Citation
Graduate students housing for the University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Material Information

Title:
Graduate students housing for the University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Creator:
Sackett, Russell Hayward
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ii, 118 leaves : color illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Student housing ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 98-100).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Russell Hayward Sackett.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11307004 ( OCLC )
ocm11307004
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .S32 ( lcc )

Full Text
GRADUATE
STUDENT
HOUSING
for the
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS
PEDESTRIAN1 TRAFFIC
RUSSELL HAYWARD SACKETT
1 .
# ------------
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
AT 2
1981+
S32


auraria lip
O /
GRADUATE STUDENT HOUSING
for the
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS
PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC
RUSSELL HAYWARD J^CKETT
} Pv
AURARi/a V


GRADUATE STUDENT HOUSING
FOR THE
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, FAIRBANKS
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
Russell Hayward Sackatt
Spring 1984


ha Thesis of Russell Hayward Sackett is approved.
University of
Colorado
at
Denver
Spring 1984


TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures ............................................ i
List of Tables ............................................. ii
1 Introduction .....
2. History ...........
3. Project Background
4. Climatological Data
4.1 Temperature ..
4.2 Solar Disk
4.3 Precipitation
4.4 Degree Days ..
4.5 Humidity ......
4.6 Winds ........
4.7 Sky Conditions
4.8 Conclusion ...
5. Codes
5.1 Building Code
5.2 Handicap Code
6. Site Analysis
6.1 Context ..
6.2 Vegetation
6.3 Contours .
6.4 Utilities
6.5 Soils ....
6.6 Views ....
6.7 Access .
6.8 Noise ....
6.9 Conclusion
Project Program
7.1 User ...........................
7.2 Design Constraints .............
7.3 General Design Requirements ...
7.4 Space Requirements
7.4.1 Apartment Units ........
7.4.2 Community/Service Center
8.
1
5
18
24
26
28
31
32
32
33 33
35
36
39
41
48
51
52 56 56 60 61
63
64
65
6 7 69
72
9
Addendum: Soil Engineer's Log Bibliography ................
98


10. The Design ........................................101
11. Conclusion ........................................111


1ST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 2a: City of Fairbanks and the University
of Alaska ................................... 7
FIGURE 2b: Lower Campus of the University of
Alaska, Fairbanks ...........................14
FIGURE 4a: Bearing and Altitude Angles of the
Solar Disk in Fairbanks .................... 27
FIGURE 4b: Solar Altitude Angles ...................... 29
FIGURE 4c: Solar Bearing Angles for Fairbanks ......... 30
FIGURE 4d: Heating Degree Days for Fairbanks .......... 32
FIGURE 6a: Site Location Map .......................... 40
FIGURE 6b: Portion of the New Married Student
Housing Complex ............................ 42
FIGURE 6c: Rainey's Cabin -- Northeast Corner ......... 43
FIGURE 6d: Rainey's Cabin -- West Elevation ........... 44
FIGURE 6e: USGS' Building ............................. 45
FIGURE 6f: Site l/egetation ........................... 46
FIGURE 6g: Aspen Stand between Yukon Drive
and the Site ............................... 47
FIGURE 6h: Sits Contour Map ........................... 49
FIGURE 6i: Section A-A Through the Site ............... 50
FIGURE 6j: Existing Utility Locations ................. 51
FIGURE 6k: Soil Conditions on the Site ................ 54
FIGURE 61: Views from the Site ........................ 57
FIGURE 6m: Access to the Site ........................ 58


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 4a: Fairbanks' Average Temperatures
and Precipitation .......................... 25
TABLE 4b: Mean Number of Hours of Sunshine ............. 27
TABLE 7a: Space Requirements for Apartment
Units and for the Community/Service
Center ..................................... 69


I. INTRODUCTION


1
INTRODUCTION
Proposed graduate student housing for the Fairbanks Campus of the University of Alaska is to be dealt with as the thesis project. As programed by the University, this housing complex when completed will consist of 175 apartment units clustered around a small community/service center. Planned to be constructed in two phases, the thesis will center only on the first phase which consists of the design of 80 apartment units. The thesis intent is to use this housing project to explore primarily three theoretical propositions.
The first and major theoretical proposition that will be explored is that of the environment and the buildings' edges. 8ecause of the extreme climatic ranges experienced by the region during the yearly cycle and the psychological effects it has on those who live in the region, treatment of the buildings' exterior skin can have an impact on how one preceives their external environment. Although summer months, though snort, have long periods of sun and pleasent climatic conditions with activities cantered on the out-of-doors, the longer more severe winter months offer the opposite tending to force people indoors for extended periods of time. Architecture in the region tends to heighten this dichotomy between interior and exterior environments without attempting to provide a transition between the two, especially during the winter months. With a few exceptions, that architecture that does exist neglects the exterior psychological environment created by the winter months.
1 .


During the nine months of winter, these structures take on a depressive quality that adds to the desire and appearance of winter hibernation. More than any other part of the year, winter is the time when it is important for the individual's spirit to be lifted and challenged. The physical environment plays a great role in helping shape psychological moods and in this respect, much of the architecture found in the region fails to stimulate and more than not, adds to the weight of depression augmented by the season.
Since the physical environment plays such a major role in affecting psychological moods, the thesis will explore means of dealing with this aspect of the design. Main issues of this theoretical proposition that will be dealt with by the design approach are the treatment of the building's external skin and the relationship between the interior and exterior environments. In regards to the external skin, the use of warm textured surfaces with the use of color will be explored. Relationship between the interior and exterior spaces will be explored through the use of undulating wall planes inorder to bring the two spaces into a more harmonious relationship along with the use of wall opennings to provide a more intengrated transition between the two.
The second theoretical proposition is the relationship between the University community as a whole and the community that will be developed by the proposed graduate student housing Comdex. By the nature of University housing, there is a dichotomy between the hierarchy of community and how one creates
2.


the sense of community on the individual complex level and the sense of being part of the larger University community. Traditionally the University of Alaska had attempted to treat graduate and older students the same as undergraduates in terms of social development and sense of community with little success. Having little or no interest in the general social life offered by the University, these students develop their own sense of community that due to housing conditions tended to evolve around their fields of study. Because of this and a number of other reasons touched on in Section 3 (Project Background), the University has now changed its philosophy to placing its emphasis to establishing social activities directed towards the younger student population and to allow the graduate/older students to pursue a self-sufficient life-style. Through this change in philosophy, the concept of University community has primarily taken a secondary role to the concept of developing a sense of community on the graduate student housing complex level.
Even though the University's philosophy has changed to place emphasis on the smaller housing complex community, the complex still remains part of the larger community. The University, like any large community, is made up of smaller parts held together by a common interest. In this regard the proposed housing complex residence is part of the larger University community by reason of its existence to serve a specific section of the University's community and in its


ties to the established structure, both physically and emotionally, of the larger community. For this reason, the sense of community on the complex level is where the design emphasis needs to be olaced. With this in mind, the thesis will explore clustering the complex around the proposed community center as a focal point and arranging the clusters to provide public, semi-public and private spaces to promote the sense of community.
The final theorectical proposition is that of individual identity for the units. Although the proposed housing complex is basically institutional housing in function and use, such an approach can produce a design that may answer all the physical needs of the program but fail emotionally and lack any identity for those that inhabit the complex. Thera are numerous examples of institutional housing complexes that function as shelter but fail miserable on the social level and in providing a humane environment in which to live. If one of the goals of the University is to provide an environment in which the student can pursue a self-sufficient life-style, th&n one must also consider their self identity in augmenting this desire. This is not only related directly to the individual but also to the previous two issues discussed above. It is important far the sense of place. In this respect, the thesis will explore approaching the design in clustering of and breaking the required total number of units into small, more human and individualistic units. Along with this, the approach will look at undulating and breaking the massing of the facades to denote individual units.
4


