Rocky Mountain National Park

Material Information

Rocky Mountain National Park schule hutte
Tanner, Emil
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 volume (various pagings) : illustrations (some folded), maps ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Huts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Rocky Mountain National Park ( lcsh )
Lodging-houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Rocky Mountain National Park ( lcsh )
Huts ( fast )
Lodging-houses ( fast )
Colorado -- Rocky Mountain National Park ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Emil Tanner.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
19958276 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1988 .T36 ( lcc )

Full Text
ocky Mountain National Park Schule hutte
Emil Tanner

Rocky Mountain National Park
Schide hutte
Emil Tanner
A Thesis submitted to the faculty of The School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture

This thesis for the Master of Architecture degree by
Emil Jakob Tanner
has been approved for the
Architecture Program
School of Architecture and Planning
Gary Crowell, Professor of Architecture, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Fred Steiner, Professor of Planning, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Elliot Goss, Principal, Obermeier Bershof Goss Architects P.C.
Professional Advisor

This thesis for the Master of Architecture degree by
Emil Jakob Tanner
has been approved for the
Architecture Program
School of Architecture and Planning
Gary Crowell, Professor of Architecture, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Fred Steiner, Professor of Planning, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Elliot Goss, Principal, Obermeier Bershof Goss Architects P.C.
Professional Advisor

This thesis for the Master of Architecture degree by
Emil Jakob Tanner
has been approved for the
Architecture Program
School of Architecture and Planning
Gary Crowell, Professor of Architecture, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Fred Steiner, Professor of Planning, UCD
Faculty Advisor
Elliot Goss, Principal, Obermeier Bershof Goss Architects P.C.
Professional Advisor

Table Of Contents:
pg Description
1. Introduction:
Can national parks improve their methods?
4. Environment at Risk:
A short evolution of our National Parks: Purpose and position.
9. Positive Steps: Emphasis on learning processes.
A review of two science camps.
17. Review of National Park Facilities (Rustic Architecture)/ Other Examples.
Sperry Lodge Alpine Visitors' Center Timberline Lodge AMC Hut System
29. Formulation of Architectural Contribution:
Discussion of program elements.
Justification for chosen site.
34. Conclusions:
41. Bibliography

To Diana and my heart.

1. Approach to The Saddle from above Lawn Lake\ Rocky Mountain Park, CO.(E.T.)
There are so many active ways to share knowledge available today and so many people in desperate need of it, yet so few of our resources dedicated to that purpose. The future challenges us to improve our methods.
The National Parks can respond to this challenge. By utilizing more active methods of education, perhaps we may better reinforce perennial goals of heightening awareness and appreciation for our immense and delicate Rocky Mountains.
To contribute to this cause I would like to propose the introduction of a newuse to the Wilderness: A science camp for young adults or children; a facility where actual scientific work may be performed and shared by researchers in several fields, including Astronomy engineering and Biology, with young people. The intention here is to provide the willing student with a bargain: If he/she will make a certain commitment to the wilderness, there will be trustworthy accommodations at the end of the trail, from which point many rare opportunities will be presented in return.
The danger here of course, is one of perhaps destroying that which we aim to protect. The park system in the United States exists as a direct result of such zealous development in the past. Some wisdom has been gathered in one hundred years of that system; Some great lives have been spent dedicated to its purpose, including those of John Muir, DavidBrower and the Sierra Club, as well as Colorado's own counterparts like Enos Mills. Examples exist all over the world as testimony to the fact: Man has seldom introduced anything but

Crowd in New York, 1982.
destruction to wilderness sites developed through the ages, despite all good intentions.
The lessons are so simple, so why aren't more people aware? The proposition here is that many more people would become aware, if given the appropriate opportunity to learn. Who knows how greatly several generations of these people could affect world politics, let alone national park conservation.
Sensitive and selective development of certain remote sites may provide a precious and potent place for such important lessons to be taught and learned, not only of Nature and Conservation but of Culture and Civilization also. For example, notions of the Sublime: where is the feeling stronger or more clearly understood than on the shoulder of a great mountain, nothing but the edge of a galaxy within sight.
The architectural goal behind the camp I have proposed is to promote the understanding of a delicate resource by juxtaposing valued human activities with invaluable, raw settings; to envelope one inside the other and re-establish a hierarchy that characterized the earliest settlements of our western frontier. Indeed I am searching for the origins of empathy that once inspired Rocky Mountain design, seeking to revive a regional spirit that belongs here, and proposing to share that composite vision more completely with an influential class of people, the general public, in the belief that their response is most important to insure the achievement of any such goals.
Response is the critical issue after all. And who among us should be entrusted with more of that responsibility than the young? Only they possess the energy

necessary to Transform such long-term dreams into realities. The sooner we can get them participating, the sooner the above goals may be reached.
Times are changing. The Communication era we live in today signifies a hopeful period of learning is ahead, for many generations to come. I believe the National Parks of our region can become an integral part of that future, by more-actively promoting its direction.

. Mammoth Hot Springs; Yellowstone Park.
The Environment at Risk: A short evolution of our National Parks:
Lt. Gustavus C. Doane once wrote, of his 1870 expedition into Yellowstone,"
We saw many strange and wonderful phenomena, many things that would require volumes for adequate description and which in future geography will be classed among the wonders of the Earth..." i
Indeed he was referring to the geysers and lava pits etc., that brought about the e stablishment of Yellowstone National Park, up in the northwest corner of Wyoming, the first such park ever designated on the planet (in 1872). He was right and America acted wisely, leading the world into a new era. beginning with Canadas designation of Banff National Park in 1877, more than 90 other Nations have recognized similar needs, resulting in over 1200 National Parks worldwide, as of 1972.2 And though many of these other parks encompass private land and/or developments, from villages to industrial factories, their collective purpose is the same: to preserve for generations to come those precious lands that possess something special in their nature; to protect that nature from the
1 Thornton Edmund B.; Gathering of Nations, A Time of Purpose.;p. i.

Yellowstone Lodge, circa 1911.
dangers of our modern world and to inspire the world to act more in accordance with the forces of Nature, to insure our future as well. Rather a great and glorious task, one might think, but today one that has evolved into a giant enterprise of politics and bureaucracy, involving huge organizations of people and incredible amounts of public money. The affects take precious time to measure and remedies developed require approvals wrapped in red-tape before action can be the results of National parks efforts don't always appear to be leading people in the visionary way one might expect.
The focus of built forms under control of this organization has been almost exclusively dedicated to concessions and visitors' centers throughout these past hundred years. Traditionally, people interested in the parks have arrived by car, or trainfless common anymore) and needed comfortable accommodations, not too different from those found in cities and towns across developed america.
derived from indigenous materials, yet better suited to durable needs of large public facilities and the severe climatic conditions of their locations. Large hotels like Yellowstone's and Banff's were located at the edges of wilderness
areas, on lake shores and within glacial gorges, to provide the tourist with the most breath-taking views possible. Unfortunately, through decades of increasing use, these facilities have impacted their respective ecosystems with equally breath-taking affect, ranging from polluted aquifers to displaced wildlife and devastated ecosystems. Indeed in some cases we have loved such places too much.
Thus evolved the "Rustic" style of architecture (examples of which we will discuss later), characteristic of this region's turn-of-the-century recreation buildings; a form

. Enos Mills Himself.
Evolving ,then along with increased use of our national parks, have come generations of ecologists and conservationists dedicated to those species on our planet less able to speak for themselves Biologists, botanists etc. have taken on the responsibility for returning to Nature those precious habitats and inhabitants that belong symbolically in the parks; of translating into humanly understandable terms what the environments of these parks, and other ecosystems all over, have been patiently telling us for centuries. People like John Muir and David Brower in the Sierras have been instrumental toward the preservation of ecosystems there, and across the country, by pointing out the beauty versus destruction that man has created and observed in the recent past; in highly visible accounts, ranging from exquisite photo essays to technical research and lecture series. Their efforts have spread the word to many people through the years, inspiring the inception of American organizations such as the Sierra Club and Audobon Society; as well as world conferences on ecology and conservation, etc..
More specifically in Colorado, there has been an almost parallel evolution, attributable in part to one person, named Enos Mills. This explorer-turned-wildlife-biologist, responsible for grizzly studies and alpine research, was instrumental in the establishment of Rocky Mountain Park in the first place, and contributed to its specific guidelines and overall "plan" which still serve today as a sort of constitution. One of his favorite activities was to study alpine zones, and for this purpose he built a cabin on what is known as the"01d Fall River Road", near the alpine visitor station now located on Trail Ridge Road. Positioned just below the tree line, in a protected spot behind a ridge, this "hut" stood for almost 100 years as one of the few manmade structures within the park boundaries (it is being torn down this year ). From this point Enos would hike to alpine tundra zones and study things

ranging from grizzly bear to squirrels. He chose not to build his hut there above the tree-line in order to keep from disturbing the extremely delicate plant life there, including lichens which require hundreds of years to regenerate. But in 1908 he built and opened Timberline Cabin, on Long's Peak, to serve climbers food and beds ($1/ dayi), and guided climbs up the mountain for many years. Clearly he possessed a balanced vision of wilderness use, as is characterized in his vision of Rocky Mountain Park itself:"
I think of it in a class by itself...this towering and historic landmark of granite, old as the earth, will knit up the ravelled sleeve of care and enrich the imaginations of the multitudes."2
By the example Enos Mills set, a consistent philosophy regarding built forms within national park boundaries has evolved, and now effectively mandates: no built forms will be placed in alpine tundra zones. The Wilderness Act of 1964 contained a buzz-word,"visitor", which was used to characterize the only role man had in such designated zones across the country. And though Rocky Mountain Park is not officially recognized as a "Wilderness Zone" per se, it is
1 lbid;p.76. He also rebuilt Longs Peak Inn, in 1906, using "fire-killed" stumps for most of the structure, and employing finished wood only in the casements of the windows....Other interesting facts about his life include the fact he financed most of his summer activities in Colorado with money he earned in Butte, MT, working as a miner; his contemporaries characterized him as a powerful advocate, zealous and eccentric idealist, implacable optimist, untiring story teller, an expert mountaineer, dedicated to propriety and self improvement, yet bitterly adversarial with enemies."
2lbid; p.77. Another good quote of his reflects his architectural sensitivities; regarding the establishment of Rocky Mountain Park:" Room...glorious in which to find ourselves; in which to hope and dream and plan, to rest and resolve."

managed as such under the guidelines of its own charter, ( roughly equivalent) and only lacks the federal title in order to reduce the control of larger political organizations over it. In fact there is another designation which all the land within the park carries, and this one is international in context: Biosphere Reserve is a designation which is intended to join Rocky mountain Park with others around the world in a united front against interference by any man-related activity upon the land so-designated. This is an effort to preserve in an internationally consistent fashion, similar natural settings around the globe. And although many European countries have much different conditions existing today within such designated zones, the intent is to return those ecosystems to their "original state" as soon as possible in the future. As is officially stated,"
policy has generally been to return the park to its natural condition, either by direct obliteration of structures or by letting structures rot and slowly disappear."'1
Such concerns are what have brought about the dismantling of certain structures, like mines and homesteads, within park boundaries, in order to return the setting to it's "natural" state. The example of Enos Mill's hut on Old Fall River Road is a case in point.
1 Holland, F. Ross; Rocky Mountain National Park Historical Background Data; Office of history and historic architecture; U.S. Department of the Interior, March 1971; p.vii.

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7. Abandoned mining village in Montana. (Rick Graetz)

Positive Steps: Emphasis on learning processes:
As was said at an international conference dedicated to the meaning of Wilderness to Science in 1963: "By Awareness as a whole, we are better able to make a case for conservation in terms of its positive scientific value."1 Indeed by establishing other reasons for preserving wilderness besides those of aesthetics and/or human compassion ( things our world seems to value less as time goes by! ), we can help the conservationists' cause significantly. To spread awareness, whether through scientific research and discovery, or simply with public seminars, always leads the public in a significantly better direction. But are we using the most effective means available to us today, to share and spread that awareness or could those means be improved and/or supplemented with different techniques? Another paper given at the same conference pointed out draw-backs of our common educational processes:"
Too often we set a brilliant young mind onto cow paths instead of steering it to high trails that lead to the wilderness behind us.... To give a student such plebian tasks is a wicked waste of a good mind." 2
What is the metaphorical difference between a cow path and a trail? The most extensive method used for teaching wilderness/conservation awareness today takes form in rustic science camps, available to both adults and children, at
1 Beard, Dan; The meaning of Wilderness to Science; p.3
2Cowan, Ian; Migratory habits s;Conference on the Meaning of Wilderness to Science, 1963; p.66.

8. Two Keystone Science School buildings.
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various locations across the country. Most notable to our region are the "camps" at Jackson Hole, Wyoming and Keystone, Colorado. Though neither lies directly inside any National park boundaries, both camps offer hiking trips and other explorations of land within parks and National Forest Service land (Grand Teton National Park and Arapahoe National Forest) and focus their efforts on spreading the awareness mentioned above; with the general public as their demographic target.
Keystone Science School:
A non-profit organization housed within used and transported existing buildings, on the beautifully forested site of Old Keystone Village, this
school operates seasonally; with a central body of subjects including alpine and sub-alpine ecology, wildlife biology botany, meteorology, snow physics, geology, politics of land usage limnology, environmental law, astronomy, human physiology at high altitudes, forestry and entomology....quite an ambitious list for such a tiny facility.1 For a reasonable tuition of 35 dollars per day, the interested participant may become involved in a variety of activities, according to their interests and abilities. Back-packing trips for the hearty, Elder-hostel programs for people 60 years old and above, summer residential sessions for children 9-12 years old2, all activities are designed to suit the participants desires, in order to make the individual wilderness experience as rewarding as possible.
1 Keystone Science School Brochure;
Keystone Science School, 1988.

9. The Grand Tetons.
1 1
Facilities at Keystone Science School include a dining hall/class room building, of about 800 square feet; and several dormitory type buildings, comprising about 2000 total square feet ( enough for 32 children), and providing such functions as a laundry room, staff living room (and office) as well as two bathrooms. The beds are bunked, to save space and there is an amphitheater outside to handle all good-weather presentations.1 Activities are of course focused on the out-doors, leaving a lower priority for enclosed space in order to encourage more thorough participation. Future plans included more dormitories and some more-private accommodations, in order to handle increased attendance by elderly people; as well as an astronomy facility, to take advantage of the insured good-sky conditions of this National Forest-enclosed site.
Jackson Hole Science School:
Note: Information from Jackson hasn't arrived yet but will be included in the final product, to be handed in with my design project in May.- E.T.
1Per telephone conversations with Norma Dirken, administrator at the Keystone School; September,1988.

