A THEORY OF
SENSE OF PLACE
CONSERVATION OF ESSENTIAL LANDSCAPES IN NIWOT, COLORADO
PHodges^chulte Landscape Architecture U.C Denver 1983
THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ROLE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 3
SENSE OF PLACE 8
CASE STUDY 28
Copyright 1984 PHodges Schulte
ROLE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE PURPOSE
Trained to analyze the land and outdoor spaces for human use, landscape architects find that sense of place, the name given to that elusive quality that binds our hearts and souls and personalities to certain places or areas on the earth, is the essential quality that must be understood and captured and interpreted in physical design for a successful arrangement of land and spaces and the objects upon it. From the beginning of ancient time, when civilizations channeled their energies and their resources to leaving a human mark upon the landscape, to modern days as landscape architects analyze the costs versus benefits of developing the natural environment, the role and importance of landscape architecture is increasing as its practitioners repeatedly accept the challenge of designing solution to problems arising from the human use of the earth.
Norman Newton has remarked that landscape architecture is an art as old as human existence but a profession only a little over a century old.(l) The evolution of art into profession began as people wondered why we humans were on the earth and attempted a physical interpretation of their religious views. Early civilizations developing in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers expressed their interpretations when building ziggurats, leaving their physical mark on a flat, level land and emphasizing striving high and reaching toward the heavens. Lewis Mumford has written that the Egyptians channeled all of their resources and energies into building immense pyramids dedicated to the dead because life in the present was harsh and uncompromising.(2) And the ancient 'science' of Geomancy ensured the proper relationship of human affairs to the visible and invisible world.
In reaction to the industrial revolution and its accompanying degradation and dehumanization o-f the environment, landscape architecture developed a social consciousness. In 1858,
Frederick Law Olmstead and his partner, Calvin Vaux, were chosen to design Central Park in New York City and the primary concept tor the park "was avowedly the provision ot a tract of rural scenery as a relief for workers hemmed in by the city."<3> Olmstead was concerned that with the continued influx to the cities of workers from rural areas, people whose roots and memories were of rural scenes and ways would have psychological needs that could not be filled in the cities. 'People needs' evoked a sense of social responsibility and concern with the human use of the total environment, including "the fundamental purposes, social values, and appropriate development of...areas ...as a type of public reservation."(4)
As the industrial revolution unfolded, with population increases, continued urbanization of the countryside and increased power and sophistication in technology, the degradation of the environment seemed pervasive. The increased awareness that human beings were part and parcel of nature and as such, were degraded along with the environment, gave birth to the environmental movements, the latest of which occured in the 1960's. The landscape architecture profession then emphasized site need over the original 'people need' focus that Olmsted had pioneered, and landscape architects concentrated on planning the landscape so that all uses of the environment existed within a supposedly rational framework.
The historical emphasis of landscape architecture, that of a concern with spiritual, physical and mental well-being comes together in a theory of sense of place. It thereby articulates a theory of design more powerful than the sum of its parts. Landscape architecture is involved in the design of the total human environment, which is the environment shaped by our identity and which conversely can be used as a tool for shaping us. Sense of place provides a conceptual theory for reestablishing the importance of the natural environment in our modern but sometimes mundane lives of space travel and electric canopeners. It provides a framework for concern with the
overall integrity of the landscape as a pervasive backdrop for life's experiences as it establishes our spiritual, intuitive roots in a relationship with our physical, rational roots.
ROLE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
The responsibility of landscape architecture is to bring together a wholistic concept of the relationship between humans and their environment, and to provide a clear method or treatment to enhance this concept of sense of place. Why landscape architecture? Because sense of place "takes roots in the form and character of the natural environment"(5) The landscape is a whole and can not be designed in pieces. What profession is more suited to interpret the natural environment for human use than landscape architecture?
Christian Norberg-Schulz understands that from the beginning of time humans have recognized that to create a place means to express the essence of being, and as such our environment is not just a practical tool for living or the result of arbitrary happenings, but it has a structure that embodies meanings which reflect our understanding of the natural environment.(6) A theory of place therefore ought to have a "natural basis; it should take the relationship to the natural environment as its point of departure."(7)
In the beginning there was "wilderness, undifferentiated space.
A clearing is made in the forest and a few houses are built. Immediately a differentiation occurs; on the one side there is wilderness, on the other a small, vulnerable, (human-built) world. The builders are keenly aware of their place, which they have created themselves."(8) Rene Dubos calls this process the humanization of the earth.(9)
We tamed the wilderness with clearings in the forest for civilization to be builtuntil it was discovered that the forest had disappeared through continual extensions of the clearingsan entire landscape had been humanized. The limits of settlement were no longer clearly visible, edges were not clear. The evolving role of landscape architecture is to use our tradition of reading and understanding the landscape to bring about the goal of "recovery of place" (10) "Only when understanding our place, we may be able to participate creatively and contribute to its history." (11)
1. PROVIDE A FORUM: Provide a -forum for increased dialogue and discussion of sense of place. To explore the meaning of sense of place, to study and understand it.
2. CREATE A WORKING DEFINITION: Quantify and qualify sense of place to determine an objective method of its articulation applicable in any location. Understand the components of sense of place in order to manipulate and strengthen place image within on objective process of analysis and design.
3. CREATE A WORKING MODEL: Formulate a hypothesis to provide a vehicle for understanding the broad concepts of sense of place within an everyday framework of experience for the landscape architects profession.
There has been much dialogue concerning sense of place, but still more work needs to be done. The intent of this thesis is not to claim definitive knowledge of sense of place, but to provide a forum and a vehicle for increased dialogue and discussion of sense of place.
The purpose is to assemble a concrete, objective formula on how to determine sense of place anywhere and then specifically to apply this formula to a case study area and demonstrate the practical application of its use. For "the substance of life and a sense of place come from the everyday details rather than vague generalities".(12) "Whatever sense of place may mean, it is through these experiences of everyday life that it is created and revealed."(13)
SENSE OE PI ACE
Concept \ Significance \ Qualities /
CLARIFY' GO ALIFY-
QUANTIFY -) COMPONENTS
A THEORY OF SENSE OF PLACE
INVENTORY & ANALYZE
" *'"'"x";vXSSvXvv*XyX,*,v *
IDENTIFY SENSE OF PLACE
PRIORITIZE LANDSCAPE POTENTIALS
The process -followed in this thesis is strai ghtforward. Sense of place was studied and researched so that a clear understanding of its concepts and significance could be made available. This search and review made clear the components of sense of place, in a general sense, and more specifically related the role landscape architecture must develop in designing, preserving, conserving or enhancing sense of place.
This generic formula of components was then applied to a case study area. The components were inventoried and analyzed to identify the sense of place. Sense of place was then interpreted within the framework of community values, goals and needs. Finally, potential areas which reflected the meanings of the area's sense of place were prioritized.