2. HISTORY


2.
HISTORY
History of the University of Alaska has been closely tied to that of the City of Fairbanks and to the State wide political manoeuvring over the years with the proposed Graduate Student Housing resulting in part from this manoeuvring. Because of this, a brief history of the events, both locally and State wide, is provided below for a better understanding by the reader of the project's significance and how, historically, it has come about.
Unplanned, the City of Fairbanks came into existence by chance happenings. Intending to establish a trading post among the Salsha Anthabascans, E.T. Barnett was only able to get his riverboat a few miles up the Chena River from its confluence with the Tanana River in the Fall of 1901. Short of his destination, Barnett was forced by low water and the approaching winter to cache his goods on the bank of the Chena. Leaving the area with the intent to return the following summer after break-up, Barnett returned to the coast to wait out the winter.
With the decline of the Klondike Gold Rush in neighboring Canada, many of the prospectors were drawn to the Interior of Alaska to seek their furtions. In the early winter of 1902, Felix Pedro discovered gold in the hills 15 miles north of where Barnett had cached his supplies. With word of the discovery reaching the outside, the rush was on, drawing adventurers from all over the world. Since the winter conditions and the


lack of any trail systems in the region isolated the goldfields, the miners set up winter encampment on the banks of the Chena River next to 8arnett's cached goods. When Barnett returned with additional supplies in the Spring of 1902 with the intent of fullfilling his previous year's plans, he found a boom town established where only wilderness had existed nine months earlier. Recognizing a gold field of his own, Barnett abandoned all ideas of establishing a Native trading post and openned a permanent trading establishment to serve the new community.
Naming the community Fairbanks in honor of Charles Warren Fairbanks, Senator from Indiana and later Vice President under Theodore Roosevelt, a post office was established in 1903. In 1904, Federal Cudge James Wickersham moved his District Court to Fairbanks to be in the center of the action, making the growing community the center of the Interior of Alaska. At this same time, because of the increasing population and the expence involved in transporting foods to the Interior from the outside, some of the populace began to turn to truck farming to supply some of the needed agricultural products. With this increasing need and interest in agriculture, an executive Order established an Agricultural Experiment Station in 1904 four miles west of the City (Fig. 2a). Placed on a 1400 acre tract of land, the station began growing barley and oats along with the raising of cattle.
By 1909 the Fairbanks Gold Rush was over with the mining claims and operations consolidated under a few large mining
6


FIGURE 2a: City of Fairbanks and the University of
Alaska.
UNIVERSITY
OF
Alaska
cc*re
CITY OF FAIRBANKS
FORT WAINWRIGHT
ARMY BASE
iGmway
CITY OF FAIRBANKS
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA

MILES
ianana


companies. With the end of the rush, Fairbanks' population stabilized at 1200 people, entering a period of little growth. During this period the city became the commercial and transportation hub for the North and Interior regions of Alaska.
As the importance of Fairbanks grew as the center for a vast region of the territory, a railroad was proposed to link it with the coastal port of Seward some 500 miles to the south. Begun in 1915 and completed in 1923, this railroad became the Alaska Railroad. In order to facilitate its construction a construction camp was established on the mud flats at the head of Cook Inlet, 370 miles south of Fairbanks. Luring people with the prospect of employment the camp soon became a small town which was named Anchorage in 1914. With the amenities of a milder winter and potential of a sea port, Anchorage became a major community, entering into stiff competition with Fairbanks for both financial and political control over the Interior .
With this growing competition between the two cities,
Carnes Wickersham, no longer a judge but now the Territorial Delegate to Congress, introduced a Bill in the House in 1915 to establish a Territorial College specifically identified to be located in Fairbanks. Although there was major debate as to where it should be located, Wickersham through his political connections in Washington managed to have the Bill passed and established, on paper at least, the Alaska Agriculture College and School of Mines (AAC&SM) in Fairbanks. Bn returning to Fairbanks the following summer, Wickersham selected a site
8 .


adjacent to the Agricultural Experiment Station as the future site for the ACC&SM. On July 4, 1915 a corner stone for the proposed college was dedicated on a hill overlooking Fairbanks and the Tanana Valley. At the same time a committee u/as appointed composed of local business men and community leaders to prepare a draft of a Bill to be submitted to the Territorial Legeslature in Juneau to establish the school. It took tuo years to pass the Bill due to the increasing influence Anchorage was obtainning politically but in 1917 the bill was finally passed bringing the school closer to reality.
In 1918 the construction of the first structure began adjacent to the cornor stone that was dedicated in 1915. This wood framed structure when completed would house the entire college until more funding was made available by both the Territorial and Federal Governments. The committee appointed earlier by Wickersham appointed Charles Bunnel at this time as the college's first president. Ironically, Bunnell had been a staunce political rival of Wickersham and his appointment and acceptance of the position brought about a 20 year feud between the two men, causing political problems for the new college and slowing its development.
Left to virtually create the school on his own, it was not untill 1922 before AAC&SM was able to open its doors to students. On September 1922 the school began with a student population of 12 and six faculty members. During the first two years the students lived within the city and walked the four miles to College Hill as the campus became known.
9.


Later, a train was arranged to bring the students out to the school. By the end of the 20s the campus had grown to one large central classroom building, a president's home, two dormitories, and a physical plant building, all constructed of wood framing. The student population had increased to 85 from all over the territory and a few from Lower 48 states.
During the depression years, unlike Outside, the Alaska Territory did not experience financial difficulties. The school also saw an increase in student enrollment from the Outside. With the employment opportunities available, unemployed from the Lower 48 were drawn to the territory some of which ventured into the Interior. These were manly seasonal jobs with many of the people going back to their outside homes over the winter months. Some, however, discovered it was easier and cheaper to enroll at the school over the winter months, which provided them with better opportunities to obtain employment the following summer season. Unlike other educational institutions in the country, the student population at AAC&SM soon took on a transitory characteristic, working when times are good and going to school when they are bad. This tendency still exists today with the average time taken to obtain an undergraduate degree being six years. Many stay in school only until a job offers itself, drooping out at anytime during the school year.
The early 30s saw AAC&SM internationally recognized primarily in two areas of research. The first was in the study of the Aurora Borealis, a field in which the school is still
10 .


a leader. The second uuas in the field of archeology, both through the studies it was conducting and through the discovery of an archeological site on the campus. This archeological site with its lithic assemblage represented an important find in understanding the prehistory of the New World and became the type site in identifying other Early Man sites in the region. Through these two fields of studies, the school began to be internationally recognized and started to draw students from not only the Lower &8 but also from a number of foreign countries.
With this attention, AAC&SM became the University of Alaska in 1935. Along with the change in name, the University proposed to become a major institution for research in the fields of Anthropology, Archeology, Astronomy, Atmospheric Electricity, Aurora, Ethnology, Formation and testing of soils, Geology, Geophysica, Ionsphere, Meterology, Natural History, Paleontology, Plant Photosynthesis, Seismology, and Terrestrial Magnetism. It would be, however, a number of decades before the University acquired the required facilities to see this proposal come about. The seeds of the proposal were sewn during this time and the new University began a building program to meet their aim.
Becoming concerned with the potential of fire, the University turned to constructing concrete structures, a rariiaal change for thn accepted building approach for the climate.
The 30s saw the construction of a new Gymnasium/Library building, the Eielson Memorial Building to house thenewly formed Anthropology


Department and its growing collections, a new women's dormitory, and a new power plant. By the end of the 30s, enrollment had increased to 300 students.
The war years brought a setback to the University's proposed expansion and a sharp decline in student enrollment. Previously ignored by the military, the Aleutian Islands were easily overrun and occupied by Japanese forces soon after Pearl Harbor. In part fearing further Japanese military ambitions aimed at the territory, Anchorage and Fairbanks became centers of military buildups to contain the Japanese. With this massive military buildup along with the use of Fairbanks as the center of the Lend-Lease Program with the Soviet Union and the construction of the Alaska Highway (the Alcan) to connect Fairbanks with the Lower 48, accomodations in the city became scarse. As a result, three quarters of the University was leased to the military for use as a hospital and for housing. This arrangement continued to the end of the war. Student population at the University fell to 85 by the war's end.
With the end of the war, Fairbanks experienced another boom period centered on military construction activities involved in building the DEW Stations (Defensive Early Warning Stations) and the permanent establishing of Army and Air Force bases outside the city limits. This boom lasted into the late 50s. Along with this military boom, the Federal Government openned up lands for homesteading, a program which continued into the mid- 70s.
As a result of these activities the University again
12.


began experiencing a period of rapid growth and was able to direct its emphasis to developing their proposal of becoming a major research oriented institution. Because housing within the city was unable to meet the growing demands, the University was forced to provide temporary housing through the use of surplus military housing facilities relocated onto the campus.
By the end of the 40s the student population was approaching 400 full time students.
During the 50s the University experienced a massive expansion period that would continue to almost the end of the 60s. Major research grants were awarded to the University in all their fields of research and a number of Federal research agencies located facilities on the campus. With the exception of the president's home, all wooden structures on the campus were replaced with new concrete buildings. Mew construction included a building for the geological department and four new dormitories along with the building of housing facilities for faculty and staff (Fig. 3.b) By the end of the fifties the student population had increased to 800.
The 60s saw the continuation of the expansion and construction of buildings previously planned for, but with the political atmosphere changing, no new construction or expansion was considered after the mid-60s. With GQ% of the State's total population now residing in Anchorage, that city began applying oressures to not only have the University relocated there but also the capital. As the State had evolved, Suneau had remained as the State's political center, Fairbanks as the
13.


