PEDESTRIAN FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION IN STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTS
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRAPv
PEDESTRIAN FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION IN STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTS OF THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE
Margaret C. Schultz
Fall 1983, Spring 1984
Dan Young, Professor College of Design and Planning University of Colorado Denver, Colorado
THIS THESIS- IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ....................................... Pg.
Initial Problem Statement .......................... Pg.
Sub-Problems ....................................... Pg.
Character of Strip Commercial District ............. Pg.
Non-Participant Observations ....................... Pg.
Pedestrian Surveys ................................. Pg.
Merchant Surveys ................................... Pg.
Bicyclist Surveys .................................. Pg.
Issues of Pedestrian Planning ...................... Pg.
Safety Research .................................... Pg.
Bikeways Issues .................................... Pg.
Plans For Strip Commercial District Environments Pg. In The Denver Metro Area
Purpose of Case Study and Review of Methodology Pg.
Case Study Inventory ................................Pg.
Case Study Analysis..................................Pg.
Design and Improvement ..............................Pg.
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
Suggested Plant Material For Median & R.O.W. Planting/Pg.
"In our crowded urban environments, where the intensity of land use is extremely high, there is a tendency to relinquish the pedestrians' former pre-eminence in urban transportation patterns. With the advent of the automobile, human movement is the forgotten mode, and planning for the pedestrian is often shunted aside in favor of the auto."^*
Consideration for the pedestrian's interest has often been forgotten while in many cases it should have been of extreme importance in the planning process. All too often the vehicle is the sole determinant of the capacity of an intersection and other aspects of transportation planning with no consideration given to the pedestrian at all.
Certainly is is true that on many present day streets and highways planning for the automobile should take absolute priority, as the roads are needed to move large volumes of traffic. A Parkway for instance, is no place for the pedestrian as there is nothing of interest for him or her along the way. Not to mention the danger.
* Planning and Designing For the Pedestrian Environment; Anthony R. Ameruso, P.E.
f1 /-, mm col T1 n *v MV P nonf n f Hi ollWfl V R
Major arteries, however, forming part of the major organization of every medium to large sized city in the state of Colorado, often house a myriad of interests of the pedestrian. Of particular interest would be those areas zoned commercial district, with their enormous numbers of stores and businesses. The question then becomes, is it valid to exclude consideration of pedestrian forms of transportation in the planning and management of transportation in these areas?
A statement regarding the purpose of Urban Transportation Planning as found in the Transportation Traffic Engineering Handbook reads: "Providing for the safe and efficient movement of people and goods is the aim of all traffic engineering^ and planning is as essential as proper design, operations, maintenance and administration in achieving this mission. This means anticipating needs, developing economical and acceptable methods of meeting them, recommending programs of investment to provide necessary facilities, and lastly, monitoring developments either
to confirm the adequacy of past planning
or modify plans as conditions change."
In a general sense the purpose of the research portion of this thesis has been to "anticipate needs" in a particular area of transportation planning and to either "monitor developments to confirm the adequacy of past planning or modify plans as conditions change."
The initial purpose of the research was to determine whether or not there is a need to begin to incorporate pedestrian considerations into the process of planning for transportation in certain auto dominated areas in particular, auto dominated strip commercial district environments.
Since research done during the first part of the study revealed that there Ls a demand for the accommodation of pedestrian forms of transportation in these areas, the second half of the research for the semester focused on gaining a thorough understanding of the problems for the pedestrian in these areas. An attempt was also made to begin to
Transportation & Traffic Engineering Hand-
book; Inst, of Traffic Engineers; 1976; Prentic Hall; Ch. 12; Urban Transportation Planning
begin to understand the implications of the possible solutions for these problems in light of safety, law, community planning and materials. Special effort was made to investigate ways in which local cities have been successful in mitigating pedestrian problems in their congested strip commercial areas.
* No attempt was made to formulate a list of possible solutions, as this will be done during the Spring semester of this thesis.
At this time, application of possible solutions will also be illustrated in a case study during the Spring semester.
INITIAL PROBLEM STATEMENT
The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not there is a need to accommodate pedestrian forms of transportation in auto-dominated commercial district environments. Additionally, if it is determined that there is a need, the study will investigate ways to mitigate pedestrian/auto conflicts and define ways to better integrate the use of pedestrian forms of tranportation in these areas through the analysis of the dynamics of these problem areas in a specific city of the Colorado Front Range.
For purposes of this study the pedestrian
forms of transportation investigated were
limited to travel by foot and travel by
bicycle. Also, for purposes of the study, the
term "strip commercial district environment"
was adopted from the zoning term "commercial
district" used to describe: "Miscellaneous
collections of individual stores, businesses
and small shopping centers which stand on
separate lot parcels, usually along major
Shopping Center Development Handbook;
Urban Land Institute; 1977
These areas are quite different from shopping centers in that they lack pre-planned layout and unified operation. Businesses in these areas are usually owned and managed individually. It is also true however that very small shopping centers occasionally exist within the overall strip commercial district environments.
The major study area used for the research portion of this thesis was an area zoned commercial district. That area is between the Pearl Street and Diagonal intersections on 28th Street in Boulder, Colorado. This area (see map) is currently being considered by the City of Boulder for expansion from four lanes to six lanes. Information gathered on 28th Street regarding the overall description, observation of pedestrian activities, and an analysis of problems for the pedestrian, was tested periodically against two other study areas to see if the information being gathered related to just the one site specific area or to strip commercial district areas in
other cities as well. The two other areas studied for comparison were West Colfax in Lakewood between Kipling and the Westland Mall and a four block area of the eastern part of Main Street in Longmont.
My hypothesis for this research:
There ijs is demand for the accommodation of pedestrian forms of transportation in strip commercial district environments which is not being serviced. These areas can continue to service auto traffic as the main priority and still serve pedestrian traffic by means of simple conscious acknowledgement of, and deliberate planning for the pedestrian.
Some of the assumptions inherent in this hypotheses should be identified. The first assumption critical to the hypothesis is that strip commercial district environments occur to some extent in every moderate to large
sized city in Colorado. Secondly, the hypothesis assumes that priority is currently given to the automobile in these areas. The third assumption is that these areas are ordinarily dangerous for and non-supportive of pedestrian forms of transportation.
"The soutions of the subproblems, taken together, combine to resolve the main problem of the research."^'
In order to give structure to the investigation of the initial problem, sub-problems were developed the resolutions of which have aided in addressing the questions posed in the main problem statement: The major subproblems are as follows:
1) What are the various characteristics of strip commercial district environments which could be applicable to cities all around the state?
Practical Research Planning and Design; Second Edition; Paul D. Leedy; Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc.; New York; 1980
2) Is there a demand for the accommodation of pedestrian forms of transportation in these areas which is not being serviced?
3) What do people perceive as the major problems for pedestrians in these areas and what improvements would they like to see?
4) What are the major issues of safety, law, community planning and materials related to the use of pedestrian forms of transportation?
5) What is being done in the Denver/Metro area to encourage pedestrian forms of transportation in strip commercial district environments?
WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTS
WHICH COULD BE APPLICABLE TO CITIES ALL AROUND THE STATE?
An overview of characteristics was obtained by means of recording the general characteristics of 28th Street in Boulder and testing descriptions on West Colfax in Lakewood and Main Street in Longmont.
Stores found in strip commercial district areas are normally set back from the road with parking areas located in front of the stores. It is important that the stores be seen from the street. The large signs in front of the stores are ordinarily one of the major means of advertising. The styles of architecture and building materials used along these strip areas are, as are the lighting styles, often quite varied and very seldom relate directly to one another in any way. The result of this is that the areas can become very confusing visually as there is little thought given to tying the buildings together in any way. Entrances to the stores are very much geared to people arriving by car. Large expanses of parking
lot are often crossed by the customers entering the stores. Sidewalks leading across the lots are rare. Businesses often extend their parking lots right to the edge of the property line. These areas can be psychologically unfriendly in that everything is geared toward the automobile and nothing is geared towards the pedestrian. Little is supplied for the person on foot in the way of garbage cans, telephones, outdoor seating, landscaping, etc. Sidewalks are often right up against the road and are frequently very narrow. Sidewalks along these strips are often disjointed and discontinuous if they exist at all. Sidewalks often either lead their traffic out into the street, through poorly drained areas, across parking lots with no signs warning autos to watch for pedestrians, or are broken and falling apart. In many cases the sidewalks are simply non-existant. Oftentimes there are no places provided in these areas for bicyclists to ride. Many times on these
3Y E. WILSON
busy streets, the right hand lane is dominated by public transportation. Vehicles making frequent stops render use virtually impossible for the bicyclist. Bikeways running parallel to the streets in these areas are rare and sidewalks are often too disjointed for use by the bicyclist. The center medians in these strip areas are another problem. They are usually of concrete and are usually broken and in disrepair. At the intersections there are seldom any markings for the crossing of pedestrians and lights are frequently timed so that a pedestrian must run across the street to avoid oncoming vehicles. Places to cross the street from one side to the other are infrequent and usually occur only at major intersections. Bus stops are often very close to the road and do not provide places to sit, night time lighting or overhead shelter. Any landscaping present is usually a hodge-podge of weak attempts made by the individual businesses. Rarely does one find unified
landscaping or irrigation plans. Landscaping found in these areas for the most part is neglected and has fallen into disrepair. Individual businesses often handle drainage in an individual manner and strip commercial areas often lack unified and sophisticated drainage strategies.
In general, these strip commercial districts are positioned along principal arteries. These areas many times connect directly to parkways and other principal arteries, and often times run the entire length of a city. In the case of 28th Street, the road connects directly with Highway 36, (the Boulder/Denver Turnpike), is intersected by three major arteries and links with the Longmont Diagonal as well as continues on to become the major highway leading from Boulder to the town of Lyons.
A description of the zoning of commercial district areas was taken from the Boulder County Zoning Regulations adopted in November 1965 and amended most recently in 1977. According to this document the uses permitted
in areas zoned Commercial District are:
1) Any use permitted in the B (Business District)
2) Places for the conduct of any commercial, wholesale or service activity, not of an industrial nature, (billboards reviewed seperately), including but not limited to the following:
auto and truck repairs, auto laundries, bakeries, bottling works, bowling alleys, building materials, carpentry, including woodworking, and furniture making, dairies, drycleaning and dyeing establishment electrical, heating, painting, plumb ing, roofing and ventilating shops, frozen food lockers, laundries, machine shops, pet shops, painting and publishing establishments, sign painting, outdoor theaters, tire vulcanizing shops, warehouses.
Uses permitted in areas zoned Business:
1) These include uses numbered 1 to 9 as permitted in the T-Transitional District (areas containing both residential and a limited number of business uses)
2) Hotels, motels, (including restaurants and other incidental business
uses located in buildings
3) Other uses: medical and dental clinics, membership clubs, mortuaries, private schools, professional offices, resort cabins, lodges, guest ranches and outdoor recreation areas, one-family dwellings, greenhouses.
