Citation
Christie Base Facility

Material Information

Title:
Christie Base Facility Steamboat Springs, Colorado
Creator:
Rogers, Robert W
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
100, 20, [69] leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Colorado -- Steamboat Springs ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Steamboat Springs ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 83-84).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert W. Rogers Jr.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11301941 ( OCLC )
ocm11301941
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .R635 ( lcc )

Full Text
CHRISTIE BASE FACILITY STEAMBOAT SPRINGS COLORADO


^T^R'lS
11STIE BASE FACILITY STEAMBOAT.SPRINGS COLORADO
r~ ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
V
l
r
IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
r>
BY
ROBERT W. ROGERS JR. SPRING 19S4
L


"HE THESIS
OF
ROBERT ROGERS IS APPROVED


ADVISORS
Facultv
Sped al
Paul Heath Davis Holder Bob Kindig Gary Long Dan Young
Consultants:
Stepehen S. Elkins Director, Land Development Steamboat Ski Corporation
Eric Smith and Associates, Architects Garth Braum, Arch.
Ken Alexander


"ABLE OF
VICINIIY_MAPS
i
LNIBQPU£I.IQN
3-4
yuiPRY
5-6
background
SOCIAL
3-9
ECONOMICS 10-14
yBBAN_DE3IGN_GUIDELINE 15-19
BITE
CONTENTS
SKI AREA LOCATIONS IN COLORADO HIGHWAY DESCRIPTION MAP
INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
BACKGROUND
SOCIAL IMPACTS
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
SKI TIME SQUARE STUDY
BITE VICINITY MAR
SITE TOPOGRAPHY MAP


SITE ANALYSIS
2224
37-38
IDNINS-CODES-CONSIRUCJigN
39-41
42-58
59-60
61-64
65-69
PROGRAM
74
79
SC-
SI
UTILITIES MAP SITE PHOTOGRAPHS
EXISTING FACILITIES PHOTOGRAPHS SOIL AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION
CLIMATE ANALYSIS
ZONING INVESTIGATION CODE INVESTIGATION HANDICAPPED CODE REVIEW ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONST. BUILDING MATERAIALS AND CONST.
FUNCTIONS & SPACE ALLOCATIONS CHRISTIE BASE TRANSIT SYSTEM CHRISTIE BASE STAGING AREA TICKETING SECURITY CAFETERIA S< ASSEMBLY SPACE COMMERCIAL SKI SHOP FIRST AID S< SKI PATROL DAY CARE CENTER PUBLIC RESTROOMS PUBLIC LOCKERS & SKI STORAGE
33-34
REFERENCE


'RaJEQT-SQLUIlDN
35-86 CONCLUSION
87-96 PROJECT DRAWINGS
97-100
MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS


Source: Colorado Ski Country USA


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3
INTRODUCTION
The Christie Base Ski Facility will be the -focus of this thesis oroiect. The Project is located at the head of Ski Time Square, which is at the base of Mount Werner Ski Area at Steamboat Springs,
Colorado. The Project is a Ski Support Facility, for the Steamboat Corporation. The Architectural Firm involved is Eric Smith and Associates of Boulder, Colorado.
The Christie Base Facility I propose will be approximately 33.000sf. which will be placed on the 1.7 acre site owned by the Steamboat Ski Corporation. The Facility will be the focal ooint for the end of Ski Time Square where pedestrians from nearby condominiums will arrive with shuttle bus commuters from neighboring residential developments and the Downtown Steamboat Springs area. There will be no public parking on the site, respecting the comprehensive urban design olan of no cars in Ski Time Square.
The Image of the Facility, I propose needs to symbolize "The Steamboat Image" Context. Structure, and Building Materials are an integral part of that Image. The Context of Ski Time Square is developing highly into a village street scheme that needs to be strongly ended at Christie Base. Christie Base also marks the place of beginning for the Mount Werner Ski Area. It is both a transition from Ski Time Square and the Mountain, and Focal Point to Ski Time Square. The Christie Base Structure will h'ave to portray the Ski Time Square Structures that are already present, and that depict the Town Square Image most precisely. The Clock Tower Sauare Building should be noted for this Image, and should be respected. The Building Materials of the Structure will most probably be of stone, wood, and


4
g i ass.
The Scope o-f the Christie Base Facility will include a Multi-Purpose Eating Area, Apres Ski Bar and Lounge. Retail Ski Shop. Customer and Employee Nursery, Ticketing Sales. Customer Lockers. Customer Restrooms, Ski School Facilities. Ski Patrol Facilities,
First Aid and Ambulance facility. Miscellaneous Storage and Security-Area .
Within these seperate but integral parts of this project, the design solution is influenced. There are various architectural elements available to the designer to choose from that are indigenous to the area, practical for construction, and that are energy effeelent. The Climate alone is a large determinant in the selection of architectural elements that give rise to form. Energy-considerations will help determine the selection of materials and the overal1 design concept of the structure.
nee the appropriate value has been assigned to each and all the variables involved, and the solution is evaluated upon its merits of context, architectural form, energy, and cost, the design process will then be complete.


HISTORY


5
HISTORY
Steamboat Springs, can best be described as a town rich in history of ranching, mining, and skiing. It sits at a bend on the Yampa River in the Yampa River Valley, in northwestern Colorado. The Ute Indians used the area during the summer months where abundant hunting was available, along with the inviting warm water -from the numerous mineral springs. Trappers in the late 1800s reffered to this area as the "Big Bend". The name Steamboat Springs came about -from one o-f the springs that spouted water over the river several -feet in the air; making a chugging sound similar to the old river steamboats. By the 1870's, trappers, explorers, and miners that passed through the area called it Steamboat Springs.
The -first person to settle in Steamboat Springs permanently was James Crawford in 1875. The area like many other western settlements grew slowly; its economy being based on ranching, and mining. By 1900 the town was incorporated as a city. In 1908 the railroad had made its way to Steamboat Springs, bringing more people to the region. By 1912 Steamboat Springs became the county seat of Routt County, It has been a ranching commercial center since.
In 1912, Skiing became a part of Steamboats history, with the arrival of a Norwegian born imigrant Carl Howelson, who introduced the town to skiing. He brought from Europe a ski technique, along with skiis and bindings, which launched the recreation industry that has increasingly influenced the areas economy since. Howelson was influencial in Steamboat's first


6
Winter Carnival in 1914, and the development of the original ski hill "Howelson Hill". Throughout the years Steamboat Springs has produced enough Olympians and National Ski Team Members to be known as "Ski Town, U.S.A."
The current population o-f Steamboat Springs within the city limits is appro:;imately 6,000 along with another 4,000, which live in the immediate area.
The winter recreation industry draws an added population estimated at 15,000 17,000, at peak time; along with an additional winter work -force o-f 4,000 5,000 people.
The Mount Werner Ski Area, which is located a -few miles east of the Downtown Steamboat Springs, began operation in 1962. It has 62 runs covering 684 acres of land, with 16 lifts, and a gondola system that lifts skiiers to a mid mountain restaurant facility. Presently in construction is two new lifts along with a new mid mountain restaurant facility "Priest Creeek". In the planning stage, is the new Christie Base Ski Facility, with a new adjacent ski lift. The area around the Mount Werner Ski Area is now known as Steamboat Village, it has experienced rapid growth spurred on by the anticipation of the 1976 Olympic Games. This area is a satelite community of Steamboat Springs, and the location of where most present development is occuring, and where
future development is plannned.




7
BACKGROUND
Christie Base Ski Facility was brought about by the need -for the Steamboat Ski Corporation to expand its skier day capacity, and its base support -facilities. The present Gondola House Facility was originally planned -for expansion, but due to cost effectiveness and congestion, the concept -for another base facility was developed. The new base facility concept would eliminate the problem of congestion at the Gondola House Facility, where present facilities are unable to handle the volume of people using it. At the present time the Gondola House Facility is the only service operated by the Steamboat Ski Corporation. All other eating, retail, and service shops are operated by various owners. It was in the opinion of the Steamboat Ski Corporation that there was a need for a structure that provided all the services that are presently scattered about the mountain. A Comprehensive Urban Design Plan was prepared by Gage Davis and Asssociates, where Ski Time Square would eventually become a pedestrian street, allowing shuttle bus, and emergency vehicles only. The concept of a base facility at the end of Ski Time Square appears to be most appropriate in ending the village streetscape and setting a transition to the mountain. A 1.7 acre site at the end of Ski Time Square and below the Christie lifts was selected for the project, thus Christie Base Ski Facility.


SOCIAL


8
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS
The Steamboat Local
In contrast to Steamboats history, Steamboats population is fairly young; the median age is 27. The single largest age group is from 25-29 (1,126), followed by 30-44 (621). Two categories of childrens age groups which are exceptionally large are those from 7-9 (166) and 10-13 (255). Figures below, taken from the 1980 census, represent the number of permanent city residents.
Steamboat Springs is basically a tourist oriented town that still is rich in tradition of Mining and Ranching. The town has experienced a drastic shift from a small ranching, mining, and skiing comunity to a big Colorado resort area. This shift has been met with some resentment from native locals who view these new locals as strangers trying to take over their town. The reality is that the town has drastically changed, and has prospered from this change despite the resentment.
The Steamboat Visitor
Steamboat Springs is a destination resort, which means a longer than a day or weekend visit distance. The majority of the visitors to Steamboat stay approximately one week. The typical visitor to Steamboat is the family ski group which the town actively encourages in its marketing. Another visitor group is the college ski groups on semester and spring breaks. This group is more noticeable and active than the family group which unlike the students is less apt to stay out all night closing down the bars.


9
Vacations are a chance -for people to get away -from the routines they experience everyday in their home environments. Vacations are sometimes the only chance people have a chance to cut loose and -forget about responsibilities. A resort that is going to be succesfull will have to offer quite a range o-f dif-ferent activities for the visitors to choose from. Many people find themselves much more active on vacations and need the excitement of different activities to explore.


S3IW0N033


10
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
The Contribution 0-f Skiing To The Colorado Economy
Routt County Case Study
Prepared For
Colorado Ski Country U.S.A.
By
Browne, Bortz, & Codddington H. Rubinstein & Co.
August 1982
Routt County Case Study
This report presents the results o-f the Routt County case study, which examines the economic impacts o-f skiing on the Routt County economy. This e-f-fort represents one o-f eight county case studies prepared -for Colorado Ski Country USA as a part o-f a larger analysis o-f the Colorado ski industry's contribution to the statewide economy. The statewide report, which documents the ski industry's overall impact on the Colorado economy, is available -from Colorado Ski Country
USA.


II
impacts
Routt County presents a well diversified economy based on mining, tourism, industrial development (electric power generation) and agriculture In 1980, Routt County had more than 13,000 residents, over half of whom resided in the Steamboat Springs area.
During 1980, skiing represented the largest single component of the Routt County economy. The economic effects of this industry are
Economic Factor
Employment (FTE)
Direct
Local service
Earned Personal Income (millions)
Retail Sales (millions)
Direct winter Other
Housing Construction
New Units
Value (millions)
Local Tax Revenues (millions)
Sales
Property
Sales Tax Revenues (millions)
Sales
Income
Other Taxes
Amount Percent
Attributable of Routt
to skiing County Total
3,880 457.
2,280
1,600
$57. 8 457.
$98. 8 597.
50. 7
48. 1
580 307.
$67.7
$2.5
$3.5
$3.3
$1.8
$0. 9
$0.6


12
Emplovment
During 1980, skiing expenditures directly supported an estimated 2,280 Routt County jobs. Approximately 230 positions were with the Steamboat Ski Area. Additional positions were in lodging, restaurants, retail trade, transportation and construction. A portion o-f the wages and salaries paid to these workers are spent locally, causing an additional 1,600 positions in local service industries.
Many o-f these service positions are in government, retail trade, construction and service.
Retail Sales
Winter visitors during the 1979-1980 season generated an estimated *50.7 million in retail sales. In addition, summer visitors associated with skiing and country residents employed in skiing-related positions generated an additional *48.1 million. In total, skiing, directly or indirectly, is responsible for nearly 60 percent of all county retail activity.
New Construction
During 1980, Routt County supported a very active construction industry, particularly in the development of second-homes and condiminiurns. Approximately 80 percent of the county's housing market is attributable to skiing-related demand. In 1980, this represented nearly 600 homes with a value of over *67 million.
Tax Revenues
As a stimulus for considerable property development, employment and retail activity, the Routt County ski industry generates a large


13
portion of local tax revenues and is a major contributor to state tax receipts. From local property and sales taxes, skiing generates over $6.0 million per year to local municipalities, districts and county government. An additional $3.3 million goes to state government, primarily -from state income and sales taxes.
The Routt County Ski Industry
Routt County has one major destination ski resort: Steamboat, which is operated by the Steamboat Ski Corporation. The City o-f Steamboat Springs also operates Howelson Hill, A small area geared primarily to local use. Steamboat, which opened in 1962, is one o-f Colorado's major destination resorts. With 16 lifts and a total capacity o-f 18,996 vertical transport -feet per hour, the area is the -fi-fth largest in the state.
With the exception o-f the two poor snow years, skier visitation at Steamboat has grown steadily between 1975 and 1981:
Season Skier Visits V. o-f State Total
1975- 76
1976- 77
1977- 78
1978- 79
1979- 80
1980- 81
466,459
181,600
535,032
605,675
630,307
243,000
7.87.
5.07.
8.07.
8.47.
8.07.
4.47.
During 1980, Steamboat employed over 230 persons (full-time equivalents) with over 500 persons on the payroll during the height of the ski season.


14
Steamboat has matured into a major destination resort, with approx i matel y two-thirds of 1980-81 skier visits attributable to out-of-state, destination skiers. Skier origin estimates are:
Colorado
utsi de Other Routt
of Colorado Counties County Total
Day nn*/ jUjU/m 227.
Dest i nati on# 667. 127. 787.
Total 667. 127. 227. 1007.
^Destination skiers are persons staying overnight in association wi th
a day c >f skiing.
I n the course of the Routt County case study, survey data on ski er
expenditure patterns were collected and subsequently used in refining extimates of skiings economic influence on the statewide economy.


Storm Peak (ltUM)
Sunshine Peak OOJS)
-THUNDER HEAD
aipine nortiic ski area
SCANDINAVIAN
LODGE
IE BASE
SKI TIME SQUARE
STEAMBOAT iSKI TOURING CENTER TRAIL HEAD J
URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINE


15
SKI TIME SQUARE URBAN DESIGN GUIDE
GAGE_DAyiS_AND_ASSgCIAIESt_SKI_IIME_SQyARE_STUpYJ._JLJLY_198i
Since February of 1980, several property owners in the immediate vicinity of Ski Time Square, and the town of Steamboat Springs, assisted by the firm of Gage Davis and Associates, Inc., have been developing a ongoing plan to improve and enhance the Ski Time Square area. What has evolved is an Urban Design Guideand implementation program which addresses the multitude of problems existing in the area.
The existing problems in the Ski Time Square area are identified in the following principal categories.
1. Vehicular Access, Circulation and Parking
2. Pedestrian Circulation and Safety
3. Environment
4. Economic
Within this study, only the decisions that affect the Christy Base Project will be discussed in this synopsis.
Vehicular Access._Circulation & Parking
One of the first issues which required attention was that of access into the Ski Time Square area. The area of Village Circle Drive, Burgess Creek Road and Mt. Werner Road had problems of grade and configuration which combined during the winter months to create one of the most hazardous driving situations in the entire Steamboat Springs area. The consultant team, together with the City staff and


16
the Steamboat Ski Corporation developed a solution to that problem, the major portion of which has now been completed in conjunction with the overall improvements o-f Highway 40 and the Mt. Werner Road interchange.This access into the ski area and Ski Time Square has also been coordinated with the expansion o-f the Sheraton Hotel and Convention Center, to the benefit o-f all parties.
The second part o-f this general problem concerned the congestion during the winter season caused by skiers attempting to park in the area in order to gain access to the Christy Lift, combined with multiple demands by employees, commercial customers, service trucks and vehicles, people searching for lodging and skier buses and shuttles, all entering into a "dead-end" or single entry area. It was clear that this confused and congested state would only get worse as additional growth occured and, therefore, needed immediate action.
A solution to this problem could only be accomplished through the elimination of unnecessary traffic and the reduction of on-street parking in the Square. This involves the construction of a remote skier parking lot, consisting of at least 350 parking spaces served by regular city buses and a skier shuttle. A parking garage near the entrance, adjacent to Clock tower Complex, is to also be constructed. The construction of this 225 car facility at the western entry into the square would provide much of the short term parking by commercial business in Ski Time Square.
!ys_and_Transi.t_Fac i.l_i.tjLgs_in_Ski_Time Square
A bus turn-around and transit center will be constructed at the base of the Christy lift. As indicated by Wilbur Smith Associates in its previous study, this facility should provide stacking space for up


17
to eight buses, consisting o-f the city express and certain regular buses, the ski area shuttle, various lodge vans shuttles and taxis, it is not proposed that charter buses will utilize the Christy transit center; rather, these buses would use the Village Circle transportation center currently under construction. The Christy transit Center, when combined with reduced congestion and on-street parking on Mt. Werner Road and improved access to the Square, will enable the public transit system to operate at reasonable efficiency and will provide a considerably higher level o-f service to its users. The increased allocation o-f trips to the transit system serving the area will help create a situation where the buses in Ski Time Square can adequately serve their multiple demands in a safe and high quality manner.
The Christy bus center area will also provide access to ambulances which must serve the -first aid center located at the skier lodge facility as well as service vehicles for the restaurant and other lodge facilities. In addition, the turnaround may be used by the occasional auto who has come through the controlled access in search of commercial parking but who missed a turn or was unable to find such a space and who then must turn around and leave the area. This latter utilization will be kept at a minimum, however, in order to retain efficient flow for the busses and vans.
Pedestrian Circulation
Another critical area of concern in the Ski Time Square area which the Plan addresses is the lack of adequate and safe pedestrian circulation. Almost the entire public right-of-way is utilized at present by the automobile. The pedestrian is forced to walk on the


18
street, dodging traffic, in an at best unpleasant and at worse unsafe situation. This problem exists both in an east-west direction along Mt. Werner Road and between Mt. Werner Road and the Sheraton Hotel.
Indications are that many persons who could, and otherwise would, do not utilise the shops and restaurants in Ski Time Square because o-f this combined problem of vehicular congestion and inadequate pedestrian zones. If the area is to prosper over the long run, it is clear that improvement in both functional areas must be made.
It is essential that the entire pedestrian walkway system in Ski Time Square integrates, with the trails and bikeways as shown on the overall Steamboat Springs Comprehensive Plan.
Envi ronment
Once the foremost functional problems of vehicular and pedestrian circulation have been sorted out and resolved by the Plan, it is then possible to focus attention on the third major priority, that of improving the overall atmosphere and attractiveness of the Ski Time Square to make it a more pleasant place in the summer and the winter. This will be accomplished through the provision of trees, street lights, benches and flowers.
Rather than provide these pedestrian "amenities evenly throughout the area, it is proposed that in selected strategic areas which are natural congregation points, they be provided more intensively to create "feature areas." These might exist near the proposed Clock Tower parking structure, at the Tugboat area and at the Christy Lift area. Additional landscaping and an identification sign for Ski Time Square should be provided as well at the major entry to the area from Village Circle.


19
Imp lenient at ion
There are two principal methods by which the program may be implemented. The -first and preferred alternative provides that each property owner in Ski Time Square formally agrees to construct the Sidewalk and landscape improvements in front of his individual property, consistent with the guidelines established in the Urban Design Plan as may be adopted by the Town Council. These are referred to as private improvements. In addition, these owners will share on a pro-rated basis along with the Town of Steamboat Springs in the costs of constructing the public improvements not allocated to any particular property owner. These include the realigned roadway, the control booth and feature area at the west entry and the landscaped plaza and traffic circle located in front of the Tugboat. All other improvements have been assigned to individual owners. The major transit center at the Christy Lift along with the Parking Structure at the Clock Tower and the remote skiier parking area are proposed to be financed by the Ski Corporation.


