Citation
The new Bell Tower Center

Material Information

Title:
The new Bell Tower Center a retail and entertainment complex in Breckenridge, Colorado
Alternate title:
Bell Tower Center
Creator:
Snow, Jack Krusen
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
62 leaves : illustrations, map, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Shopping centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Breckenridge ( lcsh )
Shopping centers ( fast )
Colorado -- Breckenridge ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 62).
General Note:
On cover: Thesis: The Bell Tower Center.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jack Snow.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775823 ( OCLC )
ocm13775823
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .S646 ( lcc )

Full Text
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An Architectural Thesis Presented to the College of Design and Planning in Partial Fulfillment of e Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Architecture
Date Due





The £Jew A Retail Complex in
3el1 Tower Center and Entertainment treckenridge, Colorado
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jack^Snow May t986



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This Thesis of Jack K. Snow is Approved
University of Colorado at Denver 5/10/86


I would like to thank all the people who were so generous with their time. John Cole with Breckenridge Planning Department and everybody from the Village at Breckenridge. Particularly Kristen Boles for her help with the graphic material. Leslie Egan who is in charge of commercial leasing and found time to share her knowledge and primarily Ned Gwathmey for his criticism and undying support of my academic endeavors.


Table of Contents
Introduction ......................................... 1
Thesis Statement ..................................... 2
Design Intents and Influences ........................ 7
Context Map...........................................10
Program and Adjacencies ............................. 11
Climate...............................................34
History...............................................37
Soils ................................................44
Zoning................................................45
Building Codes........................................46
Conclusion............................................49
Design Solution.......................................50
Footnotes ............................................61
Bibliography..........................................62


Introduction
The scope of the project is to design a commercial-retail center of approximately 90-100,000 square feet. The site is located just south of the historic district of Breckenridge on Main St. The site is on a corner of the Village of Breckenridge (a private development company) Development which has a distinct architectual feeling separate from the Victorian feeling of Main St., Breckenridge. Furthermore the Village at Breckenridge property abuts the ski slopes of the Breckenridge Ski Area and houses the "Maggie Building" essentially the base area (restaurant, ski shop, ski rental, ski school and ticket sales) for the resort. Thus the site is currently a gateway for both the Village Development and the ski area beyond. Both the general pedestrian flow and the public transportation system enhance this.
Currently the site is occupied by the Bell Tower Mall, a similar type of project of approximately 33,000 square feet.
This provides the opportunity to learn from the mistakes and missed potential of the current project. The present mall is dark and shoddy and yet still functions, though not up to the potential of the site.
1


Thesis Statement
It is my belief that an all encompassing concept of architecture organized around a theoretical system that is accessible to the users of the building is necessary for the proper understanding of architecture. The previous sentence makes the assumptions that architecture can communicate and, further, that there is a benefit, i.e. something instructive, clarifying, enlightening or supportive inherent in a communicative architecture. This concept is not new, although hopefully my conclusions on the conceptualization will be.
I will proceed by quoting and paraphrasing Anthony Vidler's The Third Typology1 as he grapples with the creation of a conceptual basis for rationalist architecture. While Vidler's historical background is excellent, our conclusions vary greatly. Following that, I will attempt to correlate the specifics of a retail center in a historic ski resort with the conceptual basis previously presented.
Vidler suggests that, throughout the centuries, nature was to constant, readable typology. It was Laugier's primitive hut, an example of reductivism reduced which paved way. Expanded and expounded upon in the late 1800's when the industrialized, polluted cities of the era provided an example of the disasters of unrefined design.
Parallels were drawn between the untamed forest and the unruly city demanding order as a well tended garden brings out the potential of the wood. It was with this cry for order and Laugier's argument for natural primitive model that the first
2


