FIVE POINTS GATEWAY A MIXED USE PROJECT
Ernie Ruskey Architecture U.C.D.
The thesis o-f Ernie Ruskey is approved.
1) Thesis statement
2) History of Five Point
5) Assets and Goals
The site for this thesis project is the intersection at the crossing of 23rd St. and Welton St. In addition to
forming this intersection, 23rd St. is also the boundary or seam between the Five Points neighborhood and a speculative "no mans" land on the fringes of the expanding central business district of Denver. Congruently Welton St., forming the cross-axis, is also the connection or passageway between downtown Denver and the heart of the Five Points community. The location of this site at the midpoint between Five Points and downtown Denver, and the elements of intersection and cross axis which occur there provide the setting for this architectural thesis.
The intersection of 23rd St. and Welton St. as it exists today is a thoroughfare. It is not a place where one stops and lingers. 23rd St. provides commuter access into the hospital district, downtown, and Capitol Hill areas. Welton St., also a major commuter street, brings one-way traffic out of downtown.A fragmented mixture of land uses detracts from any sense of coherence or place. The existing structures appear as stubborn outposts slowly eroding to the advancing tide of downtown. The landscape is littered with abandoned buildings, parking lots and warehouses. Sonny Lawson Park located at the intersection is under-utilized. This is due in part to its location and in part to its use by those frequenting the nearby bars, liqueur stores and soup kitchens. Residents of Denver have come to view this site and the Five Points neighborhood in general as an undesirable place. An uncertainty hangs over the area in anticipation of the unseen forces which will determine its future.
In spite of adversity, this intersection, the neighborhood which surrounds it and the city of Denver itself offers the opportunity and potential to rise above the situation. The site provides an opportunity to explore the architectural result of context, on the neighborhood scale of Five Points and on the wider
urban scale of the Denver metropolitan area. Drawing upon the character and identity of the neighborhood of Five Points, the thesis establishes a firm context and it is from this existing context that the project begins to take shape.
The composition of the project responds to the need for an improved housing stock in the area which is considerate of moderate income levels coupled with a retail base of supportive goods and services. Providing the financial means to undertake this will require a combination of inputs from both private and public sources. The incentive to tackle such a project has widespread support from local business people, developers and city officials and is preceded by numerous inner city revitalization projects throughout the country.
In scale this project will retain that of the neighborhood which surrounds it, providing for association and intimacy. At the same time it must project a strength and assertiveness to meet the hard edges, particularly along 23rd St. where the neighborhood begins to meet with the Denver central business district. The massing will break down to meet the neighborhood and provide access to the open space of the adjacent park.
In his book Urban Space, Rob Krier says that,"The existing conception of urban space must not be destroyed, but complemented by a new building. If such a conception of urban space does not already exist the new building must create it." On the one hand the thesis site is part of an existing neighborhood with a rich character and history, from which it may draw precedence. At the same time the site must set a precedent with respect to its location on the eroding edge of this neighborhood. The project must begin to establish a foothold that is recognizable as a precedent for future development along 23rd St. It must not detract from the commercial and residential development which is underway at the Five Points intersection but rather act as a counter balance along the Welton strip. With a strong anchor at either
end, the necessary infill along Welton St. will occur.
An integral aspect of the context aside from the physical composition of the neighborhood is its cultural make-up which is predominately Black. In consideration of this the thesis need be sensitive not only to the users needs but also to the possibility of ethnic differences in the perception and use of space. The history of Black culture from the general background of African and Black American history to the specific uniqueness of the Black experience in the West and in Denver may serve as a underlying theme. This layering of culture throughout history provides a sense of permanence and purpose.
The second consideration of the thesis is to look at the site from a broader urban context. Again Rob Krier, in Urban Space, says that,"We have come to realize today that this theory of the compartmentalization of function has had a negative influence on urban life. From the point of view of urban space, the connections between the various elements are only fragmentary, and do not add up to a integrated system." With this in mind the thesis site as part of a larger urban picture takes on a specific and integral role.
Its location on the border, which is 23rd St., between downtown Denver and Five Points with Welton as a major connecting street implies a gateway.
This gateway facilitates the transition from one environment to another. It is the place where one either enters or leaves and must therefore suggest either invitation or departure.
As such it becomes an identifiable reference point, it provides a certain ordering and it alludes to a sense of transparency. It is an introduction into the Five Points community at the intersection of two major traffic arteries, complimented by the composition of the project and followed by a sequence of ways and places which lead toward the center of Five Points.
CONCEPTS OF GATEWAYS
STREETSCAPE AS GATEWAY Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis
The history of Five Points is very much the history of Denver. During the city's first decade, Denver did not grow. When its population exploded in the late 1870s, the bulk of new settlement was to the northeast of downtown. To the northeast the diagonal of downtown continued, and it was more easily integrated with old Denver. Developers also played a major role in ensuring that east Denver, as this area was then known, would be the city's premier residential section. By 1886, a couple of developers gave the city its first park Curtis Park near 30th and Curtis as a gift.
