East Library and Information Center Colorado Springs
An Architectural lliesis presented to The College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfil Iment: of the roquireiserts of Master of Architecture.
Timothy Shea Spring 1935
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
An Architectural Thesis presented to The College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Master of Architecture.
Timothy Shea Spring 1985
The Thesis of Timothy Shea is approved:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Project Description 1
Project Background 2
Thesis Statement 4
Site Survey 8
Views and Access 15
Surrounding Land Use 19
Environmental Impact Statement 23
Site Analysis 27
Building Codes 31
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FOOTNOTES
project d e s c r i p t i o n
The project that I am proposing for this thesis design project is a public library, specifially the East Library and Information Center of the Pikes Peak Library District, in Colorado Springs. This library will be a facility of 65,000 square feet which includes a program of County Offices, Community Meeting Spaces, Computer Communications Center, Audio-Visual Broadcasting Studio and Library Offices along with the traditional library functions of children's area, adult area and space for 180,000 volumes. Some significant aspects of the project are that it will represent the state of art of design library concerning its integration with computer services; secondly the library will be developed in conjunction with an adjacent public park and lastly, the concern for aesthetics as the program states the design goal "to translate the mission of the library into a visual statement will be paramount".
The choice of this project as my thesis design project is more circumstantial than a well-planned event. During the process of seeking out a topic, it became evident that most importantly the thesis should address particular themes and ideas in architecture instead of just choosing a building type to study. The idea of focusing on particular issues more than a particular building type helps to establish a theme with supporting ideas in addition to the study of the particular building typology. These thoughts led to the selection of the East Library and I formation Center (this project was uncovered in the marketing files at work as an unsuccessful submitted RFP) because it allowed the setting for me to examine and study certain areas in design which are significant to me.
Perhaps the best project would be one which will be built. Unable to do that, this project represents the next best situation, an acutal project, that will be designed by a firm as I am designing it. This project reality coupled with its timing became another strong impetus for its selection.
REQUEST PC* ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSALS
PC* THE RIGHT TO MOOT I ATE A CCHTRACT PC* OESIGH AM) CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION OP THE EAST LIBRART AM) IH FORMAT I ON CENTER OP THE
PIKES PEAK LIBRART DISTRICT
I v If
January 17, 1963
The Pike* Peak Library District (PPLD), serving 300,000 citizen* of tha Pikas Paak area, has received voter approval to issue capital construction bonds in the amount of 59,998,000. Tha primary usa of these funds will be to construct a facility of approximately 57,000 square feat on tan acres of land in northeast Colorado Springs. Current planning anticipates that $4,500,000 will b* spent for construction, $2,000,000 for furniture and fixtures, $1,000,000 for books and other a*teriala, $1,500,000 for cooputer and telecoanuni cat ions system, and the rest for land, fees, and miscellaneous.
At tto present time Penrose public library, a facility of 67,000 square feet located in downtown Colorado Springs, serves as the headquarters and kb in library for the district. In addition, PPLD operates seven snaller branches throu^wxjt the district and '"has three mobile units. Through contractual arrangements PPLD also serves as the resource center for the population living in four surrounding counties. The efficient and effective
management of the district through the use of extensive computerization has received international attention, with visitors from 45 countries in the last two years. It is antlcipeted that the district will continue to innovate in increasing mrrnf to information and knowledge far the oomsunity.
Based on a facilities rssouros plan adopted in the spring of 19S3 the district plans to create a second major facility (the Cast Library and Information Center, with Penrose serving as tha West Library and Information Center) to serve the rapid growth area in northeast Colorado Springs. In keeping with the image of the coexsunity, and tha library, it is intended that the design of the ELIC will serve as a hallmark for the image of the community a* a high technology employment center while retaining a positive quality of life. The ability of an architecural fine to translate the mission of the library into a visual statement will be paramount. The mission of PPLD isx to serve as the information center for the oomsunity, to serve as the published materials (books, records, microfilm, periodicals, videodisc) center for the coaounity, to serve as the oonnuni cat ions center for the consunity, and to be an effective and efficient organization. A great deal of attention will be paid to the efficient operation of the building.
In addition to designing and supervising the construction of the Last Library and Information Center, the architectural firm will
serve as a resource for possible rermovation of the Hast Library and Information Center.
of the interest that has already been expressed by architectural firms throughout the United States in receiving the contract for this project it is neoessary for the Boerd of Trustees to develop criteria for firms wishing to be interviewed. Obviously, the Board is interested in seeing the best possible facility built, and since the architectural firm is a key element in the process, s great deal of cere ( and if necessary, time), will be taken in the selection process. If you have questio regarding this RFP contact:
/ Kenneth C. Dow 1 in m
Library Director /
> ^ a / /. Aa* Pikes Peak Library District /
P. 0. Box 1579 k
cVe 4 Colorado Springs, Colorado A 4* \ 80901
n \ (303) 473-2080
Proposals should be submitted by febcuary 20 for
CRITERIA TO BE USED TO JUDGE ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSALS
1. General experience of the firm for design and constructing
supervision. A background statement should be submitted which provides information on the activities of the firm for the 1 five years. A list of buildings which would be the most'
appropriate for board mentors or staff to visit prior to the awarding of the right to negotiate the contract should be provided.