Observations: While each of these schools provides opportunities to the public, they both show the signs of over-growth in that they are trying to tackle many different activities with a very specific facility. Of course economics play a major role in this formula, however these schools are growing in attendance every year, with limited enrollment (first come-first serve) keeping many interested people from participating. A more diverse, flexible set up might serve their advertised purposes better, allowing more specialized attention to the various directions of pursuit offered by these camps, as well as to allow more people to become involved. It is obvious many are out there wanting to join in...the question is: are they going to be presented with a cow path or a trail?
Speaking from personal experience, I have walked on several cow paths and trails each, in my short life, and know exactly which I prefer. Perhaps the best way I can convey this feeling is by way of a story about a hiking trip my father took me on when I was younger:
I had been dragged away from the baseball fields and friends of my most important summer vacation, to go follow his footsteps up into the wind and discomforting snow of the alps, where he grew up...thousands of miles away from home, not an english speaking person in sight... or so I thought. With great care and conviction, my father chose the food we would take and the maps we would follow, while I dreamed of hitting a home run in the world series. The train ride was long and our legs stiff when we finally started hiking, and our conversations were about anything but the long day ahead. Even after lunch, with the unusually sweet tastes of orange and chocolate lingering in my belly, I hardly felt enchanted by the forests and rocks around us, which, after all, looked very much like the rocks and twigs I 'd seen before... back home, next to the ball

1 3
field. It was about 4 that afternoon when something started to happen in my head. I began realizing we were not within walking distance of any town, that the trees were disappearing and being replaced by boulders, and that snow was virtually surrounding us. My brother and I had a short snowball fight, but made up quickly, as our dad walked over another ridge. We followed his huge footprints in the snow, with long stretches of our tiring legs...and started to wonder, when are we gonna get there. Only just before darkness, with the peaks pink in alpen glow, did that hut come into view, glowing like a yellow star atleast a half-hour from where we stood, but waiting just the same. My squishy, cold toes would dry up there; we would cook some dinner in our Meta-stove there; wed eat some more chocolate there; we would sleep safe and warm there.... And we did....but if I ever forget the other details of that trip, I will always be able to recall the memory of the following morning, when from behind a slightly frosted pane of glass I peered out and watched the sun come up. Snow has never been so colorful, or the sky so incredibly deep, or subjects like baseball so far from my mind. Summer camps, swimming and ski lessons, pier groups and grades in school never meant the same things to me again.
Nothing teaches like doing.1
And that's the difference between cow paths and trails....(Even cows prefer trails...but that is another story altogether.) My point here is that without intense involvement with a subject matter, diversification of approach is wasted, and the
iTanner, Emil; Remembrances; never published; Lutchen-Lucke,Switzerland, 1972.

educational value of the experience, as a whole, diminished. We are dealing with a matter of hierarchies here, namely those of consciousness; and how to convey awareness to a common person, who after all, has any variety of other important aspects to his/her life that compete for the same attention. Some of those other aspects of life, job security and family responsibilities for example, generate pretty intense demands. To compete with such powers, those seeking to educate others about conservation issues must somehow rise to the occasion, and present their/our case with equivalent intensity. The best way to convey that intensity, in my opinion is to facilitate the most personal experiences possible. Enos Mills understood this and promoted it. It is not clear today that our National Parks feel so strongly.
A man named Trevalyan, a poet, attending the very same conference mentioned above, frankly summarized what I believe is the situation we face today:"
Those of us who care for the preservation of natural beauty are still out-numbered and overborne by those who, though not all of them indifferent to our cause, place other considerations whether of business or politics, in a higher place than any such considerations."1
Considerations. Though we are going in a good direction today, in my opinion we can act more productively still. Let's consider those experiences we treasure most, and use them as the template for teaching those we care most about in the future. Let's perpetuate the good memories, improve upon our short-comings and make our wisest considerations theirs.
10bid; p.127.

A trail in the Swiss Alps

Review of National Park Facilities (Rustic Architecture) / Other Examples
There is a building in Denver which houses over 500 architects and Landscape architects, all of whom are dedicated only to projects within the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, and from which location all the facilities the park service is involved with are designed, form New York to Los Angeles. Visiting this facility is an experience in itself, so impressive are the size and number of individual departments and sub-departments. On the walls are photographs of projects ranging in size from self-cleansing toilet facilities in the Grand Canyon, to extensive renovations of Yellowstone Lodge; in locations as diverse as New Jersey's suburbs and Washington state's volcano cauldrons. Throughout, the themes of "Rustic Architecture"are reiterated and reinforced, in usually sensitive and sympathetic fashion, with prime emphasis on making the structures back-ground elements.
Only projects from the past stand out as bold developments amidst the "Wilderness", but these structures are few and slowly dwindling, according to
the general movements within the Park Service main body.....It is as though the
organization is a giant organism itself, and has identified the source of a cancer threatening it's moral survival. In time it is expected by some that such structures as Sperry Glacier Lodge (in Glacier National Park) will be destroyed and removed, like tumors, for the sake of returning national parks to their "original" states, as many believe they should be ... ( However, Sperry Glacier Lodge is currently shielded under statutes of an historic structure protection legislation). The needs of visitors are to be accommodated only within already "disturbed sites, wherever possible. Those interested in the back-country will thus hopefully find it pristine when they hike into it, and will know not to destroy it during their temporary stay. (It is presumed high-tech, survival gear,

including tents and stoves, not to mention thermal underwear, are left for the individual to discover and use properly during that visit to the wilderness.)
What has our parks system contributed?
Here I would like to use a sort of precedent study, applied to the facility I have proposed, recognizing the fact that no such facilities exist yet. The following are some examples found most significant towards the development of this pursued line. They are not all national parks structures, but all are pertinent to the double edged issue of how the wilderness might best be managed. Here are a few buildings representing both sides of that philosophical boundary with a discussion of their apparent contributions/detractions regarding their original and evolving purposes:
Glacier Park: Sperry Glacier Lodge:
Glacier once operated 9 mountain chalets within its park boundaries,along with Glacier Park hotel, Lake Mac Donald Lodge, and Many Glacier Hotel, (established at it's fringes and just outside park boundaries). The Sperry Glacier chalet1 is one of the more familiar of the mountain chalets, built of stone grand in stature and yet only accessible by way of a significant hike; thus establishing it as a truly pedestrian building within its natural context.
Conceived in a European style, as a sort of Swiss Chalet Sperry was intended to serve a special type of person, one which perhaps has today become extinct: the hearty urban hiker... (Once a more common site, this animal was fascinated by the wilderness, yet lacked the where-withall to handle camping out in the elements. You see the horse had not been replaced by the car yet, so a person from this era was used to feeling the elements day to day; to gain the
iTweed;Law; National Park Service: Rustic Architecture; Published by Western Regional Office/ Division of Cultural Resource Management; February, 1977; p.10.

11. Sperry Glacier Lodge; Glacier National Park, MT.
sensation of the wilderness required one step further into the woods the equivalent rush is probably felt by the average person stepping out from inside the car, atop Independence Pass.) At the location of the chalet were over-night accommodations and restaurant services arranged to make possible the priceless experience of awakening to alpen-glow, for anyone from a sixty year-old grandmothers to a six year-old tot. The visitor was spared the distractions of loud motor cars. The over-all effect was one for which the building itself was considered one of Glacier parks,"
most interesting features. These hotels and chalet chains are all remarkably in 'rhyme' with the mountainland"A
Unfortunately, this structure has witnessed the results of severe use due to its popularity. Records show its structure to be ailing; its out-structures, including a kitchen and toilet facility, are no-longer sufficient...and the water intake and
1 Great Northern Railway, "Glacier National Park, Hotels and Tours," (promotional pamphlet, circa 1915), p.3.

12. Alpine Visitors' Center; Rocky Mountain Park,CO.
purification systems have needed periodic up-gradingd Obviously this facility wasn't designed for what has become its purpose.... But neither can any facility, given a sufficient time interval.
Rocky Mountain ParkrAlpine Visitors' Center, On Trail Ridge Rd:
A visitors' center of the classic mould, according to more modern notions adopted by the national parks organization, is the facility on Trail Ridge Road. It accommodates the modern tourist, the person in the car,
cars/day during the summer months c Alpine Visitors' Center handles many
surrounded by family and glass, with two weeks left to see Colorado.
Statistics for the use of this facility are quite staggering, illustrating the human resources available to the parks system's purposes: Hourly Traffic across along Trail Ridge Road hovered around 700 cars per hour and Bear Lake, a popular site-seeing point just inside Rocky Mountain Park's east boundary, withstood 180-1000 f the early 1970s2 The 1000 square foot of these people, their souvenirs and
1Mc Donalt, James R., Architect; Sperry Chalet, Glacier NAtional Park: Architectural presservation guide; Study done for Rocky Mountain Region of NAtional Park Service; Denver; September, 1985; pp. 2-12. See Appendix for collected information regarding specifics.
2|bid; p.27

feeding needs ( 2000 meals/ day)i, their pit-stop deposits (see toilet facilities in appendix section), and their modest hiking explorations beyond their cars, by means of carefully outlined and constrained paths, which take the visitor on short loops and present a variety of information stations along the way for educational purposes.
The center also serves as a significant research information gathering point and facilitates several interesting studies year-round. Of course Ecological impact studies and meteorological data collection are on-going concerns. Interestingly, the relatively high average wind speeds recorded up there have been studied with respect to their possible contribution toward wind generated electricity, which may make the Alpine Visitor Center itself more self-sufficient.2 One might conclude this facility is serving a great purpose, if it weren't for the great concentration of abuse it witnesses at its location. Fortunately this affect is localized, and the vast majority of visitors to this point don't stray far enough form their cars to affect the surrounding ecosystems significantly. However, the necessity of a sewage treatment facility has created problems that have required sensitive solutions...not necessarily represented in the work that has been done.3
Regarding architectural content of this facility, no one I spoke with at the NPS building here in Denver expressed much pride; rather they included it among other examples from all over the country which they feel represent insensitive, egotistical trends of the past (1950-70). This list of facilities includes the Mt. Rainier visitors' center at Paradise, (shown above) where so-called self-
national Park Service; Alpine visitor Center/ Sewage treatment facility; Ken R. White Co., Denver CO., 1973; p.5.
2Gliddon, D.E.; Summer wind studies near the Alpine Visitors' Center in Rocky Mountain NAtional Park.; Rocky Mountain NAture Assoc. Inc. Estes Park, 1981; p.8.
3Again, see the appendix for information regarding lagoon pond facilities, implemented down-mountain from the Alpine Visitor Center location.

13. Paradise Visitors' Center; Mt. Rainier National Park
conscious, thrusting forms were used to celebrate the wilderness1as well as the ranger station in Estes Park, which was designed (with a Wrightian prairie house style) for one side of a river and eventually placed on the other, without any adjustments to the design itself....!2 As has already pointed out, the theme reinforced more today is back in line with previously described Rustic Architecture "principles".
Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood, OR:
Among the greater examples we have of mountain architecture, whether they exist within or outside of national Park boundaries, is the building standing up at Mt. Hood, 60 miles east of Portland, OR. Designed and built
during the Great Depression, as a reason to create jobs under the WPA era of Franklin Roosevelt, this lodge is one of the finest
1 Mike Strunk, NPS, Denver.
Actually, the form of the facility at Paradise mimmicks the shape of the volcano.
2See Appendix for floor plans, etc.

15. Badger newel, inside Timberline Lodge.(Florence Thomas)
expressions of Rustic Architecture our country will ever know. With labor cheap and materials the governing expense factor, this project celebrated Craft at all scales, from the delicately inlaid wood mosaic art decorating the walls; to the gargantuan, hand-hewn timbers and their massive turn-buckle steel connectors; to the hearth constructed of boulders no smaller than a Yugo, and a whole lot heavier. The structure as a whole lies horizontally at the base of Mt. Hood, a very pointed mountain, with one central space similarly created to "stick" above the rest. Though a large facility, the impression it gives is one of subordination to the spectacular scenery beyond. Dormers were designed to stick out from the steeply pitched roof lines in much the same manner that rock outcroppings appear on the mountain massive. Indeed the roof is a functional expression of the building itself, which has been buried many times under winters snows.
The example Timberline represents is one of graceful integration, which few structures anywhere near its size have achieved in the past or present. Indeed this building does not appear to belong so much to any time frame as much as to Mt. Hood itself. This is arguably a compliment every structure should pay to its surroundings, be they mountainous or urban.
Timberline lodge has been a meeting point for people; the sharing ground for many a discussion and seminar regarding the wilderness; and ironically, represents another era during which vastly different ideas about that wilderness were being promoted. Then, the theme was one of conquering; now it is of preserving (....maybe someday it will be coexisting?). And though this building has not always been regarded with respect (it was threatened by periodic

16. Approach to AMC Madison Hut from Mt. Adams; White Mountains,NH.
bankruptcy and neglect in the late 1940's and early 50's1) it has survived, like the mountains around it, to contribute a legacy of good will to users of wilderness. The carved badger newels and mountain sheep capital seem to stand by in observation, as if to remind the visitor that other species beside human ones use this land. And with each touch of these marvelous details, during the climbing of a stair, or the opening of a door, an even more intimate appreciation is reinforced to every visitor.
AMC Hut System, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire:
As a final example of architecture built in the name of wilderness appreciation, I would like to point out the more international convention of hut systems in the mountains. These networks of shelters, usually placed within day-hikes of one another, have been used all over the world, including the United states, to facilitate the more-common of us in our desires to take part in adventures out there...without committing ourselves to becoming expert campers. In most locations, these huts have mainly served the purpose of limiting and/or condensing impact of highly used wilderness areas. The reason I have chosen to examine the AMC system in New Hampshire is two-fold: First, its individual
1 Creese,Walter L.; The Crowning of the American Landscape.; p.160:
2lbid; pp. 158-161

huts are located on widely variable terrain, from alpine gardens (tundra) to
densely forested canyons, making it a broader application to more situations.
Secondly, it's level of usage is probably higher than that of most any other
system in the United States (.... Having grown up in that region, I have gained
considerable personal experience with these huts and their operations;
advocates and opposition.). Though several systems already exist in Colorado,
including the Tenth Mountain Division Hut Systemi, it is believed their
examples will eventually develop, one way or another, to the state of use which z
the White Mountain example already exhibits. The extensive collections of
1 research and personal records of the New hampshire system can hopefully,
2 therefore, provide some valuable insight toward goals here in Colorado. With J such information, we can perhaps reinforce those concepts which seem to have o worked well and avoid the mistakes that have been made elsewhere.
Begun in 1888, the AMC hut system was represented by one shelter, the Madison Springs hut, located on a col, between Mt. Madison and Mt. Adams, high (4000 ft. above seas level; approximately tree line in New England) in the Presidential range. According to the proposal for its construction, given at a meeting in may,1888, the hut would be useful for two reasons:"
1See appendices for more information.

18. Present Madison Hut.
...First, as a resting point for persons
who wish to visit the northern peaks, or to traverse the ridge to or from Mt. Washington, but who have not the strength to accomplish these expeditions (distinctly the most interesting in the White Mountains) in a single day. Secondly, as a comfortable camping-place for scientists, photographers and lovers of scenery who will be able to make prolonged days in this interesting upper region and be independent of the weather." 1
The philosophy of the system in the future could not have been better characterized in its entirety. Through the years there have been many versions of
this Madison hut, twice burned and often added onto, along with the construction and evolution of seven other full-service, "high-Summer" huts as well as one year-round facility at Pinkham Notch.2
They withstand incredible summer as well as significant winter usage today, and perhaps serve their purposes best by localizing the damaging affect such numbers of people could otherwise have on the region.
iNewhail, Charles A.; The A.M.C. Hut system, 1888-1963; Appalachia, Dec. 1963; p.605.
2|bid; p.630.

Evidence shows that, despite heavy use, there is a balance maintained in the White Mountains, thanks atleast part to the use of alpine huts there. Some of the statistics show the huts have, in fact, encouraged wider and more dispersed use of the mountains, thus creating less wear and tear in localized areas: According to a study in Appalachia (Dec. 1978), "Hut users were more apt to travel further to use the huts than to use other WMNF (White Mountain NAtional Forest) backcountry systems". Further more, "A majority of those interviewed would not have spent the night in the White Mountains if the hut did not exist."1 A look at demographic information also indicates a hopeful trend in backcountry usage, which only these unique huts can be responsible for: six percent of overnight guests are children under the age of 10; with an average user age of 31-40, indicating that a significant number of older people also make use of the hut system. The income brackets represented are largely those of the middle-class, while, "those users with lower incomes did not use the huts proportionally less." As is also stated,"
Some people use the huts as an introduction to the backcountry, with the expectation that they will later move on to more primitive recreation (how interesting!) such as back packing Others use the huts during certain phases of their life-cycle, such as when their children are too young to pack much weight, or when they themselves become too old."2
It is obvious that back country huts have made the difference between staying at home and going on an adventure, for many of Americas common people. And these are the people for whom I would like to make possible an even
1 Spencer, Edward; AMC Research in Backcountry Sociology; Appalachia, Dec, 1978; p.136.
2|bid; p.136.

more rewarding experience in the Rocky Mountains. It is these people who will exert the greatest impact on our wilderness areas, here and around the globe, for the rest of time. It is these people who need the knowledge most.
19. Present Lakes of the Clouds Hut.

