Citation
Quinto sol

Material Information

Title:
Quinto sol the fifth sun
Alternate title:
Artist colony
Creator:
Sternick, Marc
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
149 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Artist colonies -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Morrison ( lcsh )
Mexican American art ( lcsh )
Artist colonies ( fast )
Mexican American art ( fast )
Colorado -- Morrison ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 122-123).
General Note:
On cover: An artist colony.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Marc Sternick.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13238401 ( OCLC )
ocm13238401
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1985 .S75 ( lcc )

Full Text

GJUINTB SQL
TNE FIFTH SUN
archives
LD
1190
A72
1985
S75
flURARIfl LIBRARY
AN ARTIST GBLQNY
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QUINTO SOL THE FIFTH SUN
A---ni'*=
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.


The Thesis of


is approved
University of Colorado at Denver
May 3, 1985


QUINTO SOL
THE FIFTH SUN
Quinto Sol is the Spanish translation of Tonatiuh (the face of the sun) who was the lord of heaven and whose face is in the center of the Eagle Bowl, universally known as the Aztec Calendar. The calendar recalls past epochs and predicts the future of the present epoch (Quinto Sol). The sacred calendar is still in use after 3,000 years by many Indians around Qaxaca, Mexico. Quinto Sol has become a universal symbol in the literary and fine arts of the Chicano culture.
Manuel Martinez
"Quinto Sol is the unity, cohesion, synthesis of all that has come before, bound into the human soul. Thus, the Fifth Sun is the very foundation of life, of spirituality...in the nature of a common bond among all soul creatures."
Armando B. Rendon


TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE PROJECT
Project Introduction Thesis Statement HISTORY/CULTURE
The Art of the Chicano Movement and the movement of Chicano art.
SITE
Maps
General Conditions Site Analysis Environment Factors PROJECT DESCRIPTION Form/Identity Materials/Resources Program Breakdown
Description of Spaces and Their Use User Relatiohships
Programming


ARTISTS' IMPUT
Introduction
Interviews
CLIMATE/ENERGY
General Conditions Climate/Energy Data Summary CODES/ZONING
Code Analysis Handicapped Accessibility Zoning BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES
Energy-related Data
Daylighting Options
TABLE OF CONTENTS




THE PROJECT
The proposed project is a Chicano artists' colony. The site is on an 11-acre parcel of land about 1/2 mile south of Morrison, Colorado. The land is presently owned by Emanuel Martinez, an accomplished Chicano artist who is considering donating part of his land for this purpose.


INTRODUCTION
Chicano art is the art of Mexico and the Southwest. It is an art that expresses the history and culture of a people whose heritage is strongly rooted in over 2000 years of Mexican civilizations.
Throughout Mexican history, art has been a powerful force in the integration and cultural pride of the Mexican people.
There is now a large Chicano population in the Southwestern United States. However, there is no one place in this region where Chicano artists can work together. The purposed artists' colony would allow Chicano artists to work together, live together, study together, and enhance their sense of cultural heritage through art. A Chicano artists' colony could provide the medium for intellectual exchange and support that would serve to propogate the various express-
ive art forms of the Chicanos.


THESIS STATEMENT
There are three general ideas which will serve as a foundation upon which this design will be developed.
The first idea is the need to provide this artist colony with a sense of "place-identity". The concept of "place-identity" is defined by author Harold Proshansky as "...that aspect of the person's self-identity represented by actual and desired physical settings that help to establish who he is and what he is."^ I feel that it is important that the complex of buildings and spaces express its users as both Chicanos and as artists. In the expression of use and users, a building can help bolster the individuality of those users as well as their sense of community.
On an individual level, the sense of place is reinforced by allowing people to exert some control over their physical setting. This control is essential in furnishing options for privacy or social interaction. Giving a person territory that they can call their own is important in providing a sense of comfort and security as well as a sense of place.
In a similar way, a community's sense of "place-identity" can also be enhanced by satisfying their territorial aspirations. Thus, in providing a community with space that allows group
\ang; pg. 76


process and function to occur with a minimum of physical constraints while providing imagery and symbology that the community is comfortable in calling its own, a sense of "piace-identity" can be created. '
Our experiences with architecture can be personal, social, cultural, or universal. When architecture address all of these experiences in a sensitive manner, a bond between building and user is formed.
This connections between building and user is important in establishing a sense of belonging and a relaxed, comfortable feeling within the people who interact with that building.
I think it appropiate to include a passage from "Das Lintze Cafe" by Christopher Alexander. In it, he reflects on the interaction between building and user.
"This allowed me to consider, more deeply that I have been able to do before, the nature of a building, simply as an object in itself ...as an object in which a person may see his own self, mirrored, faithfully or unfaithfully... a place, which, in virtue of its structure, seems to somehow contain a mirror of a person's own self...so that, in coming into this building, one feels oneself solidified, made more whole, more at peace, more resolved in one's own inner life...^
^Alexander; pg. 12


The second idea is to design the colony and specifically the studio building in such a way as to allow for the artists creativity to thrive unencumbered by the physical environment. According to architect/author, C.M. Deasy,
"...the settings we use help us or hinder us in three major ways:
- They influence the stress we experience in accomplishing our group or personal goals.
- They influence the form and nature of our social contacts.
- They influence our feelings of identity and self-worth.
By designing spaces that present a minimum of psychological stress; allowing inhabitants options for privacy or social contact; and by imbuing that space with a sense of place and identity, an environment can be created in which creative thought and creative actions are supported.
Each individual artist may have different feelings about the kind of space that promotes or even allows their "creative juices" to flow. In interviewing several artists, there were a number of spatial/psychological needs that did seem to be universal among them. (These needs are expressed in the Artists' Imput section.)
^Deasy; pg. 45


The artists' work-space will be designed using those needs as priorities. By doing so, the design will meet the artists' combined criteria for practical yet inspirational space. Using this criteria can only be beneficial in designing a place which will house creative spirits.
The third idea relates to the belief that anything built on this earth has both implicit and explicit connections to it. The project will be designed with the goal of achieving a harmony with its environment. This harmony can be described on two different levels.
On one level, the use of form, massing, material, and color, when orchestrated properly, can cause a building to either blend or contrast with its environment. In designing with the environment, the building should accent the special qualities of its particular site. In this sense, harmony is designing with the land, not just on top of it.
On another level, the use of appropriate techologies will be implemented to achieve a connection between the building, its users, and the environement they inhabit. Appropriate technology refers to technologies which provide energy, water, building systems, or other services with a minimal environmental impact and a maximum reliance on renewable energy sources. These technologies should be matched in scale and in energy quality to their end-use needs.^
The connection that is formed via appropiate technologies can best be described as a spiritual one. This connection implies that a building's inhabitants will be spiritually closer
^See Lovins, Amory for further discussion of this issue.


