Citation
Cooperative mountain village, Nederland, Colorado

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative mountain village, Nederland, Colorado
Creator:
Pyzik, Christopher James
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 175 leaves : illustrations (some color, 1 folded), charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Collective settlements -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Nederland ( lcsh )
Collective settlements ( fast )
Colorado -- Nederland ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Christopher James Pyzik].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11301933 ( OCLC )
ocm11301933
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .P98 ( lcc )

Full Text
Cooperative
Mountain
Villacge
Nederland, Colorado

ARCHIVES LD 1190 AT 2 198H P98


An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture
Christopher Spring 1984
auraria library


The thesis of Christopher Pyzik is approved
Committee Chairman
Principle
Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Date: May 18, 1984


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This project is dedicated to my wife, Tina whose support and love helped me survive three years of graduate school and who also shares the vision behind this project.
Much of the project research was a collaborative effort with a friend and fellow thesis student, Joshua Gould.
Advisors:
1. Ron Rinker, architect- Barker, Rinker, Secat and Partners.
2. Doug Sault, architect- Gage/Davis Associates.
3. Lauri Macmillan, Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture.
4. Paul Heath, Assistant Professor of Architecture.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. Preface
B. Introduction
C. Context
D. Program
E. Climate/ Energy
F. Site
G. Codes
H. Design
I. Conclusions
J. References
/


PREFACE
This thesis project is an attempt to integrate my personal goals, philosophical concerns, educational background, life experiences and professional skills. Interest and experience in self-reliant and communal living combined with education in ecology and social change formed the conceptual foundation. My interest in architectural design evolved from a synthesis of these influences as a wholistic tool for creative problem solving. Functional, environmental and social concerns became integrated in the design process while practical aspects of building demanded realistic imp!imentation. While I do not expect to solve the broad reaching social issues addressed in this study, I will put forth conceptual ideas and investigate the architectural and design issues they pose, in the hope that it will contribute to understanding of and aid imp!imentation of alternative experiments in human living.


introduction


INTRODUCTION
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
A small community development for approximately 100 persons in which housing, businesses and public facilities are integrated in a pedestrian oriented village. Economic cooperation between residents occurs through shared land, public facilities and community operated businesses. Located in a natural setting outside of Nederland, Co. the development would preserve open space while buildings are carefully integrated with their site. Skilled craft industry and professional work would form the major income for the community, although members would produce much of their own food and energy, and recycle their wastes.
THESIS STATEMENT
The rapid social and technological changes of modern society have altered many institutions and patterns of peoples lives in the past century. The small town or village has become a remnant of the past as more and more of the population lives in large urban areas. Likewise, the design professions have ignored the small community as a focus of serious study, devoting attention to single buildings or whole cities. Yet it is clear that modern urban life leaves much to be desired. Social alienation, economic instability and environmental deterioration are common realities.
It is my concern that contemporary urban forms must be decentralized to restore healthful and vital human living. Yet this does not mean a step backwards in time the re-creation of small integrated community structures would allow critical human needs to be fullfilled, while preserving


many benefits of modern life. In fact, recent trends away from centralized industrialism toward information and service economies tend to encourage and reinforce such dispersed urban patterns.
Such restructuring of human communities would have profound consequences in terms of the form, character and organization of buildings.
In the following, I will outline some basic needs that small communities have potential to fullfill,suggest mechanisms for application, and study design implications for a prototypical site. The basic elements I will consider are threefold:
1. Social contact/harmony
2. Lifestyle integration/balance
3. Ecological adaption/symbiosis
SOCIAL CONTACT/HARMONY
Small communities provide increased possibilities for face to face human contact. Although modern mobility and communication has greatly expanded our range of contacts, it has also brought alienation and impersonal ization. In the small community emphasis is placed on the quality rather than quantity of interaction. Such places encourage individual identity, promote trust and caring, while common goals, needs and experiences of its residents create a cohesive bond for mutual aid. At the same time, providing a diversity of individuals within the group and interaction with the outside world is seen as necessary to prevent social homogeneity and isolation.


Re-development of a true community sense could be enhanced by providing mechanisms for cooperation and sharing among community members.
Global economic instability has caused many of us to compete with each other to obtain scarce jobs, income and resources. As a result we see the world from a selfcentered point of view. Past communities have often sought greater economic stability through shared resources and skills. Traditional villages of many cultures shared land, tools and labor. The 19th century utopian socialists as well as the Israeli Kibbutz also provided communal living, dining and childcare. While individual freedom and identity were sometimes stifled, much physical hardship was relieved and a source of community cohesion was created.
LIFESTYLE INTEGRATION/BALANCE
Technological growth has created extreme specialization of work such that individuals often see the world from a narrow perspective and do not understand or feel related to each other. Additionally the segregation of the work place from the places of living in modern cities has created tremendous social and psychological rifts in our lives. Work and leisure become divorced so that work is something to be dreaded while enough leisure is unattainable. The Russian geographer Peter Kropotkin, in Fields, Factories and Workshops (1898) advocated placement of diverse small workplaces in close proximity in communities to encourage a richness of interaction and a local self-sufficient economy. The Buddhist ethic of Right Lively-hood integrates concepts of work and leisure by seeking a lifestyle which is harmoniously connected to the environment. I feel that to create healthy communities, we need to re-integrate living and working, and