typology was crystallized.
With the upheavals of the industrial revolution, the use of nature began to breakdown as an appropriate societal model.
Early in this century a new framework was settled upon. The second typology that Vidler identifies is that of the machine. Viewing it as the means of production in terms of the economy, the building and even the lifestyle (as in Le Courbusier's, A Machine for Living) machines were seen as a microcosm of society.
In the dogmatic fashion of rationalist thinking this became the all-pervasive image. Hence we leave the tripartate schemes of construction, base, shaft, capitol; feel, body, head; roots, trunk, branches and enter the world of the extruded steel section. Is it any wonder that Mies referred to the I-beam of the twentieth century as analogous to the classical column.
Each symbolically represented the model around which the society revolved. The result is not only a new representation of society, it also alters the implications of man's interaction with nature. In the euphoria of the new world, man could lift himself the environment. In construction, Le Courbusier managed actually and symbolically. Villa Savoy and the Unites, for example help man to live in a machine raised above nature.
Vidler goes on at this point to propose the tenants of neo-rationalism, stating that architecture can now be accepted as coming without the implications of societal models. Neo-rationalism no longer
Has to relate to a hypothesized society in order to be conceived and understood; no longer does architecture
3


write history in the sense of particularising a specific social condition or a specific time or place. The need to speak of nature of function, of social mores of anything, that is, beyond the nature of architectual form itself is removed.
It is at this uncommunicative proposal for the third typology that I disagree with Anthony Vidler. I believe that it is man and his society; not nature, not the machine and not architecture as the art of construction; which can return architecture to the noble art it should be. The creative expression which speaks to society with a loud voice. Further,
I believe it was the strength with which the earlier typologies reflected society that gave them and the ensuing architecture such potentcy.
Thus, the mirroring of society enables the people to understand and comprehend the architectual place with which they are engaged in a dialogue. Their communication will be reflective of the sensitivity of the architecture to this fact. Only by properly understanding this can the architect create a building which will be able to communicate properly, because only in this case will the architect and the users be speaking the same language. I am speaking now of the concept stated in the first paragraph of this section; specifically that architecture can and should communicate. It is by using a potent and accessible typology that architecture maintains its strength. It is understood by its users rather than used as a tool.
The earlier typologies spoke in a loud enough voice to a simple enough world that the language of nature or the machine
4


could speak clearly. Now this is no longer the case; the imagery of what communicates to people has clearly dissipated and scattered to the point where people are no longer expecting a communication but rather at best a reinforcement of the environment they are already in. A hospital feels like a hospital, but seldom takes the opportunity to express a reaffirmation of life, or hope, or spirituality or anything positive other than the image of at best a well ordered machine. A hospital often has these missed opportunities. By understanding the user and communicating to him in a typology that he (the user) can identify with, the designer of the hospital could certainly convey a positive message.
I have a similar opportunity to speak to a microcosm of society in my design thesis. The site is in Breckenridge, Colorado and the society is that of a resort. Not only must the design reinforce the idea of a resort, it must establish excitement and fun as communicable messages. The opportunity lies in a mall which in a both/and sense serves as entrance passage to the ski slopes and a point of destination in itself.
I shall attempt to reinforce this excitement and create a fun place in a language easily understood.
There are more influences that a properly responsive building should acknowledge. Breckenridge and its ambience is a primary factor. The rich historical fabric of the town is unique and should be reflected in the building as should the strong influences of the 1980's. In other words the building should reflect the excitement of the earlier mining boom town
5


construction, but should shy away from trying to recreate what it is not. It is a product of the current ski boom and should reflect that and the current architectural styles as the best historical works reflect their epoch.
In conclusion, I believe that by creating a building that is sensitive to its users and its surrounding environment, a dialogue is then made possible. In the design of the new Bell Tower Mall the communicated message should be reinforcing to the user. They should enjoy the building and feel that it is there for them, the vacationer, skier or site seer. They are in Breckenridge and it has a distinct feel from any other resort, they are there for excitement, fun and relaxation and the Bell Tower Mall should reinforce this.
There are benefits if the building functions properly. It will serve as a focal point in the relationship between the town and the ski area, as it will for both arms of the development.
It will be inviting as a circulation core and as an exciting place in its own right. If all of the above succeeds, it will be financially successful for the developer and the retailers. All of this "success" hinges on the design of an exciting and communicative building.
6


