SPIRIT OF PLACE
In Historic Public Landscapes
THE SPIRIT OF PLACE
TORIC PUBLIC LANDSCAPES
the National Register of Historic
THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
Table of Contents
THESIS FLOWCHART .............................................5
PART I: HISTORIC LANDSCAPE PRESERVATION
Chapter 1 Environmental Change and the Flow of Time ..........7
Chapter 2 Contemporary Landscape Preservation Philosophy ..18
Chapter 3 The National Register of Historic Places ..........27
Chapter 4 A Personal Philosophy .............................37
PART II: SPIRIT OF PLACE
Chapter 5 Spirit of Place ...................................40
Chapter 6 Components of Place ...............................45
PART III: IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURE
Chapter 7 Documentation .....................................56
Chapter 8 Procedure .........................................61
PART IV: VIDEO DEMONSTRATION
Chapter 9 The Video .........................................71
APPENDIX I ..................................................73
APPENDIX II .................................................81
APPENDIX III ................................................86
Some places, for some reason, evoke strong emotions from the people who experience them. Emotions such as nostalgia, security, excitement or awe. They are places where we tend to feel most alive, most at one with the world. I never gave this phenomenon much attention in the past. I simply accepted and enjoyed it.
Recently however, I have become more aware of this phenomenon. I began to wonder why some places evoke stronger emotions than other places. I thought that there must be some way to systematicly identify those characteristics that set these special places apart, and if they could be identified then they can be preserved for the enjoyment of present and future generations. Several examples come to mind of special places of my past that have lost the special qualities that they once had possessed. The "spirit of place" was not recognized and subsequently destroyed.
I suppose that I have always had a certain attraction for landscapes, architecture and relics of the past. I found them to be not only educational and interesting in their own right, but also to be a kind of security blanket, assuring me
that the world existed through many yesterdays and will continue into many tomorrows. It saddens me to see our past bulldozed over and forgotten. I feel that a strong connection to our past is a healthy attribute to living in the present and anticipating the future.
This thesis deals with these two ideas: preservation of the past and the spirit of place. I had strong feelings for both, but knew very little about either one. I knew that as a landscape architect, it was my responsibility to learn more about these two ideas in order to be the kind of landscape architect that I wish to be.
This thesis deals with cultural landscapes and not with natural landscapes or the natural environment. It recognizes those landscapes that were designed to be used and enjoyed by people. More specificly, this thesis is about the historic landscapes in our communities that were designed for public use.
The first part of the thesis takes a look at historic landscape preservation. It investigates the effects that environmental changes have on people. What are the psychological implications of a changing environment, especially the fast paced changes of today? What can be done to lessen the disorientation and lack of identification that often accompanies environmental change?
The investigation of change leads into an investigation into how the awareness of the flow of time in our landscapes can mitigate the harmful effects of fast paced environmental change. The exposed layers of time contribute to a recognition of the past and to the spirit of place.
I then wanted to develop for myself a philosophy of historic landscape preservation through the study of contemporary philosophies of today's practitioners in the field.
An investigation into the National Register of Historic Places and how they approach historic landscapes is included. I found that contemporary landscape preservation follows closely the guidelines developed by the National Register.
The next part of the thesis attempts to understand what this quality called genius loci or spirit of place is all about. What is it and how does one identify it? What are the components that create it? A procedure for identifying and documenting these components is then developed using the information collected in the study of historic landscape preservation and spirit of place. It is designed for use with the National Register nomination procedures for historic landscapes, but could also be used for any investigation of the spirit of place in almost any landscape, historic or not. The information collected during the process plays a vital role in any communities preservation plan.
The thesis concludes with a demonstration of how the procedure can be applied to a historic public landscape using video technology. The procedure is demonstrated in condensed form due to time limitations, but covers the complete process. The landscape chosen for the demonstration is Washington Park in Denver, Colorado because it has many of the attributes that can best demonstrate the procedure.
Chris Rossmiller May 1988
1. Develop an understanding and a personal philosophy of contemporary historic landscape preservation.
2. Answer the questions: What is the "spirit of place";
what are the components of it; and how are they identified?
3. What are the National Register of Historic Places proce-
dures for evaluating a historic landscape?
4. What is the connection between historic landscape preservation and "spirit of place"?
5. Development of a procedure for identifying and documenting the spirit of place in a designed historic public landscape as a standard procedure for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places.
6. Demonstrate how the procedure can be applied to an historic landscape using video technology.
The developed procedure can be applied to any historic landscape and become a vital part of a preservation plan.
Historic Landscape Preservation
1 Environmental Change and the Flow of Time
Most landscapes are designed by man and therefore they can change greatly under the influences of human intervention. Changing lifestyles of the people within the landscape results in changing the face of physical environment drastically.
What is often thought of as a "natural landscape" is in reality a cultural landscape that is an expression of a particular way of life in past times. An example of this is demonstrated in the way that the Enclosure Act in 18th century England drastically altered the nature of the agricultural landscape. The Enclosure Act was imposed on the landscape in order to make the landscape accomodate new agricultural methods. The Act imposed a grid over the rural landscape with little or no regard to landform. The resulting 5-10 acre fields were divided with stone walls, trees, ditches and hedges.
This was done under great protest by the English people because they felt that the new organization was unpleasing to the eye. Because the trees and hedges that were used to divide the land were started as seedlings, it took many years for the landscape to mature, but once it did it became accepted as "the natural English landscape", endowed by much history and celebrated by much literature.*
Although it is an artificial creation by government policy, carried out for the sake of agricultural efficiency, and under great protest from the users of the countryside (farmers and nature lovers), it is today as much a part of the English heritage as is the Tower of London.
Under a presentday threat of reorganization to accomodate agricultural methods, the English people are again protesting and fighting to preserve their "natural landscape", just as their ancesters did in the 18th century. Whatever the attempts are at preservation, it must be accepted that the landscape will continuously be transformed due to the changing needs of the people who use the landscape.
Many older, historic communities have attained fitness with their environment. Fitness here implies suitable interrelationships between the organism and its total environment.
The organism can be the human inhabitants along with their cultural landscape.
Communities that have fitness with their environment are those which were sited with respect to the landscape, built with local materials in a suitable local style, and are sensibly arranged to form an organic whole. Communities with fitness to their environment have a strong character; a powerful "spirit of place". Adobe structures of the southwest United States or the high pitched roofs in Switzerland are examples of how the charm of a civilization can be directly derived from their fitness with their natural surroundings.
Fitness also has more subtle and compelling cultural determinants. Successful forms of housing and landscapes are the outward manifestations of an underlying social philosophy, such as the Craftsman Movement or the City Beautiful Movement in this country. The landscapes and structures express the
habits, tastes and aspirations of the people who created them.
A community will acheive fitness if it symbolizes a way of
life, or an ideal; if its fundamental needs are truthfully
Fitness implies a stability in the interrelationship of man and environment. In the past fitness developed spontaneously and progressively in the course of everyday life, but that is rarely the case today. Environmental change today
happens too fast. What is here today could very likely dis-3
Man is a very adaptive animal. His adaptability has led him to be functional throughout this world and beyond. Under usual conditions mans fitness depends on his adaptive responses to the forces of his total environment, which includes the natural world, the manmade world, and his perceptual and conceptual world.
Although man is adaptable, today he can not keep pace with the accellerated technical and social changes in the world. There is not enough time to achieve fitness through spontaneous adaptive processes.
Mans attitude towards our planet is an anthropomorphic one. He transforms the earths surface for the sake of human needs, no matter what the consequences may sometimes be. The question is not whether man will or will not alter natural systems but rather when he will do it.
Living systems are irreversibly changed by almost any' kind of life experience. A community, as with man himself, retains its identity, but is modified by any kind of experience Some of these modifications occur over long spans of time while others seem to happen over night.
A community's and an individual's growth depends on change It is a life sustaining and life enhancing ingredient. Without change, life would become static and cease to exist.
Living things need to change in order to maintain their compatibility with the environmental conditions around them.
Their ability to adapt and evolve is an essential attribute of 1ife.
In nature, most changes in the interrelationship between organism and its total environment are beneficial to both in the longrun. The changes that result from the interplay account for the immense diversity of places and living things on the earth and for the fitness observed in undisturbed environments. Diversity in turn accounts for the adaptability, resilience and richness of human life.
A change in the environment may be a growth or a decay.
It may be a redistribution, an alteration in intensity or form, or an adaption to new influences. A change can be either controllable or uncontrollable.
Managed changes are meant to arrive at a more desirable state or to avoid worse states. All changes though, exact costs: economic and technical costs as well as social and psychological costs. The psychological costs including disorientation, fear, regret, desolation or rage.
In order to maintain fitness between man and environment
and lessen the psychological costs of change, our adaptive
processes need to be given the time that they need to work.
Sudden changes from one environmental condition to another
are more likely to have negative consequences than are
progressive changes. For the landscape, as for man, any change
is likely to be damaging if it occurs too rapidly. Changes
which occur slowly, over a longer time span, tend to have more
desirable results. A slow, gradual change enables our adaptive
processes to create a new and acceptable relationship between
ourselves and our environment. As Hippocrates wrote in his
treatise on "Humours" 2500 years ago, "It is changes that are
chiefly responsible for diseases, especially the greatest
changes, the violent alterations both in the seasons and in
other things. But seasons which come on gradually a^e the
safest, as are the gradual changes of regime and temperature,
and gradual changes from one period of life to another".
Gradual changes then, are healthier for us psychologically and are more successful in retaining the fitness between man and his environment.
Kevin Lynch has investigated those changes which are most acceptable to us. "Changes", he says, "which are in response to our own plans are the most acceptable; those changes that we cause in our own lives such as learning to play an instrument or adding a room to the home in which we live. The changes that are caused by others are acceptable if they happen rapidly and are legible, if there consequences can be easily pictured and the results quickly confirm expectations. It is better to be quickly beheaded than to die from slow poisoning. A regularly recurring change or a restoration is less disturbing because the result is familiar. Long-drawn-out
changes will be more acceptable if they occur in modest,
deferrable increments. Each increment can then be anticipated
and coped with when it arrives".
Lynch also dicusses those changes that he considers to be not acceptable. These are those changes "which are imposed on us without choice or participation; those that are overwhelming, going beyond ones ability to accomodate; those that are illebible, their pattern confused or seemingly random; that are unjust; and those that are long announced and late in coming, but when they do come, do not match expectations".^
We deal most successfully with change where we can simultaneously preserve some partial continuity with the past, whether of people, places or things. This explains why we have a desire to preserve many elements and patterns from the past. However fast most aspects of the environment change, we can keep our sanity through the contact with well remembered yesterdays.
Having elements of the past around us can appear to slow down the acceleration of change and give our adaptive processes time to respond. We need to heighten our awareness of the flow of time in our man-made environment. Temporal manipulations of the environment can lessen the anxiety associated with much of the change in the world.^
Kevin Lynch believes that to increase our awareness of the flow of time we need to expose and accentuate the many
different layers of time in our designs. He calls this "temporal collage". The juxtapositioning of old and new, past and present, speaks of the passage of time. Lynch says that elements of the past are best taken advantage of in one of two contexts: either quite isolated, lonely and on a pedestal, or in intimate contact with contemporary life. Temporal collage addresses that second context.
There are many attractive structures in which an older framework was remodeled for contemporary uses and aesthetic advantage was taken of the resulting contrast of old and new forms. The resulting new form is more evocative than was the original structure or would be a brand new replacement.
"Layering", says Lynch, "is a deliberate device of aesthetic
expression- the visible accumulation of overlapping traces
from successive periods. Each trace modifies and is modified
by the new additions, to produce something like a collage of
time. It is the sense of depth that becomes intriguing. The
remains uncovered imply the layers still hidden".
The technique of temporal collage allows room left for new layers to come and suggests that signs of the future be a part of the collage. Such temporal juxtapositions can evoke the sensation that past, present and future are momentarily and mysteriously coexistent.
In the article, "Landscape Research: Keeping Faith With Today and Tomorrow", Catherine Howett comments on Lynch's "temporal collage". She writes, "his proposal that just a few surviving elements from a communities past need be selected for preservation (symbolically resonant fragments, relics salvaged from structures or spaces are quite acceptable) must dismay those who, like myself, are unwilling to surrender
precipitously to the bulldozer or wrecking ball whatever cannot serve some immediate practical purpose, most especially in those instances when a building or landscape is a part of our history. Equally perplexing is Lynch's suggestion that within the fabric of a town or city, reminders of a community's recent past are preferred over vestiges of a more remote time, on the theory that the former are more interesting and relevant to the citizens of today- a notion that seems to me to have been contradicted by the history of any number of artistic and architectural movements. I share Lynch's conviction that a "sense of the stream of time" is both valuable and poignant and should be cultivated in the human community by every resource at our disposal; but I believe that when this kind of sensitivity is not informed by "formal knowledge" of the past, by a solidly grounded understanding of the cultural history of which every surviving building or landscape is a material expression, then what passes for a "sense of time" may be nothing more than a debased sentimentality manifesting itself in the collecting of environmental souvenirs- or worse, an arrogant and self-serving faith that what the decisionmakers of the moment need or like is all that should be valued from the past."^
I believe that Lynch's approach of "temporal collage" can be incorporated as a tool to create a strong cultural webbing in urban design. A taste of the past, a glimpse back to yesterday, can make us aware of the flow of time, and thus instilling in us a sense of inner peace and stability. Saving relics, or souvenirs from a site that is destined to be wiped clean and covered over with new development, and then incorporating those relics into the design of the new development in order to tell the story of what was on the site before,
and opening our eyes to the continuous flow of time, is a wise and worthy approach. Where new development is to replace a landscape that does not have any elements worthy of preservation, possibly the landform, vegetation, views or circulation patterns can be preserved and incorporated into the new design in order to recall the past of the landscape.