and workplaces to each other. To do this the community needs to contain a diversity of workplaces which provides a self-sustaining economy.
ECOLOGICAL ADAPTION/SYMBIOSIS
Destruction and pollution of the natural environment have been issues which received much attention in recent decades. It is commonly assumed that government regulations or scientific advances are required to solve these problems. Yet the solution may well be found in the basic relationship of our communities and technologies to the natural environment.
Modern cities are isolated from natural processes so that people must drive distances to see the countryside; food and energy are produced far from where it is consumed; as a result vast amounts of resources are wasted and pollution created. Peter Van Dresser, in A Landscape for Humans, suggested a reintegration of communities with natural processes by decentralization and local adaption to climate and resources. In Design with Nature, Ian McHarg provided an analysis of natural environments for sound placement of community development with in ecological context. It is my assumption that human communities need to be more spatially integrated with the landscape to allow symbiotic relationships to occure.
Modern technologies are also not adapted to natural processes: large mechanical, chemical and energetic inputs are required to produce basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. Technical sophistication has often lead to unecessary complexity and inefficient use of resources.
E.F. Shumacher, in Small is Beautiful argued for an "intermediate" or
"appropriate" technology which produces basic physical needs in a efficient,


humane and ecologically sound manner. Such a technology involves direct utilization of abundant and renewable resources at the local level, often through simpler and traditional methods, but improved through application of current scientific principles. Examples of intermediate or soft technologies are passive solar heating, wind generated electricity, composting toilets, and intensive organic gardening methods. Utilization of soft technologies would be optimized at the small community level, since renewable resources tend to be geographically dispersed and varied, and can be used and recycled most efficiently at this level.
I have outlined several major concepts based on the issues and needs expressed above. Summarizing, they are:
1. Cooperative organization
2. Self-sufficient economy
3. Spatial integration with landscape
4. Utilization of soft technologies
The body of this project will study the implications of these concepts on physical design aspects of a prototypical community. I will seek architectural forms which embody the functional relationships and aesthetic character implied, in an attempt to provide an image of what could be as well as practical application of these ideas.


context


CONTEXT
The location of the project site near a small town in a rural mountain area grew out of a concern for the environmental consequences of urban sprawl along the plains of the Colorado Front Range. A rural location seemed more appropriate to prevent positive characteristics of the project from being overshadowed by contextural issues. Also contact with the natural landscape was desirable and felt necessary to test environmental concepts.
A mountain location was felt necessary in that it would preserve valuable plains agricultural lands and not contribute to depletion of already scarce plains water supplies or increase burdening of metropolitan air sheds. Abundant water, vegetation and open space were available here, as well as lower land costs ($1000 3000/acre). Frequent sunshine and cold climate provided both an opportunity and challenge for climatic adaption.
Nederland's small town atmosphere seemed a compatible social environment for a community oriented venture. The ethic of economic self-reliance also was an applicable alternative in a town where a large percentage of the population commutes to jobs in the city. Businesses such as craft production, light industry and certain professional occupations would provide feasability in a location isolated from city markets. Location near a small town would provide services and minimize social isolation of the
communi ty.
Nederland itself is a town of approximately 1000 people nestled in a mountain valley on the eastern slope of the Continental Divide It is


*
Town of Nederland
Local architecture: Log home with shed roof and balconies
Nederland area with continental
Hix/irlo hovnnrl
in


REGIONAL CONTEXT
6CAUE--
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SITE LOCATION
SCALE- I". 07 (11.
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located 17 miles west of Boulder. While Nederland experienced growth during mining boom days in the 1800's, it has been primarily a recreational and tourist center in recent years. Urban growth along the plains has caused a rise in residential development in the area.
Eldora Ski Area and the Indian Peaks Wilderness are the recreational and tourist attractions in the area.(see map) Tourist based businesses such as restaurants, bars and craft botiques provide some employment in town. Other economic activites in the region include forestry, mining, grazing and residential development-
ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT
The local architectural context is strongly influenced by the mining town vernacular of the 1800's. Many wooden framed, shed roof mine buildings of the past boom era can still be seen today, although delapidated. Contemporary buildings often imitate these strong forms-
Log and wooden frame houses abound, both old and new. Steeply pitched roofs, and log, clapboard and shingle siding are characteristic. Newer houses often host outside balconies, solar collectors and large picture windows.
Victorian influences were strong in the small mining towns. False fronted stores and saloons with elaborate cornices, windows and details were prevalent. Impressive houses with long porches and intricate detailing existed in the more prosperous and long lived boom towns.
Wood and stone were available locally and so were the most common building materials. Brick had to be hauled from far away and was used less frequently.