\
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I
I
LOWER CAMPUS. UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA -- FAIRBANKS, ALASKA
o v ... l /
BELUGA RINK
PATTY GYM. ft HOCKEY RINK LATHROP HALL STEVENS HALL NERLANO HALL MacINTOSH HALL LOWER COMMONS MARRIED STUOENT HOUSING CHAPMAN BUILDING FACULTY / STAFF HOUSING WICKERSHAM HALL GRUENING BUILDING
IS EIELSON BUILDING
14 OLO MUSEUM
15 BUNNELL BULGING
16 OUCKERING BUILDING
17 U.S. FOREST SERVICE
18 BROOKS BUILDING
19 FINE ARTS, THEATER 8 LIBRARY COMPLEX
20 CONSTITUTION HALL 2t WOOD CENTER
2t U.S.Q.S BUILDING
23 SKARLANO CABIN
24 MOORE, SARLETT, 8 SKARLANO HALLS
23 PRESIDENTS HOME
26 STEWART HALL
27 FIRE, SECURITY 8 HEALTH CENTER
28 WALSH HALL
29 BUNNELL DAY CARE CENTER
30 FACULTY/ STAFF HOUSING FACULTY/ STAFF HOUSING
32 NEW MARRIED STUDENT HOUSING*
33 FACULTY/ STAFF HOUSING
34 MARRCD STUDENT HOUSING
SKI TRAILS--------
31
FIGURE 3b:
lower Campus of
the University of
Alaska,
F airbanks
I


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\
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i
educational center, and Anchorage had become the financial center for the Stats. As Anchorage grew so did its power and the city leaders wished for it to become the center of the State. As a result a power struggle began in the mid-60s with the University openning a branch campus in Anchorage.
Through the influence Anchorage had on the State Legislature, monies began to be diverted from the Fairbanks Campus to the Anchorage Campus. By the mid-70s there was pressure to have the total undergraduate program transferred to Anchorage and have the Fairbanks Campus set aside just for graduate students and pure research programs.
Besides the political pressures to have the University moved to Anchorage, the 60s saw the completion of the military activities and a period of inactivity Stats wide once again.
By the end of the 60s the student population at the University had reached 2,265 students.
The beginning of the 70s experienced the continuation of Anchorage's attempts to have the University moved and general unstability of the University. Within the first four years of this decade the University saw six presidents come and go. Monies continued to go to building the Anchorage Campus and what money was appropriated for the Fairbanks Campus was intended for maintenance only.
In the mid-70s Fairbanks experienced its third major boom; the building of the Alyeska Pipeline. This boom caught the city completely unprepared for the increase in population that it brought and in a short three years would completely

15


change the character of the city. Not only mas the city unprepared, the University mas completely unprepared to meet this new crisis. The student population jumped to 3,756 placing a burden on the ability of the University's facilities to handle such an increase in such a short time.
Spurred by this boom and through "Bush" political maneuvering, the Stats Legislature finally settled the question of inhere the University of Alaska mould be located, identifying Fairbanks as its permanent home. Although Anchorage lost the struggle, they soon became occupied iuith the strong possibility that the State Capital mould be relocated mithin easy commuting distance.
The proposed Graduate Student Housing complex marks this change in the political atmosphere and a renewed commitment to keep the University in Fairbanks. Although the pipeline boom ended in 1977, the student population has steadily increased to a present student population of 4,978 with the forecast for this rate of student increase to continue for the next ten years.
Unfortunately, because of the University's history of growth as well as that of the city, planning over the years for physical facilities has been gravely lacking. There are no remains of the early AAC&SM days with the exception of the original president's home (no longer in its original location).
Existing structures on the campus are a hodgepodge collection of concrete structures that have little context with each other and their placement on the campus appears to be random; where aver there was space is where the structure was placed.


The University is now in the process of attempting to develop a master plan for the future ana attempting to make some sence out of what now exists through landscaping. In this respect, the University is a true representation of the State of Alaska.
SECTION BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cashen, William R. Farthest North College President.
The University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 1572.
Ira Fink and Associates. "On-Campus Student Housing Market Analysis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks."
University Planning Consultants, Berkeley, 1982.
Matheson, Oanet et al. Historic Resources in The Fairbanks North Star Borough. Fairbanks North Star Borough, Fairoanks, 1981
Orth, Donald 0. Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. Geological Survey Professional Paper 567. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1967
17.


PROJECT
BACKGROUND


3.
PROJECT BACKGROUND
)
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Housing needs for students who were either older (22 years of age and over), graduates, or married were treated the same as younger undergraduate students by the University from the beginning of the University up untill 1958. During this early period of growth these students were mixed with the younger students with married students wishing to live with spoucss/ family having to find off-campus housing. As the University's student population grew so did the housing demands for housing older/graduate students, especailly housing needs for the married student population. In order to meet the married student housing needs, the University began a building program in 1958 to provide on-campus apartment facilities. In 1958 Walsh Hall was constructed providing 13 apartment units for married students. This was followed by Garden Apartments in 1960 (6 units), Harwood Hall in 1964 (36 units), the Modular Units in 1970 (24 units), and finally the New Married Student Housing complex in 1972 (72 units).
Although the University was addressing the needs of the married student population in respect to housing during this time, the single older/graduate student population continued to be treated the same as the younger undergraduates. In 1966 the graduate student population at the University composed 1% of the total student population. By 1974 they accounted for W% of the total enrollment. To meet the increasing demand for specific older/graduate student housing, the University
18.


converted Nerland Hall as graduate housing. Herland Hail was constructed in 1953 to house 98 students. During the period that I was Resident Advisor of this dorm ( 1975-78) the building housed 96 older/graduate students. As set aside, however, the facility offered housing for only 25/6 of the graduate student population then enrolled. A further problem u/as in the location of the building; betuieen two very active undergraduate student dormitories. Instead of solving the problem, the problem was aggrevated with housing demands increasing.
By 1982 the graduate student population increased to account for 22?6 of the total student population with students 22 years and older composing 30% of the total enrollment. At the same time the entire student population had increased by 243% over the 1966 student enrollment. With this increase in the overall student population, the entire housing facilities at the University were being overtaxed.
In 1981 the University began to look at alternatives open to them to provide student housing. There were primarily three alternatives that were explored. The first of these alternatives was the leasing of private off-campus accommodations by the students with the second alternative considering the expansion of off-campus placement and listing services. Basically, the first alternative was to place the burden of finding off-campus housing on the student and the second alternative was for the University to find and provide a listing of available off-campus housing from which the student makes a selection. Both of these alternatives were dismissed by the University as not viable
19.


alternatives due to the serious housing shortage in Fairbanks and because of the expense to the student for such housing if found.
The third alternative explored by the University uias the consideration of utilizing accommodations at the local military installations. After serious deliberation, the University also rejected this alternative as being viable due to transportation problems. The closest military installation,
Fort Wainmright, is located six miles east of campus and mould require a transportation system to transport the students the distance. Because the city does not have an efficient transportation system it mould fall on the University to provide the transportation. Not having the money nor the facilities to institute such a transportation system, the University rejected this last alternative.
While the University mas exploring these three alternatives, Ira Fink and Associates, University Planning Consultants out of Berkeley, California mas hired to do a student housing analysis. Specifically, the University asked Ira Fink and Associates to evaluate student population gromth, both past and future projections, to evaluate existing housing facilities and to look at viable alternatives that may exist for the University in dealing mith the housing problem.
The results of the consultant's student housing analysis mas submitted to the University in Cune of 1982. Part of this report made recommendations for a ten year housing program to meet both present and future housing needs. As an outcome



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of the analysis, the consultant recommended that the University plan and construct a 100-unit apartment complex on campus by 1984 with an additional 75-unit apartment complex to be planned and constructed by 1986. Having reviewed the alternatives open to the University in providing student housing, the construction of on-campus apartment units was the only feasible alternative. The consultant also recommended that these apartment units be built to house older/graduate students thus openning space in dormitories for the increasing undergraduate student enrollment.
Accepting the consultant's recommendations with some changes, the University selected a site on campus and prepared a project program for the design of the apartment complex in July of 1982. In August of the same year, the University entered into a contract with the Anchorage architectural firm of USKH to develope a design and prepare construction documents.
The final design for the project was accepted in November of 1982 and nine million dollars was appropriated by the State Legislation for the construction of the first phase. Construction of the first phase of the project (61 apartment units) began in September of 1983 with a completion date set for the beginning of the Fall Semester in 1984. The construction of the remainning apartment units is anticipated to begin late Fail of 1985 providing the State Legislation provides funding for this second stage with anticipated completion date set for the beginning of the 1986 Fall Semester.
21 .