I agree with Howett though in that I do not believe that Lynch's temporal collage approach could be successfully attempted in a historic cultural landscape; a historic landscape that could possibly qualify to be listed with the National Register of Historic Places. If this approach were to be attempted with a historic landscape too much would be lost. The flow of time would be represented, but lost would be that important aspect of historical context that gives meaning to the site.
On historic landscapes, the importance of historical context and meaning needs to be preserved and brought to the awareness of the public. This can be accomplished through the methods of historic landscape preservation which are in practice today, such as restoration, conservation, rehabilitation, reconstruction and interpretation.
Lynch seems to have forgotten, or thinks it to antiquarian and possibly even irrational, the hunger that the public has to discover, learn about and understand the distant past.
It is an admirable quality to hunger for the truth in history and to strengthen our connection to our forefathers.
The awareness of time and change can be accomplished by preserving those elements of the past that have meaning for us. That meaning can be strengthened through an understanding of the cultural history of the landscape. Another method to increase awareness of the flow of time is through the perception of episodic changes. If they are cyclical, an image of
how the landscape was and how it will be again in the future, enhances the image of today. There is an underlying continuity of form, which takes on some new aspect in different seasons, at different times of the day, under different climatic conditions or whether the place is empty or full of activity. These episodes we have seen before and expect to see again in the future. They are the kinds of changes that we feel comfortable with because they are familiar to us.
We savor the unique qualities of the contrasting episodes.
They relate to our well remembered experience.^
Deciduous trees are a classic example of this effect.
Their summer forms are quite different from their winter forms but yet are logically and visually connected by striking transitional periods of spring buds and autumn colors.
The idea is to feel comfortable with change; to become aware of those changes that are happening around us. Our inner well-being depends on a strong image of the flow of time in our environment, a vivid sense of present, well connected to the past and the future, and the perception of change, being able to manage and enjoy it.
The exposure of different eras of our past, and the insertion of new forms enhance the past through allusion and contrast. This, and the recurrence of episodic changes, creates a strong sense of the stream of time. This sense of time is valuable in our coming to grips with environmental
change. It is through understanding that we learn to accept.
Our world will inevitably change. It should not be the purpose of preservation to stop change, for this would be a life-denying task not to mention imposible to do. The purpose
of preservation should be to accentuate and enhance the flow of time so that environmental change can be seen as a growth conductive and life-enhancing ingredient of this world in which we inhabit.
2 Contemporary Landscape Preservation Philosophy
There are a number of ways of dealing with a historic landscape when talking about preservation: restoration, rehabilitation, reconstruction, conservation, and interpretation. Lisa Kunst and Patricia O'Donnell have drafted the following definitions for these terms beginning with a definition for preservation itself:**
PRESERVATION- Preservation is a process of stabilizing rebuilding, maintaining or improving the condition and specific qualities of an historic landscape so that the landscape is protected and the design intent fulfilled.
RESTORATION- Restoration involves a strictly authentic return of the landscape to its original appearance.
REHABILITATION- Rehabilitation brings the landscape to a useful, but not necessarily authentic, state.
RECONSTRUCTION- Reconstruction involves a reproduction of a landscape setting.
CONSERVATION- Conservation often refers to natural landscapes, and implies stewardship of the landscape, warding off incompatible land uses, for example.
INTERPRETATION- Interpretation is the basic retention of the original landscape form with the integration to accomodate new uses, needs, and contemporary conditions. It involves research of the original design intent and use. The design should reinforce historic integrity while integrating the contemporary site program. (Most contemporary preservation projects fall into this category).
As a profession, historic landscape preservation has lacked the widespread concern and attension that accompanies the preservation of historic buildings. In recent years however, an awareness of the importance of neighborhood context, the designation of historic districts, streetscape revitalization, and urban park renewals have helped to expand the preservation vision beyond the limits of architecture.
This awareness is contributing to a body of theory, but as of yet there are no carefully articulated philosophies of landscape preservation, no di si pi inary language, no analytic assessments of alternative methodologies equivalent to those
that developed within the realm of architectural preservation.
Preservationists have an ambition to preserve those environments of the past that seem to them to be especially noteworthy; those significant landscapes that retain their
retain their integrity over years of subsequential layerings of alterations and influences. We have come to appreciate how these layers of time can be exposed and emphasized to aid in our orientation and our identification with the landscape, and contribute to the spirit of place. We seek to insulate these favored landscapes from the damaging effects of change; to preserve them for use and enjoyment by present and future generations.
We are no longer only concerned with the homes of past patriots or the symbolic architecture of our cultural past, but through a raised consciousness, have broadened the range of types and scales of historic places that we wish to preserve.
The National Register of Historic Places names five categories of the environment in which preservation projects mainly fall: buildings, structures, districts, sites, and objects. When these categories are further broken down we can see that buildings themselves are only a small part of the designed environment.
BUILDINGS (including groups of buildings)
Notable examples of architectural styles and periods or methods of construction, particularly local or regional types.
Buildings showing the history and development of such diverse areas as communications, community planning, government, conservation, economics, education, literature, music, and landscape architecture.
Stores and businesses and other buildings that provide a physical record of the experience of particular ethnic or social groups.
Complexes of buildings, such as factory complexes, that comprise a functionally and historically interrelated whole.
Markets or commercial structures or blocks.
Buildings by great architects or master builders and important works by minor ones.
Architectural curiosities, one-of-a-kind buildings.
Sole or rare survivors of an important architectural style or type.
Studios of american artists, writers, or musicians during years of significant activity.
Institutions that provide evidence of the cultural history of a community (churches, universities, art centers, theaters, and entertainment halls).
Buildings where significant technological advances or inventories in any field occurred (agricultural experiment stations, laboratories, etc.).
These then are the buildings that the National Register recognizes as preservation possibilities. The other categories, which fall into the realm of the landscape architect, are broken down in this manner:
Archeological sites containing information of known or potential value in answering scientific research questions.
Archeological sites containing information that may shed light on local, State, or national history.
Sites of cultural importance to local people or social or ethnic groups, such as locations of important events in their history, historic or prehistoric cemetaries or shrines.
Sites associated with events important in the history of the community as a whole (battlefields, trails, etc.).
Cemetaries associated with important events or people, or whose study can provide important information about history or prehistory.
Ruins of historically or archeologically important buildings or structures.
Historically important shipwrecks.
Cemetaries important for the architectural or artistic qualities of their constituent structures and monuments.
Constructed landscapes that exemplify principles, trends, or schools of thought in landscape architecture, or that represent fine examples of the landscape architect's art.
Industrial and engineering structures, including kilns, aquaducts, weirs, utility or pumping stations, and dams.
Transportation structures, including railroads, turnpikes, canals, tunnels, bridges, roadhouses, lighthouses and wharfs.
Agricultural structures such as grainaries, silos, corncribs, and apiaries.
Moveable structures associated with important processes of transportation, industrial development, social history, recreation, and military history (ships, locomotives, carousels, airplanes, artillery pieces, etc.).
Objects important to historical or art historical research (petroglyph boulders, bedrock mortars, statuary, rock carvings, etc.).
Objects important to the cultural life of a community and related to a specific location (totem pole, fountains, outdoor sculpture, road markers, mileposts, monuments, etc.).
Groups of buildings that physically and spatially comprise a specific environment: groups of related buildings that represent the standards and tastes of a community or neighborhood during one period of history, unrelated structures that represent a progression of various styles or functions, or cohesive townscapes or streetscapes that possess an identity of place.
Groups of buildings, structures, objects and/or sites representative of or associated with a particular social, ethnic, or economic group during a particular period.
Farmlands and related farm structures (silos, barns, granaries, irrigation canals) that possess an identity of time and place.
Groups of structures and buildings that show the industrial or technological developments of the community, State, or Nation.
Groups of buildings representing historical development patterns (commercial or trade centers, county seats, mill towns).
Groups of sites, structures and/or buildings containing archeological data and probably representing an historic or prehistoric settlement system or pattern of related activities.
Groups of educational buildings and their associated spaces (school and university campuses, etc.).
Extensive constructed landscapes, such as large parks, that represent the work of a master landscape architect or the concepts and directions of a school of landscape architecture.
Landscapes that have been shaped by historical processes of land use and retain visual ancLcultural characteristics indicative of such processes.
The landscape architect should be more involved in the field of preservation. The education that a landscape architect obtains makes him the perfect candidate to be an authority and a leader of the movement.
Landscape architecture is still in its infancy when compared to the long history of architecture. We are still in the process of defining our profession. The general public still confuses landscape architecture with landscape gardening. An awareness of historic landscape preservation by the public can help to identify our profession to them.
Over the past quarter of a century, since the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966, the interest in the preservation of historic landscapes has steadily grown. The recent interest and concern for the landscapes of Frederick Law Olmstead, and their identification and documentation, is a celebrated victory of recognition for a great landscape architect and for the profession of landscape architecture. Along with this achievement, there has been a large increase in the number of works published on landscape architecture and landscape preservation. An increased knowledge of the importance of our profession to the environment and the importance of preserving the landscapes of the past, reveals the fact that historic architecture can not be isolated, but must be observed only a part of the physical and cultural environment known as the landscape.
The following four objectives were developed by the
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management to guide
them in the Olmstead Historic Landscape Program and are
similar to the objectives of other historic landscape preser-14
1. Preserve, rehabilitate and provide a framework for ongoing maintenance of historic landscape features, furniture and structures determined through research and documentation to be integral components of the original design intent, use, and appearance.
2. Promote community participation, advocacy, stewardship, and awareness of historic landscapes, open space heritage and recreational and economic benefits of each park.
3. Encourage design solutions that provide for efficient maintenance, enhanced public safety and accessibility for the disabled, and improve circulation and seperation of pedestrians and vehicles.
4. Reorganize alterations and additions that significantly diverge from original design intentions, use and appearance, while recognizing community priorities and contemporary recreation needs.
Likewise in Olmstead's Emerald Necklace project in Boston,
focus was put on "the preservation of original elements or
those which result in the restoration of areas to their historic
design intent, use, and appearance."
Today we can presumably create more objective and truthful historic restorations through more in-depth scholarly analysis of the site and through the use of new technologies.
We concentrate on finding out as much as we can about the history of a place through archival research. We scour over old photographs, plans, and written references of the place to be preserved with the intention of recreating the landscape as near as possible to the "way it was"; a time which we tend to chose arbitrarily. No matter what the good intentions may be, and the amount of research done, the resulting "accurate" interpretations are inevitably distorted accounts of the past.
Catherine Howett argues against the validity of this current approach towards historic interpretation. She says,
"the general public is less interested in issues of scholarly documentation than in the experience of a landscape or garden out of the past that has been designed in a way that seems most aesthetically satisfying. We can go from there to assume that the appearance of completeness- of virtual newness, in fact, since we generally aim to erase the vestiges of
aging- is an essential aesthetic value in a restored landscape.
We are reluctant to acknowledge, much less to underscore within the interpretive programs of restoration projects, two critical realities: the limits of what we know now or are likely ever to know about the original landscape, and the strenuous artifice we use to try and create the illusion that places out of the past can be made accessible to us in precisely the way that they were for those who brought them into being long ago."^
Howett believes that it is now time to unite as a profession to "broaden and enliven the philosophical debate about which landscapes ought to be preserved, why those and not others, and what are our options for designing them in a way that rejects the illusion of verisimilitude in favor of an honest expression of our need to make the past useful to us- in order to celebrate the values that our society has discovered in certain landscapes and historic moments." She goes on to conclude, "Faked history tries to suggest that we can best know the landscapes of early times by magically reconstructing their lost and scattered fragments, expunging any evidence of their vulnerability to time. In fact, whatever meaning and relevance places out of the past can hold for us must surely inhere in forms through which we can express our recognition of the temporality that has preserved their mystery
as well as their beauty or historic significance."
John Lawrence says, "the basic purpose of preservation
is not to arrest time but to mediate sensitively with the
forces of change. It is to understand the present as a pro-
duct of the past and a modifier of the future."