Victorian storefront: false front, decorative cornice,,


Two story Victorian storefronts with offices and apartments above


program


PROGRAM
A community for approximately 100 persons is analagous to a small neighborhood. This scale was chosen to provide both an intimate and diverse character to the community as well as for practical purposes of project scope.
The population characteristics of the community were derived from area demographics and includes mixed age groups, although it was assumed potential members tended to be young and family oriented. The breakdown of population includes:
- 20 single adults
- 20 coupled adults without children
- 30 coupled adults with children (average of 2 children per family;
20 pre-school and elementary age, 10 teenage)
It was assumed that most adults will choose to work at occupations or in community services and that pre and elementary schooling will be provided by the community.
Cooperative ownership of land and public facilities will be shared by all members. Democratic decision making would occur in a "Town Hall" manner. Businesses and dwellings would be cooperatively owned by small groups or by individuals.
Community facilities include 3 basic areas housing, public facilities, and businesses. While these functional distinctions occur, it is assumed that there will be substantial overlap between activities.


HOUSING
Housing will consist of individual units with some common walls likely. Small clusters of units would comprise "extended family" living groups who would share functions such as cooking, gardening, laundry and vehicle use. Such groupings would provide greater efficiency of labor and resources while creating an intimate environment for trust and sharing. Individual units would be provided with kitchenettes to allow for private meals if desired.
Subsistence activities such as gardening, food preservation, waste recycling and small scale energy production would occur at the cluster level.
BUSINESSES
Businesses in the community would generally be small in scale and cooperatively owned and managed. A diversity of work types would exist to provide both income and basic necessities for the community. Such diversity of skills would allow a rich quality of interaction as well.
Artists and scientist, technicians and craftspersons, writers, educators, farmers and builders would live and work together.
Allowing for such diversity, many of the business types would be organized around the concept of "appropriate technology". This would give a unifying character to the community by attracting persons with similar goals and promote interaction between workplaces. Research, design/engineer-ing, and skilled production of soft technology products would be emphasized.


PUBLIC FACILITIES
"Town Hall" meetings, community administration, recreation and cultural activities, social gathering and events, and general service functions would occur at the community center. The community school would provide services both to community members and other area residents.


FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
ACTIVITY SOCIAL CHARACTER
Sleep/Dress individual/couple
Bathe individual/couple
Study individual
Lounge household/ small group
Cook/Eat household/small group
Play/ Exercize household/sm. group/lg. group
Gardening/ Husbandry household/sm. group
Maintenance household/ sm. group
Laundry household
Recycling small group/ large group
Transport household/ small group
Socializing small group/ large group
Office Work: Research Design Admini stration Meeting individual/ small group individual/smal1 group individual/smal1 group small group/ large group
Craft Work individual/ small group
Laboratory Work individual/ small group
Physical Work small group/ large/ group
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ECONOMIES OF SCALE EXIST
quiet, dark, closed
warm, soft
quiet, well lit
sunny, warm, open,comfortable
noisy, sunny, open yes
open, airy, durable yes
sun,air, H2O, earth yes
storage space yes
ventilation yes
ventilation, storage yes
vehicle access yes
open, sunny, comfortable
quiet, light Quiet, light, spacious quiet, light open, light, comfortable, flexible open,light, ventilation yes
clean, light, ventilation
light, open yes


SPACE REQUIREMENTS HOUSING
1 Bedroom Unit (couple) 10 units
Living 180 SF
Kitchenette 100 SF
Bath 50 SF
Bedroom 140 SF
Study 100 SF
Storage 50 SF
Circulation/Structure
@ 25% 155 SF
775 SF
2 Bedroom Unit (singles) 10 units
Living 180 SF
Kitchenette 100 SF
Bath 50 SF
Bedroom 140 SF
Bedroom 140 SF
Storage 50 SF
Circulation/Structure 165 SF
825 SF


3 Bedroom Unit (family)
15 units
Living 180 SF
Kitchenette 125 SF
Bath 75 SF
Master Bedroom 140 SF
Bedroom 100 SF
Bedroom 100 SF
Study 100 SF
Family Room 100 SF
Storage 75 SF
Circulation/Structure 270 SF
1 350 SF
Shared Facilities (per 4-6 units)
Kitchen 100 SF
Dining 250 SF
Lounge/ Play area 150 SF
Greenhouse 300 SF
Laundry/Storage 150 SF
1/2 Bath 30 SF
Circulation/Structure 245 SF
1 225 SF
Housing Total 44, 825 SF
Housing Total


PUBLIC FACILITIES Community Center
Administrative Offices 300 SF
Meeting/Activity Room 1000 SF
Community Store 200 SF
Lounge 500 SF
Maintenance 200 SF
Garage (vehicles) Recreation: 400 SF
Library 300 SF
Multi-Purpose Room 500 SF
Pool 1400 SF
Gym 2000 SF
Art & Music Studios 400 SF
First Aid Room 75 SF
Rest Rooms 200 SF
Circulation/Structure 2000 SF
9970 SF
School
Offices (4) 400 SF
Library/Resource Center Pre-School (15-20 children, 2 teachers) 500 SF
Group Activities 200 SF
Blocks
75 SF


Reading/Manipulatives 150 SF
Doll/Housekeeping 150 SF
Art/Science 150 SF
Cubicles 90 SF
Storage 100 SF
Toilets 50 SF
Elementary School (20 kids, 2 teachers)
Classrooms (2) 800 SF
Learning Centers 400 SF
Lockers 100 SF
Toilets 50 SF
Storage 100 SF
Circulation/Structure 830 SF
4145 SF
BUSINESSES Shared Facilities
Library 600 SF
Conference Room 300 SF
Restrooms 200 SF
Lounge 300 SF
1400 SF


