EAST BOULDER RECREATION CENTER
A Thesis Project by Brenda J Olson
T BOULDER RECREATION CENTER
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Brenda J Olson Spring 1984
The Thesis of Brenda J Olson is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1984
East Boulder Recreation Center (EBRC) is a project proposed by the Boulder Parks and Recreation Department to meet the indoor recreation needs of the expanding city population. The 50,000 square foot facility will be part of a 45 acre Community Park located within the 300 block of 55th Street in Boulder, Colorado. See Figure 1 .
The principle behind the Boulder Community Park is to establish a focal point for recreational activity for a defined area of the City. The service area for the park is generally located within a \h mile radius encircling the site. By combining the indoor and outdoor activities on one large accessible site the Parks Department is able to bring a variety of people together to participate in active and passive recreation.
The focus of my thesis project and the Community Park is the indoor recreation facility. How the Center relates to outdoor activity on the site and the surrounding residential context is integral to the success of the project.
The 50,000 square foot building will include two gymnasiums, handball/racquetball courts, class activity rooms and multipurpose spaces. In addition, the facility will provide soace for citywide special programs in gymnastics and competitive swimming.
Outdoor activities planned for the park site include tennis, sand volleyball, a tot-lot for children's play, and large athletic fields for soccer, rugby, football and softball. Enjoyment of passive types of outdoor recreation such as walking, sitting, and picnicking will be augmented through site landscaping and circulation linkages with the adjacent Open Space park land.
Scope of the Document:
This Pre-thesis and subsequent thesis design project is intended to aid the City of Boulder Parks and Recreation Department in the following stages 1 through 4 of Community Park development;
1. Base data gathering and analysis
2. Programming spaces
3. Conceptual site design
4. Bond Proposal and acauisition of architectural services
A. Schematic design
B. Design development
C. Construction documents
5. Bidding and Construction
A document which consolidates the information regardinn the Recreation building is an important tool for the City. It can be used to encourage voter approval of funding and to expedite future planning and design expenses.
The design challenge of the City Recreation facility is three-fold.
1. To create a barrier-free building which meets the recreation needs and physical limitations of all groups in the community.
2. To design a facility which blends into the existing residential context yet stands out as a focal point for community activity.
3. To balance building costs in respect to what the public is initially willing to finance vs the building maintenance costs over the 50 year life of the facility.
These three directives set the parameters for the design project. The text of the pre-thesis program elaborates on specific criteria and explorable options to meet these goals.
Feedback, focusing on these three design issues, from the thesis advisors and particularity Kenneth Ramsey's imout as a City Parks and Recreation representative, will give the project the element of reality which is essential to the learning process.
____________ * M_
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION 1
The project; scope of the document; the thesis
II. SIMILAR PROJECTS AND CRITICAL ISSUES 5
Previous facilities; developmental issues; trends in the field
III THE CLIENT 9
Funding; department organization
IV. BUILDING CODES 12
City requirements; occupancy allowed; structural loads allowed; construction type; specific construction requirements; light and ventilation; sani tation
V. FUNCTION AND WORK NODES 17
VI. PRELIMINARY MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS 27
VII EBRC SITE 31
VIII. ZONING 35
IX. SOIL CONDITIONS 39
Soil classification; environmental characteristics; engineering concerns
X. TRANSPORTATION 41
Time-distance; site access; pedestrian traffic
XI. SURROUNDING SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 47
CLIMATE AND ENERGY CONSERVATION
General climate; precipitation and sunshine; sun; wind; summary
XIII. SPECIFIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 64
Energy; accessibility; entry; building form
XIV. SUMMARY 69
XV. DESIGN DRAWINGS 70
XVI. CONCLUSIONS 76
XVII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 79
XVIII . APPENDIXES 81
Bubble and schematic diagrams; site diagrams; site legal description; site utilities; soils reports
1 EBRC site location
2 Existing Recreation Center location
3 1984 City Organization
4 Parks and Recreation Department
5 Site Inventory
7 Planning Areas
9 Road System
10 Year 2000 Transit Bus Primary Routes
13 1980 Population
14 Estimated Future Population
15 1980 Population Under 5 Years Old
16 1980 Population Families With Persons Under 18
17 1980 Population Over 65 Years Old
19a Temperature *F
b % of Possible Sunshine
21 January/Apri1 Wind roses 61
22 July/October Wind roses 62
23 Energy Consumption 65
A Site Aireal 32
B Neighborhood Context 33
C Views across site of Foothills 34
LIST OF TABLES
I. Fire Ratings for Construction 14
11. Footcandle Recommendations at Task 14
III. ECM Energy Conservation Measure 66
SIMILAR PROJECTS AND CRITICAL ISSUES
The City's existing facilities, North and South Boulder Recreation Centers, (NBRC and SBRC, respectively, see Figure 2 ), were both built in 1972/73 to meet an immediate need for indoor recreation facilities. A limited budget of $75,000. each, required the maximization of interior spaces to meet the recreational demands of the existing population.
Facilities within NBRC and SBRC include a gymnasium, indoor pool, handball/racouetbal1 courts, class activity rooms, and multi-purpose activity spaces. EBRC will provide these same basic spaces but will be expanded to include city-wide SDecial proqram needs for gymnastics and competitive swimming.
The City of Boulder Parks and Recreation Department aears it's recreational services to family needs, as opposed to catering to a select age group. Classes held at the Recreation Centers range from athletic and fitness training to craft and leisure hour activities. Adult, teen and youth classifications are included as well as Parent/child courses, designed to encourage family participation. The special requirements of the handicap and elderly are also met through a variety of proarams including roller skating, movies, and Special Olympics.
In programming the initial Centers the City Recreation Department developed spatial reouirements which the Architectural firms of Everett/Zeigel and Nixon/Brown/Brokaw/Bowen (both of Boulder, Colorado) used to design the buildings and surrounding hard surfacing. The Parks Planning and Construction Department was in charge of the site development which included landscape and outdoor athletic facility design. A similar delegation of responsibility will be followed for EBRC.