20. Alpine tundra; on The Saddle; Rocky Mountain Park, CO.{E.T.)
Formulation of an Architectural Contribution:
The science camp envisioned here is thus an arguable response to the needs described above. Such a facility would combine several of the positive educational opportunities available at conventional science camps with an incomparable juxtapositioning to Nature, providing for the intense experiences replete to learning.
To handle the delicate Tundra problem, any facility to be located here would perhaps best be served by a semi-temporary structural system; one which would allow convenient assembling and dismantling, so that the affected site could be changed occasionally. Maybe fabric structures would apply best here. Their technology has come a long way, with improvements in strengths as well as durability of lower-weight materials. And thanks to computers they have become much more economical to fabricate. So successful have fabric structures become as to begin showing up on more and more permanent urban structures. This is a direct and promising departure from their traditional "pavilion" applications.1
An interesting associated development will be the solar insulating and insolating characteristics incorporated in the structural system. Fabric structures have the ability to control transmitted sun-light through various
1 Berger, Horst; The evolving design vocabulary of fabric structures; Architectural Record, March 1985; p. 152.

22. Hagues Peak from The Saddle; 21. Advertisement for Boulder Field shelter cabin;
Rocky Mtn. Park, CO. Longs Peak, Rocky Mtn. Park; circa 1927.
incorporated translucencies.1 Working more flexibly, according to the specific needs of this camp, such a fabric "roof" will have many advantages over a conventional shingle and rafter system, not the least of which being their preferable water-tightness.
As far as aesthetics are concerned, it is obvious by now what stance the National Park service takes on any buildings within its boundaries. Of course a fabric structure does not speak the same language as stone and shingles...but the aim here is to speak to the essences of rustic architecture-- namely to employ rudimentary construction techniques and make significant use of
indigenous materials. Above all, the physical expression of this facility ought to respect the aesthetic of the natural forms around it. Notions of rhyme
come to mind.....No, this doesn't
mean Mt Rainier's "Paradise" must be repeated, but neither does it mean dysfunctional "rustic" buildings should be dropped in place to
11bid; p. 157: Excerpts:" a Teflon coated fabric with 8% translucency reflects approximately 3/4 of the light striking it. Half of the remaining light is absorbed by the fabric and given off as heat energy. The remaining light (up to 16%) will be transmitted through
the fabric..Teflon coated fiberglass can deliver
illumination levels sufficient for most activities imaginable...."

exhibit all the problems they inevitably generate when placed in such harsh environments. That would represent just the sort of regressive thinking that has caused the disasters of the Post Modern era down in the valleys. Such styles don't have an important enough meaning to override the more rudimentary, more survival- affecting functions of structures built in the wilderness. The structure used for this camp should fuse sensitivity toward the mountain aesthetic with the technological era we live in today. I agree with Nicholas Humphrey, who wrote in an essay, Natural Aesthetics,"
If I seem to be arguing for an aesthetics of 'Naturalism', it is not the naive naturalism which would have each element mimic a natural object. We do not want cities tarted up to look like alpine meadows; we want cities in which relations, temporal and spatial, between the artificial elements exhibit the felicitous rhymes of natural beauty."1
Regarding programmatic requirements (see appendix) an attempt here has been made to include only those activities which would make an especially- exciting use of this high-altitude setting. Further more, the interpositioning of these activities is intended to locate several fields of study together, in order to foster the notion that they all belong together in the world down below. Up here all participants depend on eachother not only for interesting conversation, but also to stay alive. That sort of commitment tends to bond people very quickly and closely.
1 Humphrey, Nicholas K.; Natural Aesthetics; (An essay in Architecture for People)]Byron Mikellides Editor; Holdt Reinhart and Winston;
NY,1980; p.73.

Perhaps most notable among the program elements is the Astronomy lab.1 This primary facility will, without powerful telescopes, still have a very productive capacity, thanks to the extremely clean sky available at this high-altitude location. To astronomers many of the great observatories in the world are useless, due to their developed surroundings and the light-pollution that has blinded their capability to look into deep space.2 Only in remote sites such as the one I have chosen can pure conditions be found anymore. This site would possess insured good vision forever.
The Solar lab will allow students to compare the vastly different affects our sun exerts at 12000 feet compared to sea-level ,and make use of that insolation for the sake of on-site power and heating needs. Through a combination of passive and active solar design it is expected this facility will handle 100% of its own needs, as well as provide an important learning tool for the participant, who will carefully monitor and record the activities of all the various devises.3 Waste for this site will primarily be handled by means of a Clivus Multrum toilet, which requires regular maintenance, a fortunate circumstance considering the nature of this camp. 4 plenty of help will be available, and the the resulting lessons learned will no-doubt provide the students with a much higher regard
1See appendix, under technical aspects, Astronomy. Descriptions of telescopes, observatories and their physical requirements are there.
2National Geographic; Astronomers mourn Loss of clear, dark night-skies; Boulder Daily Camera; Oct 1,1988, p.3D.
3See Appendix under technical aspects, solar.
4Denio, Doug; NPS; per conversations concerning the possible application of the Clivus Multrum toilet system to this camp situation: According to him, regular stirring must accompany constant monitoring of the biological content of the "slurry". This monitoring is critical, or the whole system could shut down. Sources of fiber are very important to the microbes' life style, as well as a constantly elevated temperature of approximately 90 degrees fahrenheit, and a very particular water-content balance. Temperature is the reason these toilets would probably best be operated only in Summer.

for their home septic systems! (For possible winter use there will be the need for a chem toilet, which will need to be flown in and out, every Fall and Spring).
The Agronomy lab will require a special green house, which will work integrally with the passive solar system of this facility, while all other scientific studies to be associated with this camp will be accommodated in a collective laboratory space.... thus completing the special features/needs of this camp.
The overall concept here involves the activation of only one or two such facilities within the whole of Rocky Mountain National Park. Thanks to the governing powers of this park, there would be no worry about associated development or variant schemes, and that is very important. And unlike the hut systems of new england and the world, the semi-portable nature of these camps allows periodic movement to occur, for the sake of the recovery of local eco-systems. Furthermore such a system provides a renewable source of information and learning. Should one's daughter visit the Rocky Mountain Park science camp in the year 2020, she will have a different story to tell, just as
her children will, about different sites and their unique qualities.the stuff of
their original own, life-long knowledge-adventure.
That's what this thesis is all about: Enabling more children to come home with an enthusiastic storj of what they learned today... and learned well. It would be a breakthrough for Architecture to associate itself with such a cause.
23. Alpine Tundra in the White Mountains of New Hampshire.

24. Space Shuttle Astronaut; Earth beyond.
We are living in different times today than most conservationists probably envisioned years ago. Information is the catch-word and it applies to environmental issues as well as any other field. How we share and spread the word regarding the preservation and flourishing of our natural resources will likely affect the future of our stay on this planet to a greater degree in this century than perhaps any other time past or yet to come. No longer can the affects of strip -mining and air-pollution be ignored, as they were back in the days of the gold-rush and pioneers, the adventures of Isabella Bird (A Ladies Life in the Rocky Mountians) seem so quaint and humorous in retrospect, however her times were characterized by more wanton disregard for and shear exploitation of the wilderness than even ours today, if one looks closely at the proportions of people and their involvement with various activities Of course the actual impact of all those people/activity was not nearly as adverse as what we have begun to measure today, but
this is not to say our great Grandfathers wouldn't have charred the land worse if they 'd possessed the means. The difference is knowledge, the appreciation we've gained through research and discovery, that allows us to make wise choices and intelligent decisions regarding plans for the future. Without sharing that knowledge, alas, we a* a group will be no more intelligent than the most ignorant among us, unable to come to z wise consensus regarding any issue, let alone those of national or global importance.
The object of this thesis project to contribute a special sharing ground, where seeds of wisdom may be sewn and grown for generations to come, where those

25. Hut in tngelberg, central Switzerland (Swiss National Review, Zurich.)
notions of the Sublime are taught and encouraged, as more another aspect to a holistic perspective, rather than a fearsome, bleak reminder of the punishment we may expect ahead if our present directions are not changed. That direction includes humans, in my mind, coexisting with the environment and enjoying it's limitless variety of resources first-hand, while simultaneously reinforcing the natural processes we need to maintain in order to survive as a species.
Creating safe enclosures is part of the nature of man, in order to make location in special places physically possible. Without those places and experiencing their qualities first hand one cannot expect thorough understanding to be developed, nor conscious regard implemented. The building I design next term will intend to show that such invaluable experiences can be made accessible to a more common man, without producing an offensive built form (environmentally or aesthetically). Architecture, one may say, has nothing to do with this discussion. I believe it has more to say and be affected by here than in any city on earth, form the densest urban jungle, to the finest mixed-use land development. Consider the most basic aspects of this argument: What urban sky-line compares even remotely with one of any mountain range? where are there built forms to compare with the sky-scraper context of any glacial valley? where has nature shown a greater power to affect the activities of living beings, human or otherwise? In an era of prototypical studies and theories of precedence, we seem ironically less connected to the prototypes of nature now than ever

26. Laugier's Primitive Hut.
before. Sadly, the Arts-and-Crafts and Picturesque movements of the past have been remembered more for their styles, instead of the ideas promoted by their designers. I believe such movements have failed to survive because they focused primarily on static moments in history, while time naturally marched on, leaving them behind. That sort of reactionism is exactly what I
see being promoted by mainstream ecologists and parks people again today; exemplified in the "Rustic" traditions they are so eager to revive. What I seek to promote with my architecture is a more cognitive view of the cosmos, one which expresses man's place in nature in terms of the dynamic equilibrium we should best recognize as our reality. This architecture reflects a cultural commitment beyond that of merely identifying itself, by embodying a directional spirit vital to its culture's progress...indeed vital to any culture's survival.
Everyone must contribute to this evolving spirit, not only an elite sub-culture, for the whole issue of conservation revolves around the activities of the "common man." To keep excluding and restricting this person from dealing directly with the wilderness, is a regressive step which can only lead to a more and more divergent consensus. There are more people understanding conservational issues today than ever before, thanks to organizations like the Sierra Club, but imagine how many million more people are out there seeing anything but the environmentalists' point of view. Unlike a fraternity, which

27. The Ultimate Resolution.
serves itself and its members above all others, the National Park system and environmentalist groups must aim to assimilate out-siders in order to achieve their goals.
Yet it is clear today that a polarization is tending to occur, rather than any sort of reconciliation, between the developer-types and the conservationist-types; and this trend is not a good one. (think of the ever-deepening connotative gaps between those two words). At some point that great resource of outsiders must be dealt with, or soon global shit is going to hit the universal fan and everyone may finally sit together, ironically, to share only the blame that is left for eons mutual avoidance. Countless analogies reinforce my point, from international relationships to personal ones, ideological disagreements have a way of cropping up between closely related people, in a persistent and increasingly difficult manner, until something dramatic occurs to resolve the conflict.
World wars one may say, are man's ultimate celebration for the
end of a conflict, but now the stakes are far greater than a single techtonic plate. And those people in control of the answers are not living across huge oceans from one another...only across the street. The great national parks of our world represent perhaps the most appropriate neutral ground for these people to meet on and deal with one another directly. Boundaries intact and national levels of attention provided, the controls over such a meeting are appropriately organized to prevent

28. Miriam Underhill, before her death in 1978.
any bastardization of such a school's intended purpose. A student here can only come away with dramatically increased appreciation for the delicate and wild landscapes that are contained within these parks. Friends and relatives who perhaps never had the spirit to go all the way into the wilderness before could not help but become enchanted.
Technology has produced many new ways by which this knowledge may be shared also, but one wonders if all the videos and all the computers in the world can communicate any appreciation comparable to that of personal experience. Such remembrances can be expected through time to embody greater and greater meaning, as the story is told over again.1
One may argue also that this appreciation is equally developed by any of the above mentioned science schools located on the fringes of our national parks, but I say no. Until a person has slept among the lichen, sat amidst a great howling storm, or seen stars from 12000 feet up at midnight, and felt completely surrounded by it all, the impression will always be, "that was up there, we live down here..... And almost all the effort is wasted. A favorite quote of mine was exclaimed by a fairly famous naturalist, Mariam Underhill:
"Oh, I do love Hardship, so long as I am comfortable.2
This feeling, I think, is shared by many more people than may admit so, and is the reason so many more of us don't take our lives into our own hands and go into the wilderness more often. A safe
1see any analysis of the Iliad, by Aeschylus, and the Odyssey, by Homer, regarding the nature of the oral epic.
SGoetze, Christopher; In memoriam: Mariam Underhill; Appalachia; June 1976; p. 127.

29. AMC Zealand Falls Hut, White Mtns. of NH.
enclosure would be all the necessary incentive needed for many more of us to go make that commitment to adventure...and the pay off is so rewarding. Huts in the white Mountains of New Hampshire contain log books filled with memorable accounts of thousands of common people who came to the hills and discovered more than they expected to, including sensitive and wise remarks by both the elderly and young who would not have been able to make the trip if it hadn't been for the safe place they found to spend the night. One might attribute the Easterner's generally higher awareness for the environment atleast partly to such experiences, which we know are the sources of a variety of stories told to many a captivated audience.
Elderly people represent another part of society we tend to exclude from
scenarios of what should be...and in the future the elderly will only represent larger and larger percentages of our total population. Why should the policies of our parks tend to exclude eventually, from the learning opportunities that exist only in the wilderness? Some of the best conversations you will ever have in the mountains will be with old men and women, over a cup of coffee, sharing the warmth of a single protective shelter, way the hell away from the nearest town. I can tell you categorically, not one of those conversations has ever discussed the possible development or exploitation of the land that has made the trip to the hut so long and arduous.... How curious The affect is one of a sort of

30. Music Weekend at Mizpah Springs Hut, White Mtns. of NH.
pilgrimage, which anyone who has spent a night among strangers in the mountains can appreciate. Friendships develope spontaneously, understandings occur and arguments disappear, and a family is created.
Somehow it is appropriate for an old, shriveled person to be present at times like those.
Have I strayed from thoughts of Architecture? I don't think so!
As someone wise once said (...I think it was my wife), Only from conflict comes ...knowledge." This is the joy of learning, something everyone can appreciate. If wisdom is a thing that may be shared, the project I propose would not result in the desecration or destruction of Rocky Mountain National Park, as many a conservationist fears, but will become an incredibly efficient means to spreading environmental knowledge; and an evolving legacy for all Coloradans to share with pride through successive generations; the symbol of an era which finally includes the general population as worthy intelligencia .
The End.

McPhee, John; Encounters With The Archdruid; Farrar, Strauss & Giroux; New York, 1971
Law, Henry; Creese, Tohn; Rustic Architecture in The Western Region;
Hughes, Johnson D.; In The House Of Stone and Light;
Golde, Rudolph; Lightning Conductors; Chemical Publishing Co., New York, 1975.
Scott-Williams; Effects of Visitor use on Alpine Tundra Ecosystems; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; Boulder, 1974.
Holland, F. Ross; Rocky Mountain National Park Historical Background Data; Office of Historic Architecture, U.S. Department of The Interior, March 1971.
Carter, Jimmy; Big Thompson Wild and Scenic River Study; U.S. Government Printing Office; Washgton, 1979.
Joliff, Gary; Campground Site-Vegetation Relationships in Rocky Mountain National Park; Dissertation for Ph.D.; C.S.U., Colorado Springs, CO., 1969.
National Park Service; Wilderness Recommendations (FES 74-36); NPS of Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, 1974.