Architecture Design/Build (8 persons)
Reception 100 SF
Offices (3) 450 SF
Drafting 300 SF
Reproduction 100 SF
Conference 200 SF
Storage 100 SF
Woodshop 500 SF
Equipment & Vehicle Storage 1000 SF
2750 SF
Soft Technology Engineering (producer of wind, solar and waste recovery systems)
(15 persons)
Reception 100 SF
Secretary 250 SF
Offices 450 SF
Conference 300 SF
Drafting 200 SF
Machine Shop/Fabrication 600 SF
Test Laboratory 300 SF
Material Storage 500 SF
Assembly 1000 SF
Product Storage 500 SF
Shipping 200 SF
4400 SF


Agriculture (8 persons) (Research in intensive gardening methods, product
development, and community food production)
Reception 100 SF
Offices 450 SF
Conference Room 200 SF
Laboratory 300 SF
Work Area 500 SF
Mechanical 100 SF
Storage 500 SF
Greenhouse 2000 SF
4150 SF
Woodworking (4 persons)
Studio/Office 300 SF
Shop 800 SF
1100 SF
Textiles (2 persons)
Studio/Office 200 SF
Dying 100 SF
Spinning 100 SF
Looms 300 SF
Storage 100 SF
800 SF


Pottery (3 persons)
Storage 100 SF
Work Area 200 SF
Sink Area 100 SF
Potters Wheels 150 SF
Kiln 100 SF
Office 200 SF
850 SF
Computer Software (6 persons)
Reception 100 SF
Offices 300 SF
Conference Room 250 SF
Disk/Tape Library 200 SF
Terminals 300 SF
Work Room 100 SF
Storage 100 SF
1350 SF
Publishing (7 persons) (Journals and books published about appropriate
technology/design)
Reception 100 SF
Offices 300 SF
Conference Room 200 SF
Art Department 300 SF
Printing 500 SF


Publishing (con't.)
Collating/Binding 500 SF
Storage 300 SF
Shipping 200 SF
2400 SF
Structure/Circulation 4800 SF
Business Total 24000
Square Footaqes
Housing 44,825 SF
Publ ic 14,115 SF
Businesses 24,000 SF
Total 82,940 SF


EXTERIOR SPACES
Parking
residential: 1 space/ unit guest parking 30 10
community vehicles 2
business vehicles and client parking Gathering place/amphitheater Playground/playfield Outdoor storage(businesses) Community gardens 16 58 spaces
Animal barns and pasture (goats, horses, sheep, chickens)


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MATRIX OF HOUSING DESIGN FACTORS
Human needs Activities Household types Housinq types Desiqn issues
territory sleeping young single detached density
orientation living young couple rowhouse adjacency
identity eating young couple with townhouse scale
privacy cooking young children flat context
convenience hygiene middle age couple patio house circulation
accessability study with teenagers maisonette orientation
safety play middle age couple, terrace growth
work grown children forms
elderly couple materials
elderly single disabled
Source: Unterman R. and Small R. Site Planning for Cluster Housing.


COMMUNITY DESIGN ISSUES AND GUIDELINES
The following issues and guidelines were taken from writings of Delores Hayden, Ralph Erskine and Christopher Alexander. They represent design considerations felt important and appropriate for this project.
Issue : Social contact
Guidelines : -Cluster small groups of dwellings to facilitate intimate scale -Centralize amenities and facilities to promote contact -Create small units within workplaces -Provide a variety of locations/ scales for contact
Issue : Individual privacy
Guidelines : -Create private places where people can escape contact and be alone -Allow definition of personal territory -Provide a gradient or transition between public and private space -Create varied amounts of privacy to respond to differing individual needs
Issue : Community identity
Guidelines : -Utilize repetitive elements and vernacular styles to create unity, but allow variation to express individuality -Provide connection and interaction between places of work and living


-Create boundaries and vantage points to define sense of place -Create public places for social gathering
Issue : Guidelines:
Issue : Guidelines:
Issue : Guidelines:
Issue : Guidelines:
Personalization
-Allow individual expression within collective framework (varied materials, colors, details, landscaping, decorating)
-Respond to differing needs of age, lifestyle, occupation -Provide dwellings with varied site qualities and vantage points Relate building forms to human scale Economies of scale
-Maximize efficiency of functions to reduce repititious and meaningless work
-Maximize efficiency of functions to reduce resource consumption -Balance scale efficiency with appropriate social character
Living/working relationships
-Provide connection and transition between living and working places
-Provide interaction within and between workplaces -Zone incompatible uses
-Provide flexible, comfortable and interesting living and working places
Relationship of urban/built forms to natural environment -Provide interlocking fingers of development and countryside to facilitate contact with natural systems.


-Preserve valuable agricultural or unique natural sites -Orient outdoor spaces to the south sides of buildings -Create positive outdoor space
-Connect buildings to the earth with paths and terraces so that boundaries are ambiguous
-Cluster and connect buildings so that open space is optimized
SURVEY OF COMMUNITY FORMS
The following are examples of small community forms past and present. These examples show that many communities have utilized clustering of buildings and maintained moderate densities to provide social contact and environmental adaption.