and psychologically more sympathetic to their environment by making a conscious effort to design build, and live on the earth with the smallest negative impact possible. Using solar energy for heating and cooling, using composting toilets to discharge wastes, using greywater filtration systems to mimimize water use; all allow a comfortable lifestyle while (unlike common "civilized practices) having a minimal impact on the environment and depleting a minimum of our earth's scarce resources. It is my contention that architecture that is "conscious" of its environment in this way will help extend that consciousness to its inhabitants.
A great master, Frank Lloyd Wright, is known for his theories on "organic" architecture. These theories relate directly to a buildings connection to the earth. In his lectures at the Royal Institute of British Architects in England in 1939, he states;
"...architecture which was really architecture proceeded from the ground and that somehow the terrain, the native industrial conditions, the nature of materials and the purpose of the building, must inevitably determine the form and character of any good building."
In the same lecture, he later states;
"The first condition of homeliness, so it seems to me, is that
any building which is built should love the ground on which it stands.
5
Wright; pg. 1,9




For a design project as specific as a Chicano artists' colony, a look at Chicano history and culture is necessary.
Most Chicanos consider themselves to be of mestizo decent^ The term, Mestizo, comes from a mixing of Indian culture and the Hispanic-Arabic culture of the conquistadors.
However, it was well before the times of the conquistadors that "Mexican Culture", as we now know it, began.
One of the earliest cultures of Mexico, the Olmec, settled along the Gulf of Mexico.
Some of the artwork from the Olmecs that has survived the ages consists of: "Giant monolithic stone heads that have the massiveness, strength, and monumental scale of later Mexican art."^
Their awesome architecture is expressed in the religious and cultural center of Teotihuacan. This city houses the temple of the sun. This pyramid, with its 830 foot wide base, beautifully exemplifies the influence of pyramids throughout Mexican architecture.
"The architectural and sculptural concepts of Teotihuacan, with its rows of uniform styled monumental reliefs, can be recognized in the work of several Mexican architects and sculptors since 1930.
^Damaz; pg. 29 ^Damaz; pq. 29


The Olmec civilization was overrun and destroyed at the end of the eighth century by the Toltecs. The Toltecs founded the city of Tula as their capital. They did not possess the great architectural or technical knowledge of the Olmec, yet their sculptural creativity was evident throughout their city.
In 1168, the Aztecs destroyed Tula. They soon extended their influence over the southern half of Mexico. They established the city of Tenochtitlan, which was a city of massive, ornate architecture, great pyramids, and a model of town planning.
From about 317 A.D., the Mayan civilization grew in southermost Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.
They co-existed with the Aztecs but lived completely autonomously.
The Mayan culture was the strongest and most long-lived of Mexican civilizations. Their architecture shows a deep respect for religious ceremony and
social organization.


"Less colossal, more human than the architecture of the Mexican highlands, it combines the grandeur of the open spaces with an acute sense of proportion and perfection of detail.
Mayan monuments are unequalled as masterpieces of originality, esthetic sense, and refined taste.^
Palenque, one of the Mayan's original cities, exemplified typical Mayan construction: "two parallel suites of rooms separated by a wall marking the long axis of the building.
Their root is formed by a false or corbelled vault, which is formed by 2 parallel walls, their thickness increasing toward the top until the distance between them is short enough to be spanned by a single stone.
This primitive system of construction precluded the construction of interior spaces of large dimensions.
The Mayan cities were eventually abondoned by their inhabitants in the search for more fertile lands.
The sculpture and painting of pre-columbian Mexico is varied and signficant.
Sculptural pieces range from gigantic stone forms to small figures molded in clay or carved in jade and crystal. They all hold religious or symbolic meaning.
3Damaz; pg. 34
4
Damaz; pq. 30


The most outstanding sculptural works are found in the architectural ornamentation of their buildings.
In some buildings such as the House of the Turtles in Uxmal, the ornamentation is kept simple and pure.
In the House of the Govenor and other buildings at Uxmal, geometric designs and bass reliefs form a frieze which become an integral part of the architecture.
In other cases, stone mosaics of geometric patterns cover walls of buildings so throughly as to create a true wall-sculpture.
Color was an important factor in Pre-Columbian architecture as it is in modern Mexico. Some of the early pyramids were covered with plaster and painted.
Some of the reliefs were also painted. Most of the colorings consisted of deep earth tones. Frescoes have been found inside several buildings.
A harmony between architecture, painting, and sculpture was achieved. "The great buildings of the


Pre-Columbian civilizations make an immediate and urgent appeal to us as total works of art, because here the separate arts have been wrested out of their isolation by the power of genuine integration.
When the Spanish arrived in Mexico in 1519, they found an incredibly large, well-planned urban center, a complex society with a developed political and religious system, a unique architecture and a relatively advanced knowledge of astronomy and mathematics.
The Spanish engaged in a systematic destruction of the entire Indian civilization. They melted the jewelry into coins, burned codices in which Mayan and Aztec history were pictorially recorded. They razed the great cities of Tenochtitlan and Cuzco on top of which they built their new capitols.
Throughout the 16th century, the development and construction in Mexico was swift and extensive.
^Modern Arch, of Mexico Max Cetto


