of Exterior Walls
ir. Exterior Walls N^T Au^wgj? *0* / Pg^T^Tgr? ^ Iff.!.
-M HEIGHT (Table 5-0)
Allowable Stories Fire Sprinkler Increase (507)
Total Allowable Stories Maximum Height C/ 5

trreyp-'J
TL


.? --.L

. . ^ Ft______
*5-TI^~Occupant ITaole 33~A?
I.;- rtr^ong per -floor L Number of ?er

S^s.
-
Sxits Required Each Floor (5302a)
*" rjcits Required Total Building (3302a)
_ e r -T-rr\ \ I I * I y
. yi.o -*----------------------w '2- (^cr-r \jg~r> !CyO1APfi&r - *'*' ,e(j Exit Width (5302b) L-lgdL Ifcj sons in Building
>7C>
112. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS (Chapter 23 ?r Table 23-A)
lUFrvnN'j/CtjftCJ'
YflEZji 1}D
jj^-JIREKENTS (Chapter 33)
<^:2WlH(g7 ^J-T^
_f£< Exit *iQtn r MIN gr ^fa^lN.OL^-
' Required (Table 33-A) Vl^ (MAX ^ U 1 2_ e>[^7PgT :icr Widths (530^b) 4~4- I
Eid Corridor Limit (330Uf) 1ZC? j=-T,
- -r.dor Construction (JJO^g) Nc>T L-S TI-^Nl
--r.ior Construction nch L rj-rxai widths (3303b) H^r Aygu^g^t^ ^TgtefJ
rf -yar Landing Depths (3305f)_|______________________'
s*irvc to Roof (3305f)_(________________________________
Tower Required (3309).
Sc
h-
rtr Tower nequircu _________________________
,t Signs Required (3312b) (2 gyrT^^t
Sign Separate Circuit (3312c)_________________________
-rr; REQUIREMENTS
>ia_-ations between occupancies Fire Ratings & Const. (Table 5-b)_
tilcsure of Vertical Openings (1706) ____________________
_*it ('05 Sections, Chpt. 6 1A-) I/\Q ArB-teA-_________
Ventilation AT I \Az^z>
4-1 Lr-j^.V,
Ifl.T ..PeS^
id g7, C Sanitation W/HTlM^ Rsd ~ r.* Extinguishing System Required (3802 17 Standpipes Required (3803) kk?Mt^~
: Standpipes Required (5803) H/9slbgr~ ____________
isctnation Standpipes Required (3o03) SdOKfe ' _
i-*ctal Hazards & Requirements (see Group Occupancies) 4*4~ 11 feg- ^/^TTgrtT^
rations & Deviations (see Group Occupancies)
.arc, -
SHe* p^Tk?f 3'-<5r nOJ==t*&x>J-xz\
I?ZIAL REQUIREMENTS
*rtfy building compliance with ^'aHed occupancy requirements
Voters 6 15)
*~fv building compliance with -ailed const, requirements. Chapters 1? 22)
'rr~*'S 3uilding compliance with failed code requirements.
-tpt.28-^3, 47-5*t 8t Appendix)
-"tfy building compliance with ti*-:seniag requirements and *-=irt. naterials. (Chpt. 23-28)
15.
ZONING
Zone Classification (No. 2 above)_
Offstreet parking required________
Offstreet loading required________
Building Setback Requirements:
Front Yard__________________
Side Yard _________
Rear Yard_ Soecial
Minimum Lot Area
Maximum Lot Coverage_____
Maximum Building Height:
Stories_______________
Feet
Landscaping Requirements_ Other Requirements_________
72


FEDERAL CODES
1. Minimum public corridor width shall be 5'0" except that corridor in the operating room section where patients are transported in stretchers or beds shall be 8'0".
2. The outpatient surgical unit shall have not less than two exits to the exterior.
3. Items such as drinking fountains, telephone booths, vending machines, and portable equipment shall be located so as not to restrict corridor traffic or reduce the corridor width below the required minimum.
4. Toilet rooms in recovery areas which may be used by patients shall be equipped with doors and hardware which will permit access from the outside in an emergency.
34
5. The minimum width of doors for patient access to examination and treatment rooms shall be 2'0". The minimum width of doors to rooms needing access for beds (or recovery) shall be 3'8".
6. Doors on all openings between corridors and rooms or spaces subject to occupancy, except elevator doors, shall be swing type.
7. Doors, sidelights, borrowed lights, and windows in which the glazing extends down to within 18 inches (46cm) of the floor shall be glazed with safety glass, wire glass, or plastic glazing material that will resist breaking and won't create dangerous cutting edges when broken.
8. Thresholds and expansion joint