4) Places for the conduct of any restricted business, not of a industrial nature, including but not restricted to:
antique shops and art shops, banks, barber shops and beauty parlors, clothing shops, department stores, book and stationery stores, drug stores, dry goods and variety stores, eating and drinking places, electrical and household appliance stores, florists, furniture stores, gasoline stations gift shops, grocery stores, hardware stores, jewelry and craft shops, music, radio and tv stores, newsstands, office supply stores, offices for business and governmental use, optometrist shops, package liquor stores, paint stores, photographic studios, equipment and supply stores, public utility collection offices, shoe stores, sporting and athletic goods stores, indoor theatres, toy stores, travel bureaus, watch repairing
5) public utility mains and underground facilities
6) accessory buildings and uses
Certain restrictions are listed for areas
zoned commercial district in regard to lot size: (For Commercial Districts and
minimum lot area
1) on land where the principal build-
ing is not connected to both public water and public sewer facilities: 15,000 sq. ft.
2) on land where it is: no minimum requirement
minimum lot width
1) on land where the principal building is not connected to both public water and public sewer facilties: 15,000 sq. ft.
2) where it is: no mimimum requirement
minimum lot frontage
forty feet (minimum front lot line)
minimum front yard
sixty feet; (minimum distance of any building from the center line of the street or highway, except as specified)
minimum side yard
zero to twelve feet (minimum distance of buildings from each side lot line or one-half the distance between detached buildings on same lot)
minimum rear yard
twenty feet (minimum distance of any building from the rear lot line or from the center line of an alley when one exists
maximum building height fifty feet
In terms of surrounding land uses, strip commercial district areas in Colorado, as on 28th Street, are often surrounded by activities zoned community commercial, business, and light industry as well as high, medium and low density residential zones. The variety of surrounding land uses contribute towards making strip commercial district areas very lively with a great deal of activity moving back and forth between the various zones.
With occasional variations, the above
characteristics should be applicable to strip commercial district environments located throughout the state. An understanding of the basic overall characteristics of these areas is essential in understanding the dynamics of the activities that take place in these areas.
IS THERE A DEMAND FOR THE ACCOMMODATION OF PEDESTRIAN FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION IN THESE AREAS WHICH IS NOT BEING SERVICED?
In order to determine how much pedestrian traffic is currently existing in strip commercial district environments, it was necessary to conduct non-participant observations on site in several of these areas.
In order to be able to determine whether or not there is a significant demand for the accommodation of pedestrian activity in these areas it was important to observe the types of pedestrian activities and their frequencies.
Non-participant observations were conducted at all three of the study areas to distinguish whether or not the types and volumes of activity were comparable. Results revealed similar types of activities with slight variations in volume according to location.
The majority of the non-participant observations were conducted in a controlled study at locations throughout the 28th Street study area in order to record types and frequencies of activities in detail. Three locations were chosen and activities were recorded at these locations morning, noon, afternoon, and evening, both on the weekdays
and on weekend days during a two week period.
1) SKAGGS 28th & the Diagonal
afternoon early eve
afternoon early eve
2) TACO BELL 28th & Valmont Road
afternoon early eve
afternoon early eve
3) 28th & Pearl Street Intersection
afternoon early eve
afternoon early eve
From each of these locations a view was possible of activities occurring for approximately two blocks on either side of the
viewing spot and enabling a recording of activities for both sides of the street.
Detailed accounts of the activities recorded can be supplied upon request. A compilation of the data is included following this section of the report. A summary of the findings is included below:
Information was recorded for twenty minute periods. Details recorded included weather, place, time of day, type of pedestrian activity observed, approximate age and sex of pedestrian, where coming from and going to, and any other observations which seemed important.
- of 291 pedestrians observed, 60% were men, 40% were women
- average age: 25 years
- mean age: 28 years
- of pedestrian activity recorded,
20% were on bicycles, 80% were on foot either walking, jogging or waiting for a bus
- of those observed, 53% were alone,
46% were in groups of two or more
Other observations recorded: Although there are no accommodations for bicyclists on 28th Street they are very much in evidence there. Bicyclists make a habit of riding in the street at the far right lane as if there were a bikelane marked there.
Pedestrians are in evidence strongly at all times of the day both during the week and on the weekends with the exception being after 7 p.m. in the evening until approximately 7 a.m. in the morning. During the evening hours there appears to be little ped activity.
Peak times for pedestrians were at noon and in the afternoon around 5 p.m. Bicyclists are seen at all times throughout the day with the exception of night after 7 p.m.
A good number of the pedestrians observed seem to be commuting to and from work. There is also a good deal of pedestrian activity generated by the comings and goings of people who work and lunch in the area. Restaurants
are a big attraction for people on foot. Also in evidence were people waiting for buses, joggers, people being dropped off. People in large numbers appear to be coming from the surrounding residences to shop along 28th street. A substantial number of children pedestrians are in evidence particularly on the weekends.
Worthy of mention is the fact that many people observed chose to cross the street in the middle rather than walking to the corner and crossing with the light. There were certain spots in particular where people repeatedly crossed in the middle.
In regard to the question: Is there a demand for the accommodation of pedestrian forms of transportation in these areas, the answer appears to be yes. In spite of the discouraging conditions for pedestrians in these areas, they seem to persist. The fact is that they appear to be thriving in these areas. Where sidewalks end they walk in the streets, when there is no bike lane they ride their bikes anyway. The question now
should become: What are the problems for the pedestrian in these areas and what changes if any, would people like to see made?
WHAT DO PEOPLE PERCEIVE AS THE MAJOR PROBLEMS FOR PEDESTRIANS IN THESE AREAS AND WHAT IMPROVEMENTS WOULD THEY LIKE TO SEE?
In order to begin to determine what improvements people would like to see made on 28th Street it was necessary to go out and talk to people there. Surveys were conducted during a month's time on 28th Street between Pearl Street and the Diagonal. People were primarily asked their opinions regarding existing conditions on 28th Street for the pedestrian and possible improvements. Twenty people on foot, twenty bicyclists, and twenty merchants were interviewed for their opinions. Surveys were taken at random. An attempt was made however, with the merchant surveys to interview a large cross sections of types and sizes of businesses. A copy of each of the surveys is included in this report.
Twenty one people were interviewed.
Survey results revealed some very strong statements regarding the types of improvements poeple felt were priority needs on 28th Street.
Of the twenty-one people interviewed, ten were reportedly also motorists on 28th Street on occasion, and four were reportedly also bicyclists on 28th Street on occasion. Their answers given as pedestrians therefore, are not solely slanted to the pedestrians point of view.
- of the 21 people interviewed, 9 were women and 12 were men.
- thirteen were white, 5 were chicano and 3 were black
- three were between the ages of 15 and 20, three between 20 and 25, seven between 25 and 30, three between 30 and 35, and one between 35 and 40, one between 40 and 45, one between
50 and 55, one between 55 and 60, and one between 70 and 75.
- seven people reported coming from a residence, 11 came from a store, 2 came from work, 1 came from the YMCA
- Seven people reported their destination as going to a residence, five were
waiting for a bus, six were going to a store, one was going to work, one to a restaurant, and one to a gas station.
- one person reported being a pedestrian on 28th Street more than once a day, three once or twice a day, eleven weekly or several times a week, three monthly or several times a month,
one a couple times a year, and two yearly or less.
- nineteen people felt that improvements were needed on 28th to accommodate the pedestrians, two people felt that no improvements were needed.
When asked to comment on what changes they saw as priorities for improvements, those interviewed gave the following opinions:
- nineteen people felt that more continuous sidewalks were a priority
- eighteen people felt that more lighting at night was a priority.
- sixteen people felt that longer pedestrian lights at intersections and buttons to push for pedestrian crossing were priorities.
- sixteen people felt that allotted places to cross in the middle of 28th were a priority.
- twelve people felt that more pedestrian signage and better cross markings at intersections were priorities
- ten people felt that more shade trees and places for people to rest were a priority
- seven people felt that more landscaping was a priority
- five people felt that better entrances to stores for pedestrians was a priority
Other suggestions for improvements which were mentioned repeatedly were more and better shelters for bus stops and bikelanes for the road.
PEDESTRIAN SURVEY (Sample)
T ime: ,
Place: 77D >
Where are you coming from? (How far, What place?) Where are you going to? (One stop?) several stops,
passing through) -77 '-TS
3) How often are you a pedestrian on 28th St? a) more than once a day; b) once or twice a day;
CD weekly or several times a week; d) monthly or several times a month; e) couple times a year;
f) yearly or less __________________________________________________________________________________
4) Do you think improvements are needed on 28th Street for the pedestrian? L/pA<;_____________________
5) Do you consider the following to be priorities in terms of improvements for pedestrians on 28th? (Between Pearl St. and the Diagonal)
CD more continuous sidewalks ^ Â£.5 b) more landscaping (Â£J> lighting at night >U0 5
((TP longer pedestrian lights at intersections and buttons for pedestrians to push for crossing yr' (e) more pedestrian signage and markings at intersections
g) shade trees and places for pedestrians to rest <-y\/0
h) better entrances to stores for pedestrians (sidewalks) AVO
6) Do you have any other suggestions for improving this area for the pedestrian? ____________________
C- A/~ "T^s73c-^o o Ac co/^o
7) Are you ever a motorist or bicyclist on 28th Street? A-/0
Merchant Surveys were conducted with 20 people at businesses varying in size from very large department stores to very small one person retail stores. Types of business ranged from beauty aids, to audio visual, to a liquor store, to restaurants, to a very large drug store. As with the pedes-train surveys, the major intent of the Merchant Surveys was to determine what, if any improvements people would like to see for pedestrians on 28th Street. Merchants were also asked to estimate what percentage of their customers arrived on foot or by bicycle in order to lend additional perspective as to the volumes and types of pedestrian activity occurring on 28th St.
- three merchants interviewed were between the ages of 25 and 30, nine were between 30 and 35, six were between 35 and 40, two were between 55 and 60.
- ten merchants interviewed were male, ten were female
- eighteen merchants were white, two were chicano
- eight merchants reported that their customers came from close by, two said they came from all over Boulder, ten reported they came from all over including surrounding cities and towns.
- estimated percentage of patrons arriving on foot: seven reported between 0 and
5 percent, seven reported between 5 and 10 percent, one reported 10 to 15 percent, one reported 15 to 20 percent, two reported 25 to 30 percent, and one reported 40 percent. (fast food restaurant)
- estimated percentage of patrons arriving by bicycle: fifteen people reported that between 0 to 5 percent arrived by bicycle, three reported between 5 and 10 percent, and one reported between 10 and 15 percent.
- three people felt that no special attempt should be made to accommodate pedestrian forms of transportation on 28th Street, seventeen people felt an effort to accommodate pedestrians should be made.
- when asked whether or not they perceived
any problems for pedestrians on 28th Street: four people responded that
they did not, sixteen responded that they did.
In terms of possible changes on 28th Street for the pedestrian, the merchants were asked to comment on what they thought were priorities:
- fourteen felt that more continuous sidewalks were a priority
- thirteen felt that more night lighting was a priority
thirteen felt that longer pedestrian lights and buttons for pedestrian crossing were a priority
six felt that more pedestrian signage and better marked crosswalks were a priority
six felt that more places for pedestrians to cross in the middle were a priority
- six felt that more landscaping was a
five felt that better entrances to stores was a priority
four felt that shade trees and places for people to rest was a a priority
When asked who's responsibility it was to make the improvements:
- ten people felt it was the city's, ten felt it was both the city's and the land owners.