Horsecar lines also played a key part in the development of east Denver. Their introduction to the city in the 1870s coincided with the growth of the Curtis Park neighborhood. Middle and upper income citizens, riding the horsecar to and from work, flocked to this area to escape the more dense, shabbily constructed buildings near where Denver began. In 1881 the Stout Street-Herdin Coach Line noticed that the intersection of 27th and Welton was flourishing and decided to expand its service into the area. It found that a sign reading "Twenty-Seventh and Welton" was unwieldly for its vehicles. Since the streets there made a five pointed star, it decided to call the area Five Points. Despite protest from residents not wanting their neighborhood to be associated with slum areas in the East, the name Five Points stuck.
Though numerous distinguished structures housing middle and upper income residents were built near Curtis Park and Five Points in the 1870s and '80s, it was never the elite neighborhood in town. Similarly, it was always extremely diverse. Next to imposing Victorian mansions were shacks and homes of workers. As Denver continued to grow in the 1880s and 1890s, the latter came to dominate the area.
Two simultaneous developments affected Five Points at this time. One was that the growth of Denver in a northeasterly direction was checked by the location of the railroad tracks, which turned east from downtown just beyond Curtis Park. On the other side of the railroad tracks were grimy industrial suburbs such as Swansea and Elyria.
The other development was the growth of Capitol Hill. By the 1890s irrigation projects and creative land speculation attracted the city's most affluent residents to the southeast of downtown. Though many wealthy individuals continued to live in Curtis Park well into the 20th century, by 1900 anybody with class headed to Capitol Hill.
Typical of the problems that the neighborhood was experiencing by the early years of the 20th century was the expansion of Broadway. Broadway originally terminated at 20th Avenue. In the 1910s, the city decided to expand Broadway through the fringes of Five Points. This was ostensibly done to improve transportation patterns and the links between downtown and north Denver and the stockyards. It was also supposed to aid the industrial development of Denver by expanding downtown and cutting through the worst of Denver's blight. This was defined as
the low income housing in the area that was destroyed as a result of the Broadway expansion. Many of Denver's blacks lived in those houses directly west of Five Points. One consequence of this urban renewal effort was that many blacks were pushed a few blocks further east into Five Points proper.
The 1920s was the period of Five Points rapid transformation and emergence as Denver's black neighborhood. At the same time as Blacks saw themselves being pushed out of the Platte Valley and the fringes of downtown, Denver was experiencing a building boom. In the mid-1920s prosperous white middle class neighborhoods such as Park Hill, Congress Park and Washington Park were being developed. As middle income whites moved to them from old east Denver, blacks flocked into Five Points and Mexican-Americ-ans moved into Curtis Park.
The 1930s were the glory years for Five Points. At that time the Rossonian Hotel at the Five Points intersection was "the" black hotel in town. Big-name black performers played and stayed there. Nationally renowned talent including Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong regularly came to Five Points, the top jazz center between St. Louis and the West Coast. The so called black and tan crowd hung out there, and whites seeking good jazz sought it in the Points.
World War II and the relocation of the Air Force Finance Center to Denver soon after the war led to an influx of blacks into the city. This increased population provided an excellent clientele for merchants along Welton Strip (the businesses along Welton from 25th to 28th that have always been the heart of Five Points).
The negative side of this picture was that this was a captive audience. Segregation was then a fact of life in Denver. Though blacks began moving east of Five Points and the adjacent Whittier neighborhood in the 1940s, the bulk of black housing in Denver was in and around Five Points. Similarly, a black was expected to patronize black merchants his business was not welcome elsewhere. When this structure broke down with the civil rights struggles, the economic structure of Five Points collapsed. It has yet to recover.
Following the enactment of the Colorado Fair Housing Act in 1959, many middle income blacks fled the Points. They wanted high-quality housing and eagerly sought to prove themselves responsible homeowners and citizens in Park Hill. As the purchasing power of residents in Five Points stagnated or declined, merchants went into the defensive mode. Rather than aggressively seeking to keep old customers who were no longer in the neighborhood (much less attracting new ones), they became increasingly conservative. Prices went up while the quality of goods and services declined.
The result was a number of business failures. In contrast to Five Points in the 1930s and '40s which was dotted with grocery, drug, hardware, and clothing stores, soon people living in Five Points discovered that they had to go outside of their area to shop. A 1980 study found that only 2% of the disposable income of residents of Five Points was spent at neighborhood businesses.
V]Jhile business failures mounted, Five Points found itself redlined by financial institutions. Basically, lenders refused to provide any money for new construction or renovations in the area. As a result nothing new was built in Five Points for years; old structures were allowed to decay and were boarded up or abandoned. The only beneficial consequence of this development is that Welton Strip has retained its historical character, and it's not scarred with the kind of tacky structures that line many commercial streets.