Due to the religious zeal of that period, and with the help of slave labor, some 400 monasteries were built within 75 years.
"A great variety of styles were used, sometimes in the same building; Romanesque decorations, Gothic structure, Mudejar and Renaissance elements given a local flavor by Indian stone carvers. This native influence is revealed by the flat technique of carving, used in


church ornamentation as it had been earlier in the reliefs around Indian temples.
This eclectic Spanish style of architecture was prevalent throughout Mexico until the Mexican revolution of 1910.
The revolution began a period of turmoil that ended in 1924 when Mexico achieved a relatively stable government "The Mexican Revolution was basically an Indian revolution against foreign influences. Since then, the Mexicans have become so conscious of their pre-columbian past that their Indian heritage is now the most vital element in Mexican culture.
Much of the artwork of that time expressed the current social conflicts and historic social complexities to a predominantly illiterate populace.
"...the art of Mexico became a thing of the people
^Damaz; pg. 35 ^Damaz; pg. 52


and for the people. It abandoned the easel and covered the walls of old and new buildings. Its aim, though decorative was primarily didactic. It was a way of showing the illiterate Indian masses the greatness of their past and blessings of the revolution. The favorite subject became the Indian worker, farmer or soldier and his relation to his Aztec ancestors, to the Spanish conquerers, to the church, and capitalism, to the economic and cultural renaissance of the country, and to native crafts, dances,
O
costumes and legends.1 "...this school of painting (was) called "social realism" or "social expressionism".9
The revolution also had a profound effect on Mexican architecture. "Modern Mexican architecture grew out of the revolt against European tradition that existed after the revolution of 1910. New forms and solutions were necessitated by the social changes sweeping across the country.
The social conscience that was born in that atmosphere continues in the work that is being done today.
^Damaz; pg. 54
^Damaz; pg 54 in
luModern Arch. Mexico Shellv Kaooe


To help make the connection between the history and culture of Chicanos and their art and culture of today, the following paper by Manuel Martinez has been included in this document.
THE ART OF THE CHICANO MOVEMENT AND THE MOVEMENT OF CHICANO ART
by Manuel J. Martinez
To understand the present cultural values of our people, it is necessary to understand the history of Mexico, to which we are still closely related. Mexican history is known mainly through its literature and art and it is the literary and artistic expressions that bring life and cultural nationalism within emotional grasp.
Unlike many of the styles of contemporary art, many concept and forms of Chicano Art come from its own traditions. This is not to say that Chicano Art is an imitation of Indian, Spanish or Modern Mexican Art, in technique or otherwise. The most Ancient Art of our history is purely Indian and is still considered the natural and most vital source of inspiration. Then following the conquest of Mexico came Colonial Art which is based fundamentally on Spanish-European princi-pales of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. And then came the Modern Mexican Art movement dominated by artists who were Mestizo (the offspring of Indian and Spanish blood) and whose work
has both Indian and European influences.


Like the modern art of Mexico, the new Chicano art is essentially an art of social protest. Generally speaking, however, there are two types of Chicano Art. The first is an art that makes up the cultural from of the Chicano movement that is sweeping the Southwest. An art that reflects the greatness and sacrifices of our past. An art that clarifies and intensifies the present desires of a people who will no longer be taken for granted as second class citizens and whose time has come to stand up and fight for what is rightfully theirs as human beings.
The art of the Chicano movement serves as a shield to preserve and protect our cultural values from the mechanical shark of this society that has been chewing and spitting out our beautiful language, music, literature and art for over a hundred years. The artists use their own media in their own way to strengthen the unity of our people and they help to educate us about ourselves since the educational system has failed to do so.
The other type of Chicano artists are those who find it difficult to allow themselves to be used by any cause, by any institution, or by any government. They realize that the artist has spent centuries to free himself from the domination of a social hierarchy, the church, or government control. They love the past but refuse to be trapped by it. Their primary interest is to convey a point of view or an idea. Whereas the Chicano artist of the movement generally used any method to achieve his goal.


Chicano Art is a new born baby with Ancient Art as a mother, Spanish Colonial Art as a father and Modern Mexican Art as a midwife. Or we can see it as branch extending out into the Southwest United States from the great Bronze Tree of Mexican Art. Taking the roots of that tree for granted as being Indian and Spanish, we can move up to the trunk of the tree which is known as Modern Mexican Art.
It would be wrong if we first looked up definitions of art in textbooks and then used them to determine the past principles for the modern artistic movement of Mexico. We should start from historical facts, not from abstract definitions.
What are some of historical and artistic facts of the modern art movement in Mexico? Or, from the Mexican point of view what are some of the significant features in the development of this movement? Despite all the conflict, confusion, and bloodshed of the Mexican Revolution, it created a new spirit. A revolutionary spirit that inspired new leadership and began to be felt and expressed by the writers, the musicians, the poets, and the painters. Each felt that it was his duty and privilege to share his talents in the social cause of bringing about a new Mexico. Art for art's sake began to die. The new art would no longer serve as a privilege of the rich or a mere decoration. Since Mexico was largely illiterate, painting had to become the medium of visual education, monumental in size, and become public property.


Some of the more advanced artists and pioneers of this new aesthetic concept formed a group in 1922 known as the "Syndicate of painters, sculptors, and intellectual works." Among those who allied themselves into this group and who brought forth the first original expression of Modern Art on this continent were: Ramon Alva de La Canal, Jean Chariot, Fernando Leal, Xavier Guerrero, Carlos Medina, Roberto Montenegro, Jose Clemente Orozco, Fermin Revueltas, Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Maximo Pacheco.
The open-mindedness and foresight of Jose Vasconcelos, Minister of Education, must be given credit for opening the doors to the usefulness of monumental painting on the walls of public buildings. Under his program, Vasconcelos patronized the artists and they were given but one instruction: To paint Mexican subjects. It was the first collective attempt at mural painting in Modern Art.
Then followed the fruits of the "Mexican Renaissance". The rebirth of creative enthusiasm and a time for the people to again recognize human values and their expressions in a creative form.
The Mexican painters have shown in their work the long and exciting history of the Mexican people. Great murals were done by men who sought truth and justice for their people and all of humanity. Mexican modern art was essentially an art of the revolution. No where else in the world can the people of a country see so much of their own story told pictorially on the big walls of their public buildings.