The University's program objective is to provide apartment unit housing for older, graduate, and married students with preference to graduate students. Although the entire project calls for 175 apartment units along with a community center, the University's immediate goal is to build only the first phase composed of 80 apartment units along with only a portion of the proposed community center by the Fall of 1984. The second phase of the project consisting of the remainder of the apartment units and community center is planned to be constructed by the Fall of 1986. Primary reason for the selection of apartment type housing for the project is to allow the occupants to pursue a self-sufficient life-style that can not be achieved within a dormitory atmosphere.
Issues that any solution to the program must address as defined by the University basically fall within three categories besides the main issue of providing housing. The first issue is the presence of the Rainey/Skarland log cabin adjacent to the site. Since this cabin is a historical one that is listed on the Historical Register, it will remain with no intentions by the University to remove or alter it as the cabin now exists. Because of the cabin's existence and significance, any design for the proposed complex must respect and blend with its vocabulary. Site planning for the proposed Graduate Student Housing complex should be done in such a way as to preserve the cabin's site integrity.
Second issue centers on the site's existing vegetation. Because of the labor and expence involved in providing and
22


maintaining an unnatural landscape in the sub-Arctic, the University desires to have the complex designed within the existing landscape. Any design should attempt to create the least amount of disturbance to the existing vegetation and incorporate it into the overall design.
The last issue defined by the University is that the design must be done in a harmonious and architecturally pleasing character. Primarily, the University desires to have the proposed complex compliment the character that was established by the New Married Stuaent Housing adjacent to the site's eastern edge. This character that they wish to carry through in the new complex includes warm texture, small intimate scale and the staggering and grouping of the units. Unlike the New Married Student Housing, however, the University desires to have parking integrated more into the design rather than being kept separate from the complex as was done in the New Married Student Housing complex.
SECTION REFERENCES:
Ira Fink and Associates. "On-Campus Student Housing Market Analysis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks". University Planning Consultants, Berkeley, 1982.
University of Alaska's Project Program (see section 7).
23.


t
4. CLIMATOLOGICAL
DATA


4. CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
Fairbanks is located within a Continental climatic zone. This zone is generally characterized as having short, warm summers and long, cold winters with temperatures ranging from a summer maximum of 100 F to a winter minimum of -75 F.
With Fairbanks located at approximately 64 North Latitude, solar bearings and altitudes also have an extreme range.
During the summer the bearing angles of the sun is 300+ with altitude angle reaching a maximum of 50. Winter months see the extreme with the sun's bearing angle dropping to 40 and the altitude angle reaching a low of 2.
As a Continental climatic zone, the Fairbanks region is considered arid, having an annual precipitation average of 15 inches and low humidity. The presents of permafrost, glaciated mountains to the south, and seasonal snow melt, however, provide required ground water to support the dense Interior Boreal Forest found in the region. Humidity reaches its highest during the summer months but during the dead of winter, moisture content of the air freezes and falls out in the form of ice fog. (Joint Federal State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, 1973).
4.1 T emperature
Temperatures within the immediate Fairbanks area ranges greatly over the yearly cycle from a record high of 92 F to the record low of -68 F. Because of the suverre winters the annual average temperature is 26 F and the design temperature
24.


is considered to be -57 F.
December is the coldest month of the year with an average maximum temperature of -2.2 F, an average minimum temperature of -18.6 F for a monthly average temperature of -10.4 F.
July is the warmest month with an average maximum temperature of 71.8 F, an average minimum temperature of 51.6 F for a monthly average temperature of 61.7 F. Table 4a below gives the average temperatures for the remainder of the year.
03
03
-C
U
c
MONTH
JANUARY 15.3 -32.8 -9.0 .70 15.7
FEBRUARY 6.2 -11.1 -3.0 .53 9.3
MARCH 20. B 2.1 11.0 .48 8.7
APRIL 38.a 18.3 28.0 .33 4.0
MAY 57.0 37.6 47.3 .65 .2
JUNE 69.9 48.1 59.0 1.42 0
JULY 71.8 51.6 61 .7 1.90 0
AUGUST 65.A 45.4 55.4 2.19 0
SEPTEMBER 53.2 35.6 44.4 1.08 .8
OCTOBER 31.8 17.6 24.7 .73 12.8
NOVEMBER 10.5 2.8 6.6 . 66 12.3
OECEMBER -2.2 -18.6 -10.4 .65 10.7
TOTAL 11.32 75.0
TABLE 4a: Fairbanks' Average Temperatures & Precipitation ( NCAA, Vol. 69, No. 13)
These temperatures are the averages from 69 years of climatological record keeping in the Fairbanks area. Most of
25.


these are from u/eather stations at Fairbanks elevation and will differ from aetual temperatures experienced on the site.
The site for the proposed graduate student housing complex is situated approximately 200 feet above the Fairbanks elevation.
As a general rule, higher elevations around Fairbanks tend to be cooler during the summer months and warmer during the winter months. Because of this inversion, it is not abnormal for the campus to have 5 to 10 degree warmer temperatures during the winter than those registered in Fairbanks proper.
4.2 Solar Disk
Altitude angles for the solar disk in Fairbanks ranges from a high of 50 on Oune 21st to a low of 2 on December 21st.as shown in Figure 4a. At its lowest position on December 21st the sun rises at 10:30 am and sets at 1:20 pm giving 2 hours 50 minutes of possible sunlight for the day. At the other extreme, the sun rises at 1:20 am on Oune 21st and sets at 10:30 pm providing 21 hours 10 minutes of passible sunlight and 2 hours 50 minutes of twilight conditions. Mean number of hours of possible sunshine produced by the solar altitudes for the months range from 36 hours for the month of December to 334 hours for the month of Oune as shown in Table 4b.
Although these are the extremes, after Oune 21st the region loses approximately six minutes of daylight daily until the 21st of December when the pattern is reversed.
For all intent and purposes, a period of darkness exists in Fairbanks for the months of October through February. During
26.


B4 ML
FIGURE 4a: Bearing and Altitude Angles of the Solar Disk in Fairbanks (Seifert, 1981:54}
MEAN NUMBER OF HOURS OF SUNSHINE
^v^lonth Location Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Now Dec
Anchorage 78 114 210 254 268 288 255 184 128 96 68 49
Fairoanks 54 120 224 302 319 334 274 164 122 85 71 36
Juneau 71 102 171 200 230 251 193 161 123 67 60 51
Nome 72 109 193 226 285 291 204 146 142 101 67 42
TABLE 4b: Mean Number of Hours of Sunshine (Seifert, 1981:152;
27
ALTITUDE ANGLES


this five month period the mean number of hours of possible daylight is 366 hours, approximately 10 percent of the total time for the period. Because of the low solar altitudes during the winter months, shadows cast by objects have the potential of being extremely long as illustrated in Figure 4b. However, because of snow cover and its reflective qualities and the general overcast sky conditions during this period, shadows are not that prevalent. Periods of full moon during the winter months produce a better quality of light than that produced by the solar disk. Shadows produced during the summer months tend to be shorter (Figure 4b) and more intense locally having an effect on temperatures and light quality.
In addition to the change in the altitude angles of the solar disk, the bearing angles also change drastically over the yearly cycle (Figure 4c). This change in the bearing angle ranges from a solar path of 300 on June 21st to a path of 40 on December 21st. During the summer months, all sides of a building will be bathed in sunlight at some period of the day. In the winter, especially during the month of December, only south facing surfaces of buildings will receive any portion of sunlight for a short period of time.
4.3 Precipitation
Annual precipitation (Table 4a) in Fairbanks averages approximately 12 inches per year which includes /5 inches of snow. This annual precipitation ranges from a low of .33 inches in April to a high of 2.19 inches in August. Snow fall ranges
28 .


2 (Dec. 21st)
FI CURE 4b;
SOLAR ALTITUDE ANCLES


N (0)
(90)
FIGURE 4c: Solar Bearing Angles for Fairbanks (Seifert, 1981:54)
30


from a Iouj of .2 inches in May to 15.7 inches in January with the months of June, July, and August on the average not receiving any. The heavy snow months are October through January, averaging 12.88 inches per month, and the heavy rain months June through September averaging 1.65 inches per month during this four month period.
Although June, July and August on the average do not receive snow, it is possible for short snow flurries to occur. Snow remains on the ground from October through the early part of May with north facing slopes and sheltered areas maintaining it longer. Eventhough the area sees an average of 75 inches of snow annually, in general it is rare to have anymore than AO inches accumolate in depth on the ground at anyone time due to evaporation during cold periods and the compacting of the snow.
4.4 Degree Days
Using a base temperature of 65 F, Fairbanks has an average of 14279 heating degree days (Figure 4d) while cooling degree days only average 63. Every month of the year will require some amount of heating with heating degree days ranging from a low of 171 heating degree days in July to a high of 2359 heating degree days in January. Months of June and July are the only ones that require some amount of cooling with the first month averaging 27 cooling degree days and July averaging 36 cooling degree days.
31 .