SITE


Steamboat
CHRISTIE BA8E FACILITY PROPOSED SITE


21
SITE PROFILE


22
SITE ANALYSIS
LEGAL DESCRIPTION
A Parcel B, o-f Ski Hill Subdivision, which is a part of 53.1 Acres located in the S.W. 1/4 o-f Section 22, the N.W. 1/4 o-f Section 27, and the N.E. 1/4 o-f Section 28, Township 6 N. Range 84 W. 6th Principal Meridian, Routt County, Colarado. Its intended area is 1.7 Acres more or less.
SITE DESCRIPTION
The Christie Base Ski Facility will be located on a 1.7 triangular shaped parcel o-f land, which is at the base o-f The Mount Werner Ski Area, and at the back o-f Ski Time Square, at Steamboat Village. The site is owned by The Steamboat Ski Corporation, and will be developed according to The Urban Design Guideline for Ski Time Square.
Views: The major views off the Site are, Mt. Werner to the
East, and the Yampa Valley to the South with the Flat Top Mountains 60 miles away. The immediate view of Ski Time Square and The Steamboat Village westerdly are primary importance as the view of the Ski Mountain to the East.
Vegetation: Typically, Aspen and Evergreen with Mountain Grasses and Brush.
Typography: The ground surface over the majority of the site slopes to the west and south with an average slope of 13.8/4.


23
Water Shed:
(a) Total Area = 1,744 Acres more i or 1 ess
(b) Average Slope = 21.37/.
(c) Average Basin Elevation = 8,600
(d) F'reci pi tati on = 42.8"
(e) Basin Yield = 3, 173 Acre Feet
City Services:
(a) Drai nage 4 -foot diameter storm drain through Si te.
(b) Water Ski Time Square Drive, North end o-f Site.
(C) Sewage Ski Time Square Drive, North end o-f Site.
(d) Gas Ski Time Square Drive, North end o-f site.
(e) Electri ci ty Ski Time Square Drive, North end o-f site.
Existing Facilities: The existing -facilities located in Ski Time Square are quite vast, and would take quite a lenghty description to describe. A description however on the prominant buildings around Christy Base will serve as a suffecient description to building -forms surrounding this Site. First the point must be made o-f the lack o-f any one certain building type, so in attempting to describe a general image -for this area it is quite impossible. The buildings most prevalent to this area are Clock Tower Square, The Gondola House Facility, and The Sheraton Hotel.
Clock Tower Square is a rather small building housing commercial shops. It is a white structure with a clock tower, that is -fashioned in the old eastern town square image. The Building like most buildings in this village has no relationship


24
to the other buildings, however is located at the beginning of Ski Time Square and is the true image setter.
The Gondola House is a two structure building, one being of a glass box housing the actual Gondola system and cars, and two being a heavy gabled roo-f structure which houses the support facilities for The Steamboat Ski Corp. The Structure is more functional than Architectural and again has a poor relationship to any other buildings. A point to be made is that there is a majority of some type of Heavy Gabled Roofs with low pitches throughout the Village. If their is one element that is similar it is the Heavy Gabled Roof.
The Sheraton Hotel is a typical Sheraton Hotel that could be seen at any city in the United States, being of brick and glass muiltiple stories. Again this building has no relationship to any other building and is the most blatant.
Obviously Context here is quite chaotic, however recently there is an attempt to correct this problem. Ski Time Square Drive is being converted into a Pedestrian Street with access to Shuttle Busses and Emergency Vehicles. At present time The Torian Plum Project is under construction which is an attempt to tieThe Clock Tower Square building with the high rise structure of the Sheraton Hotel. The Torian Plum Project is a white high rise building detailed similar to the Clock Tower Square building. It is obvious that the town Square street scape is the most important image being surfaced for this rapidly developing
Vi 11 age.




CHRISTIE BASE SITE


VIEW LOOKING WEST


VIEW LOOKING EAST


SKI TIME SQUARE


:-r vmsfiKVI 1
CLOCK TOWER SQUARE


GONDOLA SQUARE





4 ^51 . * i k 4. L k u, u *v.\ .\
JflHf .^.ir eras i _
oj
ro
SHERATON HOTEL


TORIAN PLUM


34
SOIL AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION CHEN AND ASSOCIATES,INC.
SCOPE
This report covers the results of a soil and -foundation investigation -for the proposed Christie Base Ski Facility to be located within the Mt. Werner Ski Area, Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The report presents the most desirable and safe type foundation, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions, and design and construction details.
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
It is proposed to construct a ski base facility, which type of construction has not been finalized, but most likely will be either wood frame or masonry load bearing wall construction with a concrete siab-on-grade first floor.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Subsoil conditions at the site were quite uniform. In general, they consisted of 1 foot of topsoil or loose fill and 3 to 5 1/2 feet of interlayered, stiff, medium dense sandy clay and clayey sand overlying dense clayey sand and gravel to the depth investigated, 14 feet. The lower soils had been cemented with a calcareous agent. None of the on-site soils were expansisve. FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
We believe the most desirable and safe type foundation for the proposed building is spread footings placed on the upper natural soils. The following design and construction details should be observed:
(1) Footings placed on either the upper clays or upper sands


35
should be desiqned for a maximum differential settlement across the proposed building will be less than 3/4 of an inch.
(2) Local so-ft pockets o-f soil found within the loaded depth of the footings should be removed and the footings extended to the lower firm soils.
(3) Continuous foundation wall should be reinforced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 feet.
(4) Exterior footings should be provided with adequate soil cover above their bearing elevation for frost protection.
GROUND FLOORS
The on-site soils are suitable to support slab-on-grade construction. The existing fill should be recompacted to at least 95/. standard Proctor density at optimum moisture content. Slabs should be seperated from all bearing members with a positive expansion joint and adequately reinforced. A 4 inch layer of free draining gravel should be provided beneath the floor slabs to distribute the floor loadings and to break the capillary rise of ground water.
FOUNDATION DETAILS
The foundation wall for the proposed structure should be designed to withstand the lateral forces exerted by an equivalent fluid of 40 pcf. This pressure is based on the on-site soils.
The lower level of the building should be protected by an underdrain system. The underdrain system should consist of drain tile installed in a gravel filled trench around the perimeter of the structure at the elevation of the lower floor slab leading to a positive outfall. The gravel beneath the floor slab should connect into the underdrain system.


36
SURFACE DRAINAGE
The -following drainage precautions should be observed during construction and maintained at all times after the building has been completed:
(1) Excessive wetting or drying of the foundation excavation should be avoided during construction.
(2) Backfill around the buiding should be moistened and compacted to at least 857. standard Rroctor density.
(3) The ground surface surrounding the exterior of the building should be sloped to drain away from the building in all
di recti ons.
(4) Roof downspouts and drains should discharge well beyond the limits of all backfill.
CONCLUSION
The proposed building should be founded with spread footings placed on the upper natural soils designed for maximum soil pressure of 3,000 psf with design details and precautions given
as discussed.


CLIMATE


37
CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Climatic Conditions for Steamboat Springs. Colorado Longitude: 106 deg. 50 min. West Latitude: 40 deg. 30 min. North
Elevation: 6,770 feet
Average Mean Temperature: Summer 68 Winter 20 Deg. F Deg. F
Average Monthly Temperature :
J 15 Deg. F J 62 Deg. F
F 20 Deg. F A 61 Deg. F
M 28 Deg. F S 53 Deg. F
A 39 Deg. F 0-43 Deg. F
M 49 Deg. F N 29 Deg. F
J 56 Deg. F D 19 Deg. F
Average Snowf al1: Ski Town 170 Area 324 i nches i nches
Average Preci pi tati on: Ski Town 22.5 Area 42.8 i nches i nches
Gr owi ng Season: Town 5 i7 days
Surroundi ng Area 50-90 days
Higher Altitudes under 50 days


38
The Climate of Steamboat Springs can best be descreibed as a cool alpine climate with low humidity. Being located in the Rocky Mountains at an elevation o-f 6,770 -feet pleasant daytime conditions in Winter and Summer occur due to the thin atmosphere which allows a higher penetration of solar radiation.
The Prevailing winds are -from the North, controlled by the Yampa Vallley orientation which lies on a north-south axis. The prevailing air currents reach The Yampa Valley -from a westerly direction moving easwardly. Storms typically originate in the Pacific, and while passing over The Rocky Mountain Region loose most of their moisture to westward facing slopes. Storms originating from the north are much colder with little moisture; they are frequent in Fall and Winter months, and decrease rapidly in the Spring. During Spring the warm moist air from the south is carried in a north-wester1y direction to the higher elevations of the Rockies, where heavy precepitation occurs. The heaviest precipitation typically occurs at this time either as wet snowfall or rain.
Large variations in this rugged climate occur within short distances however a few generalizations apply to this area. Summer conditions are typically mild with warm days characterized by afternoon thunderstorms with cool night-time temperatures. Winter Conditions are typically cold characterized by heavy snow storms from the West and occasionally from the North. Significant local variations in temperature and precipitation and wind direction are possible; however this information is not available for this area.




39
ZONING INVESTIGATION
INTRODUCTION
Purpose: The regulations and restrictions established herein have been made in accordance with a land use plan, which plan is designed to:
A. Lesson congestion in the streets;
B. Secure safety -from fire, panic and other dangers:
C. Promote health and the general welfare;
D. Provide adequate light and air;
E. Prevent the overcrowding of land;
F. Avoid undue concentration of population;
G. Facilitate adequate provisions for transportation, water, sewage, schools, parks, and other public requirements.
H. Preserve natural amenities and desirable characteristics of the land while providing for progress.
Such regulations have further been made with reasonable consideration as to the character of each district and its peculiar suitability for particular uses with a view toward conserving the value of buildings and encouraging the most appropriate use of land throughout the city.(Ord. 480, 1(C), 1975).
Authorization: The zoning ordinance and zoning map of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, codified herein, are adopted pursuant to the authority confered by the home rule charter of the city. (Ord. 480, 1(C), 1975).
Application: The provisions of this title shall apply to all


40
persons, -firms, corporati ons, governmental agencies, state governments, -federal governments, local governments, municipal and quasi-municipsl corporations. (Ord. 480, 1(D), 1975).
REGULATIONS: C COMMERCIAL DISTRICT
Floor area: Minimum -floor area shall be as -follows:
A. Dwelling units
1. Single-family, six hundred square feet;
2. Multi-fami 1y, four hundred square feet;
B. Other uses by right, no minimum requirements;
C. Conditional uses, no minimum requirements unless otherwise
specified by the council. (Ord.480, 14(D) (1), 1975.)
Lot area: Minimum lot area shall be as follows:
A. Uses by right, no minimum requirement;
B. Automotive filling stations, ten thousand square feet;
C. Automotive service stations, thirteen thousand square feet plus an additional two thousand square feet for each service bay over two;
D. Other conditional uses, no minimum requirements unless
otherwise specified by the council. (Ord. 480, 14(D) (2), 1975.
Setback: There are no minimum requirements for setback from property
lines. (Ord.480, 14(D) (3), 1975.)
Building height: Maximum building height shall be three stories, except that a height of eight stories may be authorised as provided in Sections 17.44.030 of this title. (Ord. 480, 14(D) (4),1975.)
Residential density: Residential density shall not exceed one dwelling unit per two thousand two hundred square feet of land area for the percentage of the property devoted to residential uses. Such


41
percentage shall be calculated by dividing the total residential -floor area by the total -floor area. Not more than thirty percent of the total floor area of a development shall be devoted to residential uses. (Drd. 480, 14(D) (5), 1975.)
Regulations: All uses by right and conditional uses shall be subject
to the provisions of Chapters 17.42 through 17.44 of this title. (Ord. 430, 14(E), 1975.)


42
CODE INVESTIGATION
Uni -form
a'.
b.
c.
d.
Building Code 1982 Occupancy Classification:
A-2. 1 (No stage w/assembly room of less than 300 occupants) A-3 (no state w/assembly room if more than 300 occupants) B-2 (Commercial and Administrtive areas)
E-3 (Nursery and Day Care)
Building Type:
Type 5, 1-hour (unsprinkled -furnishing r estr i ct i ons)
Total Occupancy:
Approximately 700 Gross Floor Area:
Total o-f all levels is approsi matel y 25,000 s-f.
REQUIREMENTS FOR A2.1, AND A3 GROUP OCCUPANCIES ASSEMBLY/CAFETERIA, BAR LOUNGE
Sec. 602. (a) General. Buildings or parts o-f buildings classed in
Group A because o-f the use character o-f the occupancy shall be limited to the types o-f construction set -forth in Tables No. 5C and No.5D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Division 4 structures of open skeleton-frame type without roof, cover or enclosed usable spaces shall not be limited in area or height.
2. A fire-resistive ceiling for the roof-celi1ing assembly in one-story portions of buildings of Type 2 One-hour, Type 3 One-hour or


43
Type 5 One-hour construction may be omitted, provided the roo-f -framing system is open to the room and does not contain concealed spaces.
(b) Special Provisions. Stages and enclosed plat-forms as de-fined in Sections 417 and 420 shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 39.
The slope o-f the main -floor o-f the assembly room shall not exceed the slopes permitted by Section 3307.
Division 2.1 Occupancies with an occupant load o-f 1000 or more shall be of Type 1, Type 2-F.R., Type 2 One-hour, Type 3 One-hour or Type 4 construction, except that the roof framing system for one-story portions of buildings of Type 2 One-hour or Type 3 One-hour construction may be of unprotected construction when such roof framing system is open to the room and does not contain concealed spaces.
Division 3 Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
Group A assembly room having an occupant load of 1000 or more shall not be located in the basement.
EXCEPTIONS: Basements of buildings of Type 1 or 2-F.R. constructi on.
Division 3 Occupancies with anoccupant load of 50 or more, which are located over usable space, shall be separated from such space by not less than one-hour fire resistive construction.
Location on Property:
Sec. 603. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum


44
20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on a public street or on the access way.
Exit Facilities:
Sec. 604. (a) General. Stairs, exits and smoke proof enclosures
shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation, and Sanitation:
Sec. 605. All enclosed portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one twentieth of the total floor area shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant in all portions of the building during such time as the building is occupied. If the velocity of the air at the register exceeds 10 feet per second, the register shall be placed more than 8 feet above the floor directly beneath.
Toilet rooms shall be provided with a fully openable exterior window at least 3 square feet in area; or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the toilet facility, with 50 additional inches for each additional facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system capable of providing a complete change of air


45
every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be connected directly to the outside, and the point o-f discharge shall be at least 5 -feet -from any openable window.
Exit lighting in portions o-f buildings other than the stage shall be on a separate circuit -from that of the stage. Such exit lighting shall be controlled from the box office or other approved central control center located in a portion of the building other than the stage.
All registers or vents supplying air backstage shall be equipped with automatic closing devices with fusible links. Such closing devices shall be located where the vents or ducts pass through the proscenium wall and shall be operated by fusible links located on both sides of the proscenium wall and both inside of and outside of the vent or duct.
There shall be provided in an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex, and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
Shaft Enclosures:
Sec. 606. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33.
Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Sprinkler Systems:
Sec. 607. When required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.


46
Special Hazards:
Sec. 608. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall con-form to the requirements o-f Chapter37 o-f this code and the Mechanical Code.
All exterior opeinings in a boiler room or room containing central heating equipment i-f located below openings in another story or i-f less than 10 feet from other doors or windows of the same building shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assemblies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing. Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be seperated from the rest of the building by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy seperation.
REQUIREMENTS FOR B-2 GROUP OCCUPANCY COMMERCIAL, ADMINISTRATIVE
Construction, Height and Allowable Area:
Sec. 702. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in
Group B Occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, thelumits specified in Sections 505, 506, and 507.
(b) Special Provisions. Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales in Division 2 Occupancies shall be seperated from the public areas by a one-hour f i re-resi st i ve occupancy separation as defined in Chapter 5. Stich areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
Exit Facilities:


47
Sec. 704. Stairs, exits and smokeproo-f enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.
Sec. 705. All portions of Group B Occupancies customairly used by human beings shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Seperate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees four and both sexes are employed.
All water closet room shall be provided with an exterior window at least square feet in area, fully operable; or a vertical duct no less than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility, with an additional 50 square inches for each additional toilet facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system,
Shaft Enclosures:
Sec. 706. Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed, and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Special Hazards:
Sec/ 708. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this code and the Mechanical Code.


48
REQUIREMENTS FOR E-3 GROUP OCCUPANCIES NURSERY/DAY CARE
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 802. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in
Group E because o-f their use or charecter o-f the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5K and No. 5-d and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507, except that the area may be increased by 50 percent when the maximum travel distance specified in Section 3302 (d) is reduced by 59 percent.
Location on Property:
Sec. 803. All buildings housing Group E Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. At least one required exit shall be located on the public street or on the accessway.
Exit Facilities:
Sec. 804. Stairs, exits and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation, and Sanitation:
Sec. 805. All portions of Group E Occupancies shall be provided with light and ventilation, either natural or artificial, as specified in Section 605 (see Group A Occupancies)


49
Sec. 806. All Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33. Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed, and the enclosure shall be specified as in Chapter 17.
Sec. 807. Where required, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Water Closet Compartments and Showers:
Sec. 1711. be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in width and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required by Table No. 33-A, at least one such facility for each sex shall comply with the requirement of this section. All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed width of not less than 30 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms. This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position. Not more than one door may encroach into the 44 inch space.
2. A clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped. When such a water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 30 inches when


50
located at the end and a clear width o-f 34 inches when located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in -front of the water closet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructed access not less than 44 inches in width whall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the handicapped.
Water Fountains:
Sec. 1712. Where water fountains are provided. At least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front controls. When foutains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
Stairs, Exits and Occupant Loads:
Sec. 3301. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to
determine occupant loads and to provide minimum standards of egress facilities for occupants of buildings, reviewing stands, bleachers and grandstands.
(d) Determination of Occupant Load. The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area asigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table No. 33-A.
(h) More Than One Purpose. For determining exit requirements the capacity of a building or portion thereof which is used for different purposes shall be determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of persons.
(k) Changes in Elevation. Within a building, changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along any exit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more shall be by ramps.


51
Exits Required:
Sec. 3302. (a) Number of Exits. Every building or portion thereof
shall have at least one exit and shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A
In all occupancies, floors above the -first story having an occupant load o-f more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor.
Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall not have less than three exits.
The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of the floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the structure.
For the purposes of this section, basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories.
(b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the seperate exits.
(c) Arrangement of Exits. If only two exits are required they


52
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measure in a straight line between exits. Where three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the other will be avai1ab1e.
(d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit pasageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, complying to section 3304. See Section 3317 for Group E Occupancy travel distances.
(e) Exits Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony or exit passageway.
Exception: Exits are not to pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be constructed as intervening rooms.
Doors:
Sec. 3303. (b) Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of
exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.


53
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100 nor shall they be used as part of a fire assembly nor equipped with panic hardware. A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel not less than 200 square inches.
(e) Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exitway is not less than 32 inches.
(i) Change in floor Level at Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or a landing on each side of a door. The floor or landing shall not be more than 1 inch lower than the threshold of the doorway. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of less than 5 feet.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Sec. 3304. (b) Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of
10 or more shall be not less in width than 44 inches.
(c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
(d) Projections. The required width of corridors shall not be obstructed.
Exception: Hand rails and doors, when full opened, shall not
reduce the required width by more than 7 inches. Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half.
(e) Access tO Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction


54
from any point in a corridor to a seperate exit, except -for dead ends not exceeding 20 -feet in length.
Stai rways
Sec. 3305. (b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more
than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36 inches wide. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30 inches wi de.
(c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7 1/2 inches. Except as permitted in Subsections of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/B inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch.
Exception: 1. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 and stairways to unoccupied roofs may be constructed with an 8 inch maximum rise and a 9 inch minimum run.
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run.
(h) Basement Stairways. Where a basement stairway and a stairway


55
to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons -from continuing on into the basement.
(i) Distance Between Landings. There shall not be more than 12 -feet vertically between landings.
(j) Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrails shall be spaced approx i matel y equal within the entire width o-f the stairway.
Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing o-f treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than 6 inches beyond the top and bottom risers.
(o) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than four in 12.
(p) Headroom. Every required stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches.
Ramps:
Sec. 3306. stai rways.
Horizontal Exit


56
Sec. 3307. (c) Discharge Areas. A horizontal exit shall lead into
a -floor area having capacity -for an occupant load not less than the occupant load served by such exit. The capacity shall be determined by allowing 3 square -feet per ambulatory occupant and 30 square -feet per nonambulatory occupant. The area into which the horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits other than additional horizontal exits as required by section 3302.
Exit Enclosures
Sec. 3308. (e) Barrier. A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is provided at the ground -floor level to prevent persons -from accidentally continuing into the basement.
Exit Passageways
Sec. 3311. (a) Discharge. The walls o-f exit passageways shall be
without openings other than required exits.
Ai sies
Sec. 3313. (a) General. Every portion o-f every building in which
are installed seats, tables, merchandise, equipment or similar materials shall be provided with aisles leading to an exit.
(b) Width. Every aisle shall be not less than 3 -feet wide i-f serving only one side, and not less than 3 feet 6 inches wide if serving both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from the exit, cross aisle or foyer and shall be increased by 1 1/2 inches for each 5 feet in length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.