Design Intents and Influences Design Features
This is to be a lively center of retail, dining and entertainment. The building is to house one large anchor tenant, one or two ski and sports shops and numerous smaller ski and sports shops, and numerous smaller shops and boutiques.
There will be three restaurants, a triple cinema and a small repertory theater. In addition, other current users such as the local radio station and aerobics studio will also be accomodated. All the parking will be enclosed and directly accessible to the retail area. A large amphitheater will be used as the central focus. It should provide opportunities for shows, displays, caroling, art exhibits, musical performances and other public functions. The building is surrounded on all sides by wonderful features. On two sides, to the south and west, are the hotels, condos, and shops of the resort. The Maggie Pond, which is a lively skating pond all winter and picturesque in the summer, borders the site to the southwest.
Its outlet, the Blue River, cuts between the site and the plaza area of the resort to the west and must be bridged. Remnants of the historic mining operation are still retained in the river. Main Street is to the north while the historic district is north and northeast. Of course, there is a 360 degree panorama of mountian views including Mt. Baldy, 14,000 ft. Quandry Peak and much of the Ten Mile Range.
7


Architectual Context
The site is at 9600 feet at the south end of Main St., Breckenridge, Colorado's historic district. Just to the west is the development and the ski slopes. These facts make contextualism a significant issue.
While the site is not in the historic district, it is felt that the district must be addressed. This does not mean copying, for this building should speak to its time and users as well as the Victorian construction did in its time. Rather, it should acknowledge and reinfoce Main St. The building has the opportunity to be the terminus to Main St. and should acknowledge that fact. The building also has the opportunity to be the show piece and gateway of the Village of Breckenridge Resort (V.A.B.) and should acknowledge its architectual feeling. Resolving these two influences may prove problematic in that the V.A.B. buildings are around eight stories in height with stucco exterior finish systems and standing seam metal roof systems while Main St., Breckenridge is Victorian Gingerbread with a maximum of three stories.
Circulation Patterns
Circulation is a primary influence on the site. The building is a knuckle for pedestrian traffic within the resort in that it is the only efficient way of getting from the hotels to the retail restaurants, bars, theater and cinema. Further, the site now acts in the same fashion as a link between the town and the resort and the ski slopes. There is currently no major access to the peak 9 or 10 ski area without passing through the
8


V.A.B. A great deal of that traffic passes through the current mall. Furthermore there is an extensive free bus system available during the ski season, a major terminus of which is at the site. All of this pedestrian circulation adds a great deal of exposure to the retailer and a general excitement to place in general. Pains should be taken to reinforce this for the success of the circulation will greatly influence of the project as a whole.
9




Program Spaces Sq. ft. (Approx.) Design Intents
Retail Anchor Retail Tenant 15,000 Good Street Visibility Potential for Vert Circ.
Ski Shop 8,000 Access to slope w/o Vert. Circ.
Approx. 20 Smaller 500-1000 each Cannot be down
Boutiques & Shops 15,000 total dead end corridors!
Restaurants (3) 1-20 hr. w/ dancing 7,000 Generators can be
1-break., lunch, din. 5,000 at end of corridors
1-dinner 3,000 and upstairs
Entertainment Triple Cinema II
1-300 person 10,000 total Soundproofing is
2-150 person important
Other Long Radio Station 2,000 Soundproofing*
Existing Tenants Aerobic Studio 1,000 Destination point
Amphitheater 7,000 *Focus of center available for performance art, shows, etc.
Other Rest Rooms (2 pair) Managers Office Security Office Circulation 10,000 total
Loading 15,000 total Direct to all stores
Storage provided for small tenants
Parking 150-200 cars All enclosed
Totals: 92,000 square feet
Parking: 150-200 spaces
11


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Climate Summary
The Breckenridge climate at 9,600 feet above sea level is harsh. Note in the following tables that snow can fall at anytime during the year, and it does fall in such volumes that the building codes require a dead load of 75psf for snow loading.
The sun at high altitude is a major factor providing warmth to southern facing deck throughout the year. These are major draws and should be considered whenever possible.
Description of Climate
Summit County is located in west central Colorado on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The county is surrounded by rugged mountains with the Tenmile and Gore Ranges on the west and the Williams Fork and Front Ranges on the east. The Blue River flows to the north through th large valley between these ranges. Altitudes range from about 7800 feet in the valley at the northern boundary to 14,270 feet at Torrey's Peak. The location in the mid-latitudes in the interior of the North American continent experiences large temperature changes from summer to winter and rapid changes of weather due to storms travelling from west to east through the region.
Under both stormy and fair weather conditions topographic features exert strong influences on local climate. Mountains influence the flow of air over and around these barriers and valleys channel low level air movements. Under wintertime storm conditions, air forced to rise over mountains cools rapidly and precipitation is enhanced. On the lee side air descends
- 34 -


