Citation
Expo 86

Material Information

Title:
Expo 86 the World Exposition on Transportation and Communication : the world in motion and the world in touch
Alternate title:
Florida state pavillion for EXPO 86
Creator:
Schultz, Frederick P
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
164 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, folded maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 105-108).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"The Florida state pavillion for EXPO 86: the objectivity of man's building and the subjective natural environment."
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
submitted by Frederick P. Schultz.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15582635 ( OCLC )
ocm15582635
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .S38 ( lcc )

Full Text
EXPO 86
The1966 World Exposition
Vancouver, British Coi umbia Canada
May 2 October 13,1986
A PmMd Crown Corporator
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-LEQENO-
BA BREAK AREA
BCRC BRITISH COLUMBIA PAVILION COMPLEX
BB BANDSTAND
CP CORPORATE PAVILION
DK DOG KENNEL
EC EMPLOYEE CAFETERIA
EEG EMERGENCY ENTRANCE GATE FCS FTO
ETS EXPO TRANSIT SVBTEM IBM
F FOOD BUILDING 1C
FA FIRST AID M
FC FOOD CART MA
FOOD CART SUPPORT MB
FERRY TERMINAL GATE MC
UNMANNED INFORMATION BOOTH MDC INTERNATIONAL CLUSTER MQ
MERCHANDISE BUILDING MIB
MAINTENANCE AREA > MMB
MARSHALLING BUILDING MERCHANDISE CART MAIL DISTRIBUTION CENTER MAIN GATE
MANNED INFORMATION BOOTH MONORAIL MAINTENANCE BUILDING
00 PA PE OPERATION DOCK PLAY AREA PARTICIPANT EXHIBIT PTB RA RAB PERSONAL TOUCH BANKING RIDE ATTRACTION RIDE ATTRACTION BOOTH T TF TP THEATRE THEATRE FACILITIES THEMED PAVILION COOED
PP PRR PROVINCIAL PAVILION PRIMARY RE8TR00M BP BRR ST SECURITY POST SECONDARY RESTROOM SERVICE TUNNEL TT VTC TEST TRACK THEATRE TICKET BOOTH BASE SITE PLAN
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EXPO $6: The World Exposition on Transportation and Communication.
11
rhe World in Motion, the World in Touch
ARCHITECTURE & FJ ANv,v v auraria library' W
The Florida State Paviilion For EXPO 86 The Objecuvnv o! Man ? Budding and the Subjective \aturai Environment.
An Architecture! The:; presented to the College of Design end Piemans. University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of he requirement; for the Degree of Master's of Architecture
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suMai*ted Dy Frederics. PC Co halt; "he The;:; of________________________
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, ; approved
archives
LD 1190 A72 1986 S3865
Committee Chairmen
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Principal Advisor of Colorado at Denver Date-


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Project Introduction
2.0 Project Description
3.0 Historic Background
4.0 Thesis Statement 5 0 The Site
5 1 lntroduclion/Maps
5.2 Climate
5 2.a Temperature
5 2 b Precipitation and Relative
5 2.c Sunshine Duration
5 2 d Winds
5 3 Soils Report
5.4 Site Utilities
5 5 Sue Photos
6.0 Building Technology
6 1 Natural Lighting 6 2 Pile Foundation 63 Security
6 4 Code Screen
7 0 Building Program
7 1 Programmatic Analysis
7.2 Progam Summary
Humidity
Date Due

i i



ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING AURAR1A LIBRARY
80 Bibliography
9 0 Appendix


PROJECT INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION
"Expositions are the time-keepers of progress. The records of the world's advancement. They stimulate the energy, enterprise and intellect of the people, and quicken human genius. They go into the home They broaden and brighten the lives of people."
President William Mckinley 1905
Tremendous financial loss is by far the norm, breaking evert a surprise Vast areas of great cities have been desolated Labor unrest and unemployment are often left in their wake. An American President was assasinated while opening one Good taste and common sense are lucky to be even tertiary concerns. Why then, does the idea of the World's Fair, the Exposition Umversalle, the Westausstellung persist, m spite of a rtahter sordid track record, to this day' How does this incredible extravagence survive in a world where God has been replaced by "the bottom line" and return on investment
History has shown that these exhibitions signal change m architectural thought and theory which subsequently impacts future events. Advancements in building technology, urban planning, and industrial production have resulted. Beyond that, man's desire to show off his achievements almost seem to demand these exhibitions.
The grandest and most cheerful, the brightest and most splendid show that eyes had ever looked on since the creation of the world."


PROJECT DESCRIPTION


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The site for this project is located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Vancouver developed initially as a seafaring port. It's ascendency into one of Canada's major cities began with the arrival of the railroads. The original Canadian Pacific P.ail-yards became a blighted area in the downtown area Several attempts to revitalize the area have evolved into the current undertaking Phase One consisted of the construction of a 60,000 seat covered staduim. The 1986 World Exposition on
Transportation (EXPO '86) is the second phase. Ultimate plans for the site include 11,000 housing units, with 6.5 million sguare feet of retail/commercial space set in a total of 82 acres of parkland, walkways and marinas.
The function of the Florida Pavillion for EXPO '86 is two-fold. For the term of EXPO '86, the Pavillion will tell the story of Florida's development from a transportation viewpoint. From the Spanish, French and Indian water borne vessels, through the railroads, to rapid-rail systems of today., Thestory will be told with a variety of exhibits incorporating audio, visual and tactile presentation techniques. The ultimate function of the Pavillion wili be to provide exhibition and entertainment space for the permanent residents of the site.
The Pavillion will acknowledge the ambience of the Vancouver waterfront while compatible with contemporary and future site influences. The specific siting of the Pavillion will be based upon the intentions and direction of the B.C. Place Master Plan.
The scale of the Paviliion will be in the range of 40,000 sg ft


THESIS STATEMENT


THESIS STATEMENT
While snowing off is thought to be a negative characteristic in the individual, it forms the life-blood of commerce and industry. Man's desire to show-off has found various means in which to express itself. The temporary nature which these means of expression allows fleeting glimpses of the popular tastes of the particular culture. Historians typically look to other aspects of culture in order to synopsize and fix cultural trends in relation to other times in history. The Internationa! Exhibitions don't provide so much a picture of cultural aspirations as much as they give a more basic ordinary level of information.
The study of the da'/ to day life of a culture can provide better understanding of the culture as a whole, and its place in history While many early cultures have left a few artifacts of rather mundane functions, the International Exhibitions are a tremendous source of recent cultural memorabilia. This memorabilia tells much more than ancient remains did, about the development of its particular segment of history As author John Ail wood states, "We cannot all be involved directly in the drawing up and signing of great international treaties, but exhibitions give everyone the chance to participate in history, even if only as visitors.
The intention of this thesis is that while the Internationa! Exposition has lost something of its lustre in recent years, it still exists as a powerful means of communication 'While the building should adeguately house the various functions required, the architecture should express the theme of the Eair as well as a dear reflection of the cultural, social, economic and spiritual concerns of its exhibitors.
As this thesis concerns a Pavillion for the state of Florida, as well as being located in Vancouver, British Columbia, several issues are to be addressed. These are issues which are of particular concern to me as well as being pertinent to the demands of disparate proposal.
Water
More specifically, the transition zone which exists between the diametrically opposing forces of ocean and land. The energy and inherent tension of the convergence of land and sea exert tremendous influence over those who come in contact with it. Whiie the land is a constant and the water is constanty changing, the two combine to create a powerful sense of place Charles Mnnrp pxniaina that


"The most enticing places along the shore invariably give evidence of human occupation, which may not he surprising at all when we consider that for milenma many groups of human beings have been occupying the places they found to be the most exciting, the most special, and the most magic. 2
Expression
A typical building exists to satisfy a multitude of cultural, social and spiritual concerns. A. World's Fair Pavillion exists in order to satisfy a somewhat more focused purpose. Whether by semiology, typology or any other currently popular-ology, the architecture serves as a visual, tactile, and perceptual means of communication. While on one level, the range of information expressed may seem rather limited, it functions as an explicit marker of the popular taste of the time.
As the concerns of modern society are extremely varied and complex, fairs have adopted particular themes in order to lend a certain amount of cohesion to otherwise calophonous proceedings. Whether the architecture chooses to follow the theme or not, it rarely fails to express its own particular corporate or nationalistic Zeitgeist. Key then, is the clear definition of the spirit of this time as well as an expression of what Florida is about.
Florida
Florida is a state with many different faces. A large portion of its life-blood is concerned with various agricultural enterprises. Just about everything from truck vegetables to thoroughbred horses are produced there. This mostly occurs in the inland portions of the state. But the Florida which most people recall is a vacation on the beach. The miles of coastline and sub-tropical climate create an atmosphere; perfect escape and recreation. Escape from ordinary daily pressures to a relative phantasm agon cal environment is what brings many to Florida. Much of the growth along the coastline has occured to facilitate this. What was once lush virgin beach environment has been transformed into miles of seemingly endless condominium blocks. The qualities which originally brought people to Florida, unspoiled beaches, an unhurried pace, have been subordinated to houemo the vocational masses


The intention of this thesis is not to recreate Florida in a Disney-esque sense, but to explore the factors which make Florida such a desirable place, synthesize and present them in a solution appropriate to Vancouver. The major commonality between Florida and Vancouver lies in their adjacency to the water. The major difference is Vancouver's genera! lack of sunshine. Consequently, the relationship of the land, sea and architecture will have to be symbiotic while taking advantage of as much sun as possible.
Sequence
The architecture of the World's Fair speaks to large numbers of people. Movement and circulation towards, along, past, into through, and out of the entire fantasy environment are prime concerns. By placing objects in relation to each other within a defined area, and moving people through the defined area, the experience is one of a series of events. While any exhibition space is strongly dependent upon its circulation system for its use, the circulation of people, seeing and being seen, can be a powerful design element in itself. The events of the World's Fair-find their beauty in the festive arbitrariness of a well-people setting, not necessarily in the individual pieces of architecture.
The key lies then in understanding the movement of people though a controlled environment. The movement can be controlled by carefully ordered spaces in order to heighten the user's experience. The blending, overlapping and layering of space helps to encourage the movement and adds to the festive energy provided by the users.




THE SITE
The EXPO 86 site lies on 160 sores of tilled lend which lies on the out hern edge of the downtown Vancouver Peninsula. The northern edge of the EXPO 86 site approximately follows the former high water line of False Creek which lies to the south of the site. In 1887, the Canadian Pacific Railway placed its yards along the north edge of False Creek This stimulated a variety of industrial development for a time.
Much of this activity centered around shipping, manufacturing and lumber enterprises which over the years has migrated to other areas surrounding Vancouver Harbour. As with the evolution of many cities, this migration gradually led to a general deterioration within the area itself and it's immediate surroundings.
The subsequent drop in general property values and the high number of abandoned and dilapidated buildings combined to make the False Creek area a prime candidate for coordinated urban renewal possibilities.
Since the late 1960's, revival of the area has been an active concern of the railroad, city and provincial governments First, the railroad proposed an Arthur Erickson scheme for the creation of a new "town in a town for 30.000 people. The scheme, which called for two curving buildings of over 40 stories, was rejected because its high density and for the wall it would create between downtown and cherished views to the south.
y >.anw w.v. with a scheme to turn the south shore of False Creek into a model urban housing community. The comm unity was to provide as varied a mix of building type, and style, age, family composition and income as possible To date, ^approximately 1500 units along with a school, marinas, shoos and restaurants have been built. The plan, which pays particular attention to the needs of the pedestrian and relationships ot buildings to open spaces and the water, has been quite successful. It has also served to stimulate a great deal of activity in the surrounding areas, particularly Mount Pleasant to the south and Granville island to the west.


British Columbia Place is the current plan for the Worth Shore of False Creek. Incorporating 60,000 seats, the covered British Columbia Place Stadium and EXPO '86 the site is to oe developed on a scale reminiscent of the Canadian Pacific Plan of 1968. Preliminary site plans called for housing for 20,000 and approximately 6 million square feet of commercial and retail space Curiously, much early concern centered not on height and density, but on the strain which the project would put un an a!ready over-burdened transportation system. British Columbia Place planners counter these concerns with a proposal for an automated rail rapid transit system. For now the issue appears to be somewhat unresolved, however, the development of the Worth Shore of False Creek continues.
The site is bordered on each end and bisected by three viaducts which carry traffic from the main land, over the site and into downtown proper These viaducts will provide the visitor a broad overview of a large segment of the EXPO 86 site, as well as a clear understanding of the physical relationship of the site and the water which constitutes the southern boundary of the site. The elevated viaducts also provide a 1 &0 acre tract of land which has no existing, on grade interruptions. This allowed the planners of EXP0'86 tremendous freedom in the placement of internal roadways, buildings, landscaping and other features. With Pacific Boulevard to the north and False Creek to the south, the site has definite, uninterrupted borders and a clearly defined front and back.


I


SOILS
For purposes of the development of the North Shore in general arid EXPO'86 in particular., the firm of Malleod Geotechnical Ltd of West Vancouver, was engaged to prepare a soils report. Fheir findings show that the 160 acres of the EXPO 86 site consist almost entirely of various types of fill. The area began to be filled well before 1900 with the latest oceuring about 1977 The depth of fill varies from 1 to 7 rn with the majority of the fill in excess of 3 rn in depth. The fill is categorised into 3 general types:
Old Fill Common fill mixed with minor debris.
Old Fill With large amounts of hogt'ue! and wood waste.
New Fill After November 1983. This consists mainly of fill brought in in preparation for EXPO '86.
Section 4.2 of the attached soils report summarizes the structural capacities of the soil. Also procedures for preparation and inspection of the various types of soil are outli ned.
Whilg {-.fifth ftjjqg f.f f Km fVpft '|-|k 3pp?f{>H rfnitfc* thft
pre-fill high water mark of False Creek, the present elevation of
the site varies from about 2.5 to 3.5 rn at the water's edge, to 4 -5 rn inland. False Creek Tidal Variations range from a high water elevation of plus or minus rn to a low low tide of minus 3 m. Groundwater at plus or minus + 3rn coincides approximately with mean sea level at the water's edge
in composition, the fill soils consist of unsorted glacial drift possibly mixed with some interglacial and ylacio-marine deposits. Bedrock consists of sandstone, siltstone and olaystone (shale) occurring as high as 10 rn below grade.
The attached document is the soils report prepared by Malleod Geotechnical, Dated March 9.1984




DETAIL OF ONE OF THE NUMEROUS TRANSPORTATION THEMED SCULPTURES. These are place at various points about the EXPO 86 site as foci for significant areas.



VIEW FROM HIGHWAY 86 VIADUCT INTO THE MAIN PLAZA. Shown is a sculpture by SITE Inc., showing the myriad of ways man propels himself through his world.


VIEW WEST FROM THE CAMBIE STREET BRIDGE SHOWING THIS MARINE GATE. This area is designed to receive all water borne dignitaries in suitable fashion


an
VIEW WEST FROM CAMBIE STREET BRIDGE OF VARIOUS PAVILLIONS TO THE WEST OF MARINE GATE AREA.


VIEW WEST FROM THE CAMRIE STREET BRIDGE ALONG THE WATER FRONT. To the far right of the photo is the largest temporary paviilion, for the U.S.S.R., with Thailand directly behind To the far left lies the European cluster.


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VIEW WEST FROM THE CAMDIE STREET BRIDGE. This shows the water side of the European Plaza. Various European nations are housed in temporary pavillion clustered around a themed plaza


I
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VIEW SHOWING A DETAIL OF A TEMPORARY PAVILLION. The Paviliion consists of a modified space frame roof structure with Glu-lam timber sub-structure.


VIEW FROM NELSON STREET SHOWING ALBERTA PROVINCIAL PAV1LLION.


VIEW SOUTHEAST FROM THE HIGHWAY 86 VIADUCT This shows the northeast terminal of the EXPO Transit system. The Gondola Sky-nde originates from this point, serving the eastern leg of the EXPO '86 site.


VIEW SOUTH FROM HIGHWAY 86 VIADUCT (DUNMUIR STREET). This shows the entry to the roller coaster ride which passes below the bridge. Also shown are the tower for the Saskatchewan Provincial Pavillion, and the 1MAX theatre in the distance



VIEW SOUTH FROM DUNSMUIR STREET BRIDGE. (HIGHWAY 86). This shows the north side of one of the three buildings which comprise British Columbia Place B. C Place is one of the permanent groups, while serving as the British Columbia Provincial Pavillion lor EXPO 86.


VIEW OF THEMED PAVILLION #4. This permanent structure houses what is billed as the world s largest I MAX screen for visual presentations. It is located in the extreme southeast corner of the EXPO 86 site.


Sum mar


SITE UTILITIES
The nature of a world's fair is one of temporary splendor.
A site is selected, pavillions builL, services installed, all for the short span of the exposition. Often, once the fair concludes, all buildings and services are removed and the site reverts to other uses. Other times, as in the case of Seattle, buildings remain and become part of the surrounding fabric. Expo '86, as Phase 2 of the B. C. Place Development, is to be removed after its conclusion. The Florida Pavillion will be a hypothetical exception to the general demolition.
As the following maps show, the Expo site utilities are laid out in a loose loop arrangemnt. Water, gas, and sanitary systems tie into existing supply lines along the Pacific Boulevard Corridor. The logic of this allows for service and development of segments of the site while not shutting down the entire system. This becomes critical in the phased development of B. C. Place. The site evolution will be able to proceed using the now existing nodes in the Pacific Bouldevard Corridor without significant disruption on the existing networks.


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Temperature


TEMPERATURE
Temperature patterns in Vancouver are characterized as wet and coo] relatively low diurnal swings, and tempered by high levels of precipitation. Seasonal temperature differentiation is mild with summers being particularly comfortable, though being somewhat humid at times. Extremes of hot and cold for sustained periods of time are rare. Table 2.3.1 A of the Master control Standards allows the following Design Temperatures:
January (2.5 percent)
Desi g n Tern pe rat u re - ? C (19 F)
January (1 percent)
Design Temperature -9 C (1 5 F)
July (2 5 percent)
Design Dry bulb
Temperature 26 C (78 F)
Highest Recorded 53 C(91 F)
July (2.5 percent)
Desi q n Wet b ul b Te m pe rat u re 1 9 C (6 6 F)
i ndoo r Desi g n Te m pe rat u re
For Ai rconditioned Space 22 C (72 F)
50 % R H.
Table_____shows a more particularized, daily accounting of the
recorded temperatures for the months during which EXPO '86 occurs. Minimum, maximum and mean temperatures are provided for May through October The year column designates when the recorded extreme secured. Temperatures are given in centigrade from the nearest weather recording station (Ya rico uve r Ai r po r t.).


:-ESIGN ;nriiCAT!CNS
Given the varied nature of the functional requirements of the Pavillion Program, temperature fluctuations will occur throughout the building. These will be alloved to occur but will be dealt with within the particular groupings of functional areas. Solar infiltration in large scale exhibition areas which require, large glazed areas will have to be controlled without serious!g compromising daylighting requirements The problems encountered in large building volumes are somewhat difficult to study due to vertical variations in the internal microclimate and the high intensity faces created by solar radiation and air conditioning equipment. Grouping and separation of lire and unlike functional areas into similar climatic conditions shall be explored as well as passive control of temperature effects


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PRECIPITATION
Vancouver lies in a region of heavy rainfall totals. In fact, less than 100 miles to the south exists an actual rain forest. \ hese conditions., at least in terms of rainfall, are more typical of equatorial climes. With an annual total of 1324 mm (52.0 inches), Vancouver receives a significant amount of rainfall. Occasional snowfall occurs during winter months with the surrounding hills receiving significant!g higher snowfall levels.
Table 2.3.1.A of the Master Control Standards give the following design criteria:
Maximum Snow Load on Ground 1.5 kfN/m2
Maximum Fifteen Minute Rainfall 10 mm (0 4 in)
Mini mum One-Day Rainfall y 4 mm .y i n>
A n n ual Total P reci pi tati o n 1324 mm (52.0 in)
While rainfall totals for Vancouver in which the rain falls is not necei are relatively high, the rate jsarily very fast. Most days
are characterized by light, but steady, drizzle. However, the months of EXPO '86, May through October, are generally lower in
precipitation than the rest of the years. Table___provides daily
recorded averages for rainfall amounts for May through October.


As Table_____shows, Vancouver has an extremely high level of
relative humidity. Annual averages tall in the 73 86% range. The late summer, early fall months ot August, September and
October have the highest average levels (Though Table-------
shows humidity levels for Vancouver Airpoert, conditions are essentially the same as those securing at the EXPO 86 site The airport lies approximately 20 miles south of the site in delta land of the Fraser River, at approximately the same elevation as the site.)
Lat 49 11 N Long 123 10 W Elevation 3 m Altitude
PRESSURE 01 LSt
Station Pressure (kPa)
Sea Level Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
TEMPERATURE and HUMIDITY
Dry Bulb (C)
Wet Bulb PC)
Dew Point PC)
Standard Deviation PC)
Relative Humidity (%)
Vapour Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
JAN FtV MARS AVR MAI JUIN JUIL AOUT SEPT OCT NOV DFC annFe
101.64 101.66 101.57 101.67 101.67 101.61 101.67 101.60 101.62 101.71 101.67 101.63 101.64
101.65 101.66 101.57 101.68 101.67 101.62 101.67 101.60 101.62 101.72 101.68 101.63 101.65
0.62 0.35 0.25 0.20 0.16 0.13 0.10 0.08 0.14 0.21 0.39 0.36
1.9 3.5 6.3 6.7 5.7 12.6 14.4 14.5 12.2 8.6 5.2 3.4 B.l
1.2 2.7 3.3 5.4 8.2 11.1 12.5 13.1 11.2 7.8 4.4 2.7 7.0
-0.1 1.6 1.5 3.5 6.8 5.5 11.8 12.3 10. 6 7.1 3.6 1.6 5.9
2.7 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.8 2.1
87 88 85 83 82 86 84 87 85 50 89 88 86
0.66 0.71 0.72 0.82 1.00 1.24 1.40 1.44 1.28 1.03 0.81 0.72 0.98
0.11 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.09
PRESSURE 07 LSI
Station Pressure (kPa)
Sea level Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
TEMPERATURE and HUMIDITY
Dry Bulb PC)
Wet Bulb PC)
Dew Point PC)
Standard Deviation PC)
Relative Humidity (%)
Vapour Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
101.63 101.65 101.59 101.72 101.75 101.69 101.78 101.69 101.68 101.73 101.67 101.62 101.68
101.64 101.65 101.59 101.73 101.76 101.70 101.78 101.70 101.68 101.73 101.68 101.63 101.69
0.41 0.36 0.27 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.15 0.22 0.40 0.37
1.6 2.9 3.6 6.9 10.9 13.7 . 15.5 15.0 11.9 8.0 4.7 3. 1 8.2
0.9 2.2 2.7 5.7 9.0 11.7 13.5 13.5 11.0 7.3 3.9 2.4 7.0
-0.4 1.2 1.5 4.2 7.4 10.2 12.2 12.6 10.3 6.6 3.0 1.3 5.8
2.8 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.9 2.1
87 89 87 83 80 80 81 86 90 92 89 89 86
0.63 0.69 0.70 0.84 1.04 1.26 1.43 1.47 1.27 1.00 0.79 0.71 0.99
0.11 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.09
PRESSURE 13 LST
Station Pressure (kPa)
Sea Level Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
TEMPERATURE and HUMIDITY
Ory Bulb PC)
Wet Bulb PC)
Dew Point PC)
Standard Deviation PC)
Relative Humidity (%)
Vapour Pressure IkPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
101.64 101.66 101.60 101.73 101.73 101.69 101.77 101.68 101.68 101.73 101.68 101.63 101.69
101.64 101.67 101.61 101.73 101.74 101.69 101.77 101.68 101.68 101.73 101.69 101.63 101.69
0.40 0.35 0.26 0.21 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.09 0.14 0.22 0.39 0.37
4.0 6.6 8.1 11.1 14.7 17.4 19.9 19.8 16.9 12.4 7.9 5.4 12.0
2.8 4.9 5.8 8.1 11.0 13.5 15.6 15.8 13.8 10.3 6.2 4.2 9.3
0. 7 2.7 3.1 5.1 8.0 10.7 13.0 13.4 11.7 8.5 4.3 2.5 7.0
2.7 1.9 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.8 2.2
80 78 72 68 65 66 65 68 72 78 79 B3 73
0.68 0.77 0.78 0.B9 1.09 1.31 1.51 1.55 1.39 1.13 0.86 0.77 1.06
0.11 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.10
PRESSURE
Station Pressure (kPa)
Sea Level Pressure 19 LST
TEMPERATURE and HUMIDITY
Dry Bulb PC)
Wet Bulb PC)
Oew Point PC)
Standard Deviation PC)
Relative Humidity (%)
Vapour Pressure (kPa)
Standard Deviation (kPa)
101.61 101.61 101.52 101.61 101.60 101.57 101.61 101.53 101.56 101.67 101.63 101.61 101.59
101.61 101.61 101.52 101.61 101.61 101.57 101.61 101.53 101.56 101.67 101.64 101.61 101.60
0.40 0.35 0.25 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.21 0.39 0.36
2.7 4.9 6.4 9.5 13.7 16.6 19.3 18.4 14.7 10.1 6.1 4.0 10.5
19 3.8 4.8 7.2 10.5 13.1 15.3 15.2 12.8 9.0 5.1 3.1 8.5
0.4 2.4 2.8 4.8 7.9 10.6 12.8 13.2 11.4 8.0 3.8 1.8 6.7
2.7 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.8 2.2 i
85 85 79 73 69 68 67 73 82 87 86 87 78 ,
0.67 0.75 0.77 0.87 1.08 1.30 1.49 1.53 1.36 1.09 0.83 0.73 1.04 ;
0.11 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.09 0.09 1 4


DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
Though Vancouver receives large overall amounts ot precipitation, mostly rain, the architectural implications are relatively minor Close attention should he paid to water proofing at the detail level. With the relatively low rate of fall, inordinate overhang system or other architectural devices need not be essential yet may present interesting design possibilities. Site drainage has already been accomodated in the EXPO 86 Site Devel o p me nt P rog ra rn.
While snow and rain loading is not overly heavy or of long duration, the impact of such loading needs to be taken into consideration. Given the requirements of a flexible program for the Pavillion, particularly the exhibition spaces, structural and roofing systems must be evaluated in terms of support requirements as well as the impact those supports will have on the qualities of the interior space.
Proximity to Vancouver's waterfront presents additional hydraulic concerns beyond precipitation. Airborne salts are a constant source of corrosion. Exposed metals of all types need to be either galvanised or properly primed, painted and maintained Wood, as a finish material, may be treated in several ways. Bleaching oils weather wood to a silver grey tone while a number of varnish materials protect the wood while maintaining its natural color and appearance, care should be taken with steei placement in concrete to insure proper coverage. This lessens the possibility of the steel rusting and causing the concrete to s pal 1 t h us eve nt ual 1 y fai 1 i rig. Pai rite a nd ot he r fi rn s h mate rials
should be selected for qualities which wear well in corrosive environments, as well as resistant to high levels of humidity.
Proximity to the water also provides the opportunity to build directly above the water. With its many miles of coastline, and abundance of boating activities, both private and commercial, building over the water is common practice. Typically this entails the use of a driven pile foundation system of either concrete or treated wood. The selection of which to use often depends upon the nature of the super structure and the intended
architectural effect Article_____in the Building Systems section
describes design guidelines for pile construction.