Combined merchant and pedestrian talleys regarding the question of priorities of improvements:
thirty three for more continuous sidewalks
thirty one for more night lighting
- twenty nine for longer pedestrian lights and buttons for pedestrian crossing
- twenty for more places for people to cross in the middle
twenty for more pedestrian signage and better cross markings at intersections
- eleven for more landscaping
- ten for more shade trees
- ten for better entrances to stores for pedestrians
MERCHANT SURVEY (sample)
Date: Time: 3 f-* ______ Location: Q O /o>/<3.Â£
Type of Business: fe^A-er. fc. /O/Qt-. ^
Age: 3> _____________ Sex: j ______________ Ethnicity : Ct_^>A> / j_ ______
1) How long has this store been here? Cy >Q-S '__________________________________________________
2) Where do you think your customers come from? (close by, across town, out-of-town) /3/7 OCJ2 /g
3) What percentage of your custormers arrive on foot? /O ________________________________________________
4) What percentage of your customers arrive on bicycle? ,________________________________________________
5) Do you think 28th Street should be accommodating pedestrian forms of transportation? Cc-vd ^
6) Are you aware of any problems on 28th Street for pedestrians or bicyclists? /o
7) Do you consider any of the following to be priorities for improvement on the street?
more continuous sidewalks ^
more lighting at night
longer pedestrian lights at intersections and buttons for pedestrians to push for crossing more pedestrian signage and markings at intersections cy ^ places for pedestrians to cross in the middle of 28th / _
shade trees and places for pedestrians to rest ty g s ^ J J ^ j
better entrances to stores for pedestrains (sidewalks) A_>o
6) Do you have any other suggestions for improving this area for the pedestrian? <Â£-_>Q ^~T J ^
><2 //^> r-rsi'rQ/z) ) gyO /6> S _______
7) Who's responsibility do you think it is to make these improvements? /'Tr^-E- /-<- C x_3 /
Surveys were conducted with 20 people who were observed riding their bicycles on 28th Street. Bicyclists were asked first of all if they would prefer to see a bike lane installed in the street or a bikeway installed up on the curb out of the road. Bicyclists were also asked their opinions regarding a number of possible changes and asked to comment on whether or not they saw them as priorities for improvement. Bicyclists were also asked questions in regard to whether or not they would be willing to detour off of 28th Street for their bicycling.
-- Six people interviewed were between ages of 15 and 20; nine were between 25 and 30; four were between 35 and 40
- Ten people interviewed were men, ten were women
- When asked where they were coming
from: twelve reported coming from
home; three from nearby stores, three from across town; and one from work
When asked were they were going: two reported that they were going home; eight reported that they were going to nearby stores; one reported going to the laundry; one reported going to school; one reported going to a restaurant; one reported going to work; one reported just riding north on 28th st, and one reported riding south on 28th St.
When asked how often they were bicyclists on 28th Street: two reported more then once a day; nine reported weekly or several times a week; three reported monthly or several times a month; 6 reported once or twice a day.
When asked whether or not they felt improvements were necessary on 28th Street for the bicyclist: two felt no improvements were necessary; eighteen felt that improvements were necessary.
When asked whether they would prefer a bikelane or a bikeway on 28th Street: thirteen people reported that they would like to see a bikelane installed in the right hand lane; seven said they would like to see a bikeway installed on 28th Street out of the road.
When asked which of the possible improvements they felt were priorities for 28th Street:
eleven felt lane striping was a priority
10 felt that a bikeway up off the road was a priority
fourteen felt that signage warning cars to watch for bicyclists at intersect-tions was a priority
fourteen felt that there should be more thought to bicyclists at intersections: (better light timing, well marked crosswalks)
eight felt that more night lights were a priority
three felt better entrances to stores for bicyclists were a priority
four felt that shade trees were a priority
When asked whether or not they would be willing to detour their bicycle off of 28th Street: twelve reported no; eight reported yes
When asked if they would detour off of 28th Street if bicycling was to become illegal on that road: nine reported that they would ride anyway; nine said they would detour and two said that they would walk
When asked if they were ever on occasion a motorist or a pedestrian on 28th St: six people reported being both a motorist and a pedestrian five were motorists on occasion; four were pedestrians on occasion; and five were neither
BICYCLIST SURVEY (Sample)
Date: //y2o/S3 Time:
Age: *3 &_____
Place: /lO /^O /O-
Ethnicity: (* J /Â£,
1) Where are you coming from? (How far, what place) /~Vo/^P_, Ct~! p s^Cst^OC^IZ) ,
2) Where are you going to? , on/Dr>Ar^a--/-_____________________________________________
3) How often are you a bicyclist on 28th Street? a) more than once a day; > once or twice a day; c) weekly or several times a week; d) monthly or several times a month; e) couple times a year; f) yearly or less
4) Do you think improvements are needed on 28th Street for the bicyclist? (Between Pearl St.
and the Diagonal?) __(yg ^ J >Qg- .__________________________________________
5) If you had your preference would you prefer to see bike lanes in the right side of the road or up
on the curb next to the sidewalk?
ks j k Â£_A
6) Do you consider the following to be priorities in terms of improvement of bicycle accommodations on 28th St?
a) Bike lane striping?
C^j> Bike lane next to sidewalk (up on the curb)
(cj) Signage warning cars to watch for bicyclists at intersections? V & S (3J) More thought to pedestrians and bicyclists at intersections, (better light timing, well marked crosswalks, etc.)
e) Better night lighting? <*-50
f) Better entrances to stores for pedestrians? (sidewalks) AJO 73C--0 /O a- > / J &
g) Shade trees and places to rest? /oo
7) Do you have any other suggestions for the improvement of ped/auto conflicts? -o, /-
8) Would you be willing to detour on your bicycle off of 28th St? Â£ s
9) What if bicycling were illegal on 28th St? > ytr Sr ^ A____Cst^s^^^y ,
Are you ever a pedestrian or a motorist on 28th St? ky
& -=> h
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR ISSUES OF SAFETY, LAW, COMMUNITY PLANNING AND MATERIALS RELATED
TO THE USE OF PEDESTRIAN FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION?
URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
Traffic Engineers, particularly those charged with operating facilities, need to be aware of the planning process and to be capable of evaluating effectiveness. Traffic engineers in planning frequently work with other professionals because transportation planning often calls for a multi-disciplinary approach.
Activities in transportation planning, including planning for the pedestrian can be classified as short and long range planning. Short range projects tend to be identified with a single site, a single mode, or a single route. Long term studies include those charged with developing transportation facilties for the long-term needs of urban areas. Planning for pedestrian facilties in the strip commercial district areas in a community must first begin with a thorough understanding of the long range transportation plans of the community and then move down in scale to the single site. Studies are
established to carry out the continuing, comprehensive and cooperative process for planning urban transportation facilities. Transportation data study and collection should include:
1) historic population patterns, past distribution, migrations, density and trends of growth
2) present population distribution by area and make up by race, density, average income, car ownership and dwelling unit price
3) employment trends historic patterns of employment by occupation and location
4) present employment employment by industry or activity and total labor force
5) economic activity patterns of investment in manufacturing, services, redevelopment and other real estate
6) Transportation resources a review of past and present outlays for regional transportation facilties.
Land Use Inventories should include:
1) historic development trends
2) topography and physical constraints on development
3) acres of land in urban use, by detailed type of use
4) acreage of vacant land, classified by unusable and usable and by public and private ownership
5) location of travel generators
6) identification of neighborhood and community boundaries (social)
7) nature of existing landuse controls zoning, official maps, subdivision regulations
8) identification of redevelopment are
Assessing the physical and performance characteristics of the existing network is essential for making use of and augmenting the present systems in the planning process Physical inventories provide input for analysis.
Accident compilations identify safety
THE PEDESTRIAN PLANNING PRINCIPLES
"Pedestrians are those who walk either for pleasure, economy, conservation, expediency, health or as is the case with the very old, the very young and the disabled, for lack of other alternatives. Probably everyone has at one time or will in the future fit into one of these categories." ~>'
Recognizing that there is often a conflict of interest between users such as walkers and motorists, solutions should be aimed at accommodating both rather than exacerbating traditional rivalries. "Pedestrian movement is too complex to be solved by parochial or fragmented approaches. Good planning should achieve compatibility between pedestrains and automobiles."
The planning principles for the pedestrian environment follow the same general procedures as used in comprehensive land use and transportation planning. There are, however, some obvious differences in scale, role of concept, and extent of private participation.
Third Annual Pedestrian Conference Proceedings sponsored by Transportation Division of the City of Boulder; October 7, 8; 1982 P. Ill
' Planning the Pedestrian Environment; Herbert Levinson; Senior VP, Wilbur Smith and Assoc.
A pedestrian plan usually focuses on a small geographic area. Pedestrian planning in a broad sense represents land-use planning. The arrangement of land uses can encourage or discourage pedestrian flow. Planning should reflect the coordinated needs of the entire center to be served rather than individual requirements of specific buildings each considered in isolation.
1) The pedestrian movement system should be carefully related to existing and proposed buildings and mass transportation lines.
2) Pedestrian, vehicle and transit movements should be separated whenever possible by: construction, regulation and design.
3) Pedestrian ways should be safe, attractive and convenient to use.
4) Routes should be simple, direct, natural and continuous. Pedestrians should be able to identify locations readily, particularly signs and graphics along the walkways. Direct-
tion signing should be clear and consistent. Light and ample sight lines, adequate illumination and avoidance of concealed spaces.
5) meaningful sequence of pedestrian spaces; suitable pedestrian environments should be provided through climate control and amenities such as benches, plantings, kiosks and street furniture.
6) economical and realistic development of pedestrian ways should be achieved by: 1) balancing investment in pedestrian facilities with demands; 2) utilizing, improving and expanding existing movement corridors whenever possible.
Each new development project provides opportunities and challenges.
Landscape in the public sector should utilize hardy plant materials and exhibit characteristics of low maintenance and low water requirements.
The Carl Worthington Report called "Landscape Guildlines" for the Boulder Valley Regional Center and submitted to the Director of Transportation suggests that pedestrian sidewalks be a minimum of 4 feet, preferably 6 feet. Combination ped/bike would be a minium of 5 feet ped, 5 feet bike, preferably 4 feet bike, 4 feet bike and 4 feet ped.
SAFETY RESEARCH RELATED TO TRAFFIC CONTROL AND ROADWAY ELEMENTS
"In 1979, 9,400 pedestrian fatalities resulted from about 120,000 accidents in the United States. This represents about twenty percent of all motor vehicle related fatalities and 0.7 percent of all accidents."^'
The relative directional freedom but slow pedestrian movement, as compared to the directionally confined, but much more rapid movement of the motor vehicle, results in a large number of conflict locations for pedestrians and automobiles, having great accident potential.
Grouping of pedestrian accidents on an age basis shows a higher involvement risk for young people and a greater severity risk for the elderly. It is therefore important that these two groups receive special attention in the planning and design of pedestrian facilities. Pedestrian accident data from over 1,900 cities were analyzed by the American Automobile Association (AAA) in 1977.
"Between ages 2 and 14 the accident rate is greater than would be expected on the basis of population. Ages 5 and 6 represent the
^ Synthesis of Safety Research Related To Traffic Control & Roadway Elements; Dist. by Federal Highway Admin; Dec. 1982
peak of this overrepresentation." Boys were found to be involved in about twice as many pedestrian accidents as girls ages 5 to 7. A study of pedestrian accident data for Milwaukee, Wisconsin revealed: "Children age 9 and less represented 21 percent of all accidents while they represented almost half
of the non-intersection accidents."
A higher severity risk exists for the elderly pedestrian. "The researchers interpretation often indicates an age associated risk of involvement and an age associated risk of fatal outcome once involved for people over 55 years old."