Primitive villages
Such communities grouped dwellings for physical security, climatic protection, and social interaction. Often buildings formed enclosures around a central public space.


Towns
The town form grew out of the traditional village as population increased. Because of increased size, the town contained a diffentiation of spatial patterns. Many buildings were adjacent to secondary spaces which connected by path systems to central public spaces.
ARMANA14th CENTURY K C.
MILETUS5th CENTURY B.C.
MANNHEIM18th CENTURY A.D.
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CHAN-CHAN IOth CENTURY A.D.
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19th Century Utopian Communities
Many communal experiments of the 1800's(such as the settlements of the Shakers, Mormons and Amana Colonies) created alternative community and building forms to manifest their visions of utopia. Shared facilities( such as housing, dining and laundry) and community economic self- sufficiency (agriculture + industry) were common in these communities.
0 '
. Schematic plan, communal apartment house, Newllano, 1934.
Icarian Community, Corning, Iowa. 1870-1871.


ftes/ocn/T kern i
The Resident Hotel or unitary dwelling designed by Albert Kimsey Owen with Deery and Keerl. Architects, Philadelphia, proposed for the Pacific Colony (Topolobampo), Sinaloa, Mexico, ca. 1885-1895.
$ BLOCK or PACIFIC COLONY 9
a t> a i c a t> j a a 9 *t a 0 # a A d a
An alternative to the unitary dwelling, model family commonw ealths grouped in model neighborhoods, with centralized kitchens and laundries, proposed for the Pacific Colony.


Garden Cities/ New Towns
The Garden City movement founded by Ebenezer Howard sought to integrate urban and rural life. Communities were limited in size to maintain contact with the country; places of living and working were placed in close proximity for convenient access. Neighborhood focus was emphasized to promote social identity and democratic participation, as in a scheme by Clarence Perry below.

ILLUST AATIHC COmtCT WIHCIW.t or t CITY t 6WOWTH- OPtH CQUMTRY CI Mtt> AT HAND. ,WQ MM
commusicatiow >nmion-mocn
Diagram of Garden City by Ebenezer Howard, from Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
Plan of neighborhood idea by Clarence Perry, 1929.
Schematic pian oi Hariow, England by Frederick Gibberd, 1948.


Contemporary Experiments
Fewer and fewer small community forms remain in modern world because of urban centralization and growth. Two intentional community experiments will be noted: The Israeli Kibbutz and Cerro Gordo, a new town development in Oregon. The Kibbutz is characterized by central shared facilities and zoning of functions such as housing, agriculture, industry and public buildings. Cerro Gordo contains decentralized clusters of dwellings and a central community center for public facilities and workplaces.
KIBBUTZ CERRO GORDO


GOALS
KEY
RELATIONSHIPS
Social
Contact/
Harmony
Lifestyle
Integration
/Balance
Ecological Adaption/ Symbiosi s
Group
t
Individual
Living
t
Working
Buil t
Environment
I
Natural
Environment
ASSUMPTIONS
/NEEDS
CONCEPTS
* Face to face contact, interaction * Sense of community; common goals, needs, experiences. * Individual identity /freedom/terri tory * Economic democracy Cooperative organization (shared resources, facilities)
* Provide for basic physical needs. * Interesting, dignified work * Connection and compatibility of 1iving/working * Ability to acquire diverse skills Self-sufficient economy (Diversity and inter-gration of functions)
* Minimum disruption of natural processes Spatial integration with landscape
* Maximum contact with natural environment * Conservative and efficient use of natural resouces * Sense of place, human scale, clarity/convenience of circulation/movement. Utilization of soft technologies
SUMMARY OF PROJECT ISSUES


DESIGN
ISSUES
* Interaction vs. privacy
* Shared/public facilities vs. individual territory
* Community identity vs. personalization
* Entry, circulation, transition
* Living/working adjacency
* Workplace character/spatial requirements
* Housing character/spatial requirements
* Interaction between workplaces
* Site context
* Building placement
* Density
* Scale
* Adjacency
* Circulation
* Orientation
* Growth
* Materials
* Forms
* Appropriate use of renewable and indigenous resources/materials/ energies
* Efficiency of resource/material use
* Climatic adaption
* Effect of soft technology on lifestyles
* Appropriate scale/relation to community structure
DESIGN
GUIDELINES
* Provide balance between group and individual (provide spaces, identity for each)
* Create transition spaces between public and private
* Utilize economies of scale
* Provide connection, transition between living and working
* Provide interaction between workplaces
* Zone incompatible uses
* Provide flexible, comfortable living and working places
* Cluster development
* Maintain site character
* Orient for climate, view
* Use local materials
* Respond to landform, natural systems
* Reclamation of disturbed areas
* Maintain human scale
* Forms/materials should enhance utilization of abundant and renewable resources/energies
* Maximize efficiency of resource use
* Integrate technology with lifestyle
* Utilize economies of scale
SUMMARY OF PROJECT ISSUES(CONT.)


climate/energy


CLIMATE
The project site is located in the mountains at 8400' above sea level on the eastern slope of the continental divide. The climate is characterized by low night and winter temperatures, large temperature fluctuations, frequent sunshine, low humidity and rainfall, substantial winter snowfall and seasonal high wind conditions. Weather conditions fluctuate greatly due to mountain location; pleasant conditions may be abruptly followed by rain and thunderstorms in summer or snowstorms in winter and spring.
Climate data was collected by the Mountain Research Station at the University of Colorado for a nearby site at a similiar elevation.