2. Experience in the design and construction supervision of libraries. A list of library facilities with which the firm has been Involved should be submitted, with names and telephone numbers of contact persons.
3. The goalifications of all of the firm's employees who will be involved in the project. Emphasis will be placed on the library having an opportunity to meet the principals and tha people actually doing the work prior to the award of the contract.
4. The experience of any subcontractors or consultants (library building consultant, interior design consultants, for ex pla) that the firm anticipates working with. The library anticipates angaging a fin specializing in library buildings to provide a check on the design of the building. A list of all consultants being considered should be submitted with contact persons and telephone numbers included.
5. The ability of the fin to work closely with library staff on a day-to-day basis during the life of the project. If the.fin is not located in Colorado Springs, arrangements far
" Of all of man's institutions, the library represents the codification and elaboration of ritual and continuity rarely surpassed by any other architectural program. The storing of the collective memory of a civilization and the place of conversation between man and other men is represented by the Platonic image of a scholar under a tree engaged in discourse or walking in a garden enclosed by a colonnade. These images are included in the elaboration of an archi- \ tectural type that has developed throughout history."*
This symbolic image of a library in addition to its significance as a public building immediately sets forth certain issues which this thesis project will examine. To generalize, what is important are issues which are related to the design of a public building. The first issue to address is the relationship between building and landscape. Given the large expanse of site, the setting and the coincidental development with a public park, it is a crucial that an effective understanding of the building involves an association with natural phenomenia.
This theme of man, building, and landscape is rooted in architecture throughout time. More specifically, a relationship between public buildings and landscape has long been established. Typically, this has involved the development of the landscape( both formal and informal) to aid in establishing a setting for the building. This project is not focused on the replication of such schemes, but will address the use of the landscape as a setting or framework for the design of the building and the whole complex.
The next issue of importance is the building itself.
Of course there arepTenty of ideas and qualities particular to any building, public buildings and libraries. Therefore, general1 apple pie 1 statements regarding design are assumed. My particular focus on design will be to examine the symbolism and image of the project carried from the site, to building approach and entry and through the building. This begins to address other related qualities, for example the progression from entry through the building is based on the hierarchy of the design program and also the projects thematic content may be developed in parallel to this progression. Thus the overall project progression from site, to site interacting with building, to the public building image, to the major public library space is a project guideline to fulfilling the sequence of a building and man's relationship to nature followed by man's relationship to building.
It is also important, especially with a public building type( in this case a public library which will develop an identity for this sector of Colorado Springs ), to examine the issue of regionalism, contextualism and vernacular. This multiple identification is indicative of the general confusion of these concepts and their appropriateness. The issue becomes wheter or not a building and its style needs to signify anything specific to a region and its people. Can it? If so, how? Should one draw from historical precedents, nature, settings or population? This study of building and context should cover the examination of the primary relationship between a building and its immediate proximity; focusing on site specific information of access, boundary conditions, topography, views and vegatation. Another focus is contextual issues which may have influenced design; such as adjacent activities, patterns, form languages and geometries."*
This thesis will need to critically examine these issues, their validity and how it may be brought forth in design. The result will hopefully address these issues honestly and avoid generalized preoccupations with style.
The final issue to be examined is the study of process, and especially the concept of transformation of ideas throughout the process. To clarify, I will not try to use a particular design process or even calculate procedures in design, rather it is intended to make conscious why a transformation or a decision was made which effects design. ... one customary mode of architectural drawing already implies a transformational sequence. Successive layers of transparent tracing paper are layered one upon another, each with its respective variation around a basic parti. Each subsequent reworking leads to or refines the organizing principle. The process is generally based on intuition, precedents and habits... the sequential transformation then becomes its own theoretical object, in so far as the process becomes the result while the sum of transformation then counts at 3
least as much as the outcome of the final transformation."* The challenge for me is to clearly identify the rationale for thoughts that are typically based on intuition, precedents and habits. The result is an attempt to be conscious of the meaning in an evolution from A to B not just recognition that it has occurred.
The method in this process will be to develop a record of meaningful sketches and drawings that will document major points in the design process. This could take the form of a sketch book or simply keeping track of trace sketches that indicate a significant thought. This record of drawings and thoughts becomes an integral part of the design thesis for the purpose of establishing and identifying my rationale in the project and for the observer to understand the logic of my decisions.
For the purposes of identification, the subdivisions on the site have been labeled A, B, C, D, E and F. The plot F is the intended library site of 10.2 acres with plot E intended to be developed as a city pocket park in conjunction with the library site. On the northern portion of site D, there exists a small shopette. Plots A, B, and C currently are privately owned and their intended development is uncertain. For the purpose of this design thesis, the plots A, B, and C will serve as additional area for park development, library development and future public buildings. However, to give more definition to my site, the plot F will remain as the primary site for the building.