Glidden, D.E.; Summer Wind Studies Near Alpine Visitors' Center in Rocky
Mountain National Park; Rocky Mountain Nature Assoc.; Estes Park, CO., 1981.
Armstrong, David M.; Rocky Mountain Mammals (in Rocky Mountain National Park); Rocky Mountain Nature Assoc., Boulder, CO., 1975.
Anderson, Bette; Weather in The West: American West Publishing Co., Palo Alto, CA., 1975
Arps, Luisa Ward; High Country Names; Rocky Mountain Nature Assoc., Johnson Publishing Co., Boulder, 1978.
Trimble, Stephen; Long's Peak: A Rocky Mountain Chronicle; Rocky Mountain Nature Assoc., Estes Park, CO., 1984.
Creese, Walter L.; The Crowining opf the American rLandscape; Princeton University Press; Princeton N.J., 1985.
Gruber, Richard J. Tr.; Western Resort Architecture. Estes Park; Thesis for MAster of Fine Arts; CU, Boulder,1980.
Bird, Isabella; A ladies Life in the Rocky Mountains; University of Oklahoma Press; 1960.
Mikellides, Byron, Editor; Architecture for People; Holdt, Reinhart & Winston Publishers; NY, 1980

Thornton, Edmund B., Chairman; Gathering of Nations, A Time of Purpose; Second world conference on National Parks; National Parks Centennial Commission Publishers; Washington D.C., 1973.
Pyzik, Christopher J.; Cooperative Mountain Village, Nederland Colorado; Architectural Masters thesis project, University of Colorado, Denver; 1984.
Daniel, Henry A.: Ole Barn Knoll: Energy/Information Research Center; Architectrueal Master's thesis project; University of Colorado, Denver, 1982.
Moore, Jayce S.; Slope Resort Hotel, Winter Park, Colorado; Architectural Master's thesis project; University of Colorado, Denver; 1980.
Winkelhake, G.N.; Solstice: A Restaurant/Meeting Place; Architectural MAster's Thesis project; University of Colorado, Denver; 1984.
Ryan, Doug; Land Use Implications of Onsite Water and Sewer Disposal; Planning Masters Thesis project; University of Colorado, Denver; 1981.
McDonalt, James R.;Sperry Chalet; Glacier National Park: An architectural preservation guide; for Rocky Mountain Region of National Park Service;
Denver 1985.

Journal Bibliography:
Spencer, Edward; AMC Research in Backcountry Sociology; Appalachia. December 1978; pp. 134-145.
Belcher, C. Francis; A century of AM.C.: Appalachia. December 1978; pp. 5-80.
Newhall, Charles A.; The AM.C. Hut System,1888-1963; Appalachia. December 1963; pp. 605-633.
Barker, Kirtland M.; Growth at Altitude: The environmental impact of economic development in the alps; Appalachia. June 1983.; pp. 90-107.
Berger, Horst; The evolving design vocabulary of Fabric Structures"; Architectureal Record. March, 1985; pp. 153-159.
Ritzman, J.; "25 Jahre Tierberglihutte"; Die Alpen (Swiss Alpine Journal);January, 1969; pp. .
Cooper, Chris; "Wintery Mt. Waddington": Canadian Alpine journal.; Vol. 70; 1987; pp. 40-42.
Stewart, Chris, "Misadventures on Mt. Washington, By Henry Thoreau; Appalachia; Summer, 1984; pp. 36-39..
Kariel, Herb; Lloyd Mackay Hut; Mt. Freshfield Area": Canadian Alpine journal: Vol. 68,1985; pp. 33-35.

A. Site:
Description; defense of choice. Maps.
Climatological data.
B. Program:
Itemized Descriptions.
C. Program equipment:
Wind (not yet obtained)
Solar (not yet obtained)
Clivus Multrum (not yet obtained)
Fabric Structures
D. Other supplemental information:
Sperry Chalet specifics: Floor plans, details, photos.
Keystone Science School information.
Teton Science School information.
Alpine visitor Center Waste water Facilities.
Tenth Mountain Division Hut System brochure and article. Hut information from Switzerland; Canada.

31. The Saddle, from Lawn Lake, with breached dam in foreground.(E. T.)
SITE ( See attached maps):
Above a place called "Lawn Lake" their is a saddle eight miles north of Trailridge Road, inside Rocky Mountain Park. After consultation with several people it seemed appropriate to locate here due to the natural attention National parks receive and the respect their unusual beauty commands. At an altitude of 12,400 ft. above sea level, nearly 4,000 feet vertically above the trail head, this location is not an easy one to reach, but the intention here is to present a bargain : If the visitor will commit to enveloping him /herself in the wilderness, there will be civilized and safe facilities waiting at the end of the day's hike. After visiting this site in October, I am convinced just such a relationship could be established.
projected upon and dealt with by nature in the recent past: after approaching the site from below, one arrives at the remains of the Roaring Fork Dam, an earthen dam which gave away several years ago, causing extensive erosional damage to the whole region, as well as a flood which inundated of Estes Park. This site is visited by many hikers during the Summer, and may provide the interested science student with an incredible learning facility.
This site is made all the more interesting because of its proximity to an example of how man's ideas have been
As well, this site provides excellent exposure to the North and South, for the

32. Lawn Lake, from The Saddle. (E.T.)
purposes of Astronomy; and a constantly windy condition that may become the source for generating power at this facility.
Water is located safely about 1/2 mile away, so that animals would less likely be disturbed and students might learn to better appreciate its value, in the process of fetching and conserving it. At this altitude one is amazed how delightful a glass of fresh water becomes. (In fact the water fetched at this site may prove contaminated by Giardia, a regional parasite carried by animals, and may require purification before use.)
Suggestions have been made in favor of locating this camp at a lower site, perhaps the already "disturbed zone"1 next to Lawn Lake, in order to prevent distruction of the alpine zone I have targeted. Enos Mills, no doubt, would have encouraged such a stance. I believe, however, that such sites would not serve the purposes I have discussed above. On the contrary, such sites would forsake incredible opportunities for gaining exciting knowledge and understanding that exist only up in the alpine zones. This, interestingly, is something Enos Mills would probably also espouse, judging by the quotes above. Perhaps Enos himself, given todays technological advantages (described above), would have been equally excited by the possibilities I am exploring now.
1This designation officially identifies sites which have previously been affected, to any degree, by Man. According to Mike Strunck, of the NPS, Lawn Lake is actually situated on non-designated land, by virtue of the man-made dam, etc..

Here it might be interesting to note some of the historical uses this site has already witnessed: The Saddle as it is known, is where guests of William Ashton's hotel, the Horseshoe Inn (designed by F.L. Wright in 1906), once commonly hiked on a day-trip basis, to see the glaciated sites of Hagues Peak and Mt. Fairchild. Ashton himself had a small cabin built at Lawn Lake to handle skiers over-night in the winter. This shelter lost its permit in 1920 and in 1964 was razed by the park a ranger cabin occupies the same spot. One can imagine what sort of use this area endured during that hay day of the early 1900's. Yet upon visit of this site last fall it was impossible to tell that any associated damage had ever occured on the site I have chosen. In fact the trail to the Saddle virtually has disappeared above Lawn Lake.
By planning for a limited use-period, the future adverse affects on this site associated with the above proposal may be minimized, perhaps even used as educational tools themselves. It will probably be observed that during the stay of required structures on such a tundra site, that special life-forms (including lichens) will gain valuable purchase in the protected zones created by that structure, and flourish in some compensation for the the ones sacrificed. Here is a ground where all life, including human, struggles to survive. To immerse people in that situation will no doubt foster a sense of empathy.
Furthermore, considering again the activities proposed for this site, one would expect the best location for their study to be precisely where I have chosen. An astronomy lab needs an unobstructed view to the horizon; the Agronomy lab needs the most intense sun exposure possible; the wind generator needs a windy location....and believe me, there is no windier a location in the mountains than that of a mountain pass!
1Arps, Luisa Ward; High Country Names; Rocky Mountain Nature Assoc.; Johnson Publishing Company; Boulder, CO;1972; p.116, 169.

To reiterate my purpose here, this facility is intended to help focus interested people on the more intense experiences that are available in the wilderness, and thus relieve the general pressure on normal science camp facilities. This intense experience is something I gained as a youungster, through lucky association with my father. But I think I should not have needed such luck. It shouldn't have required a trip to Switzerland to facilitate the eye-opening experiences I discovered there. Those experiences are waiting and even more incredible within our own Rocky Mountains.

things big the there up seek I
peace the found I
mountain a
climbed I
day The
Perspective, By Mildred N. Hoyer

Appendix A: Maps:

;:= pueblo




L-'.:. J
4 O 4 f 8


Appendix A, Photos:

Approach to site: Breached dam with The Saddle in the background.
Approach to site

Site: Hague's Peak in background.
Site: view toward Lawn Lake, below.

Descent from site in evening.
Descent from site in evening; Lawn Lake in lower right.

View of site (The Saddle) from Lawn Lake.
Mountain Sheep.

Appendix A, Climatological Data:

appendix c
TR 10 (AVC)1
Temperature (F)
Extreme Maxima 65
Average Maxima 50*3
Average 45.8
Average Minima 37*7
Extreme Minima 28
Average Range 16.1
Relative Humidity (%)
Extreme Maxima 74
Average Maxima 50.3
Average 395
Average Minima 28.7
Extreme Minima 18
Average Range 21.6
TR 6 (Hidden Valley)
Atmospheric Pressure (Millibars")
Extreme Maxima 1028.8 Average Maxima 1023.0 Average 1021.2 Average Minima 1020.0 Extreme Minima 1015.6 Average Range 2.94
TR 12 (Milner Pass)
Atmospheric Pressure (Millibars")
Extreme Maxima 1024. 4 Average Maxima 1021.7 Average 1021.0 Average Minima 1020.0 Extreme Minima 1016.9 Average Range I.83
68 69 69
60.1 57.6 56.0
50.9 49.6 48.8
42.2 41.2 40.4
38 28 28
18.0 16.6 16.9
91 86 91
76.4 73.0 66.6
57.8 56.8 51.4
40.2 40.4 36.4
30 26 18
35.2 29.9 28.9
1028.4 1025.1 1028.8
1025.1 1021.7 1023.2
1024.0 1020.3 1022.0
1022.7 1019.0 1020.7
1019.3 1011.2 1011.2
2.03 2.37 2.45
1026.1 1024.0 1026.1
1023.7 1020.3 1021.9
1022.7 1019.3 1021.0
1021.7 1018.3 1020.0
1019.3 1012.9 1012.9
1.69 2.03 1.85
1. Temperature and Relative Humidity readings were recorded in a screen 1.52 meters above ground, and absolute values were probably greater than those indicated.
2. Reduced pressure readings are correct for comparing relative changes between sites; absolute values should not be used for comparison elsewhere.

Month Type of User (Overnight Stays)
Tent Campers Recreational Vehicles Organized Groups Registered Backcountry Monthly Total
January 343 162 0 540 1,045
February 256 230 0 527 1,013
March 587 356 0 523 1,466
April 1,256 1,008 0 386 2,650
May 5,370 3,164 0 1,220 9,754
June 28,701 21,171 1,966 6,741 58,579
July 37,064 33,395 4,644 15,208 90,311
August 40,118 27,913 4,154 17,890 90,075
September 20,639 13,042 429 7,931 42,041
October 3,770 4,151 0 1,188 9,109
November 407 396 0 364 1,167
December 267 155 0 425 847
Annual Total 138,778 105,143 11,193 52,943 308,057
52-160 0 79

mph m/s mph in/s mph m/s mph m/s
AVC, RMNP, Colorado (3,596 m)
1980 21.1 9.4- 19.5 8.7 20.1 9.0 20.2 9.0
Berthoud Pass, Colorado (3,621 m)
1963 10.0 4.5 10.0 4.5 9.0 4.0 9.7 4.3
1964 12.0 5.4- 10.0 4.5 11.0 4.9 11.0 4.9
Niwot Ridge, Colorado (3,750 m)
1953-64- 13.0 5.8 10.0 4.5 11.0 4.9 11.3 5.0
1966-69 17.5 7.8 13.0 5.8 12.8 5.7 14.4 6.4
Mount Washington, New Hampshire (1,917 m)
194-1-70 i1 O- C\J 12.1 24.9 11.1 25.1 11.2 25.7 11.4
1979 20.9 9.3 18.2 8.1 25.5 11.3 21.5 9.6
Mount Logan, Yukon Territory (5,360 m)
1968 - - 8.0 3-6 - - - -
1969 6.0 2.7
The average monthly windspeeds in summer for AVC, RMNP (1980) and other mountain stations (various years).

Appendix B: PROGRAM:
Tentatively speaking of course, relative to research yet to be performed, the following
program represents my plans:
Astronomy Facility, composed of short tower with 2000 s.f.
convertible top, containing a telescope:
Meeting Area, enclosed semi-permanently for 500 s.f.
year-round use:
Library/ Lounge 500 s.f.
Kitchen/ Dining Area, for 20 people year-round, 600 s.f.
as well as 30, during the summer:
Sleeping Area, for 20 year-round, and 30 during 1200 s.f.
Summer: includes storage.
Agronomy lab, including green-houuse: 500 s.f.
Solar enrgy lab, Meteorology lab, Snow science lab: 600 s.f.
Medical facility/ includes 2 beds) 300 s.f.
Mud Room; Equipment storage 400 s.f.
toilet ( digester: Clivus Multrum type) 200 s.f.
Shower facilities (sinks, etc.) lOOs.f.
Exterior emergency Shelter 80 s.f.
Parking for 20 cars at base of trail.
Administration office in Estes Park CO.
-7000 s.f.


Appendix C, Telescope:

ight error. '! eye is most sensitive to yellow light, roughly mid-vay in wavelength between red and blue, and it is errors measured t this wavelength (about 550 nanometers, or 0.00055 mm) that are ignificant.
The optical quality of the flat is often ignored, or taken for granted, tut its optical tolerance is just as critical as that of the main mirror, herefore, this needs to be known too.
What we are saying is that there is plenty of scope for sharp prac-ce in the manufacture and sale of Newtonian reflectors. Never judge le optical w'orth of an instrumentany instrumentby a makers laims. A star test is the only w ay of establishing its excellence or therw'ise, and the section on page 30 is devoted to this important rocedure.
assegrain-type telescopes The basic Cassegrain design is rarely seen i amateur sizes because very few' manufacturers offer this type of istrument for sale. Large professional telescopes, however, almost ways belong to the Cassegrain family. The Newtonian diagonal is ^placed by a small, convex, secondary mirror that reflects the con-
Cassegrain-tvpe reflecting telescope Cassegrain telescopes can take many forms, it the important principle is the interposition of a small convex mirror into the nverging beam from the primary mirror. The resultant effective focal length is
ual to the focal length of the primary mirror multiplied by (the amplification of
e secondary). Amplifications of 4 or 5 are common. Very low amplifications are desirable because the diameter of the secondary becomes objectionably large.
^rging oeam irom the primary mirror pack uow n the tub i ms secondary effectively increases the focal length of the primary without necessitating a corresponding increase in tube length. The returned beam either passes through a small hole cut in the center of the primary mirror, or is reflected by a New'tonian-style plane mirror through a hole in the side of the tube, somewhere near the lower end.
The effective focal length of a typical Cassegrain may be between f/10 and f/30separate secondaries can be supplied to give different amplifications. A long focal length, or large focal ratio, has some definite advantages. If the telescope is being used photographically, the image scale is increased: a focal length of 1000 mm produces a 9-mm lunar image, but this expands to 27 mm if the focal length is 3000 mm. A 3-meter tube would be extremely cumbersome, and the benefits of compressing this focal length into a much shorter tube are obvious. Visually, too, a long focal length means that high magnifications can be obtained without using very short-focus eyepieces, or a Barlow lens.
The larger the focal ratio of an object glass or mirror, the better is an eyepiece likely to perform. It must be remembered that eyepieces, like object glasses, have to be made achromatic by the introduction of separate lenses, and that their residual color is tested more severely when they are being used in conjunction with an object glass or mirror of short focal length. An f/5 Newtonian makes much greater demands upon eyepiece perfection than does an f/10 or f/15 Cassegrain or refractor.
The following table may be found useful. It sets out the eyepiece focal length necessary to produce a given magnification with telescopes of various focal lengths.
Focal length of telescope (mm)
required 1000 1500 2000 2500 3001
x 50 20 30 40 50
x 100 10 15 20 25 30
x 150 6.5 10 13 16.5 20
x 200 5 7.5 10 12.5 15
x 250 4 6 8 10 12
x 300 5 6.5 8.5 10
x 350 (All values have been rounded 4.5 off to the nearest 0.5 mm.) 5.5 7 8.:

ii IS
pi.^.Ne v vv'sigi. .orre---- plat or inai hat
gives a r field of good definition than could an ordinary Cassegrain. However, this is usually significant only with photographic work.
This was the genesis of the Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, of vhich the best-known, at the present time, is the Celestron. There is ilso a rather similar system, in u'hich a very strongly curved lens or licdl replaces the almost flat corrector plate. This is the Maksutov-Tassegrain, of which the best-known example is the Questar. In ,ome Maksutov designs, the center of the shell is converted directly nto the secondary mirror by coating it w'ith a circle of aluminum. Mthough there are considerable technical differences between them, >oth systems embody the same principle of a relatively long focal ength compressed into a short tube. For example, the Celestron 8, )f 200 mm aperture, has an effective focal ratio of 10, so that a 2000-nm focal length is compressed into a tube only 450 mm long.
1 dvantages of the catadioptric Even though it contains a refracting dement, whether plate or shell, a well-made catadioptric telescope fives an image that is practically as achromatic as a pure reflector. \lso, the use of the Cassegrain system adds another dimension to the possibilities of this telescope because, by altering the distance be-ween the primary and secondary mirrors, it can be made to focus on objects near at hand. An ordinary refractor or reflector can also do his, but only by pulling the eyepiece a long way out beyond its lormal setting for "infinity. In the case of the Cassegrain, however, he position of the final focus is very sensitive to changes in the inter-nirror distance, and an increase in this distance of only a centimeter )r so will allow the observer to focus on a bird in a nearby tree nstead of on the Moon! This is accomplished by turning a knob that noves the primary mirror back and forth inside the tube.
As achromatic as a reflector, fantastically compact, and highly versatile ... is the catadioptric telescope the ultimate choice for the observer? Before the case can be fairly examined, we need to look at he ways in which the different types of telescopes can be mounted.
resting a telescope Only someone with a certain amount of experience can make a really worthw hile judgment of a telescopes optical quality. You are, therefore, strongly advised to seek the judgment of
Plate 3
A Schmidt-Cassegrain catadioptric telescope Compare the length of this 200-mm (8-inch) telescope with the New tonian of similar aperture, shown on page 24, to appreciate the extreme compactness of this design. The mounting is of the Fork type, Which needs no counterweight, and the electric drive is enclosed within the round box at the base of the fork. There is only a limited range of eyepiece movement for all positions of the tube.