57
(e) Cross Aisles. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, -Foyer or exit.
(g) Slope. The slope portion o-f aisles shall not exceed 1 -foot -fall in 8 -feet.
(h) Steps. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in
elevation can be achieved by a slope conforming to Section 3313. (g)
No single step or riser shall be used in any aisle. Where the steps are used in an aisle such steps shall extend across the full width of the aisle and shall be illuminated.
Exits: Group E Occupancies
Sec. 3317. (c) Distance to Exits. 1. No point in a room in a building shall be more than 75 feet from a minimum protection as provided by an exit corridor, enclosed stairway or exterior of the bui1di ng.
unobstructed means of travel. Such paths of exit travel shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets, or other similar spaces.
Exits: Group H Occupancies
Sec. 3319. (g) Locking Devices. In buildings housing occupancies
in which the personal liberties of inmates or patients are restrained within the building and are constructed in conformance with the special provisions of Section 1002 (b), the Exterior doors may be


58
fastened with locks, provided that room doors shall not be -fastened by other means than doorknobs or similar devices which can be opened readily -from the corridor side without the use o-f keys or any special knowledge or e-f-fort.


59
HANDICAPPED CODE REVIEW
State of Colorado Handicapped Code Review 1975
Entrances:
At least one primary entrance to each building shall be useable by those in wheelchairs.
Public Walks:
Public Walks shall have a 48 inch minimum width, 5 perceant maximum slope, and extend 1 -foot beyond each side of a door.
Ramps:
Ramps will have a maximum slope o-f one vertical to 12 horizontal and have a level plat-form -for every 30 -feet o-f run.
Stai rs:
If possible the riser should not exceed 7 inches in height.
Rest Rooms:
Their should be at least one handicapped toilet stall in each toilet room. Urinals should be mounted 19 inches above the floor or at floor level. Lavatories should be accessible to individuals in wheelchairs. Mirrors and towel racks should be no more than 40 inches above floor level.


60
Water -fountains:
Water -fountains shall be accessible to the handicapped.
Telephones:
Telephones shall be accessible to the handicapped, and an appropriate number equipped -for those with hearing disabilities.
Doors:
Doors shall have a minimum clear opening o-f 32 inches, and level for at least 5 -feet on either side. Doors not intended -for use and potentially dangerous shall have knurled knobs.
Elevators:
Elevators shall have an opening on the same level as the entrance.


61
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSTRUCTION
State o-f Colorado
Colorado Model Energy Effeciency Construction
and Renovation Standards -for Nonresi denti al Buildings
Effective Date: July 1, 1978
Section 3 Design Conditions
301.0 Design Criteria
(a) The criteria o-f this section established the minimum requirements for thermal design of the exterior envelope of buildings and established criteria for the design of the HVAC systems and their parts.
(b) A building that is designed to be both heated and cooled shall meet the more stringent of the heating or coaling requirements as provided in this Code when requirements for the exterior envelope differ.
(c) When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein.
302.1 Exterior Design Conditions Outdoor Design Temperature:
1. Winter
Design Dry Bulb -22 deg. Far.
Summer


62
Desi gn Dry Bulb 76 deg. Far
Desi gn Wet Bulb 58 deg. Far
3. Degree Days Heating 8,000
4. Degree Days Cooling 18
5. Degree North Latitude 40 deg. 30
302.2 Interior Design Temperature
(a) Indoor design temperature shall be 72 deg. Far. -for heating and 78 deg. Far. -for coaling. Other design temperatures may be used -for equipment selection i-f they result in lower energy usage.
302.3 Mechanical Ventilation
Ventilation air shall con-form to Std RS-3 (ASRAE 62-73. Standards for Natural Ventilation). The Minimum column value o-f Std RS-3 -for each type o-f occupancy shall be used -for design.
402.0 Buildings Utilizing Nondep1etab1e Energy Sources
Any proposed building utilizing solar, geothermal, wind or other nondep 1 etab 1 e energy -for all or part o-f its energy source shall meet the requirements o-f Section 401 o-f this Code, except such nondep1etab1e energy may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption allowed for the building by that section. To qualify for this exclusion, such energy must be derived from a specific collection, storage and distribution system.
403.1 Solar Processes
The solar energy passing through the glazing shall also be considered as qualifying if such glazing is provided with:


63
(a) Operable insulating shutters or other devices which, when drawn or closed, shall cause the glazing area to reduce maximum outward heat -flows to those in accordance with Section 502.2(a) and Section 502.3.
403.2 Nocturnal Processes
This provision shall also apply to nocturnal cooling processes in lieu o-f energy consuming processes. The exclusion paragraph 403.0 shall also apply to nocturnal cooling processes used in lieu o-f energy consuming mechanical equipment.
503.1 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads
(a) The design parameters specified in Section 3 shall apply for all computations. Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems shall be determined in accordance with one of the procedures described in Chapters 24 or 25 of Std RS-1 (ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals) or an equivalent computation procedure.
510.4 Building Exteriors
In exterior spaces, the lighting power budget shall be based on the use for which the space is intended (for task performance, safety or security) and on effecient energy utilization.
(b) Facade Lighting
Facade lighting for power budget purposes shall be no greater
\
than 2 percent of the total interior lighting load of the building.
602.1 Building Envelope Requirements Design Criteria
(b) The proposed design may take into consideration the thermal


64
mass, orientation and exterior color of the building components, using verified criteria developed by a recognized research organization in considering energy conservation when approved by the Building
Official.


65
BUILDING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION CLIMATIC CRITERIA
The climate of anv geographic location and site is probably the most important concern in determining functionable construction of places for people. Changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, precipitation either as rain or snow affect the requirements of design as to how the building is experienced and percieved. Steamboat Springs is a cold alpine climate characterized by heavy snows and cold winter temperatures. Building form and Construction methods will have to succesfully deal with the problems encountered in a climate where excessive freezing takes place.
A problem encountered quite often is snow sliding into places of circulation and entryways. The Gable roof is a perfect method of directing snow fall to planned areas for winter storage, however without good planning snow sliding into unwanted areas can also happen. A rule to allways remember is that no roof should be pitched anywhere that people are planned to be.
Ice Dams can also be quite a problem in a cold climate; they are caused by heat from inside the building melting the snow on the roof. The surface of the roof thus must be kept either very cold or warm so that there is no termperature differential. The European cold roof system is a two layer roof system with outside air flowing through the two layers. If there is going to be a sloped roof, either a cold roof system or carefully detailed warm roof system should be used.
Flat roofs or almost flat roofs are sometimes preferable in the


66
mountains -from an engineering point o-f view. This is exceptionally the case when snow depth is great and the loads are heavy. If there is wind, snow can build up on the leeward side and be scoured off the windward side like a snow fence. This can cause unequal loading which can cause the building to collapse. For this reason, the ridge should always point toward the prevailing wind. On the other hand, in a flat roof, wind will tend to blow snow off the roof surface thus keeping loads to a minimum. Flat roofs should be internally drained meaining drainpipes being taken down through the warm part of the building.
Flat roofs typically do not develop ice dams, however they can develop leaking at the flashings along the perimeter. This is due to the expansion and contraction of the flashing metal against the roofing, which has less expansion and contraction characteristics. In this case flashings can be installed on top of the roofing to allow them to move independently.
Insulation usually means less heat loss, also a well insulated roof, will prevent quick snow melt and will avoid the problems discussed previously. Insulation which will not absorb moisture should be used with an impervious vapor barier toward the inside.
This will allow the wall to breathe, and interior moisture not to be trapped within the wall.
Plumbing fixtures should always be located on interior walls to avoid the obvious problem of freezing. Plumbing lines should be placed below the frost line outside of this building for the same freezing problems.
A standard practice in almost all base lodges is to try to avoid a walking deck with occupied space beneath. Almosty always these decks leak and are not very dependable.


67
Double glazing will always pay for itsel-f in -fuel savings. Annual heat loss through glazing in this environment is extremely high where investigation of even triple glazing is warranted.
Footings -for -foundations should always be well below the frost line and poured well before 30 days before the first expected freezed date.
Criteria for Effective Cold Roof Design
Roof Pitch Cold roofs are ineffective on any pitch less than 6/12. due to small vented spaces, frictional slowing of the air is high. Length of Run Longer length runs also create great friction and slow air movement. Guidelines:
5/12 pitch 16 foot maximum 6/12 pitch 20 foot maximum 7/12 pitch 30 foot maximum Runs over 35 to 40 feet should be avoided.
Flow Balancing The surface area of the intake vents should match the area of the ridge vent as closely as possible. Imbalanced situations restrict air flow.
Ridge Clogging The total air flow in the roof system must be great enough to overcome heavy 18" to 24" snow storms; which will attempt to clog the ridge vent with ice. Once the vent is clogged, the entire roof reverts to a warm roof system and ice will begin to form.
Heat Tape The sole purpose of heat tape on eaves is to alow the water farming at the bottom side of the snow pack to run down the roof and over the cold overhangs without freezing. To do this, the heating


68
coils must extend -from 6 inches above the exterior fall line to the bottom edge of the overhang. Loops should be spaced no further than 24 inches apart or ice will form between them, heat should be either controlled by a thermostat or set to run continuously from November to May.
Energy Effeciency Effective cold roofs will draw large volumes of air across the warmed bottom deck. This air movement removes the air film phenomenon and greatly increases heat and loss through the roof. Roofs must be well insulated and a sound vapor barrier must be installed or infiltration from the inside of the building to the roof vents will increase dramatical 1y.
Criteria For Warm Roof Design
The properly designed warm roof offers just as much performance as a cold roof with much less cost. The objectives of warm roof design are as foilows:
Roof surface should be designed to maintain a 36 degree temperature or lower when it is snowing and the building is heated to 68 degrees.
Bar joist and metal deck roofs are expecially prone to heat distribution problems. Often the cold roof system is applied directly over the metal deck, this creates a condensation problem. The cool air moving through the cold roof cools down the metal deck and bar joists below the dew point. Batt insulation between the joists may keep condensation from forming on the metal deck but the exposed
bottom cord of the joist will have heavy condensation.


69
One of the best ways to insure a uniform temperature is to install 2 layers of 1.5" rigid polyurethane insulation between the final roofing surface and the roof sheathing. Two layers are much better than one because the joints can be staggered 507. to reduce i nf i1trati on.


CHRISTIE
Base Facility
Steamboat


-UNCTIONS AND SPACE ALLOCATIONS
Ti cketi na:
* 3-10 Windows 1.000 S.F
* Easv Access to Mountain
Public Restrooms:
:* Minimum 12 Water Closets in Womens % Located Adjacent to lockers % Heavy use easy access
2,000 S.F
Public Lackers: 2.300 S.F
* Located Adjacent to Public Restrooms
% 15 Lockers/Bank. Do Not Run Banks
Continuously, separate to create congest i on.
Overnight Ski Storagae: 700 S.F
* Storage -for 500 Pairs of Skis
* Possibly located near Ski Patrol for Storagae of Injured Skiers Equipment.
Ski Patrol/First Aid 5,000 S.F
Ski Patrol:
* Soace and Lockers for SO Patrolmen (high ceiling)
* Offices to accommodate 6 supervisors.


* Boot Drying Room With Forced Air
Venti1ati on.
% Time Clock.
% Locate Patrol with Access to Dining Area -for Use as a Briefing Room.
First Aid;
* 4 Ambulance Bays, Opaque Lights,
Automatic Openers.
.fc Storage -for Packs, Blankets, Stokes, Tobaggans, Etc.
* Industrial Dryer(s) for Blankets.
* Space Heaters.
* Special Attention to Tobaggan Entry.
% Staff 2 Patrolmen. 1 nurse
(need desk area).
* 3 beds: his/her bathrooms.
* Waiting room for pareents of injured,
& Storagae for Medical Supplies
(Approximately 15 linear ft. for Base and Wall Cabinets), Injured Skiers Equipment, Mi sc.
* Mop Closet.
* Possible expansion for X-Ray and Casting, Mi sc. Ci r cu1 at ion.
Storage;
* Open Roof For Nastaar. Now Shovels.
40C


Loudspeakers. Signs, Cones, Etc.
* Open to Slope Side.
Secur i ty: 600 S.F
* Securitv Tra-f-fic Attendant.
* Direct Access to Drop-Qf-f Area.
Ca-f eter i al/Assemb 1 y Space 10,000 S.F
* Kitchen and Storage
* Scramble
* Seating Area (350 Seats) with Conversion to Full-Service Dining.
* Deck Seating
* Service
Commercial Ski Shop: 4,000 S.F
* Retai1 Sales
* Ski Eq ip merit Rentals.
% Ski Repair and Servicing.
Coctai1 Lounge: 3.000 S.F
% +21 Acres Ski
Dav Care/Nursery: 2,000 S.F
% Nursery Area
* Crib Area X Kitchen
# Restrooms


* Laundry Room
* Reception ____________
Net Total 32.000 S.F.
Circulation Mechanical and Structure __X 2 0___
+ S. 400 S i" 38.400 S.F.
Gross Total


74
CHRISTIE BASE TRANSIT SYSTEM
General:
The transit system -for Ski Time Square calls -for A Christie Base Transportation Drop Q-f-f Area. This area is a part o-f the site itsel-f and will have a tremendous a-f-fect on site planning for the complex. The drop off area will be a turnaround at the front or side of the complex, which will allow access to emergency vehicles and ambulances off the turnaround. There will have to be a pedestrian circulation that takes the people from Ski Time Square to the complex without interfering with the Shuttle Busses that will be picking up and dropping off skiers to the complex. If there is any one thing that is most important to the success of this project, the transportation and pedestrin circulation through this site is it. Extreme carefullness in site planning and cordination will have to be taken. The building must link the transportation center to the mountain lifts in a sensitive and dramatic way. The success of this
project will determine the success of Ski Time Square itself.


75
CHRISTIE BASE STAGING AREA
Staging Area:
A Staging area is an outdoor area at the base of a ski mountain, where lift lines are formed, where skiers can meet with one another, and where ski equipment can be put on and taken off. The Staging area typically experiences overcrowding and congestion during peak times of early morning arrival, lunch time, and late afternoon departure.
The Christie Base Facility will support the two Christie ski lifts and a proposed third lift at the back of the site. Skiers will typically use this area to meet up with others before going skiing, to meet others for lunch, and to locate friends and family before going home. The staging area should if passible be close to the Transportation center, so that skiers can get on and off the lifts without having to go through the building. The staging area should also be located close to services such as restrooms and lockers, while being an extension of some deckspace off the Cafeteria and Bar. These are the services used most repeatedly by skiers during the day, and which need the most immediate access to the staging area.
The space requirements for a skier standing with skis on is between an acceptable 22.3 sf per skier to an ideal 44.5 sf per skier. The acceptable space requirement for a skier walking with skis on is 30.5 sf while an ideal space requirement would be 61.0 sf. For a skier standing and holding their skis, the space required is between an acceptable 2.0 sf and an ideal 7.0 sf, while a clear height of at least 9 feet should be provided.


76
TICKETING
GENERAL:
The location of ticket sales must be adjacent to the main public, traffic, and security spaces, as well as being close to either the main entrance or the staging area. It is desirable to have ticket sales in one location with enough space to handle large crowds at peek periods. Accounting and ticket storage rooms will need to be provided for as well as a season pass photo room. The accounting room will need to contain a safe -for storage o-f daily cash -flow -from ticket sales, -food sales, and other related sales within the complex. Ticket sales windows can be either inside or outside: i-f outside a semi-enclosed area protected from the weather must be designed. A minimum of 10 windows will be required with immediate access to the staging area, other possible ticket sales areas can be provided with outside Gazebos.
SECURITY
General:
The Security Office is responsible for the control of traffic off the Chritie Transportation Center, and providing security for the mountain. This office must be located in an area which can serve the public needs while meeting the operational requirements of the mountain. This office should be located adjacent to the Ticket Sales area as well as having direct access and a view of the staging area.
A communication and monitor system that is out of view from the public will need to be provided along with security offices, and an isolation
room.


77
CAFETERIA AND ASSEMBLY SPACE
General:
The Ca-f eter i a/Assembl y space will be located adjacent to a deckspace that projects out toward the staging area. It will be desirable to have it located in close proximity or adjacent to the Apres Ski Bar. The seating must provide -for 350 persons, and be able to convert to sit down -full service dining -for conventions. It is important that this space have a view out to the bottom o-f the Christie lifts through the deckspace and or through unobstructed glass wal1s.
Kitchen:
The Kitchen will need to contain a pantry along with cold and -freeze storage. It will also need access to a main serving line, and will contain a bakery, grills, deep -fryers, and various ovens. A proper and adequate commercial dishwasher will need to be provided that can handle the peak demands put on a ski area cafeteria at lunch time. Trash removal and service will be dealt with by a service corridor to a loading dock area.
CQCTAIL LOUNGE
Apres Ski Bar:
The Bar will be located o-f-f the main deckspace, and as closely as possible to the Ca-f eteri a/Assembl y space. The bar will service the 21 year and older group, serving no 3.2 beer.


78
COMMERCIAL SKI SHOP
General:
The commercial ski shop will provide a retail ski shop, ski equipment rentals, and ski repair shop.
Skiers often need accessories during the day, it is important that the ski shop be located as closely as possible to the staging area and cafeteria, so that skiers can quickly get what they need and get back out to the slopes.
Entrance:
The entrance of the ski shop must have an area to leave equipment before people enter. This is to eliminate congestion from people carrying ski poles and Skis.
Retail Ski Shop:
The retail portion of the Ski shop will provide typical ski equipment, clothing and accessories. A dressing area must be provided for along with an area for ski boot fitting.
Accessories such as sun prevention creams and sunglasses can be sold behind the counter, along with hats, socks, and souveniers. Ski Rental Area:
This area will need to have two fitting platforms, shelves for boots, racks for skis and poles, and a front desk for employees to serve the customers from.
Ski Repair Shop:
This area will need to have a fitting platform, work benches with ski vices, and a front desk for employees to serve the
customers from.


79
FIRST AID AND SKI PATROL
First Aid:
The First Aid Room will be located adjacent or be incorporated as a part of the Ski Patrol Room. It will have to have direct access to the transportation center, and will need 4 ambulance bays with automatic openers. Special attention must be given to a toboggan entry. At this entry storage for packs, blankets, stokes, tobaggans and etc. must be provided for easy access for use. Storage for medical supplies shall also be provided along with 3 beds and a unisex bathroom. A staff reception desk will be adjacent to a waiting room for parents and friends of injured.
Ski Patrol:
The Ski Patrol Room will have to be located close or as part of the First Aid Room. It will need enough space and lockers for SO Patrolmen, and offices for 6 supervisors. If possible the patrol room should be located with access to the Cafeteria/Assembly area for use as a briefing room. A boot drying room with forced air ventilation will be provided adjacent to the lacker roam and restrooms.


80
DAY CARE CENTER
General:
The Dav Care Center should be located in an area which is easy to -find by the public, but out of the way from the main spaces where children can wonder off undetected. Locating the day care center close to any major use space should be avoided; noise from children playing can be objectionable to adults as well as noise from adults will also wake napping children. For this reason location of the Day Care Center should be located away from the Cafeteria and Bar.
Nursery Area:
A nursery area shall be provided with enough space for a proper play area, and sleeping. Sleeping mats will be provided for napping, with blankets and pillows. Storage for toys, mats, etc. will have to be properly provided far as well as a crib area for infants. A standard kitchen will be provided to keep the Day Care Center independent from the Cafeteria, as well as meeting the different feeding requirements of infants and young children.