With businesses failing and the bulk of middle income blacks moving out of the neighborhood, crime became an increasingly severe problem in Five Points. Former city councilman Elvin Caldwell, who represented the neighborhood from 1955 until he became manager of safety in 1980, denies that the city ever discriminated against Five Points. According to Caldwell, the city's only failure was that it only gave Five Points equal services. In view of the area's problems, it needed special services. The crime problem, he notes, always contributed to Five Points' troubles. Loitering is a case in point. Welton Strip is a popular hangout for black youths. Some potential Welton Strip customers feel uncomfortable in such a climate and are afraid to patronize the stores, feeling that they might be harassed or worse.
Despite problems facing the neighborhood there is a sense of fortitude and optimism amongst the business community and residents of Five Points. A genuine interest in the future potential of Five Points as a neighborhood and as an asset to the city of Denver is being taken by city officials, developers, and area residents alike. This is occurring simultaneously to similar efforts in urban areas throughout the country to revitalize existing inner city neighborhoods utilizing existing structures, proximity to central business districts, and neighborhood character and vitality.
The Five Points neighborhood is one of the oldest residential areas in the city with single family houses averaging 91 years of age. It is bounded by the South Platte, 38 Street, Downing Street, 20th Avenue and 20th Street. Five Points lies directly to the east of downtown and north of the midtown hospital area. It is a predominately residential area with a large housing stock of which many structures are historically significant. It is a full community with all the conveniences of urban living close into the core of the city.
The "Five Points" proper is the focus of the Welton Strip -the former commercial heart of the area. It is the location where Washington, Welton, 27th Street and 26th Avenue come together. It is down this Strip towards Five Points that the project will focus. As a "node" it will establish a solid terminus to the Five Points neighborhood. This node will establish a firm boundary between the neighborhood and the speculative no-mans land on the south side of 23rd. The project must also set a precedent for the quality of development that will take place there in the future as downtown expands and as infill occurs between the neighborhood boundary and the Five Points intersection. The "gateway" will be an introduction into the neighborhood along Welton Strip towards the Points.
The commercial area along Welton Street between 23rd and Downing was historically the center of the neighborhood commercial activity. The visual "critical mass" of activity exists only within the three block area between 25th Avenue and 28th Avenue. This mixed use project will compliment and reinforce this commercial activity vital to the neighborhoods success. It must act to draw people into the Welton Strip without detracting from the Points itself. The consistent two story facade along the west side of Welton Street is particularly important and may be used as a reference for the new streetscape. This strip includes a number of interesting buildings, some of which have been or are in the process of being renovated. Residential units are located along Welton Street as well.
The Five Points neighborhood located immediately adjacent to the downtown area, stands to be significantly affected by the northeasterly expansion of downtown related and support activities. Already this can be seen in the demolition of residential units for conversion to close-in parking lots, the development of a large multi-story parking garage, and the purchase and holding of land for speculation. The northerly
advance of downtown through the neighborhood with the resultant loss of existing community structure, diversity and uniqueness would be a loss to the entire city of Denver.
In addition, development of the 23rd/ Fox Street interchange
with 1-25 as the major northerly entry to the downtown, will substantially facilitate access to, and the desirability of the area immediately adjacent to the northeast for potential development. 23rd Street between Broadway and Colfax Avenue will thus provide significantly improved opportunity for accessing the Five Points neighborhood and the nearby hospitals, both from the downtown and the region via the interstate highway. Thus the urban design implications for the treatment of 23rd Street and the uses and residential areas adjacent to it are of extreme importance if the truly unique character is to be preserved and the adverse affects of the advance of downtown through the neighborhood minimized.
This setting provides a unique architectural and urban design opportunity to provide identity and entry at the seam of 23rd Street and to provide a focus for linkages from the seam to important community facilities in the Five Points neighborhood as well as into the downtown area of Denver.
NEIGHBORHOOD AND URBAN CONTEXT
* The area has lost population and housing units over the past 20 years. As the market demand has left, the commercial areas have also lost businesses and services to other areas or simply have closed.
* The triangle study area is 162 acres. Today 11% of the land is vacant, 28.7% is used for single family, 22.4% is multifamily, 7.27% is commercial, 2.39% is services, 5% is industrial, 3.3% is transportation, policy, and utilities, 20% is public and quasipublic facilities, and 2% is parks.
* Zoning in the triangle is predominantly R-3 (94 acres), a high density apartment zone district and B-8 (37 acres), a very high density mixed-use zone.
* What was once the predominantly Black community in the City has in recent years found more and more Anglo and Hispanic residents moving in. According to the Hope Communities survey, the percentage breakdown is 63% Black, 17% Anglo and 11% Hispanic and 9% other in the triangle. There is a relatively large elderly and youth population (under 14) compared to the rest of the city.
* It is an area of mixed housing opportunities including multifamily and low density single family homes. There are 2,466 housing units in the triangle and 566 of them are single family. Revitalization of the housing stock is gaining more and more momentum. While the owner occupancy is increasing, it remains at approximately 52% for single family structure as opposed to the city average of 82%.