TEMPERATURE
- Temperatures typically range from cold in winter to cool in summer. Maximum temperatures rise into the comfort zone from June thru September.
- Nightime minimum temperatures are below freezing usually from October to May, although longer periods may occur. This permits a growing season of 100 days or less.
- High temperature swings between day and night occur in both winter and summer.
- Extreme temperatures occur only for short durations usually.
- Few or no cooling degree days for the average year.
- Approximately 8500 heating degree days during an average year.
- Mountain temperatures decrease substantially with elevation increase- an average of 3.5 F./1000 ft.
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HUMIDITY
- Humidity levels are generally low( Relative humidity averages 50%)
- Higher humidity levels occur at nightime than daytime.
- Humidity levels are generally similiar throughout the year.
- Absolute humidity decreases with elevation but relative humidity actually increases.
MAX- ('paily')
MIN. (J>h\ur)
mAflY£ HUMIPITY


PRECIPITATION
- Rainfall is generally small, averaging 1.9 inches per month; maximum amounts occur in the spring.
- Afternoon and evening thundershowers in summer commonly occur.
This has a cooling effect during peak temperature periods.
- Snowfall occurs in September thru May, with the largest amounts falling in March( ave. 12.5 in.). Snow depths vary depending on topography and orientation, with sunny southern slopes melting quickly and shaded northern slopes often retaining snow for months.
- Total yearly precipitation averages 23 in.
- Precipitation typically increases with elevation.
rW^IHTAtlOH


3N0W PE-rtH


SOLAR RADIATION
- Frequent sunshine characterizes the climate; less than one third of the days in an average month are cloudy.
- Solar radiation intensities are typically higher in summer than winter.
- Incidence of solar radiation is higher as elevation increases since less is absorbed by the atmosphere as the air thins out,
although cloud cover is greater.
- At 40 N. latitude, solar angles at noon are 73 on June 21 and 26 on December 21.
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altitude angles


WINDS
- The primary winds are from the west as a result of Pacific air masses rising over the continental divide. Winds increase in speed and become warmer as they lose moisture over the mountains. These warm, intense winds characterize the Chinooks which often occur from November to March.
- Maximum wind speeds are from the northwest and occur in January.
- Average yearly wind velocity is 7 mph.
- Secondary winds come from the south, bringing moist air from the Gulf of Mexico which often produces heavy snowfalls in spring.
- Artie air masses coming from the north produce extreme low temperatures in winter.
MPH
MAX.
MEAN
MIN-
WIMP VE-UKHTf


SEASONAL SUMMARY
Spring: Wettest, cloudiest, windiest. Fluctuations between storms and mild sunny weather.
Summer: Clear, sunny in mornings. Scattered thundershowers in afternoon/ evenings.
Autumn: Least cloudiness, sunny, mild.
Winter: High snowfall, medium cloudiness, short severe periods of cold weather.
CONCLUSIONS
- Heating requirements greatest in winter, needed most of the year.
- Short growing season
- Sunny climate well adapted to passive solar design
- Low humidity improves comfort levels during temperature extremes
- Low rainfall, high snowfall
- High wind conditions require control measures.


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CLIMATIC DESIGN GUIDELINES
I. Keep Heat In
- Minimize surface area
- Cluster buildings and functions tightly
- Use earth/ site to minimize heat loss
- Place secondary spaces on cold and windy sides
- Insulate entire perimeter
- Use double/ triple glazing, insulating shutters/ curtains at night
- Avoid cold air pockets, utilize slopes
- Minimize number of doors, provide airlocks
- Centralize stoves/ furnaces/ fireplaces
II. Let the Sun In
- Build on south slopes
- Avoid sun obstructions in winter
- Use sunspaces/collectors on south side
- Collect solar heat and store in building mass
- Locate most windows on S, SE, and SW sides; minimize N, NW, and NE windows
III. Protect from wind
- Site building to minimize exposure to wind, provide windbreaks
- Doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds by roofs, walls and landscaping
- Protect entries and south facing windows from drifting snow
IV. Utilize Mass to Dampen Temperature Fluctuations
- Use thick south walls to store solar heat
- Use earth, masonry materials, and water for thermal mass/ storage


V. Miscellaneous Guidelines
- Provide SE and east windows for early morning warm-up from solar gain
- Provide west and SW sun protection in summer
- Place outdoor spaces on south sides of buildings
- Provide steep pitched roofs for optimal winter solar gain and minimal snow load
- Utilize natural daylight to reduce electric light loads
- Use natural ventilation to reduce overheating (operable windows, building configuration)
VI. Daylighting
- Keep room widths less than 15-20 ft.
- Orient building along east- west axis
- Provide adequate window areas for each space
- High windows will allow light penetration more deeply into spaces
- For each 4' overhang, daylight in room is reduced 50%
- Toplighting : Effective to increase general illumination, but must be balanced against undesirable summer heat gain