Bsasamm
3KSSHKBBB
Sunshine Duration


SI NS!!INI Dl RATION AND Cl.Ol D COVLK
Sunshine duration if a measure of the total number of hours which the sun reaches the surlace with sufficient intensity to create distinct shadows. The Vancouver area in general does not receive a high percentage of possible sunshine Monthlv averages range from a low of 47 .9 hours in December to a high of 3D7.1 hours in July '1 he winter and late fall months can be characterized as dreary wheras the summer
months are spectacular in comparison Table______gives a comparison of monthly
figures over the course of the year Tahle____gives a more detailed, daily summary
of the summer months
48 SUN CHART
( K. Ut)
i


450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
TOTAL BRIGHT SUNSHINE HOURS
(SOURCE ENVIRONMENT CANADA, 1 951 -1980)
1919.6
IfilfiL


i.'KisHl'R DA t S
An unporun; determinantoj annua] iue! use is the number oi degre geographic location oi the particular building
Hie number of degree-davs is based on the dillereoce betv.een l K mean outdoor -emperature for a 24-hour period Degree-da'. s are a e-Dec= oi the local climate on fuel demands Fhe choice ol using ;i under i A C. uS) P> evoives Irom finding b\ heating engineer" that bn reoume heating until outdoor temperatures drop belo-a bp f l'ab!e ; n i; December and Imiuarv hat e that hem es; d-m trus m consumption


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mammammm


Winds, arid the loads they can impose, affect several different areas of architectural concern. Structure., tempering and ventilation are most directly affected. Thus wind criteria are of considerable importance in building design.
Though located in the extremely weather turbulent Pacific West Coast of Western British Columbia, downtown Vancouver has a somewhat calmer wind pattern This is partly due to the surrounding hills, and partly due to the somewhat sheltered location of the wind measuring station. However the same land masses which act to shelter the measuring station, tend to also protect the EXPO '86 site.
As is somewhat typical of weather patterns in the northern hemisphere, Vancouver experiences its highest wind speeds in the spri ng and its 1 owest i n the fa! 1 Higbest monthi y averages occur iri April (9.2 kph) and March and December (9.1 kph). Prevailing winds are primarily from the east while sustained
breeze also comes from directly west. (Table _________shows a
summary of monthly averages for wind speed, direction and maxi mum sustai ned hour! g wi nd speeds. Source: ENVIRON MEN1 CANADA .)
TABLE
Table_____displays graphically the percentage of total time which
the wind blows from any particular direction


WIND DIRECTION PERCFNTAnFS
Vancouver, as a coastal city, experiences a significant influence from wind forces. Its origin as a sailing seaport and the continuing popularity with present day sailors are indicative of the more positive effects of the prevailing winds. However, winds have potenetially serious architectural implications This chart provides information concerning wind direction and the percent of total wind load impinges from each compass direction. The measuring station is located approximately one mile to the northwest of the EXPO '86 site, on Dead man's Island on the eastern side of Stanley Park in the Coal Harbour area of Burrard Inlet There are a dense belt of trees and higher ground to the southeast-south-southwest. (Source: ENVIRONMENT CANADA )


VANCOUVER HARBOUR B.C
PERIOD 1976-80 PERIODE
let. 4918'N Long. 12307'W Elevation 0 m Altitude
JAN JANV fit MAM FE V MARS APR AYR MAY MAI JUN JUIN JUL JUIL AUG AOUT SEP SEPT OCT OCT NOV NOV DEC DEC YEAR ANNUEL
PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY FREQUENCE EN *
N 3 1 2 8 3 3 3 8 3 1 2 7 2 4 2.1 1 7 2 5 3 9 2 1 2 8* N
NNE 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 5 2 0 1 4 1 0 0 9 1 4 1 8 3 5 2 7 2 2 NNE
NE 4 5 2 9 3 5 4 3 3 8 3 0 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 5 4 8 3 3 3 3 NE
ENE 6 e 8 1 7 9 9 6 9 9 8 6 74 7 9 6 3 7 4 8 3 7 5 8 0 ENE
E 27 0 33 3 28 2 26 4 29 7 26 5 25 4 27 4 29 9 28 7 31 6 35 7 29 1 * E
E6E 14 4 119 6 8 6 6 8 0 9 6 10 6 10 7 10 4 8 6 9 7 13 9 10 1 ESE
SE 6 2 4 2 3 5 3 2 3 3 4 6 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 6 6 2 4 1 SE
SSE 0 6 1,2 2 1 1 3 13 2 4 1 9 2 2 17 0 6 0 6 13 14 SSE
S 0 2 0 6 13 1.1 1 1 1 0 0 8 0 6 0 7 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 7 S
ssw 0 4 0 5 0 9 0 4 0 6 0 4 02 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 2 0 5 0 4 SSW
6W 0 6 0 5 0 7 1.1 12 11 0 5 0 2 0 2 0 5 0 5 0 5 06 sw
WSW 1 5 16 6 3 7.1 7 0 6 2 6 4 6 3 55 4 4 2 5 1 7 4 7 WSW
w 7 6 9 4 15 0 15 0 15 5 17 9 18 5 16 6 14 0 13 1 9 3 8 3 13 4* w
WNW 2 2 2 2 2 5 2.3 18 2 5 2 5 1 9 15 1.3 2 4 2 0 2.1 WNW
NW 0 6 0 6 0 5 0 6 0 7 06 0 5 0 6 0 4 0 5 0 5 0 4 0 5 NW
NNW 0 8 1.0 0 9 0 9 09 0 9 0 8 0 8 0 5 0 6 1 0 0 2 0 8 NNW
Calm 19 7 16 9 13 4 13 8 10 1 10 6 14 3 15 2 20 2 24 5 17 2 13 3 15 8 Calme
MEAN WIND SPEED IN KILOMETRES PER HOUR VITESSE MOYENNE DES VENTS EN KILOMETRES PAR HEURE
N 3.7 4 0 4 6 4.3 4 4 4 3 4 0 4.5 4.2 3 5 4 0 4 8 4 2 N
NNE 4 5 4.4 4 4 6 1 4 6 4 6 4.3 3 5 4 4 4.0 4.5 5 1 4 5 NNE
NE 5 4 5.1 5 4 60 5 3 5 4 5.3 4 6 5.4 4 9 5 5 5 7 53 NE
ENE 8 7 10 6 9 7 9 8 8 9 8 2 7 6 7.4 6 0 7.6 8 8 10 6 8 8 ENE
E 9 3 12 4 11 5 115 10 5 10 7 10 0 99 10 2 10.1 10 7 11.5 10.7 E
ESE 7.3 11.1 10 1 116 10 2 10 8 116 10 2 10 1 8 7 9 1 9 7 10 0 ESE
SE 7 3 12 0 119 123 111 10 6 10 8 10 6 If 3 10 8 110 10 0 10 8 SE
SSE 4 9 15 7 12 6 10 8 10 7 10 1 10 1 9 6 112 7 3 9 5 112 10 3 SSE
S 50 80 96 8 4 6 9 81 93 6 3 9.8 63 8 7 7.3 8 0 S
SSW 4 2 6 3 7 8 7 0 6.0 6 5 4.0 2 0 4 8 6 5 5 6 5 5 5 7 SSW
sw 6 3 6 4 7 0 8 2 7 7 9 0 7 4 7.1 6.1 5 2 8 1 6 8 7.1 sw
WSW 8 5 9 0 12.6 12 7 115 12 0 10 7 110 10 6 10 1 90 10 1 10 7 wsw
w 7 7 9 3 12.5 13 5 10 7 11 1 9 8 90 10 0 9 9 11.3 14 5 10 8 w
WNW 3 6 5 7 9 7 8 0 5.3 60 60 5 3 5 5 6 7 9 5 10 2 6 8 WNW
NW 3 1 36 4.7 3 6 4 6 4 3 3 6 3 6 50 3 5 4 4 5 6 42 NW
NNW 3 1 35 4 2 3 8 5 0 3 8 4 1 3 8 3 5 35 3 6 5 4 3 9 NNW
All Directions Toules directions
6 1 8 7 9 1 9 2 8 6 6 8 8 1 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 9 1 8 1
Maximum Hourly Speed Vileaae horaira maximale
31 43 44 46 35 37 33 30 30 43 44 44 46
SVL SSE E W WSW wsw ESE SVL SVL W WNW W W
Height of immomiltr 10.0 m hautour do t'anemometre
STATION INFORMATION DONNEES RELATIVES A LA STATION
On Deadman Island on eastern aide ol Stanley Park Dana I* lie Deadman, du cdte est du pare Stanley dans la
tn Coal Harbour area of Burrard Inletdense belt of region de Coal Harbour dans I anse Burrard. cemture
trees and higher ground to SE-S-SW. d arbres trs dense et terrain plus Aleve au sud-est, au sud
at au sud-ouest


\!P1.1CATK').\S
in.i ol anv strength exeri? certain siruciurai load.' which mu-: hr iaken mo consideration The effect parucufarlv acute op, glazed yurl'ace* -..ar-'
be taken when determining glazing module dimension? 4- wind pre?ur-mcreasei? a? the building height increase? a gust tactor mu?! he added hen mi
load? are calculated The windward side ot a building receme? 'he gr-uem o! lateral loading due to the wind, the leeward ?ide the least A? the ore .-ailing iiv.J? are essentiailv east and west structural attention should he p.rd m ire^e d;r:ons However wind max gust in short duraiion from an1, d mention entire structural frame should he designed to withstand the maximum wind pressure The relative!, protected nature oi the EVPO Kr -;-r :en.i- redo re seriousness ol wind loading on. the structural irame
fable 2 3 1 A ol the Master Control Standards allow? the folio-;, mg xx ;nd -Mom factor- for the calculation oi structural wind loads
ronanditx t / 1 ;
i) h k \ / m 2
. M 3 psj !
Pr nabilitx I. JO
(lap k\/m2 Ml p ns!
Probability 1 /100
0 h 7 k \ / m ?
M 4 ] ps!
Mr sent a non and wind direction combine to cause dillertnu interna; climatic conditions 'diaded side temperatures varv irom exposed sides mu turbulence tends to temper the overall effect oi orientation h>iwe'cer e-.m.-sttre i hr taken into consideration particularly when placing large glazed areas
. a;". ;ng w mu -..'urrents can also produce pressure gradient* acros* m- bodj: *g ent elope budding shape max also contribute to the arrangemen; hr ime-ome .'.jdier,t I'hr- max xt-i-e Jiprup : x m anx planned ca:h* xer-:Mi' -c ~:'o- m e other structures also in!uencec the hehaxior > microciim joc am mox eme-o p itternf Due to the relum. elv low height oi the H.\PO Ph buildings dr
if anx wind pressure gradients are seen to he neghbie
U' i.


i 'l \
.U i

TpruMAT (~\ r v i l, \, H i \ \j l,\j \j i


...


Natural Lighting
Commercial buildings present many opportunities for the use of daylighting. Since commercial building design decisions are ultimately concerned with economics, It Is Important to establish the basis for significant cost savings using dayllghtlng.
A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high lighting levels required during the daylight hours Is the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy.
B. One of the most powerful reasons f or l ncorporatl ng daylight design In buildings Is that, when properly used, daylight provides a lighting quality In architectural spaces rarely equaled by artificial systems.
1. Daylight through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce celling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact with outdoor conditions.
2. Window openings also can provide visual rest when used In work environments.
3. Dayllghtlng can complement artificial lighting. The following rules for dayllghtlng can be used:
a. DesIgn artificial lighting to fill In areas of room where desired II lumlnatton levels cnnot be achieved by dayllghtlng (e.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors).
b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting fixtures should be switched or dimmed to lower Illumination levels or be turned off.
c. Use neutral-col or Interior surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial lighting Is used with day IIghtlng.
d. Admit dayl Ight from two or more room sides to avoid sharp contrast between dayl Ight and adjacent wal I surfaces.
e. Admit daylight from high locations at least one-half room depth, that are away from occupants I Ine-of-sIght.
f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit daylight to Interior spaces.
g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare. To lower brightness ratios, splay Jambs and slope light wells.


h. Baffle dayllgh+lng openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions.
I. Use large-scale elements (e.g., horizontal^overhangs, deep reveals, or flne-mesh screen, drapes, or blinds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse1' effects.
J. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-light Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, white pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors of light than asphalt or grass.
k. Enhance daylight by using reflectors or topllghting In areas without view (e.g., clerestorIes, light shelves) to project daylight deep Into Interior spaces. Use roof coverings with high reflectances to Increase quantity of light admitted by clerestorIes, and other top-1 Ightlng devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles.
l. Usq Interior finishes with high reflectances to maximize effectiveness of both daylight and artificial lighting and to soften contrast with sky.
m. Do not use Iow-transmIttance glass (I.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adjacent to clear glass, open door, or open window.


Lighting
I. Lighting accounts for about 20$ of the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35$ of the electrical use In office buildings. Office buildings are characterized by daytime use patterns, long hours of lighting use, relatively high lighting levels, and high Installed watts per square foot, which results In lighting being the single largest energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.)
A. Reductions In lighting energy consumption are thus essential elements of a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and politically vulnerable energy sources.
B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savIngs.
I. Four different elements In this process can be Identified:
a. Selection of efficient lighting systems and components over less efficient products.
b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use.
c. Improved operation and maintenance of lighting sy stems.
d. A return to a partial reliance on natural lighting techniques.
II. Natural lighting serves several Important functions.
A. Visual power In defining and Identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns.
B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical lighting requirements.
C. Natural lighting techniques should Include both diffuse light from the sky (daylight) and direct radiation from the sun (sunlIght).
I. Additionally, sidelighting (reflected light through windows) and topltghtlng (skylights) should be considered.
D. Four major Issues must be confronted before dayllghtlng practice can be Implemented.
1. Analysis and design techniques.
2. Therma I / 11 I urn I natl on tradeoffs.


3. Sun and glare control. . __
4. Lighting controls.
E. A full array of sun control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include:
1. Exterior arch Itectural appendages.
2. Exter1 or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, blInds.
3. InterI or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl1nds.
4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films.
a. It Is the opinion of experts In the field that dayllghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable climate management devices such as shades, blinds, and selective films to control excessive solar gain.
5. It seems likely that office occupants will close shades and blinds to reduce excessive heat gain or glare for thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to realize dayllghtlng savings.
F. In designing spaces which are to be naturally lighted. It Is Important to consider that quality of light rather than greater Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are:
1. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper Illumination for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower lighting levels are acceptable.
2. Nontask areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average lighting of approximately one-third the level of task IIghtlng.
3. Noncrltlcal lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a lighting level of approximately one-third the level of general lighting Is needed.
a. The efficiency of any lighting system Is directly affected by the reflectivity of Interior surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, floors and furniture.


b. In general, the designer can select light colors which reflect and contribute to the general visual comfort of a space.
Task Areas Footcandles on Tasks
OFFICE
General 100
Drafting 150-200
Accounting 150
Conference 30
Restroom 30
Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20
Lobby 50
EXTERIOR
Building 15-30
Parking 1-2
Levels of Illumination
4. To reduce glare fhom uncomfortably bright light sources or ref Iectlons:
a. Reduce source brightness by dimming.
b. Relocate source outside field of vision.
c. Reduce reflectance of surfaces surrounding task.
d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc.
e. Select sources which distribute light away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.


Typical Energy Budget
A. Building Envelope 10.5%
1. Walls + Windows 9.0%
2. Roof, Floor + Skylights 1.5%
B. Building Contents 39.5%
3. Occupants 2.5%
4. Appliances 5.0%
5. Elevators,Motors,Fans+Misc 15.0%
6. Water Heating 5.0%
7. Ventilation 12.0%
C. Lighting Systems 50.0%
8. Task + Gen'l Illumination 48.0%
9. Outdoor + Special 2.0%
D. Total Energy Budget 100.0%


Energy Conservation
I. The energy consumed by a building during use Is a variable which can and should be controlled.
A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a buIIdlng are:
1. Functional Factors
a. Building location
b. Building size and function
c. Floor area per person
d. Size of processing equipment and appliances
e. Building operating schedules
2. Environmental Factors
a. Lighting comfort levels
b. Thermal comfort levels
3. Envelope Factors
a. Orientation of building
b. Shape of building
c. Mass of bu11dIng
d. Wall and roof Insulation value (U-value)
e. Glass area and location
f. Reflectivity of skin (walls, roof, glass)
g. Skin shading or screening
4. Air Conditioning System Factors
a. System controls
b. Air conditioning system design character IstIcs
c. Air conditioning equipment selection and efficiency
d. Heat recovery and recycling
e. Natural (outside air) ventilation provisions
5. Energy Source Factors
a. Availability of reel a!mable waste heat (One of the most efficient ways to make use of Internal heat gains Is to recover heat generated by lighting systems and use it to supplement mechanical heating systems.)
b. Energy-source selection
6. Electrical System Factors
a. Electrical power utilization efficiencies
b. Energy-source selection
i
1
l
I
I
'
&


7.
Additional Considerations
a. What Is the major supply/demand problem of the utility company ?
b. What alternative energy sources are available?
c. What Is the utility rate structure and how will It affect energy use?
d. How will building operation schedules affect energy use?
B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are:
1. Is the building going to be Internally or externally dominated? (Buildings with high surface-to-volume ratios (houses, small commercial) are externally dominated; bu 11 dIngs w I th low surface-to-volume ratios tend to be internally dominated.)
2. How will climate affect building energy use?
3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature?
4. Is the primary problem energy demand or consumption?
5. Are there sources of reclalmable waste heat available?
6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities?
7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects?
Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysis, and should be evaluated In terms of Its effect on the energy meter.
II. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety In buildings. Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include:
A. Openings for cross-ventilation and daylighting purposes will tend to disrupt fire development In rooms. Where ventilation Is sufficient and fuel load sma I I, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to infiltration of cooler outdoor air.
B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to relnforce fire development by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.


C. External solar shading devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters.
D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial microclimate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For example, buildings at the edge of cliffs or other steep grades may restrict access to only one side.
References: Egan, M.D., .Concepts In Building Flresafety.
John Wiley A Sons, 1978
Lerup, L. et al.. Learning From Fire;___A Flre_
Protectlon Primer. for_ArchItects. National Fire Prevention & Control Administration, 1977


skin and mechanical capital costs S/sf
6 7 8 9
annual operating energy cost $1000/yr
9 T- 1 S T % \ § T 11'-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
1 * V 13-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
1 ^75$ WIND0W/25$ WALL
25$ WINDOW/75$ WALL
V \ 5' HORIZONTAL OVERHANG
| s / w ! 5' VERTICAL FINS
> / / / r y 5' SOUTH OVERHANG/E-W FINS
1 / 5' OVERHANG WAFFLE
/ 7 ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING
t < s. ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
- \ > THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING
PT THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
capital vs energy costs
i COMPARISON of skin and mechanical cost and annual energy operating costs
f^OM ENERGY IN DESIGN: TECHNIQUES AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


I

Pile foundations


i CM*
buildings. Where the environment makes such a concept possible :: sr.ould be seriously considered for the return may justify the expense One : two storey residential units, clubhouses, customs, harbour master ar.u light beacon are likely contenders. Housing will probably turn its back to the sea and face inland, with berths and terraces towards the harbour. Such an arrangement is a most attractive proposition and, with the caref ul handling of levels in cross-section, access for the owners, services and the public need not present a problem.
Cost
As these barriers are generally expensive, anything contributing towards lessening their cost should not be overlooked and any permanent onshore spit, shoal or shallows that can be used as a base from which to build or any extension of a natural promontory may provide a means of minimising the amount of material needed and the depth of water thereby lowering the cost. Often, in areas where conditions require only moderate abatement some form of protection analogous to a dotted rather than a continuous line mav be considered, dissipating the water rather than providing total protection.
The rubble-mound or rip-rap types, described previously, where material is strategically positioned, are of course substantially cheaper than vertical-faced or precast constructions which require either on-site con-structure or are pre-fabricated elsewhere and afterwards positioned or. site.
Piles Foundations and materials
There are three main categories of piles in marinas:
1 Those supporting structures such as jetties, fixed moorings gantries or hoists
2 Those restraining floating moorings
3 Those supporting the perimeter bulkheads or quays
The piles in 1 may be part of a complex structure supporting piers or even buildings. Those in 2 are generally simpler, free-standing columns, althc ugh they may extend high enough to support a roof for covered moorings or be braced in pairs over walkways for extra stability. 3 are normally sheet riles retaining siding or sheeting. This type is dealt with under Bulkheads and Quay walls (see page 192). The three principal materials are timber, concrete and steel. Some pros and cons of material choice are listed in 6.C.
Selecting a suitable type
Although a useful guide, 6.C does not take into account the many different types of pile of each material, some of which are accepted forms and others proprietory designs. Many piles are combinations of these materials, particularly of course reinforced concrete which will display the good and bad properties of both materials. There are many tvpes of piles and many ways of driving them in cross section. They may be round, square or octagonal and in length straight or tapered. Hollow sectional piles are usually filled with a concrete or reinforced concrete core after they are seated. Each material and shape has its uses and none may be said to be cheapest, as, dependent upon the quality chosen, their prices per foot when driven into position will overlap according to the grade and treatment of the timber, the


ENGINEERING
187
6.F Comparative choice of materials for piles
Timber
Advantages Disadvantages
Light weight Attacked by rot.
Crustacea, marine
Easily worked bolted or spiked borers
Will float Fungi (in fresh water)
Withstands impact Limited length
Can be impregnated Vulnerable at
water-line
Less damage to craft on impact
Sympathetic appearance
Concrete
Disadvantages
Must be capped for driving
Reinforcement
can rust
Can fracture
Fabrication of rc
Quality control necessary
Hair cracks difficult to eliminate
Steel
Advantages Disadvantages
High strength Rust
Usually durable Costly surface protection
Unlimited length High maintenance
Driven without damage Possible delivery delays
Can be driven into hard bed Surface coating worn by pile abrasion
Advantages
Durable
Unaffected by rot etc.
Can be tapered, shaped etc.
mix and reinforcement of the concrete, or the type and surface treatment of the steel.
The specialisation of the contractor will also help to determine the choice. If, for example, considerable concreting work is to be carried out on bulkhead walls and breakwaters, then equipment may already be available on site to drive concrete piles and these would probably be chosen as a natural extension of the perimeter engineering work. The length and strength of piles will vary according to whether the marina has a variable tidal range or is a locked water area where the relationship between the water level and the walkways is constant.
Placing the pile
The number and positioning of piles will be largely determined by the layout of the marina, and their section, length and material will be decided bearing in mind the local conditions and money available. Fixing piles into the bed through a depth of water is naturally more difficult, specialised and expensive than its land-based equivalent. Equipment which is piling around the perimeter can work on land but free-standing piles in water must be positioned by plant that either walks on the bed or, more commonly, floats on the surface. The following are the more usual methods used:
1 Rotating by hand
This is sometimes possible. A weight is applied to the top, the pile being screwed in by lever arm and tackle
2 Augering
Drilling a hole into which the pile is fixed
3 Driving
3.1 By hammer blows from above to the pile top
3.2 By a steel rod or mandrel lowered vertically through a hollow pile. This bears onto the bottom of the pile and transmits hammer blows to it from above


strands equally spaced
3. 3 Bv pressure, where the pile is passed into the bed 4 Jetting
Where the passage of the pile into the bed is assisted by a pressure-jet ot water
ROUND OCTAGONAL
PILE PILE
6.4) Prc-stressed pile sections
5 Blasting
In exceptional situations, usually in rock
6 Pressure injected footing
Used where there is little skin friction. A steel tube is driven to the required depth and 'no slump' concrete rammed to form a spread footing or bulge below it. The tube is then filled with concrete or reinforced concrete
7 Drilled-in caisson
A steel shell is driven to a solid bed and the material removed from within it. A socket is drilled into the rock and a heavy H column lowered into the steel tube which is then filled with concrete
6 and 7 above are primarily proprietary systems, one by Frankipile Ltd, the other by The Drilled-in Caisson Co.
With the dugout system mentioned on 2.18, page 34 piles are driven dry into the excavated bed which is later flooded. This is a cheap and easy wav of placing piles, but prior knowledge is needed of the soil's holding capacity when flooded.