covers shall be made flush with the floor surface to facilitate use of wheelchairs and carts and shall be designed to resist passage of smoke.
9. The minimum ceiling height shall be 8'0" with the following exceptions:
a. Boiler rooms shall have ceiling clearance not less than 2'6" above the main boiler header and connecting piping.
b. Radiographic and other rooms containing ceiling mounted equipment and including those with ceiling mounted surgical light fixtures shall have height required to accommodate the equipment and or fixture.
c. Ceilings in corridors, storage rooms, toilet rooms, and other minor rooms may not be less than 7'8M.
d. Suspended tracks, rails, and pipes located in the path of normal traf-
fic shall be not less than 6'8" above the
f1oor.
35-


FILTER EFFICIENCIES FOR
CENTRAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
IN OUTPATIENT SURGERY FACILITIES
Minimum Number Filter Efficiencies (%) Area Designation of Filter Beds Filter Bed Filter Bed
Sensitive Areas* 2
Includes operating rooms and recovery rooms.
Switching for restart of fans may be located conveniently for fire department use to assist in evacuation of smoke after the fire is controlled, providing that provisions are made to avoid possible damage to the system because of closed dampers.
HANDICAPPED CODE
Entrances: Atleast one entrance shall be
usable by those in wheelchairs.
Public Walks: 48" minimum width, 5% maximum slope, 5* x 5 level plat-
No. 1 No. 2
25 90
form, extend 11 beyond each side of door.
Parking Spaces: 12' minimum width.
Ramps: Maximum slope of 1 in 12, level platform at 30 intervals minimum.
Toilet Stalls: One handicapped stall in each toilet room.
Lavatories: Useable by individuals in
wheelchai rs.
Mirrors: Not over 40" above floor.
Urinals: Appropriate number mounted 1,9" above floor or at floor.
Towel Racks: Mounted no more than 40"
-36-


above the floor.
Water Fountains: Accessible to the handicapped.
Telephones: Accessible to the handicapped
(wheelchai rs).
Doors: Minimum clear opening of 32", level floor 5' each side.
Graphics: Raised letters and identifying
devices mounted between 4' -6"
and 5 1 -611 above f 1 oor. Mini -
mum hei ght of 71 '0" when suspen-
ded from ceilings.
-37-




FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


Project Costs
New Construction (total sq. ft.)
Renovation Construction (sq. ft.)
Si te Development ................
Equipment ........................
Fixed $
Movable $
Architect Fees ...................
Other Fees (soil survey, engineering inspection, loan ins. fees)
Performance and Payment Bonds
Contingency (construction, change order, inflation) ...............
Financing Fee ....................
Consulting Costs (e.g.: planning, environmental impact, etc.)
Feasibility Study ......
Net Capitalized Interest
Temporary Relocation Expenses
Start-up Costs Supply Stocking
Bond Issue Costs:
Trustee Fee .......
Legal Fee .........
Printing Expense .
Title and Recording Rating Fee ........
TOTAL CAPITALIZED PROJECT COSTS
$1,471,875
170,050
500,000
132,463
7,500
226,750
50,000
$2,558,643


Following are prices from a related

faci1i ty:
>
ESTIMATED CONSTRUCTION COSTS FROM CONTRACTOR Brighton Community Hospital, 43 Beds
1. Priced November, 1980 (8 months $60.)
2. Minimum Cost Facility
3. Gross Square feet: 50,000;*
4. Cost $107/square foot.
The project was initially bid at $120/sq.ft.
$107/sq.ft. X 112.3% = $120.25/sq.ft. Nov. '81
$120.25/sq.ft.X 111% = $133.50/sq.ft. Nov. 82
$133.50/sq.ft.X 111% = $148.25/sq.ft. Nov. '83
$ 120/sq.ft. X 112.3% = $134.75/sq.ft. Nov. 81
$ 134.75/sq.ft.X 111% = $149.50/sq.ft. Nov. '82
$149.50/sq.ft.X 111% = $166/sq.ft. No v. '83
-39-