Alcohol has also been observed to be a significant factor in pedestrian accidents.
In a Michigan study by the Highway Safety Research Institute, University of Michigan, medical examiners of 296 pedestrian fatalities over a two year period revealed 42 percent of the victims with alcohol in the blood. A national Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) review found that: "Thirty-six per-
"Characteristics of Pedestrian Accidents"; Dept, of Civil Engineering, Marquette Univ.
10* Report // TP1004; Canadian Dept, of Transpo. 1978
cent of the fatally injured adult pedestrians had a post mortem blood alcohol concentration of 100 mg. or more."^' The report also indicates that approximately 70 percent of these pedestrians were responsible for the accidents. This statistic is extremely important in understanding the dynamics of the kinds of conflicts that actually occur between auto and pedestrians.
Data are limited on the extent to which handicapped persons are represented in pedestrian accidents. A study of suburban^ rural accidents indicated: "Less than five percent of the accidents represented persons
handicapped other than by drugs or alcohol." While indications are that handicapped pedestrians would be few in number, their safety should be given significant attention in the pedestrian area because of the many inherent hazards to such persons becoming barriers to their personal mobility.
"A Review of the Literature on Involvement Of Alcohol In Pedestrian Collision Resulting in Death and Injury"; National Highway Safety Admin; Feb. 1975
Accident Data Collection & Analysis; National Highway Traffic & Safety Admin. June 1977
Pedestrian fatalities are primarily an urban problem. An English study by R.J. Smeed published in the Journal of Transportation Economics reports that the great percentage of pedestrian accidents occur on a small percentage of the road systems.
In urban areas, there is a general concurrence in the literature that peak accidents occur between three and six p.m. This represents about 30 to 40 percent of the accidents. The proportion drops off on either side of this period. Some exceptions involve much smaller secondary peaks during the seven to nine a.m. and noon to one p.m. time periods. This coincides with those times observed in the non-participant observation portion of this study to be the most heavily used both by pedestrians and automobiles. Smeed, Harris
and Christie showed that: "Darkness greatly
increased pedestrian casualties." Smeed, taking advantage of the change in light condi-
13. "Some Aspects of Pedestrian Safety; Journal of Transportation Economics and Policy;
Vol. 19; no. 83
tions with daylight saving during his research, showed that pedestrian casualties almost doubled for the hours of darkness studied.
In terms of days of the week available data indicate pedestrian accidents are overrepresented on Friday and Saturday. They are underrepresented on Sunday. A study called "Accident Facts" done by the National Safety Council in 1980 showed that almost 30 percent of the accidents occur on Friday and Saturday. The Wayne County, Michigan study indicated 35 percent of the accidents occuring on those two days. This was especially true for children with Friday being the worst day.
In terms of land use in relationship to pedestrian accidents, a number of studies have been done revealing a high incidence of accidents occuring in commercial areas.
Of thirteen major cities surveyed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration:
Sample 2100 Pedestrian Accidents Central Business District: 1%
Residential Areas: 50%
** Commercial: 40%
Mixed Commercial: 7%
School Area: 2%
A look at accident locations reveals that almost 60 percent of the urban pedestrian accidents in the United States from 1976 through 1978 occurred at places other than intersections. This indicates that intersection crossings are safer than other area crossings. Several recent major U.S. Pedestrian Behavior studies involved combinations of field observations and interviews combined with data from accident reports. The following is a list of Urban Pedestrian Accident Types and Critical Behavioral Descriptors:
ACCIDENT TYPE PERCENT LOCATION AND CRITICAL BEHAV-IORAL DESCRIPTORS
Dart (1st Out half) 23% Midblock (not at intersection)
Dart (2nd Out half) 9% Same as above except ped gets more than 1/2 way before being struck
Midblock Dash 7% Midblock (not at
(Source: "Model Pedestrian Safety Program,
User's Manual Washington"; Report No.
FHWA IP 78 6; Federal Highway Admini; 1978)
Developing or evaluating programs to improve pedestrian safety is complicated by the complex nature of the problem. Also, there are major gaps in ihe information needed to study it. More precise measures of the effectiveness of control devices, regulations and design features such as sidewalks used to improve pedestrian safety are needed to allow their use on a more selective basis. Slowly improvements are being made: "Even though approximately 400,000 pedestrians annually are being struck by vehicles (resulting in about 10,000 fatalities) they are being killed at decreasing rates per vehicle miles. This is largely attributable to Improved roadways,
more sidewalks and special law enforcements." 14.
Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook; Institute of Traffic Engineers; Prentice Hall Inc; 1976
A variety of measures have been suggested and used to reduce pedestrian accidents. They have included the use of such things as traffic control devices, or regulations, improving pedestrian visability at night; and the complete separation of pedestrian vehicles.
Median Barriers have been installed at various locations around the country in an attempt to discourage people from crossing in the middle of the block. In two studies, done by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in 1975, after installation of the barriers, most of the pedestrians (61 percent) identified the barrier as the reason for using the crosswalk. When asked whether the barrier affected the manner in which they crossed the street, 52 percent said it had no effect, while 48 percent indicated that it forced them to cross at the intersection; yielding fewer accidents.
Crosswalk Markings, Signing, and Signals
Marked and signed crossings, (not traffic signals), with appropriate legislative definition, have been widely employed as a means of reducing pedestrian hazard when crossing a street. Recent evidence indicates these do not guarantee reduced risk and must be applied with care. In 1972, an analysis was made of five years of accident data at 400 locations in San Diego, California comparing marked and unmarked crosswalks. Surprisingly, more, pedestrian accidents occur in marked crosswalks than in unmarked crosswalks by a ratio of approximately six to one. Further comparison of the volume of pedestrians using the marked and unmarked crosswalks shows that crosswalk use ratio is approximately three to one. This would indicate that approximately twice as many pedestrian accidents occur in marked crosswalks as in unmarked crosswalks. Evidence suggests this poor accident record is not due to the crosswalk being marked as much as it is a reflection on the pedestrians' overly trusting
attitude and behvior when using the marked crosswalk. It is therefore important for public officials not to install crosswalks without light signals unless the anticipated benefits clearly outweigh the risks.
Alternative Crossing Treatments
In a search for innovative approaches to pedestrian crossing protection, a report published for the Highway Safety Research Institute in 1971, Detroit, Michigan experimented with alternative configurations of crossing treatments. They used combinations of signing, marking, lighting and pedestrian signal actuation. (Not light signals) The alternative configurations included overhead signs with internal illumination, flashing beacons, and pedestrian signals. Thirteen sites were chosen on the basis of poor accident records and/or judgement which indicated an unusual hazard. The results: "Interviews of pedestrians and drivers showed drivers were usually satisfied with the devices. Pedestrians
were not satisfied with driver response. Drivers, It was concluded, did not expect to have to stop or slow down significantly unless a traffic signal or stop sign was in use. Pedestrians, however, expected traffic to slow down when the device was activated, (inaccurately)."^*
Signals designed to direct and protect the pedestrians at crossings are used throughout the world. A study of 30 locations in Tokyo where pedestrian activated signals were installed showed accidents being reduced by 37.5 percent. The pedestrian activated signals were found much more effective in reducing night accidents than daylight accidents. A study was made to compare pedestrian crossing behavior at sites with and without standard pedestrian signals. Observers noted specific behaviors twice on different days. A total of 24 sites in Detroit, Michigan were analyzed,
12 of which had pedestrian signals. Over
"An Innovative Pedestrian Crosswalk Safety Device Demonstration"; Highway Safety Research Inst; 1971
3,220 pedestrians were observed: "Illegal starts on amber 'Don't Walk' were about four percent less at sites with pedestrian signals. The percent arriving at the far side of the walk was 20% higher at the sites with pedestrian signals. A study published by the Federal Highway Administration in 1977 demonstrated that: "Few Pedestrians understand the meaning of the flashing 'Walk' and 'Don't Walk' pedestrian signals, whereas, symbolic pedestrian signalization and unheld hand offered an improved understanding over the word messages.
Pedestrian Refuge Areas
Pedestrian refuge areas between traffic lanes offer a place where pedestrians may pause while crossing a multi-lane street.
These areas may be dilineated by markings on the roadway or raised above the surface of the street. Some pedestrians are not able to complete the crossing in the alio ted time. And, running across intersections has been shown to be a common cause of pedestrian accidents.
A two-stage study of floodlighting of pedestrian crossings was conducted in Perth, Austrailia. A pilot study showed sufficient success to initiate a broader scale lighting program. Sixty-three sites were studied. The illumination consisted of two floodlights, one on each side of the crosswalk, on either side of the crosswalk mounted about 12 feet from the crosswalk at a height of 17 feet, and aimed at a point three feet above the pavement. Reductions in accidents, here, as in other studies were concluded to be primarily due to the illumination since daylight accidents were relatively unchanged. Ovservers searching the street in a fashion similar to drivers perceived the general appearance of pedestrians to be brighter. There was a significant improvement in the apparent concentration of pedestrians to the crossing task at all locations. Drivers appeared more aware of approaching hazardous crosswalks when illumination was present.
Bus Stop Location
Bus Stop accidents have been noted as a type into which two percent of the pedestrian accidents in urban areas may be classified. Important to remember when planning for bus stops is that they should be located so as not to be hidden by vegetation or other obstacles. Stops should be located away from roadway curves or superelevated locations and should provide adequate standing and playing area for waiting passengers. Finally, each location should provide maximum sight distance to all waiting passengers.
Finally, skywalks and subwalks including overpasses and underpasses have increasing applicability in high pedestrian volume situations. Observations of these types of road passes reveal a reluctance on the part of pedestrians either to climb stairs to overpasses or descend to underpasses when it is quicker to dash across the road. There are
times however, when these passes should be used to expediate pedestrian flow, especially where the street rights of way exceed 80 feet.
"The use of the automobile in urban areas accounts for 30 percent of the energy consumed in transportation. Many auto trips are short and could well be made by other means with great improvements to both air quality and fuel consumption patterns. Federal Highway statistics indicate over 40 percent of the urban work trips could be made by means other than the auto.
Until recent years, provisions for cyclists or walkers have been slighted. As a result, provisions are minimal or non-existant. Bridges, overpasses and regular street sections often have no sidewalks, or have extremely narrow walkways. Walkways often have abrupt changes in elevations making bicycle or wheelchair use impossible. In the Denver metro area Dr. Cog reports: "Usually streets have not been designed to include adequate space for a bicyclist. Pedestrians have often been neglected with minimal width sidewalks provided adjacent to the curb or not provided at all. Along some arterials, sidewalks have been
^' Bicycle/Pedestrlan Planning and Design Conference Proceedings; John E. Hirten, Deputy Administrator; Urban Mass Transpo Assoc; Orlando, Florida, 1977
removed to provide additional street capacity ^
Many existing or potential new bicycle facilities such as bike paths are under utilized because of a few barriers that are encountered when using bikeways: Inadequate watercrossing, limited access highways, curbs or drainage grates, etc. are not designed to accommodate bicycle wheels. Actions taken to enhance bicycling as an alternative mode of transportation should concentrate first on the removal of specific barriers.