At an elevation of 6,145 feet above sea level, Colorado Springs is located in a relatively flat semi-arid country on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The contrast in the area is extreme as immediately to the west the mountains use up to 14,000 feet and to the east are prairie lands.
Colorado Springs is in the Arkansas River drainage basis, with the principal tributary feeding the Arkansas from this area being Fountain Creek which rises in the high mountains west of the city and is feed by Monument Creek originating to the north on Palmer Lake Divide area.
The precipitation is relatively light and over 80 percent of it falls between April 1 and September 30, much of this is heavy downpour accompanying summer thunderstorms. The precipitation amounts at higher elevations within the town are about twice those of lower elevations and the number of rainy days is almost triple. Temperature in view of Colorado Springs latitude and elevation are mild. Uncomfortable extremes are comparatively rare. Relative humidity is normally low and wind movement moderately high*
Winds on the site are primarily from the north, northwest blowing upslope as the site rises from the north at 6,580 feet above sea level to a high point of 6,620 feet above sea level.
X I ooo -
ZONE 10: The Great
Extending from the Canadian Arctic into Mexico through the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, is the Great Plains. The climate of an area with such a large latitudinal spread will obviously vary, but the region does share a certain number of climatic characteristics. The region is semi-arid, hot in summer, cold in winter, windy, and receives most of its precipitation in late spring and summer from air masses that move northward from Mexico.
The landscape is essentially rolling hill country. In its natural condition, the land supported a short-grass steppe type of vegetation. Today, wheat fields, irrigated pastures and other crops have replaced the native vegetation.
In the winter, polar air masses which surge out of Canada with monotonous regularity are interspersed by periods of 22
cyclonic storms, which send raging blizzards across the region. In other instances, along the northern section of the province, Chinook winds bring clear, dry, warm weather conditions in the middle of a cold winter.
Precipitation values are low throughout the region, generally between 10 and 15 inches. Winter storms usually drop small quantities of snow across the region, but an occasional storm that sucks warm moist air into its system may paralyze large areas with heavy snow. Late spring and summer rains which provide most of the moisture for the rangelands are highly variable; the region has suffered threwgh many drought periods.
Winters are usually cold with certain exceptions noted earlier. Chinook winds which result from the compressional heating of air that has crossed the Continental Divide and descended to the Great Plains bring relief to the northern part of the Great Plains. In the south occasional invasions of air from the Gulf of Mexico bring surcease from cold winter temperatures.
Summers are uniformly hot over the whole region. Long days coupled with high insolation values and air with a tropical origin result in maximum diurnal temperatures over 100F. The higher humidities of this region result in warm nights at this time of the year.
ZONE 10: The Great Plains
COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
At an elevation near 6,200 teet m.s.l., Colorado i Springs is located in relatively flat semi-arid country on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Immediately to the west the mountains rise abruptly to heights ranging from 10,000 to 14,000 feet but generally averaging near 11,000 feet. To the east lie gently undulating prairie lands. The land slopes upward to the north, reaching an average height of about 8,000 feet in 20 miles at the top of Palmer Lake Divide.
Colorado Springs is in the Arkansas River drainage basin. The principal tributary feeding the Arkansas from this area is Fountain Creek, which rises in the high mountains west of the City and is fed by Monument Creek originating to the north in the Palmer Lake Divide area.
Other topographical features of the area, and particularly its wide range of elevations, help to give
Colorado Springs the various and altogether delightful plains-and-mountain mixture of climate that has established the locality as a highly desirable and healthful place to live. The "Means and Extremes" record table, pinpointing records for the City itself, necessarily omits interesting essentials about the general locality of which the City is the center.
For example: The temperature difference between the City and the summit of Pikes Peak, 12 airline miles away, is about the same as the difference between Colorado Springs and Iceland; precipitation amounts at higher elevations in the Colorado Springs neighborhood are approximately twice those at nearby lower elevations and the number of rainy days almost triple.
In Colorado Springs itself, precipitation is relatively light and over 80 percent of it falls between April 1 and September 30much of it as heavy downpours
accompanying summer thunderstorms. Temperatures, in view of the station's latitude and elevation, are mild. Uncomfortable extremes, in either summer or winter, are comparatively rare. Relative humidity is normally low and wind movement moderately high. This is notably true of the west-to-east movement of the Chinook winds, so important in moderating winter temperatures and reminding white men that the Indian meaning of Chinook" is snow eater."
Colorado Springs is best known as a resort city, but the surrounding prairie is also important for cattle raising and a considerable amount of grazing land is used for sheep in the summer months. The growing season varies considerably in length, from a recorded shortest of 110 days to a longest of 194 days. The average is 149 days, from about May 8 to about October 4.