2400 2200_ 2000 1800_ 1600 1400_ 1200 1000_ 800 600_ 400 200__
2359
2254
1901
1739
1833
1068
1203
555
I I ; i i
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
FIGURE 4d: Heating Dearee Days for Fairbanks (Seifert, 1981:76)
4.5 Humidity
Fairbanks has a very low level of humidity u/ith the month of Duly having the highest level.. During the winter months, October through February specifically, it is normal for humidity levels to drop to levels of 5 to 10 percent with periods of extreme cold, -30 F and below, to have the levels to drop even lower. At these extreme temperatures, any moisture that may be in the air freezes to. form ice fog and collect on objects as horn frost.
4.6 Winds
During the summer months light breezes tend to act as a cooling factor. Winter months on the average tend to be relatively free of any form of winds and what rare winds that might develop come from the southwest and mark warming trends. These warm winds that occasionally occur during the.winter are often welcome relief from long cold spells but may cause some damage to trees that are too frozen to sway normally in the breeze, thus snapping.
32.


4.7 Sky Conditions
Sky conditions vary from month to month with March having the clearest sky condition (61% clear) and October being the most overcast month (72% overcast). On an annual bases, Fairbanks will have 43% of its sunshine unobstructed by cloud covering. The sky conditions for the 12 months are: Oanuary 56% overcast, February 50% overcast, March -39% overcast, April 42% overcast, May 45% overcast, Oune -47% overcast, Ouly 54% overcast, August 65% overcast, September 69% overcast, October 72% overcast, November -62% overcast, and December 71% overcast (Seifert, 1981:152).
4.3 Conclus ions
Climatic conditions that exist in Fairbanks impose stringent ana diffucult building criteria. With the saverre winter temperatures (-57 F design temperature) it is necessary to maximize insulation and limit opennings to control heat loss. Eventhough thersare two months which have cooling degree days, no form of mechanical air conditioning is required since all one needs to do is open a window. Solar altitudes and bearing angles provide both extremes of natural lighting.
During summer months any building orientation will achieve quality light conditions but during the winter months only south facing facades will receive short periods of natural lighting. During the winter months artifical lighting has to be relied on heavily. This will effect placement of various activity areas within the encloseo space. With the
33.


long summer days it is desirable to have large openings for the natural lighting available, just the opposite of what is desirable during the winter months.
The combination of low temperatures, low solar altitudes and the quantity of snowfall makes it necessary to consider snow removal from walks and parking areas. Even with removal, areas that are sheltered from spring sun require longer periods for snow/ice to melt off. This is especially true against north facing facades.
With the low humidity it is necessary to provide vapor barriers in the structures along with a humidifing system as part of the HVAC system. Finally, wind during the winter months does not pose any need for consideration due to its general absence.
SECTION REFERENCES
Joint Federal State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska. Major Ecosystems Of Alaska. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1973.
NOAA Climatological Data, Alaska, Vol.69 No.s 1-13
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington 1982
Seifert, Richard D. A Solar Design Manual for Alaska.
Bulletin of the Institute of Water Resources, \Jol. I University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1981
34.


1
CODES


5.
CODES
The University of Alaska uses the 1979 edition of the Uniform Building Code and the 1961 American National Standards Institute specifications for the handicapped. There is no zoning code that effects the proposed housing complex nor are there any city building codes for the region.
5.1 Building Code
Occupancy for the complex are as follows:
Community Center
This portion of the community/servics center falls within the occupancy classification of Group A Division 3.
Within this classification fire resistance of exterior walls are 2 hours when exterior walls are lass than 5 feet apart and 1 hour eleswhere. Exterior wall openings are not permitted when less than 5 feet from other exterior walls and must be protected when less than 10 feet. There must be at least two exits from the space.
Service Center
This portion of the community/service center falls within the occupancy classification of Group 8 Division A.
In this classification fire resistance of exterior walls are 1 hour when exterior walls are less than 5 feet apart and exterior wall openings are not permitted when exterior walls are less than 5 feet apart.
Apartment Units.
The apartment units fall within the occupancy classification of Group R Division 1 Within this classification fire resistance of exterior wails is 1 nour when less than 5 feet apart. Exterior wall openings are not permitted when walls are less than 5 feet apart.
35


Construction Type
The entire project is proposed as ujood framed and falls under Construction Type III. Under this construction type, fire resistive requirements are: exterior bearing u/alis 4 hours; interior bearing walls, 1 hour; exterior non-bearing walls, 4 hours; structural frame, 1 hour; permanent partitions, 1 hour; floors, 1 hour; roofs, 1 hour: and exterior doors and windows,
2 hours when less than 5 feet from adjacent exterior openings and three-fourths-hour when less than 20 feet from property line.
Maximum building heights allowed under Type III construction is 2 stories for occupancy classification A-3, 4 stories for occupancy classification B-4, and 4 stories for occupancy classification R-l.
Although the code requires a sprinkler system for each of the three occupancy classifications, the University does not want this system used in the buildings. Fire hydrants must be placed within at least three hundred feet of any building and fire trucks must have access to all sides of the building.
Fairbanks is situated within the Seismic Zone 3 which corresponds to intensity Mill and higher on the Modified Mercalii intensity scale. Because of this intensity, loads produced by earthquakes must be considered structurally.
5.2 Handicapped Code
Since all of the community/service center and of the
apartment units are to be accessible to the handicapped, design


of these must meet specifications as set forth by the ANSI. The following are general considerations that must be met: General Considerations
Wheelchair specifications
length: 42 inches width: 25 inches
height of seat from floor: 1 9-j inches height of armrest from floor: 29 inches height of pusher handles from floor: 36 inches average turning space required: 63 x 56 inches
Reach
average unilateral vertical reach: 60 inches average horizontal working reach: 30.9 inches average bilateral horizontal reach: 64.5 inches average diagonal reach is 48 inches from floor
Walks
public walks should be at least 48 inches wide and have a gradient no greater than 3%
if a door swings out toward a walk, a level platform 5 feet by 5 feet must be provided, if the door does not open out, the level platform should be 3 feet by 5 feet.
Parking
handicapped parking placed between two conventional parking spaces (diagonal or head-on parking) should be 12 feet wide.
Ramps
a ramp should not have a slope greater than Q.33% (1 foot rise in 12 feet).
ramps should have 32 inch high handrails on at least one side that extends one foot beyond the beginning and ending of the ramp.
ramps should have at least 6 feet of straight clearance at the bottom.
level platforms should be placed every 30 feet of ramp run.
Doors and Doorways
doors should have a clearing opening not less than 32 inches
37.


kick plates should extend from the bottom of door to at least 16 inches from the floor.
level areas 5 feet deep and extended 1 foot on either side of door should be provided on both sides of the doorway.
Stairs
should have handrails 32 inches high as measured from the tread at the face of the riser.
risers should not exceed 7 inches.
Toilet Rooms
each toilet room should have at least one toilet stall that:
is 3 feet u/ide
has a door 32 inches wide and swings out
is between 4'-8" to 5'-0" deep
has handrails on each side, 33 inches high
and parallel to the floor, 1-j inches
in outside diameter, with 1-f inches
clearance between rail and wail
has a water closet with seat 20 inches
from the floor.
mirrors, shelves, towel racks, towel dispensers, and other dispensers and disposal units should be no higher than 40 inches above floor.
Controls
switches and controls should be placed within the reach of individuals in wheelchairs.
SECTION REFERENCES:
American National Standards Institute. "Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by, the Physically Handicapped". American Standards Institute,
New York, 1961
International Conference of Building Officials. Uniform Building Code. International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, 1979
38


6. SITE ANALYSIS


6 SITE ANALYSIS
6.1 Context
Encompassing approximately 6 acres, the site for the proposed graduate student housing complex is located on the northwest fringe of the Lower Campus (Figure 6a). Adjacent to the east is the existing New Married Student Housing complex (Figure 6b). This complex was built in 1972 and is made up of 72 apartment units built within the natural landscape. To the southeast and, adjacent to the site is located Rainey's Cabin, commonly referred to as Skarland Cabin. This is a log structure built in 1936 containning three rooms plus bath (Figures 6c and 6d). Beyond Rainey's Cabin and on the other side of Talkeetna Street is the Bartlett, Moore, Skarland Residence Hall complex. Built between 1964 and 1969, this complex is formed by three interconnected highrise structures housing 449 students and housing staff offices. The largest portion of this complex (Bartlett Hall) rises eight stories with the whole complex a concrete structure with exposed aggregate concrete panelling. Immediately to the north of this complex and to the east of Rainey's Cabin is a dirt parking lot for use by the inhabitants of the complex.
To the west of the site is a parcel of land approximately 100 acres in size that is under a 99 year lease to the United States Geodetic Survey (USGS). This parcel of land acts as a divider between Lower Campus and Upper Campus (also referred to as West Ridge) of the University's Fairbanks campus. In
39