The Chicano artist who refuses to plunge into the movement, yet wishes to deal with social concerns in this society, cannot escape the realities in his life, in the lives of people around him, and in the times in which he lives. These things will inevitably begin to show in his work. Art works that are characterized as works of social protest are really just the product of the artist having to deal with the realities he sees. How does he respond to these realities? He writes a poem, a play, a song; he paints a picture, a mural, or models clay or wax.
The Chicano artist will work with his own "raw materials" of his social concerns in his own way. Most importantly, the artist is devoted to his art, and he loves color, form, composition, structure, and rhythm.
There are times when the Chicano artist, like other people, attempts to escape his humanness, but cannot. His commitment is to himself and to humanity. He loves art and he loves his people. It is this love for humanity that he can reveal to others and in doing so help fulfill their humanness. It does not mean that he is not going to reveal the countless evils of our life, but it is to show you that we must get back our humanness if we are to live on this world peacefully.




t
REGIONAL MAP




AREA PLAN




GENERAL CONDITIONS
The site for this project is on an eleven acre tract of land 1/2 mile south of the town
of Morrison. The eastern edge of the property borders Highway 8.
The land is nestled in a valley formed by the foothills of the rockies on the west and the Hogback to the east.
There are scattered outcroppings of red sandstone in the area which seem to form a climax at the Red Rocks Amphitheater. The amphitheater is visible to the north of the site.
The landscape of the area is typical of the semi-arid, eastern foothills of the state;
rocky hills, short prairie grass, and scattered cottonwood, pine and spruce trees.
The nearby town of Morrison is a small, rural town of 490 people. In all, the town consists of 175 building units, 2 gas stations, 1 church, and several eating, drinking, and retail
establishments.


ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Water
Three options exist to supply water to this project.
1) . Receiving permits to drill 3 more wells on the property. Along with existing wells, this would bring the total to 6 wells. Combined with storage of 5,000 6,000 gallons, this system would probably be sufficient for the project's water use.
2) . Obtaining water lines from the town of Morrison. Approximately 1/4 of a mile of pipe would need to be laid to reach the project from its current placement.
3) . Obtaining a permit to drill an artesian well. This would supply the colony with pure water from a deep aquifer that runs under the property.
Whichever option is chosen, steps will be taken to minimize water useage throughout
the colony.


PLANT LIFE
Very few trees exist on this site. Several juniper trees and an elm tree make up the growth over 6 feet tall.
Prairie grass covers most of the site with scatterings of yucca, sage, milkweed, and low-lying cactus. Wild flowers abound and begin to bloom in an array of colors around the month of April.
SOILS
The soil is generally sandy. The sand is made up primarily of decomposed sandstone which is prevalent in the area.
There is a very low content of bentonite clay. This is an expansive clay but is probably
not significant to building foundations due to its small quantity.
The sandy soil is widely interspersed with crushed aggregate rock.


WILDLIFE
Deer, skunk, rabbit, fox, chicken hawks, an occassional eagle, and in one instance, a black bear have all been inhabitants of the site at one time or another.
They offer no building constraints, yet their existance in the area should be kept in mind during the design process.


SITE ANALYSIS
The site gently slopes up to the west and north edges of the property.
An intermittent stream runs from the south border of the site to the northeast corner.
The stream bed is about 5 feet deep in most places. It can be easily bridged yet it does present an organic line across the site upon which no buildings will be constructed.
Views are pleasant in every direction. The view of Red Rocks Amphitheater to the north is perhaps the most dramatic.
There are buildings bordering the site on the east and west and horse corrals on the south. The northern edge of the site borders Mount Falcon County Park. The park stretches from the north along the foothills to the west and southwest. It has been set aside as greenspace by the town of Morrison and covers several thousand acres.
Access to the site can be gained from the east or west. To enter the project from the east would entail the removal of 2 small buildings on the owner's land. It would, however, provide direct access to the project from the highway.
Entry to the project from the west would be from dirt roads which are less than 1/4 mile long before they intersect the highway. No buildings would need to be removed using this access, but it would establish the entry to the project in a residental area.




FORM/1 DENTITY
This project has a very strong cultural identity. Building forms, project layout, and symbolisms used will provide this colony with its "persona".
The powerful architecture and unique artwork of Pre-Columbian Mexico allows a starting point from which the projects' image will be formed.
Using historic designs directly is not my contention. These historic images must be blended conceptually with modern Mexican architecture, modern American architecture, and architecture fitting the project's specific site and climate. All of these factors should influence the visual impact of this project.
The primary rationale for this project is to get Chicano artists together. By sharing their work and their ideas, they will be propogating an important part of their culture in this country where it is all too easy for people to be assimilated into mainstream American culture.
The second significant factor in the imagery of this project is the fact that it is a place where art is conceived, made, and sold. More that that, it is a place where artists
live. The lives of most artists often revolve around their art.


The design must then acknowledge the importance of art to the people who live and work there as well as to non-artists with no connection to the project. It is also important for the forms and imagery of this project to convey a sense of the history and the culture behind the artists and their work.


MATERIALS/RESOURCES
Locally available materials and workers will be used as much as possible.
The area's soil contains much stone, primarily sandstone, which could possibly be integrated into the buildings. The soil itself has a high clay content and could possibly be incorporated as adobe brick or rammed earth. Site formed concrete will most likely be used for the larger buildings.
Low-technology building methods will be applied wherever practical. However, modern technology, materials, and methods of construction will also be used when deemed appropiate.


PROGRAM BREAKDOWN
LIVING UNITS
Living units for resident artists
4- 400 sq. ft. units
4- 750 sq. ft. units
Living units for resident students
4- 350 sq. ft. units
Guest Apartment
1- 350 sq. st. unit
Apartment for Gallery/Museum Director
1- 500 sq. ft unit
Apartment for Colony Director
1- 500 sq. ft unit
TOTAL (for living units)
1 ,600 sq. ft. 3,000 sq. ft.
1 ,400 sq. ft.
350 sq. ft.
500 sq. ft.
500 sq. ft.
7,350 sq. ft.


STUDIO
Metal working Ceramics/Clay Wood Shop
Studios for resident artists 8-500 sq. ft studios
Studios for resident students 4- 400 sq. ft. studios
Open area
Work-sink areas
Loading dock
Restrooms
Circulation @ 10%
Mechanical @ 5%
Outdoor kiln and sculpture
TOTAL INTERIOR SQUARE FOOTAGE
1.000 sq. ft.
1.000 sq. ft.
1.000 sq. ft.
4.000 sq. ft.
1,600 sq. ft. 1,500 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 800 sq. ft. 150 sq. ft. 1 ,000 sq. ft.
500 sq. ft. 1 ,500 sq. ft.
12,750 sq. ft.


GALLERY/MUSEUM
Gal 1ery
Museum
Washrooms
Director/Curator's office
TOTAL (including mechanical and circulation)
COMMUNAL MEETING/DINING/CLASSROOM Ki tchen Dining area Rest Rooms Meeting/Classrooms Circulation 05%
Mechanical 0 3%
TOTAL
TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE OF PROJECT
2,000 sq. ft.
1,000 sq. ft. 100 sq. ft. 250 sq. ft.
3,400 sq. ft.
200 sq. ft. 500 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 750 sq. ft. 75 sq. ft. 50 sq. ft.
1,775 sq. ft.
25,275 sq. ft.