SWEDISH HEALTH CORPORATION AMBULATORY SURGERY CENTER PROJECTED OPERATING COSTS FOR
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1983
Salaries ................................... $279,178
Suppli es
Medical ............................... $59,381
Drugs ................................. 18,271
Food ..................................... 4,202
Office ................................... 1,096
Maintenance .............................. 6,395
Other ................................. 2 >QT0
Total Supplies ....................... $91,355
Direct Other
Ancillary Services ..................... $41,888
Laundry and Linen ........................ 9,020
Uti1i ties .............................. 22,672
Housekeepi ng/Mai ntenance Services .... 24,000
Insurance ............................... 25,000
Equipment Maintenance Contracts ....... 4,600
Total Direct Other ..................... $12,270
Depreciation ................................ $60,595
Lease Expense .............................. $25,000
TOTAL DIRECT COSTS ......................... $583,398


SWEDISH HEALTH CORPORATION AMBULATORY SURGERY CENTER CHARGE ANALYSIS
CHARGE COMPONENT TOTAL AMOUNT
Salaries $279,178 Suppli es 91,355 Direct Other Costs 127,270 Depreciation 60,595 Lease Expense 25,000
Total Direct Costs $583,398 Indirect Other Costs $113,526 TOTAL OPERATING COSTS: $696,924
The costs listed above and on the previous page were taken from an addition to the Certificate of Need which emphasizes that costs associated with the project are variable. The costs listed above represent the maximum expenditure levels associated with the project
AVERAGE CHARGE PER PROCEDURE
$ 92.45 30.25 42.14 20.06
_________8.28
$193.18 $ 37.59 $230.77




PROGRAMMING


Goals and Objectives
To Address the Issue of Cost Containment as it applies to:
1) appropriate scaling of capacity.
2) references to appropriate activity levels.
3) elimination of waste from overduplication and underutilization economics of scale resulting from shared services and equipment and through central patient record keeping.
To Establish an Entry and Triage Point from which patients can be referred to services most appropriate to their needs.
To Improve Access and Availability for an Expanding Community.
To Establish a Less Costly Alternative to Hospital Based Outpatient and Inpatient Surgical Services.
To Provide for Growth FIexi bi1ity and Expandabi1i ty.
To Provide Easy Access and Ci rculati on Patte rns.
To Take Advantage of the Excellent Views. To Design Modularly.
To Consider Energy Efficiency.


Specific Spaces Needed
Outpatient Surgical Facilities
A. Administrative and Public Areas 1. Entry
2. Lobby Area
a. Reception/Information i b. Waiting Space c. Public Toilet Facility d. Public Telephone e. Drinking Fountain Cente r
3. Interview Space
4. Individual Offices
5. Multipurpose Room
6. Medical Library Facility
7. Medical Records
8. Special Storage for Employees Personal effects
9. General Storage Facilities
Sterilization Facilities
Clinical Facilities
1. Exam Room(s)
2. Treatment Room(s) for Minor P rocedures Cost
3. Operating Room(s)
4. Recovery Room(s)
5. Recovery Lounge
6. Surgical Service Areas a. Control Station
b. Supervisor's Office or Station
-43-
c. Sterilization Facility
d. Drug Distribution Station
e. Scrub Facilities
f. Soiled Workroom
g. Fluid Waste Disposal
h. Clean Work Room or Clean Supply Room
i. Anesthesia Storage Facility
j. Anesthesia Work Room
k. Medical Gas Supply Storage
l. Equipment Storage
m. Staff Clothing Change Areas
n. Outpatient Surgery Change Areas
o. Stretcher Storage Area
p. Staff Lounge and Toilet Facilities
q. Janitor's Closet
r. Storage Space for Wheelchairs
s. Area for Emergency Crash Cart
D. Engineering Service and Equipment Areas
1. Equi pment Room
2. Storage Room(s)
E. Waste Processing Services
1. Storage and Disposal
2. Incinerator
Additional Client Requirements
1 . X-ray Facility
2. Pre-Operation Holding Area
3. Management Office
4. Doctor's Office
5. Conference/Community Room
G. Suggested Computer Room


EMERGENCY SUITE
A. Emergency Patient Care Service
1. En try
2. Reception and Control Area
3. Public Waiting Space with Toilets, telephones, and drinking fountains
4. Treatment Room(s)
5. Storage Area for Stretchers and wheelchai rs
6. Staff's Work and Charting Area
7. Clean Supply Storage
8. Soiled Workroom
9 . Patient Toilet Room
Radiology Suite
1 . Radiographic Room
2. Film Processing Facility
3. Viewing and Administrative Area
4. Film Storage
5. Toilet Room
6. Dressing Area(s)
7. Waiting Room or Alcove
8. Holding Area for Stretcher Pati ents
9. Handwash Facilities
Laboratory Suite
1 . Laboratory Work Counter
2. Sink
3. Storage Cabinet or Closet
-44
4. Blood Storage Facility
5. Specimen Collection Facilities
D. Nurse's Station
E. Engineering Service Equipment Areas
(Same requirements as Outpatient Surgery may be combined).
F. Additional Client Requirements
1. Ambulance Area
a. Office
b. Sleeping quarters including toilet, kitchen, and refri dgerator
2. Nurse's Lounge and Sleeping Quarters
3. Trauma Room (several)
4. Observation Room