ENGINEERING
1 8h
5
6.52 Leonardo was right. The inscription
translation by Professor E. H. Gombrich H reads: 'Observe the motion of the surface
Wi of water, which resembles that of hair, which has two motions, one of which depends on the weight of the hair, the other on the direction of the curls: thus the water form > turning eddies, one of which follows the impetus of the main course, while the other follows that of incidence and reflection'
r
i
*
h 56 Piles need careful setting out. When driven out of line they cause the floatation system to |jm
65.3 Covered wet moorings at Santord, Florida. The columns are extended timber piles
6.54 A simple fixed jetty at Fort Lauderdale. Except as mooring posts, and perhaps as markers at very high tides, the piles need not extend above deck level
6.55 Untreated ferrous metal as sheet piling in this marina at Miami has proved a failure even in such a mild climate
It is most important to ensure that piles in a pontoon system are accurately driven and do not afterwards lean out of true. Unless they are set out correctly and are perfectly vertical at best the system will creak and groan as stringer rubs against pile and at worst will jam and drown the piers and walkways. This danger increases with pile length and tidal range. It is better to have generous tolerances than a precise and tight-fitting arrangement.
In both the selection and placing of piles it is a good idea to find out how existing piles have behaved in similar condition nearby Capping piles is


FNGINK EKING
] HI
often necessary particularly with timber and cylinder types. Copper, plastic or asphalted fabric are suitable materials.
Piles vulnerable to impact from craft may be protected by fenders for concrete and steel or by vertical timber battens spiked to timber piles.
Extended piles
Piles of any material may be extended in length to form supporting columns to the roof of covered berths. As these moorings often accommodate the larger type of keeled and masted boats, the length of pile-cum-column may be anything up to 18-28 m (60 ft). The handling and driving of such piles present special problems and costs are sometimes reduced by accepting a joint or splice, allowing the pile to be driven and extended later to form the roof-supporting column. Such splicing can also be used in maintenance rather than a complete replacement. Recessed-headed bolts through a long scarf joint can be satisfactorytight metal sleeves or collars being added afterwards.
Suitability of bed material
Estuaries, tidal rivers and broken coastlines often provide good bed material for piling but conditions can vary from good to impossible within a short distance. Trial boreholes should be taken unless the engineer is absolutely sure of the sub strata. The following is a brief guide to some common conditions:
1 Fine light mud
Very little skin friction but often lies over a bed of better material. Choice depends on how far down the solid bed lies
2 Medium-grained silt and neutral clay
These hold soundly in most cases and accept driven piles very well taking all but the heaviest loads. Depends upon the cohesion of the material
3 Fine and medium sand
Usually good particularly if there is a solid bed below
4 Medium and coarse gravel
As above but driving may become difficult in some cases
5 Pebbles
Difficult if they continue too deeply but they usually give way to sand within a few metres
6 Rock
Varies from shale and soft stone to granite. Chalk rubble is quite treacherous. Generally welcomed as a bed at reasonable depth but often difficult and expensive to drill for piles and even more for dredging
7 Organic material
Found in inland lakes particularly. In its vegetable form is quite useless. If shallow may be driven through. May contain secret pockets of methane
Pile oscillation
One phenomenon worth particular attention is the oscillation of piles and piled structures due to currents or tidal flow. Very severe damage was


ENGINEERING
191
t
6.57, 58 Typical sections and details using gabion construction
TIMBER Ri BA NO 100 60 \ * --------i DETAIL AT A IN mm


1 N (; I N I 1 R I N G
1. Construction Industry Research and Information Association, Oscillation of piles in marine structures. Report 41, The Association, London 1972.
Bulkhead and quay walls
i j
caused during the construction of the Inimingham oil terminus on the River Humber in England. Following this, research bv the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (ClRlA) established the hitherto unrecognised limits on the combination of pile diameter, pile length and current velocity which together determine vulnerability to in-line excitation.
Similar dangers due to wind have been well known since the Brighton Chain Pier and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disasters, the two simplest characteristics being the oscillation of members at a particular speed (not necessarily a very high one) and the oscillation of the member in a plane at right angles to the wind direction.
The striking features of the Immingham research were that thev were in water and that oscillation was in line with the flow. The effect is very similar to that which causes a flag to flap even in the steadiest wind, the flag-pole being analogous to the pile and the flag to the water currents.
The means by which the destructive effects of oscillation may be minimised are by adding perforated shrouds or offset dorsal fins to each pile. The exact methods are too complex to be dealt with here, and CIRIA Report No. 41 is recommended for those with a specialist interest.1 In connection with the recent discovery of this phenomenon, it is fascinating to learn that Leonardo da Vinciwith incredible perception, grasped the problem, subsequently drawing and noting it with an exactitude which has taken 500 years to improve upon 6.52.
Definitions
The terms bulkhead and quay are often interchangeable. Both usually refer to the perimeter of the water area where land and water meet after the harbour's completion. This, of course, may not coincide with the tide line or water's edge before development. Both infer some form of retention and may include a composite arrangement of vertical and sloping faces. Many of the observations on breakwaters made in a previous section will also apply to the quay or bulkhead walls.
Other than when a slope or revetment is used, the new interface of land and water will almost certainly involve a bulkhead. Whilst different in some respects both the breakwater and the bulkhead bring to equilibrium forces acting more strongly on one side than the other.
The treatment of slopes and shelving edges is again similar to the mound type of breakwater but the former will not encounter such great wave forces. Their use may necessitate some floating or fixed construction built out over the water to form a peripheral walkway.
Principal types
There are two principal methods of quay wall construction:
1 The sheet type
Driven into the ground or bed and braced back by piles, shoring or deadmen
2 The gravity type
Which retain the soil (or water) by their weight and shape
There are combinations of both and many forms of each and it will depend


ENGINEERING
193
upon several factors as to which is the most suitable. Some of the more important of these factors are:
1 The relative heights of soil and water and the tidal range of the latter
2 The quality of the retained soil and sub soil with regard to its
2.1 water retention
2.2 angle of repose
2.3 consistency
2.4 ph factor
3 The relative pressures calculated from 1 and 2 above together with additional stresses exerted from wind and water forces, nearby buildings, vehicles etc.
4 The suitability of the construction method with regard to local conditions, available equipment etc.
5 The positioning of the bulkhead (see 6.63)
6 Appearance
7 Cost and maintenance
In some cases where the soil is of consistent clay, bedrock or hardpan a bank may be formed at the proper angle of repose. Thus the total difference in level between the water and the land is made up of a retained vertical face for the lower section and soil at its angle of repose for the remainder. This of course is only possible where water will never rise or be dashed above the vertical face, or where the slope is to be covered with impermeable material. Unprotected banks are generally only suitable for non-tidal or locked situations.
Gabions (see 6.22, 57, 58) make excellent bulkhead walls being both strong and flexible. The cost of materials may be more expensive unless suitable stone is available locally but ease of construction often overcomes this as the building method is a repetitive placement of rectangular building blocks and no excavations, foundations or formwork are required. During the early period of use, silt and vegetation combine with the rock filling to form a permanent structure by the time the mesh starts to corrode.
Positioning
The siting of a quay wall in relation to the original tide line is often a crucial factor in determining the type of bulkhead to use. Given a normal shelving coastline, riverbank or lake there are five principal locations for the bulkhead wall (see 6.63):
1 Inland
This 'pushes back' the land, allowing water to gain distance inshore
2 On the low-water line
This takes advantage of a medium position where fill and dredge are likely to equate, preserving the existing shoreline as far as possible but substituting a vertical for a sloping interface
3 Offshore
This gains land and pushes back the water
4 On the high water line but behind (inland of) a lock system
This, in itself, allows a minimum bulkhead construction but of course necessitates the expense of a lock to eliminate the tidal range
5 Asa perimeter to a dug-out marina


ENGINEERING
1 lM
Suitable edge treatments for vertical, sloping and gravity walls
(>.59 Sheet pile installations
GRAVITY WALL 6.61 Gravity wall
backfill
crushed rock or gravel
6.62 L-wall
6.60 Typical beach and revetted slope profiles
(
4
1
Position
A
Position
B
Position
c
Quay wall can be built dry in trench (soil type permitting) or in open cut Land area loss and water gain Possible to dredge from shore (at low tides) with land-based equipment Maximum depth of foundation into soil (seed)
Maximum overturning moment at low water
Fill equals dredge
Construction at low water line will be wet but no great water pressure problems Advantage of suction dredging material (if fine) from offshore to new bulkhead wall onshore
Medium depth of foundations into bed Minimum alteration to existing shoreline
Maximum land gain Maximum imported fill Minimum dredge Water pumped from onshore side Expensive wet construction Minimum depth of foundation (dependent on bed conditions)
Greater wave height in deeper water


ENGINEERING
195
6.64 A river wall under construction showing gabion boxes in position ready tor tilling. A flexible gabion apron is provided to prevent undermining of the structure
6.65 This quay wall at Stavoren, Holland, changes levels with elegance and precision
The whole new water area is excavated dry in an inland site, bulkheads being constructed as earth-retaining walls. The reduced area is then flooded by breaching the existing shore-line.
The type of quay and its positioning will determine whether a coffer-dam is necessary. This is a (usually) temporary, watertight, linear structure which holds back the water and allows the permanent quay wall to be constructed in dry conditions. Whilst expendable and costly, coffer-dams are often necessary, particularly where sheet-type bulkheads are to be built off-shore on a shelving waterline.
Length
The length of bulkhead wall will not only depend upon the size and shape of the marina but also its basic type. 5.4-7, page 95 show how the percentage of bulkhead wall to the total perimeter alters with the land-to-water interface, giving approximately:
25 per cent for the offshore 50 per cent for the semi recessed 75 per cent for the built-in 100 per cent for the land-locked type
These relationships may be significant if the constructional difficulties or expense (which are closely related) of building a bulkhead wall is substantially greater than a perimeter breakwater. The situation could of course be the reverse where, for instance a land-locked, dug-out marina with its 100 per cent dry-built quay wall is much easier and less expensive than a deep water offshore type with its 75 per cent perimeter breakwater.
Costs
In short, the marina type determines the amount of bulkhead and, because the perimeter construction will probably be the largest single engineering expense this will play a large part in determining the harbours final cost and possibly its overall viability.


ENGINEERING
lMt,
The difference in cost between the sheet and gravity bulkheads will depend upon factors 1-6 listed on pages 181-182 and will vary far more-due to these than any intrinsic or constant differential.
Appearance
A concrete surface can be modelled by lining the formwork or textured by bush-hammering or grit-blasting but these operations are difficult when impeded by the presence of water. Steel and concrete can both be surfaced with a cladding material but this is expensive if only needed for appearance rather than protection.
In considering the appearance of bulkhead walls and other fixed structures in tidal waters the tide-line usually reads as a strong horizontal mark because of organic growth. Whilst it is not desirable (even were it possible) to prevent this, a strongly textured or profiled face may add definition and character to what are otherwise often rather dreary streaks.
Although timber is probably less durable it usually looks more acceptable as a material for quay and bulkhead walls than unfaced sheet piling. This is particularly so in rural settings.
Many materials laid in a variety of patterns are used for dampening waves on a sloping surface. Some of these are proprietary designs and others created by engineers for specific purposes. They vary in size from very large cyclopean stones and stabits or armouring pieces (shown in 6.23-6.26, page 178) to the small scale paving slabs of a river bank or spending beach.
A natural material with remarkable dampening properties is coral and in the Pacific, Australia and the Middle East where it is known as ferroushit is used as a facing slab. The hard sponge-like material traps and holds the water most effectively. A manufactured aerated concrete with similar qualities would find a receptive market.
Siltation and erosion Siltation is the accretion and erosion, the removal of material from the bed,
banks or shoreline. These phenomena are closely related and the action of one may be the cause of the other.
A close understanding of the existing regime is necessary before the effects of any new structures can be assessed with any degree of accuracy. This will require data collection, recording, survey, analysis and possibly an hydraulic model. Siltation and erosion occur in several different forms depending whether the site is on the coast, river, estuary or lake:
1 Coastal siltation
This is of three main types according to the distance from shore:
1.1 Offshore drifting usually runs parallel to the coastline, the direction and strength of transportation depending upon tide, wind, current and type of material
1.2 Littoral drifting takes place closer to the shore and is strongly influenced by the predominant currents and need bear no relation o the offshore movement. Breaking waves and surf encourage littoral drift and the coastline profile will effect and be effected by the amount of material transported
1.3 Coastal drifting occurs close inshore due to the to-and-fro motion of breaking waves. The amount and velocity depends upon the material and strength of current
1


6. Engineering:
Coastal engineering
Dredging
Breakwaters
Check list
Examine the overall hydraulic and coastal characteristics Assemble available data regarding off-shore conditions, generally
tidal range siltation and erosion storm frequency and severity stability of bed conditions flow of tidal and shore currents long-shore drifting
Where facts are inadequate arrange for survey and engineering data studies
Decide upon type of recording equipment on site and length of trial(s) (see pages 159-162)
Form harbot shape to discourage resonance
Consider the value of a spending beach and/or outer protective harbour Investigate options of harbour shape for maximum protection
for economic berthing plan to maximise wave-height reduction to minimise costs
Allow design to grow from coastal topography and sea-bed conditions Determine position and form of entrance and its effect on craft in all weathers Consider overtopping problem re seaward profile Consider retention of specialists for survey and hydraulic data studies Explain value of engineering studies to client
Ascertain type of dredge material from initial investigation report Calculate surface area depth of dredge total cube removal Select equipment to suit material
shape of dredge method of disposal
(See principal dredger types pages 171-173)
Will working at low tide prolong contract? increase costs?
Consider deep-dredge theory in light of future maintenance dredging costs Is dredged material suitable for fill?
What is the distance to the nearest lumping area ?
Answer the 5 questions under dredging on pages 168-170 What is the dredgeJ/reclamation3 equation?
Contact dredging firms and get their general advice
Select short list of firms for spot quotations
Consider the options on plant for pumping ashore
Approach dredging firms about initial plus maintenance dredging deal
Physical conditions
Determine necessary wave height reduction Examine tide and meteorological tables, storm frequency, etc. Establish water depth, type of bed material and load capacity Consider effects of siltation, erosion, drifting, etc.
Calculate weight/deadload against likely forces Design seaward profile to minimise overtopping
Position
Relate length and configuration to total enclosed water area Consider basic harbour type off-shore recessed etc.
Calculate total length, cross-section, quantity of material.
Use any permanent shoals, spits or reefs where possible


FNGINEER1NCI
Piles
Bulkhead and Quay Walls
2lu
Form
From calculations determine basic classification Select sub-type
Will breakwater carry vehicles, pedestrians?
Decide for or against public access, fishing, etc.
Could breakwater support buildings?
Consider appearance from off-shore, marina, coastline, etc.
Determine section, profile, geometry
Will breakwater obscure horizon line? Consider silhouette Consider appearance function cost
Establish position re local materials transpor t
construction methods equipment
Will any land area be needed for fabrication
equipment materials railway etc. ?
Relate base spread and sectional geometry to bearing pressure of bed and overturning moment
Consider temporary (perhaps floating) breakwater during permanent construction Miscellaneous
Remember services: lighting, columns, ducts, handrailing and trim generally.
Consult piling specialists
Arrange for survey of bed material and organise trial boreholes if necessary (see 'bed materials, page 190)
Find out which type are successful locally Is erosion or scouring a problem?
Will tidal range necessitate overlong piles?
Consider splicing for long piles
Select material for piles in light of strength and length
durability
m-.-rhod of placement (see pages 187-188 for methods)
holding capacity of bed
cost
Can extended piles support roof to covered moorings ?
Select pile system in light of, locked or tidal basin
fixed or floating moorings
need for noise control during placement
Determine acceptable tolerance of placement verticality and accuracy of grid, particularly with floating systems
Is ice likely to lift piles or bed material pull them down?
Decide on fenders or vertical battens where impact from craft is likely Are piles vulnerable to rot, borers, algae? If so decide treatment Consider pile cappingeither permanent or temporary (during driving)
Is pile oscillation or similar problems likely to be encountered?
Type
Determine the relative heights of soil and water
the tidal range the quality of retained soil all static and dynamic forces acting on the wall Decide between gravity and sheet types Consider gabion type in poor bed conditions Calculate need size type
position of drainage through wall Is a coffer-dam necessary?
Will sheet piling stability be bv tie rods
anchorage deadman ?


ENGINEERING 211
Position
Consider need for land gain
Calculate cube of fill and/or dredge
How will moorings be located in relation to quay wall ?
Will a permanent walkway be necessary?
Length
Calculate relative bulkhead/breakwater lengths and costs for each viable alternative
Appearance
Select materials for suitability availability colour texture strength maintenance planting possibilities Should sheet piling be clad or unclad Consider lighting handrails edge profile bollards rings
Costs
Work out cost options for gravity and sheet types
Calculate what proportion breakwater/quays are of total engineering costs for each viable alternative
Siltation and erosion
What data is available about site conditions? Tap local knowledge If data is inadequate organise survey
data collection recording
analysis: consider hydraulic model
Will development worsen conditions within the harbour
nearby?
What volume, frequency, cost of maintenance dredging is acceptable?
Determine type of deposit: mud, marine clay. etc.
Contact dredging firms about maintenance dredging contract
Ice
Examine effect on canals lakes quarries reservoirs rivers
Determine nuisance value from local knowledge
Will piles be uplifted? Is special edge treatment called for?
Consider aeration system, permanent or mobile.
Could conditions warrant ice breakers? Consider type
(See ice prevention methods, page 198)
Locks
Can initial final harbour size warrant cost of lock?
Calculate lock expenditure in cost-per-berth terms
Determine basic type:
half-tide impounded etc.
Is siltation a problem and will locking lessen or worsen this ?


J'v *> v* k
i
k
r*t r
t v


5.2
SECURITY
Notes:
1) floodlight building exterior
2) avoid exterior circuit boxes and single access lines for electricity
Public
1) automatic visitor counter
2) check-room for coats and objects restricted from entry
3) place night use away from exhibitions
4) prevent air flows that might hinder detection devices
5) built in detection devices good with central control panel
6) doors to have built in magnetic switches
7) control access from public to non-public spaces
8) all exits to exterior controlled by guards or electrical equipment
Non-Public
1) non-public to be divided into two areas:
a) engineering, secuirty custodial, and mechanical
b) collections storage, registration, restoration and conservation, exhibits preparation, research and offices
2) place storage away from exterior walls
3) use small compartmentalized rooms for storage to prevent fire spread
4) load and unload inside behind closed doors
5) monitor secure storage or holding area adjacent to receiving


Fire Protection
1) provide lightning protection
2) place mechanical systems in a fire-resistant enclosure separate from museum
3) mechanical shafts to be equipped with smok alarms and damper controls
4) separate functional areas and dangerous areas with fire doors and walls
5) fired doors to be on automatic close control from ionization detection
6) automatic fire detectors with panel in museum:
thermal detectors for rooms with low ceilings
smoke detectors in rooms, elevators, shafts and ducts
ionization detectors are recommended for ceilings over 15' high
7) use sprinkling systems wherever you can without hurting objects
8) utilize Co^ extinguishing system
9) use dry chemicals in the kitchen areas
10) portable fire extinguishers should be located in numerous areas
Electrical
1) all electrical wiring should be tamper-proof
2) no outside circuit boxes
3) use magnetic contact switches for doors and windows
4) piezoelectric glass-breaking sensors
5) vibration detectors
6) photoelectric eye
7)
magnetic inductive system


8) closed circuit t.v.
Central Control Station
1) monitors for all alarm systems
2) direct line to police and fire
3) monitors temperature and humidity levels, mechanical systems, and water systems
4) in room of reinforced concrete
5) no windows
6) provide sabotage-proof ducts, air outlets and supplies water
7) shielded and grounded to avoid any electrical interference
8) strictly controlled entry
9) emergency lighting supply and electrical back- -up
10) independent HVAC with higher pressure inside
ID PA system


SECURITY
fail for the simple but human reason that the more elaborate they are, the more people place complete faith in them and fail to remain alert. Even the best system can break down occasionally or can be side-stepped by an intelligent professional burglar.
Below are some of the currently available types of alarms, some of which you can install, and some of which need specialized factory installation. If you do install such equipment, remember that the more people who know about it and about where and how it is installed, the less effective it is.
Some Alarm Systems:
Audio-detectorscan be used as check-in stations by guards. Also pick up noises in gallery.
Closed circuit televisiononly as effective as the people monitoring it. Somewhat expensive.
Door switchesturned on after closing hours to monitor which areas are being entered. Often used with speaker system since employees may be working after hours.
Micro-switchescan be placed under object. Will set off alarm and/or a signal at a central panel if object is disturbed.
Motion-detectorssuch as radar units and those based on high frequency sound waves. Show up changes in frequency and cause an alarm as someone crosses their path.
Photo-electric eyescan be set up in a number of ways. Some types can be by-passed, especially if their location is obvious.
Switches or circuitsaround doors, windows, skylights. Can be inactivated by knowledgeable burglars.
In addition to securing your collection against theft and vandalism, consider also the safety of artifacts against accidental damage. Objects on exhibit should be securely mounted so that vibrations, breezes, or sonic booms will not cause them to fall off their mounts. It is often necessary to fasten an object to a wall either for physical security
9



erected over un 18-acre site, generally to a height of a single story.
Of 245 designs received by the April deadline, none was quite suitable. The commission proceeded to design its own building. It was a complicated brick structure with a large central dome of iron. This structure too failed to meet the requirements, yet it was put out to bid. At this point, with the public and Parliament in an uproar, Paxton entered the fray. On June 7 he received assurances that a new design would be considered if it accompanied a bid for the Building Commission plan. He, with his stafT at Chatsworth (the Duke of Devonshire's seat) and a railway civil engineer, formulated in eight days a building of originalindeed, revolutionarydesign that fulfilled all the requirements stated by the Building Commission.
Paxton also played his cards shrewdly. He won over influential members of Parliament, the Building Commission and even the public to his proposal. On July 26, 1850, the commission formally accepted Paxtons plan along with the construction tenders of the contracting firm of Fox and Henderson.
In the ensuing weeks the contractors
rctined the structure, determined the strength and form of every member, made mock-ups for testing and began erection. The Crystal Palace was built in the unheard-of time of 39 weeks. The Great Exhibition opened on schedule on May I, 1851, and the building that housed it was seen by many as being the most important object on display. Its effect was totally new. Viewed from outside, thin iron columns carrying spandrel arches [ bottom illustration on page 136] and framing an infill of glass seemed to form an almost endless repetition of eight-foot bays. It was a marvelous constructional solution to a unique set of requirements.
In the instructions to the design-competition entrants the Building Commission had recommended that the structure have "some striking feature to exemplify the present state of the science of construction in England. By virtue of the commission's own proposed design, which boasted an ungainly cast-iron dome 200 feet in diameter, it clearly intended that striking feature to be monumental.
The Crystal Palace possessed no truly monumental feature: it was itself monumental in a purely quantitative sense. It
covered 772.824 square feet (about 19 acres) in plan. It was 1.848 feet long by 408 feet wide and had an addition on the north side measuring 936 by 48 feet. Its longitudinal central aisle, the "main avenue," was 72 by 66 feet high, and its vaulted transept was 72 by 108 feet high. Nine hundred thousand square feet of sheet glass, which would have amounted to a third of England's total glass production in 1840, formed its walls and roof. It was supported by 3,300 cast-iron columns, 2,224 principal girders and 24 miles of main gutter; 205 miles of wood sash bar held the glass roof panels in place. At a cost of about a penny per cubic foot, the Crystal Palace enclosed a volume of 33 million cubic feet.
As overwhelming as these dimensions may have been, the building itself was astoundingly simple It basically consisted of a series of hollow cast-iron columns joined by trussed girders that supported a planar roof made of glass panes in a pleated, ridge-and-furrow configuration. In other words, the roof consisted of peaks and valleys alternating at four-foot intervals.
The components of this system included base plates for the columns, pro-
and many of the methods of construction through which it is realized. The Crystal Palace, rendered for the Illustrated London Sews of June 14, 1851, is shown as it appeared from the north, looking across the Serpentine. In the background is the Thames, crossed to the east (far
left) by Vauxhall Bridge and to the west by Battersea Bridge. Behind the Crystal Palace are the Knightsbridge Cavalry Barracks, and farther to the east is Hyde Park Corner. Also shown are several churches, including Trinity (center), SL Peters (left) and St. Lukes (right).
133