LOWER CAMPUS,
1 BELUGA RINK
2 PATTY GYM. I* HOCKEY RINK
3 LATHflOP HALL
4 STEVENS HALL
5 NERLANO HALL
MoelNTOSH HALL
7 LOWER COMMONS
MARRIED STUOENT HOU3INO
CHAPMAN BUILDING
10 FACULTY / STAFF HOUSING
11 WICKERSHAM HAtL
12 CRUSHING BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA-
13 EIELSON BUILDING
14 OLD MUSEUM
15 BUNNELL BULGING
OUCKERINO BUILDING
17 U S. FOREST SERVICE
18 BROOKS BUILDING
19 FINE ARTS, THEATER 8 LIBRARY COMPLEX
20 CONSTITUTION HALL 2t WOOD CENTER
21 U S O. 3 BUILDING
23 SKARLANO CABIN
24 MOORE, BARLETT, 8 SKARLANO HALLS
FAIRBANKS, ALASKA KPu
23 PRESIDENT'S HOME
26 STEWART HALL
27 FIRE, SECURITY 8 HEALTH CENTER
28 WALSH HALL
29 BUNNELL DAT CARE CENTER
30 FACULTY/STAFF HOUSING
31 FACULTY / STAFF HOUSING
32 NEW MARRIED STUOENT HOUSING*
33 FACULTY / STAFF HOUSING
34 MARRCD STUDENT HOUSING
SKI TRAILS---------
FIGURE 6a:
Sits Location Map
40


the center of this parcel of land is the USGS' building (Figure 6e) which is a framed structure with residential characteristics. The University is presently in negotiations with USGS to end the lease inorder to develop the southern end of the property (along Yukon Drive) for future classroom structures.
The area adjacent to the south of the site between the site and Yukon Drive is undeveloped and will probably remain natural in the future. An expance of forest extends for a number of miles to the north of the site with very little probability of being developed in the foreseeable future.
6.2 Vegetation
Existing vegetation found on the site is natural to the region. This is a fairly dense interior forest composed of white spruce, black spruce, aspen and birch (Figure 6f). The black spruce typically grows on north facing slopes and poorly drained flat areas and is generally associated with permafrost soils. The root system of the black spruce is a shallow depth system. White spruce, which is represented by only a few samples on the site, grows in well drained soils and south facing slopes. Upon maturity, the white spruce can reach heights of 80 feet with 16 inch diameters. Aspen and birch reach heights of 50 feet and represent the first growths in the life of the forest with the spruces forming a more mature forest in the region. Along the south edge of the site to Yukon Drive aspen dominates the forest (Figure 6g). The southern edge of the sits (along the crest of the ridge) is a



FIGURE 6b
Portion of the IMetu Married Student Housing Complex



FIGURE 6c
Rainey's Cabin
Northeast Corner





FIGURE 6e
USGS' Building
South Elevation


Fkbovze (p<^\ ASpecs, ^takc? BgrsxserJ sf'Ofcjc*4 peiahp tu -swe


Fioo£b ^rre VeN'


mixed forest uuith the aspen and birch giving way to the black spruce as one progresses northward into the site. The undergrowth on the site consists of mosses, horsetail, willow, alder, wild rose, raspberry, current, and high and low bush cranberry.
6.3 Contours
The southern edge of the site for the proposed graduate student housing complex rest on the crest of a ridge that runs east/west, forming a backdrop to the main portion of the Lower Campus. The elevation of this crest is 623 feet, approximately 100 feet above the main area of Lower Campus.
The northern limits of the site (Figures 6h and 6i) lies approximately 550 feet north of the site's southern edge and has an elevation of 550 feet. From south to north the site slopes down at a 13% grade. Immediately to the south of the site the terrain has a 16% slope, sloping away from the ridge's crest to Yukon Drive approximately 200 feet to the south to an elevation of 590 feet. The terrain south of Yukon Drive abruptly slopes 42% down to the lower southern portion of Lower Campus.
48.


49.


SITE
YUKON DR I WE
300
400
500
600 700 800
f eet
E1CURE 6i
Section A-fl Through the Site
scale: '1"
100


ffwnid
6.4 Utilities
All utilities on campus are carried within underground utility tunnels originating from the University's physical
lines, electric supply lines, water lines, steam lines, and
the site, the closest utility tunnel and the one that would service the proposed complex exist 225 feet east of the eastern edge of the site (Figure 6j). This tunnel runs from the University's physical plant to the highrise dormitories to the southeast of the site north to the New Married Student Housing complex. Approximately midway between these two complexes is a junction with another tunnel which runs eastward under North Chandler Street and back to the physical plant, servicing the Lower Campus facilities. Utility service into the proposed Graduate Student Housing complex would come off this junction and run westward, corresponding with access to the site, as
plant south of Lower Campus. These tunnels carry telephone
the sewer lines servicing the entire campus. In respect to
discussed later.

UTlM.rrTONHBV-
WA-Y
j
HK>wet£e
tasenncotf1

Lmutr
HESsi MAjeeve^

iHoerv^
Existing Utility Locations
FIGURE 6 j:


6.5: Soils
Soils within the Fairbanks region are generally well-drained, shallow to moderately deep gravelly loams and silt loams overlaying coarse materials. Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas that support black spruce-hardwood growths. Soils on north facing slopes are generally more shallow and gravelly than those found on south facing slopes and contain more continuous permafrost. As a general rule, south facing slopes with more direct and longer periods of sunlight are more desirable for building purposes and are only limited locally by steep slopes and discontinuous permafrost (Joint Federal State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, 1973).
During the summer of 1982, Geotechnical Consultants Shannon & Wilson, Inc. conducted laboratory testing on soil samples from the site that were obtained from their drilling program. These borings were conducted to a depth of 60 feet for the most part (see Addendum A for the boring logs).
The borings revealed silts underlaying the entire site explored. In the areas vegetated by black spruce permafrost was uncovered. In areas fringing the spruce, some warm permafrost and ground voids were detected. Permafrost free silts underlay the site that is vegetated by aspen and birch.
The permafrost encountered appears to be thaw stable and from the consultant's general experience in the surrounding area probably contains an excess of ice and/or relic ice wedge and lens formations. The water content in the permafrost
52


areas were in an average of 10 percent.
The permafrost detected around the fringes of the black spruce stands falls under the category of warm permafrost (31 F) having a mater content between 20 and 40 percent.
The ground void (Thermal Karsts) encountered may represent an ice formation that has melted, thus leaving the cavity. -It is possible that more ground voids formed in this manner may exist eleswhere on the site in the permafrost free soils.
In Figure 6Kareas believed to have soil problems have been defined by the consultant. In this figure the site has been defined in three Zones determined by underlaying soil conditions. Zone 1 represents the area the consultant believes contains permafrost which has excess ice or ice formations.
Zone 2 is located around Zone 1 and contains some warm permafrost and ground voids. Zone 3 is defined by the areas believed to be composed mostly of thawed dry silts. It is possible, however, that some ground voids may exist in this latter Zone.
Because of the existing soil conditions, the consultant recommends that the areas around proposed structures be excavated to a minimum depth of 10 feet below existing grade. It is believed that such excavations will remove the problems detected during the soil testing. If further subsurface anomalies are detected during excavation, then the excavations should be extended to remove them.
Once excavations are completed to the minimum depth, they should be compacted and backfilled. Backfill should be composed
53


CURE 6k:
"H
tt
CD
o
H-
I
O
O
3
Q
H-
t+
!-*
O
3
CO
XT1
P-
if)
h"
ct-
CD
O
3
rf
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cd
ZONE I (PERMAFROST)
xV\\XXXX>
ZONE i
B-14
nB-|J
*B-I2
ZONE 3 (NO PERMAFROST)
NEW MARRIED STUDENT HOUSING COMPLEX
,B-9
- - X
I ZONE 2 7 (SOME
xf \ / PERMAFROST \W ......
XW\ a ground voids o( {wOw
scaled =140
ZONE 3
B-7,
B-5
B-I
B-6
skarland cabin
____________LJ
PARKING FOR UPPER DORMS


of unfrozen silts free of organic material. This should be compacted, to at least 95 percent Modified proctore, in 12 inch lifts until finished grade is reached.
Where roads, driveways, and parking areas are to be placed, surfical and woody material should be removed. Any voids, soft soil, wet soils, and/or frozen ice-rich soils encountered should be removed to a depth of 5 feet and backfilled as described above. It is recommended that a minimum of 18 inches of granular structural fill be used for parking areas as a base and a minimum of 2 feet for driveways and roads.
Structurally, it is recommended that either spread or continuous footings be used, placed at a minimum depth of 4 feet below grade on a granular structural fill. Spread footings should have a minimum width of 2 feet and continuous footings should be at least 1.5 feet in width with both designed to support an allowable load of 2000 psi. If no ice, ice-rich soils, or ground voids exist below the structure, settlement should be limited to 1 inch total and of an inch defferential settlement. However, because it is possible that some ice-rich soils or ground voids may escape detection, the structures should be designed so future jacking and releveling may occur.
55