3 The National Register
of Historic Places
Many of today's historic landscape preservation projects closely follow the U. S. Secretary of the Interior's "Standards and Guidelines for Historic Preservation" and must meet the criteria established by the National Register of Historic Places.
For the purpose of the National Register, a designed historic landscape is defined as a landscape that has significance as a design or work of art; was consciously designed or laid out by a master gardener, landscape architect, architect, or horticulturalist to a design principle, or an owner or other ameteur using a recognized style or tradition in response or reaction to a recognized style or tradition; has a historical association with a significant person, trend, event, etc. in landscape gardening or landscape architecture; or a significant relationship to the theory or practice of
landscape architecture. Many historic landscapes also possess
significance in social history and transportation.
Many historic landscapes are eligible for the National Register because they represent such themes as early settlement, immigration or agriculture. Such landscapes as ethnic communities and farmsteads, unless they meet the definition above, would best be classified as cultural or vernacular landscapes. Although they are historic landscapes, they are not included in this thesis because they are not considered designed historic landscapes; they were not developed with
the benefit of professional planning or design, and were not
consciously designed as a work of art.
Designed historic landscapes can usually be described as one of the following types
small residential grounds.
estate or plantation grounds (including a farm where the
primary significance is as a landscape design and not
as historic agriculture.
arboreta, botanical and display gardens.
zoological gardens and parks.
churchyards and cemetaries.
monuments and memorial grounds.
plaza/square/green/mal1 or other public space.
campus or institutional grounds.
city planning or civic design.
subdivisions and planned communities/resorts.
commercial and industrial grounds and parks.
parks (local, state, or national).
battlefield parks and other commemorative parks, grounds designed or developed for outdoor recreation and/or sports activities such as country clubs, golf courses, tennis courts, bowling greens, bridle trails, stadiums, ball parks, and race tracks that are not part of a unit 1isted above.
fairgrounds and exhibition grounds, parkways, drives, and trails.
bodies of water and fountains (considered as an independent component and not as part of a larger design scheme)
To qualify for the National Register of Historic Places a designed landscape must have significance as one of the designed historic landscape types listed above and retain integrity of location, design intent, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association and meet National Register criteria.
Any designed historic landscape seeking to be listed with the National Register of Historic Places must first go through an evaluation process to determine if it is a significant example of its landscape type. This is done through a systematic investigation into such things as history, purpose, social significance, qualities, associations, and physical
characteristics of the historic site in question. A typical
investigation should accomplish the following:
1. Obtain information about the specific example of landscape gardening, planning, and/or design through documentation of its history and collection of available plans and photographs. Conduct site visits to identify the historic characteristics of the design intent of the landscape.
2. Identify the appropriate landscape type(s) within which the landscape should be evaluated.
3. Analyze characteristic features that the landscape should possess to be a good representation of its landscape type
4. Evaluate the significance of the landscape using National Register criteria.
5. Evaluate the integrity of each landscape characteristic and list the features that the landscape should retain to possess integrity.
6. Determine if any aspect of the landscape's history or present condition might place it in a category of properties generally considered ineligible for the National Register, and therefore requiring special justification.
Let us take a closer look at item number five, "Evaluating Integrity". According to the National Register, a historic landscape has integrity if much of the original design intent has been retained. They recognize seven aspects, which by themselves or in combination with one another, define the integrity of the historic landscape. These aspects are:
1. Historic location
Historic location is the place where the historic landscape was constructed or the place where the historic event took place. Location involves relationships that may be important to understanding why the property was created or why
Design is the composition of elements that comprise the
form, plan, space, structure, and style of the property. It
is based upon the needs, technologies, aesthetic preferences,
attitudes, and assumptions of the people or culture in each
period of history. Design results from conscious decisions
in the conception and planning of a property and may apply
to areas of endeavor or creativity as diverse as community
planning, engineering, architecture or landscape architecture.
Principle aspects of design include organization of space,
proportion, scale, technology, and ornament. Design applies
to considerations such as spatial relationships among all
features, visual rhythms of features in a streetscape or land-
scape, the layout and materials of objects in the landscape. SETTING
Setting is the physical environment of a historic landscape. Whereas historic location refers to a particular where the landscape was created, setting illustrates the character of the place. In some cases, the surroundings and the way in which the property is sited may be an integral part of the property itself, illustrating not only conditions or casual relationships, but also concepts of nature or aesthetic preferences.
The physical features that constitute the setting of a historic landscape may be natural or manmade, and may include topographic features; vegetation; simple manmade features; and relationships of buildings to open space.
Materials are the physical elements that were combined in a particular pattern or configuration to form a landscape in a particular period in the past. The integrity of materials determines whether or not an authentic historic landscape still exists. The choice and combination of materials can provide information about the preferences of those who created the landscape and about the availability of particular types of materials and technologies. The presence of certain materials idigenous to a particular region or place often
leads to traditions of use of those materials and thereby
adds to the sense of place that a landscape conveys.
Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period of history or prehistory. It is the evidence of the craftsman's labor or skill in constructing a landscape. It can apply to an entire landscape or to the individual components within the landscape. Workmanship may be expressed in vernacular methods of construction and plain finishes, or in highly sophisticated details. It may be based on common traditions or innovative period techniques. Workmanship is important because it can furnish evidence of the technology of the craft, illustrate the aesthetic principles of a historic or prehistoric period, and reveal individual, local, regional
or national applications of both technological and aesthetic 28
Feeling is the quality that a historic landscape has
in evoking the aesthetic or historic sense of a past period
of time. Although it is in itself intangible, feeling
depends on the presence of physical characteristics to con-
vey the historic qualities that evoke feeling.
Association is the direct link between a landscape and the event, or person, or so on, for which the landscape is significant."^
When evaluating the integrity of a historic landscape, the researcher should ask the following questions:
To what degree does the landscape convey its historic
To what degree has the original fabric been retained?
Are changes to the landscape harmful to the character
and integrity, and if so, how can they be corrected?
The historic landscape need not retain all of its char-acterist features to have integrity, but must retain enough so that the historic character is evident. These features must be identified and may include: spatial relationships, vegetation, original property boundary, topography/grading, site furnishings, water bodies, design intent, architectural features, engineering features, and circulation systems.
A method of evaluating integrity is through a comparison study between the original appearance and function and the appearance and function of the landscape as it exists today. This method takes advantage of old photographs,plans, journals
of the designer, and other forms of documentation of the landscape as it was when it became significant.
Landscapes, by their very nature, are constantly changing. When these changes are well managed, the original design intent and historic characteristics are respected, integrity can be preserved. However, if changes are allowed to occur unchecked, a serious loss of integrity could result. For example, if an Olmstead park, designed with open meadows, lakes, rolling hills, and groupings of trees that framed views to distant mountain ranges and meant for an escape to nature from the hectic city, was today a conglomeration of tennis courts, basketball courts and parking lots, then it will have suffered a loss of integrity. If that same landscape was converted to a golf course however, it may have retained its integrity if the landforms and spatial relationships of open space and vegetation are retained.
Vegetation in the landscape is especially vulnerable to changes such as maturation, unprofessional pruning, removal, neglect, and damage. The absence of original plant material does not necessarily constitute a loss of integrity if the same or similar plant material is used to replace the missing material, and if the original design intent is respected.
On the other hand, if a heavily forested landscape which was designed to replicate a mountain spruce forest has over the years been transformed into a mass of honey locust, then that landscape does not retain integrity even though that mass of honey locust might be quite wonderful.
The condition of the features must also be taken into consideration. Categories such as excellent, good, fair, deteriorated, or severely deteriorated may be applied to
individual features as a guide in evaluating integrity.
It should be remembered, though, that condition may be reversed through methods of restoration.
Major adjacent encroachments such as highways, parking lots, and new buildings, may violate the original design intent and intrude upon the historic landscape. Views from the site, for example, that were intended to be pastoral but that are today industrial, or views that were established along sightlines to buildings, monuments or other features
have been destroyed, may be a serious detriment to the integ-
rity of the historic landscape.
Original Design Intent Retained
High Degree of Integrity Qualifies for National Register
Low Degree of Integrity Does Not Qualify for National Register
The National Register of Historic Places recognizes that the integrity of a historic landscape is an important consideration in determining whether or not it can be listed on the Register.
4 A Personal Philosophy
One of the purposes of producing this thesis was to dev-elope an understanding of the preservation ethic in order to establish for myself a personal philosophy towards historic landscape preservation so that I could approach preservation projects with knowledge and confidence.
The problem of deciding which historic landscapes should be preserved, why those and not others, can be solved by applying the procedures for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Their criteria and methods are for the most part an adequate approach to follow in determining which landscapes should be preserved and how to go about evaluating them.
As for a personal philosophy to grasp ahold of and rely on, I have established for myself this list of things to keep in mind when approaching a historic landscape preservation project:
Contemporary historic landscape preservation practices mainly consist of in-depth archival research into the history of the historic landscape for the pupose of returning it to its original design intent, use, and appearance while providing for contemporary needs and uses.
Our environment changes constantly and continuously.
The preservationist must develop an attitude that change is a positive process when managed to mitigate the damaging effects that can accompany change. Change is a life-enhancing and life-sustaining process of our environment.
An awareness of the flow of time strengthens our connections to the past and should be of major concern to the preservation movement. Man is most alive and comfortable in an environment where there are connections to recognizable and remembered pasts.
The flow of time should be exposed, not hidden or covered up to hide its effects. The contrast between the contemporary and the past should be emphasized to create an exciting, stimulating environment. Environments in which the past, present and future are allowed to coexist provide for a strong "spirit of place".
Whatever meaning and relevance a historic landscape holds for us can best be conveyed through an awareness of the flow of time and not through today's practices of deceptive restoration that hides the influence that time has on our physical and cultural environment. Landscapes, as with all living things, must one day pass away and be transformed into something different. Death is a part of life. Accepting this truth may sound contradictory to the preservation movement, but should be its most fundamental credo.
Spirit of Place
5 Spirit of Place
The mentioning of such places as Stonehenge, the Pyramids,
or the Greek Islands, as well as Miami Beach, Florida or Beirut,
Lebanon, can bring forth strong mental images of a remembered
or imagined character. These images not only include setting but also the activities of the people who live there or visit.
A place is "a focus where we experience the meaningful
events of our existence", says Christian Norberg-Schulz,
and Edward Relph says, "events and actions are significant
only in the context of certain places, and are colored and
influenced by the character of those places even as they
contribute to that character."
It is not only the physical place that we remember or imagine, but that physical place in combination with human activities. Sense of place is the image of a place that emerges when physical and human geography interact. Norberg-Schulz writes that "the spaces where our lives occur are places, and a place is a space which has a distinct character, genius loci, or spirit.
This "spirit of place" does not exist only in the Grand
Canyons and Mediterranean seaports of this world but can be
experienced anywhere; form a sheep ranch in Scotland to a
small rural town in Texas; from Central Park in New York City
to Washington Park in Denver. Each of these places have
their own unique characteristics and meanings. In fact, for
one person, a place can hold many different meanings. "This
is not only because each individual experiences a place from
his own unique set of moments of space-time, but more especially
because everyone has his own mix of personality, memories,
emotions, and intentions which colors his image of that place
and gives it a distinctive identity for him."
All places have their own identity. As is the case with
fingerprints or snowflakes, no two places are alike. Ian Nairn
recognizes this fact when he says "there are as many identities
of place as there are people." Spirit of place is in the
experience, eye, mind, and intention of the beholder as much
as in the physical appearance of the city or landscape.
Relph concludes, "The basic meaning of place, its essence, does not therefore come from locations, nor from the trivial functions that places serve, nor the community that occupies it, nor from superficial or mundane experiences- though these are all common and perhaps necessary aspects of places. The essence of place lies in the largely unselfconscious intentional ity that defines places as profound centers of human existence. There is for virtually everyone a deep association with the consciousness of the place where we were born and grew up, where we live now, or where we had particularly moving experiences. This association seems to constitute a vital source of both individual and cultural identity and security, a point of departure from which we orient ourselves in the world.
Human geographer, Pierce F. Lewis has written that the
landscape which surrounds us is a record of our behavior, it
is an expression of our values. Our landscapes are physical and symbolic expressions of who and what we are. They are expressions of our culture; they are our past, present and future.
Our landscapes are expressions of us, and we in turn are
expressions of our landscapes. Lawrence Durrell says, "I
believe you could exterminate the French with one blow and
resettle the country with Tartars, and within two generations
discover to your astonishment that the national characteristics
were back at norm- the restless metaphysical curiosity, the
tenderness for good living and the passionate individualism:
even though their noses were flat." Ronald Blythe adds,
"The villager who has never moved away from his birthplace...
retains the unique mark of his particular village. If a man
says he comes from Akenfield, he knows that he is telling
someone from another part of the neighborhood a good deal
more than this. Anything from his appearance to his politics
could be involved."