* - Code Search


BUiLDiNb CODE SEARCH
PROJECT NAME: Florida State Pavillion for 1986. Vorld Exposition on Transportation
LOCATION: Vancouver, British Columbia. Canada
APPLICABLE CODE NAME: Master Control Standards. (MCS) Vancouver Building By-Lav/
DATE: Ma.yb. 1986
item__________________________________________________Section
1 riro 7Ar.c, >,T i i 15 cJJiiC n ri
2. Occ u pa nc y Cl ass i fi eati o n
Prlncipal Occupancy Group A-2 Assembly 8.1.2
V id.L'ld h
Others < specify) Group- E Mercantile
Occupancy Separations Required
Group A-2
to Group E =2 hours Se-
5 n /1 .-1-. \ ?,,fT c
l 1 .1 \ L- / r.l
tion
4 Const r ucti o n T y pe: Type 11Non-Com bustable
5 Maxi rn u rn A11 ova Die FI oo r A rea.
Group E 2.80 m2 per per: SOI' i
Group A -v stscre Areas nr 1 J m2 per of fixed seats
Exhibit ; areas: .40 m2 per li: sed seats
Lounge Areas: 1.85 m2 p er fixed seats
Dining: 1.20 m2 per fix ed seats
(Table 3.1,2A)


if adjacent to open area on two or more sides: Unlimited if open on three side?. (Section 3-2.2.8.1 .(b) MCS)
if over one story:
it spnnklered: All basements arid sellers shall be sprinkle-red
6 Maxi m u m al 1 ova h! e hei a ht
meters: up to 18 m to uppermost floor
stories: any *. Minimum 2150 mm headroom
clearance.
Fire resistance of exterior wall ( see occupancy type and construction type):
Openings in exterior walls ( see occupancy type and
construction type): Shall conform to Table 828A (Master Control Standards)
(Section 32.3-5 MCS): "An exposing building face having a limiting distance e-qul to or greater than 9 m shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings."
9. Windows required in rooms:
window area: Shall conform to Table 3-2.3.A MCS (Section 8 2 8 9.) May be doubled if vdre glass
enclosed or serni-enclosed courts size required:
10. Minimum ceiling heights in rooms. Minimum 2150 mm unobstructed headroom (Section 8 8 t 5 MCS)
11 Minimum floor area of rooms: 5 m2 (30 m2 food establishment of vhich 10 m2 shall be for food preparation.)


fl
12. Fire resistive requirements: exterior tearing walls 2
interior tearing walls 1.3
exterior non-tea ring walls 1
hours
hours
hours
hours (if
structural frame .73 ,**
(than 3 m from another building) (Section MCS)
closer
mf .o
perrnenant partitions hours
ve rti cal o pe ni ngs ho u rs
floors 1 hours (Ivan
crawl sp-a.ce is divided into areas of 300 m2 or le 1 hour vails) (Section 3.2.2.6)
red if
Kv
roots
hours
exterior poors
f", i ,11
inner court wall
nours
mezzanine floors
(area allowed) hours 40% of
open area, of room or open space in which is contained
roof coven nos
TJLC SI07-M1980
hours conform to
boi 1 e r roo m e ncl os u re N A
i
hours
I


13. Structural requirements- Conform to Table 4.1.6.A MCS by use of are of floor or roof
framework:
stairs- hours
floors: hours
roots: hours
partitions: hours
14 Exits
Occupancy load basis (sq ft./ occupant) Divide occupant load by 550 mm with exceptions ( Section
3.4.32. (2))
Occupancy type Basis Actual Load A-2 Assembly E- Mercantile
Number of exits required 2 minimum required if. A/Occupant load of more than 60
B) Area exceeding 100 m2
C) Travel distance more than 15 m to nearest exit (Section 3 3.1.4 MCS)
Minimum vidth of exits: Minimum 650 mm for single leaf Minimum 800 mm. maximum 1219 mm for multiple leaf exits. (Section 3.3.1.8. (1) (a) (bit.
Exit separation arrangement: Through space to stair with stairs at least 9 m apart.
Shall not
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit exceed 30 m.


with sprinklers:
Allowable exit sequence: Mezzanines may have one exit if less than 100 m2 in area and less then 60 occupants (Section 3.4.2.1.(3) MCS). Must be 30 m maximum travel distance. (Section 3 4 2.3 (1) May not be through lobby. (Section 3 4.3 1 (2))
Exit doors: (Section 3 31.8. MCS)
Mini mum width: 850 mm for only 1 leaf
600 mm for multiple leaf
Maxi rn u rn i ea f widt h: 1219 mm
Width required for number of occupants:
Exit corridors:
Maxi rnurn al 1 oweble vidt h: minimum i i 00 mm
Requi red to have exit at each end of corridor ? Yes
Dead end corridors allowed? None Maxi mum length:
Well fire resistance required: .75 hour doors and frames fire resistance required:
15. Stairs
occ. load of 60 or more
minimum width. 1100


Maxi rnum riser a! 1 owed: Maximum: 200 mm (Section 3.4.8 .a (i).) Minimum: 123 mm
Minimum tread allowed: (Section 3 -4.9.9. (1))
230 mm exclusive or norm
Are winders allowed? Not allowed (Section 3-4.8.10))
Landings: Minimum 1300 mm x 1300 mm i handicap access. (Section 10.3.3.3. (1) (fc) (i))
Mini mum size: Minimum width of stair for length and width of landings, tSection 3.4.0.4.'..2 m
Maximum size, required: Need not exceed 1100 mm in length nor width of stairs. (Section 3.4.8.4. (2>}
Maximum vertical distance between landings yo m maximum (Section 3 4 8 4 (1))
Minimum vertical distance between landings: Minimum 3 risers. (Section 3-4.8.3- MCS)
Required height of rails: (Section 3.4.8.5.(3))
Handrai's:
Required at each side: At least one ut> to stairs ovar 1100 mm in width Two required over 1100 mm. in width. (Section 3.4.3.8. (1) id.))
intermediate rails required at. stairs: Required when stair exceeds 2200 mm m width. (Section 3.4.8.8.(1) (t))
Maximum width between int. rails: 1630 mm. (Section
3.4.8.8.(1 f .
Exceptions apPisuiMe- None
Height a bo vs noainq. oUL* mIII Tu ?cj;j IfiZii (Section
Sal listers requi red


intermediate rail required: ¥hen stair width exceeds 2200 mm (Section 3.4.8.5.(2))
Maximum post spacing allowed : 1650 mm (Section
3 4.8.5 U> (b))
Handrails return to wall at ends: N/A
Handrails extend beyond stair: 300 mm. (Section 3.4.8.5. (2))
Stair to roof required'" Required if roof is used for assembly space.
Stair to basement restrictions: Sign must indicate stair to basement is not an exit (Section 3.4.8 7)
access to roof required?
Horizontal exit requirements:
Minimum 0.3 m2 clear space per person Must be at least the width of exit doorway No stairs or steps
Doors in pairs must swing in opposite directions (Section 3 4.8.11 (1) (6))
Ramps:
Maxi mum alone- t -8 (maximum length 600 mm?
Handrails required. Both sides. Minimum 75 mm curb wall., guard of solid barrier., minimum 300 mm high total.
Exit signs required: Required every exterior door with emergency circuits. (Section 3.4.6.1. (1?)


Saloon u rails: suu mm. to 92U mm
Where required: ¥here difference in grades exceeds 150 mm. (section 10.3.3.1. (1) (c))
Height required.
Balusters or intermediate rails required 130 mm minimum
Toilet room requirements {code utilised?): Section?.!. MCS
Fixture count requirements:
Men: basts actual
(Table 3.6.2.B MCS)
Based on of occupants
lavatories: 3 Required
water closets: 2 Required
urinals: 4 Required
Wo men
lavatories: 3 Required (If of persons exceeds 300,1 ¥. C... 1 urinal., and 1 hand sink additional for each additional 130 people or fraction thereof.)
water closets: 3 Required
Drinking fountain requirements: 4 Showers required: N/A


Handicapped reguireroents: Toilet stall: 1500 mm x
1500 mm r/ith 815 mm minimum door
V. C : 450 mm centerline to roll, rim 455 + 25 mm A i .£.
Grab Bars: 30 40 mm. 840 mm A:F-E. 38 mm from "'all. 1200 mm long
(Section 10.3.10 MCS)
Use of public property: N/A
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property?
Restrictions on marouees canopies. etc.


pT-ji mvr pr?Ar,p a v-f
Di i_u i ;* \j r i\ J\Ji\ A ivi


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BUILDING COMPONENT: SNTP Y/ GALES The main public access "men /!! relate to the mein El'PO 66 circulation routes The entry-ill present e T/eicoming feeling end act as both an organising and orienting device Spatially, the entry v/iti progress from the openness of the general midday to confined, incrementally back to open as one moves oyvards the mem exhibit space
rt sales area, of approximately 900# v/ili lie directly adjacent to the circulation path m prominent visual proximity to both the interior as veil as the exterior of the pavillion
Expendable quemg space v'lit be provided at appropriate points Area for spontaneous entertainment shall be provided adjacent to the exterior '"using areas
FLOOR. AREA: '000 sq ft 1L?S 70 lA .
Sales 900* (83-61mA
Soles storage: '?00jr(2?.^7si''>
Ouemg 60G0#("7 esm'-iextenor
CEILING HEIGHT: Varies mm 10 to 15 ft. Queing area canopies shell 1-; a. minimum of 15 ft.ii.-'mm: clear
LIGHT THU REQUIREMENTS Primarily dayiightmg. reasonably controlled artificial ambient v/ith task lighting at display areas and counter only
ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Main means of pub he a: *es; N* service traffic through mis point Must be fully ac-:e the handicapped Must provide for large crov/ds comf'rtebiy and efficiently
ADJACENCIES; As the introduction to the pavillicn this area serves as Cue mem aitraoteni to the farrgoer The participant "ill typically enter after v/hat can be possibly a significant v/ait. fuss he fairseer .hcull b provided ~/i'h entertainment vhile they vait. future use "/ill require a separate entry m:e ihe auduerium an-, restaurant v-thout passing through the exhibit spaces. The sales area shall be accessible from the era: sc ..
the exterior and from the end of the exhibition sequence The sales area v/iil also service access in 'arms of deliveries, ye* this should be accomplished as unobtrus
' e. uen
:1
-assibie


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BIJILBIWG f.0HP0HEH7: MAIN EXHIBIT AREA General arrangement -in be Unesi to accomadate transportation exhibits Areas 'hers large scale imz.z Till be lisp-laved .such as trains, boats, automobiles etc. sh ell be daviit v/hile smaller exhibits v.ll be defined by lover scale enclosures vith predominately artificial lighting The changing nature of the paviihon s future use seems to dictate as flexible and neutral space as possible, hovever a certain degree of spatial variety nil be sought nonetheless
A large amount of interior flora "dll be employed in order to express The ;ushr:ess of the native Florida landscape The specific environmental requirements for thus shall be confined to this area.
FLOOR AREA 1' 000 sc ft
1929,03m.-)
CEIL1HG HEIGHT: 0 1>
10 in smeller exhibit
components.
kiimkI2£M£KTo: : on trolled doylightmg Artificial fash lighting at specific exhibits as required.
ACCESS REQTHREMEHTS Must be fully a e The
visual impact of service access shall be Kept to -- minimum
ADjAamm, This area is the functional. visual. end volumetric heart vr the entire pe.viliion .-..1 /Her components of the paviiiion ere to be subordinate to it The entry space shell provide the sequenuol s: ... ien: o the main space vith the audi tori urn. restaurant, end secondary exhibit areas reached bv me-uni thro ogn the mom space. The restaurant and auditorium Till also require access o them which -.on unc'isn sc .1 .ci. vf the mam exhibit so-a.ee.


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BUILDIH& COMPONENT SECONDARY EXHIBIT AREAS \ \) The msionty of user parties psnon .and smaller scale exhibits v/sll be housed in These spaces T/hile adjacent to the main exhibit space, these spaces r/iil retain their oyn scale Movement through the spaces can be either sequential or separate, depending upon the nature of the individual displays The future use of the peril lion ?/ill require the option of either method of egress
The relatively secondary importance of these spaces alloy/ the potential of placing them on upper or lever levels in relation to the mam exhibition space Ramps or escalators v/ould be used to reach these areas
LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS: ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Accessible to all If placed on arm
Predominately artificial v/ith a small amount level besides the main floor, a common floor m*isr be cesse-s of controlled davlightmg alloyed at by a passenger elevator
non-exhibit portions of the spaces.
ADJACENCIES: These spaces may be separate or grouped together, tut require immediate ad?aceticv the
main internal circulation path. Service and user circulation and access shall be leapt completely separetre J These spaces shall be able to be secured from the access to the auditorium and restaurant functions
FLOOR AREA: -00o sq.ft, each for atotal ol 6000 sq. \fj~ 42mA
.olm-
CE1L1HO HEIGHT: 20 ft Ixn vie
within with layer heights at ;ertu points not to exceed 3 r? ix. nm.


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BUILDHG COHPOMEHT ATJIiiTORITJM COO am) tadmt siaaent for -rudio-visusi as v/*u *2 speech presentations A flat IMAX screen ~:il te the main mean: of for the visual presentation, T/hiie a stage of approximately 15 ft (4 5"m) deep v/ould alio?/for slide-aided lectures an-: similar type presentations. Direct accessibility to the main et'hi&mon area is critical, as the auditorium is an essential element in *he overall sequence Hov/ever. the auditorium shall Pe a visually distinct element in relation to the main exhibit space a completely separated element may be acceptable
a projection/storage room for the IMAX equipment will be required This will be accessible to the main theater as v/ell as the service
circulation
LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS: Entirelyart- ACCESS REQUIREMENTS. Areas for handicapped :sh-11 ficiai with variable stage end house lighting be provided vhthm the theater as w~\\ as barrier: ree cess to
the seating areas Must have separate entry from mam exhibition area for after hours use Access from mam exr.:* r
ADjAOjiCl^: he audiotonum shell be the initial stop on the sequence through the paviilion Thu. he auditorium v/iii be directly adjacent to the entry area. end mill lead the user directly into the morn exhil r area, A s mentioned above, the auditorium requires an entry separate from the main exhibit area lor future alter hours use. Even though the auditorium contains approximately the same footprint area, as he mem exhibition space, it shall be clearly subordinate to the mam space. Immediate adie.cencv to the serve.a circulation is desired, but may be simply an access corridor
CLQQR AREA: 10.000 :q ft imam-; for theater, 500 sq ft *'74 ?2mm proiection/storage
CEIL IMG HEIGHT: 1: f* hram. te uj lt.i7.oxm; depending upon acoustical requirements


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BUILD IHfr COMPONENT RECEIVING/LOAD IMG DOCK Requires separate. screened area as far as possible from The mem exterior user circuierion. The capacity to handle large item: is crucial. n mall office for a loading dock supervisor is required, but -n\\ not be occupied on a continual basis
FLOOR AREA: ZCM 2 for loading dock including If O :q ft. Jock supervisor office.

LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS: Lov level (30
footcandles or less required. ) artificial lighting
C2ILIHP g£lCgI:--U ft : im; mm
clear height.
ACCESS___REQUIREMENTS. Private service use on;-.- a dear
vxth GO' x GO* clear both into the loading area and ?h- m-v.n exhibition space is required
ADJACENCIES: Adjacency to. but visual screening from, the mam fair circulation mil be required. fnoold 'hr secondary exhibition spaces be placed on levels other then the mam level immediate access to a freight eIc"ator mil be required. The freight elevator need not be directly adjacent to the secondary exhibition oreo. hovover Ths service functions 'o a certain extent mil require a circulation separate from the os. r -.ircsilation This service circulation mil be employe*! as infill betxveen the primary fun.tionai el-.ments1. give cohesion to the architecture! ''hole.


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
r.. r -
BUILD IK fl CQMPOHEHT. ADMINISTRATIVE Oncec and vork spaces for facility director and staff of four Limited public interface required Access to the receiving area, important. May be on level above or belo-r main exhibition space FLOOR AREA: 1750 sq ft. {162 53m^ total yrea.
CEILIHO HEIGHT: 9 fUli/Tim;
ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Limit?* ptitii acser.: dire-viv from the exterior exclusive of the main exhibit ere- If placed on any level beside the mein exhibit space then should r.-completely handicap accessible
AD lACEHCIES: The main responsibility of the administrative staff is to control and m-entorv XII n..-n whi.n ore delivered to the paviliion. This vill be in addition *c the general administration of 'he operation of the facilitv. Direct proximity to the receiving ores, .be it physical or merely visual will be of critical import Access to -levs one. or daylight nil be preferred for the comfort of the administrative staff
U 1RZMENTS: Davlightinfi is the preferred method of illumination Kov-ever. artificial task and ambient hghuong
nil be employed.
once


PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS
BITILDXHG COMPOHEHT RESTAURANT Dining and lounge facilities for fairgoer* as well as after hours use The restaurant trill seat approximately 90 patrons The general public use necessitates the inclusion of a separate means of egress from the etch i hi ton space Tearing areas should all raise advantage of the views of the water and surrounding environs The prime menu emphasis will he towards Gulf and Atlantic seafood which will be flown in fresh daily.
FLOOR AREA: Z'^0 sc ft _?L Clm* totei. (13 s-q. It. per patron.)
CEILING HEIGHT; Juries V ft. or 2.7*t2a min in circulation ereos'1
LIGHTING REUUIREMZNTS: Primarily doyLshting with low level artificial lighting at the bar areas and general ambient. 30
too?candles iti ?h? kitchen areas.
ACCESS REQUIREMENTS Fully han:;;ep ac;.ass;t ;e Internal entrance should be located near the end of the exhibition sequence Separate entry from the main EXFC circulation is also required
ADJACENCIES: T he restaurant will function as an almost independent entity from the pavillion itself Kowe*-'er the sequence through the pavillion will conclude m close proximity to the restaurant. The patron should not have to pass through the entire exhibition to get to the restaurant. Service areas to the restaurant shoul-d be located as unobtrusively as possible m relation to the main quemg areas as well os *he exit


Component floor Area. ( Sq. Meters)
Bntry/Seies (incites Storage) 3.000 276.70
Mem E.chitut Area 10.000 529.07
Secondary fzhitit Areas (3i* 2.000 sq. it. each) 6.000 c- r < i-
Au&tcnuoi (500 seats) 10.000 Q2--'; H':;
Receiving £ / Loading Loch 2.500 yc
Administrative (Total; 1.750 ? ro A 'Jmm.J'J
y or ting /Secretarial 250
Director's Office 200
Assistant's Offices
(3 $ 130 sq. ft. each) *50
o on: erence / Seminar 600
V orK Area. 250
Tcilet Rooms
(2 !.300 sq. ft. each) 600 55.7*
Storage 3.000 273.71
janitor 50 *.65
Restaurant (Total) 2.930 272 21
hi ten an 600
Dining (90 Sea?:) 1350
Bar *60
Toilet Rooms
(2 '*250 sq. ft. each) 500




BIBLIOGRAPHY
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All wood, John. The Groat Exhibitions. Studio Vista. London. 1977
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Benevolo, Leonardo. Historg of Modern Architect are: Volume h The Tradition of Modern Architecture Cambridge, Mass The M.l.T. Press. (4th Edition). 1980.
Blake, Peter. "Review of 1959 U. S. Exhibition in Moscow" Interior Design. December 1984. pp 211-214.
Boles, Daralice Donkeruoet. "Alto Encore" Progressive
Architecture. Volufne 65, No. 11. November 1984. p.
7 t r
JiL, JJ.
Brown, Raymond Lament. "Aguapolis- City of the Future". Building. Volume 228, No. 6875 (1 3). March 20,1975. p. 28.
ca mi nos, Horacio. A Theme center For A Worlds Fair." N. C. 'state School of Desion Student Publication. 1962. Vo 1 ume il No 1 p. 3-7, Plates I XIII.
canty, Donald "Vancouver The Explosive Young biant of the Candian West." A!A Journal. Volume 70, No. 14.
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Edi to ri al e d 'A rte. 1957.
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Croset, Pier re-Alain. Skyscrapers for the Frankfurt Fair." Casabella. Volume 49, No. 511. March 1985, p. 50-63


Davey, Peter. "Ungers Tranat'orm Architectural Review.
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Ut.-TODtsf i ? '-f. p. i I *4 i i o.
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CONCLUSION
The original intention of this thesis was to integrate several disparate and seemingly contradictory issues into a single whole. Telling the history of Florida through various transportation advancements; exploring the sequence through a building as a means towards organizing architectural space; designing a building with two totally different architectural contexts. Most importantly, providing a memorable, sensitive relationship of a building to the water, creating a "sense of place" which would recall Florida without literal representatives.
The realization of the possible future uses led to the overall organization of the pavillion. The axial relationship with a future urban plaza led to a lineal device which would organize the architectural spaces. The pier element, analogous to Florida fishing piers, provided the organization in a manner which allowed the gradual breakdown of the formality of the urban axis. Also, the desire for the building to function as independent parts as well as a single whole led to breaking each major function into its own building. Once again, the pier serves to tie the pieces together. The aesthetic intention is then to present an informal grouping of related elements as opposed to a monumental whole.
The residents of B. C. Place will have an informal architectural setting in which to enjoy art, movies, lectures and other forms of entertainment.
Without designing the specific displays, how well the story of Florida is told is difficult to judge. The sequence through the building begins in the theatre, across and down through the exhibition space, ending at the water. The differing orientation to the water, the open and closed views, and the relationship to the pier and marina provide a suitable setting in which to tell the story of Florida. Thus the story and sequence are tied together, the sequence being clear, the story a bit unresolved.
The overall success of the project, in my opinion, lies in the building's relationship to the water. The pier, marina and the informal arrangement of the architecture exude the desired nautical effect. By placing everything on pilings and leaving the water plane relatively undisturbed, an atmosphere of lightness was achieved. The basic geometric forms of the building parts stand in contrast to the massive towers adjacent and appear to touch lightly into the water. In this sense, I feel that the Pavillion speaks about Florida without overt representational expressions.