The present and future relation of the bikeway to other systems of travel should be considered not only in long-range plans, but also in short term planning of bikeways for areas where immediate action must be taken: "The planners of bikeways for existing and especially future communities must consider that bicycle movement is a part of the larger transportation system, and therefore should be planned and designed to reflect this relationship. The bikeway is a related element in a many faceted transportation system is related to mix-mode
Dr. Cog: "Managing the Transportation System In The Denver Region."
travel which implies providing planned options for combination with auto, train, walking and
When bicycle and pedestrian improvements can be provided within the general scope of roadway projects, they should be implemented if demand warrants. In planning bikeways, attention should be directed toward the following considerations:
1) inventories should be made of existing bike facilities; identify travel and user characteristics, land-use relationships; physical conditions
2) forecasts of bicycle travel and demand should be made. Attention should be directed toward inter-relationships with other transportation modes and seasonal influences on bike utilization.
3) Planning goals and objectives should be established to include safety, mobility, efficiency, route flexibility, adaptability and imageability
4) providing bike storage and lock devices at appropriate locations.
Transportation & Traffic Engineering Handbook; Institute of Traffic Engineers; 1976; Prentice Hall; ch. 12; Urban Transportation Planning; Washington, D.C.
The danger involved in allowing bikeways of any sort on busy roads should be determined individually case by case for each street in the city, according to the motor patterns, number of street intersections and posted speed limits. The desire for the use of streets as bikeways can be plotted from survey data. It is then the job of the transportation planner to weigh and compare the two.
The term bikeway has been used to describe all facilities that explicitly provide for non-motorized bicycle travel ranging from fully grade separated right-of-way designated for the exclusive use of bicycles to a shared right-of-way designated as such by traffic signs and/or markings. Three main classes of bikeways are identified by the Institute of Traffic Engineers and are commonly used throughout the country:
Class I (Exclusive Bikeway) Completely separated R.O.W. Designated for the exclusive use of bicycles. Cross flows by pedestrians
and motorists are minimized.
2) Class II (Restricted Bikeway)- Restricted R.O.W. Designated for the exclusive use or semi-exclusive use of bicycles. Through traffic by autos or pedestrians is not allowed: vehicle parking may be permitted; crossflows by autos or pedestrians may be allowed to gain access to parking, drives
or associated land use.
3) Class III (Shared Bikeway) Shared R.O.W. as designated by signs placed on vertical posts or stencilled on pavements. Any bikeway that shares its through traffic R.O.W. with moving autos or pedestrians is considered Class III.
A great deal of controversy exists as to which type of bikeway is the safest under what conditions. There are drawbacks and good qualities to all of them. Exclusive bikelanes or bikepaths should be considered on major streets where most accidents occur. Bikers are more likely to take advantage of the protection offered by the bikeway on a high volume major street than on a local street where staying within the limits of the bikeway may not offer an obvious advantage.
John Forester, expert cyclist, at the Bicycle/ Pedestrian Planning Conference in Florida in 1977 reported: 'Cyclists like boulevards despite
the traffic, because they go to desired locations, are wide enough for all, are protected by stop signs against side street traffic, have traffic signals adjusted in their favor and are not impeded by the residential thicket of stop signs."
If the overall concensus is to install a bikeway on a busy street the question then becomes, which kind? Bikelanes (or what we are calling in this report, Class II, Restricted Bikeway) are simply lanes to the far right side of the roadway allotted for the exclusive use of bicyclists. Lines dividing bicyclists and automobile traffic are normally painted on the asphalt and should continue right on through the intersections. European studies report that bike lanes can be substantially more safety effective than direct collision causal analysis would indicate. The following reasons are suggested:
- Bikelanes may be a significant effect on movement patterns and predictability of cyclist behavior at intersections
- Bikelanes constitute a physical reminder to both cyclists and motorists which can reinforce cyclist obedience to the rules of the road and raise motorist consciousness relative to the presence of cyclists.
- Motorists will be warned to be alert for bicycles.
- A clear view of the bikeways can be maintained from the road.
- Use of physical barriers at intersections can be included in the design in order
to prevent right-turning directly into a bikeway.
- Biding with the traffic can be encouraged by bikelanes. (Many bicyclists incorrectly rationalize riding against traffic as being "safer", bikelanes on each side
of the road can discourage this.)
Quite often bike routes are needed along busy arteries where there is no room for striping a bike lane and no sidewalks exist.
A favorite technique in such situations is to
build an asphalt shoulder onto the existing road and stripe that off. Costs are much lower than building a separate side trail at the outer edge of the R.O.W. because working on the side of the existing allows crews to use large equipment and because the dirt shoulders are generally packed and provide a ready made foundation.
There are some problems which can accompany the provision of bike facilities along major arteries. Some experts agree that it is possible in some places for air pollution to be over ten times the pollution levels in surrounding communities. It has been suggested that the added stress of exercise in these areas may subject the cyclist to serious health risks. Road-side air pollution levels are related closely to traffic volume, but atmospheric conditions, particularly wind speed, are also important. It is therefore important to do an analysis of atmospheric conditions in an area before
deciding what type of bikeway to install. "A broad wind-swept boulevard for instance, will have lower concentrations of roadside air pollution for the same raffle volume than a center city thoroughfare bounded by multistory buildings.
In other instances, where the atmospheric conditions are oppressive, it might be wiser to set bicycle trails back fromthe roads. Sidewalks are occasionally shared by bicyclists and pedestrians. Some serious problems can occur with this unless the bicycle portion of the walk is separated from the portion devoted to pedestrians. This can be done by clear markings and instructions. Although very pleasant for the bicyclist, this type of bikeway as well as bikeways devoted solely to bicyclists, (out of the street R.O.W.) should be limited to paths where lengthy segments are relatively uninterrupted by cross streets and driveways. Bi-directional bikeways in particular should be installed only along paths with uninterrupted lengths. Consider-
Costs & Benefits of Reducing Bicyclists' Exposure to Roadside Air Pollution; Mike Everett; Assoc, of Prof. Economics; U. of S. Miss; Box 72; Hattiesburg, Miss.
able numbers of unsatisfactory experiences are now being reported regarding bikeways.
Poor sight distances and visibility relationships can exist at drives. Landscaping, shrubbery, and fences can impair sight distances at these locations. Very importantly, the high speed of bicycles entering into cross walk areas is often unanticipated. Some considerable difference of opinion exists in regard to design dimensions. Some people feel that a seven foot wide bikeway for a two-way system is adequate, justifying their opinion in European standards. Others feel that an eight foot or preferably a ten foot width with a two-way system is the minimum standard which should be used in the country at this time. Design standards differ not only on questions of width, but also on questions about the proper bicycle/auto mixture. Some people feel that bikes and autos should be sep-erated whenever possible. Those of this opinion feel that when this is not possible, bikes should be on the parallel streets with fewer
autos and slower speeds.
It must be kept in mind though, that most cycle facility planners are cognizant of the fact that cyclists are reluctant to travel out of direction in order to use a designated facility. Willingness to accept out-ofdirection travel, it is reported, varies as a function of several elements:
1) Quality facility in question
2) Perceived safety of facility relative to alternative routes relative to traffic intensity
3) Scale of detour in relationship to whole trip
4) Time sensitivity of trip
5) Grade profiles
The number of auto/bicycle accidents is rising each year and one of the major reasons seems to be the lack of understanding about the rights and responsibilities of bicyclists. Safety programs must be designed for both the car driver and bicyclist in order to be
effective. There is a major gap at the adult level for information concerning rules of the road, hazards and other information. Educating the auto driver is a more difficult problem than the bicyclist and efforts should be made to work with motor vehicle administrations and Department of Education Driver's Ed programs.
WHAT IS BEING DONE IN THE DENVER/METRO AREA TO ENCOURAGE PEDESTRIAN FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION IN STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTS?
The current Transportation Systems Management plan for the Denver region (TSM) itemizes specific areas, strategies and actions relative to current transportation problems, and the region's transportation goals and objectives.
The TSM plan identifies strategy packages to address specific sets of problems found in specific types of geographical subareas within region. These sub areas are identified as CBD (central business district), activity centers, residential areas and corridors. The rational for TSM planning in the Denver region is a recognition that financial and economic constraints, as well as the need for improved air quality, have severely limited the opportunities for expanding the transportation system, thus presenting the challenge of making more efficient use of the existing transportation facilities. "Growth in population, employment and income have imposed consistently increasing levels of demand on the region's transportation facilities.
At the same time, that demand is increasing, financial and environmental considerations as well as social and community compatibility considerations, have limited opportunities for expansion of the system. In addition, the Denver region is currently experiencing frequent violations of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide and ozone, implying the need for reduced levels of vehicular traffic.*
Many existing transportation facilities in the Denver/Boulder urbanized areas are built near residential and commercial uses, which essentially preclude any major right-of-way aquisition or reconstruction. Social and community compatibility considerations also impose limits on opportunities for expanding the transportation system. These constraints suggest that the roadway system in the currently urbanized area is for the most part fixed and that increasing attention must be given to the management and maintenance of
Dr. Cog: "Managing the Transportation
System in the Denver Metro Area" p. 12
existing facilities. "Energy conservation
goals require encouragement of public
transit and higher vehicle occupancies,
maintenance of efficient service levels
and use of other energy efficient transporta-
The studies conducted by Dr. Cog, in conjunction with the Colorado Division of Highways and various local agencies have resulted in the development of a long range transportation plan for the City of Boulder.
An element of the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan called the Transportation Element outlines the goals and policies of Boulder County's transportation planning.
Those items relating to pedestrian planning:
Energy efficiency shall be increased by encouraging the use of public transit, encouraging higher vehicle occupancy rates, maintenance of optimal levels of service and encouraging the use of other energy effective means of transportation .
Dr. Cog: "Managing The Transportation System in the Denver Metro Area
Safety shall be im proved by the selected improvement of highway segments and by concerted effort to separate uncomplimentary modes and purposes of transport.
The transportation plan shall be implemented through a five-year capital improvement program which shall be updated annually. Improvements shall be programmed in anticipation of volume-to-capacity and safety problems rather than in reaction to them.
Bikeways and pedestriansways shall be an integral part of the transportation system. Bikeways and sidewalks shall be provided in new developments where warranted. Trails shall be provided to link residential areas, shopping centers, recreational areas and educational facilities.
The transportation element of the Comprehensive Plan considers bicycles as a legitimate mode of transportation along with transit and the automobile. An approach has been taken which seeks to identify major bike linkages among the major activity centers in Boulder
County. Also special efforts are being made to integrate a network of bikeway facilities to connect urban service areas both together and to recreational areas. Boulder County's bicycle plan does not currently plan to include the 28th Street study area. Although bike facilities are not currently in existance at the 28th Street study area, several other strip commercial district areas in the county either have bike facilities or are expecting to receive them in the future. The Boulder Valley Bikeway Plan consists of all of the three types of bikeways.
The bulk of the Bikeway Plan is made up of bike lanes: "There exists over 100 miles of roadways in Boulder County with adequate shoulders to accommodate bicycles.
The cost of converting these facilities to bike lanes by means of striping, Signing, and other techniques would be minimal compared to the cost of constructing physically separated bike paths. Wide shoulders could serve a dual purpose of accommodating bicycles and vehicle emergencies.
Mo reover, shoulders are included inthe standards
for modern highways and will be required of future
roadway construction to accommodate bicycles."
Accident statistics show that vehicles traveling side by side are much less hazardous than the vehicle/bicycle conflicts at intersections .
The inclusion of shoulders for bicycles in the Bikeway Plan produces an extensive network of bikeway facilities throughout the county. It is the hope stated in the comprehensive plan that all cities and towns will be linked together and almost every area of the county will be reachable by bicycle.