DESCRIPTION OF SPACES AND THEIR USE
This colony is being designed for the purpose of bringing Chicano artists together.
However, most artists, even those drawn to a "colony" atmosphere, need to do much of their work in a private or semi-private setting. Instead of designing private, personal studios into each dwelling, grouping all workspaces into one building is done with the expressed desire for artist collaboration and interaction.
The design of the studio building will be based on this idea. Each artist will have their own workspace. In addition, there will be special studios set aside for types of artwork with special space needs; such as large sculpture, metal working, and ceramics. These disciplines will have their own studios with enough resources for several artists to use concurrently
Each artist must have direct access for a sink or wash area.
Ventilation for several of the studio areas is required due to the use of toxic chemicals and dust that many artists are commonly exposed to.
Due to the dust created in wood, metal, and ceramics studios, they must each be entirely enclosed and separated from other studio areas.
The communal meeting/dining/classroom area must allow itself to be easily modified to fit whatever use is currently needed. This can be done with the use of moveable partitions as


well as with the design of the building itself.
Each living unit will contain its own cooking facilities in addition to the communal kitchen available in the meeting/dining area. This gives the residents the option of eating together or in private. Energy conservation techniques will be implemented whenever practical.
Garden space and greehouse space will be provided which will enable residents to grow a portion of their own food year-round.
Parking will be provided for all residents. Several spaces will be dedicated to patrons of the gallery/museum, visitors and part-time students. Overflow parking for workshops, seminars, and gallery opening will also be provided.


USER RELATIONSHIPS
The artist colony would be comprised of a small community of artists and students.
A group of eight professional artists would live in the complex. Housing would be supplied for them in the form of two housing unit sizes one type for the single artist and another type for the artist with a family or large space needs.
Four additional living units would house art students whose rent and schooling would be paid for by scholarships.
The work of both artists and students would take place in a shared studio space. The studio will be large enough to provide room for drawing, painting, ceramics, metal and clay sculpture, mural painting, mosaics and wood working.
The design will provide resident artists with personal, private work space. It will also allow for open areas which will be flexible enough to allow artists the option of expanding their work into other diciplines.
The resident artists will pay a relatively small amount of rent for their living spaces. They could exchange teaching time for studio space. This would keep costs to artists at a minimum, while bringing money from students directly into the operating funds for the colony.


Four students would live and work in the colony on scholarships supplied by area and national Chicano arts Council-type groups and government funds. In addition, up to ten students could be given instruction in classes once or twice a week. Teaching responsibilities would be shared by all artists. This would allow each artist to spend only a couple of hours teaching leaving most of their time open for their work.
Shared meals, especially dinners, would be a frequent event and allow residents to share ideas and problems.
A constant influx of visiting artists, lecturers, and friends would provide a sense of excitment and change to the colony.
During summer months, weekend or several day workshops can be given by resident and/or visiting artists. Open space will be provided for tents to be set up by workshop participants who decline from staying in a hotel.
During these workshops, meals and showers would be provided in the meeting/dining building. Lectures and classes could be held in the meeting/classroom space, in the open space of the studio building, or outside.
Logistics regarding workshops, lectures, students, and classes, as well as general upkeep and maintanence would be the job of the colony director.


The museum and gallery would be staffed by a full-time director. The director would be responsible for scheduling shows, setting up and taking down exhibits (with the help of residents), sales of artwork not handled directly by artists, and the daily running of the museum and gallery.
Salaries for the museum/gal1ery director and the colony director would come from money generated by artists' and students' rents and full-time student tuition.
The studio will be designed to allow maximum interaction between artists while still offering each artist the option for privacy, which, as expressed by several artists in interviews, is sometimes desired.
The colony will be broken down into three areas defined by the varying social interaction to take place in each.
The first area is the public area. When visitors enter the site, the museum and gallery will act both as a focal point and a buffer to the less public areas.
The second area includes the studio building and the dining/meeting building. These are areas where too many distractions (too many visitors) can be detrimental to the work of the artists. However, friends and art patrons will most likely come by. To an extent, this will create a friendly, informal atmosphere and allow patrons to become familair with the various
artists' works.


The third zone is the most private. It includes all dwellings within the colony. By using both physical and psychological "barriers", the residents can socially separate from the rest of the colony while maintaining a comfortable and inviting atmosphere to residents and friends.
Recreation for colony residents will take place in the studio, in the dining area during communal meals, and outside. Adjoining the colony land are thousands of acres of county park.
The town of Morrison is close by for shopping, restaurants, movies, etc.; while Denver is a twenty minute drive away for those who seek adventure in the big city.
Due to its rural location, the site for this project offers a beautiful, serene environment for artists to work in. Yet its proximity to Denver allow the important link to the urban arts community, including a large number of art patrons.
Besides meeting its user's programmatic needs, this complex should provide a special sense of place for the artists involved. It will serve as their home, studio, and school, as well as being a showplace for their art. Being that no place of this kind exists in this region, it will also serve as a landmark for the Chicano communitysand a place for both intra- and inter-cultural communication where Anglos as well as Chicanos can learn about the Chicano
Culture through their art.


PROGRAMMING
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ARTISTS' INPUT


INTRODUCTION
"...If a building...is intended to make human beings more effective in persuing their personal goals, then the proper starting point...must be a study of the people who will use the building. Before an appropriate building program can be defined there must be a description of the behavior the building should accommodate.
To design a space for any client should entail research into their lifestyle, patterns, and specific needs.
To design a space for artists, one must look especially hard at the needs and thoughts of those artists, related to their space. An artists livelihood is their creativity. Therefore the designer must focus their concern to providing an environment that enhances that creative process.
To assume knowledge of artists' psychological needs regarding their space would be pre-sumptous at best. The most direct method of obtaining that kind of information is to interview the artists themselves.
This process was used with several artists. The artists varied in age, culture, and use of artistic medium. They were asked to describe their optimum work space. It was asked that ^Deasy; pg. 72


practicality be expressed, but that it take a secondary role to that of creativity. What, then, was the optimum space for their creative process to take place?
Some artists expressed their spatial concepts through images; some through specific details; some through sketches; and others described the space through models.
The resulting spaces varied. However; some spatial concepts were fairly universal among the artists interviewed.
Natural lighting was by far the most important factor. Not only was it expressed as a practical need, but by most it was described as "inspirational" or it "allows the relaxation of space" by opening up a room to the outside.
Good, controlled natural light, along with a large, open space was sought by all of the artists interviewed. One artist described the psychological need for light and space thus:
"If you feel a lack of claustrophobia, your art can expand."
Another common thread among the artists was the desire for a connection with the outside environment. Some expressed the need for direct access outside while others felt a good view was important. All felt that the psychological tie to the outdoor environment was essential to their comfort and sense of creativity.
The following pages in this section are a brief synopsis of the ideas covered in those
i ntervi ews.