ZONE 10: The Great Plains
COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
Latitude: 3849'N Longitude: 10443'W Time Zone: Mountain Elevation: 6145'
TABLE 1: Daily Solar Data
Total Horizontal Insolation (KJ1 M2-Day) 10108 13371 17591 21917 24158 26884 25102 22986 19964 15419 10716 8874.0 18091
Direct Beam Normal Incidence (KJ 1 M2-Day) 19795 23034 26273 29512 32031 34910 34191 31671 29152 25193 21234 18715 27190
Total Horizontal Insolation (BTUIFT2-Day) 890.7 1178.2 1550.0 1931.2 2128.7 2368.9 2211.8 2025.4 1759.1 1358 6 944.2 781.9 1594.1
Direct Beam Normal Incidence (BTU/FT2-Day) 1746 2032 2317 2603 2825 3079 3016 2794 2571 2222 1873 1651 2398
Total South Wall Insolation (BTU 1 FT2-Day) 1421 1384 1223 940 696 610 647 831 1170 1438 13179 1227 1080
Percent of Possible Sunshine 74 74 68 71 68 73 69 70 76 76 71 73 72
Mean Cloud Cover 5.2 5.5 5.9 5.8 6.0 4.8 5.2 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.9 5.0 5.1
Percent of Total Horizontal to Extraterrestrial Insolation 59 60 60 62 61 64 63 63 64 62 60 58 62
TABLE 2: Climate Data
TEMPERATURE (F) MS MAR APR JUL AUG , NOV^ mm- .-7 rvo rn
Average Monthly 28.6 31.3 35.3 46.2 55.5 64.6 70.7 69.1 ? 60.9 50.5 37.5 31.0 48.4
Average Daily Maximum 41.0 43.6 47.7 59.2 68.4 78.1 84.4 82.4 74.9 64.2 49.8 43.1 61.4
Average Daily Minimum 16.1 18.9 22.8 33.1 42.6 51.1 57.0 55.8 46.9 36.8 25 1 18,9 35.4
Winter/Summer Design 2 88
Total Heating Deg-Days for Month 1128 944 921 564 301 103 9 13 155 456 825 1054 6473
Total Cooling Deg-Days for Month 0 0 0 0 6 91 186 140 32 6 0 0 461
Percent Relative Humidity (Night) 58 59 58 55 57 57 63 64 653 56 60 57 59
Wind Direction NNE N N N NNW SSE NNW N SSE NNE NNE NNW NNE
Wind Speed (MPH) 9.9 10.5 11.5 12.2 11.7 11.0 9.7 9.3 9.7 9.8 9.7 9.9 10.4
TABLE 3: Daily Solar Radiation on Tilted Surfaces
(Calculated Values) (Engineering Units [BTU/FV^-Day])
(To find Total Solar Radiation on a Tilted Surface add the figure from TABLE 3a. to that of TABLE 3b.)
(Reflectivity = 0.2) (Multiply values by [RHO 10.2] for other reflectivities)
TABLE 3a: Direct Beam+Diffuse
JAN FEB MAR APR HSW9 JUL AUQ SEP OCT NOV DEC '/-/''ft- 1
0 ORIENT 15 1200 1460 1764 2046 2164 2376 2231 2105 1953 1646 1238 1043 1769
30 1436 1653 1873 2041 2073 2243 2120 2063 2028 1834 1457 1242 1839
45 1589 1744 1870 1916 1863 1977 1887 1899 1980 1909 1586 1866 1798
60 1631 1728 1754 1679 1548 1599 1547 1626 1812 1864 1616 1406 1651
75 1575 1605 1533 1346 1150 1132 1124 1261 1536 1704 1546 1358 1406
90 1421 1384 1223 940 696 610 647 631 1170 1438 1379 1227 1080
45 ORIENT 15 1102 1368 1692 1995 2137 2356 2210 2066 1885 1549 1144 960 1706
30 1249 1479 1737 1962 2040 2221 2094 2002 1906 1651 1279 1084 1725
45 1320 1507 1699 1836 1853 1990 1888 1846 1834 1663 1337 1142 1660
60 1309 1444 1562 1621 1593 1687 1611 1608 1661 1573 1312 1131 1509
75 1219 1306 1357 1340 1278 1333 1283 1306 1417 1405 1212 1054 1293
90 1062 1094 1086 1020 940 962 935 975 1112 1156 1046 919 1026
90 ORIENT 15 870 1155 1512 1879 2075 2307 2156 1969 1718 1323 925 763 1554
30 831 1098 1426 1761 1936 2147 2007 1840 1614 1251 882 727 1460
45 777 1017 1305 1593 1745 1924 1804 1658 1470 1150 822 680 1329
60 702 907 1154 1389 1510 1658 1557 1436 1292 1019 740 613 1165
75 602 978 778 1156 1246 1360 1281 1187 1088 867 634 525 975
90 497 633 782 907 968 1050 991 924 863 699 521 432 772
TABLE 3b: Reflected
' M I i L ' .....
JAN FEB . MAR APH wnPCf JUN JUL AUG SEP OUT NUV
ANY0 ORIENT 15 3 4 5 7 7 8 8 7 6 5 3 3 5
30 12 16 21 26 29 32 30 27 ! 24 18 13 10 21
45 26 35 45 57 62 69 65 59 52 40 28 23 47
60 45 59 77 97 106 118 111 101 88 68 47 39 80
75 66 87 115 143 158 176 164 150 130 101 70 58 118
90 89 118 155 193 213 237 221 202 176 136 94 78 159
views and access
An easement may be obtained on either Vickers Drive or Union Boulevard for access to the proposed building. The choice of access depends on the building location. Access from Vickers Drive may be a little more complicated due to the upward slope of the land from north to south. As mentioned previously the site is on a hill top where the views to the north consist primarily of residential roof tops. The views to the west are much more impressive as it faces towards Pikes Peak with the Air Force Academy buildings and Garden of the Gods in view.
surrounding land use
Map 1 indicates Colorado Springs and its immediate surroundings. Map 2 indicates sectors 11 and 10 with the project site as indicated by the blue shaded area. The zones uses are indicted on the legend. The area does consist of a mixed use but the major use is single family residential. This residential use consists of mid-priced homes built within the last 15 to 20 years. The land north of my site is indicated as intermediate business use, but due to the steep slope on the site, it is only partially used and that being for an indoor tennis club. Along Union Boulevard there are a few small office buildings at the asterisked locations. On Map 3, which is a further enlargement of the site, shows the location of a small shopette relative to my site.
To summarize the area lies at the intersection of two main roads, Union and Vickers. Although the area is primarily residential there does exist a low density mix of business and commercial off the major routes of Union and Vickers.
environmental impact analysis
The site was evaluated by review of the Areawide Environmental Impact Statement for
Colorado Springs, Colorado. The following
criteria were evaluated specific to my site:
Water Supply Adequate, City of Colorado Springs District
Noise Map No impact
Flood Plan and Wetlands No impact
Wildlife No impact
Cultural Resources not applicable
Subsidence Hazards No impact
Hillside Acceptable slope, less than \1% grade
Expansive Soils No impact, acceptable
Fire Protection Need structural protection
Natural Resources No impact
Transportation Map Mass transit bus route on Academy Blvd. 20,900 average week day traffic
Man Made Hazards No impact
All the necessary public utilities are available surrounding the site. These major utilities can be found at the north of the site on Vickers Drive and to the east on Union Boulevard.
Existing waste water runs to the west on Vickers and runs to the north on Union, passing Vickers. Additional piping may be required for drainage of runoff water on the site, primarily as an effective preventive erosion strategy.
Water service may be pulled off either water mains on Vickers or Union. The addition of this facility in a primarily residential neighborhood poses no severe problems as far as water pressure and availability is concerned.
Additionally, gas lines surround the site with a 12 inch main at Union and on Vickers. Electric service runs around and through the site. These underground electrical wires might have to be removed and relocated temporarily or permanently depending on siting of the building, excavation, etc.
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The library site is located within a special use zone, designated as SU-1. The zone is peculiar in that there are very few established restrictions and the actual usage of land in this zone is contingent upon submittal and approval by the Colorado Springs Zoning Administration. So in this respect, it is very similar to a P.U.D. The site was originally set aside as public land for location of a secondary school. With the need for a new public library in this growth area, this public land was approved as the new library site.
ARTICLE 3 ZONE DISTRICTS REGULATIONS Part 22 SU Special Use
14-3-2201: DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE:
This zone is established to provide for uses customarily located near a college or university, due to the beneficial nature of the close proximity of one to the other. The zone also allows for golf courses and encourages the use of open space within an urban environment. (Ord. 80-131; 1968 Code Â§ 14-42.2)
14-42.2.SU-2: Special Use Zone No. 1
1. Permitted Principal Use:
(1) Libraries, museums and art galleries and opera houses.
2. Maximum percentage of lot to be used. Principal and accessory buildings: fifty.
3. Maximum height of principal buildings.
Six stories or 60 feet.
4. Minimum frontage of lot. Fifty feet.
5. Minimum yard dimensions for one story.
Front yard, twenty-five feet; Side yard, least width, five feet; Sum at least widths of both side yards, twelve feet; Rear yard, twenty-five feet; Two additional feet for each side yard for every story in excess of one story.
Permitted accessory uses, exceptions and 1 imitations:
(1) Signs as limited below:
(a) Announcement signs constructed for public welfare, educational or religious institutions shall not exceed eighteen square feet in area.
Accessory buildings. Maximum height: one
story; Minimum distance to side lot line: three feet; Minimum distance to rear lot line: three feet.
Mandatory off-street loading spaces.
(1) See Section 14-47 of this Code for requirements.
Libraries. For libraries and museums one parking space for each one thousand square feet of gross floor area, plus one parking space for every two employees.
14- 61. Public Buildings and Public Utility Building's
The city council may, upon a recommendation from the city planning commission, authorize, by special permit and subject to such protective restrictions as it deems necessary, the location in any zone within the city of any public building erected and used by any department of the city, county or state or federal government, or any public utility building. (Code 1950,
Colorado Springs has adopted the 1979 Uniform Building Code. The Uniform Building Code is intended to protect the personal safety of the building occupants. The following are restrictions placed on the design for this particular building type.
Toilet Facilities, Section 511:
Toilet facilities shall be located no more than 200 feet on the same level or more than one floor removed from an occupied area (Table (5-#E).
Minimum of one lavatory and one water closet for each sex on every floor that has access to the pub!ic.
Heater A-2 Library A-2.1
Unlimited floor area for all occupancy types of Type I Construction
Unlimited height for all occupancy types for Type I Construction
Parapets, Section 1710:
When parapets are required (see section), they shall be at least 30 inches high above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect.
Guardrails, Section 1711:
Open guardrails shall have intermediate rails, balusters or other members with no more than 6 inches clear spacing and be at least 42 inches high except as specified in Chapter 33 for stairs.
Exterior Bearing Wall Rating:
Type I 4 Hours
Exterior Non Bearing Wall Rating: Type I 4 Hours
Interior Bearing Wall:
Type I 3 Hours
Interior Permanent Partition Rating: Type I 1 Hour
Floor Fire Rating:
Type I 2 Hours
Roof Fire Rating:
Type I 2 Hours
Type I 3 Hours
Exits Required, Section 3303:
When at least two exits are required, they shall be remote from one another and arranged to minimize any possibility that both will become blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition.
Exit Doors, Section 3304:
All doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel. When doors open over
landings, the landing shall extend 2 feet beyond the edge of the door leaf when open and be at least 34 inches wide.
Corridors, Section 3305 (See Section 3317):
Corridors shall be at least 44 inches wide (this project), Dead end corridors shall not exceed 20 feet in length.
Stairways, Section 3306:
Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 people shall be at least 44 inches wide.
The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 7i inches, and the run shall be at least 10 inches.
Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. This dimension need not exceed 5 feet when the stair has a straight run. The vertical distance between
landings shall not exceed 12 feet, 6 inches.
Stairways more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with at least one intermediate handrail to be located in the center of the stair's width.
Handrails shall not be placed less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches above the nosing of the treads.
Every stairway shall have a headroom
clearance of at least 7 feet, measured vertically from a plan parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit.
Ramps, Section 3307:
The width of ramps shall equal those required by stairways. The slope of ramps shall not exceed 1 vertical for every 12 horizontal.
Ailes, Section 3313
Seats, Section 3314
Minimum Egress and Access Requirements Assembly Areas:
At least 2 exist when number of
is at least 50.
Occupant load factor is 15.
Handicapped access required.
Library Reading Rooms:
At least 2 exits when number of occupants is at least 50.
Occupant load factor is 50.
Handicapped access required.
Group A, Division 1 Occupancies:
(a) Main Exit. Every Group A, Division 1 Occupancy shall be provided with a main exit.
The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one half of the total occupant load but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
(b) Side Exits. Every auditorium of a Group A, Division 1 Occupancy shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one third of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
Group A, Divisions 2, 2.1, 3 and 4 Occupancies: Sec. 3318.
(a) Group A, Division 2, 2.1 and 3. Group A, Division 2 and 2.1 Occupancies shall have exits as required by Section 3317. In Group A, Division 3 Occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more, exit doors shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware.
The following program is a condensed version of the preliminary draft program prepared by HBW Associates, Inc., Library Planners and Consultants. What is stated in the program are the primary spatial needs for the various
departments. The program can be broken down into the following manner:
1. Group the main group and description.
2. Specific spaces within that group.
3. Function of that space with more specific square footage breakdown.
4. Space relationships and adjacencies.
Overview of Building Program:
1. Building Entry - 4,400 sq. ft.
2. Public Spaces - 32,200 sq. ft.
3. Community Meeting Spaces - 4,000 sq. ft.
4. Communication Center - 2,000 sq. ft.
5. Building Support Services - 6,500 sq. ft.
6. Staff Spaces - 8,500 sq. ft.
7. Broadcasting - 1,300 sq. ft.
I. INTRODUCING THE BUILDING
The first three elements of the Floor--Entrance, Friends of the Library, Voter/Vehicle Registration--total 4,400 square feet (SF). They serve to introduce the user/potential user to the building and the library and its many services. The space must be inviting, cheerful, airy and safe.
A. ENTRANCE 2,000 SF
The main (only) public entrance into the building.
Easily identified by persons approaching building from parking, or passing by on foot. From this space users will move into other parts of the building. Adjacent to Friends of Library space.
B. FRIENDS OF LIBRARY 400 SF
A place for the Friends of the Library to sell books, supplies, memberships, etc.
Viewed easily as users enter/leave the building. Could be located outside Security Gates of Entrance.
C. VOTER/VEHICLE REGISTRATION 2,000 SF
Space for functions performed by other units of county government, leased from Library District.
Space must be easily accessible from parking, and should afford opportunity for citizens to also use the library with ease. Part of overall Entrance/ Friends of Library area.
II. THE PUBLIC SPACES
The next seven elements--Circulation (including Desk/Workroom/Offices/Book
Return), Information/Reference Desk, Periodicals, Adult Collections, Young Adult Collections, Children's Collections, Study Rooms--total 32,200 square feet (SF). These spaces constitute the public service elements of the building. It is important to change the mood of the space, from the high traffic of the Entrance into a somewhat more "serious" study/1earning/ knowledge area.
However, this change should be subtle. It is extremely important that the potential user who is at the Entrance (perhaps there after buying a book at the Friends of the Library "store") will feel at ease and be drawn into this space. Colors, furnishings, display, activities--these ingredients will aid in the transition and facilitate the move into the public service spaces.
A. CIRCULATION DESK/WORKROOM/ 3,000 SF OFFICES/BOOK RETURN
An integrated service space designed to accommodate all circulation and related functions using the library's computerized ci rculation-inventory systems with CRT's connected to Library District's CPU. The control point of the building.
Circulation/Registration Desk 700 SF Circulation Workroom 1,000 SF Sorting Area 600 SF Book Return Room 700 SF
Locate Circulation Desk near Entrance, parallel to line of traffic orientated so that patrons will pass it on their way out of the library; afford visual control of Entrance and Public Rest Rooms.
B. INFORMATION/REFERENCE DESK 2,000 SF Function:
Information Desk function designed to accommodate persons entering and leaving the public service space of the library, users of the online catalog, and those seeking directional and "reader's advisory service". The Information Desk will provide general information and directions.
C. PERIODICALS Function:
Center for all adult journals/magazines, both current subscriptions and retrospective holdings.
In proximity to Reference Desk.
D. ADULT COLLECTION 13,500 SF
The principal book collection for adults. The non-circulation
(reference) collection should be placed in close proximity to the Reference Desk.
Adjacent to Information/Reference Desk. Reference collection should be closest to Reference Desk.
E,___YOUNG- ADULTS____________________1.500 SF
Special space for young people grades 7-12. Casual space. May serve as meeting place for many young people.
Do not locate adjacent to Children's Collection. In close proximity to Periodicals.
F. CHILDREN'S COLLECTION 8,500 SF
A place for the young usersand their parents--from early childhood through the sixth grade.
Shelving 3,800 SF
Seating 2,300 SF
Locate away from Young Adults. In closest proximity to multi-purpose room(s) (but within security line).
Three small (100 sf each), soundproof spaces for small group study, typing, use of "home/business" computers.
Locate within public service spaces.
III. THE COMMUNITY MEETING SPACES
There will be three element's Theatre, Communications Center, Conference Rooms--which will be meeting spaces for the public (and staff). The spaces will total 4,000 square feet (SF). The spaces will be located in such a manner so as to be accessible to the public at times when the balance of the building may be closed.
For these spaces to work as planned they must have access to public restrooms/drinking fountains/telephones. The spaces must also be heated/cooled independently of the balance of the building.
Consideration should also be given to maintainability of the space, and for the "housing" of coats and wraps of persons attending meetings, exhibits, etc.
A. THEATRE 1,500 SF
Provide large, multi-purpose meeting room for lectures, conferences, forums, audio-visual presentations, children's programming, dramatic and musical performances, exhibits, and receptions.
Adjacent to Entrance and Conference Rooms.
B. TWO CONFERENCE ROOMS __________ 500 SF
(250 SF EACH)
Provide multi-purpose space for small meetings, conference, study groups, reading/discussion groups, children's programming, audio-visual presentations.
Adjacent to Theatre and Entrance.
C. COMMUNICATION CENTER 2,000 SF
Space for large group instruction and interaction with computers and audiovisual technology, as well as for small group use. Computer software for loan housed/serviced here.
In close proximity to Conference Rooms.
IV. BUILDING SUPPORT SPACES
The following elements--Supply Room, Storage Room, Maintenance, Security Office, Loading Dock/Bookmobi1e Garage--comprise 6,500 square feet (SF) of space.
Supply Room 500 SF
Storage Room 500 SF
Maintenance 500 SF
Security Office 300 SF
A. LOADING D0CK/B00KM0BILE 3,700 SF
Space for shipping, receiving, and short-term holding (two-three days maximum) of books, supplies, furniture, equipment, etc. Flexible space to accommodate three various sized commercial and library trucks/ vans/automobiles; and one large Bookmobile.
Three elements--General Office/ Workroom, Mail Room, Staff Room--are
intended primarily for staff use. Combined, they total 8,500 square feet (SF) of space. The location of the space within the building is not critical, but they should be together.
A. GENERAL 0FFICE/W0RKR00M 5,300 SF
Office/work space for staff.
Offices (40 Offices) 3,850 SF
B. MAIL ROOM 400 SF
C. STAFF ROOM 3,000 SF
A place for the entire building staff to come to for "coffee" breaks, meal time, relaxation, and exercise. An exercise space, outfitted with an
"universal gym", should be part of
Artificial lighting, acoustics, and ample power sources very important. No natural light should penetrate space.