The Regional Transportation Plan contains a number of regional transit service corridors which are designated as possible extensions of high quality transit after the year 2000.
But it states: "unless population growth in Boulder County is far above that being presently projected or severe fuel shortages develop, the need for high quality transit lines in Boulder County will be minimal."24.
Boulder County Comprehensive Plan: "Transportation Element"; amended 1977
The Boulder Valley Study reached the conclusion that Boulder was presently too small and the technology too unproven for a capital-intensive system to be built at the present time. For the next ten to fifteen years, it reports, the bus is the best choice for the provision of mass transit in the Boulder Valley.
The City of Boulder has become strict in recent years in enforcing zoning regulations. In Commercial
Districts, as in other areas, requests for zoning variances, PUD reviews, and sizeable building additions are subject to certain landscape requirements before approvals are given. Different types of landscape improvements are required in each individual situation. Full maintenance of improved areas is required in each case. Mechanical irrigation is usually not required and officials have difficulty in supplying enough staff to check the maintenance of each of these areas. It has become, of late, standard procedure
to require sidewalks be provided in common areas. With the recent increase in redevelopment activity, strip commercial district areas have been moderately successful in upgrading the landscape environment in places. Boulder Planning Office in its requirements for landscaping in these areas has relied heavily on a report done by the Carl Worthington Partnership for the City of Boulder. This report was done for the Boulder Valley Regional Center (BVRC), some of which relates to areas which are considered strip commercial district areas. The purpose of the report was to "develop guidelines and standards that will guide the design of landscape by the public sector."
To date, the city of Boulder has made a major commitment in terms of projects related to streets, flood control and utilities, some of which also relate directly to strip commercial district areas. Each of these will have some degree of landscaping treatment. Other cities in the Denver-Metro area have become more and more strict in their landscape requirements. Results have been slow and are often piecemeal, but a steady upgrade of certain strip commercial areas can be expected in many cities in the next few years.
PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY AND REVIEW OF METHODOLOGY
The case study portion of this thesis is an attempt to develop a proto-type or process with which to examine Right-of-Way problem areas for pedestrians in strip commercial district environments. Design suggestions are made regarding repairs, upgrades, new additions, character improvement and pedestrian amenities for this type of area.
For purposes of illustration, the original 28th Street study area was further analyzed and general overall plans for improvement were suggested. This approach to the analysis of the study area and the plans for improvement of conditions for pedestrians will hopefully be broad enough to be of use for application in the improvement of other similar areas.
As is illustrated in the Methodology Chart on the following page, information gathered during the research portion of this study contributed to the formulation of the plans for improvement. Suggestions for improvements given in the surveys conducted with pedestrians, bicyclists and merchants revealed a hierarchy in terms of priorities for improvement. The top priorities seemed to fall under the category of health and safety considerations. More contin-
uous sidewalks, more night lighting, buttons to push for more expedient pedestrian crossing, and seating at bus stops would be a few examples of this type of improvement. Middle priorities seemed to fall within the category of aesthetic improvements such as better landscaping, the installation of curb and gutter and the cleaning up of the area. Of the least priority were pedestrian amenity types of improvements such as street furniture, bus shelters and rest and seating areas.
The results of these surveys combined with research into and first hand observations of successful solutions in the built environment for the accommodation of pedestrians, contributed to the formulation of an approach to the design of the area.
As is revealed in the Methodology Chart, thorough Inventory and Analysis of the area contributed strongly to the formulation of the plans for improvement.
Suggestions for improvements are illustrated in Plan One (Essential Improvements or Health and Safety) Plan Two (Aesthetic Improvements), and Plan Three (Radical Improvements and Pedestrian Amenities). Plans were developed rather
than all-inclusive alternatives in order that bits and pieces of each of the Plans might be of some use to future designers as they examine problem areas case by case.
REVIEW OF STUDIES DONE REGARDING PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES
PLAN ONE ESSENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS
RESEARCH ID OF PED PROBLEM AREAS EXISTING BUILT FACILITIES UTILITIES PROPERTY & R.O.W. INFO SURROUNDING LAND USES
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS SURVEY REPAIRS PLAN # TWO
10 OF SURROUNDING LAND : RESEARCH DESIGN GUIDELINES . . UPGRADES ; AESTHETIC IMPROVEMENTS
USES ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT CHARACTER IMPROVEMENT
SEQUENTIAL PHOTOS OF PED EXPERIENCE PHYSICAL PROBLEMS FOR PEDS
ISSUES OF PED PLANNING ID OF CASE STUDY AREA L PEDESTRIAN AMENITIES
RIGHT OF WAY PLAN # THREE
CHARACTER USER PATTERNS RADICAL
REVIEW OF SOLUTIONS IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT FOR ACCOMMODATING PEDESTRIANS
THOROUGH OUTLINE OF PROCESS FOR USE BY OTHERS
Inventory was taken of the study area in order to become acquainted with the existing built facilities, the availability of utilities, the surrounding land uses, and the legal definitions of property lines.
The study area from the Pearl Street intersection to the Iris Avenue intersection was determined to be zoned community commercial. (See Inventory Map next page). Immediate surrounding land uses were determined to be regional commercial (the Crossroads Mall), medium density residential and high density residential. It can be assumed by looking at this land use, that continued pedestrian flow back and forth from the residential areas to the two commercial areas is likely. It is also important to note that the area north of Iris Avenue on 28th Street is quickly becoming a high density apartment and condominium area, and will most likely be generating more and more pedestrian activity back and forth to the commercial area.
Availability of utilities is an important consideration for any designer approaching this type of project. Carefully scaled maps recording the location of water lines, fire hydrants, water valves, sewer lines, catch basins, manholes and power lines were obtained for review of this
project from the City of Boulder Department of Mapping and Records, a division of the Public Works Department. Designers and Planners should quickly establish utility information in this type of project in order to determine the availability of utilities for use regarding such things as irrigation and collection of run-off as well as possible constraints for developing in the Right-of-Way due to the existance of certain utility facilities.
Property line information should also be obtained from the city (see Inventory Diagram) in order to determine the extent of the R.O.W. over which public agencies have jurisdiction.
In the case of 28th Street, the public R.O.W. ranged from 10 feet on either side of the road up to 30 feet and 40 feet on either side in some cases. The availability of land should be checked by the designer as well as any possible future plans for road expansion before proceeding with plans for improvement in the Right-of-Way area.
Also included in the R.O.W. Diagram is an inventory of existing light facilities for the safety of night traffic. The ability of auto drivers to see at night of course better assures
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MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
28TH STREET DESIGN THESIS STUDY AREA MARGO SCHULTZ
SURROUNDING LAND USES
the safety of the pedestrians in the area at night. This information was later analyzed and tested against the city standards for lighting. Results of this test and areas found to be deficient in lighting are recorded on the Physical Analysis Map of this study.
200 W HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM 250 W HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM 250 MERCURY VAPOR
28TH STREET STUDY AREA
SCALE: 1 100
DESIGN THESIS MARGO SCHULTZ
Physical analysis of problem conditions throughout the study area were obtained simply by walking the area and recording observations on an aerial photo. (See Physical Analysis Map on following page). Although reduced in size down for inclusion in this report, the original aerial maps used were at a scale of 1" = 100' and therefore were large enough to afford accurate recording of conditions. First and foremost, areas where no sidewalk existed were noted and the hatched symbol indicating the need for sidewalk installation was represented on the map. Secondly, areas of sidewalk in a serious state of disrepair, and areas crossing over parking lots not safe for pedestrians were noted and the symbol indicating the need for walk improvement was represented on the map. Corner curb areas and drive cut curb areas which presented obvious problems for handicapped pedestrians were indicated on the map with the symbol for not adequate for handicapped. Areas where no curb and gutter existed were noted and recorded as well as those areas which did not supply facilities for lighting at least every 500 feet. Finally, special problem areas were called out such as areas where pedestrians continually crossed in the middle of the
road rather than at the intersections, or areas where the walkways were obstructed by landscaping.
In order to better accommodate pedestrian activities in strip commmercial district areas, it was first necessary to make note of the problem conditions in the area. The designer can then proceed to determine priorities for improvement in light of budget and time allotment. It is of course, the most expedient to implement any upgrading and improvement along with other schedule construction. It is therefore strongly suggested that the designer work very closely with the Planning Review Board.
A Visual Analysis of the Right-of-Way was also conducted in the study area in order to determine areas where the landscape treatment was not adequate. Rather than attempt to make judgements on the aesthetics of the design, the criterion for rating the landscape treatment was based on the condition of the visual landscape along the R.O.W. The criteria for adequate landscape treatment was that the area be tidy and well kept, that any trees, shrubs and grass be in a healthy state, and that other landscape materials used such as stone, walls, or wood structures, be in good repair. The analysis was conducted by walking the R.O.W. and rating areas. Those areas rated #1 were areas where the landscape treatment was consi-
PEOPLE CROSS IM THE MIDDLE MERE
LANDSCAPE ISLANO DISRUPTS WALK
LANDSCAPE ISLANO OI8RUPTS WALK HERE
PEOPLE DRIVE OVER CURB HERE PEOPLE CROSS IN MIDDLE HERE
28TH STREET STUDY AREA
PHYSICAL ANALYSIS FOR RIGHT OF WAY
mmm *^ design thesis
SCALE: 1 100' MARGO SCHULTZ
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LANDSCAPE TREATMENT NOT ADEQUATE
LANDSCAPE TREATMENT COULD USE IMPROVEMENT, BUT IS ADEQUATE
LANDSCAPE TREATMENT ADEQUATE
LANDSCAPE TREATMENT BETTER THAN ADEQUATE
|(TTTTmt DITCH NEEDS TREATMENT L >~j INADEQUATE BUS FACILITY | Q 1 HIGHLY VISIBLE, BUSY CORNER
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28TH STREET STUDY AREA
FOR RIGHT OF WAY
DESIGN THESIS MARGO SCHULTZ
TIDY, WELL KEPT AREA,-TREES, SHRUBS AND GRASS IN HEALTHY STATE OTHER LANDSCAPE MATERIALS (STONE, WALLS, WOOD STRUCTURES, IN GOOD REPAIR)
dered not adequate. Those areas rated #2 were areas where the landscape treatment was adequate but could use improvement. Those areas rated #3 were areas where the treatment was considered adequate. Only one area along the R.O.W. was rated #4 where the landscape treatment was considered to be better than adequate. The purpose of this rating system was to enable the designer to keep in mind those areas along the R.Q.W. most in need of improvement and upgrading. These areas would then hopefully receive attention in whatever landscape treatment approach was taken in attempting to improve the area for the pedestrian visually.
Other areas which needed appearance improvement were also indicated on the analysis. Ditch areas whose state of disrepair visually blighted the surroundings were identified. Bus stops located in visually blighted areas were also recorded as well as highly visible, busy corner areas in a state of neglect and disrepair. Finally, special problem areas were indicated such as stark, barren median and island areas. These special types of problem areas indicated will also hopefully receive priority attention in whatever landscape treatment approach is used in (he strip commercial district
DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENT
Plan #1 as is illustrated in the (Diagram following this page), addresses primarily issues of health and safety for the pedestrian. A plan view showing exact location of problem areas along the R.O.W. is used to indicate those areas where the installation of walks is necessary, those areas which need to be made handicap accessible, those areas requiring additional night lighting for vehicles and special problem areas such as intersections in need of pedestrian crosswalks or areas where pedestrians cross over the medians at midblock locations rather than cross at the intersections.