* The average sales price of single family structures has averaged just over half that of the city average annually since 1980. In 1980, it was $46,300 vs. the $85,530 city average and in 1983 it was $49,500 vs. the $78,790 city average.
* There has been considerable land speculation, due in part to its location next to downtown, the lower land costs available years ago, and the uses and densities permitted in the B-8 zoning.
* Five Points continues to be home for a disproportionally large percentage of the cities low income families. 52% of the households here have an income below $7,500 while only 10% of the city's total households fall in this category. Poverty level for a family of four is considered to be $7,356.
Sales prices for land in Five Points have increased dramatically from a 1980 average of $20.77 per square foot, to $45.11 in 1981 and $75.74 in 1982. 23rd Street continues to be an important demarcation line. If the sales prices are broken at 23rd Street, the average price southwest of 23rd was $109 per square foot in 1982, while only $47 per square foot northeast of 23rd.
Affordable middle income housing has been the other housing trend in the area and prices fall in the $55,000 to $100,000 range. Much of this is rehabilitation of the existing housing stock and is occurring predominantly on the downtown/hospital
of the neighborhood.
Commercial activity has been encouraged to keep pace with increasing residential stability. Revitalization of commercial areas such as the Points is receiving support from private as well as public sources.
Both public and private sectors have been actively involved in developing housing needs in the area. Non-profit organizations have responded to the need for low income housing in the past as has the city of Denver.
*The low rental costs for both residential and commercial space, coupled with the areas proximity to downtown.
*The neighborhood's transportation access to downtown and other parts of the city is very good, as is access to the regional highway system.
* Proximity of the area to the major bus routes in the area is good.
*It contains the elements of an established residential community; schools, parks, and mature landscaping, a library, social service, health center, and youth job counseling center and some shopping areas.
Special history, diversity, and neighborhood sense.
To see special aspects of the neighborhood preserved and to see these special aspects enhanced and built upon.
To enhance Black cultural symbols, (existing structures), along Welton and in the larger community.
To preserve the historic charm of the neighborhood.
Establish the base of a retai1/service center.
Restore the reputation of Five Points as a jazz/entertainment center.
* Build upon the existing housing stock.
Provide an identifiable entrance and a terminus for the neighborhood .
Integrate housing, employment, and retail/service needs of the community.
to the Points:
The site occupies the intersection at 23rd Street block directly to the west by Sonny Lawson Park, will a In total then the site consi or 4.8 acres although the ma retained as open space. The north-west. The majority of be removed.
Soils and Water Table:
block in the north-east corner of the and Welton Street. In addition the across Welton St., which is occupied Iso be incorporated into the project, sts of approximately 210,600 sq.ft, jority of Sonny Lawson Park will be proposed site slopes slightly to the existing buildings on the site will
Much of the site is covered with man-made fill left from ous development on the site. This fill extends to a depth of 7 feet across the site, below which are natural sandy Ground water is not encountered until a depth of 44 to 46 below the surface.
MIXED USE SITE
VIEW OF SITE FROM SONNY LAWSON PARK
Denver County is located in north central Colorado about 40 miles east of the continental divide. The county has elevations ranging from near 5200 feet to about 5500 feet. The location in the mid-latitudes in the interior of the North American continent experiences large temperature changes from summer to winter and rapid changes in weather due to storms travelling from west to east through the region. The mountains to the west effectively block atmospheric moisture originating in the Pacific Ocean and leave the county dependent on moisture from the Gulf of Mexico which is not consistently brought to the region. Consequently, the region is dry with low amounts of precipitation which are quite variable throughout the year. Sma]] amounts of water in the air are accompanied by plenty of sunshine, about 70% of possible, and large temperature changes from day to night.
Large temperature changes are observed at the Denver airport during the year where the monthly average varies from 29.7 degrees F. in January to 72.9 degrees F. in July. A more informative description is evident from the monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. The mean maximum varies from 43.4 degrees F. in January to 87.4 degrees F. in July while the mean minimum varies from 16.0 degrees F. in January to 58.3 degrees F. in July. The difference between maximum and minimum is 24 degrees F. in January and 29 degrees F. in July which is indicative of the size of the day to night temperature change. Each year is not an average year and the wide variation experienced in the county is seen in the warmest and coldest monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature. For example the warmest January minimum was 26.3 degrees F. while the coldest January minimum was 4.0 degrees F. This large variation of winter changes to a much smaller variation in the summer.
Average annual precipitation of 15.2 in. at Stapleton Airport was determined from data taken over a 25 year period while 12.4 in. was observed over 23 years downtown. Both stations show a distinct maximum in spring and summer with a minimum in the winter season. The winter minimum is drastic evidence of the infrequent occurrence of a southerly wind to bring Gulf moisture to the region coupled with a storm which can effectively use the moisture. Spring and summer bring a much more frequent movement of air from the south and more solar radiation to produce convective showers. The maximum and minimum monthly precipitation shows the extreme variability of precipitation.