Norberg-Schulz writes that to gain an existential foothold, man has to be able to orientate himself; he has to know where he is. But he also has to identify himself with the
environment, that is, he has to know how he is a certain 44
place. Man orientates himself to his environment based
on the spatial structures around him. Lynch calls the
interrelationship of these elements an "environmental image".
He says "a good environmental image gives its possessor an
important sense of emotional security."
In today's world of fast paced changes, man becomes disoriented; lost within his environment. He has lost his ident-
ification with his landscape, his sense of feeling "at home".
Man needs to feel as if he belongs to a place. He needs to be familiar with his environment; He needs to identify with it.
Artists, photographers, and novelists may even compress
identity into one small feature which somehow captures the
essence of a place. Wallace Stegner found that for him the
spirit of his former hometown of Whitemud on the Prairie was
expressed above all else in the smell of wolf willow.
The identity of a place is composed of different combinations of its physical appearance, activities that happen
there, and its meanings. But the spirit of place is more than just combinations of components. The spirit of place, or the sense of place, or the genius loci, whatever we wish to call it, will persist despite profound changes in the basic components of its identity. Rene Dubos says, "Distinctiveness persists despite change. Italy and Switzerland,
Paris and London have retained their respective identities
through many social, cultural, and technological revolutions." Spirit of place infers a personality and timelessness. It constitutes the very individuality and uniqueness of places.
Durrell H. Lawrence wrote, "Different places on the face
of the earth have different vital effluence, different
vibration, different chemical exhalation, different polarity
with different stars; call it what you like. But the "spirit
of place" is a great reality."
"It seems commonplace that almost everyone is born with the need for identification with his surroundings and a relationship to them- with a need to be in a recognizable place.
So sense of place is not a fine art extra, it is something
we can not afford to do without."
6 Components of Place
A sense of place can be based on such items as:
Climate, particularly the quality and quantity of light, amount of rainfall, and variations of temperature.
Unique natural setting.
Memory and metaphor, what the place means to people who experience it.
The use of local materials.
Sensitivity in the siting of important buildings and bridges.
Cultural diversity and history.
high quality public environments which are visible and accessible.
Town activities (daily and seasonal)
Such items can be placed into three general categories:
1. PHYSICAL FEATURES AND APPEARANCE
The actual physical structure of a place. The reality of its buildings, landscapes, climate and aesthetic quality.
2. OBSERVABLE ACTIVITIES AND FUNCTIONS
How a places people interact with it, how their cultural institutions have affected it, and how the buildings and landscapes are used.
3. MEANINGS OR SYMBOLS
A more complex aspect, primarily the result of human
intentions and experiences. Much of a place's character
will be derived from people's reaction to its physical
and functional aspects.
PHYSICAL FEATURES AND APPEARANCE
This category is divided into the NATURAL elements and the CULTURAL elements.
Physical Order is the systematic description of nature and
Landscape Character is the basic element of regional quality
and is composed of the design elements:
COLOR- The eyes differentiation of soil, rocks, water,
sky, etc. that can vary with the weather, time of day, season of the year.
TEXTURE- The seeming result of size and shape and
placement of parts, and the "interplay of
light and shadow created by variations in the
surface of any object."
LINE- The path the eye follows when abrupt contrast
in form, color, texture, mass and scale become evident.
PATTERN- Vegetation, water, landforms, and their rela-
tionship to each other.
MASS- The perceived weight of an object including
the amount of space it occupies.
The shape of an object "which appears unified: often defined by edge, outline and surrounding space.1,57
SCALE- A measure of the relationship of the size or
mass of one object to another.
Rene Dubos, in his writings, compares two palaces, built in different cultures, that exemplify this cultural influence on sense of place and is evident in the character or mood of the two palaces, one in China and the other in France. During the first half of the seventeenth century, the Manchu emporers in China built the Garden of Perfect Brightness (Yuan Ming Yuan), an artificial environment of islands, hills and mainland forms created from a natural, marshy floodplain area. In France,
Louis XIV also built his palace on marshy ground, but created a totally different sense of place at Versailles. While Yuan Ming Yuan was built to "symbolize mysterious complexities of nature and had emphasized privacy, Le Notre (designer of the gardens at Versailles) composed a linear design that could be apprehended immediately and totally and that was in tune
with the public life of the French court."
The cultural elements are the physical framework of everyday life. They are the forms of our built environment.
J. B. Jackson writes that "the network of boundaries, private as well as public, transforms an amorphous environment into a human landscape, and nothing more clearly shows some of the
cherished values of a group than the manner in which they fix
OBSERVABLE ACTIVITIES AND FUNCTIONS
"A rich mixture of activities can provide important town image.
"The dual activities of tourism and fishing give this town its special character."*
"Town location and function are often the major contributors to genius loci."
"Much of a towns character is provided by human activity; places for this activity to happen should be maintained."
"Genius Loci, or spirit of place, is often created by the mixture of function, art, architecture, and peoples activities in publ ic space.
Unique identity is often a factor of consistent architectural
style and visible activities."
"Activities which encourage tourism and provide revenue for
town citizens create positive image and character."
"Quality towns should have open space which is visible and accessible to many activities.1,67
"Activity, planned or spontaneous, provides a key ingredient
for quality images within a town.
"Well designed change can provide new functions within town
uniquness areas without destroying essential character."
"Commercial activities can provide special visual images.
'New functions can occur within older structures without altering essential character ingredients such as architectural style, detail, and human scale.
'Seasonal activities such as art festivals, craftfairs, rodeos, and regional cook-offs provide much of a places character. Understanding how, where and when they occur is very important."
"Creation of functions which produce activity is very impor-
tant to town revitalization."
'Views to activities and scenic objects should be maintained."
'Activities such as street vendors, musicians, and artists
give special quality to public space."
'The opportunity for peaceful enjoyment of public space is an important aspect of town character.
'The creation of special places within town environments can provide a setting for various activities and events.
MEANINGS OR SYMBOLS
The meanings of places are difficult to grasp, but may be illustrated in an example quoted by Stephen Strasser:
"In 1084 St. Bruno went to the French Alps to establish himself as a hermit there. Before his arrival, the environment was quite neutral to him; it was what it was without meaning.
But by seeking in those mountains a place to meditate, St.
Bruno and his followers made them meaningful in terms of this intention- they became "dangerous", "safe", "useful", or "inhospitable". And subsequently, as their intentions changed, as they found a suitable site and began to look for land for cultivation, or as his followers now try to get rid of troublesome tourists, so their situation was modified. In other words, the meaning of the situation, of the place, was
defined by the intentions of St. Bruno and his followers."
Although meanings are more complex than this straightforward
example, it does serve to demonstrate that "places can only
be known in their meanings.
The meanings behind the urban design in most cities is
structured the same and is composed of four layers: the natural
element, corridors, division of land, and development of land.
These layers are composed of different characteristics that
give each city its own spirit of place. For example, the
characteristics that determine the spirit of place in Denver,
Colorado within these four layers are:
Denver's landscape was originally a treeless piedmont stretching from the splendor of the Rocky Mountains to the vastness of the grass covered prairie. In these conditions, the mountains became a powerful image in Denver. They
presented a strong attraction to miners, tourists, health seekers and sportsmen and the mountain backdrop became built into our consciousness. Views towards them were considered sacred and platforms and vantage points were created throughout the city from which the mountains could be viewed and enjoyed. These viewing platforms and the sightlines to the mountains were a means by which the city made a connection to her beloved mountains. Other connections were created by using plant materials of the mountains in the city, reproducing the image of the mountains in artistic form in the city, such as in the mosaics at Cramer Park (originally Mountain View Park), and by the roadways that connected the city to her unique system of mountain parks.
It use to be that when people traveled towards Denver from the east by wagon, train or automobile, Denver was experienced as an oasis in a dry region and the Rocky Mountains could be anticipated because they were seen from many miles away. Today, with more and more people traveling by air, those experiences are lost and Denver's oasis image is fading away.
Water is a precious commodity in Denver's dry climate and the creation of the City Ditch, a water corridor used for the greening of Denver, was a celebration of the control of water in a semi-arid region.
DIVISION OF LAND
Denver's streets are, like in most U.S. cities, based on a grid system, but what she did with those streets helped to create an image for Denver; an intensive street tree system was laid over this otherwise common grid system. Many trees
Spirit of Place
When physical appearance, activities, and meanings come together, Spirit of Place is created.
This identification procedure is a part of the larger process involved in the nomination procedures of the National Register of Historic Places. This larger process consists of five steps:
1. Obtain information about the specific example of landscape gardening, planning, and/or design through documentation of its history and collection of available plans and photographs. Conduct site visits to identify the historic characteristics of the design intent of the landscape.
2. Identify the appropriate landscape type(s) within which the landscape should be evaluated.
3. Analyze characteristic features that the landscape should possess to be a good representative of its landscape type.
4. Evaluate the significance of the historic landscape using National Register criteria.
5. Evaluate the integrity of each landscape characteristic and list the features that the landscape should retain to posses integrity.
It is the fifth step of this process, the evaluation of integrity, that is of concern to this thesis. It was realized that while evaluating a historic landscape to determine its integrity, one must look at many of the same characteristics, qualities and relationships that comprise the spirit of
place of that landscape. INTEGRITY
1. Historic Location
SPIRIT OF PLACE
1. Physical Features and Appearance
2. Activities and Functions
3. Meanings and Symbols
In both procedures, one must investigate the present-day uses, intentions, and appearance of the historic landscape either to compare them to the past uses, intentions and appearance or to identify the components that make up the spirit of place of that landscape.
Efficient use of time may be achieved by conducting both of these investigations simultaneously. The identification of spirit of place procedures are detailed within this section of the thesis and the evaluation of integrity procedures have been outlined in the section on the National Register of Historic Places.
The procedure developed for identifying the spirit of place is designed to be used for historic "public" landscapes which are being nominated for listing with the National Register.
"Public space" landscapes are those which are available,
open and accessible to the public both physically and visually.
They include: parks, unclassified public lands, zoos, museum
grounds, historic properties, waterfronts, viewing points,
boulevards and parkways, and open fields.
The advantages of public landscapes includes:
The potential for peoples spontaneous enjoyment of a public environment without being programmed or constrained by social or economic factors.
The opportunity for people to live in an environment of positive visual images.
The opportunity to release daily bonds of job or social commitment by rlaxing and enjoying moments of freedom and personal quiet.
The opportunity to have social interaction and establish relationships with fellow citizens.
The opportunity to experience nature, such as seasonal change, and explore oneself through walks along the stream, observing wildlife, or selecting a place to sit.
The opportunity to re-cycle vacant lots, abandoned fields, underused facilities, and old buildings for public use and enjoyment.
And perhaps most importantly: Provide quality leisure time settings outside of the home environment for the full range of town citizens.
The spirit of place of public landscapes need to be identified so that they may be protected and preserved, and the public's enjoyment of them can be allowed to continue.
In the first step of the National Register's procedures of nomination of a historic landscape, historical information was gathered which is used to evaluate integrity. Some of that information can also be put to use in the identification of the spirit of place, especially any architectural, landscape, and engineering plans that are available. The most important plan needed for the procedure of identifying spirit of place is a master site plan of the historic landscape that displays existing conditions. If such a plan is not available, one must be created which is reproducible and at an appropriate scale to include the entire site plus all adjacent properties. Smaller scaled plans should also be developed of areas in which detailed investigation may occur.
The information collected throughout the procedure will be in the form of photographs, (see appendix II) slides, videos, sketches, diagrams, and text. This information should be referenced on the plans and and bound in booklet form. One copy of this booklet will be included with the nomination material for the National Register and the original information should be protected. This material will be indispencible in future preservation planning.
For each photograph taken be sure to make note of the date, time of day, and weather conditions, also, on the site plan, indicate the location of the photographer and the direction of the view. A numbering system is then developed which relates this indication to the the photograph that is located within the bound information.
Artistic expression can be a powerful tool for documenting and relaying the spirit of place. Pencil sketches, watercolor sketches, and pen and ink drawings should be created throughout the process. Sometimes however, time and money can limit the amount of these kinds of techniques. When time and money are scarce, I have found that the use of video technology can provide a cost effective (video equipment is not expensive to rent) and time efficient (no time taken for processing and organizing) method for documenting the landscape. Video camcorders can do many things better than still photography, such as documenting a continuous, sequential motion through the landscape; illustrating the approach to and through the entrances of the site and fully comprehending the sights and sounds of the activities that occur there. Atmospheric conditions can better realized and experienced. Videos can better illustrate scale of the landscape from sweeping views to the zooming in on delicate details. When dubbed with a narration describing the spirit of place and an appropriate music sound track, you can have a complete, high quality and efficient product in a small 1" by 4" by 7 1/2" box.
This procedure is a method of seeing and understanding a historic public landscape. The investigation begins with understanding the context of the landscape and then, through four levels of circular motion, focus downward and inward to the details of the landscape, while at the same time turning attention outwards to those components outside of the boundaries of the historic landscape which are influencial and contribute to the spirit of place. The four levels of circular motion are:
1. THE OUTER CIRCLE- Context and Meaning of the historic
2. THE PRIMARY CIRCLE- The components of place at the out-
side perimeter of the landscape.