6.6
Views
Because the site exist on the north slope of a forested ridge, views tend to be limited to short distances for the most part. From the crest of the ridge, which defines the site's southern edge, the best views are accessable from the site. These views overlook the expance of the Tanana Valley and the Alaska Range further to the south (Figure 61). This view, however, only exists from the crest of the ridge and primarily during winter months when the aspen are leafless.
Potential views to the north from the crest of the ridge are across an expance of boreal forest in its natural state.
As one moves north, down slope into the site this potential view is lost as a long distance view with the view limited to short immediate ones of the site's vegetation. The view to the west is also short immediate views into the boreal forest that covers the ridge on which the site rests. There may be glimpses of the USGS building to the west from the western edge of the site.
Views to the east of the site are also limited to short distances with the New Married Student Housing complex and Rainey's Cabin composing the focal points. Immeaiately to the southeast of Rainey's Cabin the tops of Moore, Bartlett, Skarland highrise dormitory complex can be seen.
6.7 Access
Major access to the site (Figure 6m) is by way of Yukon
56


'Lb
&oRe>^v.
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TAHANA ,
V^Lua-f ^
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KAtNEV£> O.E>M
£ Top FL&OC6 OP
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FROM TOP OP Rltrt^e
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TbTtm eAv£s-
FIGURE 61:
Uietus From The Site


I
VJ1
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i*1
^EHVTO^T
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%
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I
s
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FIGURE 6m:
Access To The Site


Drive which connects Lower Campus to Upper Campus. This road runs in a east/west direction approximately 200 feet south of the site. Presently existing, Talkeetna Street connects parking facilities to the north of the Moore, Bartlett Skarland highrise dormitory complex with Yukon Drive.
Secondary access to the site is provided by Kuskokwin Way which services the New Married Student Housing complex. It is proposed by the University to connect Talkeetna Street and Kuskokwin Way in order to provide vehicle access to the site from its eastern edge directly north of Rainey's Cabin.
Although North Chandler Street dead-ends within 225 feet of the site, the University desires to maintain this street as it now exists in order to limit its use to faculty and staff who live along the street in a suburban residential atmosphere.
The University has a series of cross country ski trails ranging from 5 miles in lenght up to 12 miles in length to the north of the campus. The beginning of this trail system exists southwest of the site on Yukon Drive and presently goes through the site. Besides being a major recreational facility, the trails also provide access to the campus for those who live off campus to the north and will also be used by those living in the proposed complex as a means of going to the Upper Camous facilities. Because of the destructive effect walking on maintained ski trails can cause, a foot path leading from the proposed complex to Upper Campus should be considered. Foot access from and to Lower Campus from the sits will be by well established routes including North Chandler Street.
59


6.8
Noise
Potential noise generators that may effect the site exist in the Yukon Drive to the south, the Moore, Bartlett, Skarland highrise dormitory complex to the southeast, and the Neuu Married Student Housing complex to the east. Because both the highrise dormitory complex and Yukon Drive are located on the southern slope of the ridge and fairly isolated from the site by vegetation, very little of the noise generated by these, especially during the summer months, will penetrate the site. Noise levels from these reaching the site during winter months will be.slightly higher with the crisp stillness of the air and loss of leaf covering of the trees.
Noise generated from the New Married Student Housing complex will be heard more on the site than those generated by Yukon Drive and the highrise dormitories. This noise, however, will be low level reflecting-probably that created by children playing and the parking lots.
The majority of noise that will be heard on the site will be that which is generated on site.
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6.9
Conclusion
There are a number of positive facets of the site that has been selected by the University of Alaska for the proposed graduate student housing complex. First of all is its location. The site's location is easily serviced by the existing circulation systems, both traffic and utilities, on the campus thus eliminating any extensive development outside of the site.
The only development that mill be necessary is the connecting of the Taikeetna Street mith Kuskikmin Way to provide access and the extending of utility tunnels onto the site. Further, the site is located adjacent to the Mem Married Student Housing and is an extension of a housing characteristic already established for this area of the campus.
Secondly, is the site's slope. Although the slope is a northerly facing one mhich has some negative connotations for the region, the slope is gentle enough not to poise any great solar exposer problems nor construction problems. The site doss, homever, slope enough to provide the potential of offering some relief in placement of the unit groupings of the complex.
The third positive facet of the site is its existing vegetation. Existing vegetation on the sits is a dense natural forest typical of the region and offers the opportunity to develope the complex mithin a natural setting.
The final positive facet is the existence of the Rainey/ Skarland Cabin adjacent to the site. Since this is a historic structure it offers a historic context in mhich the nem complex can address.
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Major negative aspects of the site rests in its soil conditions and the region's environment. With the presence of permafrost on the site, special attention needs to be placed on its removal from areas to be developed. Because the permafrost only exists to a depth of ten feet, it can be easily removed with desired backfill replacing it. Although this should eliminate construction problems associated with permafrost, the structures need to be designed to allow levelling activities to occur in the future if not all permafrost is detected or if new permafrost should migrate or develop on the site.
The negative aspects of the region's environment, both climatic and seasonal solar exposure, have been touched on in previous sections. More than any ether aspect, this facet will have the greatest impact on the site now and in the future.
SECTION REFERENCES:
Ira Fink and Associates. "On-Campus Housing Market Analysis University of Alaska, Fairbanks". University Planning Consultants, Berkeley, 1982.
joint Federal State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska.
"Major Ecosystems of Alaska". United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1973.
NOAA. "Climatological Data, Alaska." Mol. 69, No.s 1-13. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, 1982.
Seifert, Richard D. A Solar Design Manual For Alaska. Bulletin of the Institute of Water Resources, Mol. 1. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 1981.
62.


7. PROJECT PROGRAM


PROJECT PROGRAM
7.
The University of Alaska's intent is to provide graduate student housing for its Fairbanks' Campus. This proposed housing is to be in the form of 175 apartment units in order to allow the inhabitants to pursue a self-sufficent life-style.
In addition to the apartment units, a small community/service center is to form the nucleus of the complex.
It is desired by the University to have the complex built in two stages with the total complex completed by the Fall of 1986. Under the first stage, to be completed by the Fall of 1984, it is planned to construct 80 apartment units and a portion of the community/service center. This portion of the center is to include the supervisor's living unit, laundry facilities, mailroom, office, and general storage area. The second stage will consist of the remaining 95 apartment units and a community room addition to the community/service center.
7.1 User
Although the proposed complex is generally referred to as graduate student housing, its use will not be restricted solely to graduate students. As demand warrents, the complex will also house single students 22 years of age or older and married students with families. When used by either single graduate students or students 22 and older, each unit will house four students. In the case of married students with families, each unit will be treated as a single family residence.
Eventhough the emphas'is is on housing for graduate students,


in reality the complex will house a full gammit of users from infants to senior citizens.
7.2 Design Constraints
Within the University's Project Program there are a few design constraints that they are concerned with and which were discussed earlier in Section 3: PROJECT BACKGROUND. The major constraints are the existing vegetation, the presence of the Rainey/Skarland Cabin, and the desire to have a harmonious and architecturally pleasing character.
In regards to existing vegetation, the design of the complex should be integrated with the existing vegetation on the site. The design should not incorporate any landscaping that does not naturally occur on the site or requires constant maintenance.
Because the Rainey/Skarland Cabin is historically significant and adjacent to the site of the proposed complex, design of the complex and its site plan should respect the Cabin's integrity. A buffer zone of approximately 50 to 75 feet should be considered between the cabin and the complex.
In referring to a harmonious and architecturally pleasing character as the third major constraint, the University is specifically identifying its desire to have the complex follow the character established in the New Married Student Housing complex adjacent to the east of the site. Any design for the proposed complex should comoliment this character through the incorporation of intimate scale, warm textures, and the
64.