INTERVIEW AND MODEL BUILDING WITH DWIGHT DAVIDSON
PRACTICAL NEEDS OF VARIOUS ART STUDIOS: DRAWING/PAINTING -
- Sinks important
- minimum 225 sq. ft. each area
- need to stand back 20'-24' for viewing.
METAL WORK -
- Garage doors
- vehicle access
- good exhaust
- water available
- 220 volt outlets
- Dust problem
- Keep clay separate due to dust
- Combine jewelry
The following photos are examples of contemporary Chicano art.
They represent some of the work exhibited as "Imagenes: A Survey of Contemporary Chicano Artists from Colorado", at the Arvada Center for the Arts and Humanities.


WOOD -
- Separate due to noise
- Okay to mix with metal
- okay to mix with stone CERAMICS -
- Use step-water fountain
- Space for drying racks
- Provide small area for business OPEN SPACE
- Sink
- Should be directly accessible to all studios for patron reception and viewing.
- Refridge, sink, small food preparation area.
- Place to relax OUTDOOR SPACE
- Firebrick absorbs moisture
- Put roof over gas kilns


OPTIMUM PERSONAL STUDIO
- Glass doors
- Shelf at about 8' to set plants
and things on, with more glass above.
- South-facing glass with blinds and North-facing glass. High windows.
- Adjustable shading
- Adjustable lighting
- Outside space important
- 12' ceilings
- Upper windows to start at 9' height,
3' high all around
- Sloped ceiling
- Loft important. It should be in the middle of the space at its peak. It should be a medition space possibly with a bed and a desk, surrounded by glass.
- Flat walls
- Oval Dome suspended over glass
- All functional stuff in center, beneath loft. Everywhere else should remain open.


Lots of shelve space
Tables that fold down from central core, to form workspace.
Storage space- away from creative work space.
Space should be uncluttered, open bright.
Bathroom, sink, eating, desk -within central core.
Operable windows


INTERVIEW WITH JEFF KIETH AND NANCY METCALF
"If you feel a lack of claustrophobia, your art can expand" J.K.
- Views very important
- Studio on second floor with wrap-around desk
- Circular staircase
- Greenhouse on roof
- Controlled light
- Shade from bottom-up
- Garage doors
- Freight elevator or exterior dumbwaiter
- Oil painting needs good ventilation
- Living area
- Openness and privacy
- Kitchen/hearth -center
- Comfortable living room with view
- Hard tile or wood floors
- Skylights


Studio should have the feel of a greenhouse with pathways, different levels, etc.
Windows all around with control of lighting
Large, double metal sink
Photographing area
Storage racks for paintings
Print and drawing rack with wheels
Couch and desk in studio
Business area in corner of studio
Storage for solvents, etc.
Vented area for pouring nasty liquids -easily cleanable
Studio 800 sq. ft.
Garage door
Studio should be private space
Place drain in middle of floor so it can be hosed down.
Views are important


INTERVIEW WITH EMANUEL MARTINEZ
STUDIO
- High ceilings
- Open space
He feels that walls that taper in toward the top are inspirational.
- Rounded corners- creates feeling of movement
- Windows should be high (sill @4'-5') to avoid distractions but provide views and light from a high source.
- Feels comfortable with light colors (not stark white)
- For artificial lighting, use Verd-A-Ray flourescents. They are closest to natural light and easy on the eyes.
- Lots of wall space important
- Most important thing is natural light.
North for painting, south for sculpture.
Light from high windows or skylights is best.


INTERVIEW WITH VIRGINIA DUBRUCQ
- Creativity through circulation and movement
- Light very important
- Works under skylight
- View important
- Workspace next to french doors which open out to garden
- Allows relaxation of space
- Allowing vision to focus at distance is relaxing
- Position, furniture, and movement all promote relaxation
- Should be a separation of public/private space.
- Flexibility within space


INTERVIEW WITH ELLEN KOTZ
"Space makes a difference. If I'm stuck, I need a nurturing environment. If, I'm into it, it probably doesn't matter where I am."
- Nurturing can take the form of
- Physical environment
- People
- Natural environment
- Light is very important
- Colors used in artwork are affected by environment
- Windows give a connection to the environment
- Views are important but secondary to light
- Needs to be connected to people and/or nature
- Wants direct access to outside either physically or psychologically
- Likes studio on second floor with deck


Higher than second floor-and connection to ground is lost.
Who environment is shared with is important to feeling comfortable.
To be the most creative, you have to have the most freedom."
Rooms with circular form are inspiring
Circle -curve softness all form nurturing space and allow freedom to create
Walls should be light colored
Fairly high ceiling
Needs 2 distinct work areas
Quiet area
- Natural materials
- Wood and a little stone
- Not too rustic
- Ordered, refined, finished Shared area
- Big, noisy, messy
- Cinderblock for painting/sculpting
- No fear of impacting space


CLIMATE / ENERGY


GENERAL CONDITIONS
The surrounding climate is inexorably linked to a building's energy use. The two topics are therefore combined in the following section.
The site for this project sits at approximately 6,000' above sea level. The total yearly average precipitation is estimated to be 11.4". This figure places the site in the semi-arid catagory, as is much of Colorado. The average monthly temperatures range from moderate in the summer months to very cold in winter.
Most or all of the buildings in this project will most likely be skin-dominated. Keeping building occupants warm during most of the year will be the prime climate-related concern. Data for solar radiation and percent possible sunshine demonstrate the potential for solar energy to offset much of the heating loads incurred during the year.
Due primarily to its elevation and dryness, the site encounters large diurnal temperature swings. Buildings using heavy (high mass) construction could help dampen these frequent temperature swings.
High winter winds come primarily from the north and west. Occassionally, dangerously high
winds come down from the mountains on the west of the site.