SENSE OF PLACE IS THE IMAGE OF A PLACE THAT EMERGES WHEN PHYSICAL &
HITMAN GEOGRAPHY INTERACT
SENSE OF PLACE IS THE IMAGE OF A PLACE THAT EMERGES WHEN PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY INTERACT.
Sense of place is the identity of a place, when the natural world and the human world come together to the degree that a clear mental image of a place is formed and reinforced. It is revealed as a representation of the character and structure of the geographic world and manifest in the human experience of the 1andscape.
Norberg-Schulz writes that the spaces where our lives occur are places and a place is a space which has a distinct character, genius loci or spirit.(14) A place in this context includes a common theme and a coherence that defines boundaries, edges and values. Sense of place is that characteristic totality that enables a place to change over time in such a manner that, while changing, the place still retains its uniqueness.(15)
Sense of place is stronger in some places than in otherswhether the natural environment, like the Grand Canyon or the built environment such as Notre Dame Cathedral. And different countries of the world have their particular sense of place because it emerges when human culture and physical geography i nteract.
place identity bound to personal identity
links past, present, future
means of social communication
IMPORTANCE OF SENSE OF PLACE
What is the significance of sense of place? Why is it important to preserve or strengthen? Human geographer Pierce F. Lewis has written that "the landscape which surrounds us is a record of our behavior. It is an expression of our values."(16) In other words, sense of place provides an image of how we relate to the world and provides "connections with our own sourcesgeological, biological and cultural."(17) And Edward Relph and Christian NorbergSchulz in their writings attribute the modern crisis of human alienation to a loss of place or piacenessnessbecause of the lack of orientation and identification in our modern natural and built environment. For we are so used to living in a world of our own making and are so conscious of our power over the physical world that we easily forget we are an evolutionary creature.(18) The sudden perception of a quicker tempo of physical change in our lives results in an increased unfami 1iarity and disenchantment with the present day landscapes. (19)
Ancient civi1izations realized the importance of coming to terms with the spirit of the place in which they lived. Geomancy, the science of arranging human habitats and activities into harmony with the visible and invisible world, seems to have been at one time an almost universal practice. Stonehenge and Easter Island and the Great Pyramids of Egypt are just the more dramatic examples which reflect an involvement and concern for the environment as a means of real and symbolic communication for whole societies.
Sense of place establishes bonds between people. J.B.Jackson says that it is important to enhance sense of place because this sense must "satisfy elementary needs (and) remind us that we
belong--or used to belong to a specific place: a country, a
town, a neighborhood."(20) And Norberg-Schulz agrees, saying that "identification is the basis for (our) sense of belonging." (21) We must be able to identify ourselves with the environment in order to know how we fit into a certain place and time and space."(22) For when we can understand the meaning of the environment, when it is meaningful, then we feel are home: "The
places where we have grown up are such 'homes'; we know the warm al1-embracing sunshine of the South or the mysterious summer nights of the North. In general, we know 'realities' which carry our existence."(23)
PLACE IDENTITY IB BOUND TO PERSONAL IDENTITY
The answer to the question 'Where are you -from?' transmits a great deal of information about us because we have all laid claim to different parts of the world.
"Every man, every woman, carries in heart and mind the image of the ideal place, the right place, the one true home, known or unknown, actual or visionary. A houseboat in Kashmir, a view down Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn, a gray gothic farmhouse two stories high at the end of a red dirt road in the Allegheny Mountains, a cabin on the shore of a blue lake in spruce and fir country, a greasy alley near the Hoboken waterfront, or even... the world to be seen from a comfortable apartment high in the tender, velvety smog of Manhattan, Chicago, Paris, Tokyo, Rio or Romethere's no limit to the human capacity for the homing sentiment. Theologians, sky pilots, astronauts have even felt the appeal of home calling to them from up above, in the cold black of interstellar space."(24)
Strong sense of place presents a clear order and coherence in the world from one category or level of awareness to another because every true place is local and universal at the same time. This hierarchy of place forms an understandable series according to scale, as a front yard is part of a house which is on a street in a neighborhood of a town within an urban area which is located in a region of a particular country... and so on. Yi-Fu Tuan explains this hierarchy of scale concept with a series of expanding circles out from the center, I/HERE, YOU/THERE, SHE,
"Near me, the wind moves the bare limbs of the cottonwoods into an uneasy dance, as a semi, dropping from the butte to the East Fork bottom gears down with a roar for the black ice on the bridge. In Afghanistan, the shots of snipers echo under winter stars, answered by the bright streaks of Soviet tracer fire. I can barely comprehend the world as an entity, let alone resolve its hurts, But, at the very least, this place and my acceptance of it give me some firm ground for my feet. I have to be someplace. A starting place."(26)
SENSE DF PLACE CONSTITUTES ONE QF THE BEST LINKS TO THE PAST WHILE PROVIDING CONTINUITY TO THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE.
We usually have a more accurate assessment of where we are, if we know where we have been. And how can we understand where we are going if we do not know where we are? Sense of place enhances "our ability to see the world we inhabit and to sense with concrete immediacy its meaning for us and our place in it."(27)
#SENSE OF PLACE IS A MEDIUM OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONTRANSMITTING
* VALUES, FEELINGS. DESIRED BEHAVIOR.
Political leaders have traditionally created a distinctive landscapeto enhance their individual power or image or make clear and readable the rules of the political play. Norberg-Schulz analyzes the Baroque garden-places of absolute monarchs as "a horizontally extended geometrical network of paths which concretizes the absolutist pretentions of the Sovereign located at the center of the system. Close to the center nature appears as a cultural landscape (parterre), further away it becomes more 'natural' (bosquet), to end in a 'wilderness'."(2B)
And the way an area looks and smells and sounds and actssense of placeis important because it supports the fabric of that society. J.B. Jackson describes the highway strip district in America this way, "The art and architecture of the strip is designed to attract. For all its flashiness it respects something like the human scale, it seeks to communicate, and does so very successfully. Its topical frame of referencethe use of popular names, symbols, effectseven its very flimsiness and temporary qualities make it congenial for informal temporary social intercourse, for it is a jumbled reminder of all current enthusiasms. And part of this congenial atmosphere is that it prescribes no traditional behavior: unlike the conventional park or even the public square, the strip allows almost complete freedom of conduct and dress."(29)
From the monumental building and rebuilding of the Baroque cities to the City Beautiful movement of the early 1900's, to the political landscape of a New England small town or the 'anything goes' atmosphere of the highway strip commercial districtthese environments are mediums of social communication.
of SENSE OF PLACE
Physical Order Landscape Character
Pol /Econ/IIist. Background Form of Built Environment
SENSE OF PLACE
Attitude Toward Nature
"Each place is characterized by a set of attributes that makes it different from others and that gives it uniqueness."<30)
COMPONENTS OF SENSE OF PLACE
Sense of place can be translated under three general headings
1) the NATURAL or natural systems COMPONENTS, 2) the CULTURAL COMPONENTS, dealing with civilization's collective background and institutions and 3) the HUMAN COMPONENT, which deals with those strengths and weaknesses we share as humans.