Requirements
OUTPATIENT SURGERY Lobby/Pub 1i c
A Lobby area for general public shall
be provided including the following:
1) Entrance grade level, sheltered from weather and able to accommodate wheelchairs (60 sq.ft.)
2) Reception Desk and information counter (60 sq.ft.)
3) Waiting space seating for 14 (340 sq.ft., including circulation)
4) Toilet rooms for male and female (60 sq.ft, each = 120 sq.ft.)
5) Telephone room (32 sq.ft.)
6) Drinking fountain
7) Medical records (32 sq.ft.)
Hours of use: 8:00-5:00
User needs: Seating for 12-16 people Preferred size: 20' wide (approx.) Net Square Feet: 640
-45-


Lobby/Ent ry
Equipment, furniture, and requirements
1) general seating
2) reception desk/seating
Building zone S.E. or S.W.
Ai rlocked
Maximize south glazing provide shade control for glass
Floor: carpet
Walls: painted or wallcovering
Ceiling: accoustical tile
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Operating Room (0.R.)
The operating suite is one of the most expensive parts of a hospital.
This is due in part to the expensive equipment required to perform delicate surgery tasks. A large part of construe tion cost is used to maintain a sterile environment. With the development of air conditioning and artificial light, surgeons have opted for windowless rooms with 100% fresh conditioned air.
Multiple use O.R.'s are desirable. For multi- O.R.'s, a double loaded corridor, in the O.R. suite, leading to each room also increases efficiency.
The operating room itself should have a separate circulation system for maximum ste ri1i ty .
Hours of use: 7:00-6:00 Mon day-Friday 8:00-12:00 Saturday
User Needs: 3 operating rooms
Minimum size; 250 sq.ft, clear
Preferred size: 18' X 18' with at least
one room 20' X 20'
Compromised size: (2) Room 18' X 18' (324)
(1) Room 20' X 20' (400) TOTAL SQUARE FEET: 1048
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) provide emergency communication system connecting to surgical suite control station
2) provide at least one X-ray film illuminator in each room
3) minimum corridor width 8'-0"
4) minimum O.R. door width 3'-8"
5) minimum ceiling height 8'-0"
6) X-ray control to at least 2 rooms
Building zone NW no windows
earth berming favorable
Floor conductive floor required, extend lO'-O" beyond O.R./smooth, waterproof, vinyl tile-sheet tile
Walls water proof, painted, glazed or similar


Recovery Room
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) 2) minimum door width 3J-8" minimum ceiling height 8'-0"
3) additional space is requested for 3 seats for pre-operation, totalling about 150 sq.ft.
4) room between beds for mobile operating table.
5) cubicle curtains shall be noncombustible or rendered flame retardant
6) emergency communication system connecting to control station
Zone: N E.
Adjacency: must be adjacent to O.R.
G1 azing: keep to a minimum
Floor: smooth, water proof surface and wear resistant, vinyl tile or sheet vinyl
Walls: water proof painted, glazed or similar, cove base at floor, painted gypsum board, vinyl, ceramic tile
Ceiling: painted and water proof. Can have joints,sus pended gypsum board, ceramic tile
The purpose of the recovery room is
to supply recovery space, equipped with beds for recovery and observation of patients alfter surgery or other procedures when monitoring the patient for effect of treatment or because of some doubt of patient condition.
A double loaded corridor leading to individual recovery beds separated by curtains is the most efficient system. Awide curtained space can also convert to a triage area in a major emergency.
The general requirement is 2 beds per operating room.
Hours of use: 7:00-6:00 Monday-Friday
User needs: in addition to recovery beds, 3 chair pre-operating seating approximately 50 sq.ft, per chair
Total Square Feet: 16 X 36 (beds) plus 150 sq.ft, seating
= 726 square feet