The growing season lasts from early May until mid-October and lasts approximately 165 days Greenhouses and cold frames could extend the growing season to year-round for hearty vegetables The climatological data described in this section is for Lakewood, Colorado. Lakewood's proximity (within 6 miles) and similar elevation (within 200 feet) are extremely close and are therefore acceptable to use as data for this project.
The following charts and building guidlines are extracted from "Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes" by the AIA Research CorpJ Other charts are from various sources (see footnotes). Refer to appendix for other energy-related charts
1
AIA Research Corp.; pg.
66-77


AVEI^AQE. TEMfEPATLlP-ES
(in fo>)
1 oo-To 8o ~~[ r ' J li _
j -V' + -4-
'J J
f o 60 So 40 30 to 1 o 7^ A*- ~
" r^- 4 k,
"7^ * X Y- +
TT rw ^ J . ..
5F

o F JAM. FP. i 1AF. AM*!.. MAY JUN£ JULY AUi. SEPT. OAT. mov. r>fc.
FANGiE OF COMFOFTAELE TEMrEFATUF-E AVEFAGjE DAILY TEMrEP-ATUFEL
HIM. PAILY TEMPEFATUF-E-4- H|-MAX.. DAILY TEMEEF-ATUFE
HEATING, DEGREE DAYS
(65 f. &A5E. TEH?.')
HEATIUq DE^PE-E PAYS


S0LAP- GAIN THFU1 50L1TH G,UAS5
("IN BTU/ SQ.FT)
- 50LAP- HEAT GAIN TH£U SOUTH VE^TIGAL pOU&LE- G,LAZ1ING, IN |5>TU/SQ.FT*


Climate 3 Design Priorities
Remember to keep your design priorities in order.
1. LET THE SUNSHINE IN TO ADD HEAT TO THE HOUSE
Patios in front of south windows should be paved with light colored materials to reflect light and heat into the house
Use sun porches, glassed-in verandas, or greenhouses along the south wall to provide pleasant day-use spaces and add heat to the house
Use overhangs calculated to shade the high summer sun, but admit the low winter sun.
DIRECT GAIN (See Part II)
Collect and store solar radiation in floors, walls or ceilings for direct gain solar heating.
2. PROTECT THE HOUSE FROM THE COLD WINTER WINDS THAT STEAL HEAT FROM THE HOUSE
Cluster buildings to provide mutual wind protection: other houses, garages, or even fenced enclosures can provide wind shelters.
On exposed sites, use one story buildings with low profiles Only on well protected sites use two story compact plans.
Maximize volume and minimize surface exposure as in the Navajo hogan
72


2. (continued)
Use enclosed garages instead of carports. Place garages on the windward or northwest side of the house to act as a wind buffer and insulation
west sides. Also bank up earth on the north and west sides as a landscape feature to divert the wind.
buildings and add generous courtyards to minimize wind and optimize sun exposures.
stream-lined shape
Place secondary use functions such as bathrooms, laundries and storage spaces against cold north and west walls.
73


3. KEEP THE HEAT IN AND COLD TEMPERATURES OUT
Build compact homes with snug floor plans to minimize exposure and retain heat inside
Use insulated window coverings: shutters, drapes or insulation can be added when temperatures are too cold for comfort
Locate heating sources in the center of the house
Select heating devices for their efficiency Add thermal mass around an efficient stove Bring combustion air directly into stoves and furnaces from outside
74
Use massive, heavy building materials such as stone, brick, concrete or adobe to store internal heat gains and temper outside temperature extremes Use lots of insulation, close to the exterior surface of the building, and try to make it continuous.
Cut heat losses by landscaping. Heavy evergreen shrubs next to foundation walls can act as insulation
TIME-LAG HEATING (See Part II)
Use heavy dense materials in the wall construction to delay daytime heat for nighttime use.
Build homes partially underground to reduce exposure to temperature extremes outside for underground passive heating


The following guidelines are less important and should only be considered if greater detail and operational control is possible.
4. ADD MOISTURE FOR EVAPORATIVE COOLING RELIEF
Locate pools of water in the house or in the path of incoming winds to provide evaporative cooling As the water evaporates in summer it causes temperatures to drop and adds needed humidity.
Raise humidity levels on your site with lots of vegetation both indoors and out.
5. ALLOW SUMMER WINDS TO VENTILATE AND COOL
Provide cross ventilation for summer comfort by locating inlets and outlets in each room
Ridge vents and roof turbines can Keep at tics or ceiling spaces cool
EVAPORATIVE COOLING (See Part II)
Spray roofs, walls and patios for evaporative cooling, or use evaporative coolers for reduced energy consumption Use evaporative cooling systems whenever mechanical cooling is necessary
Consider using a double roof to maximize air movement around the house This uses air movement to prevent solar heat gain from entering the house.
INDUCED VENTILATION (See Part II)
Use thermal chimneys when there are no breezes to induce air movement through the stack effect
75


6. KEEP THE SUN OUT WHEN ITS TOO HOT FOR COMFORT.
shading
Shade windows. Shutters and other exterior shading devices offer the best protection from the sun, before it comes through the glass.
76
Use light colored roofs and walls to reflect sunshine


TOO HOT FOR COMFORT
TOO COOL FOR COMFORT
z
3
co
DDE
man
LIABILITIES
EDDCD
ASSETS
Summary
Only a well-detailed home with operable components can fulfill all the energy conservation priorities, especially when they conflict. However, certain design considerations should be followed first.
All of these guidelines can offer significant reductions in heating and cooling loads and can add up to 26% more natural comfort annually.
1 LET THE SUNLIGHT IN. A high percentage of sunshine provides a good opportunity for solar heating in this climate
WINTER WINDS. Divert or screen winter winds before they reach the home However, utilize summer winds to provide natural ventilation when it's too hot for comfort.
AlA hi CC'Kf.
rr
72 -
3 KEEP THE HEAT IN AND COLD TEMPERATURES OUT Insulate against the low temperatures which predominate in this region

OR PLANTS IN OR NEAR THE HOUSE TO PROVIDE EVAPORATIVE COOLING IN SUMMER THIS ALSO HELPS TO RAISE THE HUMIDITY
5 ALLOW SUMMER WINDS TO VENTILATE AND COOL
SHADING DEVICES AND VEGETATION WHEN IT'S TOO HOT FOR COMFORT
77
77