Since such a large portion of precipitation falls from summertime convective storms even the areal distribution can be quite variable. Also, average precipitation values are made up of many years slightly smaller than normal and a few large years. Most years will be below the average. Hail producing convective storms may be expected 2 to 5 times a year.
Average snowfall measurements are 66 inches per year at the airport and 56 inches in the central part of the city. Even to a greater extent than the total precipitation, a few large snowstorms dominate snowfall averages with most years below the
Average winds do not change much throughout the year; the prevailing direction is from the south in every month and speeds vary from 8.2 mph in late summer and early fall to 10.4 mph in April. The fastest mile of wind occurring in a 24 year period was 56 mph in April 1960 and July 1965.
HEATING AND COOLING FOR DENVER
SUN AND WIND
SUMMARY OF MONTHLY CLIMATIC DATA FOR DENVER AIRPORT COLORADO LAST OATA 12/1972 SUBSTATION NO. 2220 OIV. R
PREPAREO BY THE COLORADO CLIMATOLOGIST, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE, COLORAOO state UNIV., FT. COLLINS , CO 80523
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN
MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMUM TEMP IF! AVE. R3.R R6.5 50.5 61.3 70.6 80.9 87. R 85.8 77.3 66.7 5 3.0 R5.9 6R 1
MAX. 52.9 59.6 61.2 68.7 76.7 88.6 92.R 89.9 81.7 76.7 6R.9 5R. 0
MIN. 28.6 35.8 RO.R 52.6 6R. 6 72.8 81.8 81.2 68.1 R9.5 RR.5 37. 8
MONTHLY MONTHS OF RECORD MEAN MINIMUM TEMP IF) AWE. 25 16.0 25. 19.5 25 23.8 25. 33.6 25. R 3.6 25 52.2 25 58.3 25. 57.2 ^25. R 7.8 25. 37.0 25. 25.2 25 18. R 300.. 36.1
MAX. 26.3 27.8 29.R 38.R R9.1 58.2 62.3 59.9 51.9 R3.1 32 .R 25.1
MIN. R.O 13.8 17.5 28.1 39.2 R 8. 3 5R 7 53. 5 R2.R 28.R 19.8 12.0
MONTHS OF RECORD 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25 . 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 300 .
MONTHLY MEAN AVERAGE TEMP IF) AVE. 29.7 33.0 37.2 R7.5 57.2 66.6 72.9 71.5 62.6 51.9 33.2 32.2 50.1
MAX. 39.6 R3.7 RR.8 53.6 61.7 73.R 76.9 73.9 66.7 . 59.9 R8.7 39.6
MIN. 16.3 2R. 6 29.0 R1 .R 52.6 60.6 68.9 68.1 55.7 39.0 32.3 2R.9
MONTHS OF" RECORD 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 300 .
DEGREE DAYS (BASE 65F) AVE. 1062.R 89R. 8 851.7 527.8 2R8.R 61.0 7.7 8 R 128.5 R10.8 777.7 10 1R.6 5993.8
MAX. 1 Rl 7 1159 1108 701 388 16R R2 35 296 801 971 1239
MIN. 781 589 621 333 138 0 0 0 29 229 616 782
MONTHS OF RECORO 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 2 6 R .
NO DAYS MAX TEMP GTR OR EQ 90F AVE. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .3 5.7 13.8 9.9 2. R 0.0 0.0 0.0 32.1
MAX. 0 0 0 0 2 15 27 22 6 0 0 0
MIN. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
MONTHS OF RECORD 2R. 2R. 2R . 2R. 2R 25. 25. 25. 25. 2R 2R. 2R. 292.
NO DAYS MAX TEMP LESS OR EQ 32F AVE. 6.8 R.6 R.l R 0.0 0.0 0.0 O o 0.0 .3 2.3 R.R 22.9
MAX. 20 11 11 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 1 0
MIN. 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MONTHS OF RECORO 25. 25. 25. 2R. 2R. 2R 2R . 2R. 2R. 2R. 25. 25. 293.
NO DAYS MIN TEMP LESS OR EQ 32F AVE. 29.3 26.1 25.8 13.2 1.9 .0 0.0 0. 0 .5 8. 1 2R.2 29.6 159.0
MAX. 31 29 30 23 7 1 0 0 3 18 30 31
MIN. 21 21 18 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1R 26
MONTHS OF RECORD 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. ZR 2R. 2R . 2R. 25. 25. 25. 296.
NO DAYS MIN TEMP LESS OR EQ 0 F AVE. 3.6 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 .6 2.2 9.3
MAX. 13 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R 11
MIN. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MONTHS OF RECORD 25. 2R 25. 2R. ZR 2R . 2R. 2R . 2R. 2R. 25. 25. 292.