3. THE SECONDARY CIRCLE- The components of place which are
experienced within the historic public landscape.
4. THE INNER CIRCLE- A close look at the details within
the landscape which contribute to the spirit of place.
INWARD/OUTWARD CENTRIPECY consists of four levels of circular investgation which moves from contextual understanding to a focused look at the details of the landscape which contribute to the spirit of place.
THE OUTER CIRCLE
In order to understand why a place is special, why it creates the image that it does, a thorough understanding of its context must be grasped. The researcher should obtain answers to the following questions:
Where is the historic landscape located and why is it located in the place that it is?
How does the location of this public landscape relate to the location of other public landscapes in the community? How are they linked together?
What are the relative qualities of the public landscapes in the community and how does this landscape rank?
What historical, cultural, or natural forces created this landscape?
What is the meaning of this landscape to the community? What is the landscape's purpose to the community?
( escape from the hectics of the city, historic business district, etc____)
What are the surrounding land uses? (residential, commercial, industrial, rural, recreational, etc....)
What is the condition of the surrounding neighborhoods or districts and how do they effect the image and character of the landscape?
What are the ethnic neighborhoods around the landscape?
How does the landscape reflect these ethnic neighborhoods?
Where do the users of the public landscape primarily come from? What circulation and transportation systems do they use to get there?
Is there signage directing people to the landscape and if so, what image of the landscape does it convey?
THE PRIMARY CIRCLE
Once the context in which the historic public landscape lies is documented and understood, focus attention to the outside perimeter of the landscape facing away from the landscape.
Look first at the properties that are adjacent to the historic public landscape. Make note of the land uses, architectural styles, activities and the character that they generate.
Photograph all building facades and open space that face onto the landscape and construct a montage of the surrounding "border". Make note of the uses of each building and open space (residence, drug store, playground, vacant
lot, etc____) Note their approximate dates of constru-
tion, condition, style, quality, and character. Do any of the buildings or open space hold any historically important meaning?
Photograph details that contribute to the character of the neighborhood or district. How do these details contribute to the spirit of place of the historic landscape?
Are there any important views to unique landscapes?
Next, while remaining outside of the landscape, turn your attention inwards to the historic public landscape itself. Pick a starting point, say at the main entrance, and photograph the entire perimeter to construct a montage of north, south, east and west views into the landscape. Pay special attention to:
Landform, unique topography, and surface water that can be seen from outside the landscape.
Type of vegetation; note large trees and plant masses.
Special views into the site; glimpses of special element' or features.
Are there any potential views that could be created into the site or negative views that could effectively be screened?
What are the perceived positive and negative aspects?
How does a person approach the landscape? Document the sequence of approach to each entrance to the landscape.
Identify the main entrance to the landscape. Is it the historic main entrance?
What activities can be seen or heard?
What architecture is visible? What is its style, character and condition as seen from outside the landscape?
How does it relate to the architecture of the adjacent properties?
What is the scale of the landscape? (large or small, open or enclosed)
Is there any construction work in progress that illustrates change? Does it correspond to the character and original design intent of the historic landscape?
Is there any visual clues to the passage of time?
Is there any restoration work in progress and is it attempting to hide this temporal effect?
Make notes of non-visual sensory factors such as fragrant blossoms, singing birds, sounds of water or noises of traffic.
Note symbolic elements that can be seen such as statues, memorials, fountains or gateways.
IHL SECONDARY CIRCLE
Now pass into the historic landscape through all entrances and note your first impressions. What are the first things to catch your eye? Is it 1-andform, topography, vegetation, architecture, a statue, a flower garden or a particular tree?
Walk or drive along major circulation routes. What are their form (straight or sinuous)? What materials are they constructed of? Where do they lead? Do they terminate at a focal point?
What are the components of place that can be seen from the circulation routes? (activities, architecture, natural elements, statues, fountains, etc----)
Look more closely at those elements which were noted from outside of the landscapes boundaries. Does the character, quality or condition change when up close?
Better or worse?
Take a close look a the architectural and engineering structures in the landscape. Note their style, date of construction, character, use, quality and condition.
Walk along secondary circulation routes and document the images seen. Note the materials used in these circulation routes and how they compare to the materials used in the primary circulation routes. Note the relationships between architecture and open space. Where are these circulation routes leading? To a particular building or garden?
Document views towards distant architecture or landscapes which are outside of the landscape. How do these views contribute to the spirit of place of the historic landscape? What glimpses of views are you given? Note any vistas that are terminated by characteristic architecture.
Document evidence of change and the flow of time. Note any contrast between old and new. Identify trees and shrubs which have dynamic autumn color.
Document any change that is happening in the historic landscape. Is it positive or negative change? Beneficial or damaging? Is it occuring quickly or at a slow pace?
Identify the activities that take place in the landscape.
How are people using the landscape? What special activities happen here and when? How do present-day activities compare to historic activities that took place in the
THE INNER CIRCLE
Finally, identify the details of the components of the pirit of place in the historic public landscape.
Look closely at the materials used in construction of the landscape, the architecture and art works. Note the craftsmanship in the way the materials are put together. Do they demonstrate a local tradition?
Photograph the works of art in the landscape such as statues, sculpture, and fountains and try to capture their essence. Photograph them from several vantage points. What is their character, quality and condition? How do they contribute to the meaning of the historic landscape? What is the meaning behind each piece?
Are they showing the effects of time? Are they in need of being rescued from deterioration through restoration techniques?
Photograph the details in architecture and landscape elements. Document the details of cornices, doorways, windows, steps, walls and fences, benches, lighting, etc...
Identify details in plant materials; colors, textures, form, and mass. How do plant materials compliment buildings, plazas, walkways, etc____
Photograph natural areas and identify the details of plant materials, wildlife and activities that occur there.
Document the details of activities such as sports, passive recreation, eating and drinking, relaxing, playing, working etc----
Because the landscapes around us, by their very nature, are in a constant state of change, the spirit of place of that landscape is also constantly changing. For that reason, this procedure should be performed during different seasons of the year, and the information gathered should be periodically updated. The spirit of place in a given landscape can differ dramaticly depending on whether it is experienced in winter or summer and due to the amount of change that occurs within and about it during a span of time.
Most commonly, the largest degree of change will occur in the outside circles of the inward/outward centripecy model. This is because of the many different ownerships, uses, intentions, and other influences which are under the control of many different interests. The degree of change will decrease as one moves through the procedure. The least amount of change occurring in the details.
This updating procedure should take place as often as is necessary depending on the amount of change that occurs within and around the historic public landscape.
9 The Video
An important supporting part of a thesis of this type is the use of photographic images to illustrate ideas and concepts. Rather than using blurry xerox copies of photographs, I chose to explore the field of video technology as a means for illustrating this thesis. I have found that video and the subject of this thesis were very compatible and that video was the best way to illustrate a thesis which is concerned with the spirit of place. The components of place, the physical features, the activities, and the meanings, must be seen as occurring simultaneously and as a whole.
Video can capture the components of place along with the movements, sequences, sounds and moods that accompany them.
Another reason for choosing video technology is a personal one. I have always felt that video was an excellent tool for the landscape architect but had never used the tool myself and was ignorant of the technology. I found that this thesis provided for the opportunity to use video in a professional
manner and as a learning experience in my education of landscape architecture. I believe that the confidence that I gain will be beneficial to my future career in landscape architecture.
The video that I made for this thesis illustrates the ideas and concepts discussed. The first part of the video illustrates environmental change and the flow of time in our landscapes and then illustrates the spirit of place in regions and communities around the world from the popular tourist attractions to the not so popular vernacular landscapes.
The second part of the video is devoted to illustrating the Inward/Outward Centripecy procedure of identifying the spirit of place in historic public landscapes which was developed in the thesis. The subject of this illustration is historic Washington Park in Denver, Colorado.
Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
By Don Etter
WASHINGTON PARK: The prairie site of Washington Park was platted for residential development in the 1880s. That development was, however, not promptly realized and by the end of the 19th century the site was
neither prairie nor residential. With Grasmere Lake and Smith's Lake as a structural framework, the two lakes being connected by a Great Meadow and the City Ditch, the area was developed as a scenic park in the grand Victorian manner. Russian golden willows are reflected in the surface of Grasmere Lake and across the lake there is a fine view of Mt. Evans. The Great Meadow provides an image of London's Hampstead Heath while the City Ditch as it meanders through groves of plains cottonwood is a constant reminder of DeBoer's dictum that without water our gardens are doomed to die." A pavilion is mirrored on the surface of Smith s Lake by day and, through the magic of electric lights, at night. Formal gardens bloom all summer and birds abound.
The 160.8 acre park was designed by Schuetze in 1899 shortly after the north section of the park was acquired. The development of the park was sufficiently advanced that, in 1906, Robinson described it as a scenic" park. The entire park, rectangular in shape except for a dog-leg at the southeast comer, was fully developed between 1902 and 1923. The land is gently undulating. The layout and grading were expertly done, as would have been expected of Schuetze, to provide variety in terrain and view and isolation from perimeter traffic. The dense plantings are interrupted only by the two lakes, the Great Meadow, formal gardens, and a lily pond. The tree-lined perimeter of the park is marked by streets and residential neighborhoods, except at the southeast comer of the park which adjoins the grounds of South Denver High School.
The circulation in Washington Park is by curvilinear roadways which enframe Smith's Lake and the Great Meadow in an hour glass figure and which completely encircle Grasmere Lake. The roadways loop outward from these figures to connect to the perimeter of the park at numerous junctions, thereby providing good access from the surrounding neighborhoods. Tne configuration of these roadways has been changed little over the years, although the surfaces have been widened to accommodate automobiles, entry ways from the southeast and southwest corners have been closed off to reduce through traffic, and a crossover roadway immediately to the south of Smith's Lake has been eliminated. In addition, construction barriers have been installed to block traffic on some of the roadway circuits. The surface of the roadways, like the surface of the footways (which circle each lake and wander through the verges of the Great Meadow), was originally gravel, but it is now asphalt.
It has been suggested that Olmsted designed the carriageways for Washington Park. There is no documentary evidence for this in hand and the early development of the park, as compared to the time Olmsted was engaged by Denver, as well as the stylistic similarities of the Washington Park circulation to Schuetze's other work, suggest that Olmsted's direct impact on this park, if any, would have been in refinements, rather than in the basic system. In any event, the initial design of the park is securely attributed to Schuetze. DeBoer's subsequent influence is also seen and felt in virtually every comer of the park.
To follow the City Ditch through Washington Park is to see both the past and the present of the park. The ditch (which is listed on the National Register 5DV181) appears from an underground conduit at the southeast comer of the park. During its meander through the park it is crossed by eight concrete bridges for motor and pedestrian traffic and five wood and iron bridges for pedestrian traffic. The concrete bridges, constructed 1909-1912, are simple structures of varying design with low walls and virtually no decorative elements other than indented panels and curving end buttresses. Two representative examples are the pedestrian bridge at East Tennessee Avenue and South Downing Street and the nearby Philip A. Ryan motor bridge, donated in Ryan's memory, at the East Kentucky Avenue entry to the park.
The ditch feeds Grasmere Lake, built in 1906. The lake has a pier; some segments of the shore line are natural, while other segments have been stabilized with sandstone walls; there is a fine view of the mountains over the lake. The west verges of the lake shore are treated with "islands" of evergreens (ponderosa pine, spruce, and Douglas and white fir) and the lake is surrounded by Russian golden willow. A mixture of hardwood trees creates forests along the southerly verges of the lake shore, including maple, oak linden, honey locust, and elm. The lake contains an island, likewise planted with willow, which serves as a foreground focal point to the background focal point of the South Denver High School clock tower.
South of Grasmere Lake are tennis courts first installed in 1922, and a contemporary toilet facility. This part of the park includes a grove of oak and mass plantings of crabapple and golden raintree. Linear masses of shrubs provide a screen from the traffic along East Louisianna Avenue. At the southeast comer of the park there is a planting of crabapple. On the east side of the lake, a knoll rises to a grassy platform from which there is a fine view of the mountains across tne lake. This grassy knoll is sheltered by a forest edge of silver maple, elm, and several bur oak.
Recent plantings have been scattered across the knoll contrary to the original design intent.
Near the north shore of the lake, and to the north of the ditch, are the Martha Washington or Mount Vernon Gardens. Set into the hillside which rises from the lake, the gardens are elliptical, with the north side of the ellipse being a sandstone retaining wall terraced with steps to the roadway above. The gardens were first laid out in 1926, as attested by a bronze marker on a boulder set in the center. The gardens were designed by DeBoer to follow the pattern of the gardens at Mount Vernon, with privet hedge in lieu of boxwood for the borders. A beautiful old specimen hawthorn is sited to the west of the gardens and three Rocky Mountain juniper stand in the center court of tne gardens. Nearby are the lawn Dowling green and club office of the Washington Park Lawn Bowling Club, punctuated by a large specimen honey locust and masses of white fir. The club office (ca. 1925) is a.small, simple, one-story, octagonal wooden
structure with vertical tongue and groove siding and a Craftsman stoop.