In regard to walk installation, along the narrow curbside spaces the designer in many instances will have little choice for walk alignment which Will have to be either right up against the curb or in some cases a little further from the curb. In the broader areas it is recommended that the alignment be designed cur-valinearly, or as a series of straight alignments offset to one another so as not to create a long, straight focus. When earth forms are used in conjunction with walks, it is recommended that walks flow between and around them rather than over them to avoid extra steps for pedestrians.
Wherever the R.O.W. width permits it is desireable that the walk be located a minimum of 5 feet back from the flow line (8 feet and greater is preferable) in order to accommodate utilities, force seperation of pedestrians and vehicles and encourage tree planting and growth in the R.O.W. Walkways will vary in width according to the amount and type of traffic using them. It is recommended that walks be a minimum of A feet wide for pedestrian comfort.
It is suggested that the surface of walks be stable and firm and relatively smooth in texture with a non-slip quality.
At the two points indicated on the plan view of the study area, it is recommended that a break in the median be designed in to provide a midstreet "safezone" for pedestrian crossing. Since pedestrians insist on crossing at these points anyway, it is better that these areas make the crossing safe and easier. Traffic signs should also be installed to warn autos of pedestrian crossing.
It is desireable that wheelchair curb cuts and ramps be installed at all intersections and drive cuts. The City of Boulder has embarked on a program to install ramps during all new construction projects. It is recommended that ramps be
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wide enough for wheelchair use a minimum of 26 inches. Several types of ramp design are illustrated in the Plan #1 Diagram including ramps at curbwalk intersections, ramps at the intersection of a curbwalk and a detached walk, and ramps at the intersection of two detached walks. A variation in the ramp's pavement detail, finish or color, may serve to warn pedestrians of the upcoming dip in the sidewalk.
All of the major intersections in the 28th Street Study area have buttons installed in order to facilitate faster light indication for the pedestrian crossing. It is strongly suggested that for similar projects, these pedestrian buttons be installed at the intersections which come under heavy pedestrian use, and that lights be timed carefully so as not to endanger the pedestrian crossing at the intersection. These two suggestions for intersection crossing were found to be consistently mentioned in the surveys as considered to be priorities for pedestrian improvement.
In terms of street lighting, it is recommended that strip commercial district areas be analyzed individually in order to determine whether or not lighting is adequate to assure vehicular safety at night. In designing for adequate street lighting it will be necessary to determine the
level of illumination (in footcandles) adequate
for safe night vision. (Consult the appropriate
tables). Frank B. Burggraf, Jr., in his
chapter in the Handbook of Landscape Construction
on 'Outdoor Electrical Systems' outlines the procedure
for designing the lighting of an area:
It will be necessary to determine the required number of initial lumens that are required to produce the required footcandles. Data should be available from any manufacturer.
maintained footcandle level x's lighted area in sq. f t.
initial lumens =
The next step will be to determine the number of lights required to provide the total required initial lumens
no. of lights
beam lumens/from mfr. tables
Determine the number of lights necessary for uniformity of illumination. Choose location for light sources for uniform illumination without glare. See manufacturers data for recommended fixture layouts and mounting heights.
Determine rated voltage and wattage for selected lights. Remember that lamps do not produce the design level of illumination at other than rated voltage.
"Many different lights and different combinations
could meet the same design parameters. The
actual choice depends on the appearance of the
fixtures and how the spacing of fixtures would
fit into the overall design scheme." It is suggested that it is good practice to overlap the spread of light from one pole mounted fixture to be next. This avoids dark spots and changing levels of illumination.
In terms of types of lighting suggested, in sodium discharge lamps the arc is carried through vaporized sodium. The resulting light is a mono-chromatic yellow which is rather undesireable for street lighting. Slightly more desireable are mercury vapor lights. The typical light produced however, is deficient in reds which distorts color rendition. Mercury vapor is however, fairly well suited to applications requiring higher intensity and application over wide areas.
The most desireable of the types of lighting are metal haylide which provide the most color range.
Handbook of Landscape Architecture Construction.
Jod D. Carpenter, Editor; Landscape Arch Foundation 1976. Chapter 8 by Frank B. Burggraf
Plan #2 deals primarily with aesthetic considerations. Indicated on the plan view are median areas which have been identified as visually ugly and in need of repair and treatment. Also shown on the plan are landscape Right-of-Way areas which hav been rated either of inadequate treatment or of adequate treatment but in need of improvement.
Areas in need of curb and gutter are also
indicated as well as intersections whose
barren, neglected characters make poor focal points
Medians, intersections (focal areas) and curb-sides (R.O.W. landscaping) are common elements that occur throughout the strip commercial district area. A consistency of treatment of these elements, occuring over time can do much to provide a unity and clear image for the area.
As is the case in most strip commercial district areas, the study area streetscape has very little landscaping to visually soften the hard surfaces. Landscaping and plant materials could be one of the major elements of consistency that reinforce median and intersection landscapes and help to bind the area together.
Present medians are low, flat surfaced and paved. They are an ugly, dull sight in the middle of the road and in their present state have a
tendency to collect sand and salt during the winter. By modifying the components, the problems of sand and salt accumulation can be reduced. New concrete for instance can be formed in a crown shape so that the pavement can become both a distinctive element and a worthwhile, workable solution for preventing debris build up and collection. Rather than simply replace the concrete it might be desirable in some cases to add pigment for needed color and interest or to mimic and/or play off of surrounding building materials. One possibility and one that would continue the median theme found around the Crossroads portion of 28th Street would be colored and textured concrete (bomanite) as an alternative to the standard asphalt or concrete. (See illustration on Plan #2 following page). This type of arrangement has been used handsomely in areas all around Boulder and has been found to wear well.
Paving with cobble set in mortar is another aesthetically pleasing alternative. This option however, is not likely to be self-cleaning and will probably accumulate sand and debris in its crevices. Paving with brick set in motar is another possibility which could add style and color to an area. Brick medians used should have a 20% pitch from crown to curb in order to throw off debris. The relative expense and importance of each of these alternatives will have to be weighed in individual cases by the designer. It will
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- DESIQN THESIS
SCALE: 1 200 MARQO SCHULTZ
be important, however, to reflect a consistency of treatment throughout the area in question.
Medians of adequate width could also be landscaped in order to provide visual and physical relief from the negative effects of traffic and urban development. Planting of medians could also partially screen adjacent traffic and reduce the temperature of the air and pavement surfaces.
A recommended approach to median plantings is to keep the planting simple so that medians project a strong identity throughout the area. It is preferable to use canopy trees as the dominant tree type as they will have an immediate visual effect on the area, will avoid obscuring important views of things like advertising signage and will provide relief from summer heat and glare. For immediate visual effect it is desireable that canopy trees be spaced no more than 35 feet apart from one another. An occasional interplanting of large conifers tightly grouped together may be suggested for variety and interest as long as the median is wide enough and the view of businesses and signage is not obscured. Understory shrubs may be planted for additional interest and relief and in order to discourage weed growth. It is suggested that the planting scheme remain simple, with one or two species
repeated throughout the median length in order that this repeated theme be recognized throughout the area. A cobble mulch is another alternative for discouraging weed growth. It can be an attractive feature and is much less wind prone than other types of mulch.
In the case of planted medians, the city would be responsible for installing and maintaining underground irrigation systems. New service lines could connected to city service line stubs. Backflow pre-ventors, valves, fittings, sprinklers, automatic controls, valve boxes and electrical service to controller would all have to be installed in order to establish a system for median irrigation which would be automatically controlled.
Historically the problems with median irrigation have been associated with overwatering rather than underwatering. Also, it is a difficult thing to assure that city maintenance crews will monitor the irrigation levels carefully. It may therefore have to become the self-appointed duty of someone to check the system's functioning on occasion.
The following page contains a list of plant materials which are recommended for use in median plantings as well as a list of plants that are recommended for use along R.O.W. planting areas.
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TREES FOR MEDIAN PLANTING
Thornless Common Honeylocust
Common Horse Chestnut Hawthorne varieties
(Black Hawthorne thornless) (Washington Hawthorne) Flowering Crabapples (Adams)
Green Ash seedless varieties (Summit)
Autumn Purple Ash Hackberry
SHRUBS FOR MEDIAN PLANTING
PINES FOR MEDIAN PLANTING
Scotch Pine Austrian Pine Bristlecone Pine White Fir
Blue Spruce (smaller species)
TREES FOR RIGHT-OF-WAY PLANTING
Narrowleaf Cottonwood Amur Maple Norway Maple
Thornless Common Honeylocust Catalpa
Common Horse Chestnut Black Hawthorne (thornless) Hawthorne (varieties)
Euonymus Europa Flowering Crabapples (Adams)
Green Ash seedless varieties (Summit)
Autumn Purple Ash Hackberry Japanese Pagoda
SHRUBS FOR R.O.W. PLANTING
Euonymous (sp)(some evergreen)
Juniper (sp) (evergreen)
Ligustrum (sp) (evergreen)
Mugo Pine (evergreen)
PINES FOR R.O.W. PLANTING
Blue Spruce (smaller sp)
Scoth Pine Austrian Pine Bristlecone Pine
In arriving at an approach for landscaping the R.O.W. areas it is important to remember that a consistent approach along the curbsides can do much to alleviate the barren feeling of the strip and tie the area together. The three types of curbside R.O.W. areas that can be addressed are the narrow areas (up to 10 feet including the sidewalks), the broad areas (up to 40 feet in some places), and the intersections.
Areas along the narrow R.O.W. where landscape treatment has been rated not adequate, or adequate but could use improvement could be addressed in several ways:
One approach would be for the city to take on the upgrading of the areas as a distinct project. Under these conditions a clear maintenance program would be outlined and a maintenance budget would be set aside within the project budget. This would guarantee maintenance of the area even in the busiest of maintenance seasons. The maintenance program would include the installation and operation of an irrigation system. The irrigation system could pull off of city water lines at several key points. The system might be installed in conjunction with sidewalk and/or curb and gutter construction. Under this type of management program it is suggested that Buffalo Grass be planted in the
narrow R.O.W. areas rated not adequate or adequate but could use improvement. Buffalo Grass could be established along the R.O.W. by means of temporary strip irrigation and later would take little or no watering. Shade trees along the 28th Street strip could help to supply physical and visual relief and encourage a stronger identity and unity in the area. Areas between the curb and sidewalk of at least 5 feet (8 to 12 feet preferable), could be planted with a cluster of 4 to 6 trees in a row at key intervals along the strip. Trees would be planted in a linear fashion no more than 35 feet apart from one another within the cluster. It is suggested that larger caliper trees be planted for acceleration of desired effect. Smaller shrubs could also be planted as an understory. Shrubs of 3 feet or greater should be discouraged in the R.O.W. to avoid sightline obstruction. Trees will have to be irrigated and therefore should be planted at least 30 feet from drive cuts to avoid interference with irrigation lines. Vision at curb cuts should remain clear of dense barriers within a 90 cone of vision to points at least 30 feet on either side of the auto exit.