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total
date place title attendance
1851 London England Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations 6,039,195
1853 Dublin Ireland Great Industrial Exhibition 1,156,232
1853-54 New York USA World's Fair of the Works of Industry of all Nations 1,250,000
1855 Paris France Exposition Universelle 5,162,330
1862 London England International Exhibition of 1862 6,211,103
1865 Dublin Ireland International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures 932,662
1867 Paris France Exposition Universelle 6,805,969
1871 London England First Annual International Exhibition 1,142,151
1872 London England Second Annua! International Exhibition 647,190
1873 London England Third Annual International Exhibition 500,033
1873 Vienna Austria Weltausstellung 1873 Wien 7,254,637
1874 London England Fourth Annual International Exhibition
1875 Santiago Chile Exposicion Internacional de 1875
1876 Philadelphia USA Centennial Exposition 9,910,966
1877 Cape Town South Africa South African International Exhibition
1878 Paris France Exposition Universelle 16,032,725
profit/ loss site acreage months open notes
£186,437 profit 26 4.8
£19,999 62 5.5 'loss met by W.
loss* Building only Dargan
S 340,000 (£70,103) loss* 13 15.5 loss born by stockholders (private company)
Fr8,300,000 (£332,000) loss* 34 6.7 * excludes cost of Palais de l'lndustrie
£11,783 loss* 24i 5.7 *£11,000 met by J. Kelk £783 loss
£10,074 profit* 5.3 *cost partly met by B. L. Guinness
Fr2,880.000 165 7.2 'distributed
(£115.200) plus 50 amongst
profit* annex guarantors, City and State
(£30,000 profit in 1871) 12 5
see 1874 6 5.5
see 1874 6 7
Fr69,000,000 (£2,760,000) loss 42 6.2
£150,000 loss on 1871-4 series 6 7
S5,166,276 (£1,065.211) loss 284.5 5.3
1* 3 Building only 3 * in Goede Hoop Gardens which were also used
Fr31,794,890 (£1,271.795) loss 192 6.5


total profit/ site months
date place title attendance loss acreage open notes
1879-80 Sydney Sydney 1,117,536 £103,615 15 7
Australia International loss Building
Exhibition only
1880-81 Melbourne International 1,330,297 £1,571 63 7
Australia Exhibition profit
1883 Amsterdam Internationale 62 6
Netherlands Koloniale en Uitvoerhandel Tentoonstelling Te Amsterdam
1883 Boston The American 300,000 * 3 4 * building
USA Exhibition of the Building constructed by
Products, Arts and only Massachusetts
Manufactures of Charitable
Foreign Nations Mechanics Association as permanent exhibition hall at cost of over S500.000
1883-84 Calcutta International (over 1 R/1,390 10 3 * after payment of
India Exhibition million) (£96) £3,000 toM.
loss* Joubert
1884-85 New Orleans World's Industrial 3,525,000 final 1886 76 5.5 * exhibition
USA and Cotton $250,000 purchased
Centennial (£51,547) privately for
Exhibition loss* $175,000 in 1885
1885 Antwerp Exposition 3,500,000 54 6
Belgium Universeile d'Anvers
1886 London Colonial and Indian 5,550,745 £34,643 13 6.1 profit used to set
England Exhibition profit* up Imperial Institute, London
1887 Adelaide Jubilee International 789,672 £100 7 *as at March 1889
Australia Exhibition profit*
1888 Barcelona Exposicion 1,227,000 111 6
Spain Universal de Barcelona (paid only)
1888 Brussels Grand Concours 220 6
Belgium International des Sciences et de l'lndustrie
1888 Glasgow International 5,748,379 £40,000 16 5.4
Scotland Exhibition profit Building only
1888-89 Melbourne Centennial 2,003,593 £237,785 22 6
Australia International loss Building
Exhibition only
1889 Paris Exposition 32,350.297 Fr8,000,000 237 5.7
France Universeile (£320,000) profit


total profit/ site months
date place title attendance loss acreage open notes
1891 Kingston International 304,354 12* 2.7 'excluding Race
Jamaica Exhibition Course
1891-92 Launceston Tasmania 262,059 £180
Australia International Exhibition profit
1893 Kimberley South Africa and 339,950 £14,000 3
South Africa International Exhibition loss
1893 Chicago World's Columbian 27,529,400 5807,000 685* 6.1 * including 85
USA Exposition (£166,392) acres Midway
profit Plaisance
1894 San Francisco California 1,315,022* S32.464 160| 6.2 * excluding
USA Midwinter (£6,694) 119,059 visitors
International profit before and after
Exposition | excluding park
1894 Antwerp Exposition 3,000,000 148| 6
Belgium Internationale d'Anvers
1894-95 Hobart Tasmania 290,000 13* 6 * covered area
Australia International Exhibition only
1897 Guatemala Exposicion Centro- 8* official 4 month
City Americana run extended for
Guatemala late foreign exhibits
1897 Brisbane Queensland 220,814* 2.8 * probable loss -
Australia International exact figures
Exhibition unobtainable
1897 Brussels Exposition 6,000,000
Belgium Internationale
1900 Paris Exposition 48,130,300 Fr82,000 267* plus 276 annex
France Universelle (£3,280)
loss
1901 Buffalo Pan-American 8,120,048 S578.000 350 6.1
USA Exposition (£119,175) loss
1901 Glasgow Glasgow 11,559,649 £30,571 100 6
Scotland International Exhibition profit
1902 Turin Exposizione 7.5
Italy Internazionale d'Arte Decorativa Moderna
1902-03 Tonkin Exposition Francjais 3 cost Fr5,718,857
(Hanoi) Indo-China et Internationale (£228,754)
1904 St Louis Louisiana 19,694,855 $19,974,291 1,272 6.1
USA Purchase (£4.161,310)
Exposition loss


total profit/ site months
date place title attendance loss acreage open notes
1905 Liege Exposition 6.143,157 Fr75,l 17 173 * Fine Arts
Belgium Universelle (£3,005) Building and 3
loss* bridges over River Meuse left to City
1906 Milan Exposizione 5,500,000 250 6
Italy Internazionale
1906-07 Christchurch New Zealand 1,967,632 £81,430 14 5.5
New Zealand International loss Buildings
Exhibition of Arts and Industries only
1907 Dublin Irish 2,751,113 £100,089 52 6
Ireland International Exhibition of 1907 loss
1907 Hampton Jamestown 2,850,735 52.450,330 7
Roads Ter Centennial (£510,485)
USA Exhibition loss
1909 Seattle Alaska-Yukon 3,740,561 563.676 250 6 'excluding
USA Pacific Exposition (£13,266) buildings for
profit* Washington University
1910 Brussels Exposition 13,000,000 £10,000 220 7
Belgium Universelle et Internationale loss
1911 Turin Exposizione 4,012,776 247 4.5
Italy Internazionale d'lndustria e de Laboro
1913 Ghent Exposition 11,000,000 309 7.5
Belgium Universelle et Industrielle
1915 San Francisco Panama-Pacific 18,876,438 52,401,931 635 9.6 * Auditorium
USA Exposition (£500,402) built for
profit* 12* 51,089,780 from profits
1915-16 San Diego Panama-California 3,800,000 * 194f added second
USA (International*) year
Exposition ** profit given to San Diego museum | within 1,400 acres Balboa Park | open 2 seasons
1922-23 Rio de Exposicao 3,626,402 12* 'continuously
Janeiro Internacional do open
Brazil Centenario do Rio de Janeiro

1924-25 Wembley British Empire 27,102,498 £2,000,000 216 12* * open 2 seasons
England Exhibition loss


total
date place title attendance
1925 Paris France Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes 5,852,783
1924-26 Dunedin New Zealand New Zealand and South Seas International Exhibition 3,200,498
1926 Philadelphia USA Sesqui-Centennial Exposition 6,408,289
1929 Barcelona Spain Exposicion Internacional de Barcelona
1930 Seville Spain Exposicion Ibero Americana
1930 Antwerp Belgium Exposition International, Colonial, Maritime et d'Art Flammand
1930 Liege Belgium Exposition International de la Grande Industrie, Science, et Application Art Wallon
1931 Paris France Exposition Coloniale Internationale 33,500,000
1933-34 Chicago USA A Century of Progress International Exposition 48,769,227
1935 Brussels Belgium Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles 20,000,000
1936 Johannesburg South Africa British Empire Exhibition 1,500,000
1937 Paris France Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne 34,000,000
1938 Glasgow Scotland British Empire Exhibition 2,593,232
1939-40 New York USA New York World's Fair 44.932,978
profit/ loss site acreage months open notes
57 6
£16,217 loss 65 5.5
S206.987 (£43,122) loss 275 6
291 6 1 Jointly called ( L'Exposicion General d' Espana
Fr7,000,000 (£100,000) loss 170| 6 joint Belgium International exhibitions celebrating the centenary of Belgian inde-/ pendence
Frl 5,000,000 (£2,142,857) profit* 165 1 * returned to share-i holders of the exhibition
Fr29,000 (£414) profit* 500 / 6 excluding African 8i Oceanic Art Museum.
S688.165 (£141,597) profit 424 12* * open two seasons
Fr45,000,000 (£6,428,572) profit 309 6
£70,000 loss 100 4
Frl3,000,000 (£178,000) loss 250 6
175 6
518,723,222 1,216^ 12* * open two
(£4,680,850) seasons
los


total profit/ site months
date place title attendance loss acreage open notes
1939-40 San Francisco USA Golden Gate International Exposition 17,041,999
1958 Brussels Belgium Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles (Expo '58) 41,454,412
1962 Seattle USA Century 21 Exposition 9,609,969
1964-65 New York New York World's 51,607,307
USA Fair
1967 Montreal Universal and 50,860,801
Canada International
Exhibition (Expo '67)
1968 San Antonio USA HemisFair '68
1970 Osaka Japan World 64,218.770
Japan Exposition (Expo '70)
1974 Spokane Expo '74 World's
USA Fair
1975 Okinawa International Ocean 3,500,000
Japan Exposition (Expo
'751
$559,423 400 12* 'open two seasons
(£139.855)
loss
500 6
74 6 run by private company for one year now run by city
$17,500,000 (£7,000,000) loss 646 12* * open 2 seasons
$Cdn. 1,000 6 *as of November
73.218,325 (£24,406,108) loss* 92 6 1969
* 19,439,402,017 6
(£22.600.00) profit 100 6
Â¥430,000,000 250 6 * preliminary
(£500,000) orofit* estimate



ummary of Weather Data Tables


, rt * X-X- X X -X- X X X- x- x- X- X X X X X X X X- X X- X- X X X X X X X X X X X X- X X X X X X X X X X X- X X- x- X X- X *
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: MAY
MINIMUM TEMP * MEAN TEMP * MAXIMUM TEMP
************ x * ********** x * * * * x * * * x x x * *
LOU YR MEAN HI YR * LOU YR MEAN HI YR * LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 K 0.3 54 6.1 10.6 57 * 6.6 54 10.4 14.5 80 * 10.9 84 14.6 22.0 30
o * 1.7 56 6.5 11.0 77 * 6.9 64 10.4 14.8 45 * 9.5 50 14.2 23.8 45
3 * 2.5 49 6.6 10.4 53 * 6.6 38 10.9 14.7 53 * 8.1 38 14.9 22.1 46
4 * 1 .9 62 6.1 10.0 79 * 7.2 59 10.7 14.2 53 * 9,4 61 15.1 20,9 53
5 * 0.9 52 7.1 11.2 80 * 6.6 52 10.9 16.1 53 * 8.2 43 14.7 20.9 53
6 * 1.1 65 6.6 13.0 53 * 3.0 65 11.3 17.0 53 * 11.5 81 15.8 21.2 47
7 * 2.4 65 6.6 11.2 47 X 7.2 73 11.4 15.6 57 * 10.6 73 16.2 22.6 57
3 * 3.4 50 7.6 11,1 76 X 8.7 83 11.8 15.0 57 * 10.7 61 15.7 20.9 49
9 * 2.9 63 7.3 11.1 54 X 7.6 70 11.9 16.2 60 x 11.7 74 16.3 23.6 75
10 * 3.7 44 8.1 13.1 40 X 7.6 70 11.8 15.6 40 * 10.6 42 15.4 22,1 46
11 * 2.7 73 7.3 12.4 41 X 7.8 70 11.4 15.7 41 * 11.1 74 15.5 22.3 46
12 * 3.7 70 7.7 12.9 41 X 8.6 48 11.8 16.1 72 * 10.8 64 15.8 21,4 39
13 * 2.7 64 7.3 11.4 52 X 7.5 64 11.7 17.2 59 * 11.0 48 16.1 24.7 59
14 * 2.9 64 7.3 12.7 40 X 7.8 66 11.7 18.3 73 * 11.2 67 16,0 24.8 73
15 * 3.3 48* 7.9 12.2 73 X 7.8 74 12.3 17.2 73 * 10.5 59 16.6 23.5 58
16 * 3.9 37 3.0 12.3 53 X 3.3 74 12.6 15.8 51** 11.6 65 17.1 22.1 57
17 * 3.1 65 3.2 11.7 67 X 8.1 65 12.7 16.7 73 * 11,7 50 17.2 24.9 35
18 * 3.1 50 8.2 12.4 57 X 8.3 50 13.1 17.6 56 * 12.2 47 18.0 24,5 56
19 * 5.2 62 8.7 14.2 68 X 8.6 50 13.0 18.6 61 * 10.6 60 17.3 25.7 61
20 * 3.5 75 8,7 13.8 61 X 9.3 50 13.1 17.9 67 * 11.4 50 17.4 24,1 63
21 * 4.9 44* 8.7 11.9 67** 9.4 60 13.0 19.9 63 * 13.2 60*17.3 28.6 63
22 * 3.3 55 8.5 12.6 42 X 9.0 84 12.7 17.3 58 x 11.7 84 16.9 24.3 53
23 * 2.7 50 8.4 14.0 85 * 7.5 64 12.7 18.7 58 * 9,9 64 16.9 24,7 69
24 * 3.1 50 8.6 14.0 81 X 8.7 64 12.6 18.9 47 * 11.4 44 16.6 28.3 47
25 * 4.5 64 8.6 13.8 58 X 8.7 84 13.2 19.2 66 * 12.3 55*17.4 25.9 47
26 * 5.0 40 8.5 13.5 58 *10.0 73*12.9 19,9 58 * 12.4 80 17.1 26,3 58
27 * 3.8 66 8.7 14.1 58 * 8.9 77 13.1 19.1 47 * 13.1 so 17.3 24.7 47
28 * 3.7 66 8.6 13.5 S3 * 8.7 76 13.1 19.2 83 * 12.4 48 17.5 24.3 83
29 * 5.0 74 9.1 14.4 83 X 8.9 76 13.3 22.4 83 * 11,8 76 17.5 30.4 83
30 * 4.6 50* 3.7 13.9 45 X 9.3 76 13.3 19.4 56 * 13.2 55 17.7 27.6 56
31 * 4.3 66 9.1 15.1 56 X 9.3 76 13,6 18.3 64 * 12.8 42*18.1 22.7 57
NOTE** "*n DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOWS:: 48,74 , 51,58 , 44,73 , 60,64 , 55,84 73,77 , 50,66
.******************************************************************************,


a*****************************************************************************
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: JUNE
MINIMUM TEMP * MEAN TEMP * MAXIMUM TEMP
*******************************#***********************#**x*x**xx**xx**xx****x
LOU YR MEAN HI YR * LOU YR MEAN HI YR * LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 * 4.1 76 9.3 13.0 57 x 9.2 76 14.5 19.3 70 x 13.7 44 19.0 28.2 70
2 * 5.2 73 10.0 14.7 70 # 10.0 73 14.4 22.2 70 x 13.6 80 19.0 30.3 70
3 x 4.6 76 10.1 12.9 70 * 9.6 76 14.2 19.8 70 * 12.2 74 18.4 26.6 70
4 x 6.3 76 10.2 13.3 69 * 10.7 62 14.2 18.7 69 * 12.2 80 18,2 24.9 38
5 * 5.0 74 10.3 14.5 78 * 10.6 54 14.8 19.8 58 x 13.0 54 19.3 26.2 58
6 x 6.9 50* 10.7 15.5 58 * 9.0 54 14.9 19.9 78 x 10.3 54 19.0 26.3 78
7 x 7.2 74 10.5 15.1 69 * 11.7 54 14.5 19.7 48 x 13.1 53 18.5 25,1 48
8 * 6.7 75 10.2 15.4 48 * 11.7 75 14.3 18.9 48 * 14.0 42 18.4 24.1 83
9 * 5.7 71 10.5 14.6 44 x 11.7 59 14.3 20.7 48 * 13.8 59 19.1 27.1 55
10 * 5.9 38 10.4 15.1 48 X 11.1 73 14.7 13.7 69 x 14.9 56 18.9 24.1 44
11 x 6.1 52 10.3 14.1 69 X- 11.1 76 14.3 19.0 40 x 12.3 52 18.1 25,6 41
12 * 6.1 45 10.7 14.2 41 X 11.2 52 14.6 18.3 40 * 13.7 76 18.5 23.3 47
13 * 7.2 76 10,4 15.0 69 X 11,8 52 14.6 18,2 69 * 14.1 66 18.7 23,7 61
14 * 5.3 52 10.7 15.4 51 X 12.2 46 15.1 20.1 51 X 13.9 46 19.5 24.3 69
15 x 7.0 45 11.0 15.6 61 X 12.1 39 15.2 19.9 69 x 13.6 39 19.3 25,9 69
16 x 7.2 S5 11.3 15.0 67 X 11.6 54 15.3 21.1 69 * 14,5 38 19.3 27,6 69
17 * 7.8 40 11.7 15,9 69 X 11.5 54 16.0 22.1 69 * 14.2 37 20.0 28,2 69
18 * 7.8 72 11.3 15.9 69 X 10.7 81 15.9 22.4 69 x 11.8 81 20.4 28.9 69
19 * 6.7 55 11.6 15.9 58 X 11.4 54 15.8 21,6 58** 14.1 54 20.0 27,9 67*
20 * 7.7 66 11.4 15,2 59 X 12.8 56 15.7 20.1 58** 15.8 56 20,0 25.4 58
21 * 8.3 47 11.2 16.2 58 X 12.0 81 15.5 20,9 58 * 13.8 81 19.7 26.0 73
22 x 7.8 66 11.2 16.2 58 X 12.2 75 15.6 21.6 58 * 14.3 75 20.0 26,9 58
23 x 7.8 74 11.7 16.7 58 X 12.2 37 15.8 21.4 58 * 15.3 66 19.9 26.1 58
24 * 7.3 65 10.9 15.5 84 X 11.0 71 15.3 19.8 62 13.0 71 19.6 26.7 62
25 * 7.7 65* 11.0 14.9 32 X 11 .6 71 15.3 19.8 62 x 14.4 49 19.6 25.2 62
26 * 4.9 49 11.3 14.7 82 X 11.1 71 15.1 19.2 58 * 14.3 63 18.7 24.5 79
27 * 6.9 75 11.1 14.3 58 X 10.7 49 15.0 18.9 73 * 12.6 49 18,9 26,3 37
28 * 7.2 65 11.4 16.0 78 X 11.7 46 15.4 19.5 51** 14,5 75 19.3 26.4 44
29 * 8.1 73 11.1 15.8 52 X 11.6 66 15.4 21.1 51 * 14.4 55 19.6 28.3 51
30 * 6.6 66 11.5 15.1 51 X 12.2 66 15.8 20.1 42 * 15.3 55 20.1 28.3 42
NOTE** "*" DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOWS: 50,62 , 58,32 , 67,82 , 58,32 , 65,75 , 51,78
xxxx**xx****x*x***xxx*****xx*********x**xxx***x**xx**xx**xxxx*xx****xx*x*x**x


x********xx*******x****#**x***********x*x*x#**x**#***xxxxxxxx*xxxxxx*xxxxxxx*x
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH;: JULY
MINIMUM TEMP x MEAN TEMP x MAXIMUM TEMP
**xxx***#**#*****xx******xxxx*xxx**xxx****x*xxxxxx**xx**xxxx*xxx*xx**xxx***xx*
LOU YR MEAN HI YR x LOU YR MEAN HI YR X LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 X 8.0 79 11.3 14.8 41 x 11.8 79 15.9 22.7 42 X 13.2 54 20.3 30.6 42
2 X 6.9 49 11.7 17.6 42 * 11.7 33 16.2 22.1 42 X 12.6 38 20.6 27.5 85
3 X 7,8 71 11.7 16.1 42 x 12.8 66 16.1 23.1 42 X 14.0 66 20.6 30.0 42
4 X 8.9 45 11.2 16.6 42 x 13.0 62 16.6 21.2 42 X 14,8 62 21.1 27.4 72
5 X 9.1 71 12.3 16.9 75 x 12.2 66 16.4 22.2 53 X 15.1 66 20.6 27,7 53
6 X 8.4 52 11.9 16.1 58 x 12.3 71 16.5 22.3 58 X 15.5 73 21.1 23.4 58
7 X 7.6 71 12.0 17.8 58 x 13.1 71 17.0 22.6 58 X 15.4 55 21.9 23.9 53
3 X 8.6 39 12.8 15.7 69 x 13.8 31 17.2 20.7 85 X 15.7 57 21.4 27,5 85
9 X 9.3 33* 12.9 16.4 52 x 13.1 65 16.9 21.4 85 X 15.3 72 21.0 23.8 85
10 X 8.8 72 12.4 15.9 42** 13.0 72 16.7 20.9 53 X 15.5 78 20.9 27.5 59
11 X 7.8 73 12.6 16.5 58 * 13.3 73*17.1 21.3 61 X 16.0 72 21.6 29.2 51
12 X 8.9 39* 12.3 19.0 61 x 14.2 71 17.2 24.3 61 X 17.1 47*22.0 30.7 61
13 X 8.3 74 12.4 18.3 61 * 13.9 74 17.3 25.1 61 X 17.7 81 22,0 31.8 61
14 X 10.2 54 12.6 17.3 61 * 14.4 83 17.3 21.9 41 X 16.9 33 22.2 27.6 49
15 X 10.1 69 12.9 16.7 41 * 14,1 32 17.5 22.6 41 X 16.1 74 22.1 28.5 58
16 X 9.4 46* 11.8 19.9 41 * 13.3 74 17.2 24.7 41 X 16.2 77 21.5 29.6 41
17 X 9.3 39 12.8 20.2 41 * 13,1 62 17.6 25.1 41 X 15.4 62 22.1 29.9 41
18 X 7.9 77 12.9 20.8 41 * 13.4 77 17.7 24.1 41 X 16.9 81 22.5 28.2 44
19 X 8.5 65 13.1 18.1 41 * 13.3 65 17,3 22.7 56 X 16.7 81 22.4 28.5 56
20 X 9.4 74 13.5 17.9 56 * 14.4 64 17.5 23.7 56 X 17.2 64 21.9 29,5 56
21 X 9.4 52* 12.6 16.0 59 x 14.5 82 17.5 21.4 42 X 17,0 63 OO -I i-L. 1 U 27.7 42
oo i L- X 10.5 77 12.8 16.8 59 x 14.4 73 17.7 22.1 59 X 17.1 76 22.5 28.8 78
23 X 7.8 63 11.7 18.1 78 * 13.2 63 17.6 21.0 58 X 13.4 73 22.4 28.1 78
24 X 8.3 73 12.7 16.1 62 * 13.3 73 17.4 20,8 58 X 18.9 55 oo o L. L L_ 27.4 37
25 X 10.9 54 13.3 17.3 58 x 14,0 49 17.7 22.0 58 X 14.6 70 22.1 23.7 38
26 X 10.4 38 13.3 17.6 31 * 14.3 55 17,9 21.7 71 X 16.3 55 22.7 28.3 71
27 X 9.9 76 12.9 18.1 58 * 13.5 57 17.9 23.1 58 X 15.6 57 22.7 29.4 71
28 X 8.0 49 13.2 18.5 58 * 14.3 55 18.2 24.3 58 X 16.3 55 22.9 30,0 58
29 X 9.4 47 13.0 16.8 58 * 14.1 70 18.0 23.4 60 X 16.5 70 22.9 30.7 60
30 X 9.2 38 12.9 17.5 60 * 13.3 55 18.1 21.6 71 X 14.7 55 23.1 29,2 65
31 X 8.7 45 13.0 16.2 48 * 14.6 37 18.3 22.1 79 X 16.7 55 23.6 29.6 65
NOTEXX "*" DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCE AS FOLLOW:; 33,65 42,58 73,74 39,71 47,721 46,74 52,66 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx,