r-TZ a '* JU jrjftf

100-inch Hooker telescope; the yoke mounting turns on mercury bearings. (Hale Observatories Photograph)
its. Beside the door of the dome (which has double-walls to help even out temperature nges for the sensitive mirror) is a section designed to be bolted to the upper end of the e, to hold a secondary; one can get a feel for the size of the telescope by standing de the bars and struts of this piece of framework.
i great deal of basic astronomical work, especially that having to do with accumulat-the spectra of stars and galaxies, has been carried out with the 60-inch and the 100-t reflectors. Determinations of radial velocities (and hence the size of the galaxy the universe, as well as their shapes and motions) are an important part of this, by familiar method of studying Doppler shifts in the spectral lines. Directly and indi-ly such studies also produce most of the information that we have about theconstitu-i, temperature, structure, and even size and weight of stars.
mother conspicuous instrument at Mount Wilson is the 150-foot solar telescope on of the latticed framework, with a remote-control dome. The upper platform holds a lostat (a mirror that tracks the sun) which directs a beam downwards, where it is tsed by a lens and directed into a well-like observing laboratory dug'into the ground >w. The vertical arrangement cuts down distortion from currents of air heated at and level; the great length gives a large solar image for study and photography, and a ely dispersed spectrum for detailed resolution when the 75-foot spectrograph is used, ne unusual program at the Observatory was the development of interferometry to isure the diameters of larger nearby stars (red giants). By this technique, invented vlichelson, mirror flats separated by a much wider distance than is feasible as a mirror neter (50 feet) direct starlight into a single telescope. The pattern of lines where the t interferes or reinforces itself gives a measurement of the size of the object.
The 150-foot tower telescope. The clam-shell shutter is open, letting the sun shine on the heliostat that sends its rays down the enclosed lube; the lower helps to avoid distortion from ground heat waves. (Hale Observatories Photograph)
Although the Michelson interferometer has not been used Since 1933, at radio wavelengths this technique now employs the whole surface of the earth as a baseline (see Gfreen Bank).
^Each of the major telescopes mentioned above is equipped with various kinds of auxiliary photometric or spectrometric instruments; over the years, just as in all active observatories, these instruments have been constantly improved, using new developments in optics and electronics. The coud6 spectrograph of the 100-inch telescope is

lescope, of 8-inch aperture, plus some seismographs and a weather station. Visitors ere have the unusual opportunity of frequent access to what was at one time the third irgest refractor in the country.
TANFORD SOLAR OBSERVATORY. Stanford, Calif. 94305. This is not open for isits. The facility specializes in solar magnetic fields, and is equipped with the Babcock olar Magnetograph.
TANFORD RADIO ASTRONOMY INSTITUTE. Stanford, Calif. 94305. Astron-mers, student groups, etc., interested in visiting should write to the Institute. Equip-tent consists of a 32-element cross antenna and a 5-element array of paraboloids with total collecting area of 600 square meters and a 17 arc-second resolution. These equa-rrially mounted 60-foot dishes can be used to synthesize various apertures, and are mployed in many kinds of radio observations.
TONY RIDGE OBSERVATORY. Stonyridge Amateur Club, 10508 Ormond, Sun-ind, Calif. 91040. Address may change frequently. Located in the Angeles National orest. No regular public hours, but field trips for schools and clubs may be arranged, he 30-inch Newtonian Cassegrain telescope is also used by the University of Southern alifornia and the Pasadena City College for instructional and research purposes, ontact may be made with current club officers by writing c/o these places.
ther observational telescopes: Alifornia State Universities at: Dominguez, Fullerton. Humbolt, Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Bernardino, and Stanislaus lien Hancock College merican River Junior College anada College haffey College ollege of the Redwoods itrus Community College ity College of San Francisco rafton Hills College olumbia Junior College allerton Junior College lendale Community College rossmont Community College as Angeles Harbor College 3S Angeles Valley College erced College 'onterey Junior College oorpark College range Coast College tlomar College isadena Community College pperdine University sncho Santiago Community College o Hondo College
Saddleback Junior College
San Joaquin Delta College
San Jose City College
Santa Barbara City College
University of California at Santa Barbara
San Diego State College
College of San Mateo
Ventura College
Yuba Community College
Larger planetariums:
Millikan P., Chaffey College, Alta Loma Bakersfield College P., Bakersfield Southwestern College, Chula Vista De Anza College, Cupertino Fremont P., Hopkins Junior High School, Fremont
Garden Grove Unified School District Chabot College, Hayward Pasadena City College J. Frederick Ching P., Salinas San Luis Obispo High School Palomar College, San Marcos Tessman P., Santa Ana College,
Santa Ana
West Valley Junior College, Saratoga Mt. San Antonio College, Walnut
i rvn
DENVER MUSEUM OF NATL RAF HISTORY. City Park, Denver, Colo. 80205. At the corner of Montview Blvd. and Colorado Blvd. The CHAR1.ES C. GATES PLANETARIUM has shows Tue-Fri in winter at I p.m., Sat and Sun at 2 and 4, and Wed and Sun nights at 8. In summer, the weekday schedule includes shows at 11 a.m., 2, and 4 p.m. Admission: adult $1.25, children $.75. The Museum itself is open most days all day long. It has many natural science exhibits, a Foucault Pendulum, a Space Shop, and a book shop. The Museum also owns a 22-inch Celestron, which is located at Jefferson County Laboratory School on a site 40 miles west of Denver; it is not open to the public at this time.
JOINT INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS. National Bureau of Standards and the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80302. This center is not exactly an observatory, but its programs are carried out frequently using instruments of, or located at, other observatories. For example, one member is developing a Cassegrain spectrograph to be used on the Sommers-Bausch 24-inch, and another has completed a 90-inch equivalent lunar-ranging telescope to be used at Haleakala Observatory (Hawaii). Research programs include stellar structure and pulsation, radiative transfer, non-LTE stellar atmospheres, interstellar matter, X-ray sources, solar physics, and stellar spectroscopy.
CHAMBERLIN OBSERVATORY. University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 80210. In Observatory Park at Warren and Filmore Sts. Open Tue and Sat nights; phone: (303^753-2070. The 20-inch refractor has a lens figured by Alvan Graham Clark and mounted by Fauth and Co.; it has been in use since 1894, and still tracks the stars by means of its weight-driven clock. The front element of the lens can be reversed for photographic work, following a method invented by the Clarks that obviated a third correcting lens. The Observatory is headquarters for the Denver Astronomical Society, and serves mainly for teaching and public viewing. Nowhere else in the country is a large Clark refractor so accessible to the public; this is its principal use nowadays. The photo-grapic configuration designed into the reversible lens is never used. (With inexpensive catadioptric telescopes available for photography, it would be foolish to meddle with the optics of this fine instrument.) In nearby Boulder one may visit the Sommers-Bausch Observatory and the Fiske Planetarium; numerous campsites are available to the north and west.
SOMMERS-BAUSCH OBSERVATORY and FISKE PLANETARIUM. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80302. At the intersection of Folsom and Regents Streets. Visitors nights at the Observatory Fri during the school year, weather permitting. The 24-inch Cassegrain/coude is used for spectroscopy of early-type stars. The Fiske Planetarium has just opened; inquire about its schedule. At a cost of close to two million dollars, one of the best-equipped planetariums in the world has just been completed adjacent to the Observatory; it will seat 213 people under a 65-foot dome. Among the special effects possible are the projection of colored constellation drawings, and a wide selection of horizon effects. The main projector is a Zeiss VI. The sound system is especially responsive and flexible. On display in the lobby is the old Bausch telescope, a 10^-inch Clark refractor built by George Sagemuller in 1912. This telescope was originally on top of the Bausch and Lomb Building in Rochester. It really ought to be put back into use for observing.

UGH ALTITlDl OBSERVATORY. National Center for Atmospheric Research, toulder, Colo. 80302. Stations at Climax and Horse Creek. Two coronographic telecopes of 5- and 16-inch aperture, equipped with spectrographs and magnetographs, ontinue the program of solar observations at Climax initiated by Harvard College Observatory; this is at the summit of Fremont Pass, 13,300 feet above sea level. In 1970, i 10-inch vacuum telescope was put in service at Horse Creek.
J.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY PLANETARIUM. Colorado Springs, Colo. Leave -25 at North Gate Blvd. and follow Blvd., then Academy Rd. to the Cadet Area. Free >ublic shows at 2 and 3 p.m. Sat and Sun during academic year, except home football arnes Sat. Christmas show daily at 2 and 3 p.m. during Christmas season (Dec 14-31, ;xcept 25th). Visits any day from May 24 to Sept 1 at 12, I, 2and 3:30,and Jul 7 to Aug 15 it 10:30. Write for a leaflet. Minimum for special arrangements: 40. Capacity is 350. This is the only large planetarium at a military installation. Their leaflet asks that children jnder four not be brought. Persons traveling north or south might find this a pleasant break on a summer afternoon, with four or five free shows offered daily at a major planetarium.
MOUNT EVANS OBSERVATORY. University of Denver, Colo. 80210. 1-70 to Idaho Springs; then Mt. Evans Rd. past Echo Lake to summit. No regular tours, but daytime visits in summer months for groups of about ten can be arranged. The 24-inch Cassegrain has a Ritchey-Chretien configuration with a wobbling secondary. The high elevation is favorable for infrared astronomy. At an altitude of 14,100 feet, writes the respondent to a questionnaire, Mt. Evans is the highest permanent astronomical observatory in the world. The present telescope, built by Ealing-Beck, Ltd., of Watford, England, was installed in 1973. The public has access to the summit (where there is a commercial guest house and concession stand, unconnected with the Observatory) via paved road from roughly mid-June through Labor Day. At other times the road is closed because of the danger of snow. Prior to the installation of the Observatory, the site was used by the University of Denvers High Altitude Laboratories for cosmic ray and environmental research. The Mt. Evans road is among the very highest in the world accessible by automobile (though in winter and spring one goes by helicopter or on foot). Unacclimated visitors will feel light-headed and should move slowly to avoid palpitations and short breath. Amateurs may find observing sites at Echo Lake and Summit Lake.
RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Dept, of Astro-Geophysics, Boulder, Colo. 80302. A steerable spectrographic interferometer and a fixed-array interferometer are the basic instruments at this observatory, which is an NSF-supported research activity dedicated primarily to continuous recording of the long-wave (8-80 MHz) radio emissions from Jupiter and the sun. The facility has been in nearly continuous operation since 1959. Such a long-term monitoring program is essential for Jupiter observations, since Jupiter emits characteristic spectral events which develop through an eleven-year cycle. Other short-term research activities have included a variety of radio interferometers, radio polarimeters, antenna-design tests, and digital techniques for detecting radio pulses from Jupiter and terrestrial spherics. The observing site frequently has served as a base station for Very Long Baseline Interferometry using magnetic tape synchronization techniques. Modern data processing techniques are employed to obtain radio spectra from single-channel observations, to identify and correlate Jupiter pulses recorded at remote sites, to map the apparent source positions of solar radio outbursts, and to catalog solar and Jovian
issions for subsequent statistical and physical analyses. The observing equ ?nt is located on beautiful, mountaintop meadows within view of the snow-capped C^..tinen-tal .Divide. Routine radio-spectral data are transmitted to the solar activity forecast center at NOAA in Boulder, Colorado where the information is used for operational forecasting. Beginning in late 1975, the observing site served as a facility for testing a prototype of an elaborate radio-spectrograph/polarimeter that will be launched in 1977 and which is scheduled to fly by Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1981.
SPACE ENVIRONMENT LABORATORY. NOAA, Boulder, Colo. 80302. Both optical and radio measurements of solar activity are made on a daily basis at SEL. The optical instruments, located at 325 South Broadway, consist of a 5-inch refractor (utilizing a Halle H-alpha filter) for viewing the solar chromosphere; a 4-inch refractor for viewing the sun in white light; a 9-inch heliostat for spectroscopic studies; and an auxiliary 12-inch heliostat. The optical observatory conducts a routine full-time solar flare patrol and provides the Forecast Center with a daily H-alpha photograph, a daily sunspot drawing and sunspot polarities. The solar radio monitors are located at the Table Mountain NOAA facility some 9 miles north of town. They presently consist of a 245 MHz system using two 12-element yagis, a 606 MHz system using four 15-element yagis, radiometers at 1465, 2995, and 4995 MHz using a single 2-meter parabolic dish, and an 8800 MHz radiometer using another 2-meter parabolic dish antenna. These radio systems are operated during daylight hours to provide the Forecast Center with solar radio burst and noise storm information.
TALCOTT MOUNTAIN SCIENCE CENTER, INC. Montevideo Rd., Avon, Conn. 06001. 1.5 mi. from Rt. 44 at Avon-West Hartford border; private road, entrance by appointment. Visits and telescopic observation by arrangement. Write for current information; the Center runs 8-session programs w'ith a tuition fee of $30 for members, $35 for others. All sorts of group visits and field trips are arranged with and for school groups. Telescopes for visual observing are the 12-inch Tinsley Cassegrain, an 8-inch Newtonian, an 8-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain, seven 6-inch Newtonians, and four refractors, three of which are for solar use. A 5-inch refractor here was used to discover two comets. The Center provides equipment necessary for astrophotography. Also available is a 1.5-meter Wadsworth spectrograph and a 120 mm coelostat. Speakers on astronomical subjects can be obtained at the same rate as at the center to address groups elsewhere.
WESTERN CONNECTICUT STATE COLLEGE OBSERVATORY. 181 White St., Danbury, Conn. 06810. At Higgins Sciences Bldg. No scheduled hours; open to school groups as requested. Permanently mounted equipment consists of a large Schmidt-Cassegrain and a 6-inch refractor. There are also two portable instruments: an 8-inch Newtonian and a Questar. These serve for teaching plus some photometry of variable stars. BA, BS, and MS offered here in earth and space sciences.
JOSEPH HALL OBSERVATORY. Hartford Public High School, 55 Forest St., Hartford, Conn. 06105. Public viewing Tue and Thur nights, weather permitting, beginning at 7 p.m. in winter and 9 in summer, with a planetarium show preceding observations. The instrument is a 9'/S-inch Alvan Clark achromat of 135-inch focal length on a Warner and Swasey mount; tracking is by a weight-driven clock with centrifugal