Control Station/Supervisor1s Office
A control station located to permit
visual surveillance of all traffic which
enters the operating suite is needed for
scheduling and other required services
pertinent to the operation. The station
should be located within the surgery .
suite and away from public waiting areas
screened by doors for both visual and
asepsis reasons* Adjacency to recovery
room i s optimal.
Hours of use: 7:00-6:00
Users: Nurses or medical personnel
User needs: would like an adjacent staff lounge
Size: 8' X 15' = 120 square feet
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) work counter along 2 (preferably
3) wal1s
2) secretarial chairs 2 or 3
3) separate from public areas for visual privacy and to maintain a sterile environment in the surgery suite
Building zone: S.W. core
Adjacency to operating suite:
suggest core area to avoid direct sunli ght
daylight would produce pleasant atmosphere for staff
Floor: smooth, water proof surface and
wear resistant for both people and chairs, vinyl tile
Walls: painted or water resistant wall
paper or board
Ceiling: painted gypsum board


Recovery Lounge
A separate supervised room shall be provided for use by patients who are able to leave the recovery room (post-anesthesia) but need additional time for all vital signs to be stabilized to the point where the patient may leave the facility. It will also contain a lounge area for family members with toilet facility.
User: patients from recovery room
Hours of Use: 7:00-6:00
User needs: may be shared with emergency depa rtment
Size: 4 chairs at 50 sq.ft, each = 225 sq.ft.
Building zone: N. E .
Toilet rooms in recovery areas which may be used by patients shall be equipped with doors and hardware which will permit access from the outside in any emergency.
When such rooms have only one opening or are small, the doors shall be capable of
-50-
opening outwards, or be otherwise designed to be opened without need to push against patient who may have collapsed within the room.
Building zone: N.E.
Adjacency to recovery room


Sterilizing Facilities
A sterilizing facility with high speed autoclave(s) must be conveniently located to serve all operating rooms. An autoclave is an airtight chamber using steam under pressure to sterilize with a moist dry temperature over 212F without boiling. Doors should swing in from operating room so as not to reduce its required space.
User: surgeons, nursing staff
Hours of use: 7:00-6:00
User needs: prefers one room serving 2 operating rooms
Size: 2 required, 9' X 10' each = 180sq.ft.
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
A corridor serving 2 operating rooms with counter space on both sides is optimum. A sink should be provided within one counter. A high speed autoclave must be provided.
Building zone: N.W.
No glazing permitted
Floor: conductive
Walls: same as O.R.
Ceiling:
same as O.R.


Drug Distribution Center
Provision for storage and preparation of medication to be administered to patients. This should include a work counter space and cabinets for drug storage.
User: medical staff
Hours of use: normal Total square feet: 30
-52


Scrub Faci1i ti es
A scrub-up station should be provided near the entrance to each operating room. The station should be arranged to minimize any incidental splatter on nearby personnel or supply carts.
User: surgeons, nursing staff
User needs: only one scrub room to serve 3 operating rooms is requested
Size: 10' wide by 2' counter top with
2 sinks and 2' workspace = 40 sq.ft.
-53-


Soiled Workroom
Soiled workroom for exclusive use of surgical suite staff shall be required and located proximate to the operating rooms.
User: surgical staff only
Hours of use: normal
Size: 10' X 18' = 180 sq. ft.
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) clinical sink or equivalent flushing type fixture
2) work counter
3) sink equipped for handwashing
4) waste receptacle
5) linen receptacle
Building Zone: NE or NW Proximate to operating rooms No glazing needed
Floor: smooth, waterproof surface, wear
resistant and slip resistant vinyl tile
Walls: painted or waterproof wall paper
or covering
Ceiling: painted gypsum board
-54-


C1 ean Workroom
A clean workroom or clean supply room is required for assembly of clean materials within the surgical suite prior to use. It shall contain a work counter, sink equipped for hand washing, and space for clean and sterile supplies.
User: surgical staff
Hours of use: normal Size: 180 square feet
-55-


Anesthesia Storage/Workroom
User: surgical suite staff/anesthesiologist
Hours of use: normal Size: 80-100 square feet


Equipment Storage
1) medical gas storage with space for reserve nitrous oxide and oxygen cyl inders
2) general equipment and supplies for surgical suite
3) stretcher storage
4) wheelchair storage
User needs: combine all storage areas into one equipment storage
Size: 16' X 16' to 20' X 20'
256 sq.ft, to 400 sq.ft.
-57-