staggering and grouping of the units.
Remainning constraints identified by the University are the existing slope of the site and the current circulation systems around the site. The slope of the site should be incorporated into the design. As for the existing circulation systems, the design should consider these and only require extending these systems (traffic and utilities) to the complex without requiring major realigning or relocating them.
7 3. General Design Requirements
Under the heading of general design requirements the University defines eleven specific items in which they are concerned with. These are:
Each apartment unit is to be composed of a living/ dining room, a kitchen, two study-bedrooms, a bathroom, storage, and circulation space. The total unit size should be 900 square feet.
Ten percent of the units and the entire community/ service center should be accessible to the handicapped. Design should follow the current ANSI regulations.
The handicapped units should be evenly divided throughout the complex and not grouped together.
Each apartment should be designed and oriented to offer the most favorable combination of quietness, sun exposure, cross ventilation, and view.
Due to extended periods of darkness in the winter months lighting should be an integral part of the units' design. Overhead fixtures in the middle of the room are unacceptable.
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Sound separation between adjacent units should achieve a rating of Airborne Sound Transmission class 55.
* An interior open plan is desirable to allow greatest efficiency and flexibility in space utilization.
The efficiency of planning should be on the order of 80 to 85 percent.
* Duplication of one typical floor plan is acceptable, although a variety of plans is encouraged.
Open tread stairs wrapped in carpet is desired when stairs are used within the units.
Although dempsty dumpsters are acceptable, other alternatives for trash collecting should be explored. Approximately one collection point per 20 units should be provided for, spaced throughout the complex.
* The University desires the use of flat roofs incorporating the inverted roof membrane assembly.
If pitched roofs are incorporated, attention must be paid to proper ventilation, glaciation, and north side runoff drainage problems.
* 250 parking spaces (1.1 spaces per unit) should be provided for. Parking should be placed at least 100 feet but not more than 200 feet from the units and placed throughout the complex. Temporary parking for loading and unloading purposes should be provided for each unit clustar/grouping.
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7.4 Spacs Requirements
7.4.1 Apartment Units
The required total square footage for each unit is 900 square feet and broken up as follows (see Table 7a for space requirements for both apartment units and community/service center):
Living/Dining Room:
The living/dining room should be 220 square feet in size to accommodate the following activities; eating, dining, studying, and both formal and informal entertaining. The area near the kitchen should accommodate a dining table with seating for six.
The main area should be large and allow for the arranging of a sofa, two armchairs, a low table, and bookshelves. The main living area should open to a deck area at the ground level or a living balcony at the second level.
Kitchen
The kitchen should be 80 square feet in size and accommodate several people at a time. A minimum of eight linear feet of counter top space along with 24 linear feet of built-in adjustable upper and lower cabinet shelving and storage space should be provided. Room for a 14 cubic foot capacity refrigerator, 12 cubic foot capacity freezer, 30" minimum range/oven and a double sink should be provided in addition to the counter top space. The kitchen may be somewhat open to the dining area, but should be screened from the living room; an eating counter dividing the two is acceptable.
67.


* Bedrooms/Study
Each unit will have two bedroorns/study, each 175 square feet in size. The dimensions and the fixed relationships in the rooms (door, window, lamps) should be placed in a way that mill allow varied furniture arrangements. The furniture which will be orovided for each bedroom/study by the University will consist of two beds (39 x 80), two desks (42" or 45"), two chests of drawers (each 34"w x 18"d x 42"h) and two chairs. Each bedroom/study should have eight linear feet of closet with a shelf above.
Bathroom
The bathroom should be 45 square feet in size and designed to best serve four unrelated students. A combination shower-bath, water closet, and a wash basin to accommodate two people should be provided.
A second sink/vanity should be provided outside the primary bathroom area.
Entry
A vestibule entry 20 square feet with one exterior door and one interior door should be provided. The entry should contain a storage closet for bulky garments; 5 linear feet.
General Storage
A general storage room of approximately 65 square feet in size, designed as a walk-in closet with entry from the inside of the apartment should be located in or adjacent to the apartment, such as on a porch or deck.
Circulation and Storage
The remainning 120 square feet of the total 900 square feet alloted for each unit is to be for circulation
68.


and storage (other than general storage noted above) space. This storage space to be considered as part of this 120 square feet should be combination linen/ coat closets outside each bedroom/study and a large utility closet in or near the kitchen.
Table 7a: Space Requirements for Apartment Units and for the Community/Service Center.
Apartment Units:
Living/Dinning Room 220 sq.ft
Bedroom/Study (2 175 sq.ft.) 350 sq.ft
Bathroom 45 sq.ft
Kitchen 30 sq.ft
General Storage 65 sq.ft
Entry Vestible 20 sq.ft
Circulation and Storage 120 so. f t
Total 900 sq.ft
Community/Service Center:
First Stage
Supervisor's Living Unit
(same as apartment units) 900 sq.ft
Supervisor's Office 150 sq.ft
Central Storage 300 sq.ft
Laundry Room 700 sq.ft
Mail Room 100 sq.ft
sub-Totai 2150 sq.ft
Second Stage
Community Room 1200 a q. f t
Office 200 sq.ft
sub-Total 1400 sq.ft
Total 3550 so. ft
7.4.2 Community/Service Canter
Under the first stage of the project only the service portion of the Community/Service Canter is planned. This portion of the Center accounts for a total area of 2150 square
69
rt* cl-


feet and is composed of the supervisor's living unit, office, general storage area, mailroom, and laundry room. The second stage of the community center comDosed of meeting and day care facilities along with a larger office is anticipated to be added to the proposed center bringing the total size of the center to 3550 square feet. The spaces to be provided for in the center are as follows:
Supervisor's Living Unit
The supervisor's living unit is 900 square feet in size 3nd is the same as the apartment units in floor plan.
Office
Under the first stage of construction, a 150 square foot office is to be provided for. An entry into the office directly from the supervisor's living unit along with one from the center's general circulation is required. The office space should accommodate a desk, three chairs, key cabinet, bullentin board, storage cabinet, and up to six people. Under the second stage of construction a 200 square foot office is to be added.
Central Storage
A general storage room 300 square feet in size should be included in the community/service center.
Laundry Room
A 700 square foot laundry roam should be included in the center. This room should accommodate eight washers and dryers, laundry trays, folding and sorting counters or tables, and a seating area. The design of the complex may explore breaking the laundry
70.
V


facilities up among unit groups but one general location is more aesirable. Each handicapped unit will have its omn masher and dryer.
Mail Distribution Room
For the first stage of the project a room 100 square feet in size for mail distribution is required for servicing the 80 apartment units. Under the second stage additional space mill be required, homever, under this latter stags mail distribution can be done per unit cluster and need not be done in the proposed center.
Community Meeting/Day Care Facility
Under the second stags of construction a space approximately 1200 square feet in size mill be added onto the community/service canter. This space mill double as a day care center and a lounging/meeting/ recreation area for the complex. The space should include mithin it a storage area, kitchen, and toilet rooms for each sex. The entire facility must be accessable by the handicapped.
71


8 ADDENDUM


ADDENDUM A: Soil Engineer's Borina Log


SOIL CtSCKIP!tOH
Surface Elevation:
Same as above
~618
11
PEHETSiTlOX RESISTiKCC
(340 lb. ooi|M. 30* d f op)
4k Hoot pot f oo t
0 ___________20 40
a a
a

45.0
12I
40
9
45
Bottom of Boring Completed 9/1/82
NOTE: Thermistor stringinstalled upon completion of boring. Temperature readings taken on 9/9/82.
LEGEND
20
40
Frozen
Ground
m
!!
f'/j / / ///
: 'j
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Feat
C: jamc
Content
loipof oipui tool *ter level
Piezometer lip 3 rnoincooplt X 3' 0.0. split spoon sampit H 3* 0.0. thin-mell sample Sample not lecovered A11r ct f| limits:
Liquid limit fattr content
P* S tiC limit
Vatei content
Not*: The stratIiceton lines repiestnt
the approiimete boundaries between toil types end the transition may oe juduil.
USKH
U of A Proposed Housing Fairbanks, Alaska
LOG OF BORING NO. B-Kcont)
September 1982 K-0572-11
SUhSCH ( OUSOK, INC.
KOMCmiCII CCetuUHt




C-rr






SOIL DESCRIPTION
Surface £ I e va t i on: /V614I
StANCARQ
PENETRATION RESISTANCE
(UO lb. i|nt, 30" diep) A Slows par lost
C 20 40
Same as above
I
-hard below 40 feet
Bottom of Boring Completed 9/7/82
41.5
"I
12
40
45
... I
i
frozen Gf ounfl
Eznic
C:. : e n I
mpe r i out seal JZ. tatar laval
91 ticat tar tip Thermocouple
X 2* 0.0. split spoon sample I 3" 0.0. thm-all tamota Sa'Oia not iecc*eiad At iti bar I iiaiii:
|___Q liquid I i
V^^-- niei content
20 40
O Water content
Note: The stratification lines repiesent
tne appronnate boundaries between soil types and tne transition cay oe gradual.
USKH
U of A Proposed Housing Fairbanks, Alaska
LOG OF BORING NO. B-S (cont)
September 1982
K-0572-11
ShASKCH l tllSON, INC-S!crt:-ic: P CmSwlrs






r r r*






SOIL CE SCR I PI I OK
Surfc Elevation: ^595' Same as above
Bottom of Boring Completed 9/8/82
STlKOtRD
PEKETR1TI ON RESISTIHCE
(140 lb. i|nt. JO* 1140)
i
I
Frozen
Ground
Is
A
LEGEHO
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
reat
O'jnic
SL
0
3
impervious seal later level
Piezometer tip Tfceiaocouple
X 2*0.0. split spoon sample £[ 3*0.0. thin-ell sample
Sample not lecoveied
Atteroerg limits:
limit
: s n t e t
C i .T. I t
|
T
0 20 40
O'. Water content
Note: The stratification tinea leoiesent
tne appronmate boundaries oetoeen soil types and tne transition may oe gradual.
USKH
U of A Proposed Housing Fairbanks, Alaska
LOG OF BORING NO. B-IO(ccnt)
September 1982 K-0572-11
SHANNON t WILSON.INC.
St CT(C"*iC*l CCwSUlTlnrt