Appendix C, Wind:

Appendix C, Solar:

Masonry properties therrai conductivity, density specific heat infrared emi ttance of infrared emi ttance of
direct gain and sunspace
normal surface selective surface
Solar absorptances water wall
masonry, Trcmbe wall
direct gain and sunspace sunspace: water containers
lightweight contnon wall other lightweight surfaces
Glazing properties transmission characteristlcs orientation index of refraction extinction coefficient thickness of each pane air gap between panes infrared emi ttance
Control range room *.emperature sunspace temperature internal heat generation
Thermoci rcula tion vents (v/hen used)
vent area/projected area (sum of both upper and lower vents) height between vents reverse flow
Nioht insulation iwnen used) thermal resistance in place, solar time
Solar radiation assumptions sn adi ng
ground diffuse reflectance lightweight absorption fraction
1 .0 3tu/h ft F 150 lb/ft3 0.2 Btu/lb F 0.9 0.1
di ffuse due south 1.526 0.5 in'l 1/3 in 1/2 in 0.9
65 F to 75 F 45 F to 95 F 0
0.C6 3 ft none
5:30 pm to 7:30 am
Other sunspace characteristics
opaque wai 1 thermal resistance pjO
(both insulated wall and end walls, if any)
1nfil tration, ACH
masonry wall thickness (masonry wall cases) water container heat capacity (Insulated wall cases)
(per square foot of projected area)
12 in.
62.4 3tu/F-ft2

SUMSPAr.E SYSTEMS (ill ire double glued)
Designation Type Tilt (degrees) Common Will End Walls Night Insulatl
At ittiched 50 masonry opaque no
A? itticbed 50 masonry opaque yes
A3 ittiched 50 rasonry glued no
A4 ittiched 50 masonry gl lied yes
A5 ittiched 50 tnsulited opaque no
A6 ittiched 50 Insula ted opaque yes
A7 ittiched 50 Insulated glued no
A8 i ttiched 50 Insulited glazed yes
81 ittiched 90/30 masonry opaque no
B2 t ttiched 90/30 masonry opaque yes
B3 ittiched 90/30 mis onry glazed no
B4 ittiched 90/30 masonry glazed yes
85 ittiched 90/30 Insulated opaque no
BA ittiched 90/30 Insulited opaque yes
B? ittiched 90/30 Insula ted glazed no
B8 ittiched 90/30 Insulated glazed yes
Cl semi-enclosed 90 masonry common no
C 2 semi-enclosed 90 masonry cofnnon yes
C 3 semi-enclosed 90 Insula ted conmon no
C4 semi-enclosed 90 Insulated ccxnmon yes
Cll semi-enclosed 50 mssonry comnon no
1)2 semi-enclosed 50 masonry common yes
03 semi-enclosed 50 Insula ted comnon no
04 semi-enclosed 50 Insulited cowmen yes
fl semi -enclosed 90/30 masonry cormon no
12 semi-enclosed 90/30 masonry common yes
13 semi-enclosed 90/30 Insulated comnon no
14 s ern 1 enc 1 csed 90/30 Insulated c ofli.ion yes

Therm*! Nominal
Stor*9e Capacity* Will Thickness** pck (Btu2/h ft4 F2) No. of Will Night
Designs t Ion (Btu/ft2F) fin.) Glazings Surface Insulation
A1 15 6 30 2 norm 1 no
A? 22. S 9 30 2 normal no
A3 30 12 30 2 normal no
A4 45 18 30 2 normal no
Bl 15 6 15 2 normal no
B2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
B3 30 12 15 2 normal no
B4 45 18 15 2 normal no
Cl 15 6 7.5 2 normal no
C2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
C 3 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
f 4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
01 30 12 30 1 normal no
D2 30 12 30 3 normal no
D3 30 12 30 1 normal yes
D4 30 12 30 2 normal yes
05 30 1? 30 3 normsl yes
El 30 12 .30 1 selective no
F2 30 1? 30 2 select1ve no
E3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
£4 30 12 30 2 selective yes
per unit of projected ire*
for the p*rtlcul*r c*se of pc 30 Btu/ft3 F
Deslgna tlon Thermal Storage Capacity* (Btu/ft2F1 Nomlnal Wall Thickness*' (In.) , pck (Btu2/h ft4 F2) No. of Glazings Wall Surface Night Insulall
FI 15 6 30 2 normal no
F2 22.5 9 30 2 normal no
F3 30 12 30 2 normal no
F4 45 18 30 2 normal no
G1 15 6 15 2 . normal no
G2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
G3 30 12 15 2 normal no
G4 45 18 15 2 normal no
HI 15 6 7.5 2 normal no
H2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
H3 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
H4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
11 30 12 30 1 normal no
I? 30 12 30 3 normal no
13 30 12 30 1 normal yes
14 30 12 30 2 normal yes
15 30 12 30 3 normal yes
J1 30 12 30 1 selective no
J2 30 12 30 2 selective no
J3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
J4 30 12 30 2 selective yrs
per unit of projected area
for the particular case of pc 30 Btu/ft3 F

Appendix C, Clivus Multrum:

Appendix C, Fabric Structures:

Wmmmm l mum aiSt m
The evolving design vocabulary of fabric structures
iy Hoist Ucrtjcr
[Vii years apo, when via iinftTHtAi. lihroitncncourapcd vrilc an irticlcon fabric nmnbran.'structures (February l!l7.r: "The (Onpirovriiip Iiisciplinc m Tent Structures), no oik* could have iredkied Uic development this new tcchnolopv w ould undergo in llic tirade ahead. Only one permanent Imildinp with a l#*nsion-strintuiv roofthe Student Center at LaYcrn#- College (|ihoto 1had Ui n i'ompl#-t#,d. The Pontiac Stlvtrdnnie (photo 2) was under const ruction, and several other airsupporlcd roofs and tension structur. were in various stages of desipn. Tlwuph these projects and onpoinp developments in inaterbl tethnology and computer-aided desipn In-Iran, ten years apo. to demonstrate the potential, the fulur#- was not clear, (tenerally. fabric .* truduics wen regarded as too temporary and unproven for use in |Tii.ancnt applications.
, Today, more than '!' n.ajcr permanent buildinps with fai rs Mno.-lure roofTart- ronipleted Mid nrn^.-fillly in use. and no longer i- tin re~aTn" dotiht aliout the important role structural fabrics will play in th# l>ii)t ere ironmenl. Not only have existing membrane materials and predicted forms been proven successful on a major scale, hut a second ion of materials has eincrpcd. more powerful desipn methods have U**-n develop'd, and new forms and buildinp types have In.* n created, each makinp use if the integrated prop#.-rtics of strength, scs.inb'ss construction, trails',icetay. and reflectivity to produce building sjbris never achieved U'forc.
Since the eompleiioii of the Pontiac Silverdoine in 11*7". no ma.i #r stadium has been roofed with conventional materials The HajT of the.K-ddah International Airjmrt in Saudi Arabia (photo d). at 4f> million s<| fl the world's largest roof s*.iuchm is a success not only as sujK-rior means of covering a larpe area, hut ha it.* intrinsic .l*ili:\ t* transform the desert inn an oasiswithout the need for exp* nshv, energy-consuming ma# main
Under smallt r, hut no less interestinp. fabric r<#*fs. department stores and malls exhibit merchandise more naturally and attractively than ever. Florida Festival of Sea World in Orlando (photo -li a 7*#.tkM sq ft shopping and enterta-nmeiit space, demoiiMrate.* th* |K.o-nt:al of encapsulated cotiiinunittc*. housinp lush plants. The i.< w !> completed horticulture exhibit at ('allttway (iardern it. t.Jiorgi:-. (photo is one of the first of th. newest fabric material. : high-trati'lucviicy silicon-coated fabric.
While materials ai d t# -i.nol-.gv have advanced and are offered by a nurnU-r of \|N-ricnt*ed lal -ricatur contractors, there is a m:i.*-*r oN-ta le to the wider applicati'-i. of fabric tension structuresa general fcsck of familiarity amonp most architects w ith their In-ha* iorand d# -ipu The



assuiiu d tcnqNrjt£Uiaiurr and vulnerability assoehited with tin words "fabric and iflii hT*,tur% the fact that these structures are safer and more r iialde than many systems -because they arc practically weightless and pm vale a contintiou- II, xiblr. watertight The complexity of a fabric structure's three dimensional curvilinear confipuralion hales the und* riyinp simplicity of it* struct oral systemwhich relies only on tension and curvature for its capability to carry load*- This simplicity makes the visible membrane form a true imape o| the force-flow itself.
For fabric structures architectural form and structural function are one and the same. As a rc.-ult. enpinoerinp and architt eiure are ins jiiirJik. and an under t.indinp of the structur. is an essential desipn tool. Ihvause of the close relationship U-lweeii visual ;.p|N a ranee and structural U-havior. such an understanding i* not ililli* .ilt to develop Obscrv inp these structures h an excellent way of U'piiiiiinp tv, In- able to desipn them.
If. in any portion of the no mhrane. th. fahra stresses in the warp and till directions are the same for the pre.-tress condition i|In- stress situation without such ext# rnal load* as winder M.#*v.. tl. membrane will have equal curvature in th*s#- two directions (figi.t* to Kxieisimp this basic condition into a larger area #1#* > the form of a fafoi#- segment U liver it.* U-un# Uriesereat#*.! by cables or other s n u tural cl* limits. KipII lioundnncs, such as walls U ams. and at. can t;J:i any s!i;|k* as lohp a* tlh-y rival* a i:.-. fu! rur rature alonp the e#lp of the men.bran* and are c..p::M, of re>i* 'i .p t!*-str* ss > from it. CahJ*-.- ;o U-undari# s of n..-mbr.:.*- jianels lake on their particulai sh;i|##* as a result of the m inhrane stress pattern and th# supi#irl system of tin structure Fipurc 7 shows a hy |*. r!'ol#'i.l surfac* d lined by fourcurvededpes forminp a f,ur-j*nint structure, u lasic eleiiieiit f tensi##n-structun- systems. A t. at shape created by (vn.hininp four such four jN.ii.i structures is sh > n fipun V Fipure y show s th peiieraiion of multiple tent systems based on this smple. basic element.
'j iuin : fi ~ ,|i. in', d .1. -i/r, j.roLi h--**-.. : p- ln-yon>| ^rn. a'al structure. Fabric tensi##i. structure.-an at tin sa ..Tihic'
.Ti' ar.TcTU .lli'!'ll, I '.lllihi.c Mtill-tnr1 llful .Irch.:- v: iral si,a. JnH.tinp sysu'i, ami lifflTNtffid tMirfflinmt-tdTtrm? me. construction, ai d mat# rial liennvlor cno'lTjnto the de.-l, iT^n^'cs- a-i iiiuch as th# fuiictk#uai r# .j'lireineiiLs of th space, the cltoiei of proportions and tk.e r# l.lioiehip I.* tin- exterior environment. Th# structure, however, r. tn.iu s the major dc pn tsl and is tlu basis "lor the acron.punyinp study of eoriiplet#-d and planned fuhri- tensa#n stru. lures
ffant! Ih ,j/#f i llim" pnrimer ofHortt /A ryti Pinltn ,a f\. 15 yean. Ihol.
hr #>a* a finneifful of .iff. r Hnyt i AsMtfiolrit, Inch os it xfn'Hxibl< /< trmch ./ Iln drug* a ml rN|/inn uj pmjtct* thou ,, hro On Iht Huj Trrmihal, lirrgrr tonsullrd
to SAidimm, Oxixv A UrrnU in the curly stage* of (hr prujrct, and later to Oar at Coming f\6cryta* a* a strut tnrul consultant in the final design.
Architect* of Ike projects on iku and the following pages a re noted in Ike credits Alot mentioned in the credits. hat deserting of special thanks for tkcir help m sapplplng photograph* are (herns Coming Fiberglas and Chemfak-birdmir. the makers and fabricator' oj IcAn-cuah d fiberglass, and uo>. trhieh prod arcs and fabricates silicon-eon ted nhcrjsuas
1U Archiitrluril R-vrJ Usreh JtUS

t 1

'r\.- ...
k-v- .v. -
- i ^

Artililii.' Center, LttYenn,
Califon :ti: nrhi/ 7 1. Lh
2 Ptm ti ic Sihrrdomt: Poutiuc.
Hick i go n; a rrhike Is. 0 Dt 11/Hewlett & Luckcnbach, Inc.;structural engineer. HSTU; fabric roof designers/engineers: Geiger Berger
1 Jeddah Haj Terminal, Jeddah,
South Arabia; unhit eels/engineers SI: id mure, Owing* & Merrill.
4 Florida Fesliral, Orlando,
Hondo: a nhitects: Hubert 1m mb Hurt Associate*, struclurulengineer: Geiger Berger Associates.
5. Cutlauay Cardens Horticultural Center, Pine Mountain, Georgia; architects: Craig, Gaulden A Davis, btc,; structural engineer: Geiger Berger Associates.
&; V w
ArchiU-ciural Record March 190S 1&3

Tcnt-lil.e structures, ly tla-ir very nature, belong to tl* same family of center-supported structural systems as su.-jieii-ioh bridge- unrt they may l*car on arches or more complex compression structures such as the |Niint-supp<>rt systems shown in many of the'exatnples.
A very simple approach is shown in the configuration of the outdoor roof cover at Queeney llirk in St. Louis County (photo 10) protecting a skating rink in the winter and an exhibition tennis facility ir. the summer. The free span is created by a large A-frame supporting the main structural peak in combination with jaripheral |msts restrained by stay cables. The A-franu for Queeney Park uses carefully optimized tru-- n,a* 1- 1 10 ft in length to bring the largv compressive force to the ground with a minimum of structural steel. The mt mbrui.e is supjK.rted by a central ridge cable and iv* trained by edge catenaries will: :io additional cables in tin membratie surface. The Use of two surh A-frame supports is the basis for the roof system of Ute Tennessee Pavilion (photo 12), which covers the 1.500 seats of an amphitheater for the Knoxville World's Fair. Tne cantilever effect of th space frames is achieved by externa! stay cables. A tadia! roof system is used for the membrane *ha|H*s. with radial cables ii. the membrane surface used to achieve ll** desired uniform prestress of the fabric. The roof cover of the new Terrace lVvilion for the Crown Center in Kansas City (photo 11) also uses A-frames, this time in a arrangement, to .supjs.ri the two roof |* akv The membrane is supported by ridge cal !t-s and is restrained against uplift b\ a |air of intersecting valley cables.
Anotl.n approach to creating a free-spun membrane structure vocabulary is demonstrated in the largest application to dale, at the Haj Terminal in Jeddah.. The 21 teat units of each of th* 10 modules are supported front a sera-.- of interior and exterior pylons by overhead sus|iension cables. Kacli tent unit is a radial system spanning 160 by lf>0 ft and restrained at the periphery by edge catenaries or vail* y cables. The central support consists of a double ring facilitating the erection and stressing of the large scale membrane system. The edge pylons are designed to resist the vertical and horizontal forces of the tensioned membrane structure.
A similar principle of edge restraint, in this case by exterior masts or pylons, is show n in photo 15, one of several structures
1U Q.. ratty hi rk Pa til ion, St. Louis; archill et: Jones Maya Associates; fabric roof designers engineers:
(it igrr Unger Associates.
11 C town Center Square Pari lion, Kansas ('ity, Missouri; architect/ engineer; Geiger Berger Associates.
12. Tennessee Pavilion, Knorin lie Worlds Fair, Knorvillc, Tennessee; architect McCarty, Bullock, 'i:.
Holsapplc, Inc; structural engineer::.. Geiger Berger Associates.
154 Architectural Record March 19S5
de.-igm-d for th- celebration in Philadelphia in 1!>7G, w hich led to litany of the later designs, including Jeddah. Tin exterior masts ar* laid by stay cables The membram it-* If consists of a sera.- of one-way folded shapes spanning tin Go ft bet we* r. masts They are sup|N>ru-d by riigr cables, valley cables and edge catenaries, with no additional cables in tin membrane surface.
A variation of this principle is used in tin* design of the exhibition hall roof of Canada Harbour Place in Vancouver tphoto 13). which is to open as part of Kxpo *!*>. Th* photo shows tin stretch-fabric study model Used to explore th*- three-ditnen-ional .-hap. of the stru* tur* Such mod-1- are an excell* nt means of developing an*! studying structural membram -hape- and wert th* basis foi nm-t of th. designs discussed H r** tin t* ut unit- .r* arr..uget! it: a >k* >v. *. plan r*-p .tiding to tiie city's sti-*t I'.-.Uern and spanning K-*' ft b-twe* n nig** pylon- Th* r*...f has a doutd. ski" the inner fabri* Serving a- at. acoustical liner
Tin d.-sirt to a*.*id interior syp|"rt- without the disadvantage of re.;uirmy iarg* ethirls f.*r tla-av'horag* of i**.'* I* i t. the ititegrated-fratne membrane structure" (photo IGi it was tirst Conceit cO by (and u l .patent awarded tot this writer a- a means T using fabric structure.- in housinga u>e that has not yet materialized. Th basic s*j:iare plan font, presents an A-frarn* on all four sides, a familiar -h:i|H* closely associated With forms, (tidy small areas close to the four cement would have limit' *1 head room. The structural principle of th. integrated-frame membrane structure (inframcmhmn.) is to ha lame all the internal forces itltir. th* system. so th;.' only the r-uluint forces from tb* w ight of the structure ami tin supcriit |'-i load- (wind ami -now Would reach the foundations. The structure show ,i in photo 1G deinnr-tr.ttcs this principle couRig*-*'Usly. >r it is not anchored to the ground ;t simply sii> on tin* pnvetm nt. Hy Mending the infraituiiibran*-prinoiplc into |X>iygon.-. a structural system i- mated that combines features of the tent, the dona. and the space truss. Photo 17 shows a study model of the structure designed for the 30u ft-dia roof of an arena in Venezuela, with a removable center section The 10-sided structure for Sea World in San Diego (photo 14) amplifies the application of the principle by adding cantilever extensions around the perimeter, thus covering a much larger plan area and creating a low edge periphery. This roof structure has a 130-ft-dia plan dimension and