CITY OF BOULDER
The critical issue concerning the development of future city-owned Recreation Centers focuses on the impact of these facilities on existing neighborhoods. The Parks and Recreation Master Plan outlines the need to place the Recreation facilities within Community Parks ranging in size from 50 to 100 acres. The size and location of Community Parks will act as a buffer between active recreation spaces and the residential areas.
Acknowledging the limited availability of large land blocks in Boulder the City obtained a 0.15% sales tax increase in 1981 to purchase Community Park sites in North and East Boulder, the negotiation of which is currently underway.
Trends in the Field:
Current design trends in Recreation facilities place an increased emphasis on energy conservation. Space heatina of large open volumes, domestic hot water for showers and pool, and ventilation requirements place a high demand on conventional HVAC systems and community maintenance budgets. Cities such as Boulder, have been forced to re-evaluate the energy consumption of existing facilities and retrofit the designs with conservative energy devices such as swimming pool covers and automatic night setback systems.
Initial design for energy conservation of a skin-dominated recreation building is best accomplished through optimal orientation, heavy insulation of exterior spaces and maximization of passive solar gain. Additionally, the hot humid pool environment offers opportunities for heat recovery or use as a heat sink for active solar systems.
Another trend influencing the design of Recreation facilities is their growing importance as centers for community interaction. With a new emphasis on health and expanded leisure time, City facilities must be developed to meet the active and passive recreation needs of all age groups and income levels. Phased planning and flexible programming must be combined if the building is to survive as a vital center of community life.
The City Parks and Recreation Department is a basic division in the City organization. (See figure 3 ). Park development is based on the Boulder Comprehensive Plan with a more detailed recreation study compiled by the Park's Division Superintendents.
The department personnel and projects are financed through several channels. Regular operating expenses are covered by a
0.9 mill assessment on real property and subdivision fees.
Special land acquisition and construction are financed through voter approval of bond programs. Finally, as supplementary funding, approximately $400,000. may be available each year from the Colorado lottery.
Organization within the Parks and Recreation Department is depicted in figure 4.
Three branches of the Department have an interest in the planning and construction of Recreation facilities. Paul Swoboda, Superintendent of Recreation and the people within his division work with the building spatial program. Ken Ramsey, Superintendant of Parks Planning and Construction supervises site design and landscaping in cooperation with Ron Donahue, Superintendant of Parks Maintenance.
1984 CITY ORGANIZATION
PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT
1-Supt. Recreation 1-Management Asa't ___1-Secretary________
1- Recreation Supervisor
2- Recreatlon Leader II
2-Ball Diamond Malntenanceperaon
Class Activities 1-Recreation Supervisor 1'1-Program Specialist I 1-Pottery Supervisor 1-Secretary (Registration)
Special Populations 1-Recreatlon Supervisor
1- Program Specialist II
2- Program Specialist I
Rec. Centers and Pools 1-Recreatlon Supervisor 2-Recreatlon Leader II 1-Program Specialist II
1- Bulldlng Malntenanceperaon
2- Malntenanceperson I
Office of Director
1-Director, Parks & Rec. 1-Parks & Rec. Asst
1-Supt. Parks _____1-Admln. Clerk______
, North District
1-Parks Dlst. Supervisor 1-Equipment Operater II ^-Maintenance Person II 4-Maintenance Person I
1- Shop Technician______
1-Parks Dlst. Supervisor
2- Malntenanceperson II
- 3-Maintenanceperson I 1-Equipment Operator I 1-Maintenance Carpenter
1- Parks Technician
Special Areas 1-Parks Dlst. Supervisor 7-Malntenanceperson II
2- Malntenanceperson I
Mountain Parks 1-Parks Dlst. Supervisor 2-Ranger I 1-Ranger II
- l-Maintenanceperson II 1-Parks Technician
1-Malntenanceperson II 1-Equipment Operator I 1-Parka Technician
2- Equipment Operator II 1-Equlpment Operator I
3- Parks Technician
Boulder Reservoir 1-Reglonal Park Manager
~~ Parks & Rec. Advisory Board
The City of Boulder currently uses the 1979 edition of the Uniform Building Code as the basis for determining safe construction practice in the area. The City is in the process of adopting the 1982 UBC version and expects this to take place in early 1984.
In anticipation of the formal adoption, the design of EBRC will be based on the 1982 UBC edition and City Design Criteria and Standard Specifications published in December of 1982.
Occupancy types in the proposed building include A-2.1 and E-3 listings. These Occupancy determinations are based on 300 or more persons within an assembly room, or gymnasium, in the Recreation Center case. The E-3 section is in reference to the day care portion of the facility.
Structural Loads Allowed:
The main gymnasium and bleacher spaces within EBRC require a minimum uniform live load of 100 pounds per square foot for floor design. An additional vertical live load of 120 pif is required for all bleacher areas. Floor loads for the remainder of the building will be classified as classroom spaces with 40 psf uniform live loading.
Special loads within the building will include mechanical, electrical, and filter equipment as well as stationary vertical loads from weight machines. These loading factors will be determined as specific equipment is sized to meet design reauirements, and will be based on total dead loads.
The minimum roof live loads are dependant on roof slope.
A uniform load of 20 psf is used for flat roofs and 16 psf for 4-in-12 pitch roofs. Dead loads are determined by the weight of the materials chosen in the design process.
Wind design pressure for the East Boulder site is 35 pounds per square foot.
The large clear-span volumes of the 50,000 square foot facility and the primarily single story imprint indicates the use of steel for structural framing. This design selection is acceptable within the Fire Resistive Types of Construction I and II outlined in the UBC. Final Construction type is dependant upon the design massing within the first and second floor levels. The fire ratings for Construction types I and II are shown in Table I.
Specific Construction Requirements:
Floors; Firestopping must be provided where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring over fire resistive floors. The gymnasium floors at or below grade are excluded from this firestopping provision. Mezzanine or viewing galleries shall not cover more than 33-1/3% of a room and shall be constructed of 1 hour non-combustible materials. Stairs and platforms shall also be constructed of noncombustible materials and finishes.