HIGHEST TEMPERATURE (F> TEMP 72 76 8R 85 91 102 102 100 97 87 76 73
YEAR AND DAY 195309 196305 197126 196021 195R20 195R23 195 R11 19621R 196 0 0 R 195012 195810 195523
MONTHS OF RECORO 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25, 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
LOWEST TEMPERATURE IF) TEMP -25 -25 -10 7 22 30 R3 R1 20 3 -8 -18
YEAR ANO DAY 196312 195101 19R805 195912 195R02 195102 195207 196R23 197119 196913 195010 197210
MONTHS OF RECORD 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
DEtiVER COUNTY TEMPERATURE
MIXED USE PROGRAM
Program elements: Square Feet
Multifamily housing 48,125
net square feet.......................65,625
gross square feet (+20%)..............78,750
Function Spaces Square Feet
Multifamily housing 98 34,300
Retail/Commercial 105 36,750
MIXED USE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
* Housing and commercial activities should be shielded from undesirable street noise.
* Consideration should be made for desirable street level activities typical of the area.
* Continuity of the streetscape should be maintained to hold down the corner.
* The overall project should function well on its' own and also be inviting to the outsider by providing a sense of entrance.
* The mix of uses and their composition should hold the corners of the intersection and also give the intersection a sense of identity.
* Create a unique entrance to Welton Street.
* Design should set a precedent for future development in the vicinity.
* Integrate open space into the project and utilize the existing park.
* Visual continuity of the streetscape should be maintained.
* Some of the edges need to be softened.
* There should be a separation and an integration of retail with residential space corresponding to the separation between public and private space and the transition from one to the other.
* Large expanses of parking area need to be broken up with the possibility of below grade parking.
* The heights of buildings should be no higher than three stories.
MIXED USE ADJACENCIES
# Space Total Square Feet
20 1 bedroom/1 ba Â§560 sq.ft. 11,200
15 1 bedroom/1 ba Â§450 sq.ft. 6,750
15 2 bedroom/2 ba Â§890 sq.ft. 13,350
15 2 bedroom/1 ba Â§765 sq.ft. 11,475
65 units total
Childcare center 3,500
net square feet................................33,600
gross square feet (+20%).......................40,320
Parking: 98 spaces Â§ 350 sq.ft. = 34,300 sq.ft.
Playground: As necessary for housing complex and
daycare center, utilizing park area.
Overall Design Considerations:
* The 65 units are designed for singles, married couples, or married couples with one or two children. All age groups are eligible.
* The units are designed primarily to accommodate people of moderate incomes.
* The housing is intended to accommodate people from outside and from inside the Five Points neighborhood.
* For security reasons the housing should maintain its "eyes on" the surrounding neighborhood, parks and plazas.
* The housing complex should provide for or make readily accessible outdoor open space for recreational activities.
Commercial retail space may be utilized at the ground level of the housing complex. It should compliment and support the housing development.
Childcare will be provided to assist working parents.
* Childcare and laundry should be readily accessible to the residences.
* The housing complex should be well lighted and secure during the night hours.
* It should also be considerate of the scale of the surrounding neighborhood.
* Spaces should be provided within the complex which allow for social interaction between individuals and families to take place.
Apartment Unit Design Considerations:
Circulation from the entrance foyer to the activity elements of the kitchen, living room, and sleeping areas is desirable.
*A degree of separation also needs to be maintained between these areas.
* Ideally each space should have access to the outdoors. For practicality baths, foyers, and frequently kitchens and dining areas are developed as interior spaces.
The one bedroom apartments are designed for use by one or two people and the two bedrooms for use by three or four people.
* The apartments should encourage social interaction in their relation to each other and to public spaces.
The apartments should take advantage of views to the mountains toward downtown, and into Five Points.
* Apartment units should be identifiable individually or within zones.
* Apartments should be secure.
* They should feel comfortable and retain privacy for the individual.
Apartment Square Feet Guidelines:
entry kitchen living room bath 2nd bath dining bedroom 2nd bedroom
Space Square Feet
net square feet..............................17,500
gross square feet (+20%).....................21,000
Parking: 105 spaces @ 350 sq.ft. = 36,750 sq.ft.
Service/Loading: As necessary for retail and restaurant.
Overall Design Considerations:
* Commercial spaces must attract outside as well as neighborhood interests.
* Commercial activities must be visible from the street and sidewalk.
* Commercial space can occupy the street level of the housing complex.
* Retail space may include medium scale anchor stores such as hardware and clothing.
* Other retail possibilities will be those that compliment the housing complex such as a convenience store, hairdressing or music.
* The commercial development should begin to set the precedent for future retail infill.
*The restaurant/club spaces will be an attraction to outsiders as well as the neighborhood and should be accessible and visible.
* The streetscape should be maintained and enhanced.
K* % T
I s 1 1
t f s $ *
The B-8 zone is intended as an intensive general business or very high density residential district. Retail office and
cultural uses contained in the B-8 zone are meant to serve the entire metropolitan area in a concentrated activity center. For the purposes of this mixed use project the B-8 zoning is more than adequate.
1) Open space required:
A minimum of 50 sq.ft, of unobstructed open space is required for each dwelling unit.
2) Maximum gross floor area:
The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a zone lot shall not be greater than four times the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located. Premiums may be added for plazas, arcades and low level light areas.