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. ItffiifrttrtT t m* nr v.
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1J. Cun'ida Harbour Place.
I ancon irr, British (i duinhia; a ichilt cts: lkoras' A rcha n. tui lt; Matson Cattell d' Partner- and Zeidlt / Roberts Partnership; structural engineer: Read, Jones, Christoffersen: fabric roof: Geiger Berger Associates.
14 Sen World, San Diego, California; designers/engineers: Geiger Berger Associates.
IS. hivilion for Bicentennial
Celt-bullion, Philadelphia; d> signers engineers: Geiger Bi rger As- ot iates.
16. Infra membrane; designer/ engineer: Hurst Berger (pti Ira ledt
17. Concept for a stadium. Situ Christobul, Venezuela; designers engineers: Geiger Berger Associates.
Architectural Record March 19H5 155

rests oh 10 eni terete piers. Tin- low |H-ri|i|it*ry pennii> (lu- use of fabric enclosure panel.-., w liich sjtan Ih-i a tvn edge catenaries and the ground slab. Tin 2*2 l't dia octagonal nifii.bran,- structure of ih Bullocks iH-partineht Store in S .i. Mal.-u tak. s this concept a step further IU | ...ring tin- opaque, conventionally constructed portions cf tin1 a |H-npli ral rinj', il' riHif coul'l Ik uni./, J as anchorage for the cantilever {Million of On structure ami could replace tl.c compression ring at tin top of tin- A frames In tying them back to the jH-riplieral s.-lid i,,,f.
*1 !i first design fni the Riyadh International Stadium n: Saudi Arabia (plmio l.*t ih, largest of these roof stiucttires. returned to the basic principle of the infra-membrane system. This immense strm lure has an out- idc dia of ii.Vi ft Si ,1 Si fellti : 0|*ftiil.g ,if 4^(1 fi
lii"'. tin fulisi. Jed dab modules
ii'c-l as ,-nti.i!,,-.- nopies in the
fwegrouud at left). "I in I' ll iTed
pliii. at, a is to ;-'i ft. one third
l..rg- r li.i.ii any st:.. hum roof u.
dat* With ii.,. o; i. mg covered
wlii would h;.v, h n feasible
vitlnn this o. ; he resultillg
r.i *1 aria would ha> U- n over
7,.iM!isq ft Since i: was not
si .tial to inclti ie the v ide
coil .;:r: e within tli i free span, and
*mc a m *re lent !ik- :ip|naruii the ii.iriitiucii-oi, of i masts under the
21 |k :,k points w as i1 -t.'ligated
1 Ins arrange:notu (p).olo' l and 2*.l)
Uieant only n slight encroachment
of eight mast' -a;,, the sealing
:*r,., -at tIn least m.i-ir.ant
jdii"and dra *i<. ..!> dec-rea-e-1
the amount ,f steel i -.juircd by
elimils.ltillg the vi r. . :iv dominating
t \t. frame me:: The high
|>uiiii' are ?i;p|NirUt 1 by mast.- H,:,
It m height. Tlie on: :r edge |N>ii:ls
are bel ll.ya- y-'t.-u : rented b\ a
lupv.g n,:'t t, ii*l led fiom the
saii* fi*otinj: as tin main mast, and
two triangulated it di.w n cabl.-s
com,, cted to p, rip*.- ..i foundation
i l*-a nts. |||e dow iiWaid ai.rhorage
Of tb, Systl.lU Co!.sj; i' of giouiin
aiich.-r points n-str;. i..irg the vallev
aides and the edge catenari- s of '
lb, bratM stria lure. They are
ton.iun, ti with tin i aain drainage
stru. tor,- of the roo f 'Vstein. Tne
inner edge of tbe membrane svsti in is formed by a hup,- eiivtdar ring cahk equilibrating the horizontal tensil. forees of tin 21 units and acting as a balancing and damping component for th* total structure. Jliolo> 21 and 22 slum tin roof durum* construct ion. When finished, this structur, will create a huge area of shaded space which, like the Haj hivilion, wili transform the harsh climate into a comfortable environment of impressive scale and exciting sculptural form.
1W Architectural llrcorit North 1985
The nature of architectural fabrics
lew building tl.aleristls impact a completed building like the fahr.c of a fabric Mim tltr,. As Horst |U -rger notem bis article h ginning : 'he preceding p.iges, fahri, lten>ion structures ale Sit It sSilae time structur, and ,-nvel ipo. hu Ming sctdpture and suvhite-etural spaci. lighting system ami acoustical environment.
Of all th, roles fabric plays however, none is r.s smp.>rta:.t as its structural function. To assume and maintain ur. intended tdia{*. architectura! fabrics must withstand an initial pr,stressing load which may be induced by air or vacuum for air-supported structures, and i.i.e or more masts, frame?, or arches for tensi i: Structures. Suja-rimposed loud' froni snow, w ind or con- truciiou workers walking on the ro-.-f must bv handled a.- well. Tin only way the fsibrii m, n.liian, can v\ itl.-tn .nails and channel tl.i n. to tin gratis id is through tvtisienvr r.oi accurately. the ability l. with'tai.,1 tensi >n through tensile >tr-:.gin.
Historical!;.. ten-ile strengin i membrane has derived from Tllfls. either tho.'i Ill.cVnt ill sihimal skins and us*.! s.s tents f* r eons, i*i plant fib, rs like l.emp or cotton, span into yarns and woven ;.to Ciilivsis or dm k T!ie tel
< isiloil nth, tie
'trellglh ->f t* WM la tier i their ec< : loin*. made tb, !
[ -pillar for circus tenis , and other
u inporarv stnictur-. V ft lit Ik ca
t.hey l-urnt d i va.iily and wore
short-lived. ia w >yn ,dietic fit-ers.
prim.irih nvl, Ii. J**-!. i sli -i and
fiiierglas w, re q-.iil rklv pressed
into servwe ; ' they U,.. me ii.or,-
available and pioxcn. Ea .hf..|-,,d
filwr has uniqu, ; ro pertics
! at suit it to diitcr. i:l :.| i'll "t-o'
T|,i. i> jrfon: ..lin e i I. a 1 abric
- {leads grea '--I- mil* V the wthey an
pun ini-- y;.r IlS, 1. yarns a:.
wove: the Co ,. till,' and 1 t::e met!.
of Coating. 1, gen* r a! the
great, r the a: ea of i liuei; is- a
fabric's cross sectioi a. tb. higher
Its telisil, MU i...:h
The M-leCti, ii of c* a.-, which
{ -ot, t the fi! .I.- an cr ate the
surface |>r {., I't'es o f iht finished
f.dilie. is jus* Us !Mi| -rta1 r.l as the
.-, I,-eiIan of fin-rs for a j ..pplicsiUon. Vinyl. TtjU"- and damn are tin most eon.m,mix us, 1 coatings today. I pcrniaiivs! applications, architectural fabrics muerties are high transduceney. low heat absorption, dirt rejection, and ease of handling. Teflon-coated fiberglass, silicon-coated fil*erglsiss, and vinyl-coated polyester are the most popular coating-fihcr combinations in use today.
Teflon coated fiberg lii-..'
Though tin, rglass fabric? will, neoprene and otla*r elastomer.- or viny I w, i t w.-.ed on a \ariety ef early fabric struct ores, it wasn't nnlil 1972 that st Ttflnn-coateii f.ln rg.iss fsibri, w as iiisUilied in a leii'-ioii structur, at 1 a Verne toll. f-. Tin dev. !pm-nl grew .itti of tb, efforts of Dr.
Harold (.lores, then head of the Educational Facliilits laboratory of tbc lord Foundation, (lores's mandate Was to stimulate the ,h ve! ipnn-nl of economicid ways of encapsulating space at colleges and universities. One of tin- ways he did thus was tv fund the innovative work of David Geiger, who engineered tin air-supported l:. S. iVvili-mat the Osaka Worlds Fair it. 1970. At about the same time, (lures, w be- w..s soinew but of a m..ter:als expert himself, organized tl.i first r. ,-etings between Dill*,'lit, maker of 7V and Ov mis-CoMiii.g Fil-.-rglas in 1971. Shortly thereafter, two other con.panie? that |Kss*-ssed necessary t- chnojog;. Well brought in: J 1' SteVeli', .. w, u -cr. and Chemical Fabric.' Corp. ration, a man r that was already c iting 7,//on onto fabri s U't : for ha) iicm I .* \ .t-'i-mbiv lm.- tii.res s that this e.-iis.-rtiam would pi.-iuce a ally viable U...I, rial that w-.ul'i meet the building (-! for pi-rmatn-nt arihitectun were realized in little over a year.
TiKuh -coated fibergias is rematr.ablt building material. Fii-.-rgL? s. W it!, it- extremely high iti"du!u? ainl ability lobe evrude.i into thin, flexible fiiaments called lbUi fiber'. | r.Aides a >*.d -irate that i: slp-ng, r than steel in tension, t'liit creeps I, >. yet has greater fl> \il iiity. (Vat-,l wit!: a thin layer of Ti n. the resultant fabnc !. .: mal.y ways, in I'-sirKi ole. Clicinicalb inert Titian rejects poll.ilanis including dirt wl.icl c**uld d*-ti,-t from the inateipleasant while ap|K* and redact it? reflectivity and transhnviicv. Its hard surf., e re.-i.-ts abra-i-n. Tb fabric will >upjs*rt cosabii.-liou onlv at ,-\liet:.i ly high temperature and ii. o\yg- n rich ntinospiieiv?. Tf,e fabric imparts a pleus.iiit transluci in y to i!;.v lighta 7,tfo/-coated fabric with ^ j-r cent
m.-l activities iiuagilialile In virtually ali eases, the ipiuhly of illumination is striking
r*iH>r iir.rr naif,-: iTT
-r. II- '-o> ii] pc. 'V o-
: iiutu
Silicon-coaled filmgla's
SiliciNi-e.Mtcd fiU-rghi" is a relative lu vveonier to the arei.iu-elural faliric structures market It- initial success on a half do/ell projects, most notably the horlieultuie exhibit at Callaway Gardens in Georgia, can be tr..<.. J back to a venture i" 19il between Oak Industrie.', which possessed coating t, imology. and Dow Corning, the pi,duct i of silicon rubber Silicon ruhlior is noted b*i its enduring retention of flexibility, resilience-, and elasticity over a wide temperature range. When aimlivd to fibeiglass, which becaUst of Its liigh modulus is somcwiiat still, silicon imparts a measure of flexibilitv. and the glass filers arc less likely to sutler damage from e; ri le.'.' bundling duri.-g erection that, wiiik u similar fabric coated with Tijion.
In addition to flexibility, nht rglass, when e.nati v th silicon thrive: greater tratiezoidai tiar resistance than with a Teflon coaling Tk-s i' mo-t likely U-caus, tin Tf .it coaling h-'ids libers rigid'.;, in the matrix in which they uri woven the more flexible coating enables tie libers to slide ami art together to disjt rsc tin point stresses that can cause a tear. In tlie rase of transact nev, silicon coated fabrics cun l-e- mad,- to transmit no light or as much as 9t per cent of th*- light striking them, compared m no more than it* |nr cent for comparable Teflon -coated fiUrglass. The mpbcaiions of this difleieSice are broad. cmlKHiying such issues as energy, plant grow th, and esthetic.- One advantage of silK*on-,-oateti fiKrglas: is that it can !*e used in double l.iyvrs, with ek- r an air or a traiislu.'i i ril fib, rgltc s in.'Uh.tion. to save eticigy and improve acoustics whiie inu:nluining a relatively high level of a' ibi, nt light. Silicon coaled fiU*rglii'.> .iffers most, i-ut n.-t all. of the fire resistance of Ttflon-coated fiberglass. Fa-CUU^t the mate rial )> new. this i> an area i.e--diog further study Other i|U-stions are its dirt reject ion and abrasion r sis lance and the long-term performance of seams, which must be held together with an adhesive rather than heat-lmnded as
replacing nylon, which had ben, used almost exclusively until that puinl. Tin- switch was made primarily because, in character, though both yarns are 1,-ebniealiy pl.-otics. their liehuviors in tension are nearly op|Hsites. N\ Ion. with its much lower modulus compared to jsdycslcr, stretchi-s easily under l'*ud but recovers \ ,ry neai ly to its original length wIk-ii un* ire1: sed. C-dyester has much greater ii-sisiance In una,-r load, bul is more suhjeci lo |k rillinWIlt di formation if stressed lieyond a certain point Other l'roiH rt ies 1 a v (ring polyesters uTTwer? its hw1 seiisfllVUnV' nv'ls!diV (a rt*I iTPrTJ'lt-m Tilth liylor.l, r
resis tance to ultruv most chemicals, tirnl ec
fit and ally lower
THm liL-nt strikin, ning lig'lit is
Jtignrl-V rn-t tin* ft.htir lilkl 7" ..n with 7i/7'/n-eoatcd fik-rgla's. urluun-TK-fgy T|]fl ftu|i:imn.-* _________Because l-otli fabrics are available
it:;. fCTBBSjnfipBH mm
W ill lie tr
k tran.'iniUcd ihr.uij

fabric. Fv i n w lien t fn- Tat... Tonfigured for maximum enei'gy
only as part of a system that includes fabrication and erection, relative costs are meaningless.
'savings, which can often require double layers or more, Teflon-coated fiberglass can deliver illumination levels sufficient for
Vinyl-coaled polyester Polyester came into prominent use as a yarn fiber for architectural' fabrics during the 19G0s, gradually
t Though nylon i- sin! a popular t"r Tor many industrial fabrics, pulyester coate,! witli polvvinyi iiloride has almost entirely r, pL.-cd nylon for architectural applications. Viayl-t,s.t*"l polyester, at less than 5*0 cents pv* sq yd for the hist grade, is far h." c<-stly tfian either silicon- or Teflon *.iwt*-,l fiiH.Tglass. Tin. l!i-\il L | myl chloride coating can in- formulated in any color and to suit a variety of climates and t r.vir tnmeiiLs. A choice of surface textures is availal.K ;.swell. Hut wen tht best vinyl-coated fabrics are subject to civej*--.sirdel ing under load -w l,ich could in sagging of the fabric and require ptritKlic retensioning. Crep, however, say manufacturers and even designer.', can be an asseta built-in forgiveness that makes for, r patterning and cert ion. Another developm,n. which keeps the material looking newer longer,
: a 7irf// coating that te|w-ls that uncoated vinyl fabrics dont do well.
Manufacturers claim lif,*-exiK-ciancies for their lop-grade f.-hric.' well in excess of li y ears.
Because, at tl.i' tin,e. vinyl-coated poly, sler fails some of the tests that have long been U'od by the n.aior l.. S. Building' (o Un this Ihuio of contention, manufacturers ot the material, including Seaman (\*r|>>irati,>n> the largest manufactun-r of vinyi-coated architectural fabrics and Helios, a large fabricator'erector, are w aging an active campaign to find greater acceptance oi the material by code officials and architects in permanent architectural structures.
James B. Gardner
illumination levels sufficient lor fabrics during tne lUOUs, gradually c/
-UcVvtucflA C^)Q.^Vs
,ural Record March 1985 167