Roofs; Heights of roofs for the major spaces will fall in the 18 25 foot catagory. Roof construction for these areas will meet a minimum one-hour fire-resistive criteria.
FIRE RATINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION
Building Element Type I Type II
Exterior bearing &
Non-bearing walls 4 hr. 4 hr.
Interior Bearing walls 3 hr. 2 hr.
Structural frame 3 hr. 2 hr.
(On exterior 4 hr.)
Permanent Partitions 1 hr. 1 hr.
Shaft enclosures 2 hr. 2 hr.
Floors 2 hr. 2 hr.
Roofs 2 hr. 1 hr.
FOOTCANDLE RECOMMENDATIONS AT TASK
Building Space Minimum Footcandles
Locker rooms 20
Pool area 50
Toilets and Wash-areas 30
Classrooms and Day-Care 30
Corridors and stairs 20
Game room 30
Handbal 1 20
Exterior Doors and Windows; No openings shall be permitted in exterior walls closer than 5 feet from the property line. If openings are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line they must have a 3/4 hour fire protection assembly.
All exits within Group A, division 2.1 shall be provided with panic hardware except for the main exit which may be a single door or one pair of doors which must remain unlocked during business hours. A minimum of two exits will be required for all major spaces in the Recreation building. Requirements for the minor exercise spaces and classrooms with occupancies of under 50 persons consists of a 75 foot maximum distance to fire protection exit corridors or exterior exits.
Light and Ventilation:
All enclosed portions of Group A and E Occupancies must be provided with light and ventilation. Natural lighting will be used in EBRC wherever possible. UBC recommendations suggest a lighting minimum supplied by exterior glazed openings of one-tenth of the total floor area. Auxiliary flourescent and high intensity discharge lamps will be designed to meet the minimum footcandle recommendations in Table II.
Natural ventilation recommendations in the UBC call for openings of not less than l/20th of the total floor area. Supplementary mechanical ventilation shall supply a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air to meet a total circulation requirement of at least 15 cfm per occupant during operating hours. A heat recovery system for the pool area will re-circulate warm pool air prior to exhaust.
The chlorine compartment will be mechanically vented to the exterior. A motor-driven exhaust fan, regulated by a chlorine sensor, and capable of one air change per minute, will be provided. Artificial light and ventilation controls will be accessible outside the chlorine compartment with an 18 inch square, clear glazed, opening for observation purposes.
Within the public restrooms one water closet, one lavatory and one urinal will be provided for males. Two water closets and one lavatory will be provided for females. One additional water closet and two additional lavatories (for both males and females), will be added to the above amounts to meet the locker room requirements.
Nine shower heads at a minimum height of 70 inches above the drain inlet will be furnished for each sex.
Handicap accessibility will be provided in each locker room by a 5 x 5 foot water closet/lavatory combination. A shower stall with bench and grab bars will also be provided in each locker room for handicap use.
The pool water filtration system will be a vacuum diatomaceous earth filter. Separate systems are required for the main pool and wading pool with water turnover rates of 8 hours and 4 hours, respectively. Water clarity, chlorine levels, and pH contents will meet U.S. Public Health Service requirements for potable water.
FUNCTION AND WORK NODES
I. SWIMMING POOL: 8 competitive lanes, child and handicap pool
1. Recreational swimming
2. Competitive swimming
3. Instructional swimming
4. Synchronized swimming
5. Diving (3-1 meter)
6. Water polo course
7. Teen and adult swimming parties
8. Hot tubs
B. Supporting facilities
1. Spectator space (with bleachers)
2. Outdoor sunning space
3. Office/ First aid
4. Storage: Exterior and Interior
b. pool ropes
c. starting blocks
e. pool maintenance equipment
5. Filter and Equipment room
a. Service--truck access: large double exterior doors
b. Inside/Outside access for chemical equipment
C. Special Provisions
a. From glassed area
2. Four key-operated hose bibs
3. Adeauate deck space for instructionand spectator space
4. Humidity control
5. Indoor/Outdoor access for summer use (south side preferred)
6. Pool Cover
1. Starting blocks
3. Lane ropes
4. Pool maintenance equipment
5. Three, one-meter diving boards
6. Moveable bulkhead
7. Water polo equipment
II. GYMNASIUM: Two full size gyms plus gymnastics room
1. Basketball (2 full courts and 4 half courts)
2. Volleyball (4 courts)
3. Badminton (4 courts)
6. Judo/Self defense
7. Rope Climb/Peg Climb
8. Gymnastics activities
9. Jogging track
B. Supporting Facilities: Storage for
1. Mats (hang on walls around gym)
2. Nets and standards
a. 4 volleyball
b. 4 badminton
3. Uniform storage and small equipment
C. Special Provisions
1. Circuit for scoreboard with wall plug-in
3. 20' ceiling height
4. Retractable basketball goals (8)
5. Circuit for intercom (microphone plug-in) amplifier at central control desk and music system
6. Chalk and tack boards
1. 12 basketball goals
2. 4 volleyball nets and poles
3. 4 badminton nets
4. 2 trampolines
6. climbing rope
7. peg board climb
8. spotting belts
9. parallel bars
10. uneven bars
12. balance beam
13. horizontal bar
III. BALLET CLASSROOM
1. Ballet classes
2. Tap dance classes
3. Dance classes; ballroom, jazz, country, creative
7. Mime and Acting
B. Special Provisions
1. Ballet bars
3. Chalk and tack boards
4. Light and sound control
5. Hardwood floor
IV. CRAFTS CLASSROOM
A. Activities: Dirty crafts
3. Block printing
5. Cake decorating