resulting in reduced snowfall. In the summer, channeling of air can lead to preferred areas of shower development especially on the east side of ridges. Cold air tends to flow downward and its motions are strongly controlled by topographic features.
Cold air is trapped in canyons, valleys and other low spots and becomes colder than other air in nearby areas. The effect of topography results in very strong climatic variations in the county so care must be exercised in extrapolating data taken at one location to estimate the climate at another location.
Large temperature changes are observed at Dillon where the monthly average varies from 15.4 F in January to 55.5 F in July. A more informative description is evident from the monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. The mean maximum varies from 32.2 F in January to 74.9 F in July while the minimum varies from -1.4 F in January to 36.1 F in July. The difference between the average maximum and minimum is 34 F in January and 39 F in July which is indicative of the day to night temperature change. Each year is not an average year and the variation experienced in the station is seen in the warmest and coldest monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature. For example the warmest January average minimum was 8.7 F while the coldest January minimum was -11.2 F. This large variation changes to a smaller variation in summer.
Freeze and growing season data are dependent upon minimum temperatures which can vary considerably over short distances since cold air tends to flow down to low elevations and become trapped. This effect is well illustrated by the low minimum
35


temperatures observed at the climatic stations all of which are located along the Blue River. The lowest officially observed temperature in Summit County is -45 F east of Dillon on February 1, 1951.
Average annual precipitation varies considerably over the county and measurements are 15.46 inches at Green Mountain Dam, 17.01 inches east of Dillon and 19.33 inches at Breckenridge. Estimates of mountain precipitation are as high as 50 inches per year for a section of the Gore Range. The difference of wintertime precipitation between mountain estimates and valley measurements illustrates the effect of mountains on wintertime precipitation. Solar heating in late summer generates convective showers which effectively convert atmospheric water vapor to precipitation.
The maximum and minimum monthly precipitation show the extreme variability of precipitation. At Breckenridge, the largest October precipitation was 3.6 inches compared to 0.05 inches measured for the smallest October. Also, average precipitation values are made up of many years slightly smaller than normal and a few years above normal. Most years will be below the average.
Average snowfall measurements range from 89 inches per year
at Green Mountain Dam to 159 inches at Breckenridge. Even to a
greater extent than the total precipitation, a few large
snowstorms dominate snowfall averages with most years below 3
average.
36


Historic Summary
The Maggie Pond is the site of the 1900's Gold Pan Mining Co. excavation ditch. Once 90 feet deep it has been filled to a pond whose maximum depth is less than 10 feet. This operation was part of the second (the lode mining) boom in Breckenridge's boom and bust cycle which was so much a part of Breckenridge's colorful history.
The architecture reflects these booms. The first boom is
reflected in the beautiful Victorian homes and buildings of Main
and Ridge Streets. The large Romanesque buildings reflect the
second cycle early in this century. Throughout, the false front
buildings reflect the fontier and American west of which this
4
town was an integral part.
History of Breckenridge
During the late 1850's, with the nation in financial crisis, many men set out from the cities for the western territories in search of gold and a new beginning.
In the summer of 1859, a group of prospectors led by General George Spencer found gold along the Blue River near where the town of Breckenridge is located now. They built a crude fort of block houses just north of the current Town and called it Fort "Mary B", after the first white woman to cross the Continental Divide into the Blue River Vallye. The remains of this fort now lie somewhere beneath the rock piles.
The Ute Indians, who had lived in the valley for many years, were considered somewhat a threat by the first prospectors, and some believe this is the reason that Fort "Mary
37