Staff Clothing Change Areas
Appropriate areas shall be provided for male and female personnel working within the surgical suite. The areas shall contain lockers, showers, toilets, lavatories equipped for hand washing, and space for donning scrub suits and boots. These areas shall be arranged to provide a oneway traffic pattern so that personnel entering from outisde the surgical suite can change, shower, gown, and move directly into the surgical suite. Space for removal of scrub suits and boots shall be designed so that personnel using it will avoid physical contact with clean personnel .
User: surgical staff
Size: 14' X 12' men (168)
16' X 12 women (192)
Total sq.ft. = 360
Shower, lockers 8 men, 8 women, minimum toilets and lavatories
Building zone: S.E. or S.W. or interior
Daylight or skylight is favorable
Floor: smooth, waterproof, wear and slip
resistant concrete, linoleum, sheet or tile
Walls: waterproof painted, glazed or
similar ceramic tile, waterproof wall coverings, painted gypsum board
Ceiling: painted and waterproof painted,
moisture resistant gypsom board


Outpatient Change Areas
Outpatient surgery change areas, a separate area shall be provided where outpatients can change from street clothing into hospital gowns and be prepared for surgery. This shall include waiting room(s) lockers, toilets, clothing change or gowning area(s), and space for the administration of medication.
Adjacent to staff change area
User: patients
Hours of use: normal
Size: 200 sq. ft. men
200 sq. ft. women
400 square feet
-59-


Doctor's Office
A small office for Doctor/Patient conference for before and after surgery is requested by client. Office should include some glazing, possibly with visual access to views.
Materials: carpet, painted walls with
accoustical ceiling.
User: doctor
Hours of use: normal
Size: 12' X 18' = 150 square feet


Management Office
Bookkeeping/medical records department
Should have glass for natural lighting
User: management personnel
Hours of use: normal
Size: 10' X 14' = 140 square feet


Conference/Community Room
A community education and conference room is to be included in the project. It is intended to permit extension of health education and health programs to the site, An example is Red Cross training programs. It should be able to accommodate small groups of up to 30 individuals. Should try to puffer from both emergency department and surgery.. A separate entrance is p re fe rred.
Hours: normal
User: community/staff
Size: 15' X 25' = 400 square feet
foldable seating and storage chalkboa rd
projector and equipment storage
must have separate public access which is proximate to exterior doo rways
Building zone: S.E. or S.W.
Floor: carpet
Walls: painted gypsum board
Ceiling:
accoustical tile


Lab/Darkroom
Client requests a small lab and darkroom close to the operating rooms for research and diagnosis. A counter and darkroom sink should be included.
User: staff
Hours of use: normal
Size: 10' X 12* = 120 square feet
-63-


T rash
Many systems are in use for handling trash and garbage from basic manual systems with high risk factors for contamination to highly automated closed systems. The system must be evaluated for economy in handling obsolescence, probability for contamination, safety, code conformance and sightliness.


Emergency Department Entry
1) ingress, egress of ambulance
in case a whole convoy of ambulances shows up:
a. a circular driveway
b. one direction unload, move on
2) 2-way swinging door at emergency entrance wide enough to allow attendants to walk on either side of litter or stretcher as it is taken in (4 wide)
3) protection from the elements above (to allow removal of patient from ambulance in rain or snow)
4) buzzer to alert staff (or bell, siren, etc.)
5) nurse's station with full view of entry
6) easily recognizable from outside but shielded from other services (visually)
User: public
Hours of use: 24 hours
Size: 4' wide door
space to unload 3 vehicles TO' wide X 25' long Total 60 square feet
Requirement at grade level, sheltered
from the weather and with provisions for
ambulance and pedestrian access.
Zone: S.E .
Floor: slip proof corrugated or rubber
mat
-65-


Emergency Reception Control
Conveniently located to entrance, waiting area, and to treatment rooms
Furniture includes desk (2'-6" X S'-O") and return with secretary chairs for ope or two people
User: secretary receptionist
Hours: 24 hours
Size: 250 square feet
-66-


Publ i c Waiting Areas
Provide a public waiting area with seating for approximately 10 persons, proximate to entry and control. This space should include toilet facilities, public telephones and drinking fountain (all designed to meet handicapped requirements). The facilities can be shared with the outpatient surgery. The waiting area should be visually screened from the emergency
e n t ry .
User: public
Hou rs of use: 24 hours
Size; 300 square feet
-67-