As the ditch runs toward the west perimeter of the park, it passes another series of tennis courts, first put in place in 1908, and adjoining horseshoe courts. As the ditch runs along the west perimeter of the park it is parallel to and skirts the Great Meadow. The Great Meadow is encircled by forest edges. To the south there is a grove in which evergreens dominate. To the east and west, there are deciduous forests of linden, silver maple, spruce, fir, Kentucky coffeetree, and oak. An arc of elm and honey locust along the north side is reminsicent of English Romance gardens. The elms "pinch" down to frame a small meadow to the north of the Great Meadow.
At the north end of this small meadow is the remnant of the WVnken, Blynken and Nod fountain and pond banked by an evergreen planting used to screen the full view of Smith Lake and thereby create a sense of anticipation.
At the edges of the Great Meadow are various emplacements including, on the west side, a 1973 shelter with an oriental ambiance, billed as The Pavilion Ecology Built, the material being recycled glass; a flagpole installed by the D.A.R.; a 1924 fireplace and grill installed, in a picnic grove, by tne Denver Camp Fire Girls and painted (as are a number of other park structures) green, obscuring both the material (concrete and cobblestone) and design features; a small iron cerquita originally surrounding a tree grown from a cutting of the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Washington Elm, now gone but inexplicably replaced in 1983 by a small oak tree; a fitness trail in response to the fitness fad of the 1970s; and a contemporary brick toilet facility with a shallow gable roof projecting to one side so as to provide a sheltered platform.
On the east side of the Great Meadow is a small, twelve sided shelter house built in 1912 and shaded by a grove of catalpa, locust, silver maple, green ash, and a superb old linden. Tne umbrella roof is surmounted by a short flagpole; the ceiling is beadboard; there is a frieze, or skirt, or rough cut sapling shingles. The roof now is supported by 6 iron posts which also support wooden benches which encircle the shelter, facing outward. The original supports and benches were of peeled logs, mucn in the manner of the Japanese Tea House in Cheesman Park.
Also on the east side of the Great Meadow is a bucolic, rural caretaker complex, the main elements of which were built prior to 1899 when the park land was acquired. All of the buildings are painted green and have not been well maintained The west facing house (two stories in height except for the back portion) is a simple, brick, front gable Queen Anne house of a pattern common and familiar in Denver. The front porch gable is missing, but the other two gables feature saw cut verge boards and decorative shingles. To the north, facing the house, is a symmetrical, end gable, rectangular barn of the same material and basic style and with two original ventilating cupolas along the ridge pole. To the northeast is a handsome barn, likewise of the same materials and basic style. It is
square in plan, witn an unusually high hipped roof, large dormer windows (and doors for lifting hay into the loft), and a wooden ventilating cupola at the peak of the high roof. A one-story wing of 6 bays extends to the south from this bam, making a courtyard with the other 6am and the house.
The ditch then runs back across the center of the park toward Smith's Lake, which was first used in 1867 on completion of the ditch. In this reach, the ditch passes the largest of the formal annual flower beds in the Denver parks. It is laid out today in the same configuration which DeBoer directed. This flower bed is good evidence that the "city functional" movement has not entirely eclipsed the City Beautiful movement, at least in Denver. The Wynken, Blynken and Nod statue (a rendition in marble of the three children of Eugene Fields's poem of that title sculpted by Mabel Landrum Torrey and first installed in 1919) has been moved from its original fountain and pool setting and placed on a foundation (without water) in the center of a lawn next to the Eugene Field House. The Eugene Field House is listed on the National Register (5DV173). It is a vernacular frame cottage originally sited at 307 west Colfax Avenue and was the home of Eugene Field wnen he I ived in Denver (1881-1883). The house was moved to the park location (near the East Exposition Avenue entrance to the park in a grove of Douglas fir and silver maple) in 1930 and has since been used first as a branch library and then as headquarters for The Park People. Finally, the ditch passes a substantial new recreation center built in what has been called the "shed style."
Along the shores of Smith's Lake are two buildings of substantial importance, the Boat House on the south shore and the Bath House, now the office of the Denver Forester, on the north shore.
The Bath House, built 1911-1912 on the north shore of the lake, is covered with a coat of green paint (the same shade used to cover the Camp Fire Girls' fireplace and the caretaker's complex). This treatment obscures the Prairie and Craftsman lineage of this otherwise straightforward stucco and wood building. The north facade is a symmetrical composition of three bays. The main entry is reached up a short flight of stairs in the center of the slightly recessed central bay. The entry is in direct axis with South Marion street Parkway, but the space between, designed to be open so as to afford a perspective view in both directions, has oeen cluttered with recent plantings.
The windows of the Bath House, although vertical in shape, are arranged in bands to either side of the main entry, thus emphasizing (as does the low pitched roof, the wide overhanging eaves, and a surrounding lintel course) the horizontal quality of the building. The side bay roofs are hipped and the central connecting roof has a low, wide dormer centered over the main entry. The Bath House was built to accommodate a plunge pool, lockers and dressing rooms (the men's locker-dressing room was said to be convertible into an assembly room for up to 300 people), and a gathering room, with a fireplace, used as a warming shelter for winter skaters.
Outside of the Bath House, to the south, the shore of the lake remains in its original configuration, although the beach, installed in 1913, and the diving tower and piers, the first of which was installed in 1914, are now long gone. A few of the plains cottonwood trees first planted along the lake remain, but most are subsequent replacements of the narrowleaf variety; the lake still provides recreation for boaters and fishermen; and, except along that part of the shore stabilized by gabions, it still is a haven for water fowl. To the west of the lake, the dominant plantings are of honey locust, elm, hackberry, horse chestnut, and hawthorn. To the east of the lake, the plantings include sycamore, silver poplar, willow, and silver maple. An original castiron drinking fountain, although not in working order, is still in place to the southwest of the Bath House. To the west of the Bath House are terraced and landscaped parking lots.
The 1913 Boat House is sited on the south shore of the lake and is set into a sloping hill. The surface of this structure contains decorative and stylistic elements taken, and presented in a pleasant mix, from the then popular Italianate (for example, the bracketed roof and console supports for the lintels), Prairie (for example, the low pitched hipped roof), and Arts and Crafts (for example, the geometric tile decoration of the frieze) styles. But the clearest prototype for the essence of the structure can be found in buildings like the 17th century pavilion of Kara Mustafa Pasa at the Topkapi Palace, Istanbul. Both appear to be cages with wide overhanging eaves under a shallow hipped roof. Both feature a symmetrical arrangement of bays with the pillars rising the full height of tne two stories of construction. Both feature interstitial openings uninterrupted by walls, so that the floors extend to the edge of the cage and, in the case of the first level, carry on to the outside, indeed, the first level of the Boat House extends directly to a boat dock at lake side and then to the surface of the water itself which acts as a reflecting pool for the building. Electric lights were placed at regular intervals on the facade and under tne eaves of tne Boat House so as to provide night time illumination and reflection. The overall compsition is clear, gentle, and luminous.
The first level of the Boat House has served as ticket office, storage space, concession stand and, in the winter, warming house. The upper level, which has traditionally served as an informal gathering spot and picnic shelter, and from which there is a fine view of Long's Peak, is reached by a short flight of steps (now blocked by iron gates) from the hillside to the south. The north and south facades consist of seven bays while the east and west facades consist of three. The steps to the upper pavilion enter at the central bay. The lower level openings are filled with removable glass and metal windows and doors, while the upper level openings are interrupted only by iron railings.
There is a small stucco pump house, with a red tile roof, on the lake shore to the west of the Boat House. This structure is framed with plantings of
spruce and cedar. There are small parking lots to the west and east of the Boat House.
Beginning in 1905, various sections of the City Ditch were piped" to the north from Smiths Lake. For a time, the open ditch was the central feature of the median of the South Marion Street Parkway. An occasional plains cottonwood marks the old meander of the once open ditch. The ditch also fed a lily pond, designed by DeBoer and constructed at the northeast corner of the park in 1917. A rock garden designed by DeBoer was installed at the east edge of the lily pond. The lily pond, albeit without aquatic plant material, remains today. However, the rock garden was recently rearranged and now bears little resemblance to DeBoers design. The evergreen backdrop for the rock garden remains in place. To the north of the lily pond is a recently constructed fire house which, except for a concrete parking pad, blends nicely, as did the predecessor facility, into the comer of the park. To the north of the lily pond is a picnic grove and a brick fireplace of recent construction.
On a rise to the south of the lily pond is Evergreen Hill, a forested hill of spruce, ponderosa, Scotch, Austrian, and white pine, Douglas fir, and iuniper. The grading for a hill in this sector of the park was planned by Olmsted Bros. The planting of the hill was designed by DeBoer. Set on the hillside, and visible from tne road, is a bronze cast of a Colorado miner by George Carlson, a 1980 memorial gift from the Samuel D. Nicholson Trust. The north, and main, entryway into Washington Park is immediately to the west of Evergreen Hill.
Italianate doorway. Alexandria Historic District. Alexandria. Virginia. A photographic detcil reveals the line craftsmanship and style that distinguish the district's showcase ol line 18th- and 19th-century townnouses.
IMPROVE QUALITY-OF PHOTOS FOR NATIONAL REGISTER NOMINATIONS
bv Walter Smelling Photographer National Register
edited by Robert Haynes WntetfEdttor National Register
One of the most important parts of a National Register nomination form is the photographic documentation ct the property. Perhaps only architectural drawings
can more accurately and objectively record a structure, but photographs can also "interpret.' the condition of a structure ancTshow' it in the context of its environment. Not only can a photograph serve as a historic document but it can also be used for publications, exhibits, and myriad other purposes. Photographs should, therefore. be of the highest possible quality.
With this in mind, the fallowing information is presented as suggestions to help states achieve better quality in their photographic documentation of buildings and architectural details with existing staff and often limited budgets.
Documenting historic buildings and architectural detail will always be best achieved by using one of the several available large-format bellows cameras, with tilts and swings. Such a camera, rf used properly, will produce a negative with little grain and high detail, as well as one that is superb for archival storage, handling, and future printing. Moreover* a large-format earner is 'jvexy. versatile. Tilts ancTswings on such a camera allow for better positioning of the lens and can thus compensate for what is called "parallax convergence." or the pyramiding effect in photography that causes the tops of tall buildings to come to a point when photographed from the street.
Unfortunately, large-format equipment is expensive and often complicated to operate. Because of this, most photographic docuv mentation accompanying NatieSgpE ."iBSSiSler nominations is tqfcfft- < with smaller format camera's, such as 35mm. and sometimes by persons with little or no photographic training.
Choosing Camera and Lens
Although there are many excellent-cameras available, there are a few important features to consider in choosing a camera tor architectural documentation, most ipripottap^of which is to select a camera mat is adjustable. That is you should select one with variable f-stops and shutter speeds and one that is suited to accept interchangeable lenses. Auto-riigtit^camecas should not be used for architectural documentation. Results tend to be inconsistent because such cameras ccnnot "automatically" take into account the wide variety of lighting situations present in architectural photography. It is possible to use an automatic camera, provided the AUTO is switched off and adjustments to f-stop and shutter speed ere made manually.
Another important considercf.cn in choosing a camera is how the camera views the object to be photographed. In architectural photography a single lens reflex (SLR) is preferred over a rangefinder viewing system because an SLR allows viewing directly through the lens. The photogra-- pher sees the same image the lens "sees" and that is the image that will eppear in the final negative.
Two types of lenses are especially useful in architectural documentation. The first is a "wide angle." This lens is often needed to "cover" an entire building, because like its name implies, :t covers a wide angle of vision. A wide-angle lens is also useful :n photographing interior rooms A lens with a focal length' ot 25rr.m. is well suited for architectural uses, giving good results without causing curvilinear distortions
The second lens necessary for docurr.emaiion :s the normal" or standard lens, which is needed to record architectural details such as staircases, fireplcces. molding, etc. Depending upon the brand of camera used, jhe local length of a standard ler.s may vary tram 47mm to 5cm::i.
ouch camera manutacturers as Nikon. Vivttar Leica. Perr.ax and Ccnon now make a perspective-correcting lens to lit their 35mm-format cameras. Unfortunately, these lenses will only fit the camera bodies for which they are made, and are quite expensive, avercgmg 51.000 when bought new. Still they are the ultimate tool for the architectural photographer using a 35mm-format camera. These lenses operate similarly to the large-format bellows camera with tilts and
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Barney L. Ford Building. Denver, Colorado. A clear, descriptive photograph el mn us- .. boss^ commercial building ft beetljchiered
by caretully traming the subject and selecting the decisive moment when light is evenly distributed and the street is tree ol obstructions. Metering the light on the shadows, as in the recessed storelront. reveals details otherwise obscured.
swings. With such a perspective-correcting lens, it is possible to stand at the foot of a tall building and straighten out the convergence at the top. It should be noted, however, that the height of the building does limit this capabilitythe taller the building, the further the photographer must stand back to eliminate the convergence.