81
PUBLIC RESTROOMS
General:
Public restrooms will be located in different areas of this facility, determined by relative closeness to the transportation center, the cafeter1a/assembly area, and the locker rooms. The spaces must be able to handle the major customer impact during peak use times of early morning, lunch time, and late afternoon.
Cri teri a:
The following criterial must be met in these restroom areas:
1. Dressing rooms must be immediately adjacent to the restrooms and it is desirable that they be interconnected internally to eliminate use of restroom stalls for dressing areas.
2. Ventilation standards for public restrooms must be increased 20V. to maintain adequate air change during heavy usage.
3. All wall sections are subject to damage from ski boots, and will need to protected with construction of a nonbreakable base mater i al.
4. A minimum of 12 water closets in each womens restroom must be provided, where a minimum of 6 water closets and 6 urinals must be provided in each mens restroom.
5. All lavatories must be supported by additional counterwork and under the counter, plumbing must be protected if possible.
6. All fixtures must be wall hung except for lavatories and parti ti ons.
7. Hand dryers will be provided at each lavatory and along the walls.


82
PUBLIC LOCKERS AND OVERNIGHT SKI STORAGE Public Lockers:
Lockers shall be located adjacent to public restrooms, and with direct access to the staging area. There will be a minimum of 15 lockers/bank, that will be seperated at 20 -foot intervals to eliminate congestion in the locker rooms. Benches shall also be provided in -front o-f the lockers -for peole putting on and taking o-f-f boots. Overnight Ski Storage:
This space it possible should be located near the Ski Patrol Room for storage of injured skiers equipment. Enough space shall be provided for lockers and racks to store a minimum of 500 pairs of skiis. Sit down dressing benches shall also be installed with proper circulation to prevent congestion from people moving about.


83
reference:
ATKIN. WILLIAM W. JOAN ADLER. INJERIORS BOOK OF_RESTAURANT3 WHITNEY LIBRARY OF DESIGN. NEW YORK, 1960,~212 PPS.
BROWNE, BORTZ b CODINGTON. THE_C0NTR1BUTJGN_OF_SKJJN5_J0_THE QQLQB6iDQ_EC0NGMYi_R0yiT_C0yNTY_CASE_SiyDY PUBLISHED DOCUMENT. COLORADO SKI COUNTRY USA. ASPEN, COLORADO, AUGUST 1982
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES SOI L_i<_FOUNpATI ON_I NVESTI GAJION UNPUBLISHED REPORT, CHEN AND ASSOCIATES, 96 S. ZUNI. DENVER. COLORADO. (303) 744-7105
DAHLGREN, KEVIN. VASQUEZ UNPUBLISHED THESIS. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER, COLORADO, MAY, 1978.
EAGLERipGE_pESIGN_cgMPETITIQN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. MCGRAW HILL PUBLICATIONS, FEE. 1982, NO. 2, PG. 40
GAGE DAVIS b ASSOCIATES. SKJ_TJME_SQyARE_UREAN_DESJGN_GUIDE
, UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENT, GAGE DAVIS b ASSOCIATES, 910 28th ST. BOULDER, COLORADO. 80303 (303) 449-1166
GAGE DAVIS b ASSOCIATES. SIIAMEOAT_WINTER_RESEARCH_PROJECT
. UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENT, GAGE DAVIS b ASSOCIATES. 910 23th ST. BOULDER, COLORADO, 80303 (303) 449-1166, JUNE 14, 1983
FENGLEF:. MAX. PESIAURANI_ARCHI JECiyRE_AND_pE SIGN .
UNIVERSE BOOKS, NEW YORK, 1971, 176 PPS.
GOELDNER, C.R., KAREN DICKE. COLORApO_SKI_INpLJSTRY .
BUSINESS RESEARCH DIVISIONGRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER, COLORADO, 1982, 88 PPS.
GOELDNER, C.R. C0L0RApQ_3KIER_I977~ZB_3EASON BUSINESS RESEARCH DIVISIONGRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER, COLORADO, 1978, 92 PPS.
LARSEN. BRIAN R. EAGLERIDGE_HQIEL UNPUBLISHED THESIS,
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER, COLORADO, MAY 1982.
LAWSON, FRED. BISJAURANT_PLANNI NG_.^_DES IGN THE
ARCHITECTURAL PRESS, LONDON, 1973, 180 PPS.
LAWSON. FRED, MANUEL_BAUprBOVY TOURISM AND RECREATION DEVELOPMENT, CBI PUBLISHING CO., INC.. BOSTON MASS., 1977, 210 PPS.
LESNICK, ROBERT E. BASE_FACpt_XIiESj._WI.NTER_P ARK_SKJ_AREAj.
WJNTER_P ARKj_COLORADO UNPUBLISHED THESIS, UNIVERSITY OF
COLORADO, DENVER, 1982.
MACKINLAY, IAN AND WILLIS, W.E. SNOW_COUNJRY_pE3IGN ,
RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN WITH THE SUPPORT OF A U.S. FEDERAL GRANT.


84
U.S. GOVERNMENT, 1977.
MQIELSJ__HQIELSi_RE3IAURANISJ_AND_BAR3 F.W. DODGE CORF.,
NEW YORK7 1951, 216 PPS.
b!96.IHSXAR_SKI_RESgRT ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, MCGRAW HILL PUBLICATIONS, VOL. 155 F'P. 141-156. JAN. 1974.
SKI__RESORJj_AVQRXAZj._FRANCE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. MCGRAW
HILL PUBLICATIONS, VOL. 155, PP. 119-126, MARCH 1974.
STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT
P.O. BOX 77117S
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, CO. 80477
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS PUBLIC LIBRARY STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, CO. 80477
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, CO. 80477
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, ROUTT COUNTY TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP, DENVER. CO. 30225
WHITE, KEN R. SJEAMBOAI_PHASE_I_ANALYSIS_CONCEPJS (DATE,
ADDRESS UNKNOWN)
WILLIAMSON, RANDY. QLOCK_igWER_SQLJARE UNPUBLISHED THESIS. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER, COLORADO, DEC. 15, 1978.
\


CHRISTIE
Base Facility at
Steamboat
PROJECT SOLUTION


85
CONCLUSION
The Christie Base Ski Facility Project became an issue of imaqerv. solving this problem was a new solution based not on a myth of what Steamboat Springs is historical 1y, but more of what the name Ski Time Square suggests as a visual image.
Downtown Steamboat Springs is an old ranching mountain community, which has a true visual image that is locked into a historical context. The Steamboat Village; where the Christie Base Project is located, however is a contemporary satelite community that is lacking any real image at all. The Thesis Problem
then was to create the Image that the Steamboat Village wanted to be. Ski Time Square is located on.The Mount Werner Road leading up to the Christie Base Facility Site, from the Clock Tower Square Building. During Project investigation a fascinating discovery was made to the true problem of the project; this being that the name Ski Time Square was only a name. Ski Time Square did not really exist, except for the name and the concept for it that was started by the location of the Clock Tower Square Building located at the entrance edge. The name Ski Time Square suggests expectations of a place of meeting for skiiers and where the imagery of Time with the concept of Clock Tower is incorDorated. Christie Base is a destination for Pedestrians from Ski Time Square and a transit hub for the Steamboat Village. It is also the transition point from Ski Time Square, to the Ski Lift Staging Area. A concept for Gateway, a Dominant building element, and the Ski Time Square Image became the theme of this Thesis Project.
'he Christie Base Proiect Solution is a two building facility that


86
is joined by a basement corridor and a upper level terrace. This solution creates a bridge over the stairway -from the Arrival Plaza from Ski Time Square, up to the Skiier Staging Plaza. The buildings are the same but opposite to create interest, while still being simple to understand. The Clock Towers were used for the breaking of the two buildings masses, while being an element to tie the two buildings together visually. They also set up a strong visual element to suggest a destination, while also being the visual piers of a gateway. The Staging Plaza is the Meeting Place that was imagined for Ski Time Square where the Upper Deck is a Terrace to observe people below and relax. Christie E-iase is now the Staging for Ski Time Square.




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ROBERT ROGERS SPRING 1984
THESIS PROJECT
CHRISTIE Base Facility
at
SteamLoat
88


3 ROBERT ROGERS THESIS PROJECT CHRISTIE at SteamLoat
SPRING 1984 Base Facility
68


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ROBERT ROGERS SPRING 1984
THESIS PROJECT
CHRISTIE Bate Facility
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100


APPENDIX


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SKI TIME SQUARE URBAN DESIGN GUIDE AND
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN SUMMARY
Introduction
Since February 1980, the Town of Steamboat Springs and the several property owners in the immediate vicinity of Ski Time Square, assisted by the firm of Gage Davis Associates, Inc., have been developing a plan and program to improve and enhance the Ski Time Square area. In order to accomplish this goal, a series of workshops and meetings were held with the various owners and merchants who have businesses in the affected area and with various interested citizens and public officials. Through this process the diverse opinions of each group were expressed, and compromises were made. What has evolved Is an Urban Design Guide and
Implementation Program which addressed the multitude of problems existing in the area and appears to have the support of the majority of the Town officials, the property owners and the merchants.
The Town Council held several public meetings to consider the various elements of the proposed Plan and in July of 1980, adopted the Ski Time Square proposal as a concept plan or guideline for future development.
Proposed developments In the area such as the Clock Tower expansion, the proposed parking structure to the west of the Clock Tower and Kutuk have been reviewed and approved by the Council contingent upon the finalization of the Ski Time Square Improvements Program, and both Sundance and Torian Plum are currently being reviewed on the same basis.
The purpose of this memorandum Is to update and refine the Ski Time Square Urban Design Guide and report submitted last July 15, 1980 and to deal specifically with questions of parking, phasing and implementation. This is being done in order to provide a reasonable background and common basis for the consideration of the various development requests currently under review.
Problems at Ski Time Square and Recommended Solutions
The problems which have been identified in the Ski Time Square area fall into the following principal categor i es:
1) Vehicular access, circulation and parking
- 1 -
12* r Soruce Street Boulder. Colorado 80302 (303' -149-1166
Gadr Davis AlA AlCP Peter Remmen APA Nolan Rosall apa Jeffrey Winston APA ASLA


2) Pedestrian circulation and safety 2) Environment 4) Economic
/ehicular Access. Circulation L Parkin? /
One of the first issues which required attention was that of access into the Ski
Time Square area. The area of Village Circle Drive, Burgess Creek P.oadd and Mt.
Werner Road had problems of grade and configuration which combined during the winter months to create one of the most hazardous driving situations in the entire
Steamboat Springs area. The consultant team, together with the City staff and the
Steamboat Ski Corporation developed a solution to that problem, the major portion of which has now been completed in conjunction with the overall improvements of the Highway 40 and Mt. Werner Road interchange. This access into the ski area and Ski Time Square has also been coordinated with the expansion of the Sheraton Hotel and Convention Center, to the benefit of all parties.
The second part of this general problem concerned the congestion during the winter season caused by skiers attempting to park in the area in order to gain access to the Christy Lift, combined with multiple demands by employees, commercial customers, service trucks and vehicles, people searching for lodging and skier buses and shuttles, all entering into a "dead-end" or single entry area. It was clear that this confused and congested state would only get worse as additional growth occurred and, therefore, needed immediate action.
A solution to this problem could only be accomplished through the elimination of unnecessary traffic and the reduction of on-street parking in the Square. This involved several steps.
a) Remote Skier Lot
All day skier parking had to be eliminated from Mt. Werner Road. This fact, combined with other situations, led to the decision by the Steamboat Ski Corporation to commit to the construction of a major remote skier parking lot which would be located by the stables to be served by both the regular city buses and a skier shuttle. This free parking would take the pressure off the need for skier parking in Ski Time Square and is being designed to serve employees of the base area as well, reducing much of the unnecessary traffic in the core base area. This remote parking lot will consist of at least 350 parking spaces located on approximately four acres of land and is scheduled to be opened by November 30, 1981. This effort represents the initial phase of a larger program
to enhance the day skier parking program, as outlined in the overall Master Plan previously considered by the City. (The commitment of the Ski Corporation to construct said facility is set forth in the agreement attached to this report.)
b) Clock Tower Parking Structure
A parking garage near the entrance, adjacent to Clock Tower complex, is to be constructed. The construction of this 225 car facility at the western entry into the square would provide much of the short term parking required by the commercial businesses in Ski Time Square and would absorb the additional
- 2 -


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commercial growth as well. This includes redevelopment of the Clock Tower and a certain percentage of the other existing commercial parking requirement. It is proposed at this time that the parking structure will be financed and constructed by the Steamboat Ski Corporation under arrangements which will not require public funding. Thirty of the parking spaces will be allocated to the 20 condominium units provided on the deck of the structure, with the remaining 195 spaces being made available to serve the commercial redevelopment in the area based upon the terms of the agreement contained within the report. The combination of the
remote skier and employee lot and the parking structure at the western entry, when completed, would enable at least one side or its equivalent of on-street parking in Ski Time Square to be eliminated immediately thereafter and for most of the on-street parking remaining to be placed on a short-term two-hour maximum basis. The agreement which describes the commitment to construct the parking structure is set forth as an attachment to this report.
c) Torian Plum
The Torian Plum's site will be an important focus of the Ski Time Square area. As the plan shows, it has considerable potential as a mixed use development to provide retail and commercial uses on the pedestrian, or ground floor and to serve as an important link between the Sheraton complex and the buildings along Mt. Werner Road. With its upper floors devoted to residential condominiums, it adds a considerable amount of "captured walk-in trade to the area. In addition to its condominium parking, this project will provide 55 spaces exclusively for commercial parking which will be made available to the general public who wish to shop or eat in the Ski Time Square area as well as to patrons of the Torian shops and restaurants. This parking is centrally located in the area and is more convenient to eastern and central portions of the Square than is the Clock Tower structure. The provision of these 55 spaces also justifies the reduction of on-street parking spaces from Mt. Werner Road, thereby enabling the Urban Design Guideline Plan to be completed.
d) On-street Parking
As indicated above, the present amount of "head in" parking on both sides of Mt. Werner Road would be reduced once the remote lot and parking structure has been completed. The question of how much reduction and when it would occur has been perhaps the major source of debate between the merchants who are reluctant to lose too much on-street parking and the other participating groups who feel that adequate commercial parking for the area can be maintained while enabling a major reduction of said on-street spaces to be accomplished. All parties agree with tne general concept and objectives of upgrading the atmosphere and appearance of tne area while still maintaining adquate access and available parking. The principle concerns deal with the nature of the specific solutions and their phasing. Certain merchants, such as the Wine Rack, need close-in available parking for their customers to a greater extent than do other businesses. In terms of phasing out the on-street parking on Mt. Werner Road, it has been agreed that: 1
1) No on-street parking will be removed until the remote skier lot with shuttle service and the Clock Tower parking structure or an interim surface lot are comp Ieted.
- 3 -


2) After these facilities are completed, a reduction in on-street parking equal to approximately one side of the street will occur, with the majority of those spaces devoted to short term use (2 hours) during the winter season.
3) This format will be monitored by all parties to determine if any additional reduction in on-street spaces is appropriate and feasible.
4) With the completion of the Torian Plum development and the provision of 55 additional parking spaces, some further reduction in on-street parking will be implemented as well, thereby improving the pedestrian amenity in the area. This is shown on the ultimate Ski Time Square Urban Design Guide.
e) Core Area Parking District
It is proposed that a core area parking district be created in the commercial core area of the ski base. This district, described in the attached map, will consist basically of the Ski Time Square properties which receive access from Mt. Werner Road, the Sheraton Inn, the existing Plaza commercial property and the proposed Plaza South project located on the east side of Village Circle. In this district, the commercial parking requirement will be one space for each 500 square feet of commercial gross leasable area.
A memorandum attached as part of this report from Transportation Development Associates outlines the principal reasons as to why the proposed parking ratio is adequate to handle the parking demands of the area. This discussion parallels the conclusions which were reached last year by William Stringfellow of Wilbur Smith Associates and ourselves who also believed that the proposed one space per 500 square feet standard was quite sufficient. This rationale included the large percentage of trips into the area which were by foot or transit. This was due to the combination of many beds within close proximity to the area, the large percentage of visitors staying in Steamboat who do not have access to vehicles, and the high number of trips into the core area from people whose cars are parked in the day skier lots or at their condominium and left their while they ski and/or shop in the facilities provided.
As mentioned above, it Is recognized that the remote parking lot will serve many of the employees and skiers who normally parked in Ski Time Square and created much of the congestion problem. The 350 spaces to be provided by November 30, 1981 at that location is considered as supplementing the parking needs of the Core Area District. Therefore, the 195 spaces provided in the Clock Tower structure will be available to meet new development needs in Ski Time Square, if and as appropriate.
In any event, it is agreed that at the minimum, an overall ratio of one parking space per 500 square feet of commercial space will De maintained in Ski Time Square and over the entire Core Area Parking District. This ratio utilizes as well the employee parking spaces located in the remote skier lot, which is functionally tied to the Ski Time Square and skier base area by the shuttle service and City bus routes. A reaonably high percentage of the commercial portion of spaces will be provided at the western entry into Ski Time Square which reduces the number of auto trips into the area that would otherwise occur. In addition to the immediate Ski Time Square parking, the Sheraton Parking
- 4 -


structure of 230 spaces will prcvide additicnal overflow parking facilities during the peak winter season wren tnat facility is likely not needed for Sheraton guests.
Management.si farhing
Much discussion has occurred to date concerning the question of how the various
parking facilities will be managed and controlled. While subject to possible
future modification, it is our recommendation that the following program be
imp Iemented:
a) Controlled access
During the winter ski season, from approximately November 30 to mid-April and between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m., a controlled parking and access gate will be operated in Ski Time Square. The location of this access booth has been modified from the previous proposal. It is now proposed to be located in the median to the west of the major pedestrian focal point. This new location, discussed in detail In the TDA memo, provides for a more functional and convenient method of controlling traffic than did the former proposal. It also permits a greater level of flexibility and less sense of control to the visitor than was previously possible. Only persons who are staying in one of the condominiums or lodges In the Ski Time Square area, persons who wish to shop, eat or drink in the Square, or key employees who have special passes will be permitted entrance into the Square. All City buses, lodge and ski shuttle and service vehicles will also have direct access Into the area. During this period, all other employees, skiers and unauthorized vehicles will be directed into the appropriate parking areas such as the Clock Tower or Sheraton structure, or the remote or close-in skier parking lots. It is presently anticipated that after 5:00 p.m. during the winter ski season and at all times during the spring, summer and fall months, no controlled access will be maintained. It is believed at this time that controlled access during those periods will be unnecessary and would only serve to hassle guests and visitors. Peak traffic demands of vehicle who do not need access to the area, composed principally of skiers and most area employees, do not normally occur during those hours. Also, during the off ski season it is not expected that the ski operated shuttle will be operational between the remote skier lot and the Ski Time Square area to serve the employees, therefore making it inconvenient for the remote lot to be effectively utilized at that time. Regular City buses may continue to service the remote lot on a year-round basis, if desirable.
b) Paid Parking
During the ski season while controlled access is in effect, it is intended that all close-in commercial parking will be "paid parking" in some form. This will help to reduce the demand for such parking by long-term parkers who will have free parking available at the remote lots as an alternative. Paid parking is also necessary in order to help amortize the cost of operating various parking structures. At this time no final decision as to the specific program or rates to be utilized has been reached. A uniform policy and rate structure should be operated in each of the "close-in" parking facilities. It is recommended that some form of ticket validation program might be considered by the merchants in