"All the parts have their individual identity, at the same time as they condense, explain and perhaps differentiate the general character of the whole. Each character forms part of a 'family' of characters"(31) and this characteristic totality is sense of place. The components are not weighted equally; the natural element dominates the landscape and environmental character and provides the foundation upon which different cultures and peoples experience their lives.
1. PHYSICAL ORDER
GEOLOGY LANDFORMS WILDLIFE
TOPOGRAPHY VEGETATION CLIMATE
& LANDSCAPE CHARACTER
ILLUSORY QUALITIES PRODUCED FROM: MASS -FORM *LUME PATTERN TEXTURE -COLOR *SCALE
Sense of place "takes root in the form and character of the natural environment"(32) where they are abstracted from their context and their meanings are reinterpreted in relation to human purposes.
PHYSICAL ORDER, the "three-dimensional organization of the elements which make up a place"(33) is the systematic description of nature and includes the geology, topography, soils, landforms, vegetation, hydrology, wildlife and climate of a place.
LANDSCAPE CHARACTER includes those illusory qualities produced through nature's design elements and is the basic element of regional quality, according to Kevin Lynch.(34) Norberg-Schulz agrees, writing that character "denoted the general 'atmosphere' which is the most comprehensive property of any place."(35)
- COLOR: The eye's differentiation of soil, rocks, water, sky, etc. that can vary with the weather, time of day, season of the year.
- TEXTURE: The seeming result of size and shape and placement of parts, and the "interplay of light and shadow created by variations in the surface of any object."(36)
- LINE: The path the eye follows when abrupt contrast in form, color, texture, mass and scale become evident.
PATTERN: Vegetation, water, landforms, and their
relationship to each other.
- MASS: The perceived weight of an object including the amount of space it occupies.
FORM: The shape of an object "which appears unified: often defined by edge, outline and surrounding space."(37)
SCALE: A measure of the relationship of the size or mass of one object to another.
THE EVERYDAY DETAILS THAT ACCOUNT FOR CHANCE OVER TIME
2. FORM OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT
THE PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK OF EVERYDAY LIFE
At any given moment, an environment's influence on a person is filtered through past experiences, which largely reflect the provisions of culture, and through the anticipations that arise out of the past.(38)
CULTURAL ELEMENTS include the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to another. They allow us to be rooted in reality yet not be competely dependent on a particular situation to give meaning to that reality. For each generation views the world from a different perspective and operates on the basis of different assumptions."(39) "Time, finally, is the dimension of constancy and change, and makes (sense of place) space and character parts of a living reality."(40)
"All over the world, the association between a given social group and a given environment has generated new social and environmental values. Both sides of the English Channel, for example, are similar in climate, topography, and geology. Their human populations also have essentially the same origin, being largely a mixture of Celtic, Scandinavian, and Mediterranean peoples. Yet England differs profoundly from France in the appearance of the countryside, management of agriculture, patterns of behavior, and traditional customs. These national characteristics are the consequences of historical choices that have determined unique types of relationships between people and their environment."(41)
The cultural component of sense of place has two parts. The first is the POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, or those everyday details that account for change over time.
Rene Dubos in his writings compared two palaces, built in different cultures, that exemplify this cultural influence on sense of place and is evident in the character or mood of the two palaces, one in China and the other in France. During the first half of the 17th century, the Manchu emperors in China built the Garden of Perfect Brightness (Yuan Ming Yuan), an artificial environment of islands, hills and mainland forms created from a natural, marshy floodplain area. In France, Louis XIV also built his palace on marshy ground, but created a totally different sense of place at Versailles. Mhile Yuan Ming Yuan was built to "symbolize mysterious complexities of nature and had emphasized privacy, Le Notre (designer of the gardens at Versailles) composed a linear design that could be apprehended immediately and totally and that was in tune with the public life of the French court."(42)
FORM OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
The second part o-f the cultural component is composed of the FORM OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT, or the physical framework of everyday life. Norberg-Schulz says that to be meaningful, the physical framework must have structure and form "similar to other aspects of reality, and ultimately to natural structures. If this is not the case, (places) would isolate themselves within a purely artificial world and lose contact with reality."(43)
J.B. Jackson writes that "the network of boundaries, private as well as public, transforms an amorphous environment into a human landscape, and nothing more clearly shows some of the cherished values of a group than the manner in which they fix those boundaries.(44) And because cultural values change over a period of time and exposure, so the organization of spaces reflect these changing values. "That is one reason that the contemporary landscape is so different from that of even a hundred years ago."(45) For example, during the early 19th century, the word graveyard connoted a community of individual graves, a tightly structured and organized space often next to a church for individual commemoration of one's dead. But during the mid 19th century, graveyards evolved to become a monument to the community of dead. The graveyard became a green, landscaped park, a place for wandering about and enjoying the green space in the midst of the city; a place to commune with invisible spirits, a monument of collective rememberance and no longer a place of monuments for our individual dead.(46)
And what are the implications of the current form of our urban landscapethe modern, suburban sprawl as compared to the traditional early settlement patterns of the United States and most of the world? How do traditional settlement patterns of clusters of small towns dotting the landscape, a community of landscape, compare to the urban sprawl form of community development?
1. ATTITUDE TOmRD NATURE
BIAS OF USER TO ENVIRONMENT
2. LANDSCAPE PERCEPTION
HOW AN' AREA IS SYMBOLICALLY REGARDED
a SENSORY ADAPTATION
CAPACITY OF SENSES TO EXPERIENCE
"The interplay between human attitudes and environmental conditions has generated new social values and new ecological systems that could not have emerged -from natural forces. (47)
The HUMAN COMPONENT adds to sense of place an awareness and a bias according to our physical and mental capabilities and includes the goals and concerns of modern day citizens. For we shape our world, ourselves, society and culture and in this process we may interpret our environment in different ways. Specific place must be responsive to the needs of those who use it... or it will lose its quality of place. For how else can a place evolve over time and continue in a process of self realization as it continues to create its history?
ATTITUDE TOWARD NATURE
Our ATTITUDE TOWARD NATURE encompasses the bias of a user to the environment. As settlers headed west across America, pushing the frontier ahead of them, they took little account of what they saw around them. Rather, they viewed the landscape, the wilderness and open spaces as a harbinger of a bright future; nature was a resource to be used.
In modern day Boulder, Colorado some members of its southeast Asian population have found themselves on the other side of the law for poaching ducks from a reservoir near their homes. Their attitude toward nature, toward the ducks which are untended,
belonging to no one, allowed to fly off, allowed to get away-----is
obviously different from those Americans who do not see the ducks as food and then equate food (and ducks) with survival.