6. Flower arranging
8. Plant workshop
10. Children's crafts
B. Special Provisions
1. Deep sinks
2. Tables (moveable to suit craft)
3. Chairs (stacking)
4. 220 volt
6. Light and sound control
7. Tile floor to facilitate cleaning
1. Tables (folding)
2. Chairs (stacking)
3. Locking cabinets
V. CRAFTS CLASSROOM 900
A. Activities: Clean crafts
2. Banjo and quitar
6. Leather craft
8. Fly tying
B. Special Provisions
1. Table storage
2. Stacking chairs
3. 220 volt
4. Chalk and tack boards
5. Light and sound control
7. Moveable partition/adjacent to kitchen
1. Tables (folding)
2. Chairs (stacking)
3. Locking cabinets
A. Activities: Adjacent to classroom space via moveable partition
1. Cooking classes
2. Employee use
3. Child care use
4. Meeting use
1. Gas range with griddle
4. Double sink and garbage disposal
5. Storage cabinets
6. Fold-up tables
7. Chairs (stackable)
8. Chalk and peg board
VII. RACQUETBALL/HANDBALL COURTS 3200
A. Activities: 4 with expansion capabilities to 8
1. Four wall courts
VIII. WEIGHT ROOM A. Activities
1. Weight training
1. Universal trainer
2. Bicycle and vibrator belts
3. Bar bells
4. Incline board
5. Tension pull-up
6. Peg boards
7. Height of ceiling and doors relate to weight press and Universal
9. Ballet bars 10. Mirrors
IX. LOCKER ROOMS 3000
3. Lockers storage of clothes
5. Hair drying (with mirr
6. Sauna or steam room
B. Special Provisions
1. Hair dryers
2. Key operated hose bibs
3. Group showers
ors separate from toilet and sinks)
4. Possibility of coin operated lockers
5. Full size and half size lockers
6. Multi-floor drains
7. Tile surfaces
X. JANITOR FACILITIES 120
1. Toilet tissue
3. Cleaning equipment
B. Special Provisions
1. Deep sink
2. Work bench
C. Minor Maintenance
XI. DAY CARE
5. Group and individual care
1. Cleaning and changing area
2. Cloak room
3. Toilet facilities
5. Indoor and outdoor play eauipment
6. Tables and chairs proportioned to children
7. Chalk and tack boards
i r JO
XII. CENTRAL CONTROL A. Activities
1. Observation of ail activities in pool and gym
2. Equipment check
d. locker keys
e. game room (table tennis and billiards)
3. Intercommunications center
4. Record Storage
5. Office for Supervisor
6. Receiving applications for classes and answering questions
a. in person
b. by phone
7. Glassed and lockable desk area
B. Special Provisions
1. Exit door alarm indicator
2. Communications center
3. Chalk and tack board and digital information board
4. Washer and Dryer
1. Cash register
1. Public restroom
2. Public phone
3. Drinking fountain
XIV. DOUBLE-LOCK ENTRY AND VESTIBULE A. Special Provisions
1. Handicap access
a. Youth waiting to be picked up
b. Youth waiting to depart from cneter, and to remote classes
c. Youth waiting for classes
d. Other age groups
5. General Relaxation
6. Pool observation
B. Special Provisions
1. Lounge furniture
2. View of Pool
3. View of Drive
i lounge w
XVI. GAME ROOM 1200
1. Table tennis
2. Billiards table
3. Video games
4. Vending machines
B. Special Provisions
1. Tile flooring to facilitate maintenance
2. Moveable tables and chairs
XVII. CIRCULATION 8%
XVIII. MECHANICAL 5%
XIV. OUTDOOR FACILITIES
1. Athletic fields
a. lighted courts (4)
b. platform tennis (2)
3. Sand Volleyball (2)
5. Parking (for at least 175 cars/Expandable)
a. Pool supplies
2. Slurry compound
b. Refuse pick-up
7. Jogging/Fitness trail
8. Landscapped area
TOTAL BUILDING SQUARE FOOTAGE:
TOTAL ACREAGE IMPROVED:
PRELIMINARY MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Reinforced concrete foundations Concrete slab floors Concrete walks
Face brick exterior walls Lightweight concrete block back-up
Steel frame construction
Metal roofing galvanized over pool Rigid roof insulation
6 mil polyethylene vapor barrier on interior side of walls
Galvanized iron flashings
Bituminous foundation damp-proofing
Polysulfide-based caulking and sealants
Rigid board wall insulation between masonry wythes
Foamed insulation in concrete block
Rigid perimeter insulation at grade beams
Doors, Windows and Glass:
Exterior Doors hollow metal anodized aluminum Interior Doors wood
Door and window frames hollow metal (exterior anodized aluminum) Double-pane glass
Floors; Gymnasiums wood
Lounge and Entry carpet
Craft room and Kitchen vinyl asbestos tile
Locker rooms ceramic tile
Pool deck tile
Painted gypsum board, concrete block and brick Ceramic tile in locker rooms
Gypsum board and acoustical board hung ceiling
Specialties: See descriptions in Function and Work Nodes section
Heating and Ventilation;
Air conditioning of classroom and control center
Natural gas-fired units supplying mechanical ventilation and heating
Locker room and toilet exhaust fans Plumbing;
Vitreous china lavatories, countertop units Wall mount water closets and urinals Drinking fountains wall-hung, semi-recessed
Column showers stainless steel Electrical;
220 volt to craft rooms
Flourescent and high intensity discharge lamps Intercom and fire alarm systems Exit doors on alarm system Hand and hair dryers
Gas-fired pool heater with solar and heat-exchange system Concrete pool with ceramic tile lining Stainless steel perimeter recirculation system Diatomaceous Earth vacuum type filter system
high school prevail ii
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Located at the 300 block of 55th Street, the proposed 45 acre Community Park site (see aireal Photograph A) is characterized by level grasslands.
The surrounding residential neighborhood (shown in Photograph B) is currently underdeveloped. Siting of the Recreation Center should consider further development and the expansion of 55th Street to the South as a four lane major collector.
Views of the Foothills (see Photograph C) and adjacent South Boulder Creek should be preserved and utilized in the EBRC design.