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx************************************************************
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: AUGUST
MINIMUM TEMP MEAN TEMP MAXIMUM TEMP
xxx*xxxxxxxxxxx*xxxx*xxx**xxxxxxxxxx**xx*******xxx*x**x*x***x**x*xx*xx*xx*xxx
LOU YR MEAN HI YR LOU YR MEAN HI YR LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 x 9.7 39 12.8 17.8 65 *14.0 82 17.6 22.7 65 *15.3 82 22.4 28.2 50
2 X 8.1 37 12.6 16.6 65 *14.5 56 17.4 20.3 68 *18.1 56 22.2 26.3 58*
3 * 8.9 69 12.2 16.9 52 *14.1 54*17.4 21.3 52 *15.9 59 21.5 23,7 39
4 X 8.5 50 13.1 16.6 52**13.2 62 17.4 22.1 77 *14.3 62 21.7 27.6 77
5 X 10.1 59 12.9 16.0 71 *14.2 46 17.4 22.3 77 *15.5 46 21.9 29.0 77
6 X 9.2 75 12.9 16.3 58 *14.1 37 17.7 21.9 42 *17.3 37 22.6 28.2 42
7 X 8.4 46 13.3 17.5 81 *13.7 46 17.9 23.2 42 *17.3 76 22.6 29.3 42
8 X 3.2 38 13.5 18.8 81 *14.1 75 18.2 24.2 60 *16.8 64 oo 7 31.5 60
9 X 9.9 70 13.0 18.5 31 *15.0 44*13.3 25.1 60 *16.8 44 23.7 33.4 60
10 X 8.3 64 13.3 18.7 81 *14.6 32 18.3 22.9 81 *16.0 S2 23.4 28.1 71
11 X 10.0 66 13.3 13.1 81 *15.2 46 18.3 22.2 81 *17.1 78 23.1 27,4 64
12 X 8.8 38 13.2 17.8 77 *14.1 69 17.8 21.9 77 *16.8 69 22.3 28.3 52
13 X 7.7 37 13.1 17.9 61 *13.9 76 17.6 22.3 61 *15,3 76 22.0 27.3 77
14 X 7.5 37 12.7 16.2 61 *12.9 37 17.2 21.2 61 *16.3 73 21 .7 26.3 61
15 X 8.5 60 12,8 15.7 61 *13.4 60 17.3 22.7 42 *15.2 54 21.8 30.6 42
16 X 9.1 38 12.8 16.4 84 *14.1 76 16.9 22.7 67 *15.9 76 21.0 29.8 67
17 X 7.8 73 12.3 16.4 84 *12.3 73 16.9 22.7 77 *15.4 44 21.5 30.5 77
18 X 6.4 73 12.5 15.8 53 *12.3 73 16.8 21.3 65 *15.9 54 21.0 27.2 81
19 X 8.2 45 12.9 15.6 42 *13.4 76 17.0 20.9 42 *15.2 76 21.0 28.2 41
20 X 8.1 44 12.7 16.4 42 *13.1 48 17.2 20.4 50**14.2 48 21,6 27,3 50
21 X 7.7 73 12.5 17.2 58 *11.9 60 16.8 21.1 58 *13.6 60 21.0 27.8 66
oo <_ <_ X 9.3 73 12.5 15.4 79 *13.2 75 16.7 20.9 56 *16.1 54 20.9 29.3 56
23 X 8.1 38 12.4 17.5 42 *13.3 60 16.4 20.1 42 *16.1 60 20.4 24.6 45
24 X 8.6 51 12.7 16.3 58 *13.7 51 16.5 20.9 37 *15.5 77 20.3 29.4 37
25 X 8.0 51 12,3 15.3 56 *13.4 54 16.0 20.0 82 *14,9 52 19.8 30.2 37
26 X 7.0 49 12.2 16.4 44 *13.6 69*16.2 20,3 44 *15.4 40 20.2 27.0 50
27 X 7.1 37 12.0 14,6 50**12.7 37 15.9 20.7 67 *14,6 76 19.7 27.1 67
28 X 6.1 37 11.6 15.3 78 *12.1 37 15.9 20.4 67 *13.9 60 20.1 27.8 67
29 X 7.7 69 11.2 15.3 83 *12.3 65 16.1 21.4 67 *16.3 60 21.1 28.3 67
30 X 7.2 65 11.5 16.3 44 *12,6 45 15.9 21.1 44 *13.8 45 20.2 26.7 74
31 X 8.2 64 11.5 14.7 53 *13.0 64 16.0 18.5 50 *16.2 81 20.6 26.7 50
NOTEXX *" DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS
FOLLOWS:: 58.SI . 54.59 , 52.71 , 44,75
50,82 '
50,77
69.76
'jf

S3
xxxxxx-xxxx*xxxxxx*xx*xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx**x***xx***xxxxxxxx*x*x*xxx**xxx*x**xx*


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXjiXXXXXXXX*
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: SEPTEMBER
MINIMUM TEMP * MEAN TEMP * MAXIMUM TEMP
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
LOW YR MEAN HI YR X LOU YR MEAN HI YR X LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 X 6, 7 60 11.5 15.4 67 X 11.9 60 15.5 21.7 50 X 13.8 80 19.5 28.3 50
2 X 6.5 60 11.5 14.6 41 *x 11.9 60 15.8 20.0 74 X 15.5 77 20,1 27.2 74
3 X 5.8 43 11.0 15.6 49 X 12.1 69 15.4 20.0 67 X 15.2 45 19,8 25.6 67*
4 X 6.2 52 11.0 15.1 49 X 12.2 65 15.3 20.4 49 X 15,2 60 20,1 25.7 49
5 X 6.9 47 11.5 14.9 57 X 12.4 47 15.9 20.6 73 X 15.2 84 20.5 28.3 73
6 * 6.2 65 11.0 16.1 57 X 11.9 35 15.3 19.9 44 X 14.3 35 19.5 27.2 44
7 X 6.1 70 10.8 15.1 82 X 10.9 70 15.0 18.6 81 X 14,4 59 19.1 25.6 81
8 X 6.2 59 10.7 15.5 53 X 11.8 59 14.7 20.0 81 X 13.2 52 13.6 26.2 81
9 X 6.1 45 11.0 16.6 58 X 11.6 70 15.3 20.7 63 X 15.7 72 19,7 25.6 63
10 X 5.6 64 11.0 15.3 63 X 11.8 83 15,0 18,6 40 X 13.5 83 18.9 26.1 44
11 X 5.6 64 10.2 13.9 58 X 11.0 52 14.7 20.7 44 X 14.3 52 19.1 23.7 44
12 X 5.1 49 10.1 16.2 53 X 10.4 70 14.6 19.5 53 X 15.4 80 19,0 22.8 53
13 X 3.2 70 10.2 15.3 40 X 10.2 70 14.6 18,7 40 X 13.6 62 19.0 23.2 61
14 X 5.9 52 10.3 13.2 59 X 10.7 71 14.9 18,3 74 X 13.3 39 19.3 26.1 74
15 X 5.4 70 10.4 14,4 40** 10,8 71 14.4 18.0 81 X 12.6 55 18.4 25.3 51
16 X 4,1 65 10.6 14.4 57 X 9,9 65 14.4 18.9 81 X 13.2 85 18.1 27.3 81
17 X 2,9 42 9.9 15.5 34 X 10,8 42 13.9 19.4 84 X 14,9 63 18.1 23.4 34
18 X 3.7 47 9.7 14.7 84 X 9.6 72 13.7 18.8 84 X 13.9 72 17.6 22,9 84
19 X 3.9 83 10.2 13.9 74 X 10.2 83 13.8 17.8 74 X 13.2 44 17.5 21.7 67*
20 X 3.8 68 9.3 13.3 52 X 9.2 68 13.4 17.8 74 X 11.3 72 17.6 23,9 74
21 X 2.4 55 9.0 13.0 79 X 9.3 55 13.4 17.4 67 X 12.1 64 17.7 23,3 52
22 * 3.5 55 9.4 14.8 76 X 9.9 37 13.2 16.9 44 X 12.3 72 17.0 23.5 S3
23 X 2,2 37 9,2 14,1 50 X 8.6 37 13.3 18.9 52 X 12.1 77 17.1 27.1 52
24 X 2.6 48 8.8 13.9 50 X 8.6 48 13.0 17.1 40 X 11.2 58 17.2 23.9 74
25 X 2.0 72 9.1 13.9 56 X 7.4 72 13.3 16.9 44 X 12.7 72 17.3 23.0 47
26 X 4.1 72 9.2 13.4 47 X 7.3 72 13.0 16.4 57** 10.5 72 16.9 22.0 78
27 X 1 .7 72 8.6 14.2 57 X 5.3 72 12.8 18.3 57 X 10.0 72 17.0 24.3 67
28 X 2.4 45 9.2 14.1 57 X 8.4 72 12.8 18.3 63 X 11.2 72 16.4 22.9 63
29 X 0.3 50 9.1 13.4 49 X 7.5 61 12.5 16.6 63 X 12.1 37 15.8 21.8 63
30 X 0.9 50 8.8 13.0 40 X 7.6 48 12.6 15.9 62 X 11,3 61 16.6 22.8 47
NOTExx DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOWS: 41,48 , 87,74 , 40,57 , 67,74 , 57,66
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


.x******x#*xxxx**xxxxxx********xxxxxxx**x**x**xxxx**x*xxx**x*-x*xxxxxx*x********
DAILY RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH;: OCTOBER
MINIMUM TEMP * MEAN TEMP * MAXIMUM TEMP
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
LOU YR MEAN HI YR X LOU YR MEAN HI YR X LOU YR MEAN HI YR
1 * 0.6 48 8. S 12.7 47 X 3.9 48*12.5 16.3 57 X 12.8 53 16.1 21.8 75
o im * 0.2 50 7.7 13.2 51 X 7.0 50 12.0 16.1 47 X 12.9 77 16.2 22.3 62
3 * 2.7 37 7.6 13.4 47 X 8.1 77 11.6 16.8 47 X 12.1 81 15.5 23.5 30
4 * 2.4 37 7,2 12.3 71 X 7.3 54 11.3 16.1 71 X 11.8 54 15.5 19.9 80
5 * 1.9 46 7,0 12.8 43 X 8.1 46 11.0 15.3 80 X 10.8 81 15.1 22,7 so
6 * 2.7 37 7.4 12.1 60 X 8.1 77 11.6 15.3 so X 10.7 49 15.7 20.5 30
7 * -0.6 49 7.8 14.0 84 X 6.1 49 11.4 16.1 84 X 10,3 62 14.9 21.2 64
S * -0.5 85 8.3 12.7 84 X 5.9 35 11.8 16.6 78 X 10.4 49 15.3 21.2 43
9 * 2.7 60 7.9 13.4 67 X 6.9 58 11.2 16.9 42 X 8.4 58 14.4 21.5 45
10 x 1.1 65 7.7 13.2 43 X 5.9 72 11.4 16.9 63 X 9,5 72 14.8 22.1 63
11 * -0.4 72 7.5 12.2 76 X 5,4 72 10.9 14.9 63 X 9.8 55 14.4 13.9 45
12 * 1.1 72 7.5 11.7 58 X 6.7 72 10.7 13.9 74 X 10.8 68 14.0 19.7 64
13 * -0,5 66 7.4 12.9 63 X 5.6 66 10.7 16.9 61 X 10,4 85 14.0 21.4 61
14 * 1.1 77 6.6 13.5 63 X 6.5 49 10.1 16,5 63 X 10.2 49 13.6 19.4 63
15 * 0.1 70 5.3 11.9 63 X 5.9 70 9.9 16.1 63 X 10.0 73 13.9 20.2 63
16 * -1 .1 38 5.3 11.0 78 X 5.9 38# 9.4 13.3 45 X 9.9 81 13.5 18.3 74
17 * -1 .9 48 5.1 11.6 53 X 5.6 48 9.0 13.4 40 X 7.6 51 12.9 13.3 74
18 * -1 .8 49 5.8 14.8 40 X 4.1 49 9.4 16.7 40 X 8.2 72 12.7 20,4 42
19 x -2.3 49 6.3 14.8 40 X 4.0 49 9.6 16.9 40 X 8.2 72 12.9 18.9 40
20 * -2.7 49 D 6 15.6 40 X 3.7 49 9,5 16.9 40 X 9.0 72 12.4 18.3 40
21 * 0.6 61 5.8 11.4 62 X 4.7 61 9.0 14.6 69 X 7.9 76 12.5 19.3 64
22 * 0.6 53 5.6 12.0 39 X 4.3 51 8,8 13.9 60 X 6.9 61 11.9 16.9 S2
23 * -0,2 49 5.1 13.4 60 X 5.3 75 3.7 14.3 0 X 3.2 84 12.6 17.3 65
24 x -0.8 54 5.4 12.4 44 X 3.9 54 9.0 13.4 44 X 8.4 75 12.4 16.7 41
25 x -1 .9 54 5.5 11.5 82 X 2.8 39 8.7 13.4 82 X 6.8 39 12.2 18.1 47
26 * -1.5 70 4.8 11.0 41 X 4,0 70 8,4 13.3 41 X 8.1 75 12.1 17,4 58
27 * -1 .4 48 4.7 11.1 S X 3.1 71 8.4 14.8 62 X 7.6 71 12.1 18.6 62
23 x -3,4 71 4.9 11.4 68 X 1.5 71 8.5 14.2 62 X 5.0 46 12.1 17.2 37
29 x -1 .7 70# 5.0 9.5 68 X 1.4 71 8.3 13.0 68 X 4.4 71 11.5 17.4 37
30 x -2.9 46 5.0 11.7 44 X 1.3 46 8.2 13.3 44 X 5.6 46 11.4 18.4 58
31 * -5.9 84 5.3 11.4 81 X- 2.4 84 8.4 12.6 53 X 1.2 84 11.7 16.2 49
NOTE** "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS. "*" DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE.
SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOWS. 48,33 38,84
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx*


. XXX* X X X X XXX* X X X X X X X X X X X X * X X X X X X X -X -X XX # X X * X X X- X X X ,
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH: MAY
RAIN SNOW TOTAL PRECIPITATION
x***#**#***x******x*****************x**x**x**xxxxx****xxx**xx**xxxxxxxxxx*x.
XPROB AVG MOST YR 7.PR0B AVG MOST YR %PROB AVG MOST YR
1 * 37 4.4/1.6 22.2 84 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 4.4/1 ,6 22.2 84
o t <- * 37 7.8/2.8 23.6 63 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 7.8/2.3 23.6 63
3 * 33 3.9/1 .3 25.4 81 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 3.9/1,3 25,4 81
4 * 33 3.7/1.2 8.8 79 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 3.7/1 .2 8.8 79
t 5 x 33 7.8/2.6 18.5 48 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 7.8/2.6 18.5 48
6 x 23 7.7/1.8 16.5 66 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 7.7/1.3 16.5 66
7 * 23 3.6/0.8 13.7 74 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 3.6/0,8 13.7 74
8 x 40 4.3/1 .9 20.6 83 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 4.8/1.9 20.6 83
9 x 37 3.0/1 .1 6.4 61 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 3,0/1 .1 6.4 61
.'lO x 43 5.3/2.3 18.0 51 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 43 5.3/2.3 18.0 51
.ll x 40 5.4/2.2 19.3 51 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 5.4/2.2 19.8 51
.12 # 33 3.4/1 .1 10.4 64 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 3.4/1 .1 10.4 64
.13 * 23 8.3/1 .9 27.2 78 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 8.3/1.9 27.2 78
.14 * 20 7.2/1 .4 14.0 59 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 7.2/1.4 14.0 59
.15 * 40 6.0/2.4 19.3 65 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 6.0/2.4 19.8 65
.16 * 23 3.1/0.8 14.5 41 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 3.1/0.8 14.5 41
.17 * 30 2.4/0.7 22.1 41 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 2,4/0.7 22,1 41
.18 * 23 6.8/1 .6 22.1 41 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 6.8/1.6 22.1 41
.19 * 33 8,0/2.7 19,6 60 x 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 8.0/2.7 19.6 60
.20 * 33 6.0/2.0 20.1 68 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 6.0/2.0 20,1 63
.21 * 40 2.4/1 ,0 18.3 43 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 2,4/1 .0 18.8 43
.22 x 37 4,0/1 .5 12.2 84 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 4.0/1.5 12.2 84
.23 * 33 6.0/2.0 19.3 73 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 6.0/2.0 19.3 73
.24 * 47 3.9/1.8 21.3 74 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 47 3.9/1.8 21.3 74
.25 # 40 3.4/1 .3 14.2 74 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 3,4/1.3 14.2 74
.26 40 6.4/2.5 19.6 76 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 6.4/2.5 19.6 76
.27 * 40 3.6/1 ,4 14.9 78 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 3.6/1.4 14.9 78
.28 * 33 2.9/1.0 15.0 48 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 2.9/1.0 15.0 48
.29 * 33 5.1/1 .7 17.6 85 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 5.1/1.7 17.6 85
.30 * 30 5.1/1 .5 21 .8 53 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 5.1/1.5 21.8 58
.31 * 33 5.7/1 .9 28.8 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 5.7/1.9 28.8 77
XX*X********************************************************************** XXXXXX


.**********************************************************X*******************,
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH: JUNE
(rAIiT) (^OuJ TOTAL PRECIPITATION
***************£**************************************************************.
%PROB AVG MOST YR %PROB AVG MOST YR %PRQB AVG MOST YR
1 * 30 5.4/1.6 19.6 68 * 0 0/0 0 0 * 30 5.4/1.6 19.6 68
2 * 27 3.3/0.9 23.6 46 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 3.3/0.9 23.6 46
3 * 33 5.7/1.9 9.9 52 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 5.7/1.9 9.9 52
4 * 37 7.7/2.8 16.4 80 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 7.7/2.3 16.4 30
5 * 23 1.6/0.4 11.8 81 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 1.6/0.4 11.8 81
6 * 30 6.5/1.9 14.7 73 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 6.5/1.9 14.7 73
7 * 30 4.1/1.2 15.0 53 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 4.1/1.2 15.0 53
8 * 27 11.4/3.0 31.0 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 11.4/3.0 31,0 56
9 * 23 4.4/1 .0 8.4 42 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 4,4/1 .0 3,4 42
10 * 40 4.5/1.8 20.3 72 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 4.5/1.8 20.8 72
11 * 47 3.3/1 .8 20.8 70 * 0 0/0 0 0 * 47 3,8/1.3 20.8 70
12 * 30 3.5/1 .0 17.3 41 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 3.5/1 .0 17.3 41
13 * 30 2.5/0.7 21 .3 81 * 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 2.5/0.7 21.8 81
14 * 23 3.4/0.8 40.4 42 * 0 0/0 0 0 * 23 3,4/0.8 40.4 42
15 * 17 11.7/1.9 37.3 76 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 11.7/1.9 37.3 76
16 * 37 5,2/1.9 14.0 80 X 0 0/0 0 0 * 37 5.2/1,9 14.0 80
17 * 20 5.7/1 .1 16.6 83 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 5.7/1.1 16.6 83
18 * 20 7.6/1 .5 28.0 81 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 7.6/1.5 23,0 81
19 * 33 3.7/1 .2 14.2 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 3.7/1.2 14.2 54
20 X 27 2.4/0.6 13.2 53 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 2.4/0.6 13.2 53
21 * 33 3.7/1 .2 9.1 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 3.7/1.2 9.1 63
22 * 30 5.0/1 .5 22.1 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 5.0/1.5 22.1 50
23 * 40 3.6/1 .4 17.3 55 X 0 0/0 0 0 * 40 3.6/1.4 17,3 55
24 * 33 5.4/1.8 25.1 71 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 5.4/1.8 25.1 71
25 * 47 4.9/2.3 26.2 80 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 47 4.9/2.3 26.2 80
26 * 53 5.1/2.7 24.0 82 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 53 5.1/2.7 24,0 82
27 * 53 4,9/2.6 17.0 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 53 4,9/2.6 17.0 66
28 * 40 1.9/0.8 19,8 84 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 1.9/0.8 19,8 84
29 * 27 3.2/0.8 15.4 84 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 3.2/0.8 15.4 84
30 * 13 5.8/0.3 15.2 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 5.3/0.8 15.2 54
***x***xx**x*x*x****x*xx**x********xx*x****x***x*xx****x***x*x*****x*xx***x**xx


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxifXXXXXXX*,
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FGR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH: JULY
RAIN SNOW TOTAL PRECIPITATION
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx,
ZPROB AVG MOST YR %PROB AVG MOST YR ZPROB AVG MOST YR
1 x 23 4.1/1.0 8.6 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 4,1/1.0 8.6 54
2 10 4.1/0.4 12.7 39 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 4.1/0.4 12.7 37
3 * 33 6.6/2.2 24,6 82 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 6.6/2.2 24.6 82
4 x 37 3.5/1 .3 13.0 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 3.5/1.3 13.0 56
5 x 33 8.1/2.7 35.3 61 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 8.1/2.7 35.3 61
6 X 17 1.7/0.3 18.0 48 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 1.7/0.3 18.0 48
7 X 23 2.2/0.5 19.8 81 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 2.2/0.5 19,8 31
8 X 40 6.1/2.5 21.3 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 6.1/2.5 21.3 63
9 * 33 5.5/1 .8 22.1 74 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 5.5/1.8 22.1 74
.*10 x 37 5.3/1.9 12.7 69 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 5.3/1.9 12.7 69
.ll x 30 9.3/2.8 27.5 83 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 9.3/2.8 25.7 80
.12 X 10 17.9/1 .8 45.2 72 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 17.9/1.8 45,2 72
.13 X 17 4,8/0.8 15.2 53 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 4.8/0.3 15.2 53
.14 X 27 4.6/1 .2 21.8 64 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 4.6/1.2 21.3 64
.15 X 17 3.5/0.6 26.0 82 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 3.5/0.6 26.0 32
.16 X 17 6.7/1 .1 16.8 42 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 6.7/1.1 16.8 42
.17 X 13 5.4/0.7 9.1 62 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 5.4/0.7 9.1 62
.18 x 13 2.0/0.3 10.1 81 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 2.0/0.3 10.1 81
.19 x 20 3.3/0.7 9.1 67 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 3.3/0.7 9.1 67
.20 X 17 5.3/0.9 9.9 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 5.3/0.9 9.9 63
.21 X 13 10.9/1 .4 25.1 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 10.9/1.4 25.1 63
.'22 X 17 2.8/0.5 9.7 52 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 2.3/0.5 9.7 52
.23 X 3 2.3/TR 5.6 49 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 3 2.3/TR 5.6 49
.24 X [0 4.4/0,4 10.9 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 4.4/0.4 10.9 66
.25 X 6 3.8/0.6 15.0 70 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 3.8/0.6 15.0 70
.26 X 3 4.4/0,6 17.5 48 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 4.4/0.6 17,5 48
.27 X 3 2.6/0.3 15.7 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 13 2.6/0.3 15.7 50
.28 X 0 7.7/0.8 17.0 55 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 7.7/0.8 17.0 55
.29 X 7 3.3/0.5 11.9 70 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 3.3/0.5 11.9 70
.30 X 7 1.1/TR 4.6 44 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 7 1.1/TR 4.6 44
.31 X 3 13.5/0.4 13.5 55 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 3 13.5/0.4 13.5 55
.NOTE** "TR" DENOTES TRACE.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


* X X X X X X X X X- X X X X X * X ****** X X X XXX* X X X X X X X X x X X X X- -X XXX* X X X * X X X X X X X ,
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH; AUGUST
RAIN SNOW TOTAL PRECIPITATION
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ,
. XPROB AUG MG3T YR %PROB AUG MOST YR XPROB AUG MOST YR
1 X 7 8.1/0.5 13.2 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 7 8.1/0.5 13.2 56
o c. X 10 3.6/0.4 7.9 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 3.6/0.4 7.9 56
. 3 X 20 6.1/1.2 11.7 62 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 6.1/1.2 11.7 62
4 X 20 8.2/1.6 29.2 62 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 8.2/1.6 29.2 62
5 X 10 1.0/TR 12.4 43 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 10 1.0/TR 12.4 43
6 X 17 3.8/0.6 8.1 43 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 3.8/0.6 8.1 43
7 * 20 2.3/0.6 19.3 43 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 2.3/0.6 19.3 43
.' 8 X 17 1.7/0.3 4.3 53 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 1.7/0.3 4.3 53
9 X 7 1.9/TR 4.4 85 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 7 1.9/TR 4.4 85
.'l 0 X 3 1.8/TR 12.4 37 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 3 1.S/TR 12.4 37
.l 1 X 23 2.4/0.6 13.1 78 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 2,4/0.6 13.1 78
.12 X 40 5.8/2.3 17.8 69 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 5.8/2.3 17,8 69
.13 X 20 5.2/1 .0 12.4 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 20 5.2/1.0 12,4 66
.14 X 27 4.8/1 .3 27.4 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 4.8/1.3 27,4 50
.15 X 23 3.5/0.3 13.2 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 3.5/0.3 13.2 56
.16 X 33 8.5/2.8 16.3 76 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 8.5/2.8 16.3 76
.17 X 27 4.3/1.3 12.2 30 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 4.8/1.3 12.2 80
.18 X 23 8.9/2.1 16.8 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 8.9/2.1 16.8 54
.19 X 23 10.1/2.4 26.7 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 10,1/2,4 26.7 54
.20 X 30 7.5/2.3 31.8 48 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 7.5/2.3 31.8 43
.'21 X 30 4.2/1 .3 19.8 37 X 0 0/0 0 0 * 30 4.2/1 .3 19.8 37
.22 X 37 2.5/0.9 14.7 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 2.5/0.9 14.7 50
.23 X 40 4.9/2.0 21.5 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 4.9/2.0 21.5 77
.24 X 30 5.3/1.6 16.4 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 5.3/1.6 16.4 77
.25 X 37 3.8/1.4 18.6 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 3.8/1.4 18.6 77
.'26 X 37 2.9/1.1 10,9 40 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 2,9/1.1 10.9 40
.27 X 50 5.1/2.5 20.6 51 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 5.1/2.5 20.6 51
.28 X 40 4.3/1 .7 16.0 58 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 4.3/1.7 16.0 58
.29 X 17 2.0/0.3 4.6 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 2.0/0.3 4,6 54
. 39 X 23 7.0/1.6 19.8 61 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 7.0/1.6 19.3 61
.31 X 17 6.0/1 .0 13.6 81 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 6.0/1.0 13.6 81
.NOTE** "TR" DENOTES TRACE,
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