3) 0ff street parking requirements:
a) housing............................parking class 1
There shall be one and one-half (1 1/2) off-street parking spaces provided for each dwelling unit in a multiple unit dwelling.
b) office/retail......................parking class 4
There shall be one off street parking space provided for each two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right.
c ) childcare..........................parking class 7c
Any school not a elementary, grade, junior or senior high school shall provide an area equal to one-half the gross floor area occupied by the use by right in a structure or structures.
4)Off street loading requirements:
25.001- 250,000 sq.ft......................1 space
15.001- 50,000 sq.ft.......................1 space
The R-3 zone is intended primarily as a residential district. Multiple and single family residences are permitted. Other uses are permitted which are compatible to a residential neighborhood such as churches, libraries, or grade schools. However, retail uses are not permitted without temporary permit, accessory use or variance.
l)0pen space required
a) Each residential structure of one to three habitable stories, 20 percent of the area of the zone lot.
b) Each residential structure of four or more habitable stories, 30 percent of the area of the zone lot.
a) Front: 10 feet from each front line of the zone lot.
b) Rear: 20 feet from the rear line of the zone lot.
c) Side: 5 feet from each sideline of the zone lot with zone lots 30 feet or more in width.
3) Maximum bulk of structures
No part of any structure shall project up through the bulk limits which are defined by planes starting:
a) At horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the zone lot and pass through points 20 feet above the midpoint of each such side line.
b) At horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center line of all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points 20 feet above the midpoint of such center lines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended.
c)At a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the zone lot and passes through a point 20 feet above the midpoint of such rear line of the zone lot.
4) Off street parking requirements a)housing: same as B-8
5) 0ff street loading requirements b )ifiultif amily: same as B-8
Note be i the uses
Considering the mix of uses, (retail and residential), to ncorporated into a block containing two zones, (B-8 and R-3), Creation of a P.U.D. may allow for the best integration of
Project Name Location
Applicable Code Name Code Check by
Five Points Gateway 23rd Street and Welton Denver Building Code, 1983 Ernie Ruskey
l.Fire Zone 3 1601
apartments H-2 1301
dining/drinking F-l 1101
offices/retail F-2 1101
day-care C-l 801
3.0c cupancy Separation Required
F- 1 to F-2 = 1 Hour Table 5B
F- 1 to H-2 = 1 Hour Table 5B
F- 2 to H-2 = 1 Hour Table 5B
C- 1 to H-2 1 Hour Table 5B
retail type 1 1800
all other type 5 1801
5.Maximum Allowable Floor Area
F- 2 type 1 unlimited Table 5C
H- 2 type 5 7,800 ft.sq. Table 5C
F- 1 type 5 10,500 ft.sq. Table 5C
F- 2 type 5 10,500 ft.sq. Table 5C
c- 1 type 5 11,700 ft.sq. Table 5C
If adjacent to open area on two or more sides:
5%, 2 1/2%, 1 1/4% ft. by which minimum width
exceeds 20 feet. 506B
If over one story:
200% of area permitted for one-story buildings. 5 05B
The area of one-story building. Group F shall not be limited when the building is provided with sprinkler system and is completely surrounded by 20' wide open space. Allowable area can be doubled in buildings over one story.
6.Maximum Allowable Height
F-: 2 type 1 unlimited Table 5D
H-; 2 type 5 50' 3 story Table 5D
f-: 1 type 5 50' 3 story Table 5D
F-: 2 type 5 50' 3 story Table 5D
c-: 1 type 5 50' 2 story Table 5D
7.Openings in Exterior Walls
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior walls located less than 5' from adjacent PL or CL of street or alley.
Set-back requiring protection of openings in exterior walls.
Occupancy Fire Zone Const. Type Set Back
F-l 3 5 10'
F-2 3 5 10'
H-2 3 5 20 '
C-l 3 5 10'
F-2 3 1 20'
8.Minimum Ceiling Height in Rooms No portion less than 5', 7' over 50%
9.Fire Resistive Requirements
exterior bearing walls #1 4 #5 1
interior bearing walls 3 1
exterior non-bearing walls 4 1
structural frame 3 1
permanent partitions 1 1
vertical openings 2 1
floors 2 1
roofs 2 1
exterior doors: 3/4 hour if less than 20' setback Table 17A 1707C
exterior windows: 3/4 hour if less than 201 setback 1707C
inner court walls: PI, between opposing walls opening requirements apply exterior 17 07D
1 hour. No mezzanine floor more than 1/3 area of room shall cover 7115B
roof coverings: Class A or B (sec. 1806) 1 hour 3204B
boiler room enclosure: 1 hour 1716
10. Structural Requirements Construction type 1: Framework:
steel, concrete or Stairs: reinforced concrete masonry or structural 3 hours 1802
steel Floors: Noncombustible fire -restrictive 3 hours 1805
construction Roofs: Where every part of is 25' above floor, material protected roof structure noncombustible by sprinkler or 2 hours 1804
resistive material. Partitions: 1 hour 1806
Noncombustible, fire-restrictive 1 hour 1801
Construction type 5:
Framework: aluminum,steel, concrete, or masonry as specified 1 hour 2202
Stai: rs, Floor, Roof, Partitions
any i material acceptable 1 hour 2203 2204
Occupancy load (square feet per occupant)
Occupancy type square feet
dining room (low occupancy) 15
kitchens (commercial) 200
Number of Exits Required
2 or more exits required when occupancy load exceeds:
classrooms 25 2
offices 30 2
Minimum width of exits: 3 feet 3303D
Total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a
percentage of the occupant loads of adjacent floors. 3302J Exit separation arrangement:
Exits will be accessible in at least two different directions. Minimum travel distance between fire
exit doors shall be 25' apart minimum. 3302K
Maximum allowable travel distance to exits:
Occupancy Distance (sprinkled)
F 150' 200 '
G 150 ' 200'
H 100 ' 150 '
C 75' 110' 3320C
Allowable exit sequence:
At least 1/2 of required exits shall be located to be reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from a room may be open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided the adjacent room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit.