Present Allowable Uses:
The EBRC site is currently zoned for low density residential land use. (See figure 6 ). This area is compatible with the proposed recreational use according to the Boulder Planning Department.
The Boulder Comprehensive Plan designates the site as 11B which refers to it's annexation acceptability. Sites within Area 11B are planned for incorporation into the City of Boulder limits during the next 15 years. (See figure 7). Once the site is purchased and the proper application for annexation is filed by the Parks Department it's addition into the City will take place due to this 11B designation. This means that development of the site, including utilities and services, will fall under the jurisdiction of the City rather than the County of Boulder.
Following annexation the site will be listed as a Public Zone rather than the current Residential Land Use designation.
The building's location on the site is restricted by the UBC according to fire vehicle access. A minimum 20 foot wide right-of-way must be accessible via 55th Street. The major building entrance must front either the public street or the right-of-way.
KEY FOR FIGURE 6
N PARKS AND OPEN SPACE Neighborhood
os Open Space
EP Environmental Preservation
HR RESIDENTIAL LAND USE High
MR Medi um
VLR Very Low
CB BUSINESS LAND USE Communi ty
LI INDUSTRIAL LAND USE Light
B os ef m e
Soils information is based upon a 1973 USDA Soil Survey for Boulder, Colorado. The EBRC site lies within the Niwot-Loveland-Calkins Association which is characterized by shallow to deep nearly level (0-3 percent slope), somewhat poorly drained soils on low terraces and bottom lands. See figure 8.
Niwot soils make up about 35% of the Association, Loveland soils 15% and Calkins 10%. Valmont and other miscellaneous alluvial deposits make up the remaining 40% of the Association.
Dark colored clay loam or loam surface layers underlain by gravel or sand typify the Niwot soils. Loveland soils have dark colored clay loam surface layers and subsurface layers. Calkins soils have dark colored, sandy loam surface and subsurface layers This Association is underlain by sand and gravel with a depth to bedrock which is greater than five feet.
The Shrink-Swell Potential of the Association is low to moderate. Soil permeability within the top 22 inches ranges from 0.2 0.6 inches per hour with seasonal high watertable depths of 1.5 4.0 feet.
Soils related foundation problems should not be of concern based on the available data for the Niwot-Loveland-Calkins soils type. However, site drainage will be of particular importance within the Association.
>n\v niwot-loveland-calkins ASSOCIATION
The primary service area for EBRC is located within a lh mile radius. Time and travel to the proposed facility will thereby be limited and decreased due to the adjacent location of existing Recreation Center service areas. See figure 2.
Automobile transportation is facilitated by major collector and arterial streets (shown is figure 9), dispersed throughout the service area. Major public transit systems follow these principal roads (see figure 10), with secondary road or neighborhood bus routes available at less frequent intervals. Bikeways are also proposed along the main transportation routes (figureH), which will allow Boulder's avid bicyclists access to major facilities in the City including the Recreation Center.
Access to the Recreation Center, originally proposed via Baseline Road, is now restricted due to various landowner 's unwillingness to sell acreage along Baseline Road (comprising the original site choice), at appraised land values. The Lemmon Property shown in this document is currently the primary site sought by the Parks and Recreation Department. Access to this site along 55th Street will extend to the South, shown in figure 9 as adjacent residential land is developed.
t ROAD SYSTEM
.... PRINCIPAL ARTERIAL mm MINOR ARTERIAL MAJOR COLLECTOR
* YEAR 2000 TRANSF BUS PRIMARY RTS.
0 5 MINUTE FREQUENCY 5-10 MINUTE FREOUENCY 10 15 MINUTE FREOUENCY
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j' ^ ^ i r~~^\ \ ) \ ,Pl f I U II 3 i i r *v
'i GOLF COURSE
twjj i H-!
r x r .-rti tr 1 /i
T" , .
b 1 /
, FIGURE 10
:OUTt~L ^3OU, H0 A!
Pedestrian traffic in Boulder is encouraged through the development of trails in the City and surrounding area. The continuous acquisition of Open Space land which encircles and penetrates the City creates unique walking areas for the public. Figure 12 shows the existing and proposed trails in the vacinity of the EBRC site. Notice that the trails all extend beyond the service area reflecting the large potential for pedestrian movement in Boulder.
I M V
r ../f f,
Vhayde?. \ J LAKE
EXISTING TRAILS PROPOSED CITY TRAILS PROPOSED COUNTY TRAILS
ARAPAHOE' 1 ROAD
r municipal -;
GOLF j j COURSE' !
v l/ r 5
>'T~' DPR .
SURROUNDING SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
As outlined in the 1980 Parks and Recreation Master Plan the Community Parks (within which the Recreation Centers are sited) service a population within a 1% to 3 mile radius. Major transportation barriers, such as the Boulder-Denver Turnpike, further define the community boundaries. Figure 13 shows the 1980 census numbers for the major area which will use the East Boulder Recreation facility. Non-resident populations to the North and East including Cherryvale, Gunbarrel, Baseline Reservoir and Layfette are also expected to use EBRC. Resident and nonresident projected populations (as outlined by the Boulder Comprehensive Plan), are shown in figure 14.
Subcatagories within the general population statistics such as "Population Under 5 Years Old", "Family Households with Persons Under 18", and "Population Over 65 Years Old" are of interest in determining the number of families and special populations within the service area. These statistics (see figures 15, 16, and 17) show that East Boulder maintains a higher percentage of larger households in predominately single unit detached homes. The high concentration of elderly in tract 125.02 is attributable to seniors oriented apartment complexes recently developed in the area.
The Parks and Recreation Department's decision to locate a recreation facility in East Boulder is supported by the 1980 Census data. The well-developed family oriented community is essentially separated from existing facilities by distance and commercial/ transportation barriers. Consisting of more than a quarter of the Citie's current population, the facility is needed now, and in the future, as Boulder expands towards it's Eastern boundary.
lSocial Report 1981: A Portrait of Boulder Drawn from the 1980 Census, Department of Planning and Community Development,
City of Boulder, 1981.