LANDSCAPE PERCEPTION takes into account how an area is symbolically regarded. For example, from the earliest times, human attitudes to wilderness have been ambivalent: wilderness was on the one hand the haunt of demons (from the Bible, TOHU, a Hebrew word for howling waste, without form) and yet the realm of bliss and harmony (the Garden of Eden). The primary meaning was negative, the positive sense acquired only when wilderness had lost some of its threat and could be viewed sentimentally from safe and civilized areas which time and experience had robbed of glamour. We owe to the city our aesthetic appreciation of nature: indirectly because to be keenly aware of something we need to have its antithesis and the city it the antithesis of nature.(49)
All people "approach the landscape self-centeredly or self-expressively, looking for what agrees with their temperments, what seems to embody their emotions, what suits them as decor or theater of action."(49) For example, "the feeling for rural scenery in the United States may in part be explained by our present distance from hard rural labor. It is also true, however, that in some areas of this country, there was in the nineteenth century a limited period of real prosperity, based on the family farm. Most of our rural memories refer to this time, if not to the even briefer (and far nastier) age of the open cattle range."(50)
DEMOGRAPHY takes into account that different population mixes have different and appropriate needs and responses that influence sense of place. Yi-Fu Tuan writes that "the geographical horizon of a child expands as he grows older, but not necessarily toward the larger scale. His interest and knowledge focus first on the small local community, then the city, skipping the neighborhood; and from the city his interest may jump to the nation and foreign places, skipping the region. How can he appreciate exotic locales of which he has no direct experience?"(51)
SENSORY ADAPTATION describes the capacity of our human senses to experience and takes into account "the different modes of experience (sensorimotor, tactile, visual, conceptual)."(52)
Dubos gives an example saying that in the broadest sense, we can surmise that the evolution of humans for several million years in an open environment, on the savanna or plain of Africa, led to two types of visual conditioning. One, a liking for open vistas, leading the eye to the horizon (from the habit of looking for animals on the open savanna) and two, a psychological need of a place of refuge, a cave or densly wooded area (enclosure on the edge of the plain).(53)
He continues in this vein proposing that "the desire to occupy an elevated position dominating the landscape also probably had a biological origin and eventually resulted in an aesthetic experience satisfied by artificial hills with no practical unity. As is frequently the case a desire of biological origin eventually evolves into a socio-cultural attitude."(54) Ancient civilization in flat areas built artificial mounds (the Ziggurat of Ur, the Great Pyramids of Egypt, Mont St. Michael) to leave their mark on the land and dominate their surroundings. And today's civilization will pay a premium price for the opportunity to possess the penthouse or top floor suite of a modern high rise bui1 ding.
"Although all human beings have similar sense organs, how their capacities are used and developed begin to diverge at an early age. As a result, not only do attitudes to environment differ but the actualized capacity of the senses differ, so that people in one culture may acquire sharp noses for scent while those in another acquire deep stereoscopic visi on."(55) This helps explain why "a native Venetian can get lost on the straight streets of Turin (and) someone born within sight of the Pacific needs sky and horizon."(56) Also why some people are uneasy visiting the Great Plains of America with its limitless horizon, sky and land while others feel claustrophobic in the mountains.
Identification and conservation of site-specific landscapes that reflect the meanings of the natural, cultural and human elements of an area will strengthen those qualities that communicate the sense of place of that area.
The rationale for this study becomes evident as we understand the concepts and significance of sense of place. We look about the places in which we live and see a general lack of character in our modern environment. We realize we must build and strengthen, preserve and understand this character, in order to strengthen and develop our individual and social identity and become responsible participants in our life's place.
A complete, easy to understand methodology must identify the sense of a place so that ever new interpretations of it can be adapted to changing cultural and social demands. "To respect the genius loci does not mean to copy old models. It means to determine the identity of the place and to interpret it in ever new ways. Only then we may talk about a living tradition which makes change meaningful by relating it to a set of locally founded parameters."(57)
A theory of sense of place can be applied to any scale or level of design. Open space along the Front Range urban corridor of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado was chosen as a vehicle to create a working model of sense of place.
CASE STUDY NIWOT COLORADO
FRONT RANGE URBAN CORRIDOR
Niwot is an unincorporated rural town center within the developed urban corridor of the Front Range of Colorado between Denver and Ft. Collins. This urban corridor straddles the transition zone between the mountains and the plains of the arid region of the United States and is part of a 13 county area in Colorado that has experienced a surging population growth since WUJII. Current Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCDG) estimates show this urban corridor growing in population at 3 times the national rate; following existing trends and projections, by the year 2000 population would increase by 52X and the accompanying development would occupy a strip of land 10 miles wide and 65 miles long.
As steady and sustained population increases continue in the West, especially in urban areas like the Front Range urban corridor, the natural environment that at one time dominated all of the urban settlements is seen to be fast disappearing from the urban areas; "...even in two decades we've seen smog drift in, highways clog, meadows housed over, and water restricted."(58)
The process, problems and confusion of dealing with large numbers of transplanted people within a relatively short time frame has brought an environmental degradation to an arid environment that strains to recover from "a decade's worth of change every year"(59).
Niwot is located in east-central Boulder County, between two growing municipalities, Longmont and Boulder, whose urban growth is applying increasing development pressures to the rural image of Niwot. According to the opinion survey of the Niwot area that was developed and completed by the Boulder County Land Use Department and published in June of 19B2, almost 70% of the responding Niwot area residents work in the BoulderDenver metro area. This has established an increasing pressure to develop the southern limits of the designated Niwot Community Area Boundary which in turn would threaten spectacular views from the urban corridor to the Continental Divide and irrevocably alter the rural agricultural image of Niwot.
Increased concern over losing this rural character has prompted the Boulder County Parks and Open Space Department to look at open space acquisitions to physically buffer Niwot from urban pressures. Traditionally, the county has advocated a ring or swatch of generally unimproved land as open space, for a physical buffer between development areas. However, with land prices in the county increasing and budgets for land acquisition decreasing, the county is exploring alternative open space arrangements for buffering development.
COMPONENTS of SENSE OF PLACE
EJ w w
Physical Order Landscape Character
Pol/Eeoa/I list. Background Form of Unlit Environment
SENSE OF PLACE
Attitude Toward Nature Landscape Perception Sensory Adaptation Demography
CAN SENSE OF PLACE BE UTILIZED AS AN URBAN SHAPING PLANNING AND DESIGN TOOL? Can the theory be applied to a local and regional land use decision process to maintain the physical and spiritual integrity of cities and towns along Colorado's Front Range urban corri dor?
IS URBAN SPRAWL SUITED TO THE SENSE OF PLACE OF THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE? Do current settlement trends enhance or confuse the character of the Front Range? Does urbanization destroy that which the new suburbanites are seeking? How do traditional clustered settlement patterns compare to post-WWII urban sprawl patterns, in expressing the area's sense of place?