Note that care should be taken to keep lenses and filters clean at all times. A smudge or piece of dirt on either will actually reduce the clarity and crispness of the final print. Proper lens tissue and cleaning liquid should be used instead of clothing or cloth. Liquid should be placed on the tissue, not directly on the lens. It is best to remove bits of dust with an air stream before applying the tissue and cleaner.
When properly processed, only black-and-whitcrfilm has a degree of permanence suitabI#?for archk val storage, making black-and-white photography preferable lo cpfor. Generally, black-and-wl^e photographs.dtsplay -more tonal -BBTiahifity ujri uie cheaper to pro-dtfbe than color ones. The film speed is generally cited as some numerical value after the letters ASA. The "slower" a film is. or the lower the ASA numerical value, the less grain there is in the final print. Grai-*hows ujj in the print afl^dets. Thelees grcrrav-the sharper the detail of the image. If a slow film is used or a fast film in low light, it may be necessary to use a tripod to steady the camera for long exposures. Generally,
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35mm cameras may be hand-held for shutter speeds down to 1 3Cth of a second but it is highly recommended that a tripod be used tor any exposure of 1.125th second or slower. This will guarantee greater image sharpness and clarity.
One way to improve the quality of your photographs is by using filters. Filters alter the nature of the light that strikes the film. The most important fact to remember about a filter is that it filters light rays: it holds back certain c: the rays in the rainbow of colors converting part of the object light .me image shadow. However, filters do this selectively, and that s why they are so useful in pnotegrapr.y Filters can give us clouds when we might otherwise lose them, darken skies for better backgrounds, control haze by increasing or removing it, soften or strengthen shadows.
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Archibald Henderson Law Ollice Schseury Historic District. Salisbury. North Carc.ma. The best results in outdoor photogrzcr.y are usually obtained by selecting ol day when sunlight directly ilium.r ces the subject's lacade.
Commercial building in Second Empire style. Washington. D.C. "Parallax convergence is the unpleasant, pyramiding ellect that causes the walls oi the buildings to rise to a point when photographed Irom the street lleltl. The photographer can correct this perspective problem by moving away Irom the subject to a position where vertical lines appear parallel trightl.
Generally. :? is best to use only one-filter on a lens at a time.
Every glass through which the image must pass will ultimately decrease the picture's sharpness. Filters should be kept as clean as the lens. In shooting black-and-white film, a medium-yellow filter K2> can be used advantageously. A K2 filter increases the intensity of the sky and makes clouds more prominent, as well as sharpens contrast and lessens haze. With color films, a skylight filter may be useful and can serve also as a protective layer for the lens.
A particularly useful filter for color film is a polarizer. A polarizer increases the intensity and saturation of color, especially in slide film, and significantly reduces glare from reflected light. The filter is fitted into a rotating ring fixture to allow turning the filter until maximum effect is reached and glare is lessened.
For photographing a building, this is most easily done by focusing on a glass window; the filter ring should be rotated until the win-
dows go to their darkest intensity
and reflections are reduced. Using a polarizing filter makes possible very professional results, and makes blue skies quite intense. Note, however, that a polarizing filter has a tendency to deepen shadows, which causes a slight loss of detail.
Keep in mind that most filters diminish the amount of light reaching the film. Exposure settings must take this into account. A built-in light meter will automatically compensate for less light, but a hand-held light meter will require the photographer to compensate. To do this, the photographer should refer to the guide accompanying the filter he is using, and change the f-stop according to the instructions in the guide. For example, if using a polarizer will block 1.5 times as much light as using no filter, then the f-stop should be opened (achieved by lowering the numerical value) one and a half stops to allow that much more light to reach the film.
Detail. Charles W. Morgan. Mystic Seaport. Connecticut. The rich textures ot the 19th-century whaler's spars and rigging were captured by using a polarizing liiter by carefully focusing upon foreground details. and by metering the light on the darn tones of the wood.
An arbitrary number rating pieced on film which -e:ls how much light :s required to property expose the him. Generally, the lower the ASA value. the slower a !i!n and the more light required to expose it.
In its simplest form z stop, or diaphragm. is a metal plate with a hole in it het limi's the amount ot light that passes through the lens. In better cameras it is usually an iris diaphragm, patterned on the one in the eve end provides a continuously variable hole.
There are tour qcod photographic reasons for using t-stops to advantage: l1 To maxe he picture sr.arper. 21 To equalize illumination. 3 fro get depth of field, and 41 To control the exposure
Tri-X ASA 4CC :s a versatile all-purpose film suitable :gr use .n lower light levels.
Plus-X ASA 125 .s a medium speed film that gives genera.lv sharp pictures with little grain and' that may De used outdoors without a tripod-
Pan-X ASA 32) is a slow him that may very likely need to be used with a tripod to steady the cam'era. But if properly exposed and processed, this film gives excellent sharpness and very little if any visible grain.
Color films should not be used for permanent documentation or for nomination forms. Slide films are more permanent
than negative films and usually give better results for publication. (Prints may be made from transparencies.
Ektachrome is available in several speeds from ASA 64 to ASA 400. These films tend to make blues and greens more saturated or intense.
Kodachrome is available in film speeds of ASA 25 and ASA 64 With this film, reds and yellows tend to be more intense. Both films are available for indoor use under tungsten light.)
standard lens is the one cr. a ;;mer: wr. it is bought and can be used .r. ur:r..--: tural documentation only tor de-u..s
A wide-angle lens with a local .er.gth ::
A medium-yellow filter generally increases contrast and brings out sky detail. This filter is excellent for black-and-white photography and may be used outdoors for most occasions.
A polarizing filter cuts glare in the same way that polarizing sunglasses work. The filter is rotated until all light is horizontal to the picture plane and glare does not "bounce' off shiny surfaces such as water or glass. This filter also defines clouds and sky detail.
35mm is preterred for covercge c: cr. -r.\:e building. A wide-angle .er.s is a.so use: in photographing large interior spaces
A perspective correcting lens w:-h c 35mm focal length is ideal for correcting parallax convergence. This ler.s hes tuts and swings similar to a iarge-toma: camera and can effectively straighten out car-allel lines such as the sides ot tall buildings
A telephoto lens may be considered a lens with a focai length of 85mm or icr.ger It is especially useful in architecture: acc-umentation for cioseups and for detai.s that are not easily approachable by the photographer.
' Focal length determines how ,a:ge T.e .mace of a subiect within the phccgrach -r.e .er.s :-produce, and how much ot the scene .- tor. span A 50mm lens tor examo.e cr. a 5cm: camera can take in an ar.gie ot view :: tc r 35mm lens on the same camera w... cove: -14;
A polarizing filter for color film does the same as it does for black and white with the added quality of intensifying colors and deepening the blue in skies. However, a polarizer can also deepen shadows and decrease detail in the shadows.
A normal or standard lens usually hes a focal length of 50mm but can vary somewhat in different cameras Generally, a
" NOTERequest that the lab process the film archivally, by using hypo-eiiminator. the c.-.emi-cal wash that removes all developing cr.em'.cc.s from the film.
Prints should be made at douole-we: pers and should be processea ;r. 'he same wav removing traces of developing them.cals .--- -. coated RC papers are not accep'ac.e ce: they have a sr.ort ..tespan ar.a car..-.:- ce arm. vally processed
Color tilms are always oest prccessec c*. film manufacturer
Photo Wai:*r jrr.aihng it ter Vj\
Interior. Pension Building. Eight monumental composite column*, several clerestories, a series ol trussed roof*, and four levels of galleries grace a tremendous interior court. The urban palaces ol the Italian Renaissance inspired the architect and engineer. Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs.
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South portal. Pension Building. Sculpture enhances the building s significance. Allegorical figures and a Ineze that depicts Union force* symbolically allude to the building '* original function which was to administer military pension* and to commemorate Civil War veteran*.
When To Take Photographs
Good photographs may be taken in many kinds of light, including light available on overcast days. Generally, the best light is available in early morning and late afternoon, when sunlight is softer and shadow detail more interesting. Often it may be worth the results to rise early and photograph a building in the soft light just after sunup, since photographs taken at midday tend to be flat, with little contrast. Be sure to avoid photographing a building by facing into the sun, because detail on a building that is lit from behind will usually be obscured by shadow. Sometimes architectural details, especially intricate patterns, are best photographed when harsh shadow and sunlight will not obscure them.
For this reason, the evenly distributed light on overcast days can be useful in obtaining good photographic results.
Photogrcphmg interiors has specific problems, mainly extreme light variances caused by dark shadows and bright windows. Remember that taking a photograph when the sun is shining directly into a window wili make the surrounding detail "washed out," or go white in a final print. A photographer can avoid this by waiting until the sun shines at an angle to the window or until it strikes another faqade of the building.
Supplemental lighting may be used when detail is lost in shad-
ows such as at wall corners or around furniture. There are several different kinds ol inexpensive and portable light sources that may be used with black-and-white films. Telescoping lightstands with clip-on lights for photoflood bulbs are available for S10-15 each. More elaborate setups are available with "barn doors," or louvers that control the amount of light. Photofloods are usually manufactured in 500- and 2000-watt sizes, and should be chosen to satisfy general lighting requirements. It is possible to carry enough lights for almost any situation in a small suitcase.
Color films require more specific types of lighting. A light source that is marked with a color temperature of 3200K will color balance standard tungsten slide film. To combine tungsten lighting and daylight balanced color slide film, an BOA (blue) filter must be placed on the camera lens. No filter is necessary when using a strobe or flash because they are balanced for use with daylight color film.
A strobe or flash unit may be used when electricity is not available. However, a bright, single source of light can white out or overexpose an area in the photo-
graph as easily as a brightly sunlit window. Therefore, it is always a good idea to carefully study the space being photographed, whether using photofloods or a strobe, to assure that lighting :s as even as possible and that the light source will not cause glare from a window or shiny surface.
A trick that professionals sometimes use with supplemental light sources is to bounce the light ofi a ceiling or light colored wall behind or above the camera. This gives a softer, more even light to an interior.
Note that extra bulbs and extension cords should not be forgotten. Often, photographic lights have 3-prong plugs, requiring adapters tc fit some electrical outlets.
Careful metering is essential to good picture quality. Even a carefully composed and well-lit photograph can fail if the metering does not take shadow detail into account. Many 35mm cameras have a built-in averaging light meter that works well, but within limitations. For better results, a hand-held meter may be used or the built-in meter can be used with more precision. For example to show detail in a shadowed
Photo Walter Srr.aUir.g. }r r:t *.*:? Sa wr 5*c -.
Pension Building. Washington. D.C. Photodocumentation ol an individual property should include several views. The use ol a wide angle lens, the selection ol a vantage point in an adjacent park, and the artistic composition ol loreground details solved the problem ol documenting a large exterior elevation in an urban setting. Photodocumentation should also include interiors or unusual details that contribute to a property's historic or architectural significance Iopposite left and right).
area, it is necessary to set the camera's exposure for the amount of light in that area. The camera can be held in the shadowed area to take a reading much like using a hand-held meter; or, if at a distance from the object, the camera can be held near an area that has similar lighting conditions, or even against the hand.
Metering oft ja neutral grey test card, available in camera stores, gives perncps the best results. This test cara can be held in direct sun or in ^ncdows corresponding to the lighting on the building being photographed.
If the lighting on a building is strongly mixed between light and shadow, an averaging reading will give best results in the final print. A meter Ireading should be made in the sunlight (against a grey card held in the sun) and another reading made in shadow. These should then be averaged, with an f-stop and shutter speed setting between the two.
The important thing to remem-
ber is take the extra time to be more exact. Taking the trouble and time to make meter readings carefully will show up as a better final print.
Basically the difference between a good or bad informational photograph is the time taken by the photographer to really see what he photographs. As mentioned earlier, certain lenses such as the perspective correcting lens can help eliminate parallax convergence. However, the photographer can correct some perspective problems while taking a picture by knowing where to position himself.
Ideally the photographer should be situated so that the building is shown to its best advantage. To be aesthetic and informing, a photograph will show the photographer's awareness of considerations such as lighting and distractions that obscure detail (trees.
telephone poles, wires, cars, and pedestrians). Often, waiting a moment for the distraction to pass can make a great difference.
If possible, the photographer should take his picture from a position midway between ground level and roofline, and be positioned far enough away to include all of the building. This will eliminate or lessen the problem of converging lines. Sometimes the best perspective can be found by focusing your camera from an upper floor window of a building opposite the one being documented. A hill, porch, or any raised area will work equally well.