DEGREE DAYS1 Denver (Airport)
J A S 0 N D J
5 11 120 425 771 1032 1125
MEAN NUMBER OF HOURS OF SUNSHINE2 (Denver)
J F M A M J J
207 205 247 252 281 311 321
MEAN PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE3 (in percent) (Denver)
J F M A M J J
67 67 65 63 61 69 68
^Mazria; pg. 408-409
O
Anderson; pg. 269 ^Ruffner; pg. 34
F M A M J Total
924 843 525 286 65 6,132
A S 0 N D Total
297 274 246 200 192 3,033 hrs.
A S 0 N D Mean Annual
68 71 71 67 65 67


1al>1 I-<'in,luma'I
AVERAGE TEMPERATURES AND DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL
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7.*W 76.7H 79. BM .... y. *1.7" ~ **. 56.*" 67.1"
jo.o , 77.9 ; 76.6 *1.5 **.0 S3.9 5-.I
JO.9 7 . 17.3 7.9 39.9 7.6 50.6 J. 7 56.7 .6 67.9 * 6 7.*
77.OB J. 1 75.6" 7.6 " M 33.*" 3.6 -
77.s j 17.6 73.5B 1 3 3.0 6.* .0 5.3 *7.7 1.0 37.1 7.S 67.3
10.0 1 7 1 I 7.6 16.7 1.7 33.* 3.* *1.7 .6 3*.7 .? 57.3
7*.7 6.7 77.6 3.9 79.6 1 . **. 1 *.* *6.7 .0 56.6 5.1 61.7
J*. 36 .ON * 3.7 55.6" 61.6" 73.5" 76.0"
J7.1 31.6 ! 32.5 *5.3 *6.7 61.3 6*.9
77.7 1 71.7 30. T" *3.9" *6.6 37.6 63 .*
1* 7 | 33.9 36.7 *9.7 51.1 67.6
7*.0 1 6.7 79.0 3.6 3*.* ' 3.0 *7.0 5.0 50.9 .5 63.1 3.9 67,*
3 J 0 ; 31.5 36.* 57.6 53.9 66.0 73.7
77.0 6.6 33.0 3.1 36.5 1 .9 53.1 6.7 5*.0 -7.3 66.7 7.7 73.5
37.5 J*. 1 55.1 55.7 70.3
15.T" 5.7 36.1 7.6 *1.1 7.6 56.7 6.9 56.9 |.2 71.1 7.3 7* .9"
J* 9 5.1 35.3". ?.* *1.1 3.3 56.6 6.6 56.0 3.5 T 1.5 7.* 73.3"
37.6 33.1 1 7.5 S3.7 5*.7 66.6 73.5
31.9 * 3 S3.* 1 .6 *r.* 3.9 56.3 7.6 55.6 7.6 70.3 7.1
35.6" 3* .5b 3 9.7" 55.6" 55.7" 71.1" 7* .6"
37.7 1 31.7 36.6 57.7 53.3 66.* 77.9
* ' 56.8 7.5 56.7" 2.J 70.7" 7.1 76.9"
17.5 , 9.1 37.* *.* *1.7 3.7 60.0" 9.6 7 3.6" *.l 77.5
33.7 | 5.5 33.6 t-3 39.1 1 . 55.* 6.1 55.9; 3.1 70.3 1.8
J*.0 5.7 33.6 | 1 .6 39.c 7.1 55.3 6.5 55.2 3.3 70.1 1.9 7* .6
i 3 5.3 '
17.0 70.7" 7 1.) , 36.7 *7.1 31.3 5*.0
71.0 - .7 7* .? .9 ?9.6 ; - .7 *7.9 3.1 **.9 J.b 37.3 .7 60.3
J9.0 6.0 39.3 3.6 *7.7 3.3 56.7 7.5 56.1 J.7 69.) 1.9 71.7
31 N 37.9 36.IB 5 3.3" 59.0" 66 .6" T? .*
73. 3* .* 39.7 55.* ' 56.0 69.6 >3-1
37.1 3.* 37. 1 35.7 .6 53.1 5.9 5*.7 7.3 6 7,6 1.3 77.7
75.6 26.IB 76.1 B p "
J.JB 3* 5b 3*.7 57.9" 57.6" 67.0" 70.6"
37.3 j S. 5 37.7 7.9 ,*.6 1.1 *6.6 5.* SI.* .6 6* .6 * .0 66.9
35.6*9 S*.i" 36.0 57.6 5*. 3 66.1 73.1
* 9 7.* 36.7 3.5 *1.7 * .7 56.* 6.9 57.1 .1 70.* * . 73.9
1.6 .7 -6.0 6.0 *.* * 3.3
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7*.* 75.7 ' 7 6.9" *7.7 ** .6 37.0 59.5 S-. ; 31.6 3.9 1 37.* 7 5.. *0.5"
13.7 ! 9.7 13.6 .o *0.3 * .9 5*.9 7.S 56.0 - 1.3 69.8 ! 3.7 7*.l t 69.6 1.* 66.7 . 7 99.9 1*5.1 T.1 57.0 *.0 37.0 3.*
31.8 * 1 37.0 * 0.6" 3.7 36.6 .e 56.7 - 7.6 77.0 3.1 76.7 . 1 77.5B 2.8 - -
37.3 ( 3.0] 35.* .3 16.7 ; - .3 3*. 6 5.6 5*. 1 - *. 66.3 1.3 73.* .0 69.9 7 ?j 65.1 .8 5C. 3 - 3.9 **.!" 7.* 3* . 7 57.1" .1
37.7 t 1 30.7 ; .6 37.J ' 3.9 3?.* 7.3 37.7 - 1.7 *6.3 3.1 77.1 2.0 67.* 1 sj 6 1.7 7.6 *8.1 - 37.0 7.6 *.* 7.3
1 6 " 73.9 76.6 *7.0 *' .* 57.9 61.0 58.7 37.7 *1.7 i IV. 19.9 *0.1"
.13*1. . i.r. -UC laJ -IS-* -LiJ t-t - 3.6 66.6 7.1 7* 1" l.O1 69.Ob 1.3 *9.5 7 6| *.? 9.5 3*.3 .7 57.3" 1.2


TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL