Citation
Introduction of architectural concepts to children

Material Information

Title:
Introduction of architectural concepts to children
Creator:
Smith, Garold D
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
224 leaves : illustrations, photographs ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture and children ( lcsh )
Architecture and children ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 223-224).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Garold D. Smith, Jr.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
19948555 ( OCLC )
ocm19948555
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1989 .S633 ( lcc )

Full Text
Kids learn basics of architecture
By Mary Dargenio
Colorado Springs Sun
Among the budding artists of Colorado Springs are a group of 15 children ages 9 through 12 who attend the painting, drawing and designing class at Bemis Art School Wednesday afternoons.
Six weeks out of the 14-week class, which is taught by Jeanne Steiner, the children learned the basics of architecture.
These classes are taught by five local architects who donated their time including Donald D. Smith Jr., John P. Nelson, Charles L. Campbell, Richard D. Cherry and A1 Feinstein.
Nelson said he would like to see kids be creative in the third dimension (and get) a grasp of the basic elements of architecture. The children were taught basics such as color, space, perspective and how these things appear to change as the sunlight changes.
The children started by sketching simple structures such as the rear of the Fine Arts Center, two hallways in Packard Hall at Colorado College, the roof of the CC hockey rink and
I
CIIM Moor, Colorado Springs Sun
Kelly Corrigan listens to the advice of John Nelson as she begins her project.
a nearby house.
Mrs. Steiner said the emphasis was to make the kids aware of shapes and to give them a "feeling of perspective.
Then the students drew to scale a two-dimensional floor plan of the Bemis classroom.
The big project during this portion of the class was building a three-dimensional model of a house they thought their brother or sister would like.
The students first drew a two-dimensional floor plan. Smith said the kids started out by drawing floor-plans of two- and three-level houses. They were then limited to a five-room house.
When they started creating their models they had trouble working in the third dimension. Instead, said Nelson, the kids were trying for a literal translation of the floor plan to the model.
He said, Its tough for them to make the transition from two dimensions to three dimensions.
He said part of the problem is the number of years they have been conditioned to think in a step-by-step process. They felt limited by the two-dimensional drawing.
The children were more concerned with putting in carpeting, wall paper and furniture rather than concentrating on getting the rooms to scale and topping the house with an appropriate and interesting roof. Nelson reminded them to think in terms of the overall shape of the house instead of thinking of the rooms as individual units.
Nelson thought the materials at the children^ disposal should be limited to one or two different items and wondered how does the medium limit the results?
The amatuer architects were given a pile of materials from which to build their model. The materials included egg cartons, colored tiles, swatches of / cloth, pieces of carpeting and cardboard boxes.
Smith is also of the opinion that "the kids are getting lost in the materials. He believes they are conditioned by seeing doll houses.
Nelson had previously taught the class to children ages 6 through 8. Mrs. Steiner said the younger children had art easier time with the three-dimensionsal model than the two-dimensional floor-plan.
Nelson said, the little guys were pretiy much free thinkers. (But) they didnt have as good a grasp of the second dimension.
Smith said it is interesting that some children have trouble grasping the idea, while other children pick it up right away.
Architect John Nelson offers youngsters some encouraging words about their projects. Fifteen children ages 9 through 12 attend the painting, drawing and designing class at Bemis Art
School Wednesday afternoons.
But, he said, they all eventually understand it. They stumble for awhile and then a spark will be ignited within them.
Mrs. Steiner said the architects would like to develop an architectural program in the local elemen-
tary schools as h way of building community involvement in the schools.
She said the architectural portion' of the Bemis Art School class is a take-off to see whats needed; theyve never worked with kids before.

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EXHIBIT NUMBER 2 *
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE #2














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CT PWiM hr inyc* Manhall
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Jessica Goldmuntz adjusts her structure's walls to give its potential resident, Jungles, a made-to-measure fit
mothy Fairburn carefully measures Jungles' dimensions before putting his prototype rabbit residence together
By DRU WILSON GT Staff Writer
What is the first thing you would consider if you were asked to design a house for a rabbit?
Most adults might think that with its reputation for multiplication, a rabbit house should have provisions for expansion, but a group of young architectural students have some more practical ideas.
The architects are 6 and 8 years old and are learning about urban planning at the Bemis Art School under the guidance of several of Colorado Springs professional architects.
DeRoss Hogue, who spearheaded the project, says that he and the others are hoping to create future clients who have an understanding of the techniques used by architects, while providing something new and challenging for the young art students. ,
We find the greater public has no concept of what architects do and how (they do it), Hogue said.
The architects spent severai days preparing for their session with the youngsters. It was a challenge, Hogue continued, to boil down the more complicated aspects of their profession into a program that could be understood by &-year-olds.
On the first day, the architects took the students on a tour of the grounds and buildings near the Fine Arts Center. The object was to make them aware of shadows and dimensions that were important to architectural renditions and plans.
We tried to show that the bits and pieces make up the bigger design, Hogue said.
During this stroll, the architects told the youngsters they would later meet a "client for whom they would be asked to design a house. The client turned out to be a fuzzy black rabbit named Jungles.
By giving the students a client for / which to work, Hogue said they tried to get them to understand the ne&l to be outside-oriented to design according to what, someone
else wants and not according to their own ideas.
The students took up the challenge with some enthusiasm and laid out their individual concepts of the perfect rabbit house on paper. The next step was to translate their drawing into a three dimensional model of paper, wood and assorted materials.
The results included a variety of strange houses, most appearing slightly modernistic, but good enough to please the teachers who said they were amazed at how
Slickly the students had grasped e idea of design.
Practicality was the by-word for these young designers.
Dale Meier, when asked what would be the most important thing for a rabbit, promptly replied, "The bathroom. And there it was, conveniently located on his design near the bedroom with a long green sewer line reaching out into the spacious yard.
Peter Wolf (a name that might cause some trepidation among rabbit clients) felt that the most important feature of his house was the garage; What kind of car would a rabbit drive?
A motorcycle of course.
One young lady concentrated on the bedroom, providing a soft bed with sponge-filled mattress and a picture on the wall that resembled a rabbit family potrait. Another student worked hard to get his fireplace and chimney installed. \ '
According to Hogue, the next step is to teach the students some basics of urban planning. If the project is successful, it will be adapted for use for future groups of art students.
One thing was certain. Jungles, after inspecting the models, appeared to be very pleased with some of the more spacious designs, which obviously appeared a lot more comfortable than his wire cage.
His only problem was that there were no carrots in the kitchens ... yet.
mg to build on
Young designers try to match ideas to their "client'
NEWSPAPER
EXHIBIT NUMBER ARTICLE #1
1


INTRODUCTION OF CONCEPTS TO
ARCHITECTURAL
CHILDREN
SPRING 1989 GAROLD SMITH JR.


INTRODUCTION OF ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS TO CHILDREN
Garold D. Smith, Jr. Spring, 1989

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An Architectural Thesis presented to the Graduate School of Architecture
and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Architecture.


The Thesis of Garold D. Smith, Jr. is approved:
M. Gordon Brown Thesis Committee Chairman UCD School of Architecture
>f. John Prosser, A.I.A. UCD School of Architecture
Dr. Brent Wilson
UCD School of Education


Acknowledgements
The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to the following for their assistance in the research, review, and preparation of this thesis:
The Staff of the Bemis School for Children Fellow Architect/Instructors
University of Colorado Faculty Members:
M. Gordon Brown, Thesis Committee Chairman Associate Professor UCD School of Architecture
Prof. John Prosser, A.I.A.
UCD School of Architecture
Dr. Brent Wilson
UCD School of Education
His wife, Louise


Dedication
For Emilie and Sarah


Table of Contents
Subject
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
List of Exhibits
List of Photographs
Introduction
Thesis Statement
Course Rationale
Childhood Development
Design Awareness
Space Awareness
The Built Environment
Teaching Art/Architecture
The Design Project
Development of Bemis School Program
Critique of Bemis Existing Program
Reception of Bemis Program
A Sample Course
Synopsis of New Course
Summary of Entire Program
Future Options
Annotated Bibliography
Page
1 4
5-6
7-9 10 31 32 36 37 44 45 49 50 59 60 68 69 141 142 156 157 162 163 191 192 209 210 217 218 221 222 224


List of Illustrations
Figure Page
1 Scribble by Emilie #1 24
2 Scribble by Emilie #2 25
3 Child Development 30
4 Personal Space Bubbles 39
5 Development per Piaget 43
6 Restrictions vs. Solutions 64
7 Guidance Required per Child 65
8 Design Problem Cycle 67
9 Tree House 129
10 Paper Folding, A 178
11 Paper Folding, B 179
12 UCCS Brochure 215


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List of Exhibits
Exhibit
1 Newspaper Article
2i Newspaper Article
3 Newspaper Article
4 Bemis Catalogue
Page
No. 1 76
No. 2 104
No. 3 110
120 127


List of Photographs
Photograph
Page
Tree House Session
131 133
Urban Design Session
202 209




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Introduction
The introduction of the basic concepts of color, design, built environment, and space to children may be accomplished in a variety of program concepts. One such program will be presented in this thesis.
Prior to planning such a program, the instructor
(architect) must become familiar with the capabilities of the students, which include learning processes, spatial conception and abilities to experience the built environment.
Volumes of research are available regarding the child and his/her relationship to the processes of art drawing, painting, sculpting, etc. However, very little research has been done regarding children and the concepts of architectural design and the spatial qualities of the built environment. Some of the processes, as well as the results, of the research of the child/art relationships may be applied to the child/architecture relationship. These results and processes may then be incorporated into a course for the introduction of architecture to children. This is possible since both are visually related, and are three dimensional activities.
Prior to the commencement of such a course of study, the instructor must become acquainted with the development and growth of children in the age groups for which the course is to be offered. The course studied in this thesis is offered for children in grades one through twelve, which encompass the age groups of six through seventeen years of age. This presentation will focus on the twelve year old, who falls in the mid-age group. The process of child development however, will be analyzed from birth in order to outline the developmental path followed


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by all children.
The study of the child's abilities to examine types of space and his/her concept of imagery is the required first step in the process of building a program on the dimensional art of architecture. The instructor must be able to understand the child's concepts and abilities in order to design a program which will be effective at the age level of the child. It will be seen that space conceptualization of children develops
as the child matures. Therefore, it is very necessary to tailor the
program for the specific age group to be taught. The knowledge of child development will most certainly enable the instructor to produce a program which will be not only exciting to the students, but will be a source of personal satisfaction, rather than a frustrating experience.
The relationship of children to the built environment also must be studied, since architecture is such an intimate part of the built environment. At the same time, the study of children's relationships with architecture should be evaluated again due to the close relationship of the two subjects. The instructor must, at this point in the program structure, determine the ability of the students to relate to the subject matter, and establish a level of instruction which will encompass the subject matter at the developmental plateau of the students.
This can best be accomplished by setting course goals which he/she wishes to achieve, and compare these goals with the abilities of the students. The instructor must then glean what knowledge is available from a review of existing course publications, child psychology, and educational publications which focus on the age group in question, and use this knowledge to plan the program.
Existing programs are very few in number, and written


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information regarding them is extremely difficult to obtain. There are some publications available from the American Institute of Architects, but these are limited in offering resources regarding the practical planning and teaching which will actually be encountered in the classroom. One of the most successful programs has been the series offered over the last nine years by the Colorado Springs, Colorado Fine Art's Center Bemis Art School for Children. This author was instrumental in the development of this program and has been the program coordinator and volunteer instructor for the duration of the series.
Many architects have successfully planned and carried out programs in both the public and private classroom, unfortunately, they have not shared their efforts in the written word for posterity or for the use of their peers.
It is the hope of the author to eliminate the trial and error method of teaching architecture to children, and to establish a basis for a long term program which can grow with the developmental processes of the students, by providing concise methodology, background information, and future projections. This will allow the architect/instructor to do what he/she enjoys to the fullest sharing the art with the most enthusiastic of audiences the children.




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Thesis Statement
Children are receiving a basic acquaintance with art in their current school curriculum. If the child is to become familiar with architecture and his built environment, he must obtain this knowledge from courses outside the public school system. Non-academic instructors, such as architects, are then called upon to plan and teach such subjects.
In order to plan this program, the architect as a potential instructor, should have a basic understanding of the design and drawing abilities of children in different age groups. S/he must also be aware of the development of their concepts of space awareness, and their relationships to the built environment. The teaching of architecture/art must also be investigated, since methods must vary and become adaptable to accomodate the various age, ability, and interest areas of the students.
It is essential that the design project be carefully planned, presented, and analyzed, in order to provide the best possible program for the students.
A history of current program study and an analysis of the community's reception to the program are included to aid program planners in their task. And finally, a sample program is presented as a guideline.
It is hoped that future instructors will use this effort as a guide in the establishment, formulation, and presentation of this course of sfudy for children in the Introduction of Architecture and the Built
Environment to Children.


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Rationale for the Course
The Webester's New Collegiate Dictionery contains the following definitions:
"Art: the conscious use of skill and creative imagination, especially in
the production of aesthetic objects.
Architecture: the art or practice of designing and building structures."
As defined, the two fields are intermeshed, both in definition and actual practice.
The prominent difference is, however, that architecture is only a three dimensional form of expression, and art can be either two or three dimensional in form.
Children presently receive art training in some of the school systems due in part to the fact that, without having studied art, one is not considered to be educated.
Even though most children relate to and function within architecture as a part of their build environment; they are not provided with a means to obtain a basic introduction to this form of art. They are, rather, introduced only to the "art" as defined by Webster.
With the presentation of this course of architectural study, children are introduced to the basic concepts of architecture as art, the built enviornment, and presented with an overview of urban planning.
Realizing that such a course can never become a part of the structured curriculum due to budgeting restrictions, the author suggests that the solution lies within the realm of extra curricular activities.
This can be accomplished after school hours through a community school, museums, or a sponsored children's group.


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If children are to be presented with an opportunity to become acquainted with the concepts of the three dimensional forms of architecture, subject matter such as presented in this thesis material must become a reality in all areas throughout the country.
The future of architecture depends upon the perpetuity of the art. Children, along with their parents, must be allowed the opportunity to heighten their knowledge and awareness in this area. This course offering becomes a vehicle within which such knowledge and awareness may be presented.


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CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT



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Childhood Development
The study of childhood development in the area of spatial concepts, design logic, and design processes leads the investigator to the works of Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist, who's lifetime of work centered upon the development of all aspects of the lives of children. The results of his research are used extensively by this author, who strongly recommends that all instructors and would-be instructors read his works.
As a child matures through the first fifteen years, the essentials needed to develop logic and create images in his/her mind develop very rapidly. Conscious and subconscious thought processes, behavior and actions are all a part of this experience.
Jean Piaget and other researchers have divided these formative years into age groups and into processes children use as they mature. This was done since not all processes develop at the same rate as children do, physiologically. Social life of the child, which was the first process studied by Piaget and subsequent researchers, is divided into three chronological periods:
Period 1 One year to five years of age:
During this period, the child walks alone, interacting with others only as he desires, but much more preferring to remain alone in his/her own private little world.
Period 2 Five years to seven and one half years of age:
The child functions in groups of two, being very transient with partners, which he prefers to be unevenly numbered, rather than paired.
Period 3 Seven years to eight years of age:


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The child's desire to work with and relate to others begins to manifest itself. The child has many partners, and he/she begins to form lasting relationships.
During these same years, the child's mental capacities are also developing. The three stages of development which were studied by Piaget are:
The Sensimotor Period, which spans from birth to approximately two years of age and is the period during which knowledge is gained by the use of the senses sight, sound, and smell.
The Concrete Operations Period, occurs from two years to seven years of age. The development of language tools and drawing capabilities are evident at this time span. Logical thinking processes also begin to develop, the child is extremely self-assured, and he/she pretends to have knowledge of all subjects.
The Formal Operations Period, spans from eleven years to fifteen years of age and is the time during which the child first thinks of his/her future and position in the pattern of mankind.
The modes of thinking are also developing and begin with autistic thoughts which are sub-conscious, individual, and incommunicable by the use of spoken language. These thoughts basically follow the language of symbolism.
As the child develops, his/her thoughts become more directed, conscious, and communicable by language. The preceding are developed by experience and logic in its most simple forms.
The pre-school child up to six years of age, is very egocentric in it's thoughts, language, and actions; thinking mainly of his/her own personal interests. "One need only recall the fact that the


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lack of understanding between children is due as much to the faulty expression on the part of the explainer, whose language is very egocentric, as to the fault of the receiver, who does not listen because he thinks all along he can understand everything and assimilate everything he hears to
his own personal view.....One of the first results at childish egocentrism
is that everything is judged from the individual's own point of view. The Child experiences the greatest difficulty in entering into anyone else's point of view. Consequently, his judgement is absolute, so to speak, and never relative, for a relative judgement involves the simultaneous awareness of at least two points of view." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 98)
As a child matures, its language changes to be in sequence with his/her social life and thinking processes. There have been established basically eight stages of development, which span the Eccentric and Socialized speech years.
The Eccentric Speech characteristics are:
1) Repetition: The child repeats words and sounds
for his/her own pleasure, not talking or communicating with anyone.
2) Monologue: The child talks to itself as if thinking aloud. Again, the child is not specifically conversing with any certain person.
3) Dual or Collective Monologue: The child does not
take the point of view of another person into account. The other person acts only as a stimulus to cause action by the child.
The Socialized Speech Years include the following stages:
4) Adapted Information: The child begins and continues to exchange his thoughts with other persons, especially other children.
5) The Criticism Period: The child begins to include


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remarks concerning the work or behavior of others, especially other children in his/her vocabulary.
6) Commands, Requests, Threats: The child has
definite, sometimes unpleasant interactions with other children, either by commanding the other child, making demanding requests, or actual threats.
7) Questions: The child asks questions and sincerely expects answers in response, even though the questions are sometimes only asked to obtain social exchange.
8) Answers: The child provides answers to real questions of either his own, or those of another person.
Judgements and reasoning begin to appear as the child approaches the chronological age of seven years; both are the results of mental experiments. "Mental experiment is a reproduction in thought of events as they actually succeed one another in the course of nature, or again, it is an imagined account of events in the order in which they would follow in the course of an experiment which one would actually carry out if it were technically possible to do so." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 107)
Mental experiments leading to judgement occur differently in these chronological groups:
Children below seven/eight years of age: At this age, judgement experiments do not imply each other, but simply follow each other. "Transduction," a mental experiment which is unaccompanied by a logic experiment, is very commonly used in this age group.
The middle age group seven/eight to twelve years of age: These children are conscious of the definition of the concepts they use, and the sense of formal reasoning begins.
The adult groups, age twelve and above: These are truly in


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command of formal reasoning and develop its use as they mature.
These stages are evident as modality develops. Modality is the various planes of thought upon which a child bases his own thought processes. There are four states of modality development:
Birth to three years of age: When reality equals what the child desires it to be.
Ages two to three through ages seven to eight: The child starts to show evidence of the beginnings of reality during play and observation times.
The seven to eight through eleven to twelve age group:
The child begins the mental development of and the use of hierachical relationships.
Ages twelve through adulthood: The individuals thought processes are used along with logical assumptions.
The above are illustrated by the fact that "The child's picture ofj the world is always molded on his immediate, rational, and personal point of view....that is why early stages of drawings are not characterized by visual realism.... the child draws only what he knows about things and copies only an 'inner model'...Childish observation follows the same lines, the child sees what he already knows." (The Essential Piaget, 1977,
Pg-113).
Prior to seven years of age, reality exists basically in two planes: plan and reality of ordinary life.
Piaget's experiments lead to the conclusions that "Childish realism is intellectual and not visual; the child sees only what he knows, and sees the external world as if he had constructed it with his own mind. (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 113.) A study of children's drawings will


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verify this thesis.
The idea of reality, to a child, develops between the ages of three and eleven years old, and his/her thought patterns move simultaneously. The three stages of reality development are:
realism to objectivity realism to reciprocity realism to relativity
"with Objectivity being the mental attitude to judge what comes from
within and from external reality........Reciprocity occurs when the same
v^lue is attributed to the point of view of other people, as to one's own....Relativity is the condition of having no object in mind with the claim of being independent." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pp. 130-131).
The evolution of reality in a child, as he/she develops, evolves through three processes before it emerges from the initial realism and becomes oriented toward objectivity.
The first process is purely social in nature.
The second is purely intellectual.
The third, is a combination of steps one and two.
All three processes synchronize with each other, begin very early in a child's life, and are slow in their development.
The child first replaces his point of view with the views of others, and reciprocates between the two conditions. He/she then enters the purely intellectual stage where substaintialism of perception is replaced by the relativism of intelligence. The third stage is when the
child becomes conscious of "I."


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Basically, the child is much further away from reality than is an adult. Reality for the child is still overgrown with subjective adher-ences; it is alive and artificial with works, dreams, or thoughts of the world as seen through an intellect filled with external forces.
The child has some very interesting concepts of mechanics, as was illustrated by Piaget and his associates with their bicycle experiments; in which children were asked to explain the mechanical workings of a twowheeled bicycle. Some thought the movement was due to the pedals, others, due to the wheel and a few thought the rear light caused the movement, since the light in on only while the bicycle is in motion.
Most of the children's thoughts concerning the causes of movement were in no way related to the reality of the actual cause of the movement. The older the child, the closer to reality was his/her understanding of the cause of movement.
This foregoing experiment, related to reality, led to the introduction of the world of real numbers to the children. These children were tested to determine their numbers concepts by researchers, who dropped colored beads into clear glass jars of various shapes. The same number of beads were placed into two jars of different shapes and the child was asked to determine if the same number of beads had been placed into the jars. "Every one of these children concluded that there is equality, if the same number of elements is dropped, one at a time, into the two containers, irrespective of the shape of the two containers, but when the child afterward considered the result obtained, when the shapes are different, his belief in the equivalence is shaken by an evaluation based upon the perceptual relationships. Although, he himself, has just made the one-
to-one correspondence, he reacts like a child at the first stage and thinks


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that any variation in the height or width of the container entails a change in the quantity as a whole." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, p.307.)
In the process of determining numbers of things, the child uses three stages of comparisons of sets of items:
The first is the "Global Comparison System," the comparing of items with no regard to the quantities compared. "For the adult, cardinal evaluation always presupposes that units have been added or merged in order to form the whole obtained by correspondence with the set to be evaluated. For the child of this stage, on the contrary, the evaluation is based merely on the global qualities of the sets in question. These qualities being qualified by comparison as 'more or less' without coordination of the comparison." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, p. 314). The children considered a circle of twelve items to be the same size as a circle with only six items, if the physical sizes of the circles were the same.
The second stage, "Intuitive Correspondence", is based only upon perception, and not perceived outside the perspective field. This stage, a continuation of the first, is based purely upon perceptual comparison and is quantitative and intuitive. "This can be proved by altering the configuration of the corresponding sets. As soon as this is done, the child no longer accepts the equivalence. This intuitive correspondence without lasting equivalence justified our assertion that there is a second stage which differs from the first in that there is systematic use of correspondence and from the third in that the correspondence does not yet invalue necessary equivalence." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 315.)
The developments experienced during the "Determination or Numbers" period of childhood, the third stage, leads to the early growth of


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logic in the child's thinking process. Between the ages of four and seven years, the child becomes capable of classification in the sense of an occidental adult. For example, he/she can put all red items together, or all square items together; but he/she is incapable of coordinating two such dimensions with each other in order to place all red squares together. At thisj period of childhood development, the forms and colors remain to be incommesurable dimensions. The child does, however, perceive the square to be a good from or shape. "We studied the resistance of this form at various ages (and) found that the tendency to see a shape as a square was not constant but increased with age. The primary conception of the square is integrated into a scheme of perceptual activity involving not only the immediate recognition of a square as a familiar shape, but a systematic comparison of sides and angles to see if they are equal" (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pp. 370-371). The classification of objects into groups helph to develop logical thinking patterns in the child's mental capabilities, which mature as the child ages.
There are four entities upon which progressive formalization of logic is structured and bear upon child psychology.
The first is "Platonism," which creates a system of universals existing independent of experience and are non-psychological in theip origins.
The second entity is "Conventionalism," which holds that logidal ideas owe their existence and laws to a universe of conventions or rules.
The third entity is "Well Formed Language," which states that emperical truths may be expressed with the aid of an appropriate language.
Logical relationships may be interpreted by the last method,


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"Operationalism,11 which provides a real ground upon which logic and psychology can meet. "Operations play an indispensable role in logic, since logic is based upon an abstract algebra and made up of symbolic manipulations." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, p. 455.)
The infant lives in a world without permanent objects or an awareness of himself or of any internal subjective life. He, later, begins to differentiate his own ego and stimulates his body in a spatially and casually organized field composed of himself and persons similar to himself.
This is the first stage of his egocentric being becoming decentered. At seven or eight years of age, the "Concrete Operations: stage occurs, which is a result of the decentering process evolving enough for him to be able to structure relationships between his classes, relations, and numbers objectively. The twelve year old adolescent begins to give thought to the society in which he is seeking a place, and has to give his own future activity serious thought.
All stages of development from the infant's decentering to the "concrete operations," and into the adolescent stage, are blended together to help the child discover and develop his/her logical thinking processes in relationship with the real world he/she is involved in.
Logic helps the child develop the needed psychological background required for operations needed to function in his enviornment. There are four major stages in the construction of operations, which extends from birth to maturity. The first is the "Sensorimotor Period," which occurs between the ages of birth to two years prior to the appearance of language. During this period, the child can basically perform only motor actions


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requiring no thought activity.
The "Preoperational Period,11 which occurs between the ages of two and seven years, begins when the child displays symbolic functions such as language, play, and deferred imitations. The two year old can coordinate his movements enough to walk from place to place, however, a lengthly period of time is needed before he will be able to recreate in his mind the places he has been .
The "Concrete Operations" period, seven to eleven years occurs when the child develops two important operational systems: Classification, and Seriation. Classification is the ability to classify objects and place like objects below the top ones. Seriation is the ability to place objects into a systematic arrangement. For example: seven and eight year olds are aware of the inequalities of the lengths of a group of rods; nine and ten year olds are aware of the inequalities in the weights of a group of rods; ^nd eleven and twelve year olds are aware of the changes of volume of the rods.
The "Propositional" or "Formal Operations Period," eleven to fjifteen years of age, is the final period of operational development, and leads directly into adult logic.
At the end of the infant period The Semiotic Function is basic to the development of future behavioral patterns. This function consists of the ability to represent something by means of a "signifier," which serves only a representative role.
"Drawing is a form of the 'Semiotic Function' which should be considered as being mid-way between symbolic play and the mental image. It is like symbolic play in it's functional pleasure and autotelism, and like
the mental image in its effect at imitating the real." (The Essential


-22-
Piaget, 1977, p. 495.)
"The first spatial intuitions of a child are topographical rather than projective or consistent with Euclidean Metric Geometry. ( Euclidean Metric Geometry was developed by the Greek Philosopher, Euclid, about the year 300 B.C. Euclidean Geometry's assumptions describe the world as we see it, and is the most common mathematical geometry studied and used today.)
Up to age four, for example, squares, rectangles, circles, ellipses, etc., are all represented by a closed curve without straight lines or angles. Topographically, squares and circles are the same figure. Crosses, arcs, etc., are all represented by an open curve. At this stage, however, children can produce quite accurate copies of a closed figure with a little circle inside." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 497.)
Mental images lead to and are a product of the drawing process. Some psychologists consider the image as an extension of perception, and thinking as consisting of the association of sensations and mental images. There are two types of images that appear as the child matures; the first iq the "Reproductive Image," which is limited to evoking sights that have been previously received and mentally filed; the second is the "Anticipatory Image", which envisages movements or transformations, as well as their results.
Until the child is eight to nine years old, his drawings are essentially realistic in intent, even though the child begins by drawing what he knows regarding a person or object, rather than what he sees.
Realism in children's drawings passes through several stages.
The first is "Fortuitous Realism," during which the realism of a scribble
whose meaning is discovered only in the art of scribbling. See Figure 1 &


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2 for examples of a child's first scribbles. Then comes "Failed Realism" or "Synthetic Incapacity," in which elements are juxtaposed instead of being coordinated into a whole; ie.: the hat well above the head or the buttons beside the body instead of on the jacket of the drawing object.
The third stage "Intellectual Realism," is when drawings have evolved beyond the scribbling stage, and picture the conceptual attributes of the model, with no regard for perspective, ie.: a face seen in profile with two eyes.
The "Visual Realism" stage, at ages eight and nine, is that in which the drawing represents what is visible from only one perspective.
The two to seven year old uses mainly the "Reproductive Images," and the eight year old and older child uses the "Anticipatory images."
Both images help the child to develop thought patterns and help his/her arrival at representational thoughts regarding his or her surroundings and objects within his surroundings.
At the end of the sensorimotor stage, the child has developed a possession of the practical space that allow him all types of movements. A small child is able to plan the movements around his immediate surrounding space, and not space in general. Space has been measured by several systems, the most common being Euclidean Geometry, as previously mentioned, which allows the measuring of distances, angles, parallel and straight lines. Topological geometry is strictly qualitative and conserves the most general properties of space; inside, outside, and vicinity. "Piaget notes that the child conserves at first only topological properties of spatial objects. He draws squares, circles, and rectangles as vague shapes that share the common property of being closed; he represents crosses and rings


FIGURE NUMBER 1
Scribble #1 by Emilie Age : 15 months


FIGURE NUMBER 2
tv
Scribble #2 by Age : 15 months
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Emilie


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with an opening by the same vague figure. This distinction between open and Closed figures is parallel by a distinction between inside and outside." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pp. 576-577.)
Spatial relationships take place at two different levels; the perceptual level and the level of thought or imagination. Sensorimotor spaqe begins to develop at birth and develops with the appearance of symbolic images. The evolution of spatial relationships is a process which begins at the perceptual level and commences at the level of thought or imagination. Children seven to eight years of age develop the ability to measure the conceptual coordination of perspective, understanding, proportions, etc.
"At each level, spatial thinking appears in two quite different forms. Sometimes it concentrates on static patterns, as when a triangle or straight line is conjured up, at other times it expresses possible transformations, such as a change in shape or the triangle or a rotation of the line about its middle.: (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg.
580.)
Perception is the knowledge of objects resulting from direct contact with them. Perceptually known forms are more or less rapidly exploited by the imagination, and are helpful in the study of conceptual space. Experiments show that three stages of development occur in the recognition and perceptions of objects:
Stage one: (three to six year olds) When the child easily recognizes familiar objects, but not geometrical Euclidean figures.
Objects which are easiest recognized are topological in form.
Stage two: (six to seven years of age) Allows Euclidean
forms to be recognized, with curvilinear and rectangular shapes being


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differentiated.
Stage three: (seven years and older) occurs when the synthesis of complex forms is achieved, and the child is able to distinguish complex forms; taking into account order and distance.
In order to mentally reconstruct the formative order of conceptual space, it is necessary to separate perception from representation. There are three stages of children's drawings once scribbling has been surpassed. As defined by the French psychiatrist, Luget, they are:
1) Synthetic incapacity
2) Intellectual realism
3) Visual realism.
"Synthetic Incapacity" occurs when the most primitive topological relationships begin to be defined in a child's drawings.
"Intellectual Realism" is the stage at which the child draws not what is actually seen, but draws "what is there."
"Visual Realism," the third stage, occurs in the eight to nine year age group and is when the child appears to try to take perspective, proportions, and distance into account all at one time.
"The simplest and most natural reference frame available to the child is most probably that provided by the physical world in the shape of vertical and horizontal axes. On the one hand, the concepts of vertical and horizontal are, by nature, physical rather than mathematical; indicating as they do, simply the directions taken by a freely falling body or a line perpendicular to its path." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 629.)
There are four basic stages in the development of horizontal and


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vertical :
Birth to five years the child grasps no notion of planes.
Five and six years the horizontal and vertical planes are yet undiscovered.
Seven to nine years horiozontal and vertical are little more than a suggestion.
Nine years and older horizontal and vertical are known and used.
The child is not aware of the physical or physiological notions of vertical and horizontal, due to the fact that such an awareness would require the use of a system of several references of which he is incapable of doing. The child's images visually are based upon the horizontal, which is evident in his/her drawings.
The previous concepts all work to form a basis for the mental images and perceptions used by the child as he draws his work of art, or designs his simple house project. "Children's drawings are commonly characterized by a phenomenom we shall call 'psuedo-rotation,' and which Luguet aptly described as a mixture of viewpoints." (The Essential Piaget, 1977, pg. 683.)
The following three stages of possible perceptions have been
observed:
1) Ages birth through six years the child is not capable of fully developing a drawing or design, they draw the entire object without transformation.
2) Ages six and seven years the child makes fruitless efforts to imagine a development process and the child's drawings express this in the symbolic forms used.
3) Ages seven to eight years the development is imagined and drawn,


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but in stages to an order of hierarchy among objects; first cones and cylinders, then, cubes, and finally pyramids.
Difficulty is encountered by the child, when passing from the reproductive to the anticipatory images, which is what must be done when creating a work of art or a design.
A review of Piaget's experiments and writings clearly outline the path of development of the child's psychological and mental capabilities in discovering, nurturing, and using the concepts needed in designing and drawing. The process of creating a drawing entails the employment of many mental capacities that develop as the child matures, which explains the differences in the characteristics of the art of children of different age groups.
The results of Piaget's experiments clearly provide an understanding of the learning capabilities, development of space relationships, and the relationships of age to the art/design processes.
The (information presented by Piaget should be used as a basis when design courses are planned for the child of a determined age group. See Figure No.3 for a graphical study of a child's development of social and mental
processes.


CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1-12 YEARS
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10
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SOCIAL LIFE
: WALKS ALONF
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CHOOSES PARTNERS
MENTAL CAPABILITIES
SEMIMOTOR
DEVELOPS LASTING RELATIONSHIPS
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FORMAL OPERATIONS
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FIGURE 3


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Paralleling Piaget's theories is the work of Alan Davis, who states that "humans use a dual code hypothesis in their perception of the world surrounding them." (Imagery and Verbal Process, 1979.) All thinking human beings code verbal and visual images separately within their minds, and as we mature, the interaction between the verbal and image stimuli allows us to be able to function in our built environment and space.




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Design Awareness
After the learning processes for children are evaluated, analyzed and studied, the methods of instructing the child should be analyzed in order to design a proper program for the targeted age group.
As was previously discussed, children learn from many sources, and their art/design capabilities develop rapidly as they mature.
"The five and six year old draws from memory. They do not
draw from life........rather, they draw things the way they remember
experiencing them and are able to reconstruct them. In remembering something, two processes are critical. First, we must remember enough of the thing in question. Secondly, we must not forget what we have just remembered." (Teaching Architecture, 1981, pg. 31.)
One school of thought sees the child as the passive recipient of wisdom and expertise which is passed on from the initiated to the uninitiated. This view is as commonsensical as it is historic, and there is the direct example of the medieval craft guilds to give support that this practice does lead to high standard of workmanship. Early design art, and architectural education was performed in this manner; the students living for and studying under "the master."
The other school of thought sees the child as an active participant in his own learning process. This view of education dates back to Rousseau, a philosopher during The Age of Reason, in the eighteenth century and was carried forward by other perhaps more influential educators such as Froebel and Montessori, educators in this century. Learning in this view does not center on repeating what the teacher (master) has just been saying or doing, but consists of the student trying to make sense of the subject in terms of one's own previous experience.


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This later process applies best to the learning of the basic relationships used in the study of design, etc., which are best learned by ones own trial and error, successes and failures.
"The special value of design thinking as a learning tool is that the child is obliged to use intellectual powers on concrete matters and the implications of his thinking and decision making cannot be lost in the senses of his mind. Design decisions (the consequences of design thinking) will exist in material from in front of the child and his teacher, and it is this concreteness which gives design thinking it's particular value.: (Design Education; Richard Kinbel, 1982, pg. 47.)
"Design is a creative effort, where information is used and not a learning process where information is absorbed. (Teaching Architecture, 1981, pg. 40.)
Design awareness for children should follow the same pattern as the activities of all ages, but should be scaled down to the child's level of expertise, learning and development.
The creation and execution of activities to make children aware of design should always keep in mind the developmental level of the child in his/her design life; the older the child, the more complicated the design problems may be.
Younger children may be introduced to the design concepts by using the method developed by Art Educator Don Brigham, which introduces the children to the responses and enhanced design thinking. The exercise is done with the child's eyes closed, and is as follows:
1) The inner landscape an introduction to memory the child is encouraged to:
a. form mind pictures
b. remember places and things (sensory dimensions of


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memory are enhanced by doing this)
c. create a self-portrait
2) Sensory awarness enhancement is done by:
a. listening to micorsounds (sounds that become part of
our background audio experience)
b. take part in hand games (to build the awareness of
movement and touch)
c. interact with others to develop the awareness of the presence of and activities of persons outside oneself.
3) Mapping to make the child aware of external places and images:
a. the child is to think of all the places he/she has been
b. the child is to think of places he/she has not been and create mental pictures of these places.
c. the child is to picture shapes and images of items he
interacts with daily.
d. the child creates in his/her mind the image of space he/she inhabits.
4) Building and making the child pictures in his/her mind the buildings the child most likes and the reasons why the buildings are attractive.
5) Enduring activities the child is encouraged to look at buildings daily and to remember which ones were liked.
The student's awareness of design concepts increases as the child matures and is capable of intellectually analyzing the objects he/she observes for design characteristics. The introduction of design to children must be carefully planned, so as not to present ideas and thoughts to them that they are not mentally or artistically able to understand.


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The architect/instructor is assumed to have had many years of design training, years of practice in the design field, or a working knowledge of the design process, ie.: a graduate architectural student. This is not the case with the students in this type course. The children are only beginning to become acquainted with the design process and design verbage. To a few students, the entire design process is entirely new.
The subject must be presented to them at their own level of understanding.
Children design as they draw, sketch, or build with paper. This must be understood by the instructors and carried into the development of the final course to be presented to the children.
This presents a challenge to the instructors in the manner in which they present design ideas to the students, the design ideas must be
kept at the level of the student.


SPACE AWARENESS


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Space Awareness
As the child develops design awareness, he/she will become much more aware of the spaces in which he/she lives, and the spaces which surround him/her. This is especially true of the more mature child eight years of age and older.
"Everyone is occupying space or moving through it in all living moments. Each person is also causing an effect upon space, as well as being effected by it." (Students, Structures, Spaces, 1983, pg. 87.)
Each individual occupies the center of a series of concentric circles that define their space world. This concept has been long established, and the radii of the circles established by cultural, as well as practical mores. (See drawing No.4 )
The essence of architecture is space, which cannot be drawn, only felt seen and experienced. The learning of the visualization of space is strictly a matter of self-education. However, children can be made aware of space and their interaction with it.
There are several ways to experience space:
1) We can see it with our eyes, which provides us with a visual picture of spaces and their interrelationships with each other, as well as our interaction with them.
2) We can develop a source of visual continuity with our minds.
Beyond this overall image of space, we have to develop a Kinetic (active) sense of space. This Kinetic sense of space is the sense a blind person develops to get around in his/her world of darkness. We all have this Kinetic sense to a degree in that we can tell if we are in a


0"-18"
PERSONAL
Drawing Number 4 PERSONAL SPACE BUBBLES
18"-4'0" FRIENDLY
410"-7'0" SOCIAL
Figure by Author
CASUAL


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large or small room; even though we are in total darkness.
Jean Piaget proposed five spatial relationships for children. They are:
1) Pragmatic (practical as opposed to idealistic) the space of physical action. Basically, the integration and interaction between man and natural spaces ie.: man and the world man and the forest etc.
2) Perceptual (relating to immediate sensory experience) the space of immediate orientation. The identity man develops with space in order to function in the world space.
3) Existential (relating to, or confirming existence) the space that stabilizes man's image of his environment. The social and cultural linkages to other persons, which one develops as one matures.
4) Cognitive (based on or being capable of being reduced to emphirical knowledge) the space man occupies in the actual physical world, and his symbolic conceptualization of the space he occupies.
5) Abstract (difficult to understand or disassociated from a specific instance ) the space of our pure logic relations and our symbolic conceptualizations.
The experiments of Piaget and Linholder, a colleague, in 1956, prove that children tested for the "perception of the understanding of spatial relationships between objects precedes that of the conceptual understanding that the two stages overlap, and that the perceptual understanding is completely developed prior to conceptual understanding.
Due to the existance of a conceptual performance jump at about the time when perceptual understanding is nearing completion; it appears that conceptual understanding is build on perceptual understanding." (The Built Enviornment, 1974, pg. 135.)


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Children occupy space differently as they grow and mature. In the two and one-half to five year old period, children require physical space due to their rapid physical growth rate. The social development of all areas of their life are acquired through association with other persons. These include the need to communicate with others, their extreme need to play "make believe" with their contemporaries, their great learning appetite regarding all subjects, their extremely active love to appreciate the world, their satisfaction of learning by experience, and their development of spatial relationships through association with other persons.
The five to twelve year period is also active physically. Due to this group's need for physical risk, and their developing of independence from their families and dependence upon friends, the learning to live and function socially. This social relationship causes them to "play" easily. Their "play" being very incidental and spontaneous.
A child's relationship with physical space grows as he/she matures, as the following diagrams indicate:
"Space and time, as experienced by the child, are not only relative, but infinitely diversified in quantity and quality. We can reduce the diversification to three general terms: Room, Extent and Position Spaciousness, Spatiality, Spacing or in terms of time -transition, endurance, and date. Space is room, Ravm," and room is roominess, a chance to be, live and more......what is true of space is true
of time. Volume like roominess, is a quality independent of more size and bulk.
Without the third property, Spacing, occupancy would be a


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jumble. Place and position as determined by the distribution of intervals through spacing, are great factors in effecting the individualism of the
parts already spoken of.........Architectural structures provide, I should
imagine, the perfect reduction AD ABSURDUM of the separation of space and time in works of art. If anything exists in the mode of 'space occupancy' it is a building: (Art as Experience, 1958, pp. 208-209.)
, Figure No. 5 is a graphic summary of the results of experiments
by Piaget regarding the fundamental concepts of space and of spatial cognition.


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Since the architects/instructors design using space, and have had experiences using spatial concepts; their knowledge of space will be quite different than that of the children. Therefore, the space awareness must be addressed at the level of the students.
As the course program is developed, this "child's" point of view of space is vital, and must be understood by the instructor in order to provide a successful presentation.


ENVIRONMENT


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The Built Environment
The child associates and lives daily in the built environment; which contains all of the characteristics of space and design relationships in which he grows and matures.
The built environment effects all of us every moment of our existence, even though that effect is often onconscious. Our lives give us as much time to interact with the built environment, as with the relationships with other human beings.
As infants, we explore a limited environment that gradually enlarges from the space of the crib, to the limited play area, to the entire house then later, on to the route to school, the classroom, etc.
To develop an awareness of their surroundings, children need to develop their senses, they need to learn what space, structure, shape, from, scale, light and shadow, texture and color mean, and to acquire a consciousness of themselves within their surroundings.
It is impossible to separate we explore a limited environment that gradually enlarges from the space of the crib, to the limited play area, to the entire house then later, on to the route to school, the classroom, etc. To develop an awareness of their surroundings, children need to develop their senses, they need to learn what space, structure, shape, from, scale, light and shadow, texture and color mean, and to acquire a consciousness of themselves within their surroundings.
It is impossible to separate architecture, the built environment, and space, since the three are so intertwined in the design process, as well as in our everyday living.
"The built environment is architecture in its broadest sense. The


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cities, streets, houses, schools, parks, skyscrapers, bridges and barns that we build and the spaces that connect them." (Students, Structure, Space, 1983, Introduction.)
All of our efforts, as children and adults, to create more livable atmospheres around us depend upon our awareness of and appreciation of the importance of the built environment. "The built evironment can also provide a concreteness to the learning process it gives us rooms to measure, spaces to study for mathematical concepts, buildings for the understanding of history, neighborhoods and towns for civic studies that is, the built environment provides a learning laboratory for any academic study." (Students, Structure, Spaces, 1983, Introduction.)
The most extensive children's program for the built environment is the "Architects in Schools" program of the National Endowment of the Arts and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1976, the Architects in Schools program has placed over 250 Architects/Designers into public and private schools in 45 states, reaching over 500,000 students. The architects help place the built environment education within the context of the school curriculum. Architects contribute their own awareness of space and structure, their ability to analyze our surroundings and their familiarity with the process and tools of design.
Some of the methods used to familiarize the students with the elements of the build environment were: field trips, walks, tours, model building, mapping, drawing, writing, lectures, and slide shows.
Students and architects then go through the design process together, studying the built environment, analyzing its successes or failures, and if it meets the users needs. Changes as needed or desired are then studied and analyzed. The entire process is designed to introduce


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the child to design thinking, to make the child aware of his/her built environment, and to be introduced to the methods which can be used to change the environment as needed for improvement.
John Dewey, an American philosopher and educator believed that knowledge is a means of controlling the environment; hopefully to improve the quality of human life. He declared that education must include a student's physical and moral well being as well as intellectual development. In his writings, he stated that "buildings, among all art objects, come the nearest to expressing the stability and endurance of existence. They are to mountains what music is to the sea. Because of the inherent power to endure, architecture records and celebrates more than another other art, the generic features of our common human life.: (Art as Experience, 1958, pg. 230.) The built enviornment is an understood part of architecture in this statement the building and the built enviornment are so interconnected in space.
"The reshaping of subsequent experience by architectural works is more direct and extensive than in the case of any other art, save perhaps literature. They not only influence the future, but they record and convey the past. Temples, colleges, palaces, homes, as well as ruins; tell what men have hoped for and struggled for, what they have achieved and suffered. (Art as Experience, 1958, pg. 231.)
The growing awareness of the impact of the built environment has tremendous relevance for education. We must teach our children to cope with the complex and rapidly changing world man has designed, and to make creative decisions in the future. Ninety-five percent of our time is spent in our "built environment," which mandates that we understand our relationships with the build environment and


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architecture. This understanding must necessarily be formulated when we are children.
Children coming into the program are aware of their built environment to some degree. Care must be exercised by the instructors, however, to keep the course ideas at the developmental level of the child, and his/her concept of the built environment. The built enviornment actually changes more rapidly that the architectural and urban design concepts. Therefore, the instructor must always be aware of current changes in design and/or concepts in order to present these to the children as a part of the program.


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TEACHING


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Teaching Art/Architecture
It is necessary to investigate the child's relationship with art, since, at his age level, the same relationship will apply to architecture. To a child, art and architecture are of the same area of study, since both require drawing in order to complete the problem.
Even though this section of research refers to art, the ideas and principals used can easily be applied to children as they begin their study of the basic principles of architecture, and the build environment.
The period of pre-adolescence is one of uneveness and ambiguity. Boys and girls from approximately nine to thirteen are full of zeal and energy, eager to learn, explore, and create. They are very sensitive, affectionate, loyal, full of humor and much more aware than they ever have been. "Pre-adolescence is also a time when children begin to make a sharp distinction between drawing and design." (Design Activities for the classroom, 1977, pg. 17.)
Since the child is eager to learn, design activities are effective experiences through which the child can explore either art or architecture.
The result of art/architecture thinking is a constant source of values which are:
use --- function
expression --- aesthetics
permanence --- construction.
These values are used to measure both art and architecture, since the contribution, either a building or painting, evokes an emotional response from its users and viewers, which in a sense, is a measure of its


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success .
The practice, of functionalism and inventiveness calls for the
ability to visualize --- the most essential discipline in the creative
fields. It is by this visualization, that we think of objects, either buildings or paintings, that do not yet exist. The visualization process is a part of every child's mental capacities, and should definitely be cultivated. This cultivation, as a process, should be done over many years, through courses within the educational system and the addition of special interest courses. The courses which are offered to stimulate and develop the visualization process, cannot be taught in the same manner as a class in math or science, since we all develop the visualization capabilities at different stages of our childhood, and use the process differently.
Education can therefore, make the child aware of the concepts used in art/architecture. There is a difference between learning and education; learning without a purpose depends on change, while education established a direction for the learning process and produces results set by pre-determined objectives.
In order for the child's learning to be a truly creative experience, the instructor must develop a structured approach to teaching that has two objectives:
1) It must give the teacher maximum control of the instructional process.
2) Each child must have the maximum opportunity to work in his/her own way toward self-determined objectives.
The effective teacher always allows students as much freedom as possible, both to initiate and to work through design activities on their


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own. The teacher must calculate the approach to use with each class, for each subject, and each individual, in order to maximize the satisfaction and success that each child can and should experience.
Children are very sensitive to the study/class environment in which they work. In order to provide a stimulating environment in the room selected for a design class, the room should be well lighted, open, attractive, cheerful, and conducive to creativity. Display areas should be provided where exhibitions are frequently changed, and carefully placed areas of exciting color uses should be introduced. The atmosphere can make the children receptive to the program, or produce negative reactions, due to the environmental conditions sound, light, and pollution (both visual and actual). Students adults as well as children are very sensitive to temperature and odors.
This might be a good place to also interject a reminder about the attitude of the instructor nothing is more positive or negative in the presentation of a program as the approach used by the instructor. If the presentor of a program is excited and well prepared, the atmosphere of the classroom will be far more likely to be charged with excitement, even if the physical environment lacks in some areas.
Whatever the nature of a design/art/architecture activity may be, allowing the students to experiment with the materials to be used must be a built-in component of the experience. The instructor should take part in this experimentation and suggest aids to the students to help them with the experiments. Playing with a material is probably the best way to find out about it learn about it's capabilities and limitations. In this manner, an instructor can introduce the capabilities and limitations of actual architectural building elements ie.: paper is stronger when folded in a


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certain configuration, such as a folded plate system. The instructor should explain the use of simple arch structures, barrel vaults, etc., as the students actually are working with the materials. Children readily relate to the idea of reinforcement, simple structures, and placement of transparent materials as related to skylights, windows, etc. If the design project will include actual third dimensional construction of their two dimensional designs, this phase of introduction to materials will save much frustration of the part of the instructor and the students. They can learn at this stage which material will work for a roof, or if foam can be glued to wood, construction paper, or other found objects. These activities involving the manipulation of materials, shapes in two-dimensional and three-dimensional space relate to the transformation of the material itself. Straw sculpture, for example, involves architectural manipulation of three-dimensional space, but the straws themselves remain unchanged.
The children begin to acquaint themselves with the nature of the materials and processes appropriate to the activity at hand, thus exploring new possibilities. They also begin to see design possibilities in the relationship of one material to another, or discover exciting construction arrangements by using combinations of shapes in which they sense the beginning of a composition.
No matter what the nature of experimentation, it is the prelude to any kind of creative design work. The teacher plays a vital role in the first phase of a design project by encouraging exploration of materials and processes and by providing a wide enough spectrum of supplementary materials so that the student experimentation can be expansive and rewarding. Children readily respond to demonstrations regarding the potential of new materials with which they are totally unfamiliar, as well


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as seeing exciting new dimensions of familiar objects.
"Children are quick to place a premium on whatever is produced in a class. If excellence in drawing is the criterion of quality (in the student's mind) and the child is convinced his or his completed drawing is childish, whatever the excellence of what is accomplished, the effect will be considered a waste of time. On the other hand, if the evaluation of a project hinges on a more intangible value judgement to do with, say, inventiveness, and there is a wide assortment of ways to bring the activity to a successful conclusion, students are more likely to be pleased with their efforts. It goes without saying that the more successful children feel in their work, the more enthusiastic they will become. (Design Activities in the Classroom, 1977, pg. 27.)


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The most important contribution that can be made by the visual arts to the education of a child is that which is indigenous to art in the areas of design and dimensions.
"Artistic action of a child is the product of a complex form of learning, and is not an automatic consequence of maturation." (Programs of Promise Art in Schools, 1972, pg. 6.)
Curriculum offered to children in classes should be extend well beyond the traditional range of art activities in order to stimulate the child's interest in the subject, and to cause the student to reach beyond the average project, so that he/she may excel. This experience is of tremendous benefit to both the student and the instructor.
The teaching of art/architecture well requires not only a curriculum that has been well thought out with respect to aims, objectives, and content, but one that also supplies instructional support media. This media must be useful for illuminating the visual qualities and ideas that makers of the curriculum hope to help children to perceive and understand.
In the process of teaching art/architecture, the teacher must be able to project his/her understanding of the subject of the class. It is also necessary that the instructor possess perception of the subject and the thought process used by the creators of past examples of the subject being taught.
"In aesthetic perception, there are two modes of collateral and cooperative response which are invalued in the change of direct discharge into an act of expression. These two ways of subordination and reinforcement explain the expressiveness of the perceived object. By their means, a particular incident ceases to be a stimulus to direct action and


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becoraes a value of the perceived object.
The first of these collateral factors is the existence of motor disposition previously formed. A surgeon, golfer, ball player, as well as a dancer, painter, violin player has at hand and under command, certain motor sets of the body. Without them, no complex skilled act can be performed....The motor coordinations that are ready because of their prior experience at once render his perception of the situation more acute and intense and incorporate into it meanings that give it depth, while the also cause what is seen to fall into fitting rhythms.
" I have been speaking from the standpoint of one who acts. But precisely similar conditions hold from the side of the perceiver. This motor preparation is a large part of aesthetic education in any particular time." (Art as Experience, 1958, pp. 98-99.)
This emphasizes the need of the instructor to have perception of the subject (architecture) as well as of the creators of the subject (architects.)
While forming a perception of the architect and his/her profession; it should be remembered that: "The writer, artist, or sculptor can retrace, during the process of production, what they have previously done. When it is not satisfactory in the undergoing or perceptual phase of experience, they can to some degree, start afresh. This retracing is not readily accomplished in the case of architecture which is perhaps one reason there are so many ugly buildings. Architects are obliged to complete their idea before its translation into a complete object of perception takes place. Inability to build up simultaneously the idea and its objective embodiment impose a handicap. Nevertheless, they, too, are obliged to think out their ideas in terms of the medium of embodiment and


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the object of ultimate perception, unless they work mechanically and by rote. Probably the aesthetic quality of medieval cathedrals is due in some measure, to the fact that their constructions were not so much controlled by plans and specifications made in advance, as is now the case, but the plans grew as the buildings grew." (Art as Experience, 1958, pp. 51-51.)
The instructor must also remember that architecture expresses the enduring values of human life and experiences. It "represents" the memories, hopes, fears, purposes, and sacred values of those who build in order to shelter a family, provide an altar for the gods, establish a place in which to make laws and house government, or to construct a stronghold against attact. Why buildings have names such as "castles, palaces, homes, city-halls, etc., is a mystery, if the art of architecture is not expressive of human interests and values. These thoughts are, perhaps, the most important for an instructor to understand and transmit to the student.
Design activities and their results must reflect and include, in their final forms, the perceived values of the building use, if the artistic activity is architecture or the purpose of a painting, sculpture or drawing, if the artistic activity is art. These values, as perceived, represent human life and its interpretive purpose for existence. The prime obligation of the instructor is to instill in the student, through these activities, the need for their final project to reflect and portray their own most intimate values, needs, and ideals.
When preparing to present these activities, the following components are required:
1) Instruction in theories of the creative process and the theories of learning.
2) Learning and understanding the process of visualization.


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3) Development of a working knowledge of function analysis and synthesis.
4) Courses in construction methods and structural design, should the instructors not be design professionals.
If properly planned and executed, the teaching of a design course can be extremely rewarding. It is a great source of personal satisfaction for the instructor to see the children become virtually alive with excitement for design, and to realize that this awakening process which will remain with the child throughout a lifetime has begun because of his/her stimulation of that student's creative mind.


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I



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The Design Project
The instructor's role consists of performing many tasks; the most important being the creator of a valid and challenging design problem for the student. The problem must be designed for the age group of the students, as well as provide general design development most effectively utilizing their abilities.
"A learning experience in design must contain:
1) A Generalization, which is established as the conceptual objective to be developed through the learning activities....
2) An appropriate learning environment should be specified; projection screen facilities, tackboard for large pictures, camera and slide equipment, magazine and book picture sources, overhead projectors, facilities for structuring an atmosphere conducive to free exploration and improvision.
3) Activities which are specified to transmit the generalization non-verbally; movies and slides.
4) Evaluation should be done to determine whether the learners had acquired conceptualizations equivalent to the original generalization of the teacher." (Visual Art in Disciplinary Learning, 1979, pg. 79.)
The solution to a design problem must then include:
1) A clarification of the parameters of the specific problem.
2) Exploration around the problem area and examination of all possibilities.
3) Proposing a tentative solution.


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4) Making up the solution.
5) Trying the solution against the requirements of the initial problem to see is all requirements have been met.
6) Redesiging as necessary to bring the solution more in tune with the problem requirements.
Design problems and their solutions are never clear cut, black and white; but invariably shades of grey. Any problem, upon close detailed inspection, contain an almost unlimited variety of degrees of problems, and it is within these gradiations, that the path to salvation for the design instructor lies.
For younger children, the instructors may modity a problem as
follows:
1) The design problem should have a subject of interest to the child and fall within his/her mental capacities.
2) The subject and solution contain operational and mental requirements not above the child's capabilities.
3) The possible solutions should be restricted through the use of materials, processes, and time.
While planning the project, the instructor should decide what he wants the student to learn, and select a problem which the children can solve by becoming involved in the areas the instructor wishes to introduce.
In a simplified form, the skills required for the design problem to succeed can be identified as:
1) Inquiry/exploration skills.
2) Communication skills.
3) Manipulative/construction skills.
4) Evaluate/discriminatory skills.


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"These skills are totally interdependent in the design activity and any imbalance in their progressive development will result in a distorted view of the nature of designing and making. Designing without the requirement of making, invites shallow response; making without designing, is a theraputic, but intellectually barren exercise; and neither designing or making would be possible without the ability to communicate (through words, sketches, and models) and descriminate (for example between materials and processes). (Design Education, 1982, p. 154.)
The design teacher has at his/her disposal an infinite tool of learning with which he can control not only how much thinking the children have to do for themselves, but also the direction he wishes that thinking to take. By controlling the child's thinking, the instructor can also control the solutions, both by number and type. The more restrictions imposed by the instruction, the fewer the number of possible solutions will be provided by the students. ( See Figure No.6 )
The instructor must not restrict the project to the degree that he negates the creativeness of the students. As the child matures, the guidance and restrictions may be reduced as indicated in Figure No.7
Evaluation is an indispensable part of the design educational activity. The instructor is essentially an advisor and critic for the child until such time as the child can assume the role of self-critic. Evaluation is diagnostic, both for the instructor (who wishes to improve his/her teaching skills) and for the child (who wishes to improve his performance or better his solution), and if the diagnosis is to be helpful to either and/or both, it must be detailed, fair, and thoughtful. Both the student and the instructor must take an active part in the analysis
process.


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FIGURE NUMBER 6
THERE IS AM INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF RESTRICTIONS IN A DESIGN PROBLEM AND THE VARIETY OF SOLUTIONS FOR THAT PROBLEM.
Design Education, Richard Kimbel, 1982.


AGE OF CHILD
THE DEGREE OF SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE IS PROGRESSIVELY REDUCED AS THE CHILD LEARNS TO THINK AND ACT INDEPENDENTLY
Design Education, Richard Kinbel, 1382.
FIGURE NUMBER 7


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Clearly, in a design course, evaluation is not the sole privilege of student or teacher, but a "requirement: of the child. The child can, (and must), be shown that the evaluation of a design product is part of the entire design process.
Assessment of a design project consists of three stages:
1) Quality of design development.
2) Quality of the design solution.
3) Quality of the end product.
All three must be evaluated and the results studied in order to improve upon the next project. The design process is not a linear process, as the above list would indicate; but is in fact cyclical, as indicated in Figure No. 8 .
The major product of the design project is the education of the child and the thought/learning processes involved in their arrival at the solution. Through the years, the child will develop the needed skills to provide more sophisticated and thorough design solutions. It is hoped, that the public or private school, art center, or in general, sponsor of the Architecture for Children Program, will be enthusiastic enough to plan for a series of classes and that the instructional process will be an ongoing one for the children involved. As the children mature and develop new horizons of creativity, and desire further exploration, the instructor will have all of the knowledge gleaned in his/her initial preparation to carry the program throughout all age levels, and into adulthood. Many parents, when visiting a classroom, have expressed a desire to be allowed to participate in a program such as the one offered to their children. The possibilities for the architect to communicate his art to the public are
unlimited.


FIGURE NO.8
DESIGN PROBLEM CYCLE
PROBLEM
TESTING
l
MANUFACTURE
DESIGN SOLUTION
Design Education. Richard Kimbel, 1982.
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The major product of the design project is the education of the child and the thought/learning processes involved in their arrival at the solution. Through the years, the child will develop the needed skills to provide more sophisticated and thorough design solutions. It is hoped that the public or private school, art center, or in general, sponsor of the "Architecture for Children Program," will be enthuastic enough to plan for a series of classes. Furthermore, the ideal is for the instructional process to be an ongoing one for the children involved. The development of such a program, its successes, failures, and future are analyzed in the following divisions of this writing.
i




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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BEMIS SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING COURSE.
In the summer of 1980, a group of licensed, practicing architects in Colorado Springs, Colorado, met to discuss the possibility of establish-ishing a course for the purpose of introducing children to architecture. This would include basic concepts used by architects in the design and planning of their own various types of projects. It was decided to actively pursue the establishment of such a program, even though none of the participating architects had knowledge of a similar program having ever been previously attempted.
One of the major factors in this decision, was that most school districts were then, and are still presently, offering art design courses to only the upper grades 9 through 12. Due to time and staff constraints, the students were being taught only the basics of art, and nothing relating to the field of Architecture. Children below these grade levels were, and still are, receiving little or no art training unless a teacher opted to include this in his/her curriculum; as formal art education programs in these grades is basically non-existent.
The architects believe that Architecture and the built environment are of such importance and effect daily lives to such an extent, that all children should be introduced to the very basic concepts of architectural design and space concepts.
Being novices in the field of education, the architects agreed to be flexible in their approaches to the various disciplines, and adjust and rework the physical material presentations, as. well as the verbage used with the children; thus creating a program which would allow change as necessary. Therefore, the goals established were to: 1) Introduce the


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children to the concepts of space, design, and buildings used by architects.
2) Make the child aware of the built enviornment and his/her relationship to that enviornment.
3) Instill an awareness in children of spaces and their personal role in functioning within these spaces.
4) Introduce the children to the basic building materials and to the textures associated with them.
5) Introduce the students to the effect of sunlight and climate on mankind, and the effects the two elements have upon the built environment.
6) Illustrate the need for working with other persons to accomplish a common goal.
7) Begin the process of growth in the appreciation of the built environment and the architects participation in the development of civilization/society.
8) Allow the development of the child who has the interest/aptitude to continue in the field.
9) Educate the children and their parents to the expertise of the architect, and how to become educated users of architectural services.
After careful evaluation of the goals set forth, it was decided to target the six to seventeen year old students for presentation of this course of study. Guidance from educators led to the decision to limit the class grade difference to three years ie.: grades three to six in one class. This is due to the developmental age differences of the students in the various age groups, as seen in the previously examined results of Jean Piaget's experiments relating to the development of children. This would


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also assist the architect in the preparation of the basic level of design and presentation materials used. Student development, even within the three year span, varies to such a degree, that to allow a further spread would have defeated the continuity of class development.
The next decision to be made, was that of establishing a physical plant to effectively house the program. Public school facilities were not to be available due to space and budget limitations. The architects were told that public school rooms could be used only if the program was incorporated into the formal teaching schedule, and the architects were guest presenters only. This did not fall within our concept of the program, and we anticipated problems in being allowed to present the program on a regular basis.
The Colorado Spring's Fine Art's Center had, some years past, established a separate facility to exclusively be dedicated to the art instruction of children The Bemis School. If funding could be provided, the architects unanimously agreed that this would be the perfect location and mental format for the presentation of this program. The director of the school was very receptive. The present structure of the instructional fees would allow the children to participate in the program, use the facility, and cover the expenses of the basic supplies. Furthermore, the architects were assigned a large, sunny art room, and a full-time Bemis instructor for their use, should they so desire. The Bemis facility had been designed as an art school, with an abundance of open, well lighted spaces throughout. The facility is completely conducive to creativity, and artistic freedom. The course, throughout its nine year tenure, has been taught at the Bemis School. Architects were given, as well, studios within the Fine Art's Center building for additional class space.


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Student selection was next to be considered. The Berais students were, naturally, the most interested in the new course offered, and the first class was filled immediately with these students, all of whom had had some prior art instruction. While this situation has not been repeated since that first class, it was extremely helpful to the architects. A further advantage of being a part of the Bemis School Program, is the fact that scholarships are offered through the school for students interested in the class, but unable to pay tuition costs. The selection of the scholarship students is done by the Bemis School staff. The architects requested that the class not be limited to students within the gifted and talented program, but rather be open to all students from all regional school districts and from all economic backgrounds.
The size of the classes was the next decision to be made. Educators were contacted, and the ratio of five students/one instructor was established, and is still used. This ratio is very workable, since the architects involved are not trained educators. With three instructors, the class size was limited to 15-18 students. This ratio allows the instructor time to work with each student. The few times more students have been enrolled, problems were created for the instructor architects, and they expressed frustration at being unable to give a desired degree of personal attention to the students. It was further noted that the fewer students enrolled, the more involved the projects became, and the more a student learned, due to the more intimate architect/student relationship. The architects insisted upon being involved with each student to the degree that they could expand upon the child's interest, and allow for the fact that different children learn at different level. This requires the architect to offer varied degrees of assistance for the same design


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problem. Each class has, classically, a problem student that will require additional time, and will most often be disruptive to the rest of the class. This fact must be built into the staff structure, for this child will require help in understanding the concepts, completing the design, and executing the final building of the model.
A definite course plan was needed, finally, since all of the other requirements for the establishment of the program had been fulfilled. The curriculum had to meet the needs of the architects, as well as those of the students. Further, it had to provide the children with a design learning experience that would help them develop their design and awareness skills. "If a child is to have an experience, there must be some relationship between the child's interests, his means of carrying them out, and in turn, the finished product. (Meaningful Art Education, 1951, p.
60.) This experience of design learning is upmost in the purpose and basis of a course such as this. While this art/architecture experience is occurring, the child must be learning basic design principals. Art education, it has been proven, contributes to a child's growth of the concepts used throughout his entire life. The same may be applied to architecture, since both are spatially oriented courses of study.
" Art, as it contributes to the development of a unifying philosophy of life is the main concern of this chapter. It has three outstanding advantages for personality integration which will be discussed.
First, it can be a unifying process. It is concerned with the selection and orginization of material, form, and contents. Secondly, it has the advantage of tangibility or concrete objectification. The art project provides the individual with a reassurance of the existence of the unity he has discovered as well as with a means of communicating the idea


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oi unity of others. Finally, art can be a pervasive element in the life of the individual. (Meaningful Art Education, 1951, p.55.) Again, the same thoughts may be applied to Architecture.
As architects well know, each project must have a client. The client for children, must be a person or thing the child can easily relate to. People are the most natural client type, since they most commonly occupy structures within the built environment. The client for this, our first project, was a live rabbit. The rabbit was selected to try to draw the children out of themselves and to stimulate interest in the needs for living of other than human beings. The rabbit was able to circulate throughout each student's house. The idea was completely successful.
After this first project, the client selection has been human; either the child him/herse]f, a friend, a favorite motion picture star, or rock/music star. The children relate better to human forms and needs than to the needs of an animal, due to the physical functional differences, and their ability to recognize them. With the animal client, the architects felt that the problems of scale, movement, and behavior did not convey the purpose of the project to the children as they had desired. The animal project, however, was enjoyable, and thus, considered successful. The copy of a newspaper article regarding the animal project is seen on the following page.


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ARTICLE #1


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After determining the type of client we wished to present, the project type for that client became the most difficult part of the program to plan. Since the children are most familiar with their family residence, the architects decided, finally, that a simple house was the most natural project choice. Further, a small house is the least difficult type architectural entity, due to the simplicity of basic functions and design requirements of its parts. The program was thus limited in order to prevent the children from attempting a design project with which they would be unable to cope. The residence size was limited, as was the number of floors to be used.
Detailed discussions were held with the children during which the architects led an open discussion regarding the spaces within the individual homes of the students. They discussed likes and dislikes about their personal residences, and openly talked about the things they would like to change.
The architects briefly outlined the effects of lighting, both natural and artifical, and how both forms of lighting can be manipulated to create a more pleasing environment. Heating, ventilation, access, noise levels, and space functions were explained and discussed. Siting and simple neighborhood layouts were also investigated.
The children were encouraged to draw simple floor plans and discuss their personal desires versus accepted norms.
Actual lesson plans and detailed course description and analysis are outlined later in this writing.
The challenge of getting the children to construct three dimensional models of their designs was extremely interesting. They had to be introduced to the capabilities of basic materials and bonding agents.


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Materials had to be used that could be easily assembled, cut, glued, and folded. Various types of cardboard, chipboard, and posterboard were selected. Other found objects were also solicited, such as plastic bubbles, carpet samples, egg cartons, paper tubes, etc.
The children were given instructions in how to cut, fold, bend, tape, and glue cardboard and various items together to form their own house design, using their floor plan as a guide. This part of the project preated the most physical activity in the classroom. The variation in the development of the motor skills of the children proved to the architects that the five to one ratio in student/instructor was the most effective, due to the additional time required by the slower students.
Discussion within the architect planning group led to the decision that the last session should physically illustrate the planning of the built environment to the students. It was decided to have the students ponstruct a city scape, using their own models as houses within the city of their creation. The students and instructors constructed a paper school, phurch, hospital, fire station, retail buildings, etc., to be placed by the class within their city. The functions of streets, freeways, rivers, etc. were discussed, and the students were encouraged to include these items within their city, and placed where they wished to have them located. The physical city was created on paper, which had been taped to the floor. Streets, rivers, paths, trees and other items were drawn upon the paper by the students, using crayons, pastels and paints. For this final session, parent visitation was encouraged. The students in their stocking feet, thus created their total environment and placed their houses and public buildings. At the end of the class, they discussed with the architects the concepts of their city, and their reasoning for the particular placements


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of the physical elements. A schedule for the first session is duplicated on pages 80-88.
The first class series was a success, and requests from students for the next session were numerous. Student and parent reception was extremely exciting. Many former students were now wishing to enroll in the class for the second time.
With the successful completion of the first session behind us, the architect planning group immediately evaluated the prior program, and set about preparing for the upcoming session which was to be in Fall, 1980. This session was entitled the "Paint, Draw, and Design Class." and was for 9 -12 year old students.
Several of the founding architects were forced to leave the program at this point due to business pressures. The vacancies created were filled almost immediately by other architects, since most architects are most anxious to share their knowledge with other persons; especially with children.
This author then assumed the responsibility of program coordinator and begin to prepare scheduling, printed materials, and program briefings.
The time in between the class schedules was used to refine the course and to hold planning sessions with the Bemis School personnel and the instructor architects who had volunteered their services for the session. It must be pointed out that the architects who volunteer for such a program take on a very strong commitment of time expenditure. The sessions were held in the afternoons beginning at 3:00, and the architect instructors had to not only be available for the instruction of the class for which they were scheduled, but had to further set aside time for the


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-84-
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-89-
planning sessions. Still, we had architects contacting us requesting to be involved in the program.
The Fall 1980 session was planned as a nine week program. See the following pages for notes and scheduling. The program, in general, is now becoming more solid, sophisticated, and unitized. The sessions are becoming fully developed, and the materials, tasks, and program presentation are becoming more defined.


-90-
Nine Week Schedule
1. Outdoor-Perspectiye
2. Scale
3. Floor Plans
4. Floor Plans Elevations
5. Plans- Details
6. Model Building- Folding .Structure Demonstrations
7. Model Building
8. Model Bui 1di ng
9. City


-91-
Bjsflis Art School Fall Semester, 1 9-C
Wedr.esday, Paint/Draw/Deeign Class, 3:45 to 3:30. aEes 9 to 12 Kotes on the seven week segment taught by five area architects Douglas Gleason, 'Garold Sirith, Charles- Champbell John Kelson, and Richard Cherry.
Vi' e e k y 1
Charles Campbell
materials: drawing boards, new-sprint paper, clips, pencil,
black crayon
Introductlo:.: what is an architect? What Is architecture? '.hat are buildings made of? What is a room? Is a football field a room?
fry to guide students into thinking about spaces. Charlie defined architecture as a whole bunch of spaces stacked uc ar.d put together in different ways.
Activity 7f 1 : Draw the space in this classroom. Try to jus
ret the sense of it, leaving out the details. Draw to gel

feeling of tne volume of the root..
activity -i-2: Group went outside to draw the house next to Perris. Before the students started drawing they discussed shadows, the angles formed by roofs, railings, etc., ar.d quality of line (ie, a dark, thick line looxs closer). Activity 3: Students turned and viewed the back of tne


-92-
Fine Arts Center. Discussion centered on the importance of shadows. Walls that have the sun shining on them all aim in the same direction. Fr. phasis was on sketching to quickly identify the form of the building.
Activity // A: Group went into Packard Hall at Colorado College and drew two different hallways. These became lessons in perspective as they were spaces defined by four surfaces. Students were encouraged to discuss the different feelings of the spaces and to incorporate them into their drawings. Activity #5: Group went outside again to draw the roof of the Colorado College Ice Rink.
Summary: What is a client?
Your client will be a brother if you are a girl, a sister if you are a boy. Next week we will begin designing a dwelling lor your client. This week you should begin thinking of the particular needs your client might have.
Week t 2
Richard Cherry
materials: newsprint paper, pencils, black cravor.
Introduction to scale. Students were to measure the classroom in arm widths, then draw a two-dimensional plan of it letting one ara span equal one knuckle span. They then went on to measure the reception area anc added it to their drawing.
The client was then re-introduced and Richard led a discussion on the needs of the client for a dwelling. The suggestions were listed as the students distinguished them.


-93-
'^uestions: What roons can we corr.bine? What size should these
rooms be? 'What rooms should be open? What rooms should be closed and private? What rooms should be quiet? What rooms could be noisy?
Students listed the rooms they wanted to incorporate into their own plan and then drew a first draft of their client's dwelling.
Summary: Questions: Was this a hard thing; to do? What have you learned? What does scale mean to you now? What shape should rooms be? Now that you've done a floor plan, can you change it? Can you think of any changes to be made? Would you like to live in a dwelling like the one you designed? Do you think you could improve it?
Richard talked about tne way architects work by getting their first ideas on paper quickly, then making changes. Next week the students will work on the changes they'd like to make on their plans.
k =f ?
Garold Smith
Preceding this class period the architects met and made individual comments on each two-dimensional floor plan. The observations centered on what they liked cest about the plan, materials: students' floor plans from previous week, pencil,
black crayon, sketcho's, colored constuction paper, glue, white drawing paper


-94-
Reveiv: of scale and v.'hat It rr.eans. Students were Instructed to choose the five most Important rooms and draw a floor plan to scale. To facilitate the construction of the three-dimensional model they were to keep the plan on one level,.
When each student was satisfied with their floor plan and had talked to an architect about it, they redrew it on white draw-ins paper and used colored construction paper and sketcno's to make it colorful.
Week # 4
John Nelson
Materials: students' floor plans, 18" by 24" cardboard base,
colorful cloth scraps, saran wrap, plastic scraps, colored paper, wallpaper scaps, light cardboard, wood strips and sticks (fairly light), paper tape, white glue, large scissors, box knives, saw, modeling clay (oil base), tiles, egg cartons, pencils, rulers
Introduced by A1 with a short reminder of scale. Students were instructed to begin bv drawing their floor plan on their base cardboard, then use any materials to build up off the board, i'.ost of the students got a good start.
.seek .f a
Materials: same as last week plus students1 beginning three
dimensional model
Garold and John frave individual suc-^estions to students as they


worked
Students were to finish their models this week but toward the end of the time, the architects decided that they needed one more week of work. The Music Room in the Fine Art Center was then rescheduled and letters sent to parents inviting them to attend the rescheduled culminating activity.
Week n 6
Materials: same as la3t week
Garold and John again worked individually with students.
All students finished their three dimensional constructions.
Suggestion made for another session: limit materials to only
a few to try to oromote a mere creative use of familiar items M" *
W e e k
Held in the Music Room of the Fine Arts Center, parents invit Materials: 'White butcher paper taped to floor (about 21' tv 21') chairs for parents, students' three dimensional models, tape, water base markers, colored construction paper, glue, scissors, crayons (have lots of blue and green), models of public buildin made by architects
Introduction by Al. Started by establishing the direction West, and reminded the: of their observations the first clas period about the effects of sunlight, shadows, and the vie'.'. We ere going to create a community, on paper by placing the public buildings and your dwellings on the paper. You will have to work coocerativelv to olacs these. What other things


-96-
do we need In cox. munities? Talked about the iters sugreeted by the students including parks, spaces, and access roads and sidewalks. A1 reminea them that they rust remember that every one else is there and that they must work together.
All the architects participated in the activity by working
individually with the students.
Summary: A1 talked about the placement of the buildings and
dwellings. Questions: What did you learn from this? What is important when designing a community? How did you figure thes things out? are you satifiec with the dvrellings you created? Would your client like to live in this community? Why? Did
you think about what your client needed? Is this community in scale? Can you think of a name for this community? (Middle town)
Community was left up in the Music Room until Friday :cr other people to observe.
.-.any thanks to the architects for making1 this session so
successful!


MATERIALS
Drawing Boards Clips Sci ssors X-Acto Knives Masking Tape Popsicle Sticks
White Butcher Paper(for Last Session)
Cardboard
Newspr i nt paper
Colored Construction Paper
White Drawing Paper (Large size)
Heavy Bodied Paper for Model Building
Paper Cutter
Pencils
Black crayons
G1 ue
Markers
Paints
Colored Crayons P a s t e T s
Clear Acetate for Windows


-98-
During this session, we decided to introduce the concept of scale to the students. Scale being basically a geometrically proportionate method of measuring the physical properties of spaces. This was done to illustrate to the students how a smaller drawing is used to represent a larger, real life room in a building.
The client selection for this project was a brother or sister (real or imagined) in order to draw the child out of him/herself and to better know a family member by concentrating on their habits, likes, dislikes, etc.
The children then developed their individual design project program of client needs, and the process of designing a floor plan of a small residence to meet these needs was begun.
Color was introduced into the floor plans to help illustrate to the children the various functions of the rooms, and to emphasize the differences in the uses of the spaces.
The students were then able to begin developing their models, which were built of cardboard and various miscellaneous scraps of materials cloth, tile, wood, paper, etc. (One student insisted upon building his model out of scrap oak which he provided the finished project was almost impossible to lift!)
The final session, again, was the urban design session, wherein students created their city. White paper was placed on the floor, and students in their stocking feet, drew in the physical properties and added their houses. Many parents were in attendance, and by this time, were requesting such a class for themselves. A local newspaper sent a reporter and photographer to this session. We felt that these were both indications


-99-
of success.
Demands by parents and students led to the decision to offer the program three times a year; Spring, Summer, and Fall. The length of the individual class sessions has been varied in these sessions in an attempt to provide optimum time for the architects to present the desired materials, without over-extending the students who, in the Spring and Fall sessions, were attending our classes after a full day of school. During these two sessions, the 1 hr. 45 minute to two hour classes was determined to be the most successful. In the summer hours, children tend to be more excited and productive for a longer period.
The course schedule has also been purposefully varied in order to determine the most productive session length. The eight week period consisted of the same program as the ten week session; the difference being the number of classes allotted to the construction of models. The results of the experiments have led to the nine to ten week program, which provides the proper time allottments for all portions of the program. The students are paced at a rate that sparks and maintains their interests, and the architect instructors have sufficient instructional time.
In 1982, a University of Colorado graduate student filmed the project and it was broadcast later that same year. See pages 100-103
This broadcast increased public interest in the program and again, caused an increase in enrollments. The program was also featured in an article in a local newspaper during 1982. This also resulted in more demand for the program from parents and students alike. See sheet 104


ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
Birds need space, bees need space, ants need space, and people need space.
Some animals build their space, while others find it. People used to find their space in caves, but now they build their spaces. Some of these spaces are architectural wonders--masterpiecesreaching towards the heavens or grabbing into the depths of the earth. ,* Surely architecture should be considered one of the truest forms of art. But unlike painting, sculpture, dancing and drama, architecture has been neglected in most of our cewps4=s^-educational systems. If architecture was implemented as part of the formal-ps&jsc art program, young people would learn how to be aware of their space (the space they live in and the space they go to), and begin to learn how to make choices about the shape of their lives.
It would not be necessary for every student to become an architect, but to develop a new level of consciousness for their surroundings, senses, feelings, and needs. Since each student would inevitably be a future client of "spacial design," it would be desirable to acquire an understanding of how to deal with space.


After students have been taught the mechanics of architecture (i.e. size
/ relationships, scale, two and three deminsional planning and need assessment), they will be ready for the next step. The heart of the program would be to instill an understanding that each individual has an investment in their world. They can make a difference. They have control of their space. They are essential ingredients in the building of a society.
All too often we is why, more than any other degredation of people and tfc
have no/fnfluence on our fellow person. Perhaps that reasljrt^ there are slumbs where there is an evidence of lr surroundings.. (over)


Page 2
-101-
If people were taught at an early age they could have an impact on their environment, there possibly would be a society which cared more for each other, built each other up more, and tried to meed each other's needs more. We would build wondrous people alongside wondrous structures.
The first paragraph is the only planned di be storyboarded as follows:
Dialogue:
Birds need space bees need space ants need space people need space
some animals build their space while others find it
Some of these spaces ... reaching towards grabbing into the depths
Surely architecture should be .
logue so far. This introduction will
Visual:
bird building nest bees in a hive ant house
crowd bussling with skyscapers in background
picture of beaver dragging wood rabbit finding hole heaven ??
subway marvel
fade into Charlie teaching first class


Re: Film for Bemis Art School on Architecture and Urban Planning
-102-
Attached is an overview of what I think the purpose of the film will try to meet. This statement has evolved from talking with a few architects and Joyce Robinson.
I may be way off base. Therefore, please read carefully and make any changes you believe necessary. Perhaps there are statements which are too flowery or too sweeping. If so, cross them out and put in your ideas.
Any assistance you can give will be greatly appreciated. I want to be sure to touch all bases and to communicate all the desired components to the audience.
Feel free to add any comments about any aspect of this project. Your input is not only desired but VERY necessary for the successful completion of this project.
Thank you. I look forward to working with each one of you. If you want to call me, please call before 8:00 a.m. any morning 687-9315.
P.S. Please return your corrected copies to me in person or mail to P.0. Box 483, Woodland Park, Colorado 80863.


830 north tejon street, suite 3D0 B__________________Colorado springs. Colorado 80903 [303] 632-2842
architect
structural engmgeer passive solar consultant
GAROLD D. SMITH, JR
-103-
August 10, 1982
KRDO Television 399 South 8 th Street Colorado Springs, Colorado 80903
ATTN: Production Manager and Staff
RE: Bemis Art School Architects Program
Gentlemen and Ladies,
We the teaching staff and assistants involved in the "Architecture and Urban Planning" program at Bemis, wish to express sincere gratitude for your generous assistance in the television taping, editing, etc., you have donated to this class session.
The successful future of this program depends upon the assistance of public minded organizations such as yours.
We feel our success is guaranteed of yours is an example of the support we are receiving.
Again, Thank you.
memder american institute of architects national society of professional engineers internatonal solar energy society/american section


-105-
The Fall 1982 session was the first to use a formal planning session format, which was developed by this author. The staff at the Bemis school requested this item in order to better assist the instructors.
Since the architects leave their offices to teach, the set-up of the classroom, layout of supplies, and provisions for visitors, were accomplished prior to classtime by the Bemis staff. This format provided the staff with the session subject, materials needed, and activities of each session. This information allowed the Bemis staff to pre-plan for the purchasing of materials, and the scheduling of the classrooms within the building. Each student was also given a copy of the format in order to provide the student and his/her parents an outline of the programmed session. These formats were well received by the students and parents. We discovered that the formats increased parent attendance during various class sessions, especially the last class, the urban planning/cityscape. This was due to the fact that parents now knew the class schedule and began tq plan ahead for class attendance. Fathers as well as mothers made plans to spend time observing the classes.
Fall schedule formal class format is found on pages 106 109.
The American Institute of Architects 125th Anniversary local events also included references to this program for children. See sheet No. 110.
During the 1983 sessions, the architects experimented with the introduction of further examples of scale with the students. The earlier method, which was previously described, assisted the student in the associate the drawing with the actual living space. This had been accomplished by measuring the room with arm lengths and scaling the lengths down to knuckle lengths. While this method was effective for some


Bemis Art School -io- Fall I 982
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
Wednesday 3:45-5:30
1. September 29, 1982 Perspective John Nelson,AIA
2. October 6
Scale Garold Smith,AIA
3. October 13
Begin Work on floor plans Douglas Gleason
4. October 20
Floor Plans and Elevations Richard Lightle ,AIA
5. October 27
Plan Details and Introduction to 3-D shapes- April Smith
6. November 3
Eegin Model Building Garold Smith
7. November 10
Model Building Douglas Gleason
8. November 17
Finish Models Richard.Lightle
9. November 24
Urban Planning Using Models Darryl Muir
Parents Please Note:
You are welcome to observe any of these classes. They will be held in the Intermediate Studio of Bemis. We would especially encourage you to attend the last session,the location of which will be announced later on in the class schedule.


Bemis Art School
Fal1 Session 1982
Taught by:
1. September Materials: Objective:
Cl i e nt:
Suggested
2. Octobeh 6 Materials: Objective:
Suggested
3. October 13 Materials: Objective:
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING Wednesday 3:45-5:30
Garold Smith,Jr. ,AIA, John Nelson, AIA,Richard Lightle ,AIA Douglas Gleason, Darryl Muir and April Smith, Special Asst.
29 John Ne1 son
Drawing Boards, Newsprint Paper, Clips and Elack Crayons
Guiding the students to think about various spaces through an explanation of Architecture and the use pf perspective. Also to introduce the students to the client.
Design and build a cottage get-away place for your favorite star containing 6 rooms and integrating a circle, triangle and rectangle into the design.
Acti vi ties:
1) Draw the space in the classroom omiting details to illustrate the feeling of space. Have the students draw to get the feeling of space in the room.
2.) Take students to an outdoor location and discuss the effects of shadow and distance on perspective. Point out angles formed by roofs, stairs etc...
3) Have the students sketch quickly to identify the space and form of the building using varying lines( legnth and width) to show distance and depth.
- Garold Smith
Newsprint Paper, penci1s,ru1ers and black crayons
Introduce students to scale and discuss the needs of the client once more.
Activities :
1) Have each student find a partner and draw your partner to scale.
2) Sketch the room in scale not including such details as counters, tables, etc...
3) Combine the above activities placing scale partners in the room drawn to scale.
4) Lead a group discussion on the needs of the client,(ie. shelter, food,etc..) and how to design to fit those needs. Also perhaps a brief explanation of solar heating would
be useful.
- Doug!as Gleason
Newsprint paper, rulers, black crayons
Explain to the students the use of bubble diagrams to show house planning. Supervise as students begin the basic planning of their cottages.


Week 3 continued
-108-
Suggested Activities:
1) Have students work with bubble diagrams and plot the rooms in their own homes. Discuss the way rooms are situated why garkgesi are not usually in the middle of the house,
and functions of rooms and their location within the house.
2) Keeping in mind the above, supervise the students as they diagram the cottage for their clients.
4. October 20 Richard Lightle, AIA
Materials: Drawing Paper, rulers, black crayons,figures cut to scale
Objective: Using scale have the students begin work on their floor
plans. Remind them they must use the circle, triangle and rectangle in their designs.
Suggested Activities:
1) Have the students think of the construction materials for their models. Will it be possible to build their models with the products available to them in the class.
2) Lead a discussion on roofs and covering for their homes, point out that not all roofs are flat.
3) Get the students th think about what the house will look like from the outside, perhaps have them sketch a basic elevation.
5. October 27 -April Smith
Materials: Students individual drawings from the previous week, paper, rulers crayons
Objective: Have the students finish the floor plans of their cottages. Suggested Activities:
1) Using the model of their person cut to scale,make sure that the person will fit into all the rooms of the house.
Work on details and refine the floor plans into a final working plan.
2) Using heavy paper have the students fold basic 3-D shapes to illustrate basic model building techiniques and materials.
3) At this point a very basic saftey discussion would be appropriate since they will be working with X-Acto knives and paper cutters in the model building stage begining next week.
6. November 3 Garold Smith
Materials: Each students floor plans, cardboard for bases, colored paper corrigated cardboard, glue, popsicle sticks, acetate, tape, scissors and X-acto knives
Objective: To have students begin work on their models, taking the drawn floor plan and converting it into a 3 dimensional model.
Suggested Activities:
1) Give a demonstration on structure. How the materials the students will be using can be used as columns, roofs etc..


Week 6 continued
Suggested
-109-
Activities continued:
2)Supervise students as they begin construction of their mode 1s .
7. November 10 Douglas Gleason
Materials: The same as the previous class session
Objective: Work with each student individually on the construction of their models.
Suggested Activities:
1) Lead a discussion and evaluate the models at this stage. Do they like their cottages? What would it be made of if they were going to build it for their personality? Where would it be located and how have they (designed the cottage for the location?
8. November 17 Richard Lightle
Materials: The same materials as the previous classes.
Objective: Have the students finish the models and perhaps introduce them to urban planning.
Suggested Activities:
1) Have each student explain their cottages and how they relate to their celebrity.
2) If possible show the film by the Design Alliance group.
9. November 24 Darryl Muir
Materi a 1s : Butchers paper taped to a large area of the floor, each
students individual model, preconstructed public buildings, colored crayons ,markers paints, construction paper and glue.
Objective: Have the students plan their community including their models.
Suggested Activities:
1) Discuss the relationship of public buildings and public need. Where would you put the hospital so it would be accessable to all in the community? Where will you put the schools and churches?
2) Point out the need for open spaces within the community. Should there be one large public park or several small parks for each person to enjoy.
3) Towards the end of the session conduct a walk-through of the new community. Follow the main road through the city and comment on the planning done by the students.


20D -^ Gazette Telegraph, Saturday. March 13,, 1982
Architects exhibit modet- building at arts center
arts chronicle
By John Fetler
GT Staff Writer
ARCHITECTS CELEBRATE AT
FAC: A lively 7-year-old skipped excitedly from one architectural model to the other with delight and said: Look! Theres the Penrose Hospital. And theres the First Baptist Church. Look, thats a gymnasium with curved windows!
The 7-year-old was Max Daymon, who was brought by his elders to the exhibit at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. His reaction was shared by Colorado Springs architects and their wives. They, too, admired the charm of the models.
The evening opened the first architectural exhibit of its kind in Colorado Springs. Many other such exhibits should follow in future years to encourage the model builders, not only for the historical record, but also for the sake of architectural model building.
The architects of this region wanted to celebrate the 125th birthday of the American Institute of Architects in a special way. The Colorado Springs
Fine Arts Center offered them the gallery space.
The exhibit is entitled Architecture as Art. The purpose is to draw attention to the practical, artistic and creative skills necessary in architectural design.
Theres a drafting board, showing where the architect sits as he thinks up ideas, there are engineering plans and there are sketches, fully drawn pictures and photographs.
And then there are those models, in the minutest detail, with tiny people and automobiles and trees and shrubs surrounding the buildings.
The delightful exhibit is on display now, and will be on view through April 11.
Seeing the youngsters reaction to the models reminded me that models have always delighted young and old.
And part of the charm is that some of the models are of buildings right here in Colorado Springs.
Darryl Muir, spokesman for the architects, explained there is a model builder in Colorado Springs, but many architects build their own models to show their clients what the building will look like.
I counted eight delightful models designed by the local architects: Penrose Hospital; the charming restoration of the First Baptist Church; an athletic facility in Green River, Wyo., the one with the curved windows; the structural space frame for Colorado Hall at the Broadmoor; an elementary school in Windsor; the bold and startling steel girder design for the Numismatic Association; Sunrimmon condominiums; and a modern residence. Drawings, paintings and photographs show additional architectural projects.
The names of the architects which I counted include John B. Nelson, Herald R. Holding, Garrold D. Smith Jr., Clifford S. Nakata, Carlisle B. Guy, Lamar Kelsey, Charles M.
Bollar Jr., Darryl Muir, Royce Angell, Roger Angell, Michael H. Collins and John J. Wallace. Then there were a number of architects covered under the designation of associates or team members.
The designs ranged all the way from the stark, but elegant simplicity of the Bauhaus style, to traditional New England type of homes, to such public and semi-public buildings as Compassion International and the Broadmoor project. It is also encouraging that Colorado Springs architects are represented in other communities such as Denver.
Local architects volunteer a course in Architecture and Urban Planning at the Bemis Art School. The students are taught how to draw renderings for a client, how to build a model and even how to develop a total urban setting for the structures.
If the youngsters are too young for classes, it would still be productive to bring them to the exhibit. They will be delighted with the models, and who knows, some of them may be inspired to set architecture as their goal.
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-111-
students, it confused others. The architects experimented with several methods, and determined that measuring the room with a 12 inch ruler, and drawing the plan at the scale of 1" equals 4 rulers, or 4', seemed to be less confusing. This illustrated the principle of scale drawing to the students.
Also, during the 1983 session, the continuation of the principals of scale were adapted to the human form which would occupy the space within the floor plan and models. A small cut-out of a person was made, so this client could actually circulate throughout he various spaces. The students drew and cut-out their representational client, and were allowed to use either himself/herself, or a fellow student. This concept proved to be very exciting for the students, and was very successful in providing the student with a real concept of scale and circulation. Students were elated to see themselves in a small scale.
The students were further introduced to the concept of using "bubble diagrams" for the preliminary arrangement of spaces. The bubbles were assigned room names or functions, and then moved around by the students to obtain the best arrangement of the plan according to their concepts and understanding of the design problem. This concept was easily accepted by the students, and proved to be helpful in assisting their visualization processes.
Since many of the students had not experimented with the structural concepts of cardboard and paper, these were introduced during this session of classes. This author, having the advantage of being a structural engineer as well as architect, constructed cardboard models to illustrate basic structural principals. Models of folded plates, barrel vaults, steel beams, and parabaloids were shown and discussed in order to


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show the students how to increase the structural characteristics of ordinary cardboard. For example, a flat sheet of paper or lightweight cardboard will bend down when held at one end; while a folded piece will remain straight and cantilever into space. Likewise, the manipulation of the board or paper further, ie., folded plate, vault, etc., extends the capabilities of the element. The basic structural characteristics of the beam-column system were also discussed and illustrated by using paper models. These structural principals were accompanied by a "hands-on" miniworkshop to familiarize the students with their own capabilities in attempting to incorporate these elements into their models.
The summer session of 1984 was shortened to six weeks due to the vacation period of the students, and basic scheduling problems. See sheets 113-117 for the schedule structure of this session. The results of the shortened schedule were not completely satisfactory, since too many basics had to be omitted.
The architects, during a typical program review, decided to try a new way to introduce the three dimensional concepts during the Fall, 1984 session of classes. This new concept was to use modeling clay to create a three-dimensional model of the two dimensional floor plan. Students, using this new tool, created many small, clay models; experimenting, as well, with roof shapes placed on their floor plans. This proved to be an unsuccessful approach to the introduction of three dimensions. A few students readily grasped the concepts and easily sculpted their models. However, the majority of the students understood the concepts, but became more interested in "playing" with the clay, and not sculpting per the criteria. We concluded that clay is the most basic form of "art play" introduced to small children, and they automatically reverted to that type


-113-
BEMIS
ART
SCHOOL
SUMMER 1S84
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
WEDNESDAY 3:30
1. June 13, 1984 John Nelson, AIA
Outdoor session and Client/Project introduction
2. June 20, 1984 Garold Smith, AIA Floor plans and siting
3. June 27, 1984 Richard Lightle, AIA Model Building
4. July 11, 1984 John Nelson, AIA Model Building
5. July 18, 1984 Garold Smith, AIA Model Building
6. July 25, 1984 All Architects Urban Planning
PARENTS PLEASE NOTE:
You are welcome to observe any of these classes. They will be held in the elementary studio of Bemis. We would especially encourage you to attend the last session, the location of which will be announced later on in this class schedule. Students are encouraged to work on their projects at Bemis during time other than class time, these class times will be announced later in the class.



1
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Bemis Art School
Summer Session 1984
Taught by: Garold Smith, AIA, John Nelson, AIA, & Richard
Lightle, AIA
1. June 13, 1984 John Nelson, AIA Materials: Drawing Boards, Newsprint paper,clips & black crayons.
Objective: Guiding the students to think about various spaces through an explanation of Architecture and the use of perspective. At this time the students should be introduced to the client.
Client: The students will be their own clients for this session. Design and build an adventure house for yourself. This house may be in the mountains or beside the sea. Use in your house design a circle, triangle and a rectangle, have no more than 6 activities in your home. The rooms may have any use that you wish.
Suggested Activities:
1) Draw the space in the classroom omitting the details to illustrate the feeling of space. Have the students specifically draw to show the feeling of space in the room.
2) Take the students to an outdoor area and discuss the effects of shadow and distance on perspective. Point out angles formed by the shadow on roofs, stairs, windows, etc..
3) Have the students sketch quickly to identify the space and form of the building using varying lines (length and width) to show distance and depth.
4) Introduce the students to the concept of three dimensional thinking.
5) Have students do a 3" high cut out of themselves, this cut out will have to circulate throughout the model.
2. June 20, 1984 Garold Smith, AIA
Materials: Newsprint paper, pencils, rulers and black crayons.


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Bemis
Art School
Summer Session
1984
Objective: Begin floor plans and design process.
Suggested Activities:
1) Introduce the students to bubble diagrams.
Explain the placement of activities in a residence for function, energy and structural significance.
2) Supervise the students as they begin the basic planning of their project using bubble diagrams.
3) Lead a group discussion on the needs of the client, (food,shelter,heat,etc..) and how to design to fit
those needs. Also perhaps a small discussion on alternative heating methods that would be useful, earthshelter, solar, etc...
3. June 27, 1984 _- Richard Lightle, AIA
Materials: Drawing paper,heavy paper,and scissors
Objective: Introduce the students to the basic model
building skills. And supervise in the final planning stages of their residence.
Have the students begin work on the three dimensional models Suggested Activities:
1) Have the students think of construction material for their homes, will they be able to build their houses out of the materials in class?
2) Review some basic model building techniques such as folding and shaping instead of cutting and taping or gluing.
3) Lead a discussion on variations of the roof, wall and lighting ideas the students have, instead of a flat
roof why not try a vault.
4) Using the model of themselves, have the students make sure that they will be able to fit through all doors,
etc...
5) Begin work on the 3-D models.
6) Perhaps at this point a basic safety discussion is in order. Warn about using scissors and emphasize that paper cutters are only to be used by instructors.


Bemis Art School
Summer Session
1984
4. July 11, 1984 John Nelson, AIA
Materials: Individual student floor plans, cardboard for bases, model building materials.
Objective: To have the students continue work on their models and convert the drawn floor plan into a 3-D working model.
Suggested Activities:
1) Give a demonstration on structure, showing how the materials can be used as columns,roofs,walls etc...How the skeleton of a building works.
2) Continue to supervise the students work on the
models.
5. July 18, 1984 Garold Smith,AIA
Materials: The same as the previous class session.
Objective: Work with each student individually on the construction of their models.
Suggested Activities:
1) Lead a discussion and evaluate the models at this point in their construction. Do they like their houses? What materials would they use if they were building this in real life for themselves? Where would they build it?
6. July 25, 1984 All Architects
Materials: Butcher paper taped to the floor, each students model, premade public buildings, colored crayons, markers, paints, construction paper and glue.
Objective: Have the students plan their community including their models.
Suggested Activities:
1) Discuss the relationship of public buildings and public space. Where would you put a hospital so that it would be accessable to the entire community? Where could churches and schools be situated?


Bemis
Art School
Summer Session
1984
2) Point out the need for open space in the community. Should there be one large central park area or several small parks scattered throughout the city.
3) Towards the end of the session conduct a walk through the new city. Follow the main road through the city and comment on the planning done by the students.
PREPARE FOR THE NEXT SESSION!!!!!


-118-
of 'approach to this assignment. We allowed the students who had been both unsuccessful and successful, however, to keep their completed models if they so desired, as was the normal policy.
Also, during this session, a uniform size for the model base was introduced. Previous models varied is sized too much to be compatible during the urban planning/cityscape session. A local dairy firm donated several hundred corrugated cardboard cut squares, which proved to be excellent bases for the children's models.
During the Spring 1985 session, new requirements were introduced into the second class session; the beginning of the actual floor plan design. The sessions of the previous years, led the students to discover that most residences were composed of square shaped rooms and structures. The architects decided to "break" the students out of this "square mold" and began this session with the requirement that portions of a circle, rectangle, and triangle must be included in their floor plans. Also, rooms were limited to six uses/spaces per plan, which decreased the complexity. These two new concepts, especially the geometric shapes, proved to be one of the better revisions made to the basic course structure. The students easily incorporated the shapes into their plans, and the plans became, as a whole, much more exciting and illustrated considerably more design thought. During the model building sessions, the students were also encouraged to use sloped, rounded, and imaginative roof shapes. This also created very ingenuous structures.
The architects brought into the classroom their own completed study and presentation models during this session. While it generated excitement and interest in the students, it gave them a basis from which to copy. They incorporated their favorite part of a model into their own


=119-
work, and in general, their creativity and design thoughts were diminished. The students also became discouraged because their models were not as professionally constructed and presentable as those of the architects.
This presentation of architect's models was repeated in one other session to see if the results were the same. Again, the children similarly reacted, and this process was ceased.
In 1985, the architect instructors formally became members of the Bemis Art School staff, and began being listed as staff members in the Bemis School Program of courses. This was exciting to the instructors due to all of the time they had devoted to the Bemis School. Also, the instructors were required to attend the orientation sessions devoted to the problems of child safety, emergency reactions, and child molestation.
While the architects realized that this, in today's society, was necessary; they felt a degree of apprehension had encroached upon their original enthusiasm. A copy of a typical Bemis Art School program of course offerings and Faculty acknowledgements follows on sheets 120-127.


-120-
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COLORADO SPRINGS FINE ARTS CENTER
BEMIS
ART SCHOOL
FALL 1988
CHILDRENS
CLASSES
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EXHIBIT NUMBER 4


-121-
COLORADO SPRINGS FINE ARTS CENTER BEMIS ART SCHOOL FALL 1988
CHILDREN'S CLASSES
A blend of outstanding, experienced art teachers...an excellent art facility with large, open studios...and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center (FAC) with its exhibits and permanent collections make art at Bemis a most unique experience. Students will create art in the medium of their choice while viewing and studying some of the great art of the worldin particular the Arts and Cultures of the Southwest.
Class size is usually limited to 15 students, allowing for individual attention. We look forward to having your children in our classes!
DATES: September 26-December 17, 1988
HOLIDAYS: Columbus Day. October 10, 1988
Thanksgiving, November 24-26, 1988 COST: Each class fee is listed individually.
In addition, a non-refundable registration fee of $5.00 will be charged for each class.
LAB FEE: Some classes require an additional fee for supplies or use of a model. Check individual listings for this information.
SUPPLIES: Supplies are furnished for children's
classes.
Call 475-2444 for further information.
GENERAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION
Classes will be filled on a* fiYst-come first-served basis. Classes may be cancelled il they do not .meet minimum enrollment. Class fee: must be paid in full at the time of registration, Cash or check only.
Member Registration
WHO: For Members of the Fine Arts Center.
WHEN: Begins on Tuesday, September 6, througi
Friday, September 23, 1988. Hours are 9:00 5:00, Monday Friday.
WHERE: At Bemis Art School (located behind the Fine Arts Center off Cache La Poudre or Pelham Place).
Open Registration WHO: For the general public.
WHEN: Begins on Monday, September 12, through
Friday, September 23, 1988. Hours are 9:00 5:00, Monday Friday.
WHERE: At Bemis Art School (located behind the Fine Arts Center off Cache La Poudre on Pelham Place).
REFUND POLICY: Refunds will not be given except under the following conditions:
1. A full refund (class, registration and lab fees) will be given when the class of the registrant's choice is cancelled by the Fine Arts Center.
2. A refund of 75% of the class fee plus any lab fee will be given if the person cancels prior to the first class. Registration fee is non-refundable.
3. A refund of 75% of the class fee plus any lab fee will be given if the person presents a medical excuse, accompanied by a statement from a doctor no later than the second class period. Registration fee is non-refundable.
4. Sorry, no refunds after the second class period.
REGISTRATION FORM FALL 1988 ART CLASSES BEMIS ART SCHOOL CUSSES FOR CHILDREN
1
Student Name-_______
Age ________________________Parents' Names
Address
City
Zip
Telephone_______________________________(home) _________________________ (work)
School Attending_____________________________Previous Bemis Class_____yes____no
Name of Class Course Number Class Fee Registration Fee Lab Fee TOTAL
1. $ $5.00 $ $
2. $ $5.00 $ >1 $
3. $ $5.00 $ $
TOTAL ENCLOSED: $
Please make checks payable to COLORADO SPRINGS FINE ARTS CENTER and mail to Bemis Art School, Fine Arts Center, 30 W. Dale, Colorado Springs, CO 80903. Fees must accompany registration form.


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SHARON ANDREWS B.A., Dramatic Arts, University of North Carolina; f>AY0 performer; currently teaching and performing in the Colorado Springs area.
ROBIN CORYELL B.S., Education and Theatre, UCCS; certified K-6; originated and currently heads the Young Actors Theatre Company in Colorado Springs.
LIZ CRAWFORD B.A., Studio Art, The Colorado College; interned at Bemis Art School, summer 1987; has taught clay and sculpture at Bemis ever since.
WENDY FAY B.A., Studio Art, The Colorado College; studied oil painting and drawing with Louis Gippetti and Barnet Rubenstein at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
NANCY HARRINGTON B.A., Studio Art, University of Maryland; teaching experience in art, dance and music; Director of Clown Around Ministries.
DEBORAH LANG B.S., Ohio University; M.S. in Child Development and Master of Education, University of Georgia; certification in Movement and Dance Education, Margaret Morris Movement International Organization, London, England.
M. PENNY MANSON B.A., Sociology and Theatre; worked with Missoula Children's Theatre; Founder and Director of CHAT (Children's Awareness Theatre) in Colorado Springs.
THERESA McNIERNEY B.S., Art Education, Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Certified K-12; art instructor for the past ten years at the Tucson Museum of Art School, Tucson, Arizona; Co-founder of the Tucson Fine Arts Elementary School; presently Assistant Director, Bemis Art School.
JOHN NELSON Member of the American Institute of Architects; principal of Neison and Associates, Architects.
SUSAN PETITTO B.F.A., Art Education, University of Massachusetts; former art instructor at Woodland Hills Montessori School.
CARL REINHARDT Member of the American Institute of Architects; principal of The Reinhardt Partnership.
JENA ROCHAT B.S., Art Education, St. Cloud State University; M.A., The University for .Humanistic .Studies; certified K-12; past art instructor in Jefferson County School District and Academy School District #20.
MARJORIE RODMAN B.A., Art Education, UCCS; past owner/director of Woodland Country Day School, Woodland Park; Montessori Instructor at Colorado Springs Montessori School; summer intern 1988, Bemis Art School.
HOWARD C. SHAW, 111 B.A., Art Education, Colorado State University; certified K-12; formerly Assistant Director, Bemis Art School; presently a full-time art instructor in the Cheyenne Mountain School System.
MIKE STANSBERY B.F.A., Directing and Design, Ohio University; M.DIV., Education and Communication, Andover Newton Theological School; former Dramatist for Cleveland Children's Museum; staff member for Boston's Children's Theatre; presently a staff member of the Theatre Department, Pikes Peak Community College.
PAIGE THOMAS B.F.A., Art Education, University of Colorado, Boulder; Assistant for Ceramics I and II at Pikes Peak Community College; presently staff ceramics instructor, Bemis Art School.
GAROLD D. SMITH, JR. Member of the American Institute of Architects and the National Society of Professional Engineers; principal of Garold D. Smith, Jr. and Associates, P.C.
2


ARTSTART
A Bemis class for three-year olds and a parent (or an adult friend or relative). A unique opportunity for parent and child to work together in the visual arts. The class will focus on the following design elements
MIXED MEDIA
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In this class, children begin their exploration of th6 world of art. Visits to the FAC galleries will encourage visual and verbal expression, and studio projects will develop the imaginative expression of ideas and feelings while improving skills in the manipulation of materials.
AA) Age 3 and 1 parent
BB) Age 3 and 1 parent
lage. Monday: 1:00-2:00 p.m. Instructor: Susan Petitto f\ges 4-5 Monday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Susan Petitto Fee: $59.00
Limit: 10 children and
10 adults Fee: $64.00 (includes 1 child and 1 adult) Ages 4-5 Wednesday: 9:30-10:45 a.m. Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00
Wednesday: 9:30-10:30 a.m. Instructor: Susan Petitto Ages 4-5 Wednesday: 1:30-2:45 p.m. Instructor: Deborah Lang
Limit: 10 children and Fee: $59.00
10 adults
Fee: $64.00 (includes 1 child and 1 adult) (HH) MORE Ages 4-5 MIXED MEDIA Saturday: 10:00-11:15 a.m. Instructor: Jena Rochat Fee: $59.00
PRE-SCHOOL ARTS:
FOUR FOR 4*s and FOUR FOR 51s
A unique arts enrichment program for preschoolers. The class meets two mornings per week. A team of four Bemis instructors will present experiences in four major areas: visual arts, dance, drama and music. Use of the Fine Arts Center's exhibits will be included. Emphasis will be on building self-confidence, fostering creative thinking and stimulating curiosity.
FOUR FOR 4's (Age 4)
Tuesday and Thursday: 9:00-11:30 a.m. Instructors: Sharon Andrews, Nancy Harrington, Deborah Lang, Theresa McNierney
Limit: 12 students Fee: $199.00
FOUR FOR 51s (Age 5)
Tuesday and Thursday: 9:00-11:30 a.m.. Instructors: Sharon Andrews, Nancy Harrington, Deborah Lang, Theresa McNierney
Limit: 15 students Fee: $199.00
A continuing program in which children explore varied art-making activities and materials inspired by new ideas and approaches each semester.- The emphasis is on developing visual and cultural literacy through "hands-on" art experiences combined with museum gallery visits. Activities painting, drawing, clay sculpture, making and collage.
related
include
print-
0 Ages 6-8 0 Ages 6-8 (T) Ages 6-8

Ages 6-8
(?) Ages 6-8
Monday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Deborah Lang Fee: $59.00
Tuesday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Susan Petitto Fee,: $59.00
Wednesday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Wendy Fay Fee: $59.00
Thursday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Wendy Fay Fee: $59.00
Saturday: 10:00-11:15 a.m. Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00
REGISTRATION FOR FOUR FOR 4's AND FOUR FOR 51s ACCEPTED AT ANY TIME
3


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s I 1
0 1 -1 1 1
CLAY/HANDBUILDING
"Hands-on" experience in clay using
various techniques in construction; pinch
forms, slab and coil methods will be emphasized. Special attention will be given to design and decoration using a variety of materials.
MUCH MORE MIXED MEDIA
A continuing program in which children explore varied art-making activities and materials inspired by new ideas and approaches each semester. The emphasis is on developing visual and cultural literacy through "hands-on" art experiences combined with related museum gallery visits. Activities include painting, drawing, clay, sculpture, printmaking and paper-making.
Ages 6-8
Tuesday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $8.00
(7) Ages &-8
Wednesday: 4:00-5:15 p.m. Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $8.00
TECHNIQUES OF DRAWING
Students will explore the world of drawing using a variety of techniques and materials. Emphasis will be on the process of "seeing" and developing drawing skills. Still life, figure, landscape and other subject matter will be studied.
Q) Ages 9-12 (?) Ages 9-12
Thursday: 4:00-5:30 p.m. Instructor: Chip Shaw Fee: $59.00
Saturday: 10:00-11:30 a.m. Instructor: Wendy Fay Fee: $59.00
DRAWING/PAINTING
In this class, young artists will be encouraged to invent new compositional approaches, develop their own individual style and expand their ways of "seeing." Basic drawing concepts are emphasized and built upon through painting exercises. Visits to the FAC galleries will serve as inspiration and motivation.
Ages 9-12 Monday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00
Ages 9-12 Thursday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Theresa McNierney Fee: $59.00
Ages 9-12 Tuesday: 4:00^-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Marjorie Rodman Fee: $59.00
SCULPTURE IDEA, FORM AND TECHNIQUE
Here students enter the world of three dimensional art. After conceptualizing an idea, young artists will find its realization through the content, form and materials of sculpture. Using the techniques of carving and construction, materials, such as wood, plaster, clay, wire, papier mache, styrofoam and found objects will be explored.
Ages 9-12 Tuesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Liz Crawford Limit: 10 students Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $4.00
CLAY/HANDBUILDING
"Hands-on" experience in clay using various techniques in construction; pinch forms, slab and coil methods will be emphasized. Special attention will be given to design and decoration using a variety of materials.
(m) Ages 9-12 Monday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Liz Crawford Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $8.00
(l^) Ages 9-12 Wednesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Paige Thomas Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $8.00
4


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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
Working with area architects, students will define and explore space, draw two dimensional plans for a special client,
create individual three dimensional dwel1ings, and combine efforts to develop an urban setting for the structures.
(l6) 5th through Wednesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m. 7th graders instructors: John Nelson, AIA, Garold D. Smith, AIA, Carl Reinhardt, AIA Limit: 12 students Fee: $44.00/9 weeks
CLAY/WHEELTHROWING 1 AND 2
These classes are designed to develop skills on the potter's wheel and explore the possibilities of handbuilding using a wide range of glazing techniques and design problem solving. Raku and Pit Firing available.
M7) Ages 12 Wheelthrowing 1-Beginning
and up Tuesday: 3:30-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Paige Thomas Limit: 9 students Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $9.00
U8) Ages 12 Wheelthrowing 2-Intermediate
and up Thursday: 3:30-5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Paige Thomas Limit: 9 students Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $9.00
OPEN STUDIO FOR POTTERS Bemis Art School
An opportunity to use the pottery studio for additional work. To participate, student must be registered in a current ceramics wheelthrowing class at Bemis. Fee will be charged at a rate of $1.00 per hour. Studio availability will be given at first class.
ADVANCED CLAY HANDBUILDING
> *
"Hands-on" experience in clay using
various techniques in construction; pinch
forms, slab and coil methods will be emphasized. Special attention will be given to design and decoration using a variety of materials.
^9) Ages 12 Saturday: 10:00-11:30 a.m. and up Instructor: Paige Thomas
Fee: $59.00 Lab Fee: $8.00
SCULPTURE IDEA, FORM AND TECHNIQUE
'
Here students enter the world of three dimensional art. After conceptualizing an idea, young artists will find its realization through the content, form and materials of sculpture. Using the techniques of carving and construction, materials such as wood, plaster, clay, wire, papier mache, styrofoam and found objects will be explored.
Ages 12 Wednesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m. and up Instructor: Liz Crawford
Limit: 10 students
5


*
NOTE: For Mini Pre-School, register for class II (Creative Dramatics 1) and EE (Mixed Media). _______
ij - DRAMA
CREATIVE DRAMATICS 1 *

A beginning class stressing movement,
rhythm games and learning to work and play together. We will create our own characters
i and plays which will be presented to parents
; and friends during the last class. Please
wear loose-fitting clothes so we can
be free to move. Parents are welcome to visit/participate at any time.
1
Ages 4-5
Monday: 2:30-3:45 p.m. Instructor: M. Penny Manson Fee: $59.00
CREATIVE DRAMATICS 2
Children learn by "being" -- by putting themselves into various situations and be-J coming the characters. They "feel" what it is like and therefore expand their range of |j life experience. This class is designed to ij provide young actors with the opportunity to act out stories and poems both classic and jj original.
Ij (2l) Ages 6-8 Monday: 4:00-5:15 p.m.
I Instructor: M. Penny Manson
fj Fee: $59.00
|j MIME, MUSIC AND MOVEMENT
1 This class will begin with instruction
, in the basic movements of MIME. From that point, the class will evolve into mime with music and movement. Students will learn to j: use face make-up and how to incorporate such items as fabric, natural found objects and natural sounds into their scenes. There will also^be some experimentation with creating original music from taped environmental sounds.
(22) 4th through Wednesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
6th graders Instructor: Robin Coryell Fee: $59.00
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PRE-TEEN DRAMA WORKSHOP
Students will be'introduced to drama and the art of acting through creative dramatics techniques (acting out stories and poems), theatre games and improvisations. They will experience what an actor must do from script to performance by writing and acting out their own scripts.
(23) Ages 9-12 Tuesday: 4:00-5:15 p.m.
Instructor: Sharon Andrews Fee: $59.00
YOUNG ACTORS' WORKSHOP
This class is designed as an intermediate acting skills warehouse. The participants will strengthen their acting skills and imagination through improvisation, mime, story portrayal, body movement, games, readers theatre and general voice training. A final presentation may be given to friends and family at the close of the course. Be sure to wear loose fitting clothing for free movement. Previous experience is helpful but not required.
(24) 6th through Wednesday: 4:00-5:30 p.m.
8th graders Instructor: Michael Stansbery Limit: 16 students Fee: $59.00
YOUNG ACTORS' STUDIO
This class is designed to stimulate the actor's imagination and creative potential as they give special attention to characterization, stage movement, speech techniques and dramatic form. Scenes from current and classical theatre will be the focal point of our activities. Final scenes may be presented at the close of the semester for family and friends. Previous acting experience is
helpful but not required.
(25) 9th through Monday: : 4:00-5:30 p.m.
12th graders Instructor: Michael Stansbery Limit: 16 students Fee: $59.00


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coioraao springs rine rts center Bemis Art School 30 W. Dale Street Colorado Springs, CO 80903
Non-Profit Org.
U.S. POSTAGE PAID
Colorado Springs, CO Permit No. 136
V


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The structural portion of the course was revised in 1986 to include a short, one class bridge building session. The idea being to physically illustrate to the students the structural characteristics of bent, folded, and taped posterboard. The project requirement was to construct a bridge of the longest possible span which would support a one-half pound piece of wood. This project generated considerable interest in the older students and presented an outstanding challenge to their creativity. The maximum span, to date, has been 42 inches and was an engineering masterpiece created by an eleven year old student. This has been an exciting addition to the class schedule.
In the year 1987, a tree house was introduced as a project during the third class meeting. This author provided small trees cut from real tree branches, which were drilled into wooden bases This allowed the "tree" to be free standing. The purpose of this new project was to illustrate the structural requirements of constructing a house within the branches of a tree, and the problems which could be encountered. We hoped to force the students to further expand their creativity The "tree houses" were, due to the constraints of the tree sizes and types, required to be simple in design and composed of minimal spaces. Some of the student's solutions were extremely creative and most of them illustrated unique structural improvisations. This exercise has generated the most excitement in the challenges of the structural portion of the class. It has created an awareness of the actual mechanical requirements of fastening the building materials together, and then selecting the proper placement within the branches, and further, selecting the correct materials to secure the


FIGURE NUMBER 9
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TREE HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
6" x 6" x 2" Wood Block with hole to recieve tree trunk
Completed Tree for Tree House


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house in the tree; given the normal associations of the movements of a tree. The project is more successful with older students, as they tend to appreciate the problems associated with such a structure more than the younger students. The instructors have participated in this project several times by actually constructing their own tree houses. In comparison, the study of the differences is extremely enlightening. The architects houses tend to be more stable and simple; however the student's tree houses are usually more creative, and far less restrictive. See sheets 131-133 for photographs of the tree house sessions.
The architecture and Urban Planning Course has expanded and been revised throughout its nine year history, and today is an extremely viable course of study which is offered to the children of the area.
The directorship of the Bemis School has changed, as have the team of architect instructors. The continuity within the program has remained, and is constantly being expanded. The last offering, Fall 1988, was the most rewarding to date; due primarily to the quality of the students. See sheets 134-141 for the syllabus for this session.
The upcoming sessions will be scheduled and taught per the requests of the Director of the Bemis School. The staff of enthusiastic architect instructors await the planning meetings and course schedules. We always look forward to the opportunity of being allowed to introduce more children to the concepts of Architecture.


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BEMIS ART SCHOOL
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
WEDNESDAY 4:00 5:30
Architecture and Urban Planning has been offered to the Children in the Colorado Springs area in grades 1 through 12 as a cooperative effort of the Bemis Art School, and volunteer members of the American Institute of Architects, Colorado South Chapter since 1980.
Program Coordinator: Garold D. Smith, Jr., member American Institute of
Architects and National Society of Professional Engineers. Principal of Garold D. Smith, Jr. & Associates, P.C. Instrumental in establishing and expanding the program, as well as being an insturctor for the last eight years.
Architect Instructors for Fall, 1988 Session:
John Nelson, member American Institute of Architects. Principal, Nelson and Associates, Architects. Program instructor for seven years.
Garold D. Smith, Jr, AIA NSPE


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Fall 1988 Class Schedule
1. September 28, 1988
Materials and Perspective John Nelson
2. October 5, 1988
School Design Garold Smith
3. October 12, 1988
School Design John Nelson
4. October 19, 1988 Tree House Garold Smith
5. October 26, 1988
Structure and Bridge Garold Smith/John Nelson
6. November 2, 1988 Bridge Design Garold Smith
November 9, 1988 Residence Design John Nelson
8. November 16, 1988
Residence Design Garold Smith
November 23, 1988 Residence Design John Nelson
PARENTS PLEASE NOTE:
You are invited to observe our classes. All classes are held at Bemis Art School. Ue would especially encourage you to attend the last session, the room location will be announced at a later time. Students are encouraged to work on their projects at Bemis during other times than regular class periods (School vacations, etc.)if facilities are available for them to do soL Please call Bemis Art School to make arrangements.


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ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING
Design Problems for Fall 1988 Session
Problems will consist of the following:
1. School Design two member design teams introduction to design concepts and working with a partner.
2. Tree House A short problem of building a small structure within an actual tree branch. This problem will introduce the student to 3D construction and paper material uses.
3. Bridge This project will introduce the student to structural concepts and structural uses of paper products.
A.
Residence A residence designed for the student client. The structure is to be located near a lake, contain only six rooms, incorporate parts of specified geometrical shapes ( circle, square, triangle) and will have only one level.


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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
§ 1 September 28, 1988 John Nelson, AIA
Materials: Drawing Boards, Newsprint paper, clips & black crayons.
Objective: Guiding the students to think about various spaces through an
explanation of Architecture and the use of perspective. At this time the students should be introduced to the client.
Client: You will be the client for this project. The house will be
designed for the client per the attached program.
Suggested Activities:
1) Draw the space in the classroom omitting the details to illustrate the feeling of space. Have the students specifically draw to show the feeling of space in the room.
2) Take the students to an outdoor area and discuss the effects of shadow and distance on perspective. Point out angles formed by the shadow on roofs, stairs, windows, etc.
3) Have the students sketch quickly to identify the space and form of the building using varying lines (length and width) to show distance and depth.
4) Introduce the students to the concept of three-dimensional thinking.


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#2 October 5, 1988
Garold D. Smith, Jr., AIA
Materials: Newsprint paper, pencils and rulers.
Objective: Introduction to the design needs of a small school project.
Suggested Activities:
1 ) Introduce students to needs of a building type make a list.
2) Refine students lists into a simulated design program.
3) Supervise students as they begin basic development of school plans.
4) Lead discussion on needs of school students and how to design to meet those needs.
#3 October 12, 1988 John Nelson, AIA
Materials: Drawing paper, pencils, rulers.
Objective: To continue and complete the school project.
Suggested Activities:
1) Review the results of previous session.
2) Discuss completed design solutions.


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#4 October 19, 1988 Garold Smith, AIA
Materials: Tree (to be supplies by instructor), paper, tape, scissors.
Objective: To have students design and complete a small house-type
structure within the confines of their tree.
Suggested Activities:
1) Explain project and let the students use their imaginations.
2) Offer assistance as needed to students.
If5 October 26, 1988
John Nelson, AIA Garold Smith, AIA
Materials: Paper, cardboard, tape and glue.
Objective: Have the students begin construction of a bridge to span as
long as possible, and to support a given weight.
Suggested Activities:
1) Discuss structural concepts and methods of folding paper materials.
2) Encourage students to be creative and imaginative in their thinking.
3) Offer assistance as needed.


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§6 November 2, 1988 Garold Smith, AIA
Materials: Same as for session number 5.
Objective: Have students continue with bridge project.
Suggested Activities:
Same as for session number 5.
§7 November 9, 1988 John Nelson, AIA
If7 November 9, 1988 John Nelson, AIA
Materials: Newsprint paper, pencils, rulers and black crayons.
Objective: Beginning of Floor Plan Designs.
Suggested Activities:
1) Introduce the students to residential project. Explain the placement of activities in a residence for function, energy and structural significance.
2) Supervise the students as they begin the basic planning of their project using bubble diagrams.
3) Lead a group discussion on the needs of the client, (food, shelter, heating/cooling, etc.) and how to design to fit those needs. Also, perhaps a small discussion on alternative heating methods that would be useful earth shelter, solar, etc.


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§8 November 16, 1988 Garold Smith, AIA
Materials: Same as previous session.
Objective: Have the students continue working on their models. Encourage
various roof shapes, etc.
Suggested Activity: Have students analyze their models and designs.
# 9 Nobember 23, 1988
Garold Smith, AIA/John Nelson, AIA
Materials: Butcher paper taped to a large area of the floor, each
student's model, premade publis buildings, colored crayons, markers, paints, construction paper, and glue.
Objective: Have the students plan their community by locating their models and public buildings, etc, around the lake.
Suggested Activities:
1) Discuss the relationship of public buildings and public space. Where would you put a hospital so that it would be accessible to the entire community? Where would the churches, schools, police and fire stations be best located?
2) Point out the need for open spaces within the community. Should there be one large central park or several small parks scattered throughout the area for all to enjoy?
3) Towards the end of the session, conduct a "walk-through" of the
new community. Follow the main road through the city and comment on the
planning done by the students.
b) Have the students analyze their city and express their reactions to the final results of their efforts.


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CRITIQUE OF EXISTING COURSE


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Critique of Existing Bemis Architecture and Planning Course
The course was created to fulfill a void in the public education system for children, regarding the basic architectural concepts and the built environment. During the last nine years, the course has accomplished this primary goal; and for this reason, the architect instructors express satisfaction.
The planning steps and their methods of fulfillment could have been accomplished more successfully by trained educators. The architects used intuition, advice from the Bemis Staff, and trial and error methods to accomplish their goals and complete the necessary planning.
We have been told of similar courses being offered in other parts of the United States, but have determined that this course is the only one offered through a children's art school. Attempts have been made to obtain written information from these other programs, but to date, we have been unable to do so. We believe our program to be unique in its method of presentation and course composition. The Bemis administrator has given presentations of this program at Art Education seminars and conferences throughout the country, and it has always created extreme interest and met with great enthusiasm. This reception of the program has led us to believe that we have succeeded in preparing and offering a program which has met the need we had hoped, and that this program is a one of a kind offering.
Demand by the public, as shown by student enrollments and requests for enrollments have proven that the basics taught in this course are filling a void in past and present offerings by the public school systems. No other course is being offered on a local basis which allows


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children the opportunity of exploring the workings of architecture, architects and the built environment.
The course has never had public funding or financial assistance during its history. All time for instruction has been on a voluntary basis by the architect instructors. The Bemis School has provided facilities and all supplies, as well as class assistants, as a part of their community program, which is funded by nominal tuition charged to the students in all of their classes. Had additional funding been possible, perhaps occasional visual aids such as video or film presentations, or a guest speaker could have been incorporated into the program. Also, supplies which would have met specific needs could have been purchased, and we would not have had to rely on found objects to create the effects we were hoping to obtain in the three dimensional portion of the class. The architects, however, prepared slide show programs to illustrate specifics from their own archives, and the students expressed great satisfaction from these presentations.
The revisions to the basic offering have been made after discussion and agreement among the architect instructors, and when deemed appropriate, with the Bemis staff. Many suggestions have been offered, and rejected during the planning meetings, as the desire has been to keep the revisions to a minimum; seeking always to maintain the integrity of the program and prevent student concern. Revisions made to the program have been to improve the overall quality of the offering, and have been judged to be successful by the increased enrollments and student enthusiasm.
As with any program, as much was learned by the revisions which were incorporated, and consequently discontinued; as was learned by those which were retained. Maintaining our own "think tank" allowed us to put into practice many ideas and concepts, and being allowed to accept or


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reject as we saw fit. This permitted the architects the satisfaction of working through many revisions which were tried and retained, or tried and dropped, and still feel that they had been entirely worth the effort involved in their inception, fruition, and presentation. The instructors would not have known their value, had they not had the opportunity to explore "workable thoughts."
The concept of using the same basic program for all age groups was valid. However, more changes to the basic program should have been made in order to tailor the program more to the age groups of the students during specific class sessions. For instance, the modeling clay portion of the three dimensional instruction should have been reserved for the older students only, since this age group tended to better grasp the intentions of the clay design segment better than the younger students. Also, the younger children enjoyed working with colored plans which they had made with the use of crayons, paint, and colored paper. The older students tended to shun excess use of color and opt to spend more time on the thought going into the plan.
The older students, during one session, were assisted in trying to sketch exterior elevations of their projects. It was discovered that the children were not able to visualize a three dimensional wall from the two dimensional floor plan. The attempt at elevation sketching was omitted from the course schedule. It was determined that the frustration expressed by the students was counterproductive.
Possibly, the clients could have been more varied, and chosen more specifically for the age groups being taught. The younger children performed better when the client was a family member. They had difficulty relating to someone they were less intimately associated with in their


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daily lives. Older students, however, preferred a favorite "Rock Star" or actor/actress to the family member client.
The materials used were acceptable to all ages of students. The older students were more appreciative of the scrap building materials and plastic found objects, and greatly enjoyed the challenge of incorporating them into their projects often to the extent that using the item became more important that the plan/model. Younger children preferred to use brightly colored poster boards as the mainstay of their construction.
The bonding agent used principally was glue, such as "Elmer's Glue." This was difficult due to the long drying time required, and the time consumed in holding one element to another waiting for the bond. Masking tape proved to be the most efficient and useful attachment material, though not always aesthetically pleasing to the students.
Scissors were the principal cutting tool used, therefore, materials had to be such that they could be readily cut with their use. Younger children were restricted to the use of scissors. Older students were allowed to use X-acto knives as well as a paper cutter, with supervision. During the nine years of the course, only one student was injured with a knife-like tool, and that injury was minor. Often, an older student would bring in a material that had been prepared at home with the help of a parent; and this often created a problem of its own.
The project type was the same for all ages of students. During one session for older children, the instructors changed the project to a small school, since the instructors were tiring of the small residence type project. This was a bad judgement, since the school project was entirely too complicated for the students, and was not stimulating, since the students spend so much time in their own schools. The residence proved to


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be the favorite project for the students. The size was often varied per the age groups, thus offering the older students the opportunity to design more complicated houses.
The time allocated to drawing and sketching the proposed projects should have been altered, with the younger children having more time to spend in this phase of the project. The older students express themselves more rapidly and precisely than the younger students. This fact is reinforced in the earlier examples of Jean Piaget's experiments and findings.
Sir Cyril Burt, in his "Mental and Scholastic Tests" noted that the stages of drawing vary with age. They are as follows:
I) Scribble age 2-5 with peak at 3.
II) Line age 4.
Ill) Descriptive Symbolism age 5-6.
Descriptive Realism age 7-8.
IV)


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The drawings are still logical rather than visual. The child 'sets down what he knows, not what he sees; and is still thinking, not of the present individual, but rather of the generic type.' He is trying to catalogue all that he remembers or that interests him, in a subject. The 'schema' becomes more true to detail; items, however, are suggested more by the association of ideas than by the analysis of precepts. Profile views of the face are attempted, but perspective, opacity, foreshortening, and all the consequences of singleness of viewpoint are disregarded. There is a gathering interest in decorative details."
(We instructors found the above to be very typical of our younger
students.)
"V) Visual Realism age 9 10.
The child passes from stage of drawing from memory and imagination to the stage of drawing from nature there are two phases:
(a) two dimensional phase outline only is used.
(b) three dimensional phase solidity is attempted. Attention is given to overlapping and perspective. A little shading and occasional foreshortening may be attempted. Landscapes are attempted.
VI) Repression age 11-14.
This stage sets in most commonly about the age of 13. Burt (and his view was representative at the time he wrote) regards this stage as a part of the child's natural development. Progress in the attempt to reproduce objects is not at best laborious and slow, and the child becomes disillusioned and discouraged. Interest is transferred to expression through the medium of language, and if drawing continues the preference is for conventional designs, and the human figure becomes rare.


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VII) Artistic Review early adolescence.
'From about age 15, drawing for the first time blossoms into a genuine artistic activity.' Drawings now tell a story. A clear distinction between sexes is now evident. Girls show a love of richness of color, grace in form, of beauty in line; youths tend to use drawing more as a technical and mechanical outlet. But by many, perhaps most, this final stage is never reached. The repression at the previous stage has been too complete." (Education Through Art, 1958, Pgs. 118-119.)
Future courses should contain the revised schedule, which allows more sketching time for the younger students, since they may require more time to express their ideas to their satisfaction.
Since the boy/girl mix in our past classes has been heavy on the boy side, more attention should be devoted to recruiting girls into the course. The ratio of the class places the girls in a minority position and has caused most girls to become extremely quiet and shy. The younger girls seem to hold their own with the boys much better than the older girls, in fact, the younger girls tend to become the majority participants in the class. The girls tend to want to design and construct "doll houses" or recreate their own homes. This is especially true during the model building portion of the course. Some girls require special attention to help them past this "doll house" stage of the project. Once past this stage, the girls become more serious designers than the boys. Sometimes a boy or two will attempt to turn his house into a military fort or similar structure from one of their cartoon or television programs. This has not been tolerated, since it usually distracts the other students from their own design process. The military and doll house stages are evident more in the older students; 12 14 years of age.


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The storage of student projects has been a problem in the past, and better storage should have been provided. The limited storage space at the Bemis School often required that the architect instructors remove the partial projects to their own homes and return them the following class period. Storage of 15 18 student projects require a large storage area, and in fairness to the students, they should be secured to prevent alteration and/or damage from outside forces. A child is understandably shaken when he/she sees that the model which has been so laboriously constructed has been damaged, and he/she must repeat the building process. The greatest problem lies not so much in the rebuilding, but in the fact that the child has been forced to fall behind the other students, and may not have sufficient time to complete his/her project. This also becomes an emotional factor, in that the student may become so frustrated that he/she does not even attempt to recover from the damage sustained, and will not complete the project. This is more consistant in the younger students than in the older ones, and more especially for the girls. This, again, reinforces the earlier mentioned need for adequate facilities for all phases of the program.
A problem which occurs in every class session is the difference in the working speeds of the students. This is very evident in the classes for the older children. The gifted student out works the others and will complete all phases of the project before the others. This student will then become unsettled and tend to lose interest in the class. In the past, our architects have not had the opportunity to properly address this problem. Most naturally, we would assign additional tasks and place extra design requirements on the gifted student in order to challenge his/her creativity. This, however, is often not the solution for that particular


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student. In the class structure, we indicated the desire to serve not only the gifted student, but all students. As we continue to revise the classes, special instructional time and materials will be incorporated into the sessions for the gifted students.
The instructors have also noted that girls do not construct their models as quickly as do the boys. This is due in part to the fact that often boys have constructed models of some sort boats, planes, spacecraft in a hobby situation; and this is often the first attempt for girls.
They, therefore, require additional assistance in order to complete their projects. Also, girls tend to spend more time in decorative elements than do the boys.
The ever changing structure of the family has been, and will always be a problem in a class where the criteria is to construct a family-type home. Many students in single parent homes, or those who live in apartments require additional consideration as they attempt to relate to the design project. These same students often receive little participation from their parent/s in this situation, as is seen in the regular school system. The architects must, as untrained educators, anticipate this situation, and be prepared to constructively work with the student so that his/her project will be satisfying.
This brings us to the subject of the problem student. This child is often in the class due to parental decree. The child is often bored, very unwilling to cooperate, unwilling to work, and generally disruptive to both the instructor, and fellow students. We have not been able to adequately handle this problem within the particular structure of the class, since the student is actually a student of the Bemis School. The instructors have had to use patience, and in some instances, refer to the


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Bemis staff to assist in the situation. This is a situation in which the Bemis staff person assigned to the classroom has enabled the architects to attempt to keep a structured program going while staff handled the student at least for the moment. We have requested, in the past, that this type student be removed from the class which may or may not be possible.
The length of time for the class session has been held constant for all age groups during the class history. The length on one hour and forty-five minutes seems to be adequate for students nine years and older. The younger students seem to get tired during this time period and are anxious to leave. A variable time period could be adopted during the course master planning, which would vary the course content to allow for less time for task completion for the younger students, but still allow them to proceed through the complete course.


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Students in past classes have requested permission to take their models home to work on. Instructors have allowed the children to do so, with the understanding that they would be returned the following class session. The results have been both good, and bad. On the positive side, the slower student, or the student who had a previous disaster in the model construction was able to keep up with the class assignment. On the negative side, students often received a great deal of adult assistance in their model construction. Also, professional model building materials were often purchased, such as trees, properly scaled building materials, etc. While this did greatly enhance the model project, other students became very discouraged at their own model and often openly expressed jealous and hostile behavior. The architects believe that some degree of competition is an excellent stimulus, especially in the older student. However, due to the various ecomonic situations and difference in the parental structure of the students, this practice of enhancing models was not permitted. The students were, however, allowed to take their model home if they had missed a class and it was apparent that they would not be able to complete the project, otherwise.
When structuring the class sessions, the number of architect/instructors should be such that the same persons are not required to teach every class. The students profit from the variety of expression that is possible when different architects are present during the course of the sessions. With thorough planning sessions, a rotating faculty can be a very beneficial asset to the classes. One architect, with whom the children are familiar will be the principal at the beginning of the class, and introduce the new architect/s. The following week, the new architect


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will be the principal at the beginning of the class, etc. Each architect has his/her assigned teaching task and is responsible for a specific area of the instruction. In this manner, the continuity of the project remains constant, and each instructor has the opportunity to take on the assigned area in his/her own style.
It is necessary to address the situation of the faculty and critique its structure. As earlier stated, the enthusiasm from the
professional community of architects was excellent. However as is so often the case the professional responsibilities did not allow the architects to participate. Many had attended the training/planning
sessions, and had accepted assigned positions in the class structure. But,
the office load became such that they were forced to withdraw. Most of the time, it was the week of the session, and very often, the day of the session. As principal of his own firm, this author/director was forced to cancel any activity, and reschedule meetings in order to be available to cover for the absent instructor. This fact of life must be a prime consideration before accepting the responsibility for the directorship of such a program. The other two architects who remained constant for the majority of the nine year program were not self-employed. They made arrangements of their own with their firms regarding the time spent with this project. They were also forced many times to cover a class for which
they had not been scheduled. To make matters even more difficult; the
change in the local AIA Chapter membership was such that, over this nine year period, they did not feel that the project was "their own personal" project, and thus, support waned. While AIA membership was never a requirement for participation in the program, all of the architects who were involved were members. The only requirement for the instructional


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positions was that the participant either be a practicing architect, or an apprentice architect working under the direct supervision of an architect. As it turned out, the three basic instructors, as previously mentioned, were so dedicated to the program, that we were involved in teaching all of the sessions.
This situation of constant involvement could have been avoided, most likely, by taking the program more actively into the AIA meetings, and more strongly soliciting participation. Also, had we had the time, we could have contacted offices and introduced the program to other architects not involved in the AIA.
As human nature dictates, often new instructors who have not had the trial of blood, sweat, and tears; will enter the planning sessions full of ideas of how to change the program. While their participation is solicited, it is always best for an instructor to become actively involved in the entire process of the program through actual teaching and participation before his/her attempts to change the program are seriously addressed. Granted, new ideas are always welcome and refreshing, but, changes made as earlier discussed can also be counter productive. This principal is difficult to explain to an eager new instructor, who feels perhaps, that it is "your way or no way." This human element must be addressed and resolved when it enters the situation; as it can cause misunderstanding within the profession, and harm to program goals. Fortunately, the program has never had to deal with this directly; but other programs have reported constant floundering and eventual demise due to this basic factor.
In establishing a faculty ratio, the number of instructors should


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be equal to one and one-half times the number actually required for the program. As stated above, this allows for the proper teacher rotation, and avoids faculty "burn-out." In the stress of planning, scheduling, growth, change, class structure, etc., etc., etc. The mistake has been made of using the same instructor over and over for a specific instructional function. The fact that this person was perfect for the position, perhaps, has caused us to "over-use" that talent, and burn-out quietly occurred. It has been discovered that once an instructor leaves the program, they never return. It is the same sort of mentality, we surmise, that occurs after a person has put out a great effort in any public service/volunteer program. One simply feels that others must come forth to take a turn.
As can be seen, even though the program has been successful and continues to be so; it is not without its problems. Some problems have surfaced and been corrected, other problems continue to exist and solutions must be found. We have always felt that the problems which arise are minor in nature, and not such as to cause the program to collapse. The basic goal of providing the students with an exciting, enjoyable program has been met, and continues to be well received by the community. In many ways a trial and error period of nine years seems excessive; however in the defense of this fact, we offer the response that we have attempted to be flexible enough to incorporate changes in lifestyle, scientific awareness, and changes within the community. Also, we have successfully not only met the needs of students who continue to take the class year after year, but have evidentally presented them with enough challenge that they continue to
learn.


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STUDENT AND PUBLIC RECEPTION


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Student and Public Reception of the
Architecture and Urban Planning Class
As previously indicated, the course has had excellent public reception during its existence. However, the entire program, as well as the Bemis Art School programs, appeal mainly to the middle and upper class families who possess some degree of cultural sophistication and have some sort of relationship with the Fine Arts Center. The general public remains basically unaware of the program due in part to the lack of financial backing for the Bemis School. This seriously limits the School in its attempt to advertize the course offerings. The course, as earlier discussed, has attracted students who have been involved in the art programs offered through Bemis. Students have also enrolled in the class from the information gathered from their school teachers, or from their acquaintances who have been involved in the Bemis programs. The local school districts refer students from their "Gifted and Talented" program. This author has been involved for several years in the "Shadowing" program for the Gifted and Talented programs for several districts. This allows an interested student the opportunity to spend one or two sessions in the architect's office. Through this exposure, the school districts have been informed of the Bemis Program, and have recommended student participation. Many of these gifted children have been ongoing students throughout the duration of the program and have been exceptionally enthuastic additions to the classes. They present an exciting challenge to the
instructor/architect both in the classroom, and in the planning sessions.


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We have seen many such student's creativity excell within this environment. Many parents have come to us saying that these classes have changed the course of the life of their student who is now enrolled in a university's architectural program.
We have noted that the more affluent school districts have sent the most students to the programs, and that less affluent districts rarely have been the motivating factor in a student's enrollment. This may be due to the fact that the more affluent school districts are able to offer structured art studies. Often, the classroom instructor in a standard school district is the person responsible for art awareness. This person does not usually refer students to the Bemis program because they are rarely aware of its existence due to their non-association with specific art resources.
The parents reception of the program has been most gratifying. They share the excitement with their children in discovering the characteristics of space, as well as the various ways of analyzing space. The parents prefer the model building portion of the class, and often wish to assist their student in the construction of the model. The favorite session is always the city scape/urban planning session. Parents are facinated with the finished city design, and gain new awareness at the priorities set forth by these young city planners. In this session, the children interact with each other more than in any of the other classes. This appears to generate a new perspective of the child to his/her parent, as they are relating as responsible adults, theoretically, in the planning of "their personal" environment.
The reception of the program by the parents has generated extensive requests for a similar course to be created and presented for


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adults. The parents have assured the instructors that when such a course is offered, they will most certainly enroll.
The students themselves, are excited and anxious for the program to begin, and their enthusiasm grows as the course proceeds through its term. Several students, as earlier stated, have repeated the course. One student has taken the course four times.
Some students, for personal reasons unknown to the architects or the Bemis staff have suffered lack of interest and had no desire to be involved in the classes but have nonetheless, been forced to attend.
Student review at the end of each course of study reveals that the majority of students have received the material both eagerly and responsibly, and have enjoyed their experience. These reviews show that most of the enrolled students share a common interest in architecture, and that the course satisfies their needs for gaining knowledge about the subject. The student's reception of the course selections varies with age. Without exception, the younger children always prefer color, elementary shapes, and simplified designs. Mature students prefer the tree house project, complex problems, and inovative construction materials. All students, however, irregardless of age, respond in a similar manner to the city scape/urban planning session. They each look forward to creating "the world" as they wish it to be. Mature students will concentrate more on what is happening immediately within the confines of their "personal space," making certain that their desires are satisfied. Younger students take a more objective approach, making certain that the parks, streams, bike paths and natural areas are in close proximity to their "house." Younger students are far more protective of the natural enviornment than older students. The architect/instructors (and parents) found this value


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structure to be just the opposite of what they had expected. Older students seemed to already be primarily concerned with "Me and Mine," and exhibited territoriality, always fencing their property. Younger children seldom fenced off their areas, and in general, had a far more universal approach to their fellow students/neighbors. Younger children, in many ways, co operated with one another to reach common decisions sooner, and displayed more imagination in problem solving, than did older students.
The Bemis School Staff's reception of the program has been enthuastic, supportive, and ongoing. They are always available to offer assistance, and often attended sessions as observers, sometimes bringing in guests. Educators from Scotland observed a class with the Bemis Director, and visiting university personnel are regularly brought into the classroom. When the staff has had talented visitors in the Art Center or School, they often share this with the students. Before a Christmas break, for instance, they offered the talents of a Scottish Bagpiper who talked to the children and performed Christmas Carols.
The parent facility of the Bemis School for Children, the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, has expressed extreme pleasure and satisfaction with the program and applauded its success. The program assists the Fine Arts Center in its goal to better serve the community. Furthermore, the publicity received by the course has elevated the community awareness of the Center and its programs. The Art Center is always available to assist the instructors by opening galleries, etc. for the use of the classes, and by offering additional classroom space.
The architects who have accepted the responsibility as instructors in the program have been pleased with the reception of the course. Each has expressed a deep personal satisfaction that has derived


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from participation. The program has allowed architects to be more visible in the community, and allowed the opportunity for personal contact with the non-client public.
The overall feeling is that more publicity is needed to both generate interest in the project, and inform the public of the work being done by this group of students and the volunteer architects.


SAMPLE COURSE .OFFERING
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A Sample Course Offering
Introduction:
This program will be designed for the twelve year old student; the average sixth grade boy or girl. This age was selected because these children are in the middle of the K 12 group. The following outlined course may be varied for either younger or more advanced students.
The program is intended to be a basis only. In the planning sessions, it is assumed that it will be enriched as the instructors so desire and deem necessary. A few ideas for such enrichment will be presented at the end of this section.
The program will be designed for a ten week period and will be outlined in a manner similar to the earlier analyzed Bemis School Courses.
This sample program, as earlier stated, is designed to be offered to the 10 13 year old child. According to Piaget, it is during
this age period that the use of assumption begins, children begin to distinguish forms, and horizontal and vertical concepts are developing.
The presented course content may be varied as desired by experienced instructors to better fit a different age group. Younger children need more simple projects and require more instruction, while the older students respond to more complicated projects, less instructor involvement, and more are receptive to greater challenge.
To present the variations possible to this program world require more space that allotted to this writing, therefore, the author suggests that the instructors adapt the course as they feel appropriate for the subject age group, after they have successfully completed the course program for the 1013 year old age group. After this, they should have


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enough experience in the course presentation and interaction with the students to feel confident in adapting the program to younger or older children, for, as indicated, this course as presented is intended to be a "basis" from which to expand the offering. This author will continue to prepare program guides, however, which will become available as required by the expansion of this program. Beginning instructors will wish to follow the example program for the first few presentations in order to become familiar with the program and developmental process of the children. It is the intent of the author for the more advanced instructor to be able to expand and adapt this basic program to satisfy the needs of the locale, special interest areas, and adapt the sessions to be centered around his/her particular group of students.
The basic program offered is designed to be completed within a ten week session. This time period may also be varied as had been done during the development of the program. Teaching younger children, working around summer school sessions, and other conditions may require a course offering to be adapted to a shorter time period, or to offer classes more than once a week. Suggestions for omitted sessions are offered in upcoming sections. The time period is basically self imposed by the instructors for the benefit of all involved, and with careful planning, a satisfying program may be presented within any number of time frames.
This program has been designed from its conception to be taught by Architects, intern architects, who are assisted by well instructed helpers. It is hoped that the course will always be planned and supervised by an architect in order to fulfill the initial intent of the program.
Realizing, with the past experiences throughout the duration of
the program however, that volunteer architects may not always be available.


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Again, it is the intent of the author to have the role model architect in the planning and supervisory role in order for the program to be presented. Also, the intent of the author is to put forth the professional exposure into the community. Should non architect instructors be utilized in the progam presentation, they should be tutored and monitored by an architect. The architect should work closely with the students during the presentation of the urban planning session. After the nonarchitect has taught the course for a few sessions, the architect would no longer need to monitor each class if circumstances should prohibit his/her involvement, however, the stress and emphasis on this program offering is for the architect to be available for the one to one involvement with each student some time during the program. The architect is the instructor this author determines to be the one qualified to interact with the students in this unique program, and it is his/her expertise in the field that is the focus of the subject presentation.
Verbage used by the author in the following program information is directed to the architect/instructors. It must be realized that "architectural" terms mean one thing to the architect, and quite another to the non architectural instructor and students. Therefore, vocabulary adaptations are required.
Program:
The client will be the individual student, and the project will be a residence with a maximum of six rooms. The project plan must include portions of a square, circle, and triangle; and will be one story in height
Planning of the course must always include the teacher learner relationship, and the success of the course will be determined by how fully these relationships have matured.


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"Briton deals with this problem in reference to the guidance of learning. He states that the factor determining the unity in a teaching -learning situation must be in either of two sources: in the subject matter or in the learner. Unity in subject matter livesin the logical arrangement of the materials around a center core which resides within the subject matter itself.- -
Unity in the learner lies in the primary integration within himself and between himself and his environment." (Meaningful Art Education, Landris, Pg. 64)
The course outline of sessions and details are as follows: Session 1; Brief course introduction and project overview. Introduction to buildings in the built environment, building materials (actual construction materials overview).
Session 2: Client and project introduction, bubble diagrams, student cutout .
Session 3: Floor Plan of student's project/residence.
Session 4: Floor plans continuation and introduction to three dimensions. Session 5: Structural session/overview of structural principals. (Could include "hands-on" paper folding, etc.)
Session 6: Continuation of structural overview.
Session 7: Model building of student project.
Session 8: Model building continues.
Session 9: Model building concludes.
Session 10: City Scape/Urban Planning.
If time limitation forces the shortening of the course, Session 6 may be omitted, since it basically expands the structural portion of the offering. Smaller children will not understand a great deal of structural


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information, therefore the time allotted to the sixth session may be placed after Session 4 to allow these children additional time to develop floor plan and dimensional concepts.
"A typical session should include the following items in sequence: Objective, materials, discussion, procedure, caution, and suggestions.: (All Children Create, 1981, Introduction.)
Detailed outlines of the individual sessions, along with suggestions and comments follow to aid course planning. All items are suggestions only, and may be varied as instructors choose.
Session 1: Prepare a_ brief introduction to the course,
instructors, and project overview. Introduction to buildings, building materials, and the enviornment.
Materials: Drawing boards, (18" X 24" hardboard), newsprint paper, clips and black crayons.
Objective: To introduce the children to buildings; their uses, shaped, and materials used in their construction. Also, to acquaint the children with sunlight, shade, shadows, sun angles, and the natural portion of their environment.
Suggested Avtivities: This session is best held out of doors, such as on
a school campus where buildings are interacting with natural elements. If it must be held inside, presentation of the subject matter will require a more imaginative approach on the part of the instructor, but the intent will remain the same.
1. Draw parts of buildings to show materials, roof shapes, window configurations, etc.
2. Discuss effects of sunlight, shade, and shadow upon building design and the people who occupy the building.


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3. Illustrate the various textures of materials used in buildings.
4. Introduce children to line width, length and depth of building components.
5. Introduce students to three dimensional concepts.
Caution: Students tend to get lost in details when sketching building
parts. It is better to have the student do several small sketches of various materials, etc, rather than a single detailed drawing.
Should it be necessary for this course to be held inside, select a building interior in which the light casts good shadows and in which a variety of materials has been used.
Students tend to create much more noise when inside the building during this portion of the class. Therefore, the selected building to be drawn should be such that this additional noise will not disturb the occupants. If the students are to be taken to a building for this session, note that the legal matters pertaining to this outing must be addressed, and permission obtained from the building occupants.
Comments and Suggestions: Older buildings provide better sketching
material than do more modern, simple ones. The materials used, such as stone and slate on older buildings provide more interesting textures for the students, and the contrasts between materials in more interesting. It is always advisable to have the students sketch roof shapes, since most children seem unaware of the roofs of buildings. This exercise will assist them in the design of their own models, and will help them visualize the roofs they will place on them.


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The instructors should insist that the students study and attempt to sketch the difference in the building materials so that they will become aware of how different textures belong to different materials glass, stucco, concrete, roof shingles, etc.
Three dimensional concepts may be illustrated by the instructors demonstrating how to draw a cube from a square. Also, three dimensions may be shown by illustrating how trees are in front of buildings, people in front of buildings, or even, a chair in front of a desk.
An additional note: Older students perform much better when
the class is held outside. They tend to become restless when inside, and loose interest quickly if not involved constantly in the process.
Session 2: Client and pro ject introduction, bubble diagrams, and student/client cut out.
Materials: Newsprint paper, pencils (large soft leaded student type) rulers and black crayons, poster board or cardboard.
Objective: To explain the client concept to the students and to have them begin thinking in the client role, such as desires and requirements for a residence.
The introduction of the students to the concepts of bubble diagrams and their uses should be accomplished during this class. This will help the child begin to assign spaces to the needs of the client (himself.)
The child should sketch himself no mirrors needed and be prepared to cut this drawing out of a piece of cardboard. This cut out should be 3" high. This client representation will be used to determine the scale for the spaces which will accommodate
the client.


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Suggested Activities:
1. Lead a discussion on the needs of the client, such as food, shelter, heat, light, darkness, etc., and how to design to meet those needs.
2. The students should formulate a list of the rooms/spaces needed by the client. This list may or may not include the rooms found in a typical residence. (One student designed a "pillow room" where she could jump about freely on wall to wall gigantic pillows. Another, constructed a bathroom which would lift into the attic out of sight when not in use.)
3. Explain the placement of spaces in relation to their use characteristics; including residential activity, energy consumption, noise generation, and light/darkness and access needs.
4. Illustrate to the students the use of bubble diagrams and how they can be relocated during the design process.
5. Explain the self sketch and how its use will enable the student to insure its circulation throughout the finished model of the residence. The younger students often have difficulty with the bubble diagrams and their uses. Additional time may be required to explain and demonstrate the uses of the bubble diagrams.
Caution: Students, particularly the older ones, tend to want to include too many rooms/spaces in their project. The maximum of
six or seven should be followed due to the complexities involved in the construction of the model. Some flexibility is allowed in


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the function of the rooms, which should allow for the creativity of the student design.
Solar, earth bermed and more complicated types of residential systems may be introduced to the older students. They enjoy a challenge in attempting to incorporate these requirements into their model design and construction. The size of the rooms in the older student's residences may be larger to accomodate more sophisticated interiors, and, in some instances, additional rooms may be allowed if they can be justified.
The cut outs of the client should be retained for Sessions 7 & 8. Session _3 Floor Plan.
Materials: Newsprint paper, large lead pencils, rulers and compasses, and cut out of client.
Objective: This session begins the creation of the student's residential
floor plan based upon the requirements (physical, intellectual, and emotional) of the client.
The class, as a whole, must decide where their city is to be located, so that the plans may incorporate enviornmental characteristics of the area, should the student wish to include them.
Suggested Activities:
1. The students should begin the design of their floor plan, using the list of spaces previously created by the use of bubble diagrams.
2. The instructors should emphasize the uses of the geometric shapes, as well as positive and negative indoor and outdoor


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spaces .
3. Illustrate the use of open spaces and multi-use spaces to the older students.
4. As the students develop their plans, the instructors should be assisting the children with the incorporation of enviornmental conditions into their plans, as well as the inclusion of the various geometric required shapes.
Cautions: Students, particularly the older ones, tend to complete one plan and then want to begin the construction of their models. The instructors should have these students complete several plan studies, incorporating various conditions into each.
Students tend to want to design using square shapes only, since this is the most common shape they see in existing buildings. They should be assisted in the use of additional shapes.
Comments and Suggestions: Some students tend to be very "tight" in their designs. This is especially true of girls in the middle age group. These girls usually want to re-create their own homes, instead of being original with their design plans.
Upon the completion of several different plans, students should be able to combine the best features of each into a final plan for their models.
Session 4: Floor plans and the introduction of three dimensions. Materials: Newsprint paper, large lead pencil, ruler and compass. Objective: To have the students complete the design of their floor plans
and begin three dimensional thinking.


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Suggested Activities:
1. Review the previous floor plans. Discuss the placement of rooms, room relationships, environmental relationships, suggest revisions to the student, and point out particularly positive aspects of the student's design. (Every student should have positive reinforcement about some design solution.)
2. Discuss three dimentional concepts in preparation for the model construction more complicated approaches for older students, simplified approaches for younger ones.
Cautions: When reviewing the student floor plans, the instructors should
be gentle and most careful not to intimidate the student. The instructor must always remember that he/she is a "grown up" and will not only relate to the child's solution as an adult; but can easily discourage the child by a hasty comment, or negative response to the solution. Suggestions must always be made in a positive manner, and when possible, the child should be complimented on his/her accomplishments. By drawing out the conversation and discussion about the design, the child is being given the opportunity to resolve problem areas by looking at his solution in possibly a different manner that he had conceived alone. The instructor must always allow the student the opportunity to explain the reasons why something was done as it was, and only guide the student to a better solution. The more verbal the student input, the better the instructor is able to assist in that student's growth.
Comments and Suggestions: In the past, the instructors have introduced
the third dimension by having the students attempt to draw a front elevation


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of their residential project. The students are told to draw their residence as it would look from the street; showing doors, windows, and the roof. Some students have no difficulty in doing this exercise, however, the majority of students do have some degree of difficulty. The younger students will always require more instructor assistance in this portion of the class. For some reason, female students find this task to more difficult to perform than do the male students. In each class, some students tend to want to draw a "section" type sketch and call it an elevation. Three dimensional concepts are always exciting to the students once they understand and know how to do the elevation type drawings.
At the completion of this class time, the floor plan project should be completed and the students should be ready to proceed with the construction of the models at the following session. If time allows, it is sometimes helpful to have a general class discussion regarding the completed plans, and the processes used to arrive at the completed drawing. Discussions by the students are helpful, but usually difficult to get started. Most students, especially the girls, are extremely shy and need assistance in expressing their thoughts. Just as the adult discussion groups are often lead by few spokespersons; so are the discussion periods in the student classes. Usually one or two students tend to verbally rule the class and make their own thoughts and ideas be representative of those of the entire class. The instructor must make certain that all students are allowed some input into not only their own design critique, but also the class project (city scape/urban plan.)


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Session 5: Structural Introduction. In Sessions 5 and 6, the floor plan design is put aside, and retained by the instructor; and the instruction focus strictly on structural design. To best introduce the students to elementary construction and space limitations, a tree branch is provided to each student with the instructions to construct a shape which will be entirely supported in the branches of the "tree." This lesson allows the children to experiment, for the first time, with the materials they will be using in the construction of their model in Session 7. Further, this fantasy-type diversion forces the student to deal with the problems encountered in the attachment of materials to the tree (bonding mediums) and allows them to experience working in the third dimension. The instructor provides demonstrations in the manipulation of flat board by folding, bending, and gluing pieces; changing them into beam shapes, cubes, cylinders, folded plates, etc. This encourages the students to stretch the limitations of the medium and arrive at desired structural strength for the construction of their tree house, as well as plan which shapes will be beneficial in the construction of their larger models.
Materials; Poster board, tape, glue, scissors, and a tree branch which has been supplied by the instructor.
Ob jective: This class is used to introduce the children to three dimensional construction, elementary structural concepts and space limitations.
Suggested Activities;
1. Explain the tree house lesson to the students; ie: build a small house (shape) to be placed into the tree. This house is to be entirely supported within the tree, and cannot touch any other surface. (Balance will be an important factor.)


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2. Illustrate the structural capabilities of the material (board and/or paper) by explaining and demonstrating how bending, curving, etc. can increase the load carrying capacities. (See Comments and Suggestions for sample shapes and folding techniques.)
3. The space limitations will become evident as the children prepare to construct a shape which will attach within the small area of the branches. The structural limitations become apparent immediately, as the students have a tendency to overbuild their "house", and overload the capabilities of the tree branch; causing collapse.
Comments and Suggestions: The "trees" are constructed of sturdy tree
branches drilled into a block of wood. See Figure 9 for suggested construction. The size of the tree should be as shown, due to the time alloted for this project. Larger trees would dictate a larger house (shape) and the student would not have sufficient time to complete this portion of the session. Smaller trees do not adequately stimulate the imagination of the students due to the lack of space in which to construct their houses.
Instructors will enjoy this session, since the activity level will be high and the students' creativity becomes evident in their often ingenious solutions. The basic structural shapes are easy for the children to understand and construct. Older students often express the desire to construct and incorporate more advanced and complex structural members.
Instructors will need to supply more assistance than usual as the students undertake their first experience in attaching the structure to the trees. Masking tape is the best attachment/connection material for this


FIGURE NUMBER 10
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PAPER FOLDING TECHNIQUES
BARREL VAULT


FIGURE NUMBER 11
ROUND
TUBE
BEAM
STEEL
ANGLE


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project. Glue requires too much application and drying time.
A class discussion at the completion of the class is advised. During this time, students are encouraged to explain their projects and share their design concepts with class members. The instructor may use this time to reinforce his/her lesson in the various strengths of the configurations of paper/board manipulation by asking the students to share their experiences.
As instructors repeat this class, they will discover that this session is one of the most enjoyable for both him/herself and the students.
This Session may be expanded into Session 6 for the benefit of younger students, as the structural content of Session 6 may be of less interest to them.
Session 5 reinforces the statement of Herbert Reed: "Form is a function of perception; origination is a function of the imagination." (Education Through Art, 1942, pg. 33.)
Session 6: Continuation of Structural Concepts The Bridge Design. Materials: Posterboard, heavy weight paper, tape and glue. A block of wood weighing approximately one pound is needed to test the structural capabilities of the bridge designs.
Objectives: This session is designed to challenge the student's creativity and imagination, as well as to acquaint him/her with the structural characteristics of bent and folded paper systems.
Many of these shapes will be used as roofs in the construction of the models.
The students are to build a bridge to a maximum span using folded, bent, etc. paper/board. This span must hold the wooden block without collapsing. Any shape or form is allowable.


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Supports, however, are not allowed; students are to build a free span type bridge. Any sort of attachment is legal in order to assist the students in stretching their bridge spans to a maximum.
Suggested Activities:
1. Illustrate methods of bending and folding paper and posterboard to obtain stability.
2. Encourage the students to be creative in their design.
3. Assist slower students in their building process.
Cautions: Students often want to incorporate wooden yard sticks, etc. into
their bridges. Only paper and posterboard are allowed. Instructors should be aware of the tendency to become caught up in this project and inadvertently offer too much assistance in the design and construction of the bridges.
Comments and Observations: This project also causes a flurry of activity and excitement among the students due to the competiveness of the project. In past sessions, the instructors have measured and tested a bridge as it is completed in order to increase the spirit of competition. This allows a advanced students to create more than a single bridge during this time period. Students will tend to copy the principals of the longest bridge should they have difficulties with their own design.
Bridges constructed of rolled newsprint wrapped with posterboard have been the most successful in supporting the required weight of the wooden block.
Session 7_ Model Building.
Materials: Previously designed floor plans which have been retained by the
instructors, the client cut out, sturdy cardboard bases, model building


materials which may include the following:
cardboard
chipboard
posterboard
newsprint
colored papers
colored and clear acetate
masking tape
duct tape
scissors
pencils
rulers
crayons
scraps of wallpaper string
found objects plastic/cardboard/foam shapes, etc. X-acto knives and a paper cutter for older students.


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Suggested Activities:
1. Review the properties of bent posterboard and papers.
2. Assist each student in becoming creative in the wall heights, roof shapes, and wall openings.
3. Younger children may require assistance in using the various construction materials.
Objectives: The major objective of this session is to have the students
construct a three dimensional model of the floor plan which they created earlier in the program. The model should be large enough for the student cut out to freely circulate throughout, and be in somewhat correct proportion to the cut out.
Cautions: Children tend to get excited and become careless with the use of the scissors, particularly the younger children. Younger children should not be allowed the use of X-acto knives.
Some students always want a material that is not on hand, and will tend to use this non-availability as an excuse to avoid working. They can easily be shown how another material will suffice, and work as well if not better than the material they feel they need.
Some children will tend to work rapidly, believing that there is more to be done than they are capable of doing. This type of student should be encouraged to slow down and spend time working out the details of his/her model, and thinking about which materials might add to the interest of the project. If the project is finished too early, he/she wi]1 become bored while waiting for the remainder of the class to complete their models, or to advance to the stage where he/she is.
The roof portion of this project will cause the most concern


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to the students since it is basically a structural item. Always insist that students do not use flat roofs. This forces them to be more creative and to use their imaginations.
Comments and Observations: This session and the next session are always very busy and the students become very excited and involved in their projects. Instructors will need to allow one-on-one time for some students who will be unable to problem solve without assistance. We have discovered that some students have difficulty constructing a three dimensional object, most particularly, younger students. And, as earlier stated, this is usually the first attempt at model building for girls, and they tend to have more difficulty grasping the concept.
At the end of this session, the models should be carefully stored in a safe area where they will not be damaged. Damage to a model is very upsetting to a student, as was previously discussed.
Session 8: Model Building
Materials: See Session 7.
Objectives: See Session 7.
Cautions: During this session, some children will feel that they have
completed their model to their satisfaction. When this occurs, it is usually not the case. The instructor should discuss the model with the student and point out areas where revisions may be made. Often the children have become frustrated with the results of their first attempt at model building, and wish to abandon this model. The instructors, at this point, can discuss the reasons for the discontent, and may encourage the students to


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construct a second model. There is still time for this to be possible, if deemed necessary. Other students may also wish to abandon a very successful model, and the instructor must make a judgement call on this. Normally, some revisions and/or additions to the current model will be satisfactory to the student. During this session, students will circulate their cut out throughout their models. Discussions with the instructors will assist them in determining their degree of satisfaction with their design solutions. Usually, students are very excited about their creations.
Comments and Observations: The instructors should begin to help generate
student interest in their models by illustrating various roof styles, window and door locations, and the generation of negative spaces. Approximately three-fourths through this sessions, it is helpful for the children to explain their model and how the design relates to his/her client. This sharing of design thought is helpful to the slower builder, and allows all students the opportunity to see what their classmates are accomplishing.
Session 9: Completion of Model Building
Materials: See Session 7.
Objectives: See Session 7.
Cautions: This is the final model building session and the students should be reminded that their models must be completed by the end of this class period. Slower students will become frustrated and require assistance to complete this assignment. In the past, the instructors have allowed the students who had completed their models to assist the students who were not finished. This has


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no t been a successful experience, since the children tended to become even slower in production; thus causing the faster student to slow down, instead of helping the slow child increase his/her productivity.
In the event that more advanced students have completed their models and the instructors deem it advisable, these students can construct simple public buildings to be used in Session 10 Hospital, Fire Station, Church, etc. These are quite simple, and only representational structures.
Comments and Observations: The completed models usually do not resemble
the floor plans, again, this more especially true with the younger students. The older students are more accurate in representation of the floor plans, however, instructors have not considered this fact to be a problem. Children are gaining experience in working with spaces, and both phases the floor plan design, and the model construction, accomplish this goal.
Open discussion regarding the children's completed models is always a learning process for the students and the instructors. Interaction among the students is encouraged. This is a form of critique, with all comments from the architect instructors presented in a very positive manner. Children will most often point out the areas where they are not satisfied with their model, and usually can successfully suggest improvements.
Session 10; Cityscape/Urban Planning Materials;
Models as completed by the students
Premade public buildings (usually supplied by the instructors)


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Colored papers Crayons Masking tape
Large Markers (if desired)
Scissors
Large area of white butcher paper taped to the floor with masking tape which will be the area of the city
Objective: The students are to design a small city using the public
buildings and their own houses as structures within their city. Suggested Activities:
1. Have everyone involved in the project remove their shoes to protect the paper on the floor.
2. Discuss the uses and placement is a city of public buildings, ie.: where should a hospital be placed so that it is accessible to the entire community? Where should churches and schools be placed? Etc.
3. Discuss the need for open spaces within a city should there be a large central park, or several smaller parks located throughout the city.
4. Discuss the transportation system. Do the students wish to have a freeway system in the city? Bike paths, walking paths, rail road, airport?
5. Help the children decide upon the location of their city, (this has been previously discussed in Session 3) Is it the mountains, by the sea, near a lake, by a river?
6. Discuss with the students the need for them to work together as a city unit, rather than as individual citizens.