, X X X X X X X X X- X X X X X X X X- X- X X- X- X X X X X- X X X X X X X X X X X X X * X X X X X X X- X- X X- ,
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH: SEPTEMBER .
RAIN SNGW TOTAL PRECIPITATION
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx,
%PROB AVG MOST YR XPROB AVG MOST YR %PRQB AVG MOST YR
1 X 30 12.9/3.9 45.4 30 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 12.9/3.9 45.4 30
2 X 23 6.4/1.5 19.6 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 6.4/1.5 19.6 77
3 X 23 7.1/1 .7 39.6 41 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 7.1/1,7 36.6 41
4 X 30 8.4/2.5 21,3 76 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 8.4/2.5 21.3 76
5 X 30 7,5/2.3 24.0 84 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 7.5/2.3 11.9 59
6 X 30 5.9/1 .3 24.2 35 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 5.9/1.8 24.2 85
7 X 23 6.7/1 .6 11.7 59 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 6.7/1,6 11.7 59
8 X 33 5.6/1 .9 16.8 74 X 0 0/0 G 0 X 33 5.6/1.9 16.3 74
9 X 30 3.7/1 .1 14.3 78 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 3,7/1.1 14,3 78
10 X 27 7.7/2.0 13.5 67 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 7.7/2.0 13.5 67
11 X 27 4.0/1 .1 21.3 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 4.0/1.1 21.8 66
12 X 17 4.8/0.8 14.0 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 4.8/0.8 14.0 66
13 X 33 6.5/2.2 29,5 62 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 6.5/2.2 29.5 62
14 X 27 4.3/1 .2 19.3 39 X 0 0/0 0 0 X o n Lm * 4.3/1.2 19.3 39
15 X 30 7,3/2.3 32.8 64 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 7.8/2.3 32.3 64
16 X 37 8.7/3.2 23.9 68 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 8.7/3.2 23,9 63
17 X 37 6.7/2.5 19.1 70 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 6.7/2.5 19.1 70
18 X 40 4.4/1 .7 13.7 59 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 4,4/1.7 13.7 59
19 X 47 5.6/2.6 25.5 77 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 47 5,6/2.6 25.5 77
20 X 30 8.3/2.5 28.4 72 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 30 8.3/2.5 23.4 72
21 X 23 7.3/1.7 20.3 64 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 7,3/1.7 20.3 64
22 X 50 8.8/4.4 42.4 69 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 8.8/4.4 42.4 69
23 X 37 8.0/2.9 35.3 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 8.0/2.9 35,8 56
24 X 33 9.4/3.1 49.5 59 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 9,4/3.1 49.5 59
25 X 17 6.5/1 .1 15.7 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 17 6.5/1.1 15.7 50
26 X 40 1.9/0.3 20.3 40 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 1.9/0.8 20.3 40
27 X 37 8.5/3.1 20.8 71 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 8.5/3.1 20.8 71
28 X 43 7.5/3.3 29.0 44 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 43 7.5/3.3 29.0 44
29 X 37 11.0/4.0 24.9 53 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 11.0/4.0 24.9 53
30 X 37 6.0/2.2 16.3 64 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 6.0/2.2 16.3 64
NOTE:: II £ II DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS
.FOLLOWS:: 59,73
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


xxxxx*xxx*xx*xx*xxxxxxxx***xxxx**xxxx*xx*x*xxx*xx*xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx*xxxxxxx*xxxx.
DAILY PRECIPITATION RECORDS FOR VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH: OCTOBER
RAIN SNOW TOTAL PRECIPITATION
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx,
XPRGB AVG MOST YR XPROB AVG MOST YR %PROB AVG MOST YR
1 40 5.9/2.4 39.5 31 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 5,9/2.4 39.5 81
o Im X 27 5.1/1 .4 12.7 67 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 27 5.1/1.4 12.7 67
3 X 37 5.1/1 .9 26.4 49 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 5.1/1.9 26.4 49
4 X 23 3.6/0.3 23.6 39 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 23 3.6/0.8 23,6 39
5 X 37 9.1/3.3 27.7 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 9,1/3.3 27.7 50
6 X 33 11.6/3.9 34.3 66 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 11.6/3.9 34.3 66
7 X 50 8,7/4.4 53.6 67 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 8.7/4.4 53.6 67
S X 47 4.9/2.3 33.3 50 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 47 4,9/2.3 33.3 50
9 X 50 9.5/4.7 45.0 40 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 9.5/4.7 45.0 40
10 X 57 5.6/3.2 19.2 85 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 57 5.6/3.2 19.2 85
11 X 50 5.6/2.8 24.9 58 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 5.6/2.8 24.9 58
12 X 50 9.7/4.8 31,0 61 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 9,7/4.3 31.0 61
13 X 47 6.9/3.2 23.1 41 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 47 6.9/3.2 23.1 41
14 X 43 6.1 /'2.6 16.8 75 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 43 6.1/2.6 16.3 75
15 X 33 2.7/0.9 16.8 41 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 33 2.7/0,9 16.3 41
16 X 40 6.8/2.7 51.3 75 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 40 6.3/2,7 51.3 75
17 X 43 8.0/3.5 41 .2 75 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 43 3,0/3.5 41.2 75
18 X 53 6.1/3.3 35.8 40 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 53 6.1/3.3 35.8 40
19 X 53 11.1/5.9 59.7 56 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 53 11.1/5,9 59.7 56
20 X 73 7.4/5.5 16.8 54 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 73 7.4/5.5 16.3 54
21 X 50 9.3/4.7 40.9 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 50 9,3/4,7 40.9 63
22 X 57 8.5/4.8 25.1 61 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 57 8,5/4.8 25.1 61
23 X 60 9.5/5.7 32.3 44 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 60 9,5/5.7 32.3 44
24 X 60 8.4/5.0 25.1 45 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 60 8.4/5.0 25.1 45
25 X 53 9.8/5.2 37.6 45 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 53 9.8/5.2 37.6 45
26 X 37 6.7/2.5 19.1 75 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 37 6.7/2.5 19.1 75
27 X 57 9.6/5.4 31.6 85 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 57 9.6/5.4 31,6 85
28 X 63 6.1/3.8 22.9 63 X 0 0/0 0 0 X 63 6.1/3.8 22.9 63
29 X 50 13.5/6.7 60.7 75 X 3.3 0.3/TR 0.3 71 X 50 13.5/6.8 60.7 75
30 X 53 3.8/2.0 26.4 42 X 3.3 0.3/TR 0.3 71 X 53 3.8/2.0 26.4 42
31 X 60 7.6/4.5 57.2 31 X 0 0/0 TR 84 X 60 7.6/4.5 57.2 81
.NOTExx *TR# DENOTES TRACE.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


.*****X*******X************************X*******X***************************X**X
DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH :: MAY
NOTE***"EGT' IN NEXT LINE MEANS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN
. AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR XPROB EGT 1HR 7.PR0B EGT 6HRS %PROB EGT 10HRS
1 * 6.3 *11.9*54* 0 *s * 80 x 53 x 30
2 * 6.3 *13.6*71* 0 *s * 83 * 50 x 23
. 3 * 8.2 *13.7*56* 0 *60* 97 * 70 * 40
.' 4 * 8.5 *13.9*57* 0 *50* 90 * 77 x 50
5 * 7.8 *14.2*52* 0 *s * 87 * 63 * 37
. 6 * 8.8 *14.0*77* 0 *51* 90 * 67 x 53
7 * 9.5 *14.1*56* 0 *51* 90 * 80 * 57
8 * 7.3 *14.1*69* 0 *61* 87 * 53 * 40
9 * 8.7 *14.1*69* 0 *48* 93 * 73 * 53
.*10 * 6.5 *13.8*66* 0 *S * 80 x 47 * 30
.'ll * 7.1 *13.9*71* 0 *s * 77 * 60 * 33
.12 * 7,5 *14.2*58* 0 *76* 87 * 63 X 30
.13 * 7.6 *14.4*73* 0 *S * 87 * 63 x 40
.14 * 7.3 *14.3*64* 0 *s * 87 * 60 x 37
.15 * 7.1 *13.8*56* 0 *s * 80 * 60 * 43
.16 * 8.3 *14.3*58* 0 *59* 97 * 60 * 47
.17 * 7.9 *14.5*63* 0.1 *55* S3 * 60 * 40
.18 * 9.7 *14.5*63* 0 *S * 90 * 83 x 57
.19 * 8.1 *14.7*72* 0 *S * 83 * 63 X 40
.20 * 8.5 *14.6*63* 0 *s * 87 * 63 X 53
.21 * 8.6 *14.2*54* 0 *70* 87 * 70 X 47
.22 * 7.6 *14.7*59* 0 *S * 87 x 60 X 37
.*23 * 7.4 *14,6*80* 0 *s * 87 * 60 X 47
.'24 * 8.2 *14.7*75* 0 *s * 80 * 67 X 57
.25 * 8.8 *14.6*64* 0 *55* 93 * 77 X 43
.26 * 8.0 *14.6*64* 0 *S * 83 * 67 X 40
.27 * 8.5 *14.4*57* 0 *80* 93 * 63 X 47
.28 * 8.9 *14.8*74* 0 *S * 90 * 73 X 50
.29 * 8.5 *14.7*57* 0 *s * 90 * 70 X 43
.30 * 9.2 *14.8*82* 0.1 *60* 93 * 77 X 50
.31 * 8.8 *14.8*78* 0 s * 90 77 X 47
NOTE** "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS
NOTE** DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOWS:: 50.61 51.66 61,72 48.50 56,61 54.56 70,75 ********x**xx****x*************X*********x*********************************x-*


.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXKXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: JUNE ****************************************************************************** NOTE***"EGT" in next line means equal to or greater than
AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR XPRQB EGT 1HR XPROB EGT 6HRS %PROB EGT 10HRS
1 8.3 *15.0*72* 0 *s * 80 * 67 X 40 0
! 2 7.9 *14.8*61* 0 *s * 83 X 63 X 47
.' 3 7.9 *14.8*57* 0 *s * 77 * 63 X 50
. 4 6.8 *14.8*69* 0 *s * 77 * 47 X 40
.' 5 9.0 *15.0*70* 0 *54* 93 * 77 X 47
. 6 8.1 *14.6*48# 0 *54# 83 * 67 X 43
. 7 8.0 *14.8*48* 0 *53* 93 * 67 * 40
.' 8 8.4 *15.0*55* 0 *56# 83 * 73 X 47
. 9 7.7 *14.9*75* 0 *s * 80 * 60 X 40
.*10 8.0 *15.0*77* 0 *58* 93 * 60 X 30
.'ll 6.7 *15.0*62* 0 *S * 73 * 57 X 37
.12 7.1 *15.4*70* 0 *53# 83 * 50 X 37
.13 7.3 *14.8*74* 0 *48# 90 * 57 X 33
.14 8.9 *14.9*68* 0.1 *70* 87 * 73 X 47
.15 8,2 *15.2*59* 0 *60# 83 * 60 * 30
.16 7.6 *15.0*85* 0 *S * 87 * 57 X 43
.17 9.2 *15.1*85* 0.1 *55* 87 X 67 X 57
.'lS 9.0 *15.0*58# 0 *64# 93 * 63 X 57
.19 9.3 *15.6*67* 0 *54* 93 * 80 X 50
.'20 8.8 *14.8*51* 0.6 *71* 97 X 70 X 47
.21 8.0 *14.9*47* 0 *S * 87 * 57 * 43
.22 8.3 *14.9*51# 0 *S * 90 X 73 * 43
.23 7.9 *15.0*47* 0.3 *73* 90 X 60 * 37
.24 7.7 *15.4*74* 0 *S * 87 * 60 X 43
.25 6.4 *15.2*79* 0 *S * 73 * 57 X 37
.26 5.3 *15.3*79* 0 *S * 67 X 40 X 27
.27 6.1 *14.8*79* 0 *s * 83 X 47 X 30
.28 7.7 *15.1*78* 0 *52* 90 X 53 X 47
.29 8.7 *15.2*75* 0 *55# 90 X 67 X 47
.30 9.3 *15.2*67# 0 *82* 97 * 73 X 50
.'note** "S" .NOTE** DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS
.bULLUUS : : 48.65 59.85 , 54 .73 , 56,63 , 58,72 , 53,56 , 48,66
60,76 58,74 . 64 71 51,82 , 55,69
******#X****************#*#*#**####*##***####*###x*###x**##x##**##**x######*#*#*


****************************************************************************** DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: JULY ************************************************************** ****************
NOTE***"EGT IN NEXT LINE MEANS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN
AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR XPROB EGT 1HR XPROB EGT 6HRS XPROB EGT 10HRS
1 * 9.0 *15.2*68* 0 *54# 87 * 73 * 40
o Lm * 9.4 *15.3*72* 0 *66# 90 * 77 * 53
3 * 8.7 *15.0*72* 0 *S * 77 * 70 * 57
4 * 8.7 *15.0*70* 0 *62* 90 * 77 * 40
5 * 9,4 *14.9*58# 0.1 *62* 90 * 73 * 57
6 * 7.8 *14.8*52* 0 *54# 80 * 67 * 37
7 * 9.7 *14.9*56# 0 *55# 87 * 77 * 67
8 8.4 *15.1*56# 0 *S * 87 * 70 * 47
9 * 8.7 *15,0*59* 0 *54* 83 * 67 * 57
10 * 7.0 *14.9*59# 0 *66# 83 * 53 * 40
11 * 8.6 *14.9*59* 0 *47# 87 * 60 * 47
12 * 10.7 *15.0*61* 0 *47# 93 * 87 * 67
13 * 9.9 *14.8*71* 0.1 *57* 97 * 83 * 53
14 * 9.2 *14.3*59* 0 *64* 97 * 77 * 57
15 * 10.0 *14.8*67# 0.1 *82* 97 * 73 * 67
16 * 9.4 *15.2*72* 0 *S * 83 * 67 * 63
17 * 10.4 *14.8*S * 0 *62# 93 * 83 * 60
18 * 10.7 *14.8*59# 0 *81* 97 * 83 * 67
19 * 10.3 *14.5*S * 0 *81* 87 * 77 * 67
20 * 9.3 *14,8*59* 0 *49* 93 * 73 * 50
21 * 10.3 *14.7*66* 0 *63# 93 * 83 * 63
22 * 11.0 *14.7*59* 0.2 *76* 97 * 87 * 30
23 * 11.4 *14.6*56* 0.6 *52* 97 * 83 * 70
24 * 10.6 *14.5*60* 0.1 *73# 97 * 73 * 67
25 * 10.9 *14.5*60# 0 *49# 87 * 83 * 73
26 11.3 *14.5*75* 0 *48# 93 * 90 * 77
27 * 11.2 *14.4*81* 0 *50# 97 * 93 * 67
28 * 10.8 *14.4*52# 0 *55# 90 * 90 # 67
29 * 11.0 *14.5*74* 0 *55* 93 * 87 73
30 * 11.0 *14.6*59* 0 *55* 93 * 87 * 63
31 * 11.7 *14.3*52# 0 *55* 97 * 93 * 83
NOTE** "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS
NOTE** DENOTES MCRE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS FOLLOW:: 68.72 , 54.82 , 66.7? , 58.60 , 54,62 , 56,60 , 55,67
56,61 , 59,61 , 66,78
59.69 , 63,76 , 73.84
52,63 , 55', 57 , 52.59
******************************************************************************
, 47,72
, 60,62
47,72
49,70
\ 67,76
, 48,83
62,74
50.57


****##****#*****#**##****##*#*#x###***x*#*##**#x*#x*x********x*##****x**x***xx DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: AUGUST x***************************************************************************** NOTE***"EGT" IN NEXT LINE MEANS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN
AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR %PROB EGT 1HR ZPRGB EGT 6HRS 2PR0B EGT 10HRS
1 * 9.9 *14.3*77* 0 *82* 93 * 73 * 60
2 * 10.2 *14,3*58* 0 *82* 100 * 80 * 63
3 * 7.8 *14.2*61* 0 *54# 77 * 57 * 43
4 * 7.6 *14.0*52* 0 *62# 87 * 63 * 33
5 * 9.6 *14.0*59# 0 *49* 97 77 ft 53
6 * 9.1 *13.9*72* 0 *S * 90 * 77 * 53
7 * 9.1 *14.1*78* 0 *76* 87 * 67 * 47
8 * 10.1 *14.0*55# 0 *64* 87 X 80 * 67
9 * 11.1 *13.8*S * 4.4 *82* 100 ft 90 * 67
10 * 10.4 *14.1*64* 0 *S * 97 * 90 X 60
11 * 9.6 *13.8*71# 0 #78* 97 * 77 # 57
12 * 8.5 *13.8*58* 0 *69# 90 * 73 * 47
13 * 9.2 *13.7*77* 0 *63# 90 * 77 ft 50
14 * 7.7 *13.5*57# 0 #S * 83 * 60 * 40
15 * 7.6 *13.6*58* 0 *s * 87 * 63 * 37
16 * 7.4 *13.7*85* 0 *S ft 80 * 67 X 40
17 * 7.2 *13.4*S * 0.1 *60* 87 * 53 * 37
18 ft 7.9 *13.6*73* 0 *S * so * 67 X 47
19 * 7.5 *13.7*59* 0 #S * 83 * 57 * 63
20 * 8.3 13.5*66* 0 *48* 90 * 67 # 47
21 7.9 *13.2*61* 0 *68* 83 * 70 * 47
22 8.1 *13.4*69* 0 *s * 80 * 67 * 47
23 * 7.0 *13.0*64* 0 *s * 87 * 63 * 30
24 ft 6.8 *13.2*59* 0 *s * 83 * 57 * 33
25 6.1 *13.1*61# 0 *60# 86 * 52 # 28
26 # 6.8 *12.8*71# 0 *59# 87 * 53 * 33
27 * 6.4 *13.1*71* 0 *S * 80 X 50 * 37
28 * 7.3 *12.9*55* 0 *58# 87 * 57 * 37
29 * 8.6 *13.1*52# 0.1 *47* 97 # 70 * 37
30 7.9 *13.0*62* 0 #S * 90 * 63 * 50
31 # 8.1 *13.1*72* 0 *81* 93 * 70 * 37
NOTE** "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS
.NOTE*# DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS
.FOLLOWS:: 54,59 , 62,65 59,64 , 55.60 71,77 69.82 68,76 57,67 ,
61,85 , 60,70 71,74 , 59,66 53,73 52,74
,x****x*x*x**x*xx*x*****x**x**#x**#x***xx*x#****xxx*#xx*x*xxxxxxx*x**xxxxxx**xx


, X X X ****** X X X X X X X X X X XX X * X X X X X * X X X- X X X- X X X X X X X X X X X X
DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:: SEPTEMBER a****#**#*#****####*#*#**##*#*#**##*###**##*###*****##*#**#**#**#*****#**##### NQTE*#*,JEGT" IN NEXT LINE MEANS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN
AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR XPROB EGT 1HR 7.PR0B EGT 6HR3 %PROB EGT 1QHRS
. 1 * 6.2 *13.0*72* 0 *s * 80 * 53 * 27
o t- * 6.6 *12.7*85* 0 *78* 87 * 57 * 37
. 3 * 7.5 *12.3*55* 0 *s * 90 * 67 * 47
.' 4 * 7.3 *12.8*55* 0 *s * 80 * 60 * 43
.' 5 * 6.5 *12.6*55* 0 *s * 80 * 57 * 30
. 6 x 6.7 *12.4*49* 0 *s * 83 * 53 X 47
. 7 * 6.4 *12.2*58* 0 #53* 90 * 53 X 27
t 8 * 5.8 *11.5*61* 0 *s * 73 * 50 X 30
.' 9 * 6.9 *12.2*76* 0 *s * 93 X 60 X 43
.'l 0 * 6.4 *11.5*64* 0 *s * 73 * 60 X 30
.'ll * 6.9 *12.1*49* 0 *s * 80 * 63 X 37
.12 * 6.6 *11.4*61* 0 *69* 80 * 57 X 33
.13 * 6.6 *11.7*51* 0 *S * 80 * 60 X 37
.14 * 6.6 *12.0*51* 0 *S * 97 * 60 X 23
.15 * b.O *11.2*57* 0 *s X 73 * 60 X 13
.16 * 4,9 *10.3*51* 0 *s * 73 * 43 X 17
.17 * 5.6 *10.5*47* 0 *s * 73 * 53 X 10
.18 * 5.9 *11.1*47* 0 *s * 73 * 57 X 13
.19 * 5.2 *11.0*83* 0 *s * 73 * 53 X 3
.20 * b.l *10.7*52* 0 *s * 77 * 57 * 13
.21 * 5.7 *10.5*52* 0 *s * 73 * 57 X 13
.22 * 1.7 *10.3*83 0 *s * 67 * 43 X 3
.23 * 5.2 *10.5*55* 0 *s * 80 * 50 X 10
.24 * 1.9 *10.1*48* 0 *s * 70 * 47 * 0
.'25 * 5.4 *10.0*48* 0 *s * 87 * 63 X 0
.'26 * 5.5 *10,2*64* 0 *s * 80 * 50 X 10
.27 * 5.4 *10.7*85* 0 *s * 83 * 50 X 3
.'28 * 1.5 *10.3*85* 0 *s * 70 * 40 X 3
.29 * 1.4 *10.1*60* 0 *s * 70 * 37 X 3
.30 * 4.6 * 9.9*83* 0 *s * 80 * 33 X 0
.NOTE** "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS
.NOTE** DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE. SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS .FOLLOWS: 64.74
. *xxxxx*xxxxx*x*xxxxxx**xxxx******x*xxxx***xxx#x*xxxxxxx*x*xxxxxxxxxx*xxxx*xxx*


, ***** X X X X- X- X X- X- X- X- X **** X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
DAILY SUNSHINE RECORDS VANCOUVER INTNL AIRPORT MONTH:; OCTOBER xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
NOTE***"EGT" IN NEXT LINE MEANS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN
AVERAGE MOST YR LEAST YR ZPROB EGT 1HR 7.PR0B EGT 6HRS UPROB EGT 10HRS
1 X 4.9 x 9.5*52* 0 *S X 77 X 47 X 0
2 X 5.7 * 9.7*66* 0 *S X 83 X 57 * 0
3 X 4.7 *10.2*64* 0 *S X 73 X 40 X 0
4 X 6.0 *10.4*64* 0 *S X 87 X 63 X 3
5 X 5.2 * 9,7*64# 0 *s X 77 X 50 X 0
6 X 5.2 x 9,6*47* 0 *s X 77 X 57 X 0
7 X 4.0 *10.2*35* 0 *s X 67 X 30 X 3
8 X 4,6 *10.3*51* 0 *S X 80 X 33 X 7
9 X 3.7 * 9.9*65* 0 *s * 67 X 30 X 0
10 X 3.3 * 9.9*60* 0 *s X 6G X 23 X 0
11 X 4.3 * 9,9*72* 0 *s X 70 X 33 X 0
12 X 3.4 * 9.6*69* 0 *s X 53 X 30 * 0
13 X 4.2 *10.0*71* 0 *s X 70 * 33 X 3
14 X 4.6 *10.2*70* 0 *s * 60 X 47 X 7
15 X 5.2 *10.2*74# 0 *s X 77 X 40 X 10
16 X 4.6 *10.1*48* 0 *s X 77 X 37 X 0
17 X 4.1 *10.0*49# 0 *s X 73 X 23 X 3
18 X 3.2 *10.1*49* 0 *s X 53 X 33 * 0
19 X 2.7 * 9.8*84* 0 *s X 53 X 20 * 0
20 X 3.7 * 9.9*81* 0 *s X 63 X 33 * 0
21 X 3.7 #10.3*56* 0 *s * 67 X 33 X 7
oo <_ L. X 2.5 * 8,7*53* 0 *s X 53 * 23 X 0
23 X 3.8 * 9,8*67* 0 *s X 53 * 37 X 0
24 X 2.2 * 9,7*78* 0 *s X 53 X 13 X 0
25 X 3.9 * 9.0*59* 0 *s X 73 X 27 X 0
26 X 3.7 * 8.8*47* 0 *s X 77 * 27 * 0
27 X 3.3 * 9.9*71* 0 *s X 63 X 27 X 0
28 X 3.6 * 9.2*60# 0 *s X 63 * 27 X 0
29 X 2.4 * 9.5*82* 0 *s X 47 X 13 X 0
30 X 2.4 x 3.2*52* 0 *s X 60 X 10 X 0
31 X 2.8 * 9.4*79* 0 *s X 57 X 17 X 0
.NOTExx "S" DENOTES SEVERAL YEARS
.NOTE** DENOTES MORE THAN ONE OCCURRENCE, SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES AS .FOLLOWS : 52,61 , 64,72 , 74,80 , 49,76 , 60.71
,xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Hi
a
Summary of Soils Report


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1.0 INTRODUCTION ....................................... 1
2.0 SUBSOIL INVESTIGATION AND SITE WORK ................ 2
3.0 REVIEW OF SUBSOIL CONDITIONS ....................... 4
4.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR TEMPORARY STRUCTURES ......... 8
5.0 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .........15
FIGURES
SITE PLAN (REDUCED) ...................................H33-300-F1
SUMMARY: BECKER CONE PENETRATION TESTS ................H33-300-F2
SUMMARY TEST RESULTS OLD FILL AREAS ...................H33-300-F3
CALCULATED E VALUES FROM TANK LOAD TESTS ..............H33-300-F4
PROCEDURE FOR CLASSIFICATION OF FOUNDATION DESIGN _____H33-300-F5
TYPICAL FOOTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . ............H33-300-F6
TYPICAL FOOTING DETAILS SHOWING REBUILT FILL CRUST .H33-300-F7
APPENDIX
PLAN SHOWING FOUNDATION CONDITIONS (PRELIMINARY) .....86000-G02
GENERAL SITE CONDITIONS ...............................H33-240-1
SITE PLAN .............................................H33-300-1
BOREHOLE LOCATION PLANS (AREAS 1 TO 10) ............H33-300-2 to -10
MACHINE AUGER HOLE LOGS AND BECKER DYNAMIC
CONE PENETRATION TESTS ................................H33-300-11 to -61
SETTLEMENT GRAPHS: TANK LOAD TESTS #1,2 & 3...........H33-300-S1
SETTLEMENT GRAPHS: TANK LOAD TESTS #4 & 5 ............H33-300-S2
SETTLEMENT GRAPHS: AREA 1 PRELOAD ...................H33-300-S3
SETTLEMENT GRAPHS: TYPICAL B.C. PLACE ROADWAY
PRELOADS ...........................H33-300-S4
BOREHOLE LOGS (1983/84)
OLD BOREHOLE LOGS


MACLEOD GEOTECHNICAL LTD.
soil mechanics and foundation engineering
1451 MARINE DRIVE, WEST VANCOUVER, B C V7T 1B8 TELEPHONE 922-0812
March 9,1984 H33 300
FOUNDATION REPORT FOR TEMPORARY STRUCTURES EXPO 86 SITE VANCOUVER. B.C.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This report has been prepared as a general foundation report applicable to all the proposed temporary building construction at the Expo 86 site. It is intended that the different site areas, as well as any special structures, will have separate reports modifying and expanding as necessary the information and recommendations contained in this report.
The work was authorized by Mr.L.Anderson, Manager of Construct!-and Engineering through Contract PS 45 and Amendments.
Attached to this report as an appendix are plans showing site information and borehole locations, borehole logs (old and new) and results of dynamic cone penetration tests. Full scale load test results and summary graphs of site and foundation conditions are also included.