Treatment Rooms
useable space, allotted funds, personnel and other factors influence construction plant. It is difficult for anyone to offer valid arguments against a wide open treatment area with stretchers separated only by curtains
the extreme opposite of this type of construction is a series of private treatment rooms opening off a corridor. It offers maximum privacy but does not offer flexibility (i.e.: wide curtained space can become a triage area)
a radiology unit is adjacent to this department is necessary as is oxygen and suction equipment
a patient toilet room should be located convenient to the treatment room
User: public/staff
Hours of use: 24 hours
User needs: minimum of two treatment areas and beds
Size: 3'-6" on sides of bed and 61 -0" at
each end = 21 X 18 Total = 380 square feet
Built-in fixtures:
suction and piped oxygen in walls electrical outlets
wall sphygmanometers with tubing an
-68
instrument for measuring blood pressure, especially arterial blood pressure
running water
cabinets, medical storage
work counter
X-ray film illuminators
emergency equipment storage
cardiac monitor and resusitator
Building Zone: North
Floor: smooth waterproof slip and wear
resistant sheet vinyl
Walls: waterproof painted, glazed or
similar cove at base


Sto ra qe
Storage area for the following:
1) stretchers
2) wheelchairs
3) emergency treatment trays
Building zone: N.W.
User: emergency staff
Size: 14' X 16' = 225 square feet
-69-


Nurse's Station/Staff Charting Area
A nursing station and staff charting
area is needed for control of patient care
in the emergency department
User: nursing staff
Hours: 24 hours
Size: 480 square feet
Equipment:
charting desks patient charts medical prep tables cabinets
paging and communication equipment seating
work station/counter
Building zone: central south
Must be easily accessible to all of emergency staff
Floor: wear and slip resistant sheet
vinyl or rubber tile
Walls: painted water resistant
Ceiling: accoustical tile
70


Clean Supply Storage
The clean supply may be a separate room or located within the treatment room. It should provide a sink with work counters and cabinets.
User: staff
Hours of use: 24 hours
User needs: request separate space serving both treatment room and trauma room
Size: 8 X 12* = 100 square feet
71-


Soiled Workroom
Soiled workroom or area containing clinical sink, work counter and sink for handwashing, waste receptacle and linen receptacle. It may include cabinets for bed making storage, toilet articles, disinfection, etc.
Floor material: shall not be physically affected by germicidal and cleaning solutions, wall bases shall be integral and coved with floor, ceiling should be painted and waterproof. Good buffer room from cold.
User: staff
Hours: 24 hours
User needs: dirty utility
Size 140 square feet
-72-


X-ray Suite
An X-ray suite is included which
should provide the following:
1) radiographic room X-ray table 3'-6" X 7'-0" with 4' on one side and 3' on the other, and 6' at either end (10-6" X 19' total)
2) control station with visual access (4' X 8')
3) film processing (darkroom 4' X6')
4) fi1m storage (4' X 4')
5) toilet with lavatory (4' X 5')
6) dressing room (4 X 3')
7) , film viewing with illumination
boxes (20 sq. ft.) Radiation protection shall conform with NCRP Report Nos. 33 and 49, provisions shall be made for testing the completed installation before care and all defects must be corrected before acceptance. Radio-graphic and other rooms containing ceiling-mounted equipment and including those with ceiling-mounted surgical light fixtures shall have height required to accommodate the equipment and/or fixture.
User: patients/staff
Hours: 24 hours
Size: 400 square feet
X-ray table, X-ray equipment, film illu-
minators
Provide for future expansion optimally located near lab and treatment.
Building FI oor:
Walls:
Ceiling:
zone: North or interior
chemical resistive, waterproof, troweled on flooring
painted waterproof with X-ray shielding (lead)
painted gypsum board


Lab
A small laboratory suite should be provi ded and include:
1) laboratory work counter chem ically resistant
Z) sink
3) storage cabinets
4) blood storage facilities (refri dgerator)
5) specimen collection facilities
Can be located in any building zone -proximate to treatment rooms and nurse's station out of traffic areas. Floor should be chemically resistive with waterproof walls and ceiling.
Use: staff
Hours of use: normal
Size: X o 15 wi th about 24 1 inear
foot counter and 15 linear foot cabinet, totalling 150 sq. ft.
-74-