What to Photograph
Photographs of a property nominated for the National Register should clearly show in visual terms the importance of that property. If the written documentation points out particular details or qualities, then a photograph of those qualities should accompany the nomination.
F'r.oic ids?- a
Union Pacific Station. Shoshone Historic District. Shoshone. Idaho. Photodocumentation cI a historic district should include individual structures and their settings that played an important role in the district's development.
Photo doc .dter.tatien should include photographs ct oil four sides of a structure, closeups of particularly significant details, or of details mentioned in the written documentation, as well as a good overall view of the property. If a nomination includes outbuildings
or surroundme : croperty a good
photograph sr . .o i-mor.strate
rhe relctionsh: ;p oe' -veen a struc-
are. its vistas . garaer.s. and sur-
Historic aist riots prove a partic-
ular crobiem. Gooa photo docu-
mentation should not only provide
a record of me iividual structures
within the district, but also show overall streetscapes and the relationships of buildings. Every nomination. whether of district or individual property, should also include or.-- dear, descriptive and aesthetically pleasing photograph that would "capsulize" the nomination. Often photogrcphs are needed for publication in a technical journal or in the National Register. but this single descriptive photograph is unfortunately missing.
The processing of a film is almost as important as taking the picture Rarely will drugstore specials give 'ustice to a photographer s etforts. Therefore, it is important to Ipcate a processing laboratory that will process your film individually. Even though it may be siight^y more expensive,
the results will justify the cost.'
In order for photographic negatives and prints to last indefinitely, they must be properly processed. This "archival processing" basically means that all of the developing chemicals have been eliminated from the film through adequate chemical or
water washing. Developing chemicals contain acids that will eventually eat away at phctcgrapr.ic materials, and proper processing is necessary to render them inert.
The longevity of negatives and prints is also affected by the way they are stored. Although archival processing can make the most significant difference in the lifespc.n of photographic materials, this can be completely undone by improper storage.
The best storage envelopes tor negatives are the transparent sleeves sold by Kodak. These a.-low the negatives to be v-.eweo and identified without being touched. For prints, storage m an envelope and or with interleafs (sheets of paper with an 8.5 pH balance) separating photographs are the only proper methods z: storage. These materials are basically inert and will not cause future deterioration of the photograph or film. Color papers are still relatively short-lived, and except for display or possible pub..-cation, are not sufficient ter documentation.
Phorc Z-jv-.a Avery
Bridgewater Woolen Mill. Bridgewater. Vermont. A nearby hill provided an excellent vantage point lor documenting in one photograph the complex's overall site. 19th- and 20th-century additions, and the relationship between the mill and its rural setting.
NPS Form 10-900 (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
United States Department of the Interior
National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations of eligiL.iity for individual properties or districts. See instructions in Guidelines for Completing National Register Forms (National Register Bulletin 16). Complete each item by marking "x" in the appropriate box or by entering the requested information. If an item does not apply to the property being documented, enter N/A for "not applicable. For functions, styles, materials, and areas of significance, enter only the categories and subcategories listed in the instructions. For additional space use continuation sheets (Form 10-900a). Type all entries.
1. Name of Property_______________________________________________________________________
other names/site number
street & number J not for publication
city, town C vicinity
state code county code zip code
Ownership of Proper D private D public-local I public-State I public-Federal Name of related mu 1y Category of Property Number of Resources within Property D building(s) Contributing Noncontributing C district buildinas
D structure structures
C object objects
tiple property listing: Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Reaister
4. State/Federal Agency Certification
As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, I hereby certify that this CD nomination CD request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property CD meets CD does not meet the National Register criteria. CD See continuation sheet.
Signature of certifying official Date
State or Federal agency and bureau
In my opinion, the properly CD meets CD does not meet the National Register criteria. CD See continuation sheet.
Signature of commenting or other official Date
State or Federal agency and bureau
5. National Park Service Certification
1, hereby, certify tha entered in the N CD See continuatit determined eligit Register. See determined not e National Registe 1 1 removed from th Cl other, (explain:) this property is: ational Register. ( jn sheet.
>le for the National continuation sheet.
ligible for the .
e National Register.
Signature of the Keeper Date of Action
6. Function or Use
Historic Functions (enter categories from instructions) Current Functions (enter categories from instructions)
Architectural Classifi (enter categories froi cation Materials (enter categories from instructions) Ti instructions) foundation
Describe present and historic physical appearance.
I I See continuation sheet
- 8. Statement of Significance__________________________________________________________________
Certifying official has considered the significance of this property in relation to other properties:
I I nationally O statewide Q locally
Applicable National Register Criteria Qa Qb die I Id
Criteria Considerations (Exceptions) Qa G3b Gc GH& G]E CDf I |G
Areas of Significance (enter categories from instructions)
Period of Significance
State significance of property, and justify criteria, criteria considerations, and areas and periods of significance noted above.
I I See continuation sheet
9. Major Bibliographical References
Previous documentation on file (NPS):
preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested
Z1 previously listed in the National Register Z1 previously determined eligible by the National Register
designated a National Historic Landmark I I recorded by Historic American Buildings
I I recorded by Historic American Engineering
10. Geographical Data_______________________________________________________________________________
Acreage of property______________________________________________________________________________
aLU l l i l i . I l i l i I i I b |_U l l i I m I I i I i I i i 1
Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing
C IiI IIi|___|_|__| I_i_I__i_1 i i I D |__|___1 |_|_i_liil |_i_1_i__I i i__|
I I See continuation sheet
Verbal Boundary Description
I I See continuation sheet
Boundary Justification 1 1 See continuation sheet
11. Form Prepared By
street & number telephone
city or town state zip code
I I See continuation sheet
Primary location of additional data:
I I State historic preservation office I] Other State agency
Local government H University
I I Other Specify repository:
1. Rene Dubos, A God Within, (New York, 1972), p. 177-178.
2. Ibid., p. 185.
3. Ibid., p. 186.
4. Hippocrates, Humours, translated by W. Jones. (London,
5. Kevin Lynch, What Time Is This Place? (MIT Press, 1972),
7. Ibid., p. 168-173.
8. Ibid., p. 171.
9. The Yearbook of Landscape Architecture: Historic Preservation,
ed. Richard L. Austin, Thomas Kane, Robert Z. Melnick, Suzanne Turner. (New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983), p.4-5.
10. Lynch, op. cit., p.173.
11. The Yearbook, op. cit., p. 8.
12. Catherine Howett, "Second Thoughts", Landscape Architecture,
Vol. 77, No. 4, (1987), p. 52.
13. U. S. Department of the Interior, Guidelines for Local
Surveys: A Basis for Preservation Planning National Register Bulletin #24, by Anne Derry,
H. Ward Jandl, Carol D. Shull, Jan Thorman for the National Park Service, (Washington, D. C.: Interagency Resource Division, 1977, revised 1985, by Patricia L. Parker), p. 9-11.
14. Patricia O'Donnell, "A Process for Parks", Landscape
Architecture, Vol. 77, No. 4, (1987), p. 58.
16. Howett, op. cit., p. 55.
18. Harry Garnham, Maintaining the Spirit of Place, ( Mesa,
Arizona, PDA Publishers Corp., 1985), p. ix.
19. U. S. Department of the Interior, National Register
Bulletin #18: How To Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes, by J. Timothy Keller and Genevieve P. Keller for the National Park Service, (Washington, D. C.: Interagency Resource Division, n.d.), p. 2.
22. Ibid., p. 3.
23. Ibid., p. 6.
24. U. S. Department of the Interior, National Register
Bulletin #15, National Park Service (Washington,
D. C.: Interagency Resource Division, 1982), p. 35.
26. Ibid., p. 36.
28. Ibid., p.37.
31. #19, op. cit., p. 2.
32. Ibid. p. 8.
33. Garnham, op. cit., p. 1.
34. Christian Norberg-Schulz, Existence, Space, Architecture,
(New York: Praeger, 1971), p. 19.
35. Edward Relph, Place and Place!essness, (London: Pion
Limited, 1976), p. 42.
36. Christian Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci, ( London: Academy
Editions, 1980), p. 6.
37. James Boswell, cited in A. Briggs, "A Sense of Place"
in The Fitness of Mans Environment, Smithsonian Annual II, (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 63.
38. Ian Nairn, The American Landscape, (New York: Random House,
1965), p. 78.
39. Relph, op. cit., p. 45.
40. Ibid., p. 43.
41. Pierce F. Lewis, "The Geographer Is Landscape Critic",
Visual Blight In America, Resource Paper #23, Association of American Geographers, (Washington, D.C., 1973), p. 1.
42. Lawrence Durrell, Spirit of Place, (New York: Dutton,
1969), p. 157, 163.
43. Ronald Blythe, Akenfield, (Harmondsworth: Penquin Books,
1969), p. 17-18.
44. Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci, p. 19.
46. Ibid., p. 20.
47. Relph, op. cit., p. 48.
48. Ibid., p. 46.
49. Ibid., p. 48.
50. Rene Dubos, op. cit., p. 7.
51. D.H. Lawrence, Studies in Classical American Literature,
(London: Heinemann, 1964), p. 6.
52. Relph, op. cit., p. 63.
53. Garnham, op. cit., p. 9.
54. Ibid., p. 7.
55. P. Hodges Schulte, The Theory of Sense of Place, Master
Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 1984.
56. Bureau of Land Management, Visual Resource Management
Program, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980), p. 15.
58. Rene Dubos, The Wooing of the Earth, (New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1980), p. 52.
59. J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins, (Amherst: The
University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), p. 115.
60. Garnham, op. cit., p. x.
61. Ibid., P- 3.
63. Ibid., P- 4.
64. Ibid., P- 6.
65. Ibid., P* 8.
67. Ibid., P- 13.
69. Ibid., P- 23.
70. Ibid., P- 27.
71. Ibid., P- 29.
72. Ibid., P- 40.
73. Ibid., P- 41.
74. Ibid., P- 44.
75. Ibid., P- 51.
76. Ibid., P- 56.
77. Ibid., P- 57.
78. Stephen Strasser, "Phenomenology and the Human Sciences",
in Phenomenology: The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl, ed. J.J. Kockelmans, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1967), p. 508-509.
79. Relph, op. cit., p. 47.
80. Don Etter, from a lecture given at the University of
Colorado at Denver in February, 1988.
81. Garnham, op. cit., p. 55.
82. Ibid., p. 56.
Alexander, Christopher. A Timeless Way Of Building, New York:
Oxford University Press, 1979.
The American Association for State and Local History. Historic Landscapes and Gardens- Procedures for Restoration.
John J. Stewart for Technical Leaflet 80, History News. Vol. 29, No. 11, 1974.
Austin, Richard L., Suzanne Turner, Robert Z. Melnick, Thomas J. Kane, ed. The Yearbook of Landscape Architecture:
Historic Preservation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983.
Colorado Historical Society. The Park and Parkway System.
Compiled by Don Etter for the National Register Theme Nomination, August, 1986.
Davis, Fred. Yearning for Yesterday: A Sociology of Nostalgia.
New York: Collier MacMillan/Free Press, 1979.
Dubos, Rene. A God Within, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,1972.
Etter, Don. "A Legacy of Green" Colorado Heritage, Issue #3, 1986.
Frank, Frederick. The Awakened Eye, New York: Random House, 1979.
Frank, Frederick. The Zen of Seeing, New York: Random House, 1973.
Garnham, H. L. Maintaining the Spirit of Place, College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 1976.
Howett, Catherine. "Second Thoughts" Landscape Architecture, (July-August 1987), 52-55.
Jackson, J. B. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
Jackson J. B. Landscapes, Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1970.
Knauer, Andrew R. "Of the Genius Loci and the Lower Bear Creek Valley." Master Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 1984.
Lowenthal, David.and Marcus Binney, ed. Our Past Before Us:
Why We Save It. Great Britain: The Blackwell Press, 1981.
Lynch, Kevin. Managing the Sense of a Region, Boston: MIT Press, 1976.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning, Boston: MIT Press, 1985.
Lynch, Kevin. What Time Is This Place? Boston: MIT Press,1972.
Morrow and Worley Landscape Architecture. Registry of Historic Landscapes: State of New Mexico, New Mexico State Historic Preservation Bureau, 1982.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci- Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, London: Academy Editions, 1980.
O'Donnell, Patricia. "A Process for Parks" Landscape Architecture, (July-August 1987), 56-61.
Relph, Edward. Place and Placelessness, London: Pion Limited, 1976.
Schulte, P. Hodges. "The Theory of Sense of Place". Master Thesis, University of Colorado at Denver, 1984.
U. S. Department of the Interior. National Register Bulletins
12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21-25. National Park Service, Washington D. C.: Interagency Resource Division.
U. S. Department of the Interior. Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System, by Robert Mel nick for the National Park Service,
Washington, D. C.: 1984.
Videofreex. The Spaghetti City Video Manuel, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973.
Weiner, Peter. Making the Media Revolution, New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, Inc., 1973.