I
*
i
i
m
3
V
Ski Time Square whereby customers will be able tc receive coupons which can be turned in at the parking booths upon their leaving which will give them partial or total credit against their parking cost. This type of program has been successful in many communities where a paid parking program was instituted and might be well received in Steamboat Springs. A second alternative approach which has worked in other communities is one where the first one to two hours of parking are free, with charges being made for additional hours. Over the next few months a more definitive decision will be made as to the operational aspects of this program.
It is recommended that no paid parking be enforced during the off-season months. All parking during this period should be free which will be more conducive to attracting and maintaining business during those normally slow months.
c) Communications System
Finally, while details of the operating procedures remain to be resolved, it is anticipated that the control booth operator will have complete telephone contact with the condominium offices to verify guests who do not have proper identification or parking permits, with each of the parking structure attendants to know when the various facilities are full and with emergency services, should that need ever arise. It is believed that adequate and efficient monitoring will occur through this procedure. The new location of the control booth will permit visual access to be maintained at alt times which will help further in monitoring the area. In addition, individual projects such as Sundance, Torian Plum, Kutuk and Ski Time Square will have their own gates or attendant parking to monitor the use of their parking spaces.
Bus and Transit Facilities in Ski Time Square
A bus turn-around and transit center will be constructed at the base of the Christy lift. As indicated by Wilbur Smith Associates in Its previous study of last spring, this facility should provide stacking space for up to eight buses, consisting of the City express and certain regular buses, the ski area shuttle, various lodge vans and shuttles and taxis. It is not proposed that charter buses will utilize the Christy transit center; rather, these buses would use the Village Circle transportation center currently under construction. The Christy transit center, when combined with reduced congestion and on-street parking on Mt. Werner P.oad and improved access to the Square, will enable the public transit system to operate at reasonable efficiency and will provide a considerably higher level of service to its users. The increased allocation of trips to the transit system serving the area will help create a situation where the buses in Ski Time Square can adequately serve their multiple demands in a safe and high quality manner.
The Christy bus center area will also provide access to ambulances which must serve the first aid center located at the skier lodge facility as well as service vehicles for the restaurant and other lodge facilities. In addition, the turnaround may be used by the occasional auto who has come through the controlled access in search of commercial parking but who missed a turn or was unable to find such space and who then must turn around and leave the area. This latter utilization will be kept at a minimum, however, in order to retain efficient flow
6


for the buses and vans
A second important aspect of the transit system is the traffic "circle" and bus stop provided at the area in front of the Tugboat. Not only does this circle provide an important feature area and focal point for the pedestrian, but it also enables the regular citv bus unimpeded entry into Ski Time Square to pick up and drop off customers and employees at a critical central location. This bus stop is extremely important to the merchants in the area. The buses can then move around the circle and exit from the area without having to travel up to the Christy Lift area. This will enable the regular city buses to maintain adequate head time in their routing and schedule while also maintaining a high level of convenience for its clientele.
Pedestrian Circulation
Another critical area of concern in the Ski Time Square area which the Plan addresses is the lack of adequate and safe pedestrian circulation. Almost the entire public right-of-way is utilized at present by the automobile. The pedestrian is forced to walk on the street, dodging traffic, in an at best unpleasant and at worse unsafe situation. This problem exists both in an east-west direction along Mt. Werner Road and between Mt. Werner Road and the Sheraton Hotel.
Indications are that many persons who could, and otherwise would, do not utilize the shops and restaurants in Ski Time Square because of this combined problem of vehicular congestion and inadequate pedestrian zones. If the area is to prosper over the long run, it is clear that improvement in both functional areas must be made.
The principal steps necessary to improve the pedestrian circulation are indicated below and have been incorporated into the Plan.
a) Provide a safe, attractive and continuous pedestrian walkway along the north side of Mt. Werner Road from the Parking Structure past the KUTUK property, ultimately tying into the Christy lift area.
b) Provide designated crosswalks and walkways on the south side of Mt. Werner Road along the Torian Plum site.
c) Provide a continuous functional and attractive walkway system which integrates the Mt. Werner Road area with the Sheraton Inn and Plaza.
d) The primary interface of these walkway systems are the Torian Plum site and the Ski Time Square shops in the vicinity of the Tugboat. In this general area on the north side of Mt. Werner Road a natural plaza or pedestrian focal point has been created. In the initial stages, this area may consist merely of a widened sidewalk, benches and landscaping. As the area matures, it will be complemented by additional landscaping, flagpoles, sculpture, or a fountain, depending upon desire and budget. The Urban Design Guide indicates that this area will be developed with a sculptural fountain as a key element in the overall concept.
e) A walkway system has been incorporated into the plan, as well, which functionally
7


interconnects the Clock Tower complex and Parking Structure dirc+ly with the Sheraton Inn development.
f) The entire pedestrian walkway system in Ski Time Square integrates, as well, with tne trails and Dikeways as shown on the Overall Steamboat Springs Comprehensive Plan. This has been portrayed in the Urban Design Guidelines Plan for the area.
Env i ronment
Once the foremost functional problems of vehicular and pedestrian circulation have been sorted out and resolved by the Plan, it is then possible to focus attention on the third major priority, that of improving the overall atmosphere and attractiveness of the Ski Time Square to make it a more pleasant place in the summer and the winter. This will be accomplished through the provision of trees, street lights, benches and flowers.
Rather than provide these pedestrian "amenities" evenly throughout the area, it is proposed that in selected strategic areas which are natural congregation points they be provided more Intensively to create "feature areas." These might exist near the proposed Clock Tower parking structure, at the Tugboat area and at the KUTUK -Christy Lift area. Additional landscaping and an identification sign for Ski Time Square should be provided as well at the major entry to the area from Village Circle.
While it is clear that these Improvements are vital to upgrading the overall appearance of the entire area, it is also true that these environmental improvements can be phased at a somewhat later date than can the more functional improvements discussed previously such as sidewalks and roadways. As is the case with the sidewalks, the level of treatment can be varied, dependent upon the budget. For example, with sidewalks, asphalt, concrete or brick can be used in different areas. Once completed, however, sidewalks are relatively permanent. For this reason, we are recommending the use of brick pavers in areas of greatest visual or functional dominance, with combinations of concrete and brick sidewalks at the principal linkage points. These sidewalks will be constructed by the respective property owners whom the various portions of these sidewalks serve. Landscaping has the additional advantage of greater flexibility If the phasing is important. Smaller caliper or fewer numbers of trees, shrubs and flowers can be installed initially. With a conscientious program of maintenance, over time additional increments of landscaping can be provided which will add enrichment and color to the area. It should be noted, however, that a certain threshold of these amenities must be in place before a positive image is realized. Pedestrian scale street lights are an additional important element In the design which has not been over Iooked.
It is clear that considerable construction is proposed to occur in the Ski Time Square area over the next few years, both in the public right-of-way and on abutting private properties. It is extremely critical to the viability of the existing area lodges and businesses that a detailed construction management and phasing plan be implemented. This is necessary in order to mitigate the impacts of the construction and potential disruption which might otherwise occur.
It is premature to develop this program at such a preliminary stage in the design
- 8 -


of Ire various projects. However, in conjunction with the final review of projects in tne general Ski Tine Square area, each developer will provide a construction ranaoerert plan wrich will descripe a construction program for purposes of facilitating overall project coorcination. This plan will continue to involve the participation of various affected parties and interests. Economic Revital irut ion
Through the coordinated and phased improvement of Ski Tines Square area, consistent witn the overall Urban Design Guide, the goal will be to improve the year-round business conducted in the area. Most merchants and property owners agree that at present business is quite good during the winter ski season. This is especially true fer restaurants and bars which commonly record waiting lines for meals. The principal problem is in the summer months and the shoulder season during spring and fal I.
It is believed several factors will help to stimulate business during these periods. The Plan provides adequate clcse-In parking and improved circulation. To this, it provides a whole series of improvements such as landscaping and flowers, pedestrian walkways and feature "plazas" which are designed to make the area particularly attractive and inviting during these summer months. It will also work well with the ambitious plans of the Ski Time Square merchants and property owners as well as the Sheraton to promote aggressively the summer convention business once the facilities are completed. It is believed that with this effort I, Steamboat Springs will become successful in attracting a great many summer visiters and expanding the "year round" economy of the area.
The Design Guide also foresees potential for certain of the feature areas such as the one by the Tugboat or the area presently occupied by the tennis courts to become summer program oriented with outdoor concerts and events scheduled on a regular basis. The area located at the Southeast portion of the Torian Plum site has been specifically designated as a major summer feature area which will serve the area well during this important time of year. It will further add to the summer "ambience" of Ski Time Square.
Finally, projects presently being proposed such as KUTUK, Torian and the Clock Tower expansion wilil all add additional commercial and restaurant space as well as residential units to the area in a well-planned manner which will improve further the economic potential of Ski Time Square.
I'/hile it is believed that the functional changes of circulation and parking will help the area generally in the winter when crowds are greatest, the real benefit should be felt in the remaining months of the year where additional business is most needed.
The increased sales tax collections to be derived by the Town will have covious public benefits as well.
Jins Isr.epration
A detailed implementation program is currently being developed by the various property owners and the Town of Steamboat Springs. The preliminary fern of aqreerent which will be utilized to implement the Ski Time Square Urban Design Plan is at-rached to this report.


briefly, triers are two principal netnoGS Py which the program nay be implemented. The first ana preferred alterative provides that each property owner in Ski Time Sc-are formal ly agrees to construct the sidewalk and landscape improvements in front of his individual property, consistent with the guidelines established in the Llr;ar Design Plan as may be adopted by the Town Council. These are referred tc as private improvements. In addition, these owners will share on a pro-rated basis along with the Town of Steamboat Springs in the costs of constructing the puDlic imprcvments not allocated to any particular property owner. These include the realigned roadway, the control booth and feature area at the west entry and the landscaped plaza and traffic circle located in front of the Tugboat. All other improvements have been assigned to individual owners. The major transit center at the Christy Lift will be constructed by the Ski Corporation, and as previously mentioned, the Parking Structure at the Clock Tower and the remote parking area are proposed tc be financed by the Ski Corporaticn.
Under this agreement, the Town will have the right to commence construction of the Ski Tine Square improvements at any tirre appropriate for a fixed period of time as finally agreed, i.e. up to five years. At such time, the Town may reguire that the necessary funds as specified be deposited by the respective property owners in order to be available for construction. Each property owner at the time in which they redevelop or expand their buildings will be required at the discretion of the Town to either construct the sidewalk and landscape improvnen+s in front of their properties, as may be required in the agreement, or will place in escrow a performance bond on such guarantee as the Town may choose in order to insure that suen improvements are completed.
A second alternative which might be utilized in the event the above described approach is not unanimously agreed upon by the property owners is the creation of a special improvements district. Under this approach, so lone as a combination of the majority of the area affected and the majority of the proposed assessment is not opposed to the creation of the district, then the district may be created tc finance such improvements. Under this approach, a few property owners who might otherwise be unwilling voluntarily to commit under the first would be required to participate in the district approach so long as the majority was in support. The Ski Time Square project could be constructed under either alternative, and at this time, the first alternative is preferred.
Maintenance of the improvements would be handled in the following manner. The sidewalk and landscape improvements will be the responsibility for the respective property owners to maintain properly. The town of Steamboat Springs would be responsible for the removal of snow and the normal maintenance of the street right-of-way of the realigned Mt. Werner Road from Village Circle to the Christy Lift area. It is also possible that in the future a special maintenance district might be created in the Ski Time Square area or contractual arranagements entered into by the various parties which will further ensure a uniform level of na i ntenance.
Preliminary Capital Improvements ana Cost Allocation
Also attached to this memorandum as Exhibit II is the revised budget for the Ski Time Square Plan. It must be emphasized that these estimates are of a preliminary


a
*
n
nature based upon the most current data available for unit.costs at this time of year. Fall 1980. No effort has been made to account for future inflation, and no detailed engineering or design has been completed to date for the proposed improvements. Therefore, these estimates should be viewed as preliminary in nature. They are, however, the best availaale estimates at this point in tine.
These estimates are classified by public and private improvements, as per the proposed plan, and include a summary sheet and detailed estimates for each item.
The present estimates for the public improvements is $493,557. The various private improvements are estimated to cost $710,463. The total estimated cost for the Ski Time Square Improvements Plan is $1,204,040. This amount does not include the costs of either the parking structure or the remote skier lot which will be financed by the Ski Corporation.
*
A
- 11
1


SELECTED TABLES
STEAMBOAT WINTER RESEARCH PROJECT
June 14, 1983
Prepared for:
Steamboat Ski Corporation
Prepared by:
Gage Davis Associates, Inc. 910 28th Street Boulder, Colorado 80303 (303) 449-1166


TREND TABLES
Table 1.1 Comparison of Yearly Skier Visits by Month
Percent Change: Percent Change
1981-82 to 1979-80 to
1982-83 season 1981-82 1982-83 1979-80 1982-83
November 11,695 5,468 +113% 0
December 124,637 97,406 + 28 75,366 +65
January 173,782 133,495 + 30 140,890 +23
February 165,530 143,737 + 15 170,472 - 3
March 219,642 184,131 + 19 194,698 +13
Apri 1 43,822 49,242 - 11 48,649 -10
Total 739,108 613,479 + 21% 630,075 +17%
Table 1.2 Yearly Comparison of Skier Visits by Weekends, Weekdays
1982-83 1981-82 Percent Change:
Weekends 228,563 206,896 +10%
Saturday; B 114,889 100,266 +15
Sundays 113,674 106,630 + 7
Weekdays 510,545 406,583 +26 -
1.3 Yearly Comparison of Skier Type
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78
Local Residents 17% 22% 21% 21% 18%
Other Colorado 18 23 12 12 16
Day Skier ( 3) ( 6) NA NA NA
Overnight Colorado (15) (17) NA NA NA
Overnight Out -of-State 65 54 66 67 66
100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
n=l172 n=1106 n=1530 n=unknown n=unknown
- 15 -


Table 1.4 Yearly Comparison of State of Origin for Top 15 States
Steamboat Rank Steamboat Rank Steamboat Rank
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80
Colorado 33% 1 45% 1 34% 1
Illinois 5.7 2 5.4 3 4.9 4
Texas 5.4 3 4.3 4 5.8 2
New York 4.0 4 1.9 10 2.4 9
Cal i form' a 3.9 5 6.1 2 5.7 3
Florida 3.5 6 2.0 7 2.7 7
Wyoming 3.2 7 3.0 5 2.2 13
Mi nnesota 2.5 8 2.0 8 3.8 5
Neoraska 2.2 9 1.5 15 3.0 6
Ohio 2.2 10 1.3 17 2.0 16
Oklahoma 2.1 11 1.6 13 1.4 19
Kansas 2.0 12 *2.8 6 2.1 14
Mi ssouri 2.0 13 1.9 9 2.2 12
Wi sconsin 2.0 14 1.9 11 2.4 10
Massachusett: s 2.0 15 .5 20 2.1 15
Table 1.5 Yearly Comparison of Primary Regional Markets
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80
Colorado 33% 45% 34%
Mid-Americ. a 18 17 19
Southeast* 8 6 7
Texas 5 4 6
Midwest* 7 6 8
California 4 6 6
Mid-Atlantic* 7 4 6
Wyomi ng 3 3 2
85% 91% 88%
n=1020 .
*Mid-Ameri < :a consists of: Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, Missouri,
Kansas, Oklahoma and Iowa
*Southeast consists of: Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina
and Tennesee
*Midwest consists of: Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio and Indiana *Mid-Atlantic consists of: New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania


Table 1.6 Yearly Comparison of Total Colorado Representation
Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78
All Colorado 33% 45% 34% 35% 34%
Locals 51 54 61 - -
Front Range 42 38 29 - -
Other Colorado 7 8 10
100% 100% 100%
n=391 n=499 n=513
Table 1-7 Yearly Comparison of Top Metropolitan Areas
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study . Mtn. S tudy
1982-83 1981-82 1979- 80
Chicago 4.9 3.7 4.4
New York and Long Island 2.9 1.5 k
Dallas 2.5 1.6 1.5
St. Paul/Minneanolis 2.2 1.5 3.0
Los Angeles 1.9 3.1 2.8
Miami 1.9 1.2 1.8
Cheyenne 1.7 1.5 1.3
Houston 1.3 1.4 2.0
Atlanta 1.3 .8 1.3
Oklahoma City 1.2 1.3
Boston 1.1 .2 1.2
New Orleans 1.0 .4
n=1179 n=1099 n=unknown
*data not available
- 17


Table 1.8 Yearly Comparison of Metropolitan Area's Percentage Share of the State Market
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study
1982-83 1981-82
Colorado
Front Range 42% 38%
Local 111i noi s 51 54
Chicago New York 87 68
New York Texas and Long Island 98 81
Dallas 45 . 38
Houston Minnesota 23 i 32
St. Paul/Minneapolis 90 77
Florida
Miami 54 59
Wyomi ng Cheyenne California 53 48
Los Angel Georgia es 50 51
Atlanta 78 82
Table 1.9 Y early Comparison of Age Distribution
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat
Years 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78
Under 19 10% 10% 13% 11% 16%
20-24 19 22 22 25 25
25-29 23 28 24 27 24
30-39 30 27 26 24 23
40-49 13 9 10 9 9
50+ 5 4 5 4 3
100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
n=l171 n-1109 n=1520 n=unknown n=unknown
- 18 -


Table 1.10 Yearly Comparison of Sexual Distribution of Skier
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79
Male 66% 74% 70% 71%
Female 34 26 30 29
100% 100% 100% 100%
n-1169 n-1110 n=1525 n=unknown
Table 1.11 1 Nearly ComDarison of Marital Status
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79
Married 40% 37% 35% 35%
Single 60 63 65 65
100% 100% 100% 100%
n-1164 n=1089 n=1524 n=unknown
Table 1.12 Yi early Comparison of Annual Household Income
Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78
S 0-14,999 26% 22% 22% 26% 30%
15-24,999 18 19 23 24 26
25-49,999 39 28 30 30 26
50-74,999 7 13 13 12 10
75,000+ 10 18 12 8 8
100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
n=1146 n= 983 n=1326 n=unknown n=unknown
- 19


Table 1.13 Yearly Comparison of Skier Ability
Mtn. Study 1982-83 Mtn. 1981 Study -82 Steamboat 1979-80 Steamboat 1978-79 Steamboat 1977-78
Beg inner 6% . 5% ( 1) ( 4) 7% 6% 9%
First time out Beginner Intermediate ( 1) ( 5) 58 53 50 51 53
Low Intermed. High Intermed. Expert (17) (41) 36 42 (18) (35) 43 43 38
Advanced Expert (23) (13) 100% 100% (25) (17) 100% 100% 100%
n=l159 n=1098 n=l528 n=unknown n=unknown
Table 1.14 Yearly Comparison of Who Respondent is Vacationing With*
Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat
1982-83* 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78
Alone (self) 6 17 19 12
Family 29 23 21 24
Spouse (6)
Fri ends 41 37 37 40
Family/Friends 15 13 14 14
Ski Club/Group 8 8 9 10
Other 1 2 1 1
100% 100% 100% 100%
N=939
*This season does not include the local responses in this question; whereas other years do.
- 20 -


IPPTL 15, 1903 iaboat Ski Coro,
1 ;tion : Q6
SURVEY ANALYST
C Steamboat Mountain Study II I
Primary regional markets by zio code
rranged lodging enervations by: BASE Colorado Mid- America South- east Texas Midwest Califor- Miri-nia Atlantic Wyoming
ASE 828 141 183 83 53 78 41 77 27
! eservations : 1 142 39 20 10 14 13 10 C J 10
17.1 27.7 10.6 12.0 26.4 16.7 24.4 6.5 37.8
27.5 14.1 7.0 9.9 , 9.2 7.0 3.5 7.0
.. jet to lodge 2 231 50 62 23 12 15 6 16 9
27.9 35.5 33.0 r- OJ 22.6 19.2 14.6 20.8 33.3
21.6 26.3 10.0 5.2 6.5 2.6 6.9 3.9
Jirect thru airline 3 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 X 0
0.7 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.3 0.0
0.0 0.0 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 0.0
:+ht Chamber Assoc 4 44 9 11 10 l 4 1 2 3
5.3 6.4 5.9 12.0 1.9 5.1 2.4 2.6 11.1
20.5 25.0 22.7 2.3 9.1 2.3 4.5 6.8
T el agent 5 173 3 36 21 10 21 7 34 1
20.9 2.1 19.1 £5.3 13.9 26.9 17.1 44.2 3.7
1.7 20.8 12.1 5.3 12.1 4.0 19.7 3.6
:l club/group 6 111 18 32 9 7 13 7 11 l
13.4 12.8 17.0 10.3 13.2 16.7 17.1 14.3 3.7
16.2 £8.3 8.1 6.3 1t 7 iii / 6.3 9.9 8.9
K....T 7 121 22 27 9 9 to IL 10 8 3
14.6 15.6 14.4 10.8 17.0 15.4 24.4 18.4 11.1
18.2 22.3 7.4 7.4 9.9 8.3 6.6 2.5
2,. SQUARE SIGNIFICANCE 0. m
W-SGLiARE STATISTIC 1 £0.906
& 3.836 3.206 3.334 3.867 3.717 4.179 4.220 4.416
2.667
Page 1
Gage Davis Associates