B" was built. In time, however, the pioneers realized that the Indians meant no harm and the Town grew outside the Fort as well.
In the hope of securing a Federal Post Office, the residents decided to name the town after the Vice President of the United States, John Cabell Breckinridge. A post office was assigned to the town in 1860, but soon after it was constructed, the Vice President broadly expressed his sympathies for the South and the Confederate cause and, indignantly, our pro-Union community changed the spelling to Breckenridge.
The first miners along the Swan River, French Creek and the Blue River used the very basic methods of picks, shovels, and pans to collect the gold from the land. Many of the miners lived in the early mining camps of Breckenridge, Lincoln City, and Parkville in the 1860's. They divided the stream beds into parcels or "placers" and ownership was established. The miners built sluices and long toms for placer and later hydraulic mining, which was faster and more effective, but left the hillsides scarred after a high pressure stream of water was used to erode the hill and wash the dirt and gold downstream.
Throughout the 1860's, small, but productive mining camps were established on the north side of Farncomb Hill, then down Georgia Gulch to Gold Run and Delaware Flats. As the search for placer gold increased, new gulches were explored and given names such as French, Georgia, Galena, American, and Hamburg. The area was so rich in minerals that a single pan of dirt often yielded two to twelve dollars in gold.
38


Then the miners began to trace the ore back to its source in the hills, and lode mining began in Breckenridge. However, the individual miner couldn't compete with the large corporate lode mining operations because of the enormous costs involved with this method of mining, and so many of the miners went to work for the large corporate mines. At one time, these large mines in Summit County produced more gold than any other county in Colorado.
By 1880, there were 2,000 residents in Breckenridge, along with eighteen saloons and three dance halls. It was during this boom period the most of the Town's ornate, false-front buildings were built, but only a few of these remain today.
The extension of the Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroad in 1882 brought many more people to Town and accelerated the development of mining as well. Its narrow guage track came from Denver, over Kenosha Pass, across South Park to Como and then over Boreas Pass down into Breckenridge. This was the highest through-line, narrow guage railroad in the country with steep grades that would defy even today's standard guage trains. At the Boreas Pass summit, there was a section house, the highest Post Office in the United States and there are still remains of the Farnham Spur, the ore tipple that served the 730 Mine and the Warrior's Mark Mine just below timberline on the west side of Boreas Pass and Baker's Tank about midway up the grade where it was used by the steam engines to take on water.
One of the most fantastic gold discoveries was the "Wire Patch," located on Farncomb Hill northeast of Breckenridge,
39


where the gold was in the very rare form of beautifully crystallized wire. The area was extensively mined, with mines dotting the hillside, and on a Saturday afternoon in July, 1887, the Town erupted with excitement over the discovery of a huge 156 ounce gold nugget by Tom Groves and Harry Lytton. When they brought their nugget into town, friends named it "Tom's Baby" because of the affectionate way they carried it. Tom Groves became an overnight celebrity with numerous parties held in his honor. It is even claimed that the popular drink "Tom & Jerry" was introduced at one of these affairs and named after the brothers, Tom and Jerry Groves. Not long after this, however, Tom Groves faded into obscurity and strangely enough, so did "Tom's Baby". The whereabouts of the nugget remained a mystery until in 1972, after painstaking research, Mark Feister, author of Blasted, Beloved Breckenridge, found the nugget in a simple wooden box hidden away in a United Bank of Denver safety deposit box.
Of all the mining techniques used here, the gold dredging operations were the most destructive. These dredge or gold boats were used on the Swan, the Blue and French Creek from 1900 until mining ceased in 1942 during World War II. Only the rock piles are left of these beautiful river valleys. In Breckenridge, the dredges were always discussed with mixed emotions. In a time when little else was happening here, the dredge mines provided jobs and a steady economy, but those who lived here watched with sadness as the machines destroyed the river valleys. The remains of these dredges can be seen near
40