Foundation Report
Page 2
March 9,1984
2.0 SUBSOIL INVESTIGATION AND SITE WORK
The development of foundation design recommendations for the Expo site was carried out in stages as information on site development, proposed structural loads and building locations became available.
2.1 Preliminary Information
For purposes cf preliminary foundation design use was made of old boreholes from the False Creek area that had become available to Expo from various sources. Besides giving a general picture of subsoil conditions, they also gave a preliminary indication of the type, consistency and thickness of the existing old FILL. Also available was a plan prepared on a CAD system by H.A.Simons Ltd, using interpretations of these same old borehole logs which showed the contours of the underlying compact TILL-LIKE soil (N>30). Based on this information the Expo site was roughly divided into three zones depending on the predominant fill type -see Dwg. 86000-602:
- Zone G: estimated areas of old FILL composed mainly of common
fill mixed with minor debris.
- Zone W: estimated areas of old FILL containing large amounts
of hogfuel and woodwaste.
- Zone N: proposed areas of new FILL (after November 1983)(also
to include areas of disturbance and recent excavation).
Also shown on Dwg.86000-G02 are indications of where there had been known preloading on the present filled areas. These preloads consisted of recent stockpiled fill, stacked lumber, warehouse areas and other surface loadings. Such preloads would have a significant beneficial effect on footing settlement.


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Page 3
March 9,1984
A brief review of old drawings, air photos and other archival information was carried out to determine the approximate location of old foundations, piling, and other obstructions as well as to obtain a general indication of original filling procedure and age. The results are shown on Dwg. H33-240-1.
2.2 Subsoil Investigation
It was felt that the available old boreholes, which had been drilled for many different purposes, did not give adequate information concerning the existing FILL. In particular, more detailed information was required on the FILL CRUST on which it was intended to found the majority of the buildings. Therefore, as soon as building locations were determined, machine auger holes together with Becker dynamic cone penetration tests were carried out at every major structure or group of structures where access was possible. This testing procedure gave rapid, inexpensive and continuous information on the FILL and FILL CRUST. Drilling was carried out to at least 3 m (10 ft) depth, i.e. approximately to the depth of significant stress beneath the proposed footings.
Some machine auger holes and penetration tests as well as a number of standard sampled boreholes for special structures were taken down to or into the compact bottom TILL-LIKE deposits. The Becker dynamic cone penetration test (BCPT) has been calibrated to give a closely similar results to the Standard Penetration Test (N value). The SPT is commonly used as an indicator of subsoil density and approximate shear strength.
The boreholes and auger holes were logged in the field and the penetration test results recorded. Occasional typical samples were taken where warranted. The results are shown on the logs in the Appendix. Also attached are relevant old borehole logs from previous work on the site. Locations of all boreholes and tests together with approximate building locations are given on the enclosed location plans Dwgs.No. H33-300- 1 to 10.


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March 9,1984
2.3 Full Scale Load Tests
In order to obtain some indication of expected settlement under the proposed building loads, a number of full scale load tests were carried out. Three of the tests were performed on the FILL CRUST where access was available (Areas 1,2 & 6). A fourth load test was performed on loose FILL at a site (Area 1) where the FILL CRUST has been removed and replaced with 300 mm (12 ins) of compacted gravel and filter cloth (geotextile). A further load test used two tanks together that simulated adjacent footings on the FILL CRUST overlying FILL containing appreciable organic material (Area 4).
The load test consisted of a steel tank 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and 6.7 m (22 ft) high filled with water to give an average base pressure of 70 kN/m^ (1400 psf). With a load of 500 kN (55 tons) the load test approximated the larger proposed footings. Settlement readings were taken over a period of time and are shown on Dwgs. H33-300-S1 and -S2. Load test arrangements are shown on the same drawings. Machine auger holes and dynamic cone penetration tests were taken at each load test site to allow correlation with other areas of the Expo site.
3.0 REVIEW OF SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
3.1 Brief Site Description see Plan Dwg.H33-300-l and Figure 1.
The Expo site comprises about 160 acres and lies on the north and east sides of False Creek extending from just east of Granville Street Bridge to Quebec Street. It consists almost entirely of fill except for small areas at the old C.P.R.Roundhouse (Area 2) and the most northerly area adjacent to the Beatty Street escarpment (Area 7).
It is relatively level, rising slightly from an average geodetic elevation of about 2.5 to 3.5 m at the water edge to 4 or 5 m inland.


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March 9,1984
Several low areas probably indicate the presence of more organic fill or more compressible deposits under the fill.
Approximate tidewater elevations in False Creek range from High High Water + 2 m to Low Low Water (Tide Chart Datum) -3m. Average groundwater level in the FILL is generally at about 3 m (10 ft) depth which coincides approximately with Mean Sea Level at the water edge.
The site is crossed by the north approaches of the Cambie Street Bridge in Area 4 and in Areas 6 & 7 by the Georgia Viaduct and the new A.L.R.T. line ( presently under construction ). A number of large service lines and outfalls also occur on the site.
Besides the C.P.R. tracks and facilities, a large number of warehouses, timber mills, docks and other industrial enterprises formerly covered the site. Filling into False Creek has taken place at various times since before 1900 with the latest occurring about 1977.
3.2 Generalized Subsoil Profile
Since the original high water mark in False Creek coincides roughly with the northern boundary of the Expo site, the thickness of the FILL tends to increase towards the south or water edge.
FILL thickness varies from about 1 to 7 m (3 to 23 ft) but is mostly in excess of 3 m (10 ft).
The FILL generally overlies soft to firm bottom deposits consisting of varying thicknesses of interbedded CLAY-SILT and SAND with occasional zones of organic material and broken shells. These deposits are compressible but consolidate fairly rapidly due to the interbedded sand and relatively low clay content. In a number of water areas there is very little CLAY-SILT overlying the compact TILL-LIKE material.


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March 9,1984
Where the underlying medium dense to dense TILL-LIKE material dips below about elevation -9 m, deposits of over-consolidated firm to stiff clayey SILT occasionally with org.material have been encountered, possibly indicating a former lower sea level.
The TILL-LIKE deposit ranges from about 1 to 15 m (3 to 50 ft) below existing grade. The term TILL-LIKE has been used as a general description that includes medium dense to dense sandy gravelly SILT with varying amounts of clay as well as cobbles and boulders; medium dense layered SILT and sandy SILT; and interbedded dense SAND & GRAVEL. These soils appear to represent unsorted glacial drift possibly mixed with some interglacial and glacio-marine deposits.
Bedrock of the sedimentary Burrard Formation consisting of interbedded SANDSTONE, SILTSTONE and CLAYSTONE (SHALE) with occasional CONGLOMERATE has been encountered in a few boreholes.
In some areas at the east end of False Creek, the TILL-LIKE material overlying the bedrock is fairly thin.
3.3 Description of FILL
i) The majority of the FILL material has been in place for at least 20 years and in most areas has developed a firm to stiff "CRUST." This FILL CRUST is the result of dessication and weathering combined with surface loading and rail and road traffic. The old FILL itself has by now completed settlement under its own weight and the underlying CLAY-SILT and organic deposits have undergone most, if not all, of their long term secondary settlement under the same weight of FILL. Area loading in excess of 1 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft) can be expected to cause further ongoing secondary settlement especially where the FILL is highly organic, e.g. woodwaste and hogfuel in Area 4. Additional settlement will also take place in the underlying soft CLAY-SILT.


Foundation Report
Page 7
March 9,1984
In order to obtain an indication of FILL type and density, the results of the subsoil investigation for the upper 3 m (10 ft) have been summarized in Figs. H33-300-F2 and H33-300-F3. It can be seen that the FILL is mostly sandy gravelly silt mixed with varying amounts of debris. Furthermore, FILL containing more than 10% organic material is not widespread and, except for Area 4, occurs in relatively thin layers. Due to the silty nature of the FILL, it tends to form a very competent CRUST which appears to average about 1 m (3 ft) in thickness.
ii) Those few locations with loose granular or debris FILL at surface can be easily improved by surface compaction using heavy vibrating rollers. However, the loose silty FILL cannot usually be significantly improved by surface compaction particularly in wet weather conditions. Therefore, unless dry weather conditions prevail, it is more expedient to remove silty soil and replace it with compacted granular material. Alternatively, the heavy Dynamic Compaction procedure could be used to compact the FILL and produce an equivalent crust.
iii) The effect of the FILL CRUST on settlement predominates for small footings (B less than 1 m(3 ft)) but becomes progressively less important as the footing becomes larger. In the widest loading configuration, e.g. area and roadway preloads over 15 m (45 ft) wide, the settlement derives mainly from the looser FILL below the crust together with any underlying CLAY-SILT and WOODWASTE deposits. The difference in settlement characteristics between the proposed largest footings and the preload fills can be seen by comparing the settlement curves from the Tank Load Test results on Dwgs.H33-300-Sl & S2 with those from the Area 1 preload on the old fill and


Foundation Report
Page 8
March 9,1984
typical C.C.Place roadway preloads (just north of the Expo site opposite Area 3) shown on Dwgs. H33-300- S3 & S4.
(iv) Theoretical calculated values of elastic modulus ( E values) for the FILL and FILL CRUST, using two layer elastic analysis for the T.L.T. results, are shown on Fig.H33-300-F4. Also shown are estimated average E values from the measured preload settlements. It will be appreciated that these values must be used as an indication only, since there could have been some previous preloading at the T.L.T. sites. Design settlement allowances should also take into account additional settlement from long term consolidation,uncertain construction weather and variation in FILL conditions.
4.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
4.1 General Review
The numerous different types of structures and foundation loads proposed for Expo together with the considerable variety in subsoil conditions, indicated that some type of classification procedure was needed to organize the foundation design recommendations. A schematic of the classification system adopted is shown on Fig. H33-300-F5. The temporary buildings were divided into three types based on column loads minor light structures, medium flexible structures and heavy and/or settlement sensitive structures. Similarly, the Expo site was divided into four main foundation areas original firm ground areas (i.e. with little or no fill cover), water and/or water edge areas, new fill areas and old fill areas. Appropriate foundation recommendations can be obtained for any building in any site area by reference to Fig.H33-300-F5.
A further general consideration for foundation design for the temporary Expo buildings is that all footings, slabs,piles, etc. must be removed from the site at the end of Expo 86.


Foundstion Report
Page 9
March 9,1984
4.2 Old Fill Areas (Site Zones G & W)
Since the majority of the proposed buildings occupy areas of old fill, most of the field work was concentrated on these areas.
The random variation in type and consistency of common FILL mixed with debris, woodwaste, etc. that is dumped into water over an extended period of time makes it difficult to establish engineering properties. However, engineering experience together with the presence of existing structures constructed on the surface of the fill indicates that the old fill will satisfactorily support buildings up to some uncertain size or weight at least for a temporary period. An important factor for the Expo project foundation design is the short time period available for long term or secondary settlement, since all the structures considered in this report are temporary. Consequently, providing there is adequate strength in the fill to prevent ultimate shear failure, only immediate or pseudo-elastic settlement plus approximately two years of secondary settlement under dead load need be considered. Settlement due to decomposition of woodwaste can be neglected.
On the basis of available subsoil information, site investigation work, full scale load tests, experience with construction of the Prototype Pavilion and review of the proposed temporary structures, the following foundation recommendations are made for footings supported on the firm FILL CRUST. Typical footing design considerations are summarized in Fig.H33-300-F6.
A. LIGHT STRUCTURES
Maximum column load Maximum line load
Maximum allowable bearing pressure Maximum anticipated settlement
200 kN ( 45 KIPS)
40 kN/m (3.5 KIPS/L.F)
75 kN/m2 (1500 psf)DL + LL 25 mm (1 inch)
Minimum footing dimensions and base preparation should be as indicated in Section D below.


Foundation Report
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March 9,1984
B. MEDIUM FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES
Maximum column load = 900 kN (200 KIPS)
Maximum allowable bearing pressure = 75 kN/m^ (1500 psf) DL + LL
Maximum anticipated settlement for:
-isolated column loads up to approx. 400 kN (90 KIPS)
= 25 to 50 mm (1 to 2 ins)
-overlapping column loads and loads 400 to 900 kN
= 50 to 11 mm (2 to 4 ins)
Under extreme conditions of FILL variation, differential settlement could approach the maximum total settlement indicated.
Minimum footing dimensions and base preparation should be as indicated in Section D below.
C. HEAVY STRUCTURES AND SETTLEMENT SENSITIVE STRUCTURES
For column loads in excess of 900 kN (200 KIPS) and special structures: Foundations should be supported on end bearing piles driven to the underlying medium dense to dense TILL-LIKE soil. The following pile types and design loads can be used:
300 mm diameter timber piles: must be pressure treated if in water (12 inch) . may neecj tip protection for obstructions
in or below the FILL.
Allowable design load = 180 kN (40 KIPS)
300 mm diameter x 10 mm wall closed end pipe piles (12 inch)
Allowable design load = 600 kN (135 KIPS)
Pile capacities are given for fully supported conditions. Reductions for reduced lateral support in over-water areas are not shown.
D. FOOTING DETAILS AND BASE PREPARATION
All footings should have a minimum dimension of 450 mm(18 ins) and be set at least 300 mm (12 ins) below final adjacent grade to avoid disturbance and for frost protection.
Service line trenches should not be cut into the FILL CRUST close to and parallel to foundations.


Foundation Report Page 11 March 9, 1984
All soft and organic material should be cleaned off the proposed footing area down to firm FILL. In general a 150 mm (6 inch) layer of compacted crushed gravel should be placed on the cleaned off bearing surface to minimize disturbance especially in wet weather conditions see Fig.H33-300-F7.
Where the FILL CRUST has been disturbed or removed in site grading, it can be replaced using compacted crushed gravel over filter cloth (geotextile) as indicated in Fig. H33-300-F7. For column loads greater than about 400 kN (90 KIPS) the foundation area should be carefully inspected at the time of construction in order to determine the necessary extent of any FILL CRUST reconstruction. Areas that have become very soft and wet may need a considerable depth of replacement using compacted sand or sand and gravel. In the worst case an alternative foundation system may become necessary e.g. pile support.
It is recommended that all building foundation design drawings and specifications carry a note stipulating that bearing surfaces on FILL be inspected and, where necessary, brought up to the design bearing capacity (generally 75 kN/m ) by the procedures noted on Fig. H33-300-F7 to the approval of the Engineer. A unit price should be used in the Tender for such reconstruction work since the extent of such work cannot be adequately determined in advance.
E. FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE
It is understood that building floors could be either asphalt or concrete.
In both cases the subgrade preparation and floor design is based on a maximum distributed loading of 10 kN/m (200 psf). Floor areas that require heavier distributed loading and/or concentrated wheel or other loads will require detailed review and design.
It is recommended that the primary building floor subgrade preparation on FILL areas take place during the initial Site Preparation contracts for each


Foundation Report
Page 12
March 9, 1984
site area. At this stage all loose surface fill, organic material, debris, old building foundations, slabs, etc. within the building areas would be removed and replaced as required with compacted sand subbase and a preliminary layer of base gravel. At commencement of the building contract the floor subgrade would be proof rolled with a large vibrating roller, improved as necessary and surfaced to the specified grade maintaining at least 150 mm (6 ins.) of clean, compacted crushed gravel. Perimeter or other subdrainage using perforated plastic pipe would be installed as specified by Expo. The general arrangement of floor slab and footing for a typical building is shown on Fig. H33-300-F7.
4.3 New Fill Areas (Site Zones N)
.1 Foundations on new common FILL placed over compressible bottom deposits
e.g. Area 1, should be treated as for footings on FILL without crust see section 4.2 and Fig H33-300-F7. In addition the general area should be preloaded with surcharge removal to minimize uneven surface settlements and to improve FILL conditions.
.2 Foundations on new granular FILL placed over compressible bottom deposits
e.g. Area 2, Area 4 and possibly Areas 8 & 9 can be placed on subgrade compacted to minimum 1.00% Standard Proctor density using a large vibrating rol1er.
Maximum allowable bearing pressure = 200 kN/m (4000 psf) DL + LL Maximum design settlement = 20 mm
Footings to have minimum width of 450 mm and to be set 600 mm below adjacent grade.
Preloading may be required if consolidation of the underlying compressible deposits is not completed in time, especially for those structures that straddle the FILL boundary.
4.4 Old Fill Areas Containing Large Amounts of Woodwaste (Zone W)
Two minor areas of the Expo site have indications of a considerable extent of woodwaste, hogfuel and building debris fill within the upper 3 m


Foundation Report
Page 13
March 9, 1984
(10 ft.) of present grade Area 4 east of the Cambie St. Bridge and Area 7 in the vicinity of the Georgia Viaduct. If possible only lighter flexible structures should be considered for these areas especially Area 4.
It is recommended that a preload with surcharge removal be placed for at least 3 months in Area 4 to compensate for both site grade filling and footing stress distribution as well as to minimize uneven general area settlements. The existing FILL CRUST and asphalt areas should be retained where possible and any new base fill should be granular material compacted to at least 95% Standard Proctor density.
Where the above recommendations cannot be followed, consideration should be given to pile supported construction or subsoil improvement by Dynamic Compaction. Any proposed structure with column loads in excess of about 400 kN (90 KIPS) should have a detailed review. Foundations for lighter structures can follow the recommendations given in section 4.2. Design consideration should also be given to avoiding the entrapment of inflammable methane gas from slowly decomposing woodwaste zones.
4.5 Water Edge Areas
All foundations over or partly over water should be supported on end bearing piles founded in the underlying dense TILL-LIKE soil. Obstructions such as buried junk and heavy debris used as rip rap may be encountered in some waterfront areas. If the floor slab is not structurally supported throughout, the slab on grade portion should commence about 5 m (16 ft.) back from the crest of existing common FILL banks. Reconstructed water edge conditions may permit a closer approach but will need individual review. The joint between pile supported and grade supported floor slab should allow for some differential movement. Recommended design values for piles are given in section 4.2C.


Foundation Report
Page 14
March 9, 1984
4.6 Original Firm Ground Areas
In those areas where footings can bear on firm, undisturbed original ground generally TILL-LIKE soil in Areas 2 & 7 the following design pressure can be used:
medium dense to dense TILL-LIKE soil ........300 kN/m^(6000 psf) DL + LL
maximum design settlement ...................20 mm
Footings should have a minimum width of 450 mm and be set at least 300 mm below final adjacent grade.
Higher bearing pressures can be considered for footings that are taken to greater depth in the dense TILL-LIKE soil.


Foundation Report
Page 15
March 9, 1984
5.0 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 The Expo 86 site, lying on the North and East sides of False Creek, consists mainly of relatively level filled ground over variable deposits of soft to firm CLAY-SILT, SAND and shells that overlie in turn medium dense to dense TILL-LIKE soil. The TILL-LIKE soil constitutes a hard bottom for end bearing pile support and varies from 1 to 15 m (3 to 50 ft.) depth below existing grade. The FILL is predominantly loose dumped material from excavations mixed with some debris but there are a few areas with considerable amounts of debris, junk and woodwaste. The FILL ranges from
1 to 7 m (3 to 23 ft.) in thickness but is generally in excess of 3 m (10 ft.). Average groundwater level in the FILL is at about 3 m (10 ft.) depth which coincides approximately with Mean Sea Level at the water edge.
5.2 The majority of the proposed temporary Expo structures will occupy areas of old FILL. They can be supported on the FILL CRUST up to a maximum column load of 900 kN (200 KIPS.) All structures should be of flexible design to accommodate some differential settlement. Relatively heavy buildings with column loads greater than about 400 kN (90 KIPS) should allow for possible differential settlement in the order of 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 ins.). Review of FILL conditions and foundation design recommendations are given in Sections 3.3 and 4.2.
5.3 The main foundations encountered on the remainder of the Expo site are itemized below:
a) New FILL areas (since Nov 1983) common FILL over compressible bottom deposits (Areas 2,4,8 & 9) will require preloading with surcharge removal to minimize uneven general settlement and differential edge conditions. Areas 2 and 4 may not require preload surcharges if settlement is completed before building construction commences. See Section 4.3 for foundation design recommendations.


Foundation Report
Page 16
March 9, 1984
b) Old FILL Areas Containing Large Amounts of Hogfuel and Woodwaste will require preloads with surcharge removal for at least a 3 month period -see Section 4.4 for foundation design details.
c) Water Edge Areas all foundations entirely or partly over water should be pile supported. See Section 4.5 for details.
d) Original Firm Ground Areas are encountered in site Areas 2 & 7 see Section 4.6 for foundation design recommendations.
5.4 It is recommended that control of foundation construction for footings on FILL be carried out in two stages. Stage one would consist of inspection including proof rolling during the Site Preparation contract for each site Area. Stage two would be the detailed inspection at each building and footing location to determine if the assumed design conditions exist and, if not, to confirm that suitable subsoil improvement procedures have been carried out to attain the design bearing capacity.
5.5 It is recommended that final proposed building foundation design and


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EXPO 86
The 1986 World Exposition
Vancouver, British Columbia Canada
May 2 October 13,1986
A Provincial Crown Corporation
NO. D-to By a* fWvfon
A AV ISSUED FCR ORCULATTN
B iww'en AV REVISED GAS ALIGN
C MAVCb AV REVISED GAS ALIGN.
0 AUG a/ GENERAL LAYTXTT REV
E WNisea AV GENERAL LAYOUT REV
P P68B AV ACOrpCTT OF GAS OFNVT. TABLE 8 GENLAYTXn REV
SITE UTILITIES
86-530I
CONCEPTUAL GAS SYSTEM LAYOUT
CX-50
LEGEND




SITE UTILITIES
86-5301
CONCEPTUAL i SANITARY SYSTEM LAYOUT i
CX-I7
EXPO 86
The 1986 .
World Exposition .
Vancouver, British Columbia Canada r
May 2 -October 13,1986
A PrcMnoW Crown Corporator
KOKH f