Minimum allowable width 44 inches (3'8")
Required to have an exit at the end of each corridor? Yes. When two exits are required except for dead-end allowance.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes. Maximum length. 20' May be extended to 50' with automatic sprinklers. Branch corridors not permitted from dead-end corridor.
Wall fire resistance required
Doors and frames fire resistance required
12.Stairs Minimum width:
44" (3'8") For occupancy load of 36" For occupancy load of
Maximum riser allowed 7.5"
Minimum tread allowed 10"
Dimension measured in direction of travel= width of stairway but not exceeding 5' with straight run.
Maximum size required:
5' with straight run
+ 50 50
Maximum verticle distance between landings: 12'6 "
Required height of rails:
(2'6"-2'10") 30-34" above nosing
Required at each side? Yes.
Intermediate rails required at stairs?
Yes. 83" wide
Maximum width between rails:
Handrails extend beyond stair?
6" At least one handrail at both top and bottom.
Stair to roof required? Yes. If building is 4+ stories, one stairway shall extend to the roof with a hinged door.
Access to roof required?
Yes. To mechanical.
Stair enclosure required? Yes. 2 Hours Enclosure shall not be required for a stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Maximum slope to use as an exit: 1:12 Handrails required:
On at least one side min. 3.2' high measured from the surface of the ramp. Extend 1' beyond top and bottom of ramp.
Exit signs required? Yes. At every exit door with occupancy load of 30+.
13.Penthouses Area limitations;
33 1/3% of the area supporting roof.
None in type 1 construction.
Use only for shelter of mechanical equipment or vertical shaft openings.
14. Fire Extinguishing Systems
When floor area exceeds 15,000 sq.ft. 3803A
Mixed Land Use: From Revival to Innovation Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross Inc. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania 1976
Krier, Rob Urban Space
Rizolli International Publications Inc.
New York, N.Y. 1979
Bacon, Edmond N.
Design of Cities The Viking Press New York, N.Y. 1968
Denver Planning Office
Five Points Design Charette; Final report City of Denver Denver, Colo. 1985
Sherwood, Roger Modern Housing Prototypes Harvard University Press Cambridge, Mass. 1978
Apartments Their Design and Development Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York, Amsterdam, London 1967
The Many Faces of Five Points
Denver, Colo. 1985
March 24, April 3; #18 and #19
Building Code and Zoning: Denver Zoning Ordinance 1985
Denver Building Code
Architectural Record C.F.W. Dodge Corp.
July 1982 pg. 106
April 1980 pg. 122
March 1982 pg. 90
This conclusion consists of an evaluation of the success of the thesis projeqt. in carrying out the program in addition to program changes made in the development o-f the design.
The weakest aspect o-f the -final design was in the apartment units which could | have been designed more carefully to allow for a variety of spaces as well as daylighting. Additionally the apartment units went above the programed square footages making the feasibility of the project as a low income residential project questji onabl e. Had the apartment square footages outlined in the program been followed a more successful project could have been realized.
Overall square footages for the project, housing, retail, and office exceeded those outlined in the program. The reasons for these changes occuring during the design process are twofold. One was a response to the urban impact of the project on the surrounding area and the desire to increase massing and density. The second Jwas the desire to improve the economic viability of the project with an increase in the rentable square footage. This again posed problems with respect to the desire to have the project be a low income project supported in part by the retail and office space. In addition to a more thorough design of the apartmerjt units a closer look at the economics of the overall project and the feasibility of a mixture of uses would have strengtkiened the project.
The urban design issues proposed in the program of gateway, entrance, and transition were handled successfully overal1. The nix of public and private spaces and their interaction seemed reasonable arid a variety of enjoyable spaces were created.
FIVE POINTS GATEWAY
A MIXED USE 23rd & WELTON
A MASTERS TMESIS IN ARCHITECTURE
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