the Swan River road, near Lincoln City south of French Creek, and near Breckenridge going east on French Creek, as well as along the Blue River north of Breckenridge.
The population of Breckenridge has fluctuated greatly over the years, reching its peak at 2,000 or more in the 1800's and dropping over the years until the early 1960's when the ski area was developed. From that time, there has been a steady increase in the permanent population as well as the tourist population.
Several of these early immigrants became notable Colorado characters. Father John L. Dyer, a pioneer Methodist clergyman, was the founder of the first church in Breckenridge, Father Dyer Church, which is now located at the corner of Briar Rose Lane and Wellington. He began the mining town of Dyersville in 1800, which is just east of Breckenridge off of Boreas Pass Road, and he preached in all the local mining camps while carrying the mail and gold over the mountain passes on showshoe and on foot. His son, E.F. Dyer, became a judge in Breckenridge and was later killed in his own courtroom in Granite, Colorado, during the Lake County Cattle War.
Barney L. Ford was a former slave who actively supported Negro rights and made a fortune in the hotel and restaurant business in Breckenridge, Cheyenne, and Denver, after a lucky strike while mining near Breckenridge. He eventually served as a member of the Colorado General Assembly and his wife was the first Negro woman listed in the Denver Social Register.
Recently, a hill and a gulch just east of Breckenridge were officially named after him. Barney Ford's Breckenridge home
41


remains in excellent condition at the corner of Main and Washington Streets. Both Ford and Dyer are honored in the Colorado Hall of Fame with stained glass windows in the State Capitol.
Edwin G. Carter, another from Breckenridge who left his mark on the state, was an internationally known naturalist. He created his own museum in Breckenridge by collecting one of each bird and animal species in this region, which eventually became the nucleus of the Denver Museum of Natural History. The Carter Museum building still stands at 111 North Ridge Street.
Though the Breckenridge area was extensively mined, ranching was also an important part of the economy. Quite often, these ranches were on land which had once been purchased for dredging operations, but never used. The town even boasted one dairy farm. In the early 1900's, Chris Cluskey pastured his cows on his field at the foot of what is now Ski Hill Road and provided milk for Breckenridge families.
After President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration order to cease all mining operations in 1942 because of "the war effort", the town of some 200 people was barely able to hold on during those lean years. Then, late in the 1950's, Breckenridge began its latest boom period when it was rediscovered and developed for skiing and mountain home investments. The Peak 8 Ski Area was built and as it grew to include many new miles of trails, the name was changed to the Breckenridge Ski Area.
The history of Breckenridge tells of an area known for severe hardships, but offering the opportunity of great wealth.
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The three previous booms all in pursuit of gold took an
enormous toll on the natural environment and the people as they
became more aware of the high price they paid for their economic
survival. But happily today, we are finding that the
destruction and desolation left by the dredge boats is not
irreversible. Lately, several unique projects have reclaimed
these areas with great success. Kingdom Park, built by the
Town, is an excellent example. The comprehensiveness of the
Breckenridge Master Plan, adopted in 1978, and the Town's
commitment to improve and maintain the environment, both natural
and man-made, have brought about a reversal of the previous
course of Breckenridge development, from calculating to
sensitive. Sensitive to the environment and sensitive to the
historic character which makes it also sensitive to the
future. It is hoped that this Historic Guide will help to
. . 5
nurture that sensitivity .
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Soil Summary
The accompanying report was performed on the neighboring site directly to the south. It is my understanding after speaking with the architects for the V.A.B. that it is typical for all of the resort properties. The bearing pressure is excellent, 10,000 psf on the natural soils and 5,000 psf on the fills. A spread footing system is recommended. Much of the project's site is fill as a result of old mining operations and therefore 5,000 psf will be designed throughout. Groundwater seems to be an issue, but an underdrain system should handle this. Generally any lower level parking structure should not be excavated more than one story in the vacinity of the Maggie Pond (el. 9610) .
44


Zoning Summary
The project site is subject to a master plan agreement between the Village at Breckenridge and the Town of Breckenridge. Height and setbacks are of virtually no concern. Setback reguirements do not apply to this site and the programmed density makes height limitations a moot point (e. 9690). It should be noted that the Planning Department has expressed their wishes that the development acknowledge the scale of Main Street as the building approaches Main and South Park.
The matrix (included) is the controlling factor. Currently the site master planned for a mixed use facility of 70,000 sq. ft. including 20,000 sq. ft. of residential. I was given to understand during my interviews with the architect for the area that they now felt that a larger retail center was more appropriate for the site. He did not foresee any difficulties amending the master plan as all previous developments had been significantly beneath the planned limits (see accompanying correspondence). Parking is an issue in Breckenridge. While general development requires one space per 400 sq. ft., this development was master planned at a ratio of one space per 1,000 sq. ft. As a result I have programmed for a middle ground of approximately 1/750 sq. ft.
45