28 TH ST
ESTIMATED POPULATION IN SERVICE AREA
Number 1992 Ultimate
1 1764 2353
2 3128 3457
3 1345 1475
4 8 8
5 0 0
6 530 579
7 0 0
8 0 0
9 2219 2518
10 3797 4656
11 751 800
12 2952 3271
13 3838 5237
14 1783 2102
15 1929 2059
16 2475 2747
17 4191 5320
18 2693 2742
19 0 0
20 6523 7830
21 3726 4806
Accompanies FIGURE 14
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28 TH ST
FAMILIES WITH PERSONS UNDER 18
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28 TH ST
OVER 65 YEARS OLD
----- TRACT BOUNDARY
CITY LIMIT LINE ,22-03 TRACT
180 PROPORTION (City average 9,
CLIMATE AND ENERGY CONSERVATION
Boulder, Colorado 40,00'N 105'16'W 5420 feet above sea level
The Front Range urban area with elevations between 5000 and 6000 feet (including Boulder), is typified by a highland or mountain climate. This semi-arid climate is characterized by mild, sunny weather with low humidity. The thin atmosphere associated with the altitudes of the Front Range allows transmission of a larger percentage of solar radiation than is experienced at lower elevations. This creates an excellent opportunity for the utilization of active and passive solar collection.
The geography of the Front Range results in four major climatic influences. From the north and northwest comes the cold polar air from Canada and the Northwest. Moist air from the Gulf of Mexico arrives from the south and southeast. Warm air comes up from Mexico and the southwest. Pacific air from the west is altered on it's travel overland producing the prevailing Westerlies. The proximity to the mountains moderates the temperatures producing less daily and seasonal variations than experienced over the rest of the State.
Precipitation and Sunshine:
The winter season receives only about 11% of the annual precipitation, usually in the form of snow.
Moist air from the Gulf produces the spring rainy season which climaxes in May. About 39% of the annual precipitation falls in the spring, with storms dumping rain or snow. In years when snow is heavy, or there is a sudden warming in the spring there may be flooding. Heavy thunderstorms along the foothills during the rainy season may cause flash floods. Figure shows the 100 year flood information for the EBRC site.
Winds from the south and southwest bring warm and dry air in the summer. Clear mornings are usually followed by increasing cloudiness which produce local thundershowers. The afternoon cloud cover helps to shade the area in what would be the hottest time of the day.
Autumn brings fewer showers than summer which results in only 19% of the annual total. This period between summer showers and winter storms has the greatest percentage of possible sunshine of all the seasons.
Unglazed solar systems can be utilized over the extended five month mild period (May through September), to augment domestic and pool water heating systems. The cost of unglazed collectors is roughly half that of glazed systems making this application highly economical along the Front Range.
FIGURE 19 B
% OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
(7> O N S 0) O Ol 0^0
Normal Degree Day information shows that the heating requirements for the skin-dominated building are substantially greater along the Front Range than cooling requirements. Resource conservation through the use of solar energy for passive collection is determined by the building orientation. Spaces should be opened to the southeast, south, and southwest according to their requirements for sunlight. South-facing glass should range from 0.15 to 0.32 square feet for each one square foot of floor area for direct gain systems in Boulder.* 3 EBRC would therefore require approximately 11,750 square feet of south glazing to supplement heating requirements.
Optimum solar angles for Boulder are based on the collection season. If unglazed collectors are used for the extended summer period the tilt should equal the latitude angle (40') minus 15 degrees giving 25 degrees. The latitude angle is used for all-year heating and latitude plus 15' giving 55' for winter heating.3
3Mazria, Edward, The Passive Solar Energy Book. Pennsylvannia: Rodale Press, 1979.
3U.S. Department of Energy, Solar Heating for Municipal Swimming Pools, by McCaughey & Smith Energy Associates, Inc., Washington D.C.. Government Printing Office, September 1981, p. 17.
Along the Front Range the north and west sides of a building are most exposed to wind loads. Winds can decrease the exterior film of still air that usually surrounds a building and so increase the heating and cooling loads. Wind can carry heat built up by solar radiation away from a building and evaporate moisture on wet surfaces, thus cooling the skin to temperatures lower than the ambient air. By removing water vapor, wind increases the humidifying loads. Special care must be taken in the pool area to maintain humidity levels around 55% and reduce the fluxuating losses by evaporative wind cooling.
The monthly wind "roses" available in this region (Denver) graphically show the percentage of occurrence of four wind speed ranges for sixteen directions. Each month is drawn on a compass with north at the top of the page. The inner band is 0 to 7 m.p.h. winds, the second band is 8 to 12 m.p.h., the next is 13 to 24 m.p.h. and the darkest outer band represents wind speeds over 24 m.p.h. The thickness of the band indicates the percentage of occurence for the month. The scale is h inch equals 1%. The numbers on the perimeter of the rose are the average wind speeds from that direction for that month.
The best use of the wind roses is to see the general variations of speed and direction for the different seasons. The predominant south to southwest winds reach the highest levels during December and January. Wind velocities from that direction are in the range of 8 to 24 m.p.h. The strongest average velocities and the highest percentage of winds over 24 m.p.h. come mainly from the west to northeast from November through March. When the strong Westerly winds descend rapidly from the mountains, rises of 25 to 35*F within a short period of time are not uncommon. These Chinook winds moderate the average temperatures in Boulder and along the Front Range.
The design implications gathered from the wind roses suggest that in the warm months the gentle south to southwest breezes will
ventilate and naturally cool the building. During the cold months blocking of the cold winds from the west and northeast will lower the heat loss and infiltration of cold air into the building.
The Community Park site on which EBRC is located consists of 45 acres of level grassland. Siting of the building is flexible but the configuration should maximize the solar gain for spaces with large year-round heating loads such as the pool. Natural ventilation of the building can occur during the summer along the major southern exposure.
A south facing rectangle with short east and west walls will maximize heat gain. Mass and plantings to the north will reduce heat loss.