Design recommendations generated by CLIMAT, a computer energy program for climatic analysis:
BUILDINGS SHOULD BE ORIENTATED ON AN EAST-WEST AXIS, THE LONG ELEVATIONS FACING NORTH AND SOUTH TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO THE SUN.
SPACING
COMPACT PLANNING IS RECOMMENDED IF THE AIR MOVEMENT REQUIREMENT IS SIGNIFICANT.
UttHUHHHHH AIR MOVEMENT
IF AIR MOVEMENT IS NEVER ESSENTIAL,
AND IS DESIRABLE FOR NOT MORE THAN A MONTH, ROOMS CAN BE DOUBLE BANKED AS THERE IS NOT MUCH NEED FOR CROSS VENTILATION.
OPENINGS
'VERY SMALL.', LESS THAN 20 % OF THE WALL.
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BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WALLS SHOULD BE MASSIVE.
nntiHnUHHUKHHHHUH ROOFS
A HEAVY ROOF, WITH SUBSTANTIAL THERMAL CAPACITY, GIVING A TIME LAG OR AT LEAST 8 HOURS.


ENERGY EFFICIENT COMMUNITY DESIGN ISSUES/GUIDELINES
Issues: Space Heating Water Heating Water Supply Food Production Electricity Production Sewage/ Greywater Disposal Transportation Material Usage
Guidelines:
- Utilize Natural Processes
- Minimize Fossil Fuel Energy Input
- Minimize Use of Energy Intensive or Non-recyclable Material
- Utilize Sun, Wind, Wood, Biofuel Energies
- Use Abundant, Indigenous Materials/ Resources
- Recycle Wastes- Greywater, Organic Wastes, etc.
- Maximize Structural/Material Use Efficiency -.Provide Flexible, Efficient Use of Space
- Utilize Pedestrian Circulation over Mechanical Transport
- Utilize Economies of Scale
- Produce Food Locally


Energy Flow in a Closed System Habitat
Source: Olkowski, Helga et al.
The Integral Urban House
SYSTEM COSTS IN S 1000.00
Source: Merril1,Richard, ed.
Energy Primer.


SOLAR GREENHOUSE DESIGN FOR HEAT AND FOOD PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
This paper will investigate some energy related issues for a thesis project I am currently working on. The project is a small community development in the mountains near Nederland, Colorado, which contains residences, workplaces and community facilities. I will study the implications of sun-spaces/ greenhouses as design elements for solar energy collection in project buildings, particularly the residences.
The use of attached sunspaces seemed especially appropriate for the climate and geography. Limiting direct exposure to intense mountain sunshine in regular living areas as well as preserving the panoramic mountain views were seen as necessary. The sunspace would accomplish this, while direct gain and trombe/mass wall are less optimal solutions.
Greenhouses were also seen as an important programmatic element in that residents desired to grow a considerable amount of their food themselves. The growing season in this mountain location is quite short, so that greenhouses are a necessity to grow many crops. Greenhouses also provide many benefits
such as humidity, oxygen and a delightful warmth and character


to living spaces. Humidity is particularly needed in this semi- arid environment.
SUNSPACE VS. GREENHOUSE CHARACTERISTICS
There are considerable differences in the design needs and characteristics between sunspaces and greenhouses though. Although often there is much overlap between the two, pure sunspaces function more as heat producers and living spaces, while greenhouses provide an environment for growing plants. Such differing functions have differing thermodynamic and physical characteristics.
OPTIMAL GLAZING ANGLE
It has been shown that the optimal glazing angle for sunspaces is vertical. Spears] has shown that vertical glazed spaces produce more net heat gain in winter than sloped glazing. This is because although some sloped glazing angles may gain more total heat, night losses through glazing are greater even with night insulation. Vertical glazing in sunspaces can also be shaded easier with overhangs for summer comfort while sloped glazing is more difficult to shade effectively. Greenhouses on the other hand usually require some sloped glazing
to get adequate light levels for plant growth.


USE OF HEAT GAIN
For optimal efficiency, sunspaces should transfer heat gain to mass storage and by natural air convection to living spaces. Greenhouses can provide heat gain for dwellings as well, but some heat must be kept in the greenhouse to keep the plants warm, while additional heat is lost through evaporative transpiration by the plants.
TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS
Sunspaces which are primarily heat collectors with limited use as living space can allow extreme temperature fluctuations. Such spaces can be closed off from living units at night to reduce heat loss or during the day to reduce excessive heat gain. On the other hand, greenhouses must maintain a more tempered diurnal cycle. Minimum nighttime and maximum daytime temperatures must be maintained for plant survival.
Internal mass and night insulation accomplishes the former, while ventilation and diffusing glazings promote the latter.
MASS STORAGE
Amount, location and type of mass differs between sunspaces and greenhouses. In sunspaces mass is optimally located in walls between sunspace and living areas to facilitate heat