Building Codes
This project falls under two code type classifications in the U.B.C. codes. The following is a summary of the most pertinent code affecting the design. It is understood that the 1985 U.B.C. is the regulating body for construction in Breckenridge Co.
Building Types
Type 2 Group A; Division 2 building with an assembly
room with occupancy less
than
1000 containing a stage Type 2 Group B; Division 2 all retail or wholesale
Fire Rating
Fire resistant construction throughout permitting a maximum of four stories
Snow Loads \oo
A snow load of psi will be used
Exits Required
- Exit is an unobstructed and continuous means of egress to a public way
- Occupant on floors above the second story will have access to not less than two exits
- Floors and basements used exclusively for service may have only one exit
- The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet for unsprinkled corridors and 200 feet for sprinkled corridors
- Each occupant load of 501-1000 will have at least three exits
- In theaters 36" exits at each side of stage will be provided
Doors
- All doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel
- All exit doors shall be at least 3'-0" x 6'-8"
- All exit doors shall have panic hardware
- Powered doors may be used
Corridors
- Corridors must be a minimum of 44" serving an occupant load of 10 or more
- Minimum width is 36"
- Minimum height is 7'-0"
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Maximum dead end is 20'-0"
Stairways
- Minimum dimension is 44" for a load of 50 or more
- Maximum rise is 7 1/2", minimum run is 10"
- Minimum headroom clearance is 6'-6"
- Stairways must remain free of obstructions
Ramps
- Minimum width is 44"
- Maximum scope is 1:12
- There must be a landing for each 5' of rise
- Landings at bottom gr ramp cannot be less than 6' in direction of travel
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Table No. 33-A
Minimum of two exits with occupant load more than
Assembly Areas Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Bars Lounge 50
Retail Ground Floor Upper Floors 50 10
Garage/Parking 30
48
Occupant load factor (sq.ft.)
Handicap Access
15 Yes
30 Yes
50 Yes
200 Yes


Conclusion
The design solution was the result of a synthesis of the existing circulation patterns and the finest views of the site. (See the Parti Diagram). The shewed grids were the result of a desire to maintain the orthagonal of Main Street, Breckenridge and a desire to express the development on the grid of South Park Street. This skew led to the development of the octagonal geometries. The Main Street grid was further emphasized by the addition of a restaurant and information center across Park Street. Images of the entire project are implied in this small building which is designed to turn Main Street as a pedestrian way and to lead it into the main building. This link is further strengthened by a paving pattern linking the two buildings across the road. The image and expression of the buildings draw on the mining history of the region and the specific site. It was more appropriate to look for inspiration to the larger buildings being constructed during the Victorian times than to attempt out-of-scale carpenter Victorian. Thus, although inlaid tile makes a gesture to the cornices and detailing found in the town, most of the decorative elements are a result of an expressive use of the structural materials.
- 49 -


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Footnotes
^Anthony Vidler, The Third Typology.
2Ibid.
3
Reprinted from the Colorado County report prepared by the Colorado Climatologist. 1975
4
Gilliland, Mary Ellen. Summit: A Gold Rush History of Summit County Colorado, p. 128.
5Reprinted from this Historic District Guidelines prepared by thee Breckenridge Planning Department.
^Format. Adapted from the Thesis of Nicholas Benslet 1984, Data from the U.B.C. 1985.


Bibliography
Bacon, Edmund. Design of Cities. New York: Viking Press, 1974
Design & Planning of Retail Systems. Edited by Gooling & Maitland. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1976.
Gilliand, Mary Ellen, Summit: A Gold Rush History of Summit County Colorado. Alpenrose Press, 1980.
International Council of Shopping Centers. Enclosed Mall Shopping Centers. 1965.
Krier, Rob. Urban Space. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1978.
Lion, Edgar. Shopping Centers, Planning, Development and Administration. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976.
Larson, Fred. Restaurant Planning and Design. Wallop, Hampshire, England: Architectual Press Ltd.
Recreational Development Handbook. Edited by Eric Smart. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 1981.
Shopping Center Development Handbook. Edited by McKeever & Griffen. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 1977.
Vidler, Anthony. The Third Typology from Fational Architecture AAM Edition, 1978.
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