HOW MUCH OPEN SPACE DO FRONT RANGE CITIZENS NEED FOR THEIR WELL-BEING? How important is physical access to open space when visual access to open space is protected and enhanced? Do Front Range urban dwellers need more or less 'wilderness' as open space than their counterparts in the more populated cities in the eastern United States?
IS AN OPEN SPACE DESIGNATION A LAND USE PLANNING TOOL OR A RECREATIONAL PLANNING TOOL? Should Front Range communities spend open space dollars for land that enhances sense of place or for land that provides a recreational amenity? Are these goals mutually exclusive or how best can they be reconciled?
1. PHYSICAL ORDER
GEOLOGY LANDFORMS WILDLIFE
TOPOGRAPHY VEGETATION CLIMATE
2. LANDSCAPE CHARACTER
ILLUSORY QUALITIES PRODUCED FROM: MASS FORM -LINE PATTERN TEXTURE -COLOR -SCALE
Two elements dominate the physical order of the world around Niwot. First is the fact that west of the 100th meridian, precipi tation is less than 20 inches per year. While it is not pertinent in this thesis to discuss the reasons why the arid conditions begin near the 100th meridian, the information explains why soils are generally poor and why certain forms and types of vegetation and wildlife do well in this environment, why the hydrology of the West is important to understand in terms of the landforms and why the whole western environmental system can be rather fragile and dependent upon all of its parts being in good working order yet still dictate the "conditions that control human life and society in forty per cent of the area of the United States."(60)
Second, John Wesley Powell, the scientist and explorer who in the late 1800's wrote the classic REPORT ON THE LANDS OF THE ARID REGION OF THE UNITED STATES, divided the arid region into approximately three areas: the plains, mountains and plateau provinces. Niwot is located in an area straddling the mountains and the plains, called the Colorado Piedmont, the area where the landscape of the southern end of the Rocky Mountains meet the topography of the high plains environment.
Beyond the Hundredth Meridian
THE ARID WEST
ARID CLIMATE 100
The aridity of the West is a reality and carries with it mixed blessings. Precipi tation is less than 15" per year in the Niwot area; the implications include a high plains grassland environment with woody vegetation naturally confined to stream banks or floodplains. There are no mighty rivers like the Mississippi or the Columbia to rampage along the Colorado Piedmont; as the rivers and streams come out of the mountains and onto the Piedmont, they become more lackadaisical, shallow and wide-spreading, fluctuating in volume and rate according to climatic conditions. "Once the streams pass beyond the mountain boundaries into the arid land, they dwindle...due to rapid evaporation into the dry air, to absorption into the dry, parous earth, and to lack of local precipi tation and augmentation from tri butari es."(61)
Having a semi-arid climate means that surface water is naturally found only in depressions and folds of the Piedmont topography and that the rate and volume of flow is dependent on climatic conditions and the season of the year. Yet here are many perennial streams and rivers and creeks (watercourses with water flowing year round) flowing across the Piedmont because while no area of the Piedmont even receives the minimal 20 inches of precipitation annually, weather patterns allow the mountains of the Front Range to store and hold precipi tation that fall as snow during the colder months and then release it as the warmer weather melts the snow and starts the spring runoff.
And an observer can read the hydrology and by eye follow the watercourses by looking at the Piedmont from various elevated positions. Due to the arid nature of the climate, naturally occuring vegetation is mostly treeless on the high plains and the Piedmont, except along the edges and floodplains of the waterways, where the few native trees and shrubs are naturally found. The natural vegetation covering the Piedmont is the short sod-forming plains grassland, the gramma and buffalo grasses, whose height and smooth line and texture combine to let the vegetation along the watercourses stand out and be a focal point and frame of reference in the landscape.
Niwot is located near the banks of Dry Creek, nestled in a low spot of the topography of the Piedmont and delineated by the vegetation following the watercourse.
LOCATION: COLORADO PIEDMONT
Plateaus Mountains Plains
Niwot is located in a special area because the geology of the Piedmont can be read via the uplifted, eroded and tilted landscape and because between the mountains and the plains, the Piedmont provides a visual and ecosystem diversity. The area has generally deep and fertile soils; most of the land around Niwot has been designated by the Soil Conservation Service as prime agricultural land. And the physiography of the Front Range and Piedmont area makes possible irrigated agriculture.
The landscape of the Front Range is the result of the process of internal conditions within the earth exploding and pushing, uplifting portions of the earth's crust into mountains with the natural elements of the atmosphere eroding these protrusions down into flatlands again. This process of building up and eroding down carried on for millions and millions of years with hundreds of mountain ranges until about 70 million years ago when the Rocky Mountains as we know then today were uplifted.
The high plains topography, which extends east from the mountains to near the Kansas-Missouri border, was created "by the wearing down of the mountains and the spreading of the debris as a foot-slope."(62) As the mountain streams worked to weather and erode and wash away the mountains, they carried along churned-up debris and silt, depositing the sediment as fluvial, fan-shaped deposits, out from the foot of the mountains as the streams, reaching a more level plain, slowed down in volume and intensity.
The Colorado Piedmont is an area of special topographybenches and tables and mesas that evolved 5 to 7 million years ago during the last great period of uplift. "At that time, tectonic farces within the earth were not limited to the mountains only. Rather the entire region, both peaks and plains, was uplifted 4,000 to 5,000 feet to its present elevation."(63) As eroding mountain streams, fanning out onto the plains and building the foot-slope came up against harder, less easy to erode layers of ancient sedimentary rock of ancestral Rocky Mountain ranges, the special topography of the Colorado Piedmont was sculpted.
This special topography differs from the topography of other areas of alluvial foot-slope where the high plains meet the mountain edge as the benches and mesas and other landforms eroded from ancestral mountain ranges stand above the more consistent slope of the high plains. Within the regional location of Niwot, the Flatirons mountain backdrop of the city of Boulder is a local reminder of this geological process of uplift. The red rock sandstone slabs lifted and leaning against the mountain side are a local focal point and frame of reference as residents and other travelers approach the Front Range edge of mountains from the plains or Piedmont near Niwot. And Gunbarrel Hill, a large landform and the highest point adjacent to rural Niwot and currently separating it physically and visually from a large development area, carries that look of the special topography of the Piedmont area right into Niwot's back yard.
MESA STREAM BED
A, NCTTW-SOUTH AV1GTMAT provides V|SUAL MOU N TAIN S ORIENTATION AMD DIRECTION.
FORMED By UPLIFTED LASERS OF EARTH'S CRUST THAT ABE SOMETIME-5 TURNED ON END
ANOIENT, HARD TO ERODE LANDFORMS Or AMCESTRAL ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
REGIONAL UIOJ-FDIKJT6 AMD LANDMARKS AMD SPECIAL TO THE TOfiOGftAPMy OF THE COLORADO PIEDMONT.
WIDE-SPREADING AMD SHALLOW WITH VEGETATION ALONG EDGES AMD FLOODPLAINS, RIVERS APT)
CREEKS ARE A LOCAL IDINT ^ FRAME Or REFERENCE.
SHORT. SOD-FORMING GRASSES PRODUCE AM IMMENSE-SCHEME- OF A SINGLE UNE, COLOR V TEA TOFT. FORMED Ry ERODED MOUTAIN DEBRIS DLIOSITLD B>'
STREAMS AS fam-shaped foot-SLOPE.
There is a security and inherent orientation in the landscape around Niwot because one can read the geography as a system of meaningful spatial organization and relationships. The landscape character is one of diversity and excitement because of the near 360 degree views of the dramatic elevation changes of the Piedmont, the Continental Divide and the visible compass points (N-S-E-W) orientation of the grand scale of the mountains and plains and delineating vegetation.
The Front Range mountains provides an edge or boundary to the plains. In fact, the only element strong enough to oppose the line of mountains is the infinite extension of the plains in conjunction with the sky, with its contrast of form, texture and mass. Without the mountains to wall the edge of the plains,
Niwot would only be part of a rolling geographic entity, not particularly anchored in space.
The line of mountains is on a north-south axis; the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, and the streams and watercourses, delineated by vegetation, come out at right angles to the mountains and flow across the plains in a general west to east direction. These are the basis for an inherent, powerful orientation that invites the human element to not only infer but see visible the four compass points.
And light and vegetation have a place-creating function as natural exteriors and interiors are created in Niwot. Natural places are rare on the plains but in Niwot, vegetation defines spaces within space. The contrast of the strong, constant light on the plains to the dappled light of varying intensities and colors inside the natural world created by the vegetation following the watercourses, creates a protected and welcoming sense of enclosure. The streams with clustering vegetation give a spatial foothold and introduce a more intimate, human scale to the vast dimensions of the plains and mountains and sky.
NATURAL UREEM SPACE WILDLIF E DMiRSFEX
LANDMARK, 360' VIEkJS
peak flow g3/suMviep.
(5LM;RALLy LIMED WJfTLI VE6IT
SGS PRIME AGRICULTURAL LAMD LIAT-LTO MODERATE SLOPE
SENSE OF PLACE AS URBAN SHAPING
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lI lodges Schulte Landscape Architecture l!.(!.- iK'nver l!)83
1. POLITICAL/ECONOMIC/HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
THE EVERYDAY DETAILS THAT ACCOUNT FOR CHANCE OVER TIME
2. FORM OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT
THE PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK OF EVERYDAY LIFE
Niwot is the only unincorporated rural town center designated by the Denver Regional Council of Governments
Yet the physical and cultural nature of Niwot has been perceived by its residents as semi-rural in character, and to insure that the planned future growth would be compatible with this character a Niwot area opinion survey was prepared by the Boulder County Land Use Department "to gain information concerning the opinions and desires of the Niwot area property owners and residents in regard to Comprehensive Plan policies, land use, parks and recreation, open space, transportation and other service and related issues for use in future decision-making."(64) The results were published in June of 1982 and by March of 1983, a Niwot Advisory Committee was appointed by the County Commissioners to formalize community involvement in the decisionmaking process.
"For the first time since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, more people are moving into rural areas than out of them, resulting in suburban-type development of the outer countryside." (65) For citizens of Niwot, the debate has been not so much 'growth vs. no-growth' but rather where should that growth be located within the Niwot Community Area and how best can it be developed to enhance the semi-rural image?
According to the Niwot Area Survey, Niwot is a community where 92% of the residents work outside of the community area and mostly shop outside of the area also. This illustrates the growing tendency of the area to evolve as a 'bedroom community', where area residents work and shop and spend their money in other communities than those in which they live.
Yet most survey respondents believed that adequate zoning exists for business/commerci al development; in fact, a visual survey through the Niwot Community Area indicates that there is more than adequate zoning for business/commercial as several buildings stand empty or with For Rent signs evident. The evolving concept of the business/commercial zone in 'Old Town Niwot' and the Cottonwood Park shopping area close by seems to be one of specialized shops catering to a rather expensive or sophisticated taste. The survey, meanwhile, notes the frequent comment of the desirability of a grocery store in close proximity, followed by other neighbarhood/convenience type facilities or a small shopping center.
In antiquity, a sacred natural place was discovered and a settlement grew up near it. But Niwot came into being as the railroads acted as real estate agents and forged the settling of the American West. Now the town of Niwot is sacred because it is historically and still physically a rural town center in the midst of the Front Range urban corridor.
Much of the history of the American West is a history of the use and abuse of the environment and nature as resources for short term gain. When gold was discovered near present day Denver and the boom and bust nature of the gold economy continually left the Front Range settlement area either bursting at the seams or almost as empty as a ghost town, Denver Boosters concluded it time to establish an agrarian economy, to introduce a stability into the previously cyclical nature of prosperity.(66) Completion of the railroads to Denver from points east and north and south made this possible.
In the spring of 1873, 40 acres were donated by two area residents who realized that if a railroad was to be built from Longmont down to Boulder, there were advantages of a town and railroad near their property.(67) Colorado and Southern Railroad laid out the town of Niwot in 1873, built a depot and in 1875 the town was platted. In the beginning, Niwot was a jumping off place for miners heading to the gold fields in nearby Sunshine Canyon and Gold Hill, but it quickly became a major agricultural depot, a collection point for local farmers to send their grain on to Boulder where it would be transferred to the western mining or the eastern agricultural communities.
The landmark 1863 water law case involving Left Hand vs. Coffin established the Colorado Doctrine of water law of prior appropriation or 'first in time, first in line'. Accordingly, the Left Hand Water Supply Company, which supplies 90V. of area survey respondents, holds some of the most senior water rights in the state. The benefit to the landscape around Niwot is the large number of old, massive cottonwood trees that have sprung up and survived along the ditches and streams since that time and the 'green' landscape of irrigated agriculture land uses that surround the Niwot area. Niwot is home to the second oldest Grange in Colorado; Left Hand Grange #9 is part of the Patrons of Husbandry, a farming organization transplanted from the more humid regions of the eastern United States.
FORM OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
The Front Range urban corridor is linear in development as most of the population came from points east and found the mountains a barrier to traveling farther. Historical 1y, development has clustered by water and transportation lines and has been visible and able to be defined from a distance by the vegetative growth following the waterways. The form of the historical built environment in Niwot followed this pattern and even today Niwot has a sense of being clustered or nestled in the green lowlands of Dry Creek.
The railroad tracks and the state highway bounding the western edge of the Niwot Service Area are laid off a 45 degree angle of the north-south axis of the mountains. The original streets were platted at right angles to these railraod tracks and thus the inherent orientation of the natural world is repeated in the built environment. The resulting degree of openness to 'Old Town' Niwot directs views to the mountains and other wide open spaces.
KM 50 U
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SENSE OF PLACE AS URBAN SHAPING
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PI lodges Schulte Landscape Architecture 11.( .. Denver IMS
1. ATTITUDE TOWARD NATURE
BIAS OF USER TO ENVIRONMENT
2. LANDSCAPE PERCEPTION
HOW AN AREA IS SYMBOLICALLY REGARDED
3. SENSORY ADAPTATION
CAPACITY OF SENSES TO EXPERIENCE
ATTITUDE TOWARD NATURE
Responses from the Niwot opinion survey and meetings with the Niwot Advisory Committee seem to indicate conflicting and confusing attitudes toward the environment. It is clear that the vast majority of area residents highly value the agricultural land uses surrounding Niwot, yet 30/L of survey respondents favored channelling that growth into a larger service area under the present maximum density of 1 dwelling unit per acre and 137. favored increased residential development within the existing Niwot Community Area boundary to accommodate anticipated growth.
BOV. of survey respondents agreed that the Niwot Community Area was semi-rural in character and that the rural quality should be maintained in the future. This quality was attributed to residential densities which do not exceed 1 unit per acre overall and agricultural land uses as external open space surrounding the Niwot Community Area. Long, open views to the mountains and the plains have also been delineated by area residents as important components of the rural scenery and character.
Implicit in this designation is the concept that the Niwot Community Area has an ultimate geographic size. On the one hand it would work to concentrate development within its bounds, thus bringing probable increased residential densities, while on the other hand it would inhibit development from sprawling into the surrounding open space/agricultural land uses.
How natural or unnatural is it for humans to like wide open spaces? Don't we appreciate them more when we can stand on a high spot on the fairly level plains and with a 360 degree view overlook and pin-point where we live? In Niwot, one can stand on Gunbarrel Hill or on the state highways heading straight east-west and view the Continental Divide and the plains and the visual orientation to the compass points and the inside/outside settlement areas delineated through enclosure of vegetation.
Niwot area residents understand the benefits of having their backs to the mountains while remaining open to the plains.
Between 1970 and 19B0, the DRCOG region grew in population at almost four times the national average and currently, over half of the Colorado population lives in a six county DRCOG region.
As these trends continue, as migration increases to the sunbelt for those in search of an elusive enhanced 'quality of life', the Niwot Community Area is projected to more than double its current population figures of over 2100 residents (1981 U.S. Census Bureau count update) to 5000 residents by the year 2000.
According to information from the St. Vrain Valley School District, the elementary school within the bounds of the Niwot Community Area and the junior high school the children in the area attend are operating at levels below capacity and experiencing declining enrollments. Niwot High School, however, is operating slightly above capacity and has just been expanded to accommodate almost 900 (region wide) students.
Goals provide a framework for interpretation of sense of place within community needs and values.
1. MAINTAIN SEMI-RURAL CHARACTER
-Maintain existing density of one unit per acre overal1.
-Make provision for keeping horses.
-Maintain existing agricultural land uses.
2. BUFFER NIWOT
-Preserve external open space as agricultural buffer surrounding Niwot.
-Physically buffer incompatible land uses.
3. ESTABLISH AN INTERNAL TRAIL SYSTEM
-Connect schools to development, recreation and open space areas.
-Plan for multi-use activities of pedestrians, bicyclists and equestrians.
The stable magnitude of the mountains and plains allow for a clarity of orientation and identification that goes beyond the security or threat offered in the human condition. Niwot provides an everyday scale where the natural components are taken as the point of departure for a human environment and both are revealed as interdependent aspects of one organic totality.
The essence of the sense of place of Niwot comes from the relationship of the dominating grand scale of the natural world to the intimate qualities and scale of the human built world.
From the magnitude of the line of Front Range mountains and infinite quality of the high plains and sky, moving down in scale to the magnitude of dryland and irrigated farming surrounding Niwot, then to the historical settlement pattern that can be visualized from a high vantage point miles away, to the mammoth cottonwood trees and other vegetation that create space within space, Niwot provides an everyday scale of readable, human built diversity to balance the inherent drama of mountains and plains and sky.
Residents in Niwot can visualize their understanding of nature when towns follow creeks (and life supporting water). Color exhibits this fundamental structure as the green of settlements, in valleys and depressions, follow the traditional pattern of settlements in an arid land. The break in the north-south longitudinal line of the Front Range is clearly seen from 360 degree viewing areas in Niwot as watercourses head in a direction perpendicular to the mountain axis, as does the path of the sun and most of the major highways in Niwot.
Settlement patterns should be clustered and the natural background must remain continuous along the Piedmont so that each town can read as a settlement, as defined by the topography of valleys and vegetation and waterways; "a meaningful correspondence between natural conditions and settlement morphology."(68)
Just as the Front Range is a visual, physical and ecosystem edge and boundary to the high plains, so Niwot, at a smaller scale, is an edge or transition zone from the prime agricultural lands in neighboring Adams County to the urban lifestyles of Boulder County. North-south is defined by east-west, the massive external world of nature is defined by the enclosed internal world of human settlement patterns and Niwot assumes the role of a focal point and meeting place in the landscape.
AG. LAND USE
GREEN CORRIDOR VIEW CORRIDOR
SENSE OF PEACE
SENSE OF PLACE AS URBAN SHAPING
o Va Vi 1.1
PI lodgeS'Schultc Landscape Architecture l J.C*. l)envcr 1983
PEN SPACE GOALS
After sense of place has been identified, it is important to interpret it via community goals and values. The author developed the following set of open space goals which will strengthen sense of place in Niwot by conserving those essential landscapes that reflect the meaning of the natural, cultural and human built world in Niwot.
1-PRESERVE AND PROTECT IMPORTANT PIEDMONT LANDFORMS
Gunbarrel Hill, Dry Creek and Boulder and Whiterock and Left Hand Ditch include important natural and built features.
Link significant features to parks, schools and development areas by a trail system.
2. PRESERVE OPEN VIEWS
The view corridors west of the high points along Mineral and Niwot Roads are long and open to the Continental Di vide.
The view from Highway 119 toward Niwot is open, green and rural in nature.
The view from Mineral Road east to Gunbarrel Hill is of the high plains topography.
3. PRESERVE AGRICULTURAL LAND
Dryland and irrigated farming along Mineral Road and
N.95th Street is appropriate in scale in transition from the magnitude of mountains and plains to human scale.
4. ENCOURAGE CLUSTERING OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Encourage fingers of development patterned after stream morphology on the Piedmont.
Do not develop on top of hills.
OPEN SPACE GOALS
1. Designate landforms
2. Save open views
3. Preserve ag. lands
4. Ur ban shaping
SENSE OF PLACE AS URBAN SHAPING
1*1 lodgesSchulte Landscape Architecture RO.-Denver 1983
1 Norman Newton, DESIGN ON THE LAND, Cambridge, Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1971, p.xxi.
2 Lewis Mumford, THE CITY IN HISTORY, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1962, p.79.
3 Op.Cit. #1, p.287.
4 Op.Cit. #1, p.275.
5 Donlyn Lyndon and William L. Porter, "A Sense of Place," PLACES, A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, Volume 1, Number 2, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, Winter 1984, p.2.
6 Christian Norberg-Schulz, GENIUS LOCI, London: Academy Editions, 1980, p.50.
7 Ibid., p.50.
8 Yi-Fu Tuan, SPACE AND PLACE, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977, p.166.
9 Rene Dubos, THE WOOING OF THE EARTH, New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1980, p.52.
10 Op.Cit. #6, p.201.
11 Op.Cit #6, p.202.
12 C.L.Rawlins, "Everybody Has to be Someplace," HIGH COUNTRY NEWS, Lander, Wyoming: December 24, 1982, p.B.
13 Kimberly Dovey, "The Creation of a Sense of Place: The Case of Preshil," Op.Cit. #5, p.35.
14 Op.Cit. #6, p.5.
15 Rene Dubos, THE GENIUS OF THE PLACE, Berkeley: University of California, School of Forestry and Conservation, 1970, p.2.
16 Pierce F. Lewis, "The Geographer is Landscape Critic," VISUAL
BLIGHT IN AMERICA, Resource Paper #23, Association of America.. Geographers, Washington, D.C.: 1973, p.l.
17 Yi-Fu Tuan, "Visual Blight: Exercises in Interpretation," Ibid., p.27.
18 Yi-Fu Tuan, MAN AND NATURE, Resource Paper #10, Washington
D.C.: Association of American Geographers, 1971, p.5.
19 Ibid., p.5.
20 J.B.Jackson, THE NECESSITY FOR RUINS, Amherst: The University of Mass. Press, 1980, p.16.
21 Op.Cit. #6, p.22.
22 Op.Cit. #6, p. 19.
23 Op.Cit. #6, p.23.
24 Edward Abbey, DESERT SOLITAIRE, New York: Ballantine Books, 1971, p.l.
25 Op.Cit. #8, p.48.
26 Op.Cit. #12, p.9.
27 Brewster Ghiselin, "The Altered Landscape," THAT AWESOME SPACE, ed. by E. Richard Hart from papers presented at Conference sponsored by Institute of American West, Salt Lake City, Utah: Westwater Press, 1981, p.97.
28 Op.Cit. #6, p.77.
29 J.B.Jackson, LANDSCAPES, Amherst: The University of Mass. Press, 1970, p.149-150.
30 Op.Cit. #15 , p. 2
31 Op.Cit. #6, p. 74
32 Op.Cit. #5, CM a
33 Op.Cit. #6, p. 11
34 Kevin Lynch, MANAGING THE SENSE OF A REGION, Boston: MIT Press, 1976, p. 106.
35 Op.Cit. #6, P.ll.
36 Bureau of Land Management, VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, Washington D.C.: U.S.Government Printing Office, 1980, p. 15.
37 Ibid., p. 15.
38 Op.Cit. , #12, p.9.
39 Abbot, Leonard and McComb, COLORADO, Boulder, Colorado: The
Colorado Associated University Press, 1982, p.3.
40 Op.Cit. rl a r> *
41 Op.Cit. . #9, p.147.
42 Op.Cit. . #9, p.102.
43 Op.Cit. . #6, p.169.
44 Op.Cit. . #20, p.115.
45 Op.Cit. . #20, p.115.
46 Op.Cit. . #29, p.159.
47 Op.Cit. . #9, p.148.
48 OP.Cit. . #18, p.3438.
49 Alan Gussow, A SENSE OF PLACE, New York: The Seabury Press, 1971, p.25.
50 Kevin Lynch, A THEORY OF GOOD CITY FORM, Boston: MIT Press, 19B1, p. 256-257.
51 Op.Cit. #8, p.31.
52 Op.Cit. #B, p.67
53 Op.Cit. #9, p.5859.
54 Op.Cit. #9, p.120121.
55 YiFu Tuan, TOPOPHILIA, Englewood Clifts, New Jersey:
Prentice-Hal1, Inc., 1974, p.12.
56 Barbara Stauffacher Solomon, "Clearings," Op.Cit. #5, p.48.
57 Op.Cit. #6, p.182.
58 G1eaves Whitney, COLORADO FRONT RANGE, Boulder, Colorado: Johnson Books, 19B3, p.ixx.
59 Remarks in conversation with Governor Richard Lamm of Colorado, winter 1983.
60 Wallace Stegner, BEYOND THE HUNDRETH MERIDIAN, Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1953, p.xvi.
61 Walter Prescott Webb, THE GREAT PLAINS, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1931, p.12.
62 Ibid., p.ll.
63 Op.Cit. #58, p.12.
64 Boulder County Land Use Department, NIWOT AREA SURVEY SUMMARY, Boulder, Colorado: June, 1982, p.5.
65 A.Blackwell, "The Other Side of the Fence," LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE MAGAZINE, vol.73, number 1, Louisville, Ky: Publication Board of the ASLA, 1983, p.37.
66 Op.Cit. #39, see chapter 5.
67 COLORADO PROSPECTOR, December, 1979, volume 10, number 12.
68 Op.Cit. #6, p.171.
REFERENCES NOT FOOTNOTED
Alexander, Christopher et al. A PATTERN LANGUAGE. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
BOULDER COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN, Volume I. Boulder: 1981.
BOULDER COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE FLAN, Three year Review. Boulder: 1981.
Colorado Chapter, American Society of Landscape Architects.
ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VISUAL RESOURCE. Denver: High Country Printing, 1978.
Colorado Front Range Project. REPORT TO THE YEAR 2000. Denver 1981 .
Denver Regional Council of Governments. REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE DENVER REGION. Denver: 1981.
Garreau, Joel. THE NINE NATIONS OF NORTH AMERICA. New York: Avon Books, 1981.
Gray, Crystal. PARKS AND OPEN SPACE STUDY PARACHUTE, COLORADO, 1981. A published masters thesis at the University of Colorado at Denver, Department of Landscape Architecture. Denver: 1981.
Grey, Zane. THE LIGHT OF WESTERN STARS. New York: Pocket Books, 1962.
Lamm, Richard and Michael McCarthy. THE ANGRY WEST. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1982.
Lynch, Kevin. WHAT TIME IS THIS PLACE? Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1972.
Meinig, D.W., ed. THE INTERPRETATION OF ORDINARY LANDSCAPES. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Pennick, Nigel. THE ANCIENT SCIENCE OF GEOMANCY. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1979.
Powell, John Wesley. REPORT ON THE LANDS OF THE ARID REGION OF THE UNITED STATES. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvar University, 1962.
Stegner, Page and Wallace Stegner. AMERICAN PLACES. New York: E.P.Dutton, 1981.
United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Service. SOIL SURVEY OF BOULDER COUNTY AREA, COLORADO. Washington D.C.: 1975.