MY 4, 2933 SwStfiY SnA-YsT
eacooat Ski Corp.
[ Steassaoat .rounteir* Study II 3
.estion : Q7
Hnaary re g-ior.aj i src.ets cy 210 COOS
. _w did you get to Colorado Mid- Soutn- ; exes Midwest Califor- Mid- Wyoming
Sssacooat? BASE America S£5t rr.a Atiariiic
r DM3Z. S4I 171 211 52 £4 £7 43 33 34
lvate car 1 431 158 111 ii 9? 32 14 11 31
45.8 92.4 52.6 11.5 35.3 36.6 w2 £ 13.3 3 H.2
38.7 25.8 2. c 5.3 7.4 7 0 w'a - 2.6 7.2
ntal car 9 Lm 185 1 22 36 16 18 4 34 0
19.7 0.8 10.4 37.5 00 4.C. 1 20.7 3.3 41.0 0.0
0.5 11.3 13.5 5.7 3.7 C. u 18.4 8.0
Stsacooat stage 3 32 1 i 6 6 0 n 0 8
3.4 0.6 2.8 £.3 0.0 4.9 14.0 0.0 0.8
3.1 18.8 18. S 0.0 1 O' r, ii.. - 16.8 0.0 8.0
cccmercial due 4 42 0 6 3 3 L 3 3 8
4.5 0.0 2.8 3.4 4.7 2.3 7.0 10.8 0.8
0.0 14.3 21.4 7,1 4.3 i /. . 21.4 0.0
ifUTEC DUS J 123 3 42 5 9 18 7 18 1
12.8 5.2 19.9 3.4 3.4 20.7 16.3 12.0 9 Q u. 0
7.5 35.0 7.5 5.0 1C. > 4 J. f 5.3 9.3 8.6
ckv Ktn. Airways s 88 0 12 20 3 D 1 C xJ 0
3.1 0.0 6.2 2c. 6 14.1 i. 7 14.0 26.1 0.0
0.0 15.1 23.3 10.5 5.8 7.0 7.4 0,8
:va:e oiane 7 12 1 t 1 c. j 0 T 0
1.3 0.8 0.5 1.0 3.1 3.4 0.0 1.2 1 3.8
8.3 8.3 6,3 16.7 25.0 0.0 8.3 0.0
chartered olane ! 3 11 0 4 1 0 u 0 1 I 0
1.2 0.0 1.9 1.0 0. . 0.0 2.3 1.2 i 0.0
0.0 38.4 9.1 18.2 0.0 3.1 3.1 i 3.0
osner 3 oo L__ 1 6 3 1 C J 0 p 2
2.2 0.6 2.8 3.1 1.5 j. 7 4.7 2.4 : r g J. J
4.5 27.3 13.8 4.5 22.7 3.1 3.1 3.1
...I-SS-jAEE SIGNIFICANCE 0.000
MEAN 2.711 1.310 2.733 3.533 7 P:?* Jl V 3. iaS 3.465 3.470 1.588
AaDASD deviation 2.180 1.170 2.262 d. .to 2.3?3 U. wO i *i 7r / L J-** 2.036 2.C02

Page !
Gage Davis Associates


mi
f.t'Oa
15,
1983 SURVEY ANALYST
Ski Com.
C Steamboat fountain Stuay 11 ]
Pace 2 Gace Davis Associates
t ion : Q6A
Primary regional marRets oy zio cope
jw far in acvance? BASE Colorado Mid- South- Texas America east Midwest California Mid- Atlantic Wyoming
£z 655 96 i 55 73 40 63 ~to uv 73 17
months 1 85 J 16 19 0 l 13 J 11 0 L.
13.0 5.2 10.3 26.0 5.0 20.6 16.7 15.1 11.8
5.3 18.6 22. A 2.4 15.3 5.9 12.9 2.4
_ font ns 2 23 A 33 13 10 1 1 A 8 11 0
15.1 A. 2 21.3 17.3 25.0 17.5 25.7 15.1 8.3
A. ? 33.3 ltJa i 10.1 11.1 8.1 11.1 8.0
-3 sontns 3 ro ea 17 A9 21 15 22 14 26 * A
30.7 17.7 31.6 28.8 37.5 34.9 46.7 r 13iJa D 5.9
8.5 24. A 18. A 7.5 10.9 7.0 12.9 0.5
rie month A 103 20 25 13 7 8 3 8 1
15.7 20.3 16.1 17.3 17.5 12.7 6.7 11.0 5.9
19. A 24.3 12.6 6.8 7.8 1.9 7.8 1.0
= than one month 5 167 50 32 7 6 9 1 17 13
25.5 52.1 20.6 9.6 15.0 14.3 3.3 23.3 76.5
29.9 19.2 A. 2 7 r 0.0 5.4 8.6 18.2 7.6
h. SQUARE SIGNIFICANCE 0.0m -il-SOUARE STATISTIC 121.718 E 3.256 A. 104
671
3.155
3.125
2.825
2.533 3.123
A. 353


SOIL l FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
chen and associates, inc.
CONSULTING ENGINEERS
96 S. ZUNI DENVER, COLORADO 80223 1924 EAST FIRST STREET CASPER, WYOMING 82601
SOIL AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR PROPOSED SKI PATROL BUILDING MT. WERNER SKI AREA STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO
Prepared for:
L. T. V. RECREATION DEVELOPMENT, INC. P. 0. BOX 1178
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO 80A77
303/744-7105
307/234-2126
Job No. 11,272
June 3, 197^


/
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONCLUSIONS 1
SCOPE . 1
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION 1
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS 1
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS 2
GROUND FLOORS 2
FOUNDATION DETAILS 3
SURFACE DRAINAGE 3
MISCELLANEOUS
FIG. I LOCATION OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
FIG. 2 LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
FIGS. 3 and k SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS
FIG. 5 GRADATION TEST RESULTS
TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS


CONCLUSIONS
The proposed building should be founded with spread footings placed on the upper natural soils designed for a maximum soil pressure of 3,000 psf with design details and precautions given as discussed.
SCOPE
This report covers the results of a soil and foundation investigation for the proposed Ski Patrol building to be located within the Mt. Werner Ski Area, Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The report presents the most desirabl and safe type foundation, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions, and design and construction details.
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
It is proposed to construct a two story building east of the old octagon building site at the location pointed out in the-field by Mr. Robert Ralston. We understand the type of construction has not been finalized, but most likely will be either wood frame or masonry load bearing wall construction with a concrete slab-on-grade first floor.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Subsoil conditions at the site were quite uniform. In general, they consisted of 1 foot of topsoil or loose fill and 3 to 5i feet of interlayered stiff, medium dense sandy clay and clayey sand overlying dense clayey sand and gravel to the depth investigated, 1^ feet. The lower soils had been cemented with a calcareous agent. None of the on-site soils were


- 2 -
expansive. The consolidation characteristics of typical samples of all the soils encountered are presented in Figs. 3 and k. The gradations of typical samples of the soils are presented in Fig. 5.
Free water was encountered at feet below the existing ground surface in Test Hole 2 only at the time of drilling.

FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
We believe the most desirable and safe type foundation for the proposed building is spread footings placed on the upper natural soils. The following design and construction details should be observed:
(1) Footings placed on either the upper clays or upper sands should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 3,000 psf. Under this pressure we estimate that total settlement will be on the order of
1 inch and maximum differential settlement across the proposed building will be less than 3A of an inch.
(2) Local soft pockets of soil found within the loaded depth of the footings should be removed and the footings extended to the lower firm soils.
(3) Continuous foundation walls should be reinforced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 feet.
(4) Exterior footings should be provided with adequate soil cover above their bearing elevation for frost protection.
GROUND FLOORS
The on-site soils are suitable to support slab-on-grade construction.
The existing fill should be recompacted to at least 95% standard Proctor density at optimum moisture content. Slabs should be separated from all


- 3 -
bearing members with a positive expansion joint and adequately reinforced.
A k inch layer of free draining gravel should be provided beneath the floor slabs to distribute the floor loadings and to break the capillary rise of ground water.
FOUNDATION DETAILS
The foundation walls for the proposed structure should be designed to withstand the lateral forces exerted by an equivalent fluid of bO pcf.
This pressure is based on the assumption that the foundation walls will be backfilled with the on-site soils. The lower level of the building should be protected by an underdrain system. The underdrain system should consist of drain tile installed in a gravel filled trench around the perimeter of the structure at the elevation of the lower floor slab leading to a positive outfall. The gravel beneath the floor slab should connect into the underdrain system.
SURFACE DRAINAGE
The following drainage precautions should be observed during construction and maintained at all times after the building has been completed:
(1) Excessive wetting or drying of the foundation excavation should be avoided during construction.
(2) Backfill around the building should be moistened and compacted to at least 85% standard Proctor density.
(3) The ground surface surrounding the exterior of the building should be sloped to drain away from the building in all directions.
(b) Roof downspouts and drains should discharge well beyond the limits
of a 11 backf i i1.


MISCELLANEOUS
Our exploratory borings were spaced as closely as feasible in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the subsoil conditions; however, erratic soil conditions may occur between test holes. If such conditions are found in the exposed excavation, it is advisable that we be notified to inspect the foundation excavation.
% V' qY*
V Of
\F C0\-O>
Rev i ewed
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES, INC.
By_________
Fu Hua Chen, P. E.
HH/dlr
cc: Mr. Robert Ralston, Architect P. 0. Box 7^8
Steamboat Springs, Colorado 80^*77


/\ Existing Ski Lift N \ Building
Hole 1
Sra 1p 111
?n'


DEPTH FEET
IIWIC
noie z
27/12 wc-17.7 dd-113.6 uc=9,756 LL-31 PI-16 200-76
15
LEGEND:
Fill, sandy clay, gravel,
soft,

34/9 WC-14.2 DD-114.0 UC-2,240 LL-30 PI-15 -200-46 23/6 WC-10.6 DD-126.3 -200=20
70/2 WC-6.5 DD-106.1 -200=59
brown, moist.
0
5
10
15
Topsoil, sandy clay, dark brown, moist.
Clay, sandy to Sand, clayey (CL-SC), inter1ayered, medium stiff and medium dense, gravelly, brown, moist.
Sand and Gravel (SC-GC), clayey, dense to very dense, calcareous, cementation in depth, brown, moist. I
I Undisturbed drive sample. The symbol 27/12 indicates that 27 blows of a 140 pound hammer failing 30 inches were required to drive the sampler 12 inches.
___ Indicates depth of free water at the time of drilling.
NOTES:
(1) Test holes were drilled Hay 22, 1974 with a 4 inch diameter continuous flight power auger.
(2) WC UC
PI
Water Content {%); DD
Unconfined Compressive LL
Strength (psf); -200 Plasticity Index (%) ;
Dry Dens i ty (pcf);
Liquid Limi t {%);
Percent Passing No. 200 Sieve.
# ,272
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
Fig. 2
DEPTH FEET


0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
Noturol Dry Unit Weight 113*6 pcf Natural Moisture Contnt 17*7 percent
il j i 1 1 'ill l l MM
1 LL I 1 1 j n \ I 1 | j
. N o ( Ml; novement upon v ; j I ! ett i ng.
i 1 1 t j rr i ! ! i
i i i i 1 i i
! 1 ! i !
* t i i i i i
Typ ca HT 1 sanple c s 3^ dy clay f rom lo 1 5 3t ^ii :' i ^eptth V-0
i 1.0 APPLIED PRESSURE !0 100 k r
] Natural Dry Unit Weight 11^.0 pcf Natural Moisture Content 1^t.2 percent
! i 1 !! i i TM t'ii JJil
! i i j-, i i i ! j Jj
i No movi j i sment 'upon we || tt i n 9-
i ! i j ^ Tii 1 : n j j 1 i | ; j i M i j
: 1 i i \ i i rn ;j|
i 1 v 1 * !! m J.LL
1 ! i 1 i 1 i : 1 1 !! e i 1 i i 1 2 i i i
Typi ca ! sar ! npl^ c f ve^' clayey i j sand Mil from1 Ho 11 ,1 i 1 at dept J 1 h 4' -0" e
I 1.0 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE k % *
Swell-Coruoliciation Test Result*


Compression
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
o 1 2 3 k
5
6 7
O.l 1.0 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Typical sample of clayey sand and gravel from Hole 2 at depth 9'-0.
Swell Consolidation Test Resu Its
ifl 1 IT)
Natural Dry Unit Weight = 126.3 pcf Natural Moisture Content: 10.6 percent



Ad< It or al nr1 - f! tc ft 11 p r -ess ion ^ due t undi 3 wei sr < rii :or \n, st a
_
l X >
i \ Q 1 N \ i
\ 1 \
JC

IT !
j I I [a




PERCENT PNkSlNi, PERCENT PASSING
Chen and Associates
Consulting Soil and Foundation Engineers
sample op Clayey Sand & Gravel from Hole 2 at depth 9'0.
HYQROMCTEW ANALYSIS j ~____________SIEVE A N A. LY SIS
GRAVEL 7 % SAND 34 % SILT AND CLAY 59 %
LIQUID LIMIT % PLASTIC 1 TV INDEX %
bA MPLE of Sandy C lay FROM Hole 2 at depth
GRADATION TEST RESULTS
CA-
#11.272
PERCENT RETAINED PERCENT RETAINEO


CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
TA B L E I
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
1 i i. / 2
JOB NO.
HOLE DEPTH (FEET) NATURAL MOISTURE (%) NATURAL DRY DENSITY (PCF) ATTERBER6 LIMITS UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSF) TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS PERCENT PASSING NO. 200 SIEVE SOI L TYPE
LI0UI 0 LIMIT (%) PLASTICITY INDEX (%) DEVIATOR STRESS (PSF) CONFINING PRESSURE (PSF)
1 4.0 17-7 113.6 31 16 9,756 76 Sandy Clay
-
2 4.0 14.2 114.0 30 15 2,240 46 Very Clayey Sand
9-0 10.6 126.3 20 Clayey Sand & Gravel
14.0 6.5 106.1 59 Sandy Clay


















OA-4


ISSN 0145-0506

GOVERNMCNr oociw
Limited circdi *
CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA ANNUAL SUMMARY
COLORADO
1982
VOLUME 87 NUMBER
: CERTIFY THAT THIS IS AN OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF 'HE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION AND iS COMPILED FROM INFORMATION RECEIVED AT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DA IA CENTER, ASHEVILLE NORTH CAROLINA"
28801
IACT i NG DIRECTOR
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER
I
10 3 3
i
NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL
oceanic and environmental satellite, data climatic data center
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION AND INFORMATION SERVICE ASHEVILLE NORTH CAROLINA


SEC REFERENCE NOTES FOLLOWING STATION I NOE >
c £ c £ r r
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O I- Z Z r- ix -4 x -4 o f > O m in -4 znio J>
X X 3 X
x rx x ini' m j *j o
z x x *no
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in
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r- z O
in in o a X rx m z z
x x x rx 3 r -
z z z x i- r
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o o o O O J Z 3 X
in in in m in in m in
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INDEX NO
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1 V i
o o o o o
f\j to & u
3 0 0 0 0 0
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3 0 0 0 0 0
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3 o o c
N M f
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O O 3 f-X rx c o > x I- X X ZX-40 O m s x X X Z rn
CD X l C 3 O rn t *> X 3
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< r x in z
z z x m
m m x c
r r r o in J r->--4CC
in in in m 2 z m t.
x z CD x rn o x or
z z z -mo >
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X CD r- 31 CD CD i
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4 o e> c
3 m o in m o *
o r i m t? rn m c J .
o X c r-
o o rn -r i
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O X c
Z in 3
x o c o m x ci m c -* x
x o x m->nrnr r- o n x r- m
Ci rn
C CD i r~ 3
o o i
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1 X X
I X J>
O X
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1 X J X
Cl Z O :
J ft ft u W ft W l
J o'o MNOJ
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2
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IdslJJCD'J'lkDO
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o^ftoNinasor unftoioNiniDO inooocTkflw in ^inc
U W *-
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to in in wNiNkiiNuiNs
LATITUDE
OOOCO jOOO 000000000 OOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOO 000000000 OOOOOOOOO ft t j> ir in j1 u in iuft longitude
i. ft o in x.
ji v r r.i u jt kC m iu in
xzzxxxrzz z x :
in in w n in ft ui ft nj u--infcwN-ft -* w
* kd ui o-kdiikDv/ftft''j m--oft-ifflOO ft
zzz zzzzzzzzz zzzzzzzzz rz:
in in ft* £ iti
i CD ff J) IT M 0 CD : z z z zzzzzzzzz
i O J ft >i J1 j ft i" uict ft -k< in %£ in kd in in ir ft a kii ft v .i i- iki u o x. t m a u) jiwiraa.'j'iirj) irft>xiinx-kia> i .DO*Ot(r ~j O - - ft n - j ji C./ -
i i, .n 4' iu. m jt w si in oin o O ftiDwwi'OO'Ow u> O ft n n-
f. u . c- o o o oonoooooo r o o C' a u i- ui i_ o ole*.>_ o o> w o * *n oi n o o in o o ft im" 1 J> c
ELEVATION TEE T
STATION INDEX


STATION J A N t e 3
. R Al G 4 S w n
CRESTED fc n T T E u
DELTA 9 0
DILLON I l DINOSAUR NATL MONUMENT Durango 0
0
EAGLE r A A AP 0
TORT LtwIS 0 a
PRUI T A 0 0
G A I [ A 1 SR 0 9
GLEN WOOD SPRINGS 1 N 0
GRAND JUNCTION h S 0 AP IIP 0
GRAND JUNCTION b E SE 0
GRAND LAKE I N w 0 0
GRAND LAKE b S S R 0
GREEN mountain C'Am B 0
GUNNISON 0
HAYDEN 0
IGNACIO 1 N 0
KREMMLING 1 E 0
lake c i t i 0
LEMON DAM M
LITTLE MILLS 0
MARVINE RANCH 0
MEEKER 2 0
MERE D 1 T m 0
MESA VERDE NAT PARK e 0
MONTROSE 2 0
N 0 T rt D A l E 0 J
NORWOOD 0 0
Curat 0
PAGGSA SPRINGS 0
PAL I S A D E B 0
P A 0 N I A 1 S W 0
parachute 0
PARADOX 1 W 0 £1
PITKIN 0
R A n G E L r 1 E 0
RE03T0NE 4 w e 0
RICO 0
R I 0 G W A T M -
RIFLE 0
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS 0 0
TAYLOR PARK 0 0
TELLURIDE 0 :
U R A V A N B 0
VALLEC 1 TO OAM 0 p
WILLIAMS FORK OAM M
TAMPA 0
YELLOW JACKET 2 W KANSAS ORAINAGE 0