Ambulance Office/Quarters
Additional needs of the client include provisions for an ambulance depart ment manned on a 24 hour basis. The fol
lowing services should be provided:
1) office 150 sq. ft. with visual access
2) general quarters provided sleep/rest space and lounge (180 sq.ft)
3) kitchen (20 sq. ft)
4) food storage
5) toilet room with shower and lockers (40 sq. ft.)
The ambulance quarters should have a visual separation from other emergency department services.
User: ambulance attendants
Hours of use: 24 hours on call
User needs: includedwithin emergency department
Size: 400 square feet
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) general office desk, chair, files, and 2 additional chairs
2) re fridge rator
3) sink
4) stove or microwave oven
5) two beds
6) table and 4 lounge chairs
7) bookshelves
Building zone: S.E. or S.W.
Proximity to entry, visual access to ambulance entry is best, glazing to provide relief at quarters.
Floor: slip and wear resistant, sheet
vinyl or carpet
Walls: painted or wall covering
Ceiling:
Accousti cal


Nurse's Quarters and Lounge
Same requirements as ambulance quarters (no office). Location proximate to treatment room and nurse's station.
User: nursing staff
Hours of use: 24 hours
Size: 250 square
feet
76


Trauma Room
In addition to requirements, the client requests a trauma room, which is secured for holding and observation of drug overdose, acutely intoxicated or psychiatric patients, or for holding patients prior to transfer to other facilities. The room should be screened from other patients with a one-way visual glass and door locked from the outside only. The room should be free of objects which could lead to injury. Design to prevent patient from injuring hi mself.
Use: patient and staff
Hours of use: 24 hours Size: 10' X 18' = 180 square feet
Equipment, furniture and requirements:
1) exam bed
2) seating (2)
Building zone: north or interior No glass
Berming to prevent heat loss
Floor: easily cleanable/washable sheet
vinyl
Walls: water proof and easily cleanable painted or wall covering
Ceiling: accoustical tile


Observation
An observation ward is requested for observing casualty patients concussion, etc. where monitoring patient for effect of treatment or because of similar doubts of patient condition after treatment.
User: patient/staff
Hours of use: 24 hours
User needs: 3 recovery beds
Size: 27 1 X 13' = 350 square feet
Equi pment , furniture and requirements:
1) minimum door width 3't8"
2) minimum ceiling 8'-0"
3) Additional space is requested for 3 seats for pre-operation totalling about 150 square feet.
4) room between beds for mobile operating table
5) cubicle curtains shall be rron-conbustible or rendered flame retardant
6) emergency communication system connected to control station
Floor: smooth, waterproof surface and
wear resistant vinyl tile or sheet vinyl
Walls: waterproof painted, glazed or similar cove base at floor -painted gypsum board, vinyl, ceramic tile
Ceiling: painted and waterproof. Can
have joints suspend gypsum board, ceramic tile


Business Office
An administrative office to house pertinent or active medical records with provision for one employee desk, return, tiles, seating for 2+ work chair.
Building zone: S.E. or S.W. central loca-
ti on
Should have access from waiting area and
emergency depa rtment.
User: administrati on
Hou rs of use: 8:00-5: 00
Size: 10 1 X 14' = 140 Square feet
-79



SWEDISH HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT SURGERY EMERGENCY CENTER






GRADE BEAM
Ay /W y-J1 . -.1.. ..1 .r7


NORTHWEST i/s" = 1*


NORTHEAST
SOUTHEAST
/*"= 1*


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REFERENCES
1) Hospital Planning Handbook
Rex Allen, Ilona Kardyi
John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., N.Y.
1977 9)
2) The Hospital Emergency Department
James H. Spencer Charles C. Thomas, Pub.
Springfield, 111inoi s
3) Hospital Health Care Facilities
An Architectural Record Book Edited by Louis G. Redstone, FAIA McGraw-Hill Book Company
4) Hospitals, The Planning and Design Process
Owen B. Hardy and Lawrence P.
Lamme rs
Aspen Systems Corporation Germantown, Maryland 1977
10)
11)
12)
5) Hospital Architecture, Integrated Components
Isadore Rosenfield, FAIA
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
N.Y.
6) Hospital Certificate of Need Controls David Salaver and Thomas Bice American Institute of Public Policy Research, Washington, D.C. 1979
7) Computer-Aided Architectural Design W. J. Mitchell
Petrocelli Charter, N.Y., N.Y. 1977
8) Facility Layout and Location: An Analytic Approach R. C. Francis and J. A. White
-80-
Prenti ee-Hal1
Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1974
Spatial Synthesis in Computer-Aided Building Design C. M. Eastman John Wiley and Sons N.Y. N.Y. 1975
Notes on the Synthesis of Form C. Alexander
Cambridge, Harvard University Press 1964
DCMPOS: An Algorithm for the Decomposition of Nondirected Graphs C. C. Owen M.I.T. Press 1970
A Structure Finding Algorithm M. Milne
M.I.T. Press 1970