Fabric structure pioneers look back and envision tbe future
To ate'is of fabric slii- tur- >.:> umo^-.ul
VV|....-'"Ia f.| fi
liipl. an siipi"tried d,n;,- Cuban a:
an ucroiiautird i.pmeor al Cornell lie H. a eloped a;.d bi lp d tneivct in, ii. liM-i i- a familiar as il i- !)li.b .lic. Ml Ibid .IioViS ibis slide i|*li to II nearly i> nine be talk* about f.d r structi.res, and bo Uvnot* ad ir. t<-a proiip of L'oo engineers, architect.'. artists, profe.'soi>. and maunf.e turrs atleiclinp lle Fabric Stnielure.- lii.-titu* I!;< >'i,atioiial symposium. I. I i Novemlwr in Orlando. was n>* >c.-j.t: hi
Tbe >VllijH>.-;ur.. will* I "a- the first truV. ir.n. r;,at*: ..! --.nfirence oi: fabric structure, it; i** tears, attracted for* ip puests from as far :iv. a\ as Jap:-.:, and Australia Its first two days v er.- di voted to prest illation- tbe ibinl day < visits of I.K-al fabric strurlur,-. mo-t notably the F; -rid:. I al Pavilion ill Sea V.. 1. d* -ipri d by Horst Herder, and tie ,*..m Bowl in Tar. i-a. desipi.-.d 1} ).'.
J In- f ipnihc.r.c- of Mr Bird's slide tpbotu li wu- tbai tbe success of tbe T.i>lor.ii at pro;, .jinp ik licate r.i.lar eqrdpinent spurred fun. t> further study ir.aterisils in lb. early Mia*** and le.-ulseJ in several iniiovaiivi fabric de.'ipns. Sonie of those f.i :. v id. w ere
rudomes be de.-ipned. still survive, under loadinp.' of up !"<> ll> sq in. four times tb< l>.idinp of tbe fabric tension structure.' built today. Kiitrcpreiicurial instincts led Bird to form Bird.or Structure.- in IDSC. Tins coinpaiit. still aiifluenti..l today, helped make jHjssibk n...nv nun Ii publiciz.-d fid rit slnuTures.
Mr. Bird's exuberant survey of imimrtaiil early developments u. fabric structures was a filtiup keynote address. He prais. of colleagues' contribution' and bis cliallclipe to tbe "new p in ration of desipners" in tin- audience to continue those developments because modern fabric structures ar oul) on tin- firs! rune of tbe ladder to success." pom rated a sense of camaraderie and juirjHisc amonp attendees. Further. u was an excellent foundation on wbieh the more tban 40 s|^aker: who followed him muM build tla olbcial conb rence tbeine.
The of tbe conference, aiv .rdh'p t i1,- -Vi i |::i'i man a.el.;l, I T.ni1 I ..ll .:,d of IYI III New Vi :1 was l.ol Ills l to In'
a lorum for latin;: th-industrys advancing structural and U-cbnical e\|H-riis. bv.! i*. sti.-.udatc tbe ili-sipr. eominunil) (. a pr au r aw areness of tbe fori. ..; r*k in arcbile-iuri fab ie stru -tuie.-imp lit p'a>. ">truiur.. fabrics .ire buildii.i materials. lYrmam-nt fabric structures ;.ri I jildmp. thatmb-*dy kimwledpc of tbe an and seim- e of construction an architecture." Dallam! said
None of tbe speaker- was as optimistic in ibis repaid as aid .tecl Paul Kennon of ri.-. a liru. that has designed several evci ||eit recreational huililmps at universities Usinp kmp vpaii fabric roofs suj-ported by air Such a facility is tbe student i enter at the
fon t. Conn!: A1 noinuticol Lubinuturu: i rgineer:
IIalia II Kin!
J .J. St, oh, t. t (/'Cono, II Crater JdrSlnde',1 Aidrities. I tun inly of floruit), Un i o'i ill,; ( KS Si nine A chitechtrefuuI Kennon, design principal; structu rot engineer: Geiger Berger.
I niversity of Florida (photos 2 and lb. Notinp cli- nls' iieetls to enclose larpei spaces on incit-asinply enlist rained budgets, and piit-n tbe estbelie rift between de.-ipliers who view buildinps as macliines for livinp or us livinp organisms, enerp) and hphlinp issuer, and structural solutions tbat nu d not rely on conventional framinp. Kennon projected a future for fabrii structure.- limited only by iuiupinat ion. Tin mild interest tbat mail) architects bow accorded fabrics so far can In attributed, Kennon said, to tbe fact that most architects like to look back to move forward Tbi? will chanpe."
Architect Nicholas (joldsii.ith of tl'i m N< w York expanded upon ibis idea, not on!) bv pointii.p out tbe l"iiited .cal
f:.b| l.mJ. EQS "
eiiil'l as^u.i the r. lianci- most ; 1- tki- on 1 i~t i. ;;i sell-'7 r- ll. I.ithi-r cMilWence r. I., u t. ,li"T[,.;^ civ art*
Tan ir.tii.e J to manipulate t.on reitaujrular form and this i- the very b:. ic ability reijuir. d to de-ipn fabric structures." (i -li.-mith said. "Tills make- tbe ile; ipr. pPK-ess unfamiliar r.ud tbri ..ti i.aip."
I '.iv id (Ii iper. of (leipi r A A. dates, mad*- i' clear that coiioinv and not cnstoai n.a:idat.*d the |Mijiularity ol a de? ipi. fur air Mlpjioi teil donuv he di VelojH il that l..i I veil used tn covt r the list !l of tin IS enclo- --d stadiums ii the world. I'.-ed first for tin li. S. Davilion at the l!l0 World': Pal: at Osaka, the dcsipi. is a cable network that produce.- a l..w profile ioof while exertiiip : surjiri. aiply low bei .imp furee on the compression rinp to which the abk s are am bored K> .-n more inno.ative tban tin- air-Mipj^.rte I de; ipn i- (j. iper's new cable dome, (fipuii )a system of trusses
formed with presircssmp strand and j>ijt stiuts arranped in a radial network. The calk dome obviin. tin larpe mechanical systems and sjK*cial iliMi ways necessary to create tin |>rcssur dilb rential re.|Hired foi an air-Mlp|K>ried d-.iin Wh> r. Used in s|.a:is pr a'o-i than ft. a cable noim's costs can U kept under JfJ'i |k*i mj ft. This economy is a major reason why four new stadiums now in desipn w ill U-covered bv a cable dome.
Horst Ih rper, another jiiom-er, Stressed iti hi: talk that fabric structuri. now must truly U-consiot red arcliilecturi and not merely a quirk of h.iildaip leibiuilopy. 'Fabric structures fulfill an im|Niriaiit fundamental Coal of architecture," Berper -aiu Tb*-y create a s|H-cial and dramatic environmentom that is unique and separate from tin pem-ral cnvironnii nt." B* rper's quintessential i'xa'!i|di of this was tin- Haj 1> rnunal m Jeddah I: is magnificent." B* rper said. *'nt ji: Ih-i it rov er ; reinarK.ihk ait a lib acres) ai d wk! last a k-np tii:><.
but because it completely
Iran.'form- a torn 1 overly b-l/ht Saudi d< : l into a peotl) lun.ui-ms, and co... y expansive spacewith no need f any nie. bai.ical stem-
n.c! t> uih as (letpi rs
would not have [lossibb. without the leilpc contributed by tnateri.iis mathematicians.
i.puter si veraI s|h ak. rs d ways to more accurately I.Ct the sill l.ptil of Ilia!' rial' a variety o! loadinps. Others d fu' Jii.p- of rest an i
168 Arrhitertur*! Record March J9S5
.hog (inId, il .1*.lesti III Inl, ,/ Si.;/f. tin OH,,.
>. Ih sign furCuh/i Ihon,. iKirni hi nice, h\ igi i Assoruiti s i. Modi! uf / u hi i in ( ii,i ti ("h n/h I: nr, Intee: .1 ntonio tiai.di g (imn I;
7.,./'..... ii.! Siin f,.i.Stiitti/ml i t.'ihlhll Till .ilih ( \ it hi Ip
Knn no, in I n.'. Till t i I ihm it min )n Must mu uf ( i mlulls, A uignni /. ii11isf Ah I,sm,dm fuisuho.
.V Tin linuh.inl t.'.n hung, ojhci
III. -, lining Ib.M. hunt, al met mi /sign: til. AsmhuiiIi s Todd l >n I In nd. strnctn rnl engim eis: Is; Horst Bcrgi i Purlin rs .
designed to U-tter understand materials' Ivbav ior relative to acoustics ami enerpy. Still other talk.- fivusi-d on advancements in
ePM.uiUer tel'liliiiliu'-kJli 11 Litu ^oTTabmTli -ipM-r. J< inoie ea'ilv
peiiiTate comp
Tvl i.Ctures, iviler.
1 !.;.\ i..r li11! i *1. teriiiiue I. Mptl.s
models of fal Tic
str>'-- n>l prestre
| levels for valley ridpe, and boundary rubles, and create more accurate jiattcrns fur fabricatinp the mail rial Donald (IreenU'i p. who beads the Propram of Computer (Irapbiis at Cornell l'niversity. dazzled hi? audience by e.xplaiiuiip bow software hemp w ritten by students ilu re enables coinjiuters to peiwrate'-quality imapes of litjililiiips that don't exist (t.)i *:!. September U*S4l.
Much less technical in scope but no less tbmipht-provokmp were tin coiatnent-s .f Frei Otto. As his work as an architect, enpincer, and scidj'tor has evolved throuphout his career, it ha stimulated many archillii and enpineers to creative d. of their ow n. Otto's expressed interest was not just to bund iivre labrie structures, but to explon the "dramatic potential of naturally iK-currinp materials and forms." This drive, ii was dear from li'tei-ii.p t- Otto, stemmed not just fro-.t a dei-ji re' jH-c. for nature, hut from the Ivlk-f that much of hat ni.,ii has w roup'ht i< destrticuvi nature and U'Ci>i..inpr more M>. With his ov n work. Ill explaint d the shorteoniinps of fabric structures. Materials. In said, account for many of these shortcoming's, but commercial interests cause more and prcali r mistakes, often resultinp in structures that "stand apaii.s, rather than with, nature." A tension structure Otto as humble
j.ropn-ss towards buildinp's tbat lit more harmoniously into nature, vi hile servinp an intended function, was ail av iary in Munich he fii-sipned Usinp a woven stainless steel wire butt-welded oil site into a continuous, seamless wave prid (photo 4). The structure keeps the l.ird.- in. i-ut let' |h-o|iIc and nature in as well. Furtinr, in many liplits the .-true.ure seems to disa|>|H*ar.
Otto revr aled his ideals for more perfect structures with several dozen |iliotopraphs of models develojied at his research institute. There, almut a dozen jieoplc study lip'htweiplit structures full-time. One of the most interestinp imapes was a replica of a model that Gaodt constructed to derive ih structure for his Iblacio (lueli (photo fi). The model is made like a macruiue plant hanp'-r. When photoprajihed and tla- in.ape turned upside down, it comes an exact replica of the .'true.un. Because it is formed by the laws of jihysics, it i> very i-fncieiit. Other thoucht-provokinp imapes wen soap bubbles in wind luiUii!.-, v ri.-ikl* in a sheet, and twelve identical piles ol -and arrai.L'rd in a iii ur-|-erfect prid. To this l:.'t iinape, Otto .iuxujiosed the iiio-i,! from whi, h tin piles wen-mad'- a board ol sand with twelve holes in it and 12 depression', left v h'i. the sand p tin-! out. This was n it playtime Otto i.- very s. ri*ms
about his work. In each instance, these imapes have resulted in noteworthy structures.
Because of his own interests, il was only natural that Olio would hc excitcd by tbe remarks (if artist/ Kculntor Aleksandra Kasuha. w hose lunclieon talk followed Ottos niorninp address. Kasuba, win* for la years has been "|iursuinp. viitli a stieteby knit nylon, how forms happen because of tension, demonstrated with photographs the dramatic impact that curvilinear forms induced by tension can make in space, l**pinninp with her own ajiartmenl tlucoKli, AuptiM 1!*T1). This led to a succession of commissions in which she nearly always let her intuition have free rein (photo 7). "1 felt as thotiph I was scralcliinp at the surface of some basic physical hiws -and they pave," she said.
A hipldipht of the conference was an ufter-dinra r by Edmund Hajipold, enpincer and principal of th<- firm lb ro Happoid of Bath. Enpland. Huppold ditcussed, with relish, three JKOJili. "the best III tbi Fnited States and Europe," who made extraordinary contributions to the field of fabric structur- s.
"Gross deformation i- ioi a i.ew way to carry loads," Hapj>old said in preface, "i lit pel feclinp it m the |mints they did is quit* a feat He was s|H:*ak:np ol Fred Sevt rud.
Walter Bird, and Frei Olio, each of whom were jiresenled awards for di- ipn exeeliem e by Hicbard Seaman, presnlent of ihe Architectural Fabric Structures Institute, followinp M.q Conference chairman Dalland, w hose own firm, rri, recently desipnetl tbe interior and exterior tensile structures for an office complex mar Chicapo called the BradfiD il K.vebanpe (photo M, di vi-lojied this id.-a furiber by savinp that liefore ibis inti prated desipn proc-eas could happen, enpineers would need to make their ti clinieal ex|i-rtise niore avrdlable ai d jridatabk t<- architects, an,! manufacturers' w ould need to relinquish nnlch of the control over tin- desipn nriKess tl.-.;, have. "An-lul. ( n.a't bavi tin opT.ortUI.lly jo n.terjre; \\o p.-- m::'i. s (! thn !>;.!!,!;np t> p for T/d": .**7 U't. I .err- :r,ev eiT7.T,)n** np UallanJ saio. tie aoded "fi.Fric "structures will never b am-pted bv the public as prestipious 1 architecture until they are de.-ipned ai d interpn ied bv archileeis, until the public jHTreives that they are de.-ipm-d bv architi-ct.', rather than manufacturers and enpineers, and until many arehiteets are desipmnp tlu m."./. I>. Cl.
Architectural Record March IMS 169


Appendix D, Sperry Chalet details, floor plans, photos:


i n si a sa

FIGURE 3: Kitchen/dining room structure, Sperry Chalet, ca. 1920.

FIGURE 4: Balcony detail on dormitory structure, Sperry Chalet, ca. 1930.

FIGURE 21: Entrance to the rooms in the
Paint is peeling very badly on wood door and trim.
Mortar around door frame is loose and missing.
Hardware needs reworking or replacement with similar.
south half of the structure.
Grade on this side is above floor lir Water drains towar building.
FIGURE 22: Looking north at the Chalet dormitory structure.