A K R 0 N 4 E 0
AKRON F A A AP 0
BONNY LAKE 0
Burlington 0
CHEttNNE HELLS 0
Flagler 2 nw 0
h 0 l r 0 k e j
LEROY 5 wSw STRATTON s' ;
: M N L : L *i 3- 0 M m L o5 DEGREE u 111. i N b D l b R E E S FAHRENHEIT DAYS . L 0 R A o 0 19 8 2
iii. Af M A Y JUN J UL1 AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TOTAL SEASONAL NORM
0 1 1 8 3 1 U 0 e 0 0 0 <*0 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 n G 9 1 2 0 0 B 2 8 0 2 8 8 5 1 0 0 0 8 7 4 8 b 7 8
0 cy~ 2 7 4 2 9 9 3 0 4 b 3 0 0 0 1 4 2
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 5 0 0 0 2 b 1 1 0 8
c 0 0 3 4 9 b 6 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 7
0 0 0 0 - 0 B 0 0 0 7 3
0 0 9 1 1 5 3 0b 2 9b 9 b 2 0 0 B 0 B 7 0 8 7 5 4
u 0 1 5 1 2 b 3 7 7 3 1 7 9 8 0 0 0 9 3 3
0 0 0 4 b 1 7 9 2 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 4 4 9
0 0 3 3 2 2 9 4 4 3 4 1 5 1 4 4 0 0 0 1 2 b 4 114 0
0 0 2 1 I 7 5 3 9 3 3 7 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 10 0 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 B 2 4 5 8
J 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 5
0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 2 9 2 0 0 0 2 5 2 1 2 8
j 0 0 2 9 8 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 2 4
0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0
0 - 0 1 1 0 B 0 0 0 0 -
n B 0 0 1 4 7 B 4 2 . . _
j 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 4
0 c. 0 1 3 8 7 9 1 2 0 0 0 1 9 3
0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 5
0 0 0 5 7 1 9 1 1 3 3 3 4 B 0 0 0 B 4)5 5 8 9
0 0 4 7 9 2 4b 2 2 4 4 4 0 0 0 5 9 7 5 5 9
0 0 0 1 9 1 3 2 1 2 9 1 9 0 0 0 2 9 9 2 1 7
0 0 0 9 8 3 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 3 5 1 4 3
0 0 0 2 2 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 2
0 0 0 0 4 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 9 3 1 2 3
0 0 c 0 2 5b 4 7 4 4 1 7 1 5 9 0 0 . 12 17
0 n 0 8 4 2 5 8 2 5 9 5 3 0 0 0 b 5 4
0 0 l 0 t 2 4 3 3 0 3 3 7 7 7 0 0 0 8 7 0
0 0 1 9 7 2 7 b 2 4 2 4 4 0 0 0 b b 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 - 2 7 5 2 b 4 4 9 - 0 0 .
0 0 0 B 0 I 2 3 0 0 0 0 B 1 5
0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0
- - 2 0 u 0 .
u 0 0 3 8 1 9 3 2 0 5 1 4 0 0 0 4 5 0 3 4 4
0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3 r 0 0 0 0 5
w z c 8 9 1 0 7 3 0 I B 3 15 7 9 0 0 0 03 _CQ
0 0 0 0 2 8 5 0 0 0 0 4 3
- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _
0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 4 7 1 4 5 1 4 0 2 8 0 0 0 3 b 0
0 1 b 4 6 2 7b 2 b 1 7 3 0 0 0 b b 5
0 0 b 4 1 2 b 7 - 7 5 0 0 0 - b 7 9
J 7 4 8 2 b 4 3 0 4 9 2 0 B 0 0 _
0 0 9 b 4 3 0b 3 1 0 9 4 2 0 0 7 8 5 8 7 0
: 0 1 8 7 3 2 5 0 2 9 5 9 7 0 0 0 7 7 3 8 9 9
u 0 0 3 8 2 5b 2 8 3 b 9 1 0 0 b 4 7
0 0 1 0 5 9 2 5 J 2 4 3 4 7 0 0 0 b 1 2 8 4 9
J 0 s 2 3 4 2 3 2 b ? 0 0 0
1 2 8 3 4 ; 0 4 0 0 l 3 5 2 0 an
REEESENCE NOTES FOLLOWING STATION l NDE X


TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL (INCHES)
STATION w A h F B r- A R R N A 'i u Z
PRECIP
DC AR i-Vi 5- v l IP DEPAFi IuRE
PARA 0 0 x 1 H 1 . 5 > b 1 2 0 2 1
P I T K I N 2 . 4 4 . 7 * , 5 3 . 3 4 2 . 4 : c 9 b 6 7 1 2 i 0 3 6 -.13
P L A C E R V I L L E 2 . 2 2 > 2 i 2 3 * 5 1 2.97 ; i
P R A M I 0 M 8 4 2 j : 2 1 2 77 6 4
RANG E L Y 1 E t 3 . 1 b l . C d ) 2 c M
REDS T ONE 4 w M 4 . 4 b M . 7 1 M 5 . 3 1 b 4 1 3 4 6
RICO 3 . 6 2 >.29 2 0 t . 1 1 4 . 4 4 1.-4 3 9 2 5 .? 2 4 1 8 - .90
R I D G M A Y - 7 b
RIFl E 1 . 4 b . 5 4 . 3 5 -.41 1 . 2 b . 3 9 . 0 8 l.l7 . .3 1 5 5 -.37
S A R G E N T S 2 . 4 e . 5 1 1 . ;j L- 7 3 1.52 3 5
S H 0 S H ONE 2 . 5 j . b 5 5 7 - 1 1 ? 2 . 7 6 1.17 M . c 2 2 1 7 0 1 . 3 9 . C 2
S T E A M BOA T S P R I N G S 3 . I < . 7 0 1 1 9 9 5 M 2 , O 1 t c 7 1 b 0 . 4 7 5 7 -1.27
TACO M A 2 . 4 3 1 .'1 5 3 . 0 1 . 7 1 J 2 7 2 b
T A Y L 0 R P A R K 2 . 3 0 e s . 5 0 - b 6 2 6 5 1.29 1 j 0 -.19 9 5 - 2 t 1 0 0 -.04
TELL U R I D E 2 . 3 2 . b 5 1 7 8 . 1 J 2 2 9 1 7 . 5 4 - e 5 3.18 1.47 4 9 -.81
TROU T L A K E 4 . 9 4 2 3 0 4 . b L 1 4 1 2.2i 5 b
U R A V A N M 5 ' . 2 7 1 . 2 9 2 - . 3 9 1 4
V A L L E C I T 0 DAM / 2 9 4 1 e 2 2 6 9 9 e 2.05 1 4
MILL 1 AMS F 0 R k DAM 1 0 7
HINT E R P A R K / 3 . 0 0 7 2 1 . b 0 2 b i 4 4 7 , c 4
Y A h P A 1 . 4 9 3 4 9 7 1 3 4 2 9 2 3 9
YELL 0 H J A C K E T 2 H 1 . 0 4 1 1 7 3 . 1 7 0 0 . 9 2 T 0 0
- 0 I V I S I 0 N A L 0 A T A > 1 . b 7 . 3 4 . 6 1 -32 1 . 6 3 . 4 7 . b 5 -79 15 7 . 4 0 4 7 b 2
KAN s A S 0 R A I N A G E
BAS I N 0 3
A K R 0 N 4 E / 1 8 . 1 8 4 3 3 6 4.44 3 . 0 b
A K R 0 N F A A A P 1 b -.27 . 1 0 2 4 2 - b i . 4 7 -7c 4.40 1.31 3 . 7 2 . d 6
BONN Y L A K E I b . 4 0 0 6 7 £ 4 0 9 6. C 7
BURL I N G T 0 N 2 0 -.20 3 5 -.03 0 5 -.84 . 7 6 4 4 2 1.58 5 . 1 7 2 c b
CHET E N N E M ELL s 2 5 -.05 . 4 e . 2 1 3 b .35 9 c i ; 4.24 i = t 4 > C 2.00
FLAG L E R 2 N M 0 2 2 7 1 9 3 2 3 2 ' 3 . 3 1
FLEM I N G 1 S 1 8 -.27 0 5 -.40 1 . 3 v 2 7 . 7 6 - 9 . 2.72 . fc 7 5 3 1 2.24
G E N 0 A 1 M I 1 -.24 2 1 -.08 0 b -.76 . 2 b 3 -9 > 1.27 3 . 0 3 . 8 b
HOLY 0 K E M 3 1 . 3 2 . 0 3 1 . 1 2 2 r. . 7 6 1 7 5 2 2 4.39
I D A L I A 5 N N E M M
L E R 0 Y 5 M S w 0 8 -.51 . 1 0 -.42 1 0 9 2 0 8 0 3.46 . 4 1 M
OTIS 1 1 N E M M M . 3 7 £ 4 2.47 8 i r Q i* 2 17
S T R A T TON M 1 5 . 3 8 -.03 T 0 0 ? 5 9 o i 4 2 1.55 3 a i 1.31
V 0 N A I 7 -.25 . 3 1 -09 1 2 7 6 6 2J .74 4.79 2.06 J . b 9 1.39
H R A Y 2 b -.15 . 2 9 -.07 1 c - c 9 3 J - 5 c 6.20 5 1 0 7 4 0 2
YUMA 0 e -.39 . 1 1 -.26 2 1 6 1 *? 3 - b 7 4 4 o l f. j 7 0 2 1 9 7
- 0 I V I S I 0 N A L 0 A T A - > 1 7 -.22 . 2 8 -.07 3 b -.51 . 7 b . 7 4 4 b 2 1.74 e, 1 4 2 2 fc
P L A T T E D R A I N A G E
BAS I N 0 4
A L L E N SPA R K 1 . 2 1 M . 3 5 1 1 5 2 7 3 5.71 M
ANTE R 0 R E s E R V 0 I R 2 9 0 c 4 . 1 f. 1.93 1 5 b
BAIL E Y 4 1 . 0 1 . 2 3 -.29 2 fc . r 1 . 4 5 - 1 t 0 3.04 1 3 2 1 b 4 b
B 0 U L D E R 0 2 -.75 2 5 -,4b fc 1 1 2 3 3 - 1 4 b 5 1.44 1 7 1 5 9
BRIG G S D A L E 0 4 . 0 4 1 9 1 3 3 1 b M
BRIG H TON I N E 1 1 9 . 1 0 2 2 . 3 2 .) 3 2
B Y E R s 5 E N E M 3 1 . 1 7 2 7 1 3 7 9 . 3 t! - 1 5 4.07 ; 4 3 9 5 . 7 8
C A B I N C R E E K 2 0 7 4 c 5 4 i b 5 9 *7 0 l
CAST L E R 0 C K M 2 7 4 c c - . 4 2 4 1 e 2 4 6
C H E E s MAN 3 L -.13 . 2 J -.36 4 4 . 3 9 - 3 - i 5 i 5 4 4 2.07
CHER R Y C R E E K 0 A M 4 2 . 2 4 c -. 4 4 2 C w-
DENY E R H s F 0 A p i P 3 2 2 i . 0 91 - V j 4 l - < 4 x 4
EAST 0 N V I L L 1 N N H 2 3 3 4 1 1 3 c 1 4 4
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i \j i mi. r Ml i STA1 FON 1- l 1 :
PRE c'p
PdMDOv 1 m
P M K I N
PLACERVllLE 2 -
P 1 R A M 1 D 2 ;
RANGEL T 1 E 2.4
REDSTONE 4 u 1 9 9
RICO ? =
RlDGMr 1 b 5
RIFLE . 4 ?
SARuENlS 7 1
ShOSHONE - j
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS 1 3 1
TACOMA 2 2 4
TAYLOR PARK 1.2?
T E L l U R I 0 E i : :
TROUi LAKE 3 ? 7
URA V AN 1 3 r
VALLECITO dam 1 = t
williams FORK lam 1 ? 3
winter park 1 5
Y A M P A
IELLO JACKET 2 w 7 2
--divisional data > 1 2 e.
KANSAS DRAINAGE
BASIN 03
AKRON 4 E 2.2. j
Af RON F A A AP 2 r *{
BONNY LAKE i. < *
Burl 1 n G 0 n i j ?:
C h E r E N N E WELLS l 7 5|
FlAulER 2 Nw 2 = '
Fleming 1 s M
GENOA 1 W 3 ; =
HOLYOKE 2 2 9
IOAlIA 5 NNE M
LEROY 5 w S w 5.4:
OTIS IT N E
STRATTON 3 s
V 0 N A s 3 :!
WRAY 5
YUMA 1.3?
--DIVISIONAL C A T A > 2.54
platte drainage
BASIN c 4 1
allEnspark -
antero RESERVOIR 2 5 i\
bailey 2 fc 3[
B C U L D E 3.4-:,
BRIGGSDALE 5.2-
BRIGHTON ) NE / 1.5
B r E P S 5 ENE 1 1 '
CABIN CREEK
castle rock 2 7 '
ChEESman
CHERRY CREEk Din '5 =.
DENVER hSFO AP R
E A S f ONV I L L E 1 N N W ' 2 *
'N M >\' L1 L
L \ H'
HuM NOmMAL iINCHES)
5 4
1 u
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$FF R: r F f NC E NOTES r CL l Ofc i NG STATION INDEX
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! : 0 C l N 0 V D E C ANNUAL
I 1 ;s;cip ! :.em 1 HuR IP l E PAH UHL pre; DEPARTURE PRECIP DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE
c 3 b t . 4 * i e 9 1.31 1 8 9 0
i ; 1 i b 1 4 . 7 5 b 0 . 5 3 . 7 4 6 4 I b 05 . 30
* | 7 b . 5 7 8 9 . J / 2 7 4 2
J 2 3 fc * . 2 fc 19 0 1.49
4.18 ! e> b . 7 b . 5 0
2 8 13 2 b 5 3.44 1.55 M
4.3' 5.20 2 7 b 1 . 1 3 - 1 3 C 3 0 9 1.18 1.88 - . b 4 3 5 5 b 8.71
. b 4 3 4 4 1 2 9 0 3 1.05
- 5 3 ?. 9 2 0 1 1 2 2 -.02 1 5 b . 7 1 . 3 2 - . b 0 1 2 0 4 . 0 0
. 0 f 2 5 1 1 . 5 3 5 4 . b 7 1 b 0 b
4 J '* * 3 4 2 2 b 4 9 2 4 2 8 3 . 7 8 - 1 . 0 0 M 2 1 6 8
3 2 4 2 b 3 1 0 4 M 2 ft0 4 2 Ob . 1 1 2.04 5 b M 2 3 1 1
1 0 4.00 1 . 0 5 3 3 2 1.91 2 8 2 5
5 C b 4 2 3 5 1 . b 5 . B f -.42 1.30 . 1 7 . b 0 7 6 1 8 2 0 1.72
. 2 7 J 2 3 4 5 4 2 . 5 5 1 . 0 5 1.14 1 b 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 4 2 b 8 7 3 4b
. 2 4 2 3 M 2 3 9 19 9 M 3 b 5 4
. 2 3 4 I 1 i b 5 1 4 9 1.24 M 1 5 2 0
2 2 5.25 3 b 5 1 8 3 4 2 3 4 1 4
2.23 . 8 0 7 2 7 4
0 9 1.38 . 3 2 1.08 3.18 2 5 4 b
1 b j 1 0 7 1.02 . b b 1 4 7 8
. ? b 4.00 . 7 8 3.92 M 1.5b M 2 0 3 b
:r5 . 5 a 3 0 7 l . 7 7 2 2 - 2 4 1.70 . b 3 1.09 - . 2 2 1 7 7 2 1.88
. 5 i . 3 4 . 6 0 7 3 12 7 1 8 1 7
00 . 3 5 8 3 -.24 . b 1 . 0 3 2.76 2 . 3 8
3 <: 3 3 2 b 1 . 3 3 1.51 2 0 8 5
. 9 a t 3 5 1.31 0 2 b 2 .49 . 3 0 -.22 1.3 2 . 9 4 1 8 4 8 1 b 3
3 2 -.to 1.33 4 3 9 J -.17 . 3 1 -.18 . 2 4 . 0 4 1 b 7 5 . 4 9
7 (. 14 3 5 1 8 1 . 9 4 1 4 L 4
5 4 0 5 . 1 2 0 7 -.99 . b C -.09 . 7 8 32
t 3 r. 1 4 C 2 i . 2 4 .53 2 7 - .28 M . 0 0 M 1 5 . 1 8
- ' 1.70 . 0 b 3 4 -.79 . b b . 2 0 1.19 . 8 3 M 2 5 3 0
t 9 4 c 1 b 4 3 3 . 0 1 -1.11 5 1 -.01 1.48 1 1 b
7 4 . 7 7 1.31 . 0 7 . 1 3 - 0 i . b 0 -.18 . 0 8 . 3 0
15 3 . 4 0 3 7 - b 9 5 0 : o 2 . 7 3 . 4 b
. . 2 0 4 . 5 0 . 4 3 - b 4 2 5 - 4 4 M
- 4 " J c 2.15 . 7 4 . ; b -31 M M
2 3 B b 2 3 ? 3 b 4 5 - 5 t . 7 J 2 4 14 3 1 . 0 5 2 b 2 1 7 7 0
4 e .30 . 2 2 . 5 8 - b 3 . 2 8 -.28 . b 9 2 9 1 9 9 2 1.94
0 7 - i b 1.75 . 3 1 . 5 7 -.55 . 5 1 -.03 1.23 . 0 9 2 0 00 2.59
1 M M M . 8 5
* 2.87 . 2 1 . 2 4 . 3 2 1 3 3 4
. 6 2.14 9 7 1 . 2 0 . 0 9 2 5 -.39 1 b 5 1 i e 1 7 2 2 . fc 0
4 3 b 3 . 0 5 1 . 4 3 -.07 M 1.52 . 9 3
2.21 . b 5 . 3 C . 0 7
- * 1.2b e 3 . 4 1 1.72 l 5 5 2
2 .30 . 5 b . 7 5 1 9 . 8 9 . 3 3 1.30 . 9 2 M 1 b 1 9
- 2 5 3 . b . ? 2 1.24 2 0 b 2
. 3 : 3 7 2 . 6 . ? 7 M . 5 1 M 1 8 5 4
4 7 2 3l 2 3 2 1 9 4 9 9 -.14 1 -.52 2.53 2 . 1 0 2 3 b 1 9.13
: 3 7 2 1 2 M M
c* - i .38 2 5 l . 5 1 . 3 5 . J 7 -.29 2.34 l . 9 1 1 4 4 5 - 1 0 fc
i 2 3 0 1 . i 1 4 j 2.2b 2 1 09