The large percentage of Degree Heating Days in Boulder and openness of the site suggests that winter conservation measures should be integral to the design. The north and west sides of the building should be insulated against the strong winds (reaching maximums of 120 m.p.h.), and prevailing winter weather. Site contours and plantings should be developed around the building to provide mass against the north and west sides and solar gain and ventilation from the south.
SPECIFIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Energy conservation and maintenance cost reductions in EBRC are essential aspects of the design problem. With an effective life of 50 years, designers and administrators of public buildings are in the unique position of weighing short and long term conservation techniques against the anticipated costs of fossil fuels.
I have set an energy consumption goal of 125,000 Btu per sauare foot per year, as the design optimum. This figure is based upon the actual potentials and limitations of this building type.
Figure 23 shows the typical electrical and gas consumption percentages for recreation facilities. Energy consumption in the pool area of a Recreation facility translates to approximately one-third of the total building usage. Conservation in this area, therefore, creates energy savings that are generally cost effective, with pay-back periods of under 15 years.
Lighting is another area for potential energy savings. As described in the Building Codes section, natural lighting vzill be stressed with manually operated auxiliary lighting used only when necessary and enhanced by light colored, reflective surfaces.
Where safety prohibits the use of perimeter glazing, skylights will be used. Tempered glass will be used exclusively in active areas for safety reasons. Finally, double-pane glazing which may reduce heat transmission through the glass by 45% will be employed throughout the building.
Table III is a list of energy conservation measures (ECM) to be explored in the design of EBRC. These ECM techniques are based on energy audits done on the existing Boulder Recreation Center's mechanical systems. U.S. government solar heating recommendations will also be applied to EBRC.
END-USE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
* Special Systems represent vending machines, swimming pool pump, laundry equipment and saunas.
ECM ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURE ADVANTAGES ECONOMIC BASIS
Gas heating for pool and domestic water Based on the current rate structure and system efficiency, qas heat is 2.05 times more productive per $1.00 spent for Btu
Unglazed solar heating collectors for pool heat Initial system cost is less and enemy savinqs in Btu is approximately 20% greater per month over an extended Summer season (May to September) than for a 12 month period
Pool heat recovery system/ Flue stack heat recovery Passes previously warmed air over cooler outside air prior to exhaust to utilize enemy already soent in heating air
Night setbacks Reduces energy consumption during non-operating periods
Swimming pool cover Evaporative energy loss from the pool surface is 52 63% A cover conserves enerov and chemicals bv stopping evaporative loss during non-operative periods
Humidity economizer control Reduces fresh air intake as temperatures become colder. Colder air is dryer, less of it is needed to maintain 55% relative humidity
Moveable window insulation Reduces heat loss through the inefficient insulator, glass, when not in use as daylight and direct qain medium
Demand limiting control Lowers demand charges and energy costs by efficient utilization of available energy
Variable air volume system Conditions individual rooms to occupant needs
Automatic shower shut-off/Water saver heads Reduces water consumption
Direct/Indirect evaporative cooling system Based on the principle of evaporative coolinq in which the medium is cooled when water changes from a liquid to a vapor stage
U0 for roofs and ceilings = 0.0765 for walls = 0. 28 Based on "Colorado Energy Conservation Standards" for commercial buildings
* U0 is the overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope, expressed in units of Btu per hour per square foot per degree F.
As a public recreation facility the design must be accessible to everyone. Spaces must be flexible to meet the programming needs of all age groups and their relative physical abilities.
Barrier free access for the handicapped and physically impaired populations will be designed to coincide with the major entryways to specific spaces within the Recreation Center. Support areas such as locker facilities, lounge, and outdoor spaces will include equipment and floor area necessary to meet the mobility reouirements of the special populations.
The concern for accessibility must not be a limiting factor on the three-dimensionality of the building. All mezzanine or second level spaces will duplicate areas more readily accessible. Light, color, and material selection will be used to focus, enlarge, and enrich the building rather than a reliance on level changes to create interest. However, I am convinced that multiple levels, even though they have limited access, do provide a positive dimensional interest for all populations and should therefore, not be excluded from the design.
East Boulder Recreation Center must have a single recognizable public entry. As the transportation section suggests, several modes and routes of travel to the facility are available. To insure proper control of admittance, movement must focus on the major entryway and adjacent check-in desk.
A progression from large scale community park to pedestrian scale portal must be established when emphasizing the entrance. The mass of the Recreation building must be balanced between active sport requirements and the human scale (especially at the entry), if the building is to be acceptable within the neighborhood context.
The basic dimensions of spaces within a Recreation facility are based on specific sport's requirements and are therefore inflexible. The challenge of the design will be in determining adjacencies and the circulation patterns within the facility.
The exterior form must allow for phased development if funding for the entire project is not granted immediately. Expansion possibilities for the building must also be considered if the design is to meet the future needs of Boulder's citizens.
The preceeding Special Design Reauirements section summarized directives and options for the three-fold design objectives outlined in the introduction. As a document which prepares the way for design, only guidelines have been given, solutions have not been proposed.
The succeeding stages of schematic design through desicin development will produce a visual theory for the East Boulder Recreation Center which is testable against the hypotheses outlined in this document.
EAST BOULDER A Thesis Project By Brenda J. Olson
RECREATION CENTER UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING 1984
A Thesis Project
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RECREATION center UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING 19S4
First Level Floor Plan
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RECREATION CENTER UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING 1914
Second Level Floor Plan
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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING 1*14
West Entrance Elevation
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RECREATION CENTER UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING 1914
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RECREATION CENTER UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SPRING I9S4
Development of the Program;
The design process and subsequent review focused on the building as an evolution of the written program. I developed the functional and spatial relationships of the Center using interviews with the Park's Recreation and Planning and Construction Supervisors. The two existing 25,000 square foot Recreation Centers were also used as models for the programming.
Early in the schematic design phase the problems of extrapolating information gained from the workings of a Center one-half the size of the proposed facility became apparent. Adjacencies which work in a smaller building are no longer feasible with an increased size. It was necessary to prioritize the functional and spatial relationships outlined the the Pre-Thesis.