transfer. Also rock bins for convective hot air storage are useful. Mass tends to be of architectural materials such as concrete or masonry to allow use as living spaces. In greenhouses, mass storage tends to be spread throughout the space to provide adequate temperatures for the plants. Mass material include soil in planting beds and water tanks/ ponds for hydroponic gardening or fish culture, as well as concrete and masonry.
OTHER GREENHOUSE NEEDS
- To achieve adequate winter light intensities, reflective interior surfaces and glazed end walls may be needed.
- Temperature stratification and cold air pockets may need to be controlled by terracing and convection flows.
- Adequate C02 for plant growth is required and can be provided by ventilation, animal or human CO2 production, and compost piles.
- Humidity control may be necessary by ventilation and moisture resistant materials/ surfaces.
INTEGRATION OF SUNSPACE/ GREENHOUSE FUNCTIONS
Although the above has shown significant differences in
the needs of sunspaces and greenhouses, for reasons of cost, functional overlap and aesthetic desires it is preferable to


to provide a space which funtions as both. This is entirely feasable; many successful heat and food producing solar spaces have been achieved by building designers and do-it- yourselfers alike. Efficiencies of 50 to 80% of yearly heating needs have been noted in readings.3 Greenhouses, properly designed have potential to be significant heat collectors for buildings, although efficiency is less than pure sunspaces optimally designed. A design strategy to maximize benefits of both sunspaces and greenhouses might include some of the following:
REDUCED WINTER HEAT LOSSES
One of the principle drawbacks of greenhouses for heat production is that otherwise available heat is used by plant evapotranspiration, or lost by ventilation or conduction thru sloped glazing. Increased mass capacity could retain more heat in the building structure to counteract losses such as conduction thru glazing and ventilation. Water is an ideal storage medium since it has twice the heat capacity of masonry4 and could be integrated in aquaculture or hydroponics. The New Alchemy
Institute has done extensive experimehtation with much success with integrated water systems for food production and- heat storage.5 Improving convection of air between greenhouse and living spaces and utilizing rock bed storage could also improve heat retainment and circulation. Combining vertical and


sloped glazing would reduce losses thru glazing, as well as night insulation.
REDUCED SUMMER OVERHEATING
Use of diffusing glazings, such as "Kalwall" reduces and spreads out solar transmission and would be beneficial on sloped glazing portions, although should be minimized on vertical areas to allow exterior views. Partial overhangs could be used to reduce summer gain, when light intensities are the highest.
Water pools and tanks could provide evaporative coolong as well. Ventilation and isolation of greenhouse from living areas should also be provided.
DESIGN GUIDELINES
The following is a list of general guidelines for greenhouse/ sunspace design, gathered from various sources.
* Provide between 16 and 32% ft2 of glazing per ft^ of floor area. ( based on site climate).
* Provide 3-6 ft^ of mass surface per ft2 of south glazing or 20 Btu/F/ft2 of glazing.
p
* Provide at least .67 cu. ft. of water mass per ft*-
p
of south glazing or 3 gal. of water per ft*- of greenhouse space.
* Solar glazing orientation should be between 20 east
and 32 west of south.


* Utilize dark colored materials with high absorbtivity to maximize heat gain.
* Use double glazing to minimize heat loss.
* Avoid forms which have a high surface to volume ratio to minimize heat loss.
* Provide vertical and horizontal pathways within the building to allow creation of a convective air loop; draw warm air from the top of the space, return it at the bottom.
* Utilize building configuration to provide self- shading and wind breaks.
* Provide an exterior vent area equal to one sixth of the floor area.
* Provide a glazing angle of 20 plus site-latitude.
* In winter, plant cool crops adjacent to glazing and warm weather crops along the back wall; in summer vice-versa.
* Spread heat storage throughout interior walls and floor.
* Try to provide at least 2500 footcandles of light intensity as much of the year as possible (this is the threshold for
good plant growth).
* Keep minimum indoor temperature above 40 F.


FOOTNOTES
1. Spears, John W. Comparison of vertical high performance glazing to sloped double glazing with moveable insulation". Progress in Passive Solar Energy Systems. American Solar Energy Society, 1983.
2. McCullagh, James C., ed. The Solar Greenhouse Book. Emmaus, Pa., Rodale Press, 1978. Chapter 12.
3. McCullagh, Chapter 9.
4. Mazria, Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book.
Emmaus, Pa., Rodale Press, 1979.
5. Todd, Nancy J., ed. Journal of the New Alchemists.
Woods Hole, Mass., New Alchemy Institute, 1977.
OTHER REFERENCES
Balcomb, Douglas J. Passive Solar Design Handbook .
U.S. Dept, of Energy, 1980.
Solar Dwelling Design Concepts. Washington, D.C,
AIA Research Corp, 1976.


McAdams, Wootie, and Mike Chapman. "Marketing Attached Greenhouses in an Affordable Subdivision: Fairway Village, Santa Fe, NM." Progress in Passive Solar Energy Systems. American Solar Energy Society, 1983.
Coleman, Jeremy. "Riding the Learning Curve: Experiences With Attached Greenhouses". Solar Age, June 1979.


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LAND-USE AND SITE DEVELOPMENT STUDY for
Master of Architecture Thesis
Christopher Pyzik Fall 1983




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