A second approach for landscaping the narrow areas of the R.O.W. would be to involve the merchants in the area. Individual merchants would be contacted by the Transportation Department about
ideas for a beautification project. Merchants would work closely with a Transportation Department designer to develop a specific plan for their property right-of-way area. These plans would of course correspond to the larger design scheme. Design and implementation would be paid for by the Transportation Department in exchange for merchant maintenance and irrigation. Irrigation lines whenever possible would be run off of merchant water systems. Assuming that R.O.W. areas would be watered at regular intervals, strip areas could be planted with Blue Grass sod.
Broad areas could be addressed similarly in approach one or two. The broader curbside areas would have space enough to produce the most visual impact. The use of soft berm forms to break up the boring flatness of the strip could be introduced in these broader areas. Curved walkways could also be used for additional variety and interest along with more concentrated plantings. Ornamental trees and conifers might be used in these areas -planted back away from the curb. It is suggested however, that the trees planted between the walk-
way and curb in these broader areas follow the same pattern as those in the narrow part of the R.O.W. for uniformity of expression.
Currently the three major intersections in the 28th Street Study area have no landscape definition, nor any consistency of treatment.
These corner areas are the focus of a lot of activity both vehicular and pedestrian. These areas become then, a logical focal point and have a large visual impact on the area. The major intersections in strip commercial district areas could become the focus of the various landscape elements used along the landscaped R.O.W. to enhance and heighten identity. The less busy corners with minimal space could be landscaped fairly simply with hardy plant materials including canopy trees, shrubs and conifers. For strength of character and easier maintenance, planting schemes should not be cluttered with small, fussy plantings. Areas could also include some gentle berming if space and drainage patterns permit. Highly visible, high use corners could be landscaped but with the additional use of hard surfaced pavement and seating. These areas would become design focal points.
INSTALL WALKS OVER PARKINQ/DRIVE AREA
MAJOR BUS FACILITY NEEDS TREATMENT
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WALKS OVER PARKING AREAS
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niitMTS 900 H OOOJ AM. USIGO It. IMAGINATIVE HAYS TO HIIMJIA TH B.3ESTR1AN AREAS.
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BIKELANES AND BIKEWAYS
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a ajGciaus. coouinapd rax., an mi
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28TH STREET STUDY AREA
SCALE: 1 200 PLAN #THREE
bb y m DESIGN THESIS
PLAN # 3
Plan #3 addresses mostly pedestrian amenities.
In regard to bus facilities, it is recommended that bus stop areas of particularly high use be identified and at the very minimum, seating be provided. Shelters are also very much encouraged at these high use stops to accommodate the large numbers of people using mass transit along these strip corridors. Seating should be a minimum of 5 feet back from the curb whenever possible and could be integrated into curbside landscaping plan. It might also be possible to combine pedestrian rest and focal areas with the accommodation of bus stop seating. A change from the concrete pavement in this type of area would help to identify this type of arrangement as a gathering place.
Shrubs and/or shade trees could also offer some shelter and repast for pedestrians awaiting bus arrivals.
WALKS OVER PARKING AREAS
Parking lot crossings in the R.O.W. are frequently areas of high potential auto/ped conflict. A change in the surface paving has been found to help to remind drivers to watch for pedestrians.
Elements such as lighting, building facades, street furniture and special signage can all be used to establish an image and reinforce an identity. The vestiges of an areas roots and an accounting of its progress should be cherished and illustrated.
Even a strip commercial district should be able to tell you where it is in the country, what city, what region. In the case of the 28th Street study area, the surrounding land was originally used for cattle grazing and the growing of feed as well as some truck farming. For years the Boulder Rodeo Pow Wow stood at the northeast corner of 28th Street and Iris Avenue. Artists and designers hired to develop signage, design buildings or facades, do expansions or develop focal areas, should be encouraged to develop distinctive motifs in the imagery of the area. Whenever possible good views should of course be maintained.
Also wherever possible it is desireable to cluster signage into a unified system as too many signs can be overbearing to the pedestrian eye. Combining signs with light fixtures is recommended to reduce the number of posts and illuminate signs.
Street amenities and furnishings should be more than utilitarian. The perpetrators of the City Beautiful Movement brought to the attention of the
28TH STREET BOULDER, COLORADO
&Joffice of m
W BOULDER NEWS )(
OLD FASHIONED STORE FRONTS
general public the idea that we should not be satisfied with mere durability and strength, in utilitarian structures but should demand that to these be added beauty and grace. The careful handling of color, texture, and size can help to enhance the imagery and humanization of an area. Amenities whenever possible should follow a consistency of theme.
In times past cities were held to be progressive when they presented a great network of wires and utilities. It is now, rather, more desireable to show the fewest wires and utility functions.
It is recommended that lighting for pedestrians be installed in areas such as major bus stops, intersection focal areas and pedestrian rest areas. Lights should be sized at a human scale and should illuminate downward towards the street. Styles used should be consistent throughout the area and should be in keeping with the overall theme of the area.
BIKELANES AND BIKEWAYS
According to the City of Boulder Bikeway Plan, 28th Street is not designated as a desireable avenue for bicycles. Other strip commercial district areas however, may find it useful to
accommodate bicycle traffic along a major artery.
It is recommended first that in planning for the bicyclist, concentration be focused onthe removal of specific barriers to bicyclists such as curbs or drainage grates not designed to accommodate bike wheels. The present and future relation of the bikeway should be considered not only in long-range plans, but also in short-term planning of bikeways for areas where immediate action is to be taken. Bicycle movement is a part of the larger transportation system and should be planned and designed to reflect this relationship. It is recommended that as with other pedestrian facility improvements, whenever possible, bikeway improvements should be implemented along with general roadway projects. A number of different kinds of bikeways are possible for use.
These varieties range from fully grade seperate right-of-way designated for the exclusive use of bicycles, to a restricted right-of-way where bicyclists must share the area with crossflows of pedestrians and vehicles gaining access to parking, driveways or associated land uses, to a R.O.W. shared with vehicles as designated on vertical posts or stencilled on pavements. There are of course, drawbacks and good qualities to all of these approaches which will have to be weighed in each particular situation. Bikelanes, it is recommended, should be a minimum of 4 feet, preferably 5 feet wide.
! f 28TH STREET i
! BOTTTjDER COTiORADO '!
USE WES TERN/AGRARIAN _I MAGES
It is hoped that this thesis will serve as an example of a process by which a designer can analyze and assess the types of problems inherent for the pedestrian in these strip commercial district areas. These areas exist to some extent in every moderate to large sized city in the country. It is not the intent of the study to attempt to stamp-out these areas, as they serve a purpose and function and are sometimes very enjoyable. Rather, these are suggestions for design and improvement given with the hope that we can make these areas more liveable: "We are children of nature, and it is a strange and pathetic thing that men should ever have thought that because mutual dependence huddled them together int^g cities, they must leave the country behind."
The Improvement of Towns and Cities; Charles Muford Robinson; G.P. Putman's Sons; New York; The Knickerbocker Press; 1901; pg. 126
28 TH STREET STUDY AREA
1- Pedestrian Planning and Design; John J. Fruln; Ph.D; Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners; 1971
2. Transportation Quarterly; "Bus Passenger Walking Distance"; Volume XXXVI; No. 3; July 1982
3. Urban Space For Pedestrians; A Report of the Regional Planning Association; Boris Pushkarev; MIT Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1975
4. More Streets For People; Institute For Environmental Action.
5. For Pedestrians Only; Planning, Design and Management of Traffic-Free Zones; Roberto Brambilla and Gianni Longo; Whitney Library of Design; 1977; New York
6. "Quantifying The Benefits of Separating Pedestrians and Vehicles"; Research Program; Transportation Research Board; National Research Council; Washington, D.C.; 1978
7. Boulder County Zoning Resolution; Adopted by the Board of County Commissioners; October 11, 1965; containing all amendments adopted as of March 10, 1977
8. Behavior Evaluation of Pedestrian Countermeasures; Wallace G. Berger; Ph.D. for National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
9. Research on Safety and Locational Criteria for Bicycle Facilities; Daniel T. Smith, Jr. Senior Transportation Planner; Delauw, Cather & Company; 1256 Market Street: San Francisco, California
10. A Study of Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accidents; City of Santa Barbara; California; June 1973
11. Proceedings From the Bicycle/Pedestrian Planning and Design Conference; Orlando Florida; 1977
12. Proceedings from the Pedestrian Conference; Boulder, Colorado 1982, 1983; Sponsored by the Transportation Division, City of Boulder, Colorado
13. The Tempe Bikeway Study; Elizabeth A. Drake; Drake Association; AIA; Planner II; Tempe Planning Department Tempe, Arizona
14. John Forester, M.S., P.E., Experty Cyclist; 782 Allen Court, Palo Alto, California 94403
15. Cost and Benefits of Reducing Bicyclists' Exposure To Roadside Air Pollution; Mike Everett; Assoc, of Economics; University of Southern, Miss; Hattiesburg, Miss.
16. Planning and Designing For the Pedestrian Environment; Anthony R. Ameruso; New York City Department of Highways
17. The Pedestrian; Benjamin 0. Davis, Jr; Assistant Secretary for Environmental Safety and Consumer Affairs; U.S. Department of Tranportation
18. "Managing the Transportation System In the Denver Region"; Dr. Cog
19. Transportation & Traffic Engineering Handbook; Institute of Traffic Engineers; Prentice Hall; 1^76;
Ch. 12; Urban Transportation Planning
20. Interviews with: Allen Loving and Rob Faber, Boulder Planning Department
Cyndy Merril, City of Lakewood Planning Department
21. "Landscape Guidelines For the Boulder Valley Regional Center"; Carl A. Worthington Partnership;
22. Shopping Center Development Handbook; Urban Land Institute; 1977
23. Practical Research Planning and Design; Second Edition; Paul D. Leedy; Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. New York, 1980
24. Planning the Pedestrian Environment; Herbert S. Levinson; Senior VP; Wilbur Smith Assoc;
25. Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements; Distributed by the Federal Highway Administration, December 1982
26. "Characteristics of Pedestrian Accidents"; Department of Civil Engineering; Marquette University;
August 1976; J. Bahnam and A. L. Zuhair
27. "A Study of Measures To Improve Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety"; Canadian Department of Transportation;
28. "A Review of the Literature on Involvement of Alcohol in Pedestrian Collisions Resulting in Death and Injury"; Zvlman, Blomberg and Pruesser; National Highway Safety Administration; February 1975
29. "Causative Factors and Countermeasures for Rural and Suburban Pedestrian Accidents: Accident Data Collection and Analysis"; R.L. Knoblauch; National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration; 1977
30. "Some Aspects of Pedestrian Safety"; Journal of Transportation Economics; Volume 19; No. 83
31. "Model Pedestrian Safety Program; User's Manual Washington"; Federal Highway Administration; 1978
32. "An Innovative Pedestrian Crosswalk Safety Device Demonstration"; Malo, Freed, Cleveland, Arthungal and Jorgenson; Highway Safety Research Institute; 1977
33. "Cost and Benefits of Reducing Bicyclists' Exposure to Roadside Air Pollution;" Mike Everett; Assoc. Professor of Economics; University of Southern Miss; Box 72; Hattiesburg, Miss 39401
34. Boulder County Comprehensive Plan; Transportation Element; 1977
35. Handbook of Landscape Architecture Construction; Jod D. Carpenter, Editor; Landscape Architecture Foundation, Inc; 1976; Chapter 8
36. The Improvement of Towns and Cities; Charles Muford Robinson; G.P. Putman's Sons; New York; The Knickerbocker Press; 1901