As a designer, I chose a building form which followed my spatial priorities but also as a student, I allowed for the exploration of a courtyard building type.
The Site and Building Form;
The site has no outstanding features or contours on which to focus the design. The magnificent view of the massive tilted sandstone flatirons to the West is the only memorable aspect of the site. I therefore decided to group all spaces with activities compatible with building openings to this Western view. This left the two major anchors of the building, the pool and gymnasium, to flank what I see as the controlled semi-private space of the courtyard.
Design Challenge 1: Circulation;
As a thesis objective, circulation throughout the building focused on the coordination of activities on a single level to maintain direct
access for all segments of the population. The priorities of circulation were based on the functioning of the building as a participatory rather than a spectator facility.
All Recreation Centers, Clubs, or Health Spas have different client priorities and user profiles. As a designer one should not extrapolate or directly compare facilities in terms of their circulation and function. Each building design should stand alone in criticism based on the individual program objectives which are a representation of the needs of the collective user.
The problem of circulation in a Recreation Center is so integral to the initial programming of the facility, and subsequent validation of the design, I find that portion of the building analysis needs more definite clarification with the Parks and Recreation Department. This clarification is necessary because of the problems encountered in the extrapolation of adjacencies from the previous Recreation Centers as described earlier.
Design Challenge 2: Residential Context;
The two major building masses containing the pool and gymnasium reflect the structural use of the rigid steel frame in a gable form. This form references the residential rooflines adjacent to the site. The flat-roof stepping masses of the remaining spaces echo the lines of the Junior High School which is also adjacent to the site. The selection of materials was made to enhance the public nature of the building with exposed aggregate concrete panels and concrete block chosen to separate the building form from it's red-brick school counterpart. The use of glass block creates a lightness along the rooflines of the large masses which diminishes their weight and creates focal points for the building.
I feel that the materials and form would fit well in the residential context. However, the entrance design is still indecisive in terms of focus and delineation. My desire to maintain unobstructed views to the West dissected the linear nature of the entrance. The need to respond to an as-of-yet
unknown rate and direction of residential development surrounding the site also created an ambiquity in the entrance. This growth will be more defined in five years when the building development is scheduled.
Design Challenge 3: Energy and Maintenance;
The final thesis objective was perhaps the easiest to attain at the design stage of project development, but the most difficult to maintain in the construction phase. The initial cost of energy conserving mechanical and manual devices in a Recreation Center is often higher than traditional equipment. In my Pre-Thesis I have outlined several ways to reduce energy consumption which are more cost effective than active solar design. The Parks and Recreation Department is currently retrofitting many of these energy saving devices to existing Recreation Centers. I feel therefore, that the Department is very responsive to energy conserving design. To achieve this objective the program for the Recreation Center must relate these energy concerns to the designer and subsequently to the Public to insure adequate initial funding for the building.
The design of East Boulder Recreation Center has given me the opportunity to explore all phases of the facility development.
It is unique even at the thesis level to prepare a spatial program which is based on an actual proposed project.
In the preceding conclusions I have tried to outline the various program areas which need further development or emphasis in the final project design.
By going through the entire planning process I feel more prepared as a designer to program a building which will fulfill the needs of a client. In addition, the document produced can be used as a quide by the Parks and Recreation Department in the development of East Boulder Recreation Center.
Abercrombie, Stanley, "Geometry in the Service of Society,"
AIA Journal, Mid-May 1982, pp. 145-151.
Aho, Arnold J., Materials, Energies, and Environmental Design,
New York: Garland STPM Press, 1981.
Brenner, Douglas, "Recreation Buildings With Team Spirit", Architectural Record, November 1981, pp. 102-105.
Callender, John H., Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1974.
City of Boulder Parks and Recreation Department, Parks and Recreation Master Plan, "Preliminary Plan 1980", City of Boulder, 1980.
City of Boulder Planning Department, The Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan. City of Boulder, 1978.
Cross, F.L. Jr., and Cameron, W.W. Jr., Handbook of Swimming Pool Construction, Maintenance, and Sanitation. Westport: Technomic Publishing Company, 1974.
DeChiara, Joseph, and Callender, John H., ed., Time-Saver
Standards for Building Types. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.
Dixon, John Morris, "Garden Gateways", Progressive Architecture. June 1982, pp. 65-71.
Lam, W.C., Perception and Lighting as Formgivers for Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1977.
Mazria, Edward, The Passive Solar Energy Book. Pennsylvannia:
Rodale Press, 1979.
McFall-Konkel & Kimball Consulting Engineers, Deer Trail School Technical Energy Report. June, 1980.
Murphy, Jim, "Forms of Recreation", Progressive Architecture, December 1981, pp. 82-89.
Nixon-Brown-Brokaw, Facility Needs Study Riverton Recreation District #25 Community Pool. 1982.
Ramsey, Kenneth, Superintendent of Parks Planning and Construction, City of Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, Interview.
Segrist, Mike, Parks and Recreation Director, City of Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, Interview, 15 September, 1983.
Social Report 1981: A Portrait of Boulder Drawn from the 1980 Census. Department of Planning and Community Development, City of Boulder, 1981.
Sudjic, Deyan, "Kessler Triangle", Architectural Review.
March 1982, pp. 42-47.
Swoboda, Paul, Superintendant of Recreation, City of Boulder,
Boulder, Colorado, Interview, 25 September, 1983.
Turabian, Kate L., A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago: The University of Chicacio Press,
White, Edward T., Architectural Programming. Tuscon, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1972.
White, Edward T., Ordering Systems: An Introduction to Architectural Design. Tuscon, Arizona: University of Arizona.
Wood, Front Range Energy Conservation. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1975.
U.S.Department of Energy, Solar Heating for Municipal Swimming Pools. by McCaughey & Smith Energy Associates, Inc., Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 1981.
U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climatological Summary; "Climate of Colorado", Asheville, N.C.: June 1982.
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