l \ T . KM j L It IrLHA 1 URLS Ah b jlPARTURLs FROM NG RM/ TL ( - ) - RAC 0 9 e ;
: AN 1 LB M AH APR M A 'i j . \ JUl AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
STATION a => , I §: a s => % 3 at I => % £ | => a. l at
IX c £ £ fX 1 Cfc 0 a JE a | cr a. 0 ! at a. I a Cl c a a K 0 MZ S a. a a. 0 ML at C3
C 1 MARKON COChE TOPA C RE E H W 2 : i 7 19.5 3 3.6 4 0.4 3b 4 4 b 3 4 5.7 5 b. 9 b 3 9 b 4 6 5 3 9 4 2.3 .9.7 2 1.7 4 0.9 3 7.4 4 5.3
COLLBRAN 2 1.1 2 b 5 3 V 9 4 2.4 5 3.0 b 2.2 fc 8 9 b 9.8 59.3 4 3.3 3 3.0 2fc 4
COLORADO NA T MON 2 b 7 -1.1 3 1.4 - i 5 4 10 1 2 50.0 - L 5 9.1 -2.0 Lb .b -3.7 7b 5 -V2 7 3.4 1 1 b 4 | 2.4 4 7.5 fa 6 35.2 -4.1 29 8 - 5 50.1
CORTEZ 2 4 w 2.9 2 7.2 -5.5 3?.9 - 2 4 4.4 -2.8 5 3.1 J 2 b 2 2 2.4 M fa 9 5 - 3 fa 1 5 - 7 4 5.3 - fc 0 3b 2 -1.9 27.7 1 7 M
CRAIG 4 S W 14.9 20.4 3 3.4 3T.u 4 8 b 58.1 bb 3 b 7.7 5b 2 4 0 b 2 7b 20,9 4 1.0
CRESTED BUTTE 9 8 - 1 b 11.1 5 2 22.0 4 29 b 3.6 4 2.0 - 2 . 50.0 -VP 55 4 - 2 b 5b 9 b 4 8.4 1 3 3b 5 -4.0 2 1.5 -4.7 13.0 -3.4 3 3.0 -2.7
DELTA M 2 9 0 2 b 3 3.0 . 2 4 4 8 4 1 4 9,7 -1.0 5 9.9 . 4 b 8 4 . b M 7 3 9 - 2 7 4 C 2 4 b 3 8 . 2 4 8b -3.7 38 5 . b 3 1.1 2 7 851.2 . b
DILLON 1 E 15.8 - 2 17.5 . 4 m 2 5 l 2 7 2 9 b 3.2 4 0.7 -1.7 4 7.9 -2.0 5 4 5 -1.1 5 fc b 2 b 4 7.9 . 2 3 3.9 -5.0 2 3.7 2.2 16.1 - 4 ^13 4.3 - 9
DINOSAUR NATL MONUMENT 22.3 2 7.0 38.3 4 3 b 5 4.3 fa 4 7 7 4.1 7 4 5 b 2 3 4 4.Q 3 2.1 2 3.9 4 b 8
Durango 2 2.5 -3.4 2e 9 -1.3 3 7 b 1 c 4 4.6 3 52.5 - 4 b 0 2 . 0 b 7 7 2 fc 8 5 2 5 59 b 1 0 4 5.0 -3.8 3 5 b 1.3 2 fc 3 -1.7 45.8 - 7
EAGLE rAA AP 1 7 8 - 2 2 V 5 1 6 3 5 t 4 5 39 b -2.3 4 9.1 -2.2 5 7.5 - V 4 b 4 5 -1.4 b fe 3 2 b 55.9 i 4 1 fc -3.2 29.4 V5 2 1.3 0 4 1.7 - 5
PORT LEWIS 2 0 9 -2.0 2 4.o -1.3 32 7 1 9 4 0.9 . 4 4 7.8 -1.1 5 b 7 . 0 M M R5 7 . 4 M 4 2 b 3 0 3V7 1 8 2 3.3 -1.8 M
f fiul T A 2 1 4.0 3 2.8 4 2 ? 2 3 4 9 1 -1.5 59.2 -1.2 b ? 5 - 9 7 4,5 . b 7 4.3 1 9 Mb 1 8 -2.0 4 7 fa 4 5 3 fc 7 -1.1 M 3 1 2 3 2 M 4 9 9 - 7
G A T E M A I 1 S W 11.4 3 b 5 4 5.4 5 1.1 bC 3 b 6 3 7 b 9 75.1 b 5 9 5 1.5 4 0.5 3 3.1 5 3 0
GL ENMOOD SPR 1 NGS 1 N 2 4.1 2 6.1 J0.5 4 4.1 52.4 b 3 b 70.0 7 1 b 5 6.7 4 5.1 3 3.4 27.3 4 b b
GRAND JUNCTION WSO AP /'A 2i 2 - b i 4 ? 1 * 4 b 0 4 6 5V3 - 4 b 1 4 - 8 7 2.2 . 9 7 9.-1 . 3 8.2 2 6 fa 7 5 3 5V9 -3.0 4 1.2 1 4 33.0 3 5 5 3.5 . 9
GRAND JUNC T I ON b E lE 2 4 5 < 2 b 4 4.3 30.1 b 0 1 7 0.1 7 7.5 7 b 8 fc 5 8 4 B 6 38 j 30.5 5 1 b
GRAND lake 1 NW IV? 2 9 9.4 1 6 2 7.7 4 5 3 1.8 1 7 4 1 b -1.3 4 9.4 - b 5 7.4 1 3 5 6.5 3 b 4 9.4 1 2 3 fc 4 2.7 2 3.8 2 0 16.1 7 35 9
GRAND lake b SSM it .2 14.8 2b 7 3 1.5 4 2 2 5 0.0 5 fc fc 5 9.0 49.7 38 5 2 3 b 1 b 4 35.3
GREEN MOUNTAIN DAM M2 V 2 3 7 16.2 -2.9 3 2.6 5 3 3 b b -2.7 4 fc b -2.1 5 3 b -2.7 b l 3 -1.0 fc 2 2 1 4 5 2.1 -2.0 38 8 - 5 fc 25 9 4 4 1 7 5 -3.1 M 38 9 -1.3
Gunnison i : a I0.r - 4 c 30.i 5 3 3 8 b . 1 4 b 7 -1.1 52 7 -3.0 b 0 8 -1.1 b 2 1 2 3 52.8 8 39.8 -2.7 2 fc 5 -1.5 20.0 4 b 3 7 fa - 1
HA T DEN is. 1 b 19.6 - 1 7 3 4.4 5 5 4 0.1 -1.8 5V0 - 3 59.9 1 1 b 7 1 1 2 fc 6 8 4 b 5 7.2 1 5 4 3.1 2 0 26 b -3.1 20.4 - 8 4 2.4 . 5
IGNACIO 1 N 1 9 7 -4.0 2 4 b . 4 c 3 4 4 - V 2 4 2.9 V b 50.9 -2.1 5fa 7 -4.5 b 5 8 -2.4 fa 3 7 -2.5 5 1.0 -7.7 4 2.1 - fc 5 35.2 . 4 2b 0 - 5 42.8 3.2
k RE mml I NG 1 E i e 2 17.2 3 4. 3 7 5 4 V 0 5 4.1 bO 4 b 3 3 5 3b 39.6 2 b 5 19.7 39.3
LAKE C 1 T t ; b 9 16.4 2 9.4 3 fc 3 4 5.2 5 3 b M . 5 9.7 52.1 39.4 2b 0 19.3 M
v. E M o N DAM 3 9 b M 5 4.8 b V 7 b 1 7 M 5 4 3 4 0.8 3V0 24.3 M
LITTLE MILLS 15.3 19.5 3 U b M 3 4 1 4 4.9 5b 1 b 3 5 Mb5 2 M M * M M
MARvlNE RANCH 14.8 17.4 2 S 5 30.7 4 3.4 5 0 b 5 7 3 59.0 50.4 35 4 2 4.5 18.2 35.9
MEEKER 2 2 4.1 2b 5 3b 2 4 0.4 50 5 5 8.4 fafa 5 b 7 b 5b 8 4 3.5 3 1 5 25.4 4 4.0
MEREDITH i e b 13.4 2 9.0 3 4 7 4 5 9 5 3.' 59.8 b V 0 50 3 38 3 2b 1 2 1.0 3 V 9
MESA VERDE NAT PARK M 2 7 4 2 5 30.? - 2 e m 3 v 7 . 0 4 4.6 2 4 5 3.7 3.3 b 4 4 l 8 70.7 - 1 7 fc 6 7 1 5 b 1 0 3 0 M 4 b 3 b 5 3 fc 8 2.9 30.1 1.4 M 4 7 7 -2.5
MONTROSE 2 2 fc 2 . 2 30.0 - 1 b 4V2 3 * A 7 5 - 5 5b 5 -1.0 fa 5 8 - 3 7 2 fa 1 2.0 2 1 8 2.5 . 2 4 b 9 4.2 3b 5 - 9 29.1 . b 4 8.9 - 2
NOR ThDAl E 2 V 3 -1.7 2 7.7 . 1 3 7.7 3 9 4 3 t . 3 5 3.0 . 8 fee 9 . 4 b 8 4 2 b & 8 2 4 8 1.1 2 7 4 4.2 3.2 3 4.5 - 1 2 3.6 -1.8 454 . 3
NGRmOGO 2 3.4 . 4 2 fc 2 -VC 35 ? 2 ? 4 0.9 - V 9 50.5 -1.2 5 8.8 -VI bb 3 . 2 8 5.1 1 0 58.8 - 3 4 2.3 4 5 3 3.0 - 4 25 9 . 8 4 3.7 - 4
Curat t 1 4 25.6 3 2.7 39.7 4 8.3 5 5 7 b 2 8 b 2 b 5 4 b 4 V b 3 1.9 2b 3 4 2.2
PAGOSA SPRING' 14.-; -5.3 2 1.5 -2.4 3 2.1 1 2 4 0.6 - 5 4 8.7 - 8 5b 0 -1.5 b 3 b - 7 fa 5 5 2 8 5 b 4 1 1 4 1.3 -4.0 3 3.5 1 2 2 1 b 1.1 4 1.4 - 0
PAL 1SADE M2 8 1 -1.1 35.3 - 4 H.3 3 2 54.4 1 1 b 3 8 . b 7 3.3 1 5 80 1 1 3 7 8.3 2 4 b 7 3 -1.0 52.0 - 4 b 4 1.3 - 9 M M
PA ON 1 A 1 SW 25.1 3 0.0 4 0.9 4 7.1 5 £ 4 fa'fc 0 7 2.9 7 3.0 b 3 0 4 8.1 3 7.9 30 b 49.3
parachute 2 3.5 3 1.1 4 2.2 4 8.8 59.3 b 8 2 75.4 75 fc b 4 4 4 0 4 3 7.2 29 3 50.3
PARADOX 1 W 2 7 6 34 1 4 2.6 4 6.9 5 7.9 b 7 4 7 3 b 7 2 fa b 3 0 4 8.5 3 7 7 30.7 50.4
PITKIN 12 9 14.0 2 3 3 3 13 4 0.2 4 7.9 54.0 55.9 4 7.4 35 3 2 3.4 17.2 3 3 b
HANSEL' 1 E 17.7 2b 2 36 7 4 4 ti 5 4 U M 7 3.4 7 3.2 b 1 b M 3 3 4 2 3.0 M
RECSTONE 4 h M 1 9 U 2 10 2 9.3 3 b 5 45.? M 5 4 9 b 0 b b V 4 5 1.7 39.4 2 7.0 22.0 839.1
RICO 2 1.1 2 4.t 2 6.6 3 4.8 4 3.2 50.2 5 b i 5b 5 4 9.2 3 7.7 2 e 0 22.7 3 7.7
RIDGhAt M M M M 55.9 4 1.0 32.0 25 4 M
RIFLE 2 15 -1.7 2 7.0 -2.4 4 0.0 -2 7 4 5.3 -1.8 54 2 1.8 fa 2 7 - b 7 0.7 . 5 7 1.3 3 0 b 0 7 . 7 4 5.5 -4.0 35 7 . b 28.3 2.0 4 b 9 - 3
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS TAYLOR PARK 1 b ,b 9 5 - 1 7 1 2 15 .2 7 $ -4.2 -4.5 3 0 5 3 0 3 5.9 25 j -2.6 '-4.6 4 5 .'8 3b 8 -2.4 5.0 52 3 4 V 7 - 2 ,5 -28 fco.4 5 5 fa '2 bi-5 5 fc 0 s; 5 2\ 7i 4 b 9 . 5 -1.4 34.5 3 4.4 -3.2 4 8 25.9 19.8 -2.9 4.9 1 b > l 2 .2 -1.4 7 3 7. 0 30.7 -vo -2.2
TE L L UR I0£ 22.1 1 7 4.4 3 0.5 2 r i 7 b . 1 4 5 9 - 3 5 3 9 4 bO 4 1 T b 0 4 2 6 52.8 1 1 4 u 8 2.4 30 b - 5 24.4 1 0 4 0.3 . 5
U R A V A N 12 3. 1 3 .1. 0 4 2.2 M 4 7 7 M 5 9 .2 b e 0 74.4 M 7 4 9 fa 4 7 A 9 b 39.0 32.2 M50 7
vAllECHO D*m // 19.3 2 3.0 9 1 b 4 0.6 4 t 3 55.8 b 3 5 b 3 b 55 3 A 3 2 32.9 24.5 4 1.7
WILLIAMS FORK DAM 50.8 5 8 0 59 4 4 9 b 35 3 2 2.8 15.2 M
TAMPA 18 5 13.4 7?.9 3 3 b 4 4.2 5 2.5 59 b b 1 4 c 1 6 38 o 2 5 9 2 1.4 J 7 8
YELLOW JACKET 2 W 2 4.-1; 2 7 b 3 V C 14.5 5 3 5 b 3.2 b 9 0 fc 9 2 bO 7 4 b 3 5.6 2b 2 4 b 4
--DIVISIONAL DATA- 2 2. i Cj : 7 9 3 1 i 4 1 S 50 C 1.4 r : 2 ' fa6- 4 L fc fc 1 2 2 c fa 4 (- 4: : -4.0 3 1.: -1.9 2 3.0 . 2 4 2 7 * 4
$U REFERENCE NOUS fCUOMING STATION UOtl


STATION v> UJ I o X UJ £ O UJ X o _J r UJ Q LAS I b# OR BE LOW

COLLBRJN 11 7 / 22 - 2 0 2 / b 4 2 - 1 4 4
COLORADO NAT MON 1 0 0 7/21 2 / b 2 1 1 2 3
CORTEZ 1 b 2 / i 4 8 1 4 4
CRAIG 4 SM 8 3 7/23 - 2 b 2 / b 4 2 i ; 4
CRESTED BUTTE 6 2 7/21 - 4 2 / b 4 2 5 i b 5
OE L T A 1 0 4 7/21 2 1 / 8 2 1 1 5 4
DILLON 1 E 6 1 7/23 - 2 8 I / 7 5 b 1 1 5
DINOSAUR NATL MONUMENT i 0 0 7/21 - 1 2 / 5 4 8 1 5 4
Durango 8 c 7 / 2 2 - 1 2 i b 3 2 0 1 4 4
EAGLE F A A AP 85 7/21 - 3 1 2 l b 5 1 b
FORT LEMIS - 1 b 2 / b 4 2 0 1 b 4
FRUITA 1 0 0 7/28 - 2 0 1 / 7 2 1 1 5 4
CATER / T T SR 1 0 0 7/21 2 2 / b 2 8 1 2
GlEnmOOO SPRINGS 1 N 1 0 1 7/21 - 1 4 2 / b 3 1 4 4
GRAND JUNCTION HSU AP //R 1 02 b / 2 8 3 2 / 7 2 8 8 2
GRAND JUNC T 1 ON b E SE 1 0 0 B / 2 4 2 / 7 2 1 0 1 4 j
GRAND LAKE 1 Nh 8 5 7/24 - 3 4 2 / b 5 b 1 3 5
GRAND LAKE b SSH 8 3 7/24 - 3 7 2 / b 4 2 2 1 4 5
GREEN MOUNTAIN DAM 0 8 7/22 - 3 0 1 / 6 4 2 1 1 1 4
GUNNISON 8 1 7/21 - 38 2 / 7 5 b 1 b 5
H A r D E N 8 b 7/22 - 3 0 2 / 5 4 2 1 1 3 5
IGNACIO 1 N 8 8 7/21 - 1 8 2 / 7 4 2 0 1 5
KREMMLING 1 E 8 8 8 / 2 C - 33 2 b 5 b 1 5 5
LAKE CITr 2 b 1 / 8 4 2 2 1 b 5
LEMON DAM NONE N 0
little hills - 3 4 2 / 5 5 7 i 1 5
MARVINE RANCH 6 7 7/23 - 3 7 2 / b 5 / b i 5 5
MEEKER 2 8 2 7/22 - 2 3 2 / b 4 / 2 1 1 2
ME R E D 1 T H 8 0 7/22 - 2 8 2 / b 5 / b i 5 5
MESA VERDE NAT PARK 8 4 7/22 - 4 2 / b 2 / l 3 1 2 3
MONTROSE 2 8 b 7/22 - 1 c 2 / b 2 / 1 3 1 0 4
NOR T HD A L E 85 7/20 - 1 8 2 / 7 4 / 1 7 1 5
NORWOOD 8 3 7/21 - i 5 2 / 7 4 / 2 1 1 5 5
Ouray 8 b 7/24 1 0 1 / 7 4 / 2 0 1 b 4
PAGOSA SPR I NGS " 0 7/22 - 3 i 2 / b 4 2 0 i 5 4
palisade 1 0 4 7/22 2 - 8 i b 2
P A 0 N I A 1 SR 1 0 0 7/22 - 8 2 / 7 3 / b i b 4
PARACHUTE 1 04 7/22 - 1 5 1 / 8 4 / 8 i b 4
PARADOX 1 R 8 7 7/23 - 4 1 / 7 2 / 1 3 1 b 4
PITKIN 8 1 7 / 2 i - 32 2 / b 5 / 7 i b 5
RANGEL T 1 E - 2 5 2 / b 4 / 2 1 ' b 4
REDSTONE 4 u 8 7 7 / 2 * - 2 3 2 / t 4 / 2 1 1 0 4
RICO 8 4 7/22 - 2 4 2 / b 4 / 2 0 1 1 5
R I DG R A Y NONE N 0
RIFLE 8 8 7/21 - 2 0 2 / * 4 / 1 0 1 b 5
STEAMBOA T SPR 1 NGS 8 2 7/21 4 1 2 / b 4 / 2 1 8 5
TAYLOR PARK e o 7/21 - 5 4 2 / b 5 / 7 8 b
TELLURIOE 8 8 7/22 2 1 2 / b 4 / 2 1 5 5
U R A V A N 1 0 3 7/20 8 1 / 8 2 / 1 4 i b 4
VALLEC 1 TO DAM 8 8 7/21 - 2 2 2 > 4 / 5 l c 4
RlLLlAMS FORK 0AM NONE N 0
TAMPA 8 4 7/22 3 3 2 / 5 5 / b i l 5
TELLOR JACKET 2 R 8 3 6 ; Z. /> i 2 ' 4 / 2 0 4
LEMPERATJURE EXTREMES AND FREEZE DATA I F)
L A S ' : > R I N G M I N M U M F
OH
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5
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4 / 2
4/20
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5/12
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b / 1 5
5/13
5 /
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5 / b 5 / b / 2 7
5 / 1
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I R S T FALL MINIMUM
32 CR BElOw
i o /
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5 / -
10/11 10/ 3
2 5
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2 7
3 2 2 8
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28
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2 8 2 7
10 2 2 2 4 2 8 2 8
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2 6
2
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0/10
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0 /
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0/28 24
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0 / 7
0/12
0/10
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1 / 1
1 0 5
0/10
1/14
20 3 1 b 208 1 8 b b 5
285 1
1 5 7
2 1 8 2 2 6 1 5 7
COLORADO _____1962
NUMBER OF DAYS BEThEEN OATES
8 0 1 2 5 0 1 8 1 1 7 1 5 2 1
1 72
2 7 4
3 1 8
2 4 2
3 2 1
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1 8 b 1 8 7 1 5 4 1 7 3
1 5 7 1 5 7 1 8 b
1 5 7
2 7 4
305 5 2 0 0 1 7 I 1 7 3 1 8 1
254 25 1 3 3 1 5 1 5
20 7 1 8 0 1 b 8
5 2 18 : 7 2 1 55 1 7 2
3 1 5 3 2 08
1 5 208
b 8
1 8 b
2 7b 02 1
30 7
2 3 8 1 54 1 5 3
1 7 1
14 8
5 7 20 7 5b 1 5 7 1
e 4
1 4 *3 1 8 b
i e 4
5 3 1
1 7 2 7 3 1 50 222
1 5 7 1 72 1 54 1 4 8
1 5 3
1 5 b 1
155
2 ib
2 0 8 1 7 2
1 5 < 1 7 1
1 b 8
2 0 7 2 2 0 22b
3 3
2 0 5
I 7 3
1 5 7 1 2 2
1 5 3
2 4 8 1 7 1
1 7 1 1 3 7 2 1 b 8 4 8
1 1 4
1 5 7 7 3 1 5 3 205
1 7 4
1 35 1 5 1 1 5 4 1 3 4
1 5 7 1 34 1 1 7
1 / 1 1 5 1 5 4 1 3 4 1 6 8
20 2 1 5 3 1 52 1 5 2 1 4 8
1 7 5 1 8 b 1 8 1 5 1 5 i i 5 4 8 4
1 7 1
1 1 b
1 1 1 1 4 0 20 2 1 5 3
15 0 1 18 1 7 0 1 b 7 1 1 7 5 3 120
1 b
52 1 4 6 b
1 5 7 8 0 25
1 4 8
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1 20
1 1 3 1 0 3 1 1 7 88
1 7 0
1 5 7
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1 l 5
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5
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1 4 8 b 1 3 8b 1 Ob
1 1 2 1 0 1 75 05
5
1 1 4 1 7 1 4 0
1 5 3
1 2 5 8 8
117 2 7
148100 115 110
2 2 5 1 7 1 1 5b 1 52 172153
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5
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100 FOOT CONTROL SQUARE
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1882
GAGE DAVIS ASSOCIATES. INC.
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