A. VIDEO/AUDIO PRODUCTION STUDIO 1,300 SF
A broadcast quality production studio for television (and sound recording)production and on-the-air transmission of television programming for interactive transmission between schools, city buildings, area institutions, and other selected locations. The library will use the studio to produce and/or transmit television programming (i.e. local origination and other) conferencing, data transmission and/or as additional public access (local origination)
channel for scheduled, qualified community groups.
Performance Space 500 SF
Control/Engineering Room 200 SF
Office/Editing Room 200 SF
Workroom 200 SF
Storage/Tape Library 150 SF
Restroom/Make-up 50 SF
VIII. SUMMARY ASSIGNABLE SPACES
Entrance 2,000 SF
Voter/Vehicle Registration 2,000 SF
Circulation 3,000 SF
Information/Reference Desk 2,000 SF
Periodicals 3,500 SF
Adult Collection 13,500 SF
Young Adults 1,500 SF
Children's Collection 8,500 SF
Study Rooms 300 SF
Theatre 1,500 SF
Conference Rooms (2) 500 SF
Communications Center 1,000 SF
Supply Room 500 SF
Storage Room 500 SF
Maintenance 500 SF
Security Office 300 SF
Loading Dock/Bookmobile Garage 3,700 SF
General Offices/Workroom 5,300 SF
Mail Room 200 SF
Staff Room 3,000 SF
Video/Audio Production Studio 1,300 SF
Space 56,000 SF
Space (20%) 11,200 SF 67,200 SF
Total Building Other:
Books (# of volumes on shelf) Subscriptions (current for journals/ magazine/newspapers)
Reader seats for public 738 Theatre 405 Conference/Study Rooms 141 Staff Room 80
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The thesis project allows one to state ideas of investigation, pursue them within confines of your established program through design and lastly, the most often missed step, to see how your design has investigated these concepts. This project apart from being a large design project, investigated concepts of:
1) Public buildings.
2) Integration of landscape and building.
3) Issue of context and regionalism
4) Process and transformation
The basic premise of a large public facility as a prominent building has been lost throughout the years. Public buildings when developed properly can serve as a symbol for the community and a place for community functions. This concept is valid and in this thesis project I reintroduced this concept and building type as a response to how this project should be developed and handled. Handled in such a way as not to awe the people but attract the people and in this case develop it as a sign post for the community.
The premise of integration of landscape and building is probably the most misunderstood, unexplained and problematic construct in design. The project developed with a public park acknowledges the landscape through man's
introduction of his presence on the site. By establishing a grid over the site with the demarcation zone between formal and informal
landscape, library and park. The grid or man made elements on the national environment can be correlated to the forest with a clearing created by man. That is, what makes the natural environment special to man is man's presence there.
The next concept of regionalism and vernacular is one of generalities. There is no firm identifiable vernacular in Colorado Springs. People create them and stretch the idea, for example is tying ideas to mineshaft architecture where the vernacular develops by the continual reintroduction of an idea not on the content of intellectual merit. The discovery, plain and obvious, but one that has slipped from architecture of today is that there is a universal vernacular for public buildings. It required symbol for the community, prominence and respect. The anonymous architecture is prevalent in Colorado needs to be abandoned in favor of timeless architecture with respect to public buildings.
The last idea was the process of transformation in design. That is to be conscious of the process of product development through sketch method. Where overlay sketch over sketch develops into a clearer idea. Where a free line sketch is transformed through a numerous generation of drawings and worked to the final product. The process of transformation from drawing to drawing leads to development of ideas and I am convinced this is the most important fundamental to exploration and thoroughness of ideas, especially in design and architecture.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FOOTNOTES
1. Alexander, Christopher, Sarn Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 19//.
2. Burke, Julia ed. The Princeton Journal:
Thematic Studies Architecture, Princeton:
Princeton Architectural Press, 1983.
3. Jencks, Charles et. al. Abstract
Representation. New York: St. Martin's
4. Keoningsbeoger, Ingersoll, et. al. Manual of
Topical Housing and Design. Hong Kong:
Commonwealth Printing Press Ltd. 1984.
5. Krier, Rob Elements of Architecture. New York, St. Martin's Press 1983.
6. Ungers, Oswald Mathias. Architecture as
Theme Milan: Rizzoli, International
7. Utsey Kevin ed, Analysis of Precedent, Vo!. 28, The Student Publication of the Scholl of Design. Paligh: North Carolina University Press, 1979.
8. "Colorado Solar and Weather Information".
Western Sun, Portland Oregon 1980.
9. "Aseawide Environmental Impact Statement for Colorado Springs, Colorado". U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1978.
10. "City of Colorado Springs Zoning Ordinance". Colorado Springs Planning Department, July 1982.
1. Bruce Abbey and Robert Dripps, Ritual and the Library ", The Princeton Architectural Journal; page 51.
2. Bernard Tshumi Sequences ", The Princeton Architectural Journal ; page 30.
3. " Building to Context", Analysis of Precedent; page 71.
4. Western Sun, Colorado Solar and Weather Information ".pages 22-26