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7 Have the students create trees by crumbling green construction paper, or by drawing the trees on the paper with crayons.
8. Allow sufficient time at the end of the session for the architect/instructors to walk through the city streets and comment on the planning done by the students.
9. Lead the students in a discussion as they analyze their city, and express their reactions to their completed product. Encourage them to voice their likes and dislikes regarding their creation.
10. Have the students evaluate this course, and what they especially enjoyed, and what they did not like about any phase of the instruction/activities.


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Comments and Observations: As is always the situation, younger students will require more instructor guidance in this final project that will the older students.
Emphasis should be placed upon working together as a unit on the decisions that will effect the entire city. In some previous classes, the more out-spoken students have attempted to control the design of the city. The instructors must guide this process so that all students have input into the design.
Encourage students who become neighbors due to the placement of their models, to work together at their common borders.
Students tend to copy one another in the detailed completion of their lots in the areas of fencing, landscaping, etc.
As a rule, students unanimously vote to exclude schools, freeway systems, and railroads from their cities. The schools, because they spend so much time there; and the freeways and railroads because of the noise and dirt associated with them. As earlier stated, younger children tend to be more open in their city planning. They provide for natural areas, animal areas, playgrounds and parks in greater proportion than the older students.
Children are encouraged to invite parents to this final session, and the parents are included in the shoeless walk throughout the city streets with the architect/instructors and students. We have been told by the parents that they better understand the planning process, and their own city after observing this session and hearing the comments of the architects.
At the conclusion of this final session, the instructors ask for comments and suggestions from the children to aid in the planning of future


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programs .
This summary of a typical ten week session is intended to provide a detailed pattern for future architect/instructors to follow. The comments and observations are offered from the perspective of this author only. Other course instructors will, in all probability, focus on some of the same areas, but will have other ideas and put forth different comments regarding the program.
The previously analyzed course may be enhanced by introducing the
following:
During the first session, the architect/instructors may present slides of buildings as a method of expanding the scope of the program. The commentary and sophistication of this visual aid can be adapted to the age level of the students, thus setting a pace for the ensuing sessions. This project is always very well received by the students. The slides allow the children to view building types, materials, and environments different from their own.
Older students enjoy a tour through the office of a practicing architect. If the child is interested in architecture as a career choice, this tour is extremely valuable to him/her. Architects are always receptive to such a tour, and often provide a lecture/explanation of the profession/facility. Again, always make certain that proper legal/required paperwork is accomplished before removing the students from the classroom.
Films and Video tapes are also positive methods of reinforcing the lessons presented in the program. These can be found to some degree in educational listings of such materials, or architects may provide tapes of their own projects.
Caution should always be exercised when introducing enhancements


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into the program schedule. The time involved in this type of presentation will effect the time allotted to the completion of the course basics.


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^ SYNOPSIS OLCOURSE
1










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Synopsis of Example Course in
Architecture and Urban Planning
The following is a synopsis of a ten week session and is intended to be used as a model course for future architect/instructors. The intent is to guide the instructors through the planning process and development of the class sessions.
The course is to be offered to 9-12 year old children, in either public or private school systems.
The project will be a small residence for the student, who will be his/her own client. The residence will be located in either of these locations:
Within a city
Near a lake or the seashore On a hillside in the city
The residence will contain a minimum of six rooms, and a maximum of eight rooms.
The design shall contain parts of the geometric shapes of the rectangle, circle, and triangle; and will consist on one story.
The printed program, as presented to the students will be as
follows:


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ARCHITECTURE AMD URBAN PLANNING
Session 1:
Date:
Content: Introduction to buildings, building materials and the environment. Instructor/s:
Session 2:
Date:
Content: Client and project introduction Bubble Diagrams Student/client cut out Instructor/s:
Session 3:
Date:
Content: Floor Plans Instructor/s:
Session 4:
Date:
Content: Floor Plans
Introduction to three dimensional concepts Instructor/s:
Session 5:
Date:
Content: Introduction to structure
Tree House
Instructor/s:
Session 6:
Date:
Content: Continuation of structure
Bridge Design
Instructor/s:
Session 7:
Date:
Content: Model Building
Instructor/s:


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Session 8:
Date:
Content: Continuation of Model Building
Instructor/s:
Session 9:
Date:
Content: Completion of Models
Instructor/s:
Session 10:
Date:
Content: City Scape/Urban Planning
Instructor/s: All architect/instructors of this program
PARENTS PLEASE NOTE:
You are encouraged to visit and observe any of the classes.
The classes will be held________________________(course location)_____.
We especially invite you to attend the last session, the location of which will be announced later in the class schedule.


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Sample of student handout:
ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING
Residence Design Program for Fall 1989-1990 Session
The project will consist of a residence designed within the following program:
Client: You are your own client
Project: Your Dream House Location: Any of these locations:
Within a city
Near a lake or seaside in a city On a hillside in a city
Size: Your residence must contain the following rooms:
Living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, and 2 to 4 additional rooms of your choice.
General Requirements:
The residence must have at least six rooms, and no more than eight rooms. The plan must contain portions of a rectangle, circle, and triangle. It must be a single level structure. (one story)


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Handout for Architect/Instructors and any staff which will be preparing classroom/materials:
LESSON PLAN
Weekly Schedule
Session 1:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: Drawing boards, newsprint, paper, clips and black crayons. Objective: Student will be his/her own client.
Suggested Activities:
1. Draw parts of buildings to indicate materials, roof shapes, windows, etc.
2. Notice and discuss effects of sunlight and shadows.
3. Study the lines of buildings their width, length, and depth.
4. Introduction to three dimensional concepts.
Session 2: Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: Newsprint paper, large lead pencils, rulers, black crayons, and scissors.
Objective: Design client program, study bubble diagrams. Student should sketch him/herself and make a 3" high cut out of the sketch, (full body representation of the client)
Suggested Activities:
1. Discuss needs of client, both physical and emotional.
2. Formulate list of rooms for client use.
3. Discuss room relationships.
4. Explain bubble diagram usage.
5. Explain use of student cut-outs of themselves.


Session 3:
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Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: Newsprint paper, large, lead pencils, rulers and compasses.
Objective: Begin work on floor plan development. City location must be
chosen.
Suggested Activities:
1. Discuss floor plans with students.
2. Emphasize use of geometric shapes.
3. Illustrate effect of open and negative spaces.
4. Introduce students to environmental concepts.
Session 4:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: Newsprint paper, large lead pencils, ruler and compass.
Objective: Complete plan design. Begin three dimensional work on plans. Suggested Activities:
1. Review plans to date.
2. Introduce three dimensional concepts.
Session 5:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: A small tree drilled into a base, colored posterboard, tape,
glue, scissors, X-acto knives.
Objectives: Three dimensional construction within the tree.
Suggested Activities:
1. Explain project.
2. Illustrate properties of folded paper.
3. Illustrate paper construction techniques.


Session 6:
Date:
Instructor/s:
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Materials: Posterboard, tape, glue, heavy paper, wooden block to be used
as a weight (approximately one pound.)
Ob jective; To acquaint the students with the ways to achieve structural strength by the manipulation of flat papers by folding, etc. To challenge creativity in constructing a bridge to accomodate the required weight of the block by using these techniques.
Suggested Activities:
1. Illustrate properties of bent, folded, curved, etc. posterboard.
2. Encourage creativity in bridge construction.
Session 7:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: Previously design floor plans, sutdent cut-outs, cardboard
model base, cardboard, posterboard, newsprint, colored paper, colored and clear acette, masking tape, duct tape, scissors, rulers, pencils, crayons, misc. found objects, X-acto knives.
Ob jective: Begin construction of student models.
Suggested Activities:
1. Assist students in construction of models.
Session 8:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: See Session 7.
Objectives: To continue work on student models.
Suggested Activities:
1. Assist students in construction of models.
2. Discuss models as they relate to floor plans.


Session 9: Date:
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Instructor/s:
Materials: See Session 7.
Objective: To complete student models.
Suggested Activities:
1. Assist students in the completion of models.
2. If desired, advanced students who have completed models may construct simple structures to represent public buildings for city scape/urban planning session.
Session 10:
Date:
Instructor/s:
Materials: White paper taped to floor, premade public buildings, colored
papers, crayons, markers, masking tape, scissors.
Objective: The students are to design a small city; using premade public
buildings and their own models.
Suggested Activities:
1. All participants remove shoes.
2. Decide upon geographic location of city.
3. Discuss uses and placement of public buildings.
4. Discuss open spaces in the city
5. Discuss transportation systems.
6. Discuss need for students to work as a unit.
7. Encourage neighboring models to share border decisions.
8. Architect/instructor walk streets of final city design and discuss solutions.
9. Students, instructor, parents walk streets and discuss resulting city.
10. Give students evaluation sheets and collect upon completion.
The director of the program may wish to extend a letter of thanks to the architect/instructors, and/or the students and parents.


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STUDENT EVALUATION SHEET
Did You enjoy the class?
Why or why not?
What did you like the most?
What didn't you like?
Did the instructors give you enough help?
What would you like to have changed about this class?
What would you like to have included in future classes?
Would you take this course again?




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Summary of the Entire Program:
The program, as reviewed, analyzed, and proposed, is vital to the educational system if we are to produce not only future architects, but clients who will have architectural intelligence.
Even though few children are served with this program, these children will influence others as they proceed through our educational system. This influence will, it is hoped, increase the student's awareness of architecture and his/her built environment. "The increased awareness of the child to his surroundings, brought about by the interchange of imaginary and actual experience, plus the objectificaton of that experience, may contribute not only to his capacity of art expression, but may be in itself a valuable contribution to the child;s total educational development." (Meaningful Art Education, 1951, pg. 117.) The parents of the students involved, their instructors, and those with whom these persons will converse will further assist in expanding the awareness of architects and architecture.
The program is also intended to increase the awareness in the students of space. All persons spend a lifetime growing and functioning within the spaces of our world; whether that space be a natural or man-made creation. The course also introduces the children to the concepts used by architects in their arrangements of spaces and their surrounds. "The space arts painting, sculpture, architecture unlike the time arts music, literature, and the dance are ever ready for immediate and relatively complete contemplation. In contrast to the time arts, space arts supply what seems to be a vital human need of tangible evidence of otherwise


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fleeting meanings and values. Must must be re-interpreted, a book re-read, the dance re-performed, but the space art object exists always in its original and tangible form." (Meaningful Art Education, 1951, pg. 67.)
The program occupies only a small portion of the child's overall development of their skills in art, design, and other aesthetic elememts in the educational process. This program has, throughout its duration, been revised to include aspects of the following: "The techniques of aesthetic education has the following distinct aspects:
A. Visual Education EYE - Design
B. Plastic Education TOUCH - Design
C. Musical Education EAR Music Eurythmics
D. Kinetic Education MUSCLES Dance Eurythmics
E. Verbal Education SPEECH Poetry Drama
F. Constructive Education THOUGHT Crafts.
(Education Through Art, 1942, pg. 9.)
The program also has been designed to exercise the various functioning processes of the children's design thoughts, which are summarized by the statement of Herbert Reed: Four main functions into which our mental processes are traditionally divided and our education system is based:
I. Design - -Corresponding to Sensation.
II. Music and drama Corresponding to Intuition.
III. Poetry and drama Corresponding to Feeling.
IV. Crafts - Corresponding to Thought.
(Education Through Art, 1942, pg. 99)
Presentation of Jean Piaget's study results and other child developmental concepts are intended to familiarize the non-academic with


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the child's mental development; so that he/she may better understand the students enrolled in this program under his/her instruction.
The review of past courses and the development of the program is intended to familiarize the new instructor with the course and provide him/her with the background required to confidently teach the program.
With the presentation of the example program, it is hoped that the instructor will have the basis from which to develop the course of study he/she wishes to present. Enhancements may be added and revisions made in order to tailor the class presentations to him/herself and/or to the students.
This course, as indicated throughout this writing, has been constantly reviewed and revised as deemed necessary to continue to fulfill the needs of the children our future architects and clients.
This author/architect/director/coordinator/instructor of the program has been enthuasiastic about the project since its inception; and will continue to be involved with the program. It has, and continues to be a most rewarding vehicle for sharing the creativity of the profession.
Further, it is the hope of the author that all future architect/instructors will glean the many rewards offered by the teaching of this course. And, of the greatest importance may each instructor experience and share the excitement and personal satisfaction of every child as he/she had completed a tree house, bridge, residence, or an entire city.
The program in its entirety has been extremely successful. This is due mainly to the tremendous cooperation of the Bemis School, and the overwhelming acceptance by the students and parents.
The University of Colorado at Colorado Springs has taken notice


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of the program, and the architect/instructors were asked to teach a similar program during the "Super Saturday Program" on the UCCS campus. The students were in the 9-12 year old group, and came from the entire region. They were all associated with the "Gifted and Talented Programs" from their individual school districts. The presentation of the course was a complete success, and we will repeat this offering on an annual basis. (See accompanying material.)
With the acceptance and success rate of this program, this author believes that the program must be offered throughout the country as a structured introduction of architectural concepts to children. The author is currently preparing instructional materials, and will, in the future, work extensively to promote such a program, which will enable the participation of children in many different locations.
It is through offerings such as this, that our future generations will be more appreciative of their built environment, those persons creating the environments, and will grow to appreciate Architecture as Art.
The child who is considering architecture as a career is given the opportunity to work closely with architects during this program.
He/she often comes forward years after participation in the class, and identifies him/herself as a former student.
Children of this century are more aware of the world than the children of past generations. They have experienced the observation of space travel, advanced technology in communications, building components, and consumerism; and are a vital part of today's society. As they become more aware of "Architecture and Urban Design" as expressed in their world; they grow in the ability to be more viable consumers of the Art of
Architecture.



.. " V4 ' - J-
> meet from 10:00 must be picked up
dosses.
iriemic standards, 'Super i Is of student behavior, i rferes with Instruction :udents whose behavior is; ~ ave the program (with tui- r;r:
'( tr Saturday classrooms ^ nstructlonj. Please do not /ending machines. -'f

AN HISTORICAL APPRECIATION

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Students will start this course by learning about impor-, tant events In the history of bookmaking and will then'ypj spend most of the course" time making, their own ; ? ^ books.-They will write; manuscripts urith quill. and 31/-calligraphy pens. AddltionaTactivities used In produc*
Ing their books will include: ink mahng.block printing,
1 using a printing press (a wooden platen), paper marbl-\f" Ing, etchlng. andbookbincting. One dass session will ','?*- ;
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,-JV Prerequisites: An eagerness to paint
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URBAN PLANNING
. (Garold Smith, AIA, and Richard Lightle, A1A vp!
Instructors) ' > ~
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'In this course you will be introduced to some fun- -damentals of architecture space, size, function, ,. y; materials, lighting use, placement, and client heeds. ?
< Then you will become a: junior architect' You will '1 make a house plan design for your client and construct s .'a cardboard model of your clients residence. Finally,
" ,you will place your residence irt relationship to the h'4. models which other students have created, using prin- ~ ciples of urban planning.
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Prerequisites: A genuine interest in architecture and the environment.

Grades: 3 & 4
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University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
-216-
School of Education
P O Box 7150
Colorado Springs. Colorado 50073*7150
March 25, 1988
Dear Parents,
I am delighted to confirm _______________'s enrollment
in ______________________________. Super Saturday classes
will begin on April 16, 1988, 10:00 12:00. Room assignments for the classes are enclosed. We have also enclosed (where appropriate) a list of supplies your child will need. Please make sure s/he brings these supplies to the first class and every class thereafter.
You are invited to a brief Parent Orientation on April 16, 1988, at 10:00 in Dwire 126 (the Theatreworks auditorium). A UCCS parking permit has been enclosed to facilitate your attendance. If you've registered for the Parenting Class, you will receive two more parking permits (for April 23 and 30) at the first class meeting.
Please take note of the following important points.
1. NO FOOD is allowed in UCCS classrooms.
Please don't send snacks or money for vending machines.
2. Be sure to pick up your child(ren) PROMPTLY at 12:00. If you're late, it's stressful for everyone concerned.
3. In case of severe weather, listen to KVOR (AM 1300) for announcements regarding Super Saturday.
4. A major construction project is underway on the UCCS campus behind the Library/Science Building. Please warn your child(ren) to stay away from this area.
We look forward to seeing your child and you on April 16.
enc. Room assignments Supply list Parking Permit Map
Sincerely yours,
Ci,v.

Janet Friedberg
Super Saturday Director


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UCCS SUPER SATURDAY SPRING, 193S ROOM ASSIGNMENTS
Preschool Potpourri................ .UCCS Child Care Center
Fuzz J Feathers, and Fins................Science Bldg. 242
Dinosaur Days ................................Main Hal 1 409
Exploring Geometric Concepts..................Main Hall 422
Fascinating El ectrons........................Main Hall 423
Book ArtsAn Historical Appreciation..........Main Hall 401
Brush Strokes.................................Main Hal 1 308
Architecture and Urban Planning...............Library 131
Inside the Great Wal 1........................Main Hal 1 424
Math Mania....................................Library 128
The Inventor's Corner.........................Library 112
Making a Good Impression......................Art Lab
Natural Hazards/Resources o-f Geology.........Geology Lab
/ Arctic Adventures..............................Main Hall 414
From the Flatlands to the Fourth Dimension...Library 110
Introductory Astronomy........................Library 125
Parenting Class...............................to be announced
Emergency Room................................Main Hall 301


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FUTURE OFFERINGS


-219-
Future Offerings
The foregoing analyzed and presented course is only a beginning in the field of introducing children to the world of architecture, the built environment, and urban design.
The author hopes that the present format of the course will continue to be offered and evolve into a nation wide program which will be available through a variety of child related organizations.
In the future, should the facilities and technical support become available; the author can forsee the use of computer graphic programs aiding the children in their learning process. Computer literacy is becoming evident in the elementary school age groups at a rapid degree.
The daily use of computers is becoming a realistic part of our way of life. It is the hope of the author to research and design a course using computers and graphics.
Seymour Papert, an educational theorist who studied with Piaget, has spent many years of research and experimentation developing the LOGO computer language for children.
"Two major themes that children can learn to use computers in a masterful way, and that learning to use computers can change the way they learn everything else have shaped my research agenda on computers and education." ( Mindstorms, 1980, pg. 8) Based upon this premise, computers may be used to help children learn of space and buildings. The author of Mindstorms has experimented with LOGO," a computer/educational program, for many years and has developed a program titled "Turtle Geometry."
" Turtle Geometry is a computational style of geometry."


-220-
(Mindstormes, 1980, pg. 55). Unlike a point or position in Euclidean geometry which has position only, the Turtle has a position as well as a direction or heading. Turtles accept commands in their own computer language, for instance; a FORWARD command causes the Turtle to proceed forward a given distance. Directions may also be given, which will cause the Turtle to turn and proceed a given distance. Any geometric shape may be traced on a computer screen by commanding the Turtle's moves. The commands are typed into the computer by means of a standard keyboard.
"Working in Turtle microworlds is a model for what it is to get to know an idea the way you get to know a person. Students who work in these environments certainly do discover facts, make propositional generalizations, and learn skills. But the primary learning experience is not one of memorizing facts or of practicing skills. Rather, it is getting to know the Turtle, exploring what a Turtle can and cannot do. It is
similar to the child's everyday activities, such as making mud pies......."
(Mindstorm, 1980, pg. 136).
The Turtle, or similar object could be used to help a child get to know his/her surrounding built environment by allowing him/her to direct the Turtle/object through a map of the environment on a computer screen.
The Turtle program is only a simple example of the types of exercises that will be developed to help children become familiar with their thinking processes, which will in turn allow them to relate to their environment using computer skills as an educational tool.
There are many new and innovative programs being developed to assist children in the developmental process.
A primary goal of the author is to develop video presentations for the purpose of instructing both children and teachers.


-221-
Additional materials being prepared by the author consist of instructional/activity materials which can be used individually or in conjunction with the video presentations. The use of computer instruction in design, space awareness, and environmental programs is also being
considered.


RE FERENCES


References
Barnard, James, (1980), Children and the Built Environment: Guidelines for Planning and Design, Melbourn, Australia, Georgian House Publishers.
A work suggesting lesson type plans for the study, by children, of the built built environment. Analysis of example environmental examples are also included.
Comerio, Mary C. and Jeffery H. Chusid, (1981), Teaching Architecture: Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Washington D.C. Assoc, of Collegiate Schools of Architecture.
Minutes of meetings and presentations, regarding architectural instruction, made during the 69th annual meeting of the Association of the Schools of Architecture.
Dewey, John, (1958), Art as Experience, New York, G.P. Putman & Sons.
A formal study of the characteristics of all the Arts; Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Music, and Literature.
Eriksen, Aase, (1983), Students, Structures, Spaces, London: Addison -Wesley Publishing Co.
An outline of various relationships between children, structures, and space; a useful teaching guide.
Gruber, Howard E. and J. Jacques Voneche, (1977) The Essential Piaget. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
A very complete review of all of the work of Jean Piaget and his associates regarding children and their development.
Hurwitz, Al, (1972), Programs of Promise Art is the Schools, New York Horcourt, Brace, Johanovich, Inc.
An exploration of art education and the directions it is heading, the changes occurring in this field, current movements, and a study of art education as a whole.
Keleti, Peter, (1981), Learning and Teaching the Craft of Architecture, Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Washington, D.C.
A review of past, present, and future methods of understanding and teaching architecture and design.


-224-
Kimble, Richard, (1982) Design Education, London, England: Routledge U Keegan Paul.
Clarifies education's grounds for change towards design philosophy in secondary school art classes; planning design and execution of art projects.
Landris, Mildred M., (1951) Meaningful Art Education, Peoria, Illinois:
Charles A. Bennet Co., Inc.
An analysis of various forms of Art Education and the relationship of Art Education to a General Education.
Paivio, Allan, (1979) Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rienhart and Winston.
A study of the reception of verbal and visual imagery by humans.
Papert, Seymour, (1980) Mindstorms, New York: Basic Books.
A review of computer programs designed to help children with future educational needs.
Reed, Herbert, (1942) Education through Art, New York: Random House.
A review of how art education contributes to the over-all education of children.
Sefkow, Paula and Helen Berger, (1981) All Children Create, Holmes Beach, Florida: LP Learning Publications, Inc.
A series of lesson plans for children ages 6 through 12.