The holistic principle

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The holistic principle an argument for a new theory of design in landscape architecture
Argument for a new theory of design in landscape architecture
Terry, William A. ( author )
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Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 125-132).
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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
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William A. Terry, Jr.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Full Text
William A. Terry, Jr.

William A. Terry, Jr.
August 3, 1988
rk Johnson

William A. Terry, Jr.
Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis August 3, 1988
Frederick R. Steiner
Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning
David R. Hill
Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning
Mark Johnson
Associate Professor Adjunct of Landscape Architecture
Program in Landscape Architecture and Urban Design School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado at Denver

1. INTRODUCTION: A COMMON GROUND .................... 1
Key Terms and Concepts Landscape Architecture Theory Design
What Constitutes a Theory of Design in Landscape Architecture?
Land Ethic
Design Principles
Design Process
Design Product or Place
Three Theories
A New Design Theory
Romanticism in the Capitalist State Jeffersonian Democracy Capitalism
Romanticism and the Sublime

Land of Opportunity
The Picturesque Landscape
Downing Principles Imitating Nature The Hudson Valley
Social Reform
Social Justice The Rapid Growth of Cities The Decline of Environmental Quality Romanticism and the Beautiful Managing the Land The Pastoral Landscape Olmsted Principles Problem Solving Riverside
Transcendentalism Ecology and Planning The Environment in Law and Art Protecting the Land The Natural Landscape
. 45

The Ecological Method The Woodlands
What Makes a Place a Place?
Order in Newtonian Physics, Romanticism, and Transcendentalism
Space, Time, and Meaning in the Puritan World
Space and Time in Newtonian Physics
Meaning in Romanticism and Transcendentalism
The Order of Place in Picturesque Design The Order of Place in Functional Design The Order of Place in Ecological Design Prospectus: The Need for a New Theory
The Search for Meaning in the Nuclear Age Alienation and Fragmentation Gandhi
Quantum Mechanics Holism and Deep Ecology What Does the Land Want To Be?
The Spiritual Landscape

Unfolding the Essential Order of a Place Differences Truth-in-action Healers
A Challenge: the Making of Places
ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................... 109

The design of places is a central issue in landscape architecture. Underlying the making of places are theories about design, therefore, it is crucial to know about theories of design in landscape architecture. There have evolved three interrelated, yet distinct theories of design in the history of American landscape architecture. Each theory reflects the thought and events of the time in which it was developed. These design theories are analyzed in terms of the way in which they order places and their current applicabilty is reviewed. Since no existing theory is completely appropriate today and since recently there has been increased interest in holistic thinking, the time has come to propose a new theory of landscape architecture design. This thesis explores the possibility of a holistic theory of design for landscape architecture, based primarily on the philosophy practiced by Gandhi which consists of three principles; ahimsa (nonviolence), swaraj (homerule), and satvaqraha (truth-in-action).

What is a place? This is a fundamental question for designers, especially landscape architects. Alan Gussow writes about what a place is in his book A Sense of Place
In this country, at this moment, we are very conscious of man as a violator of his environment, a destroyer of the earth's lovely places.... man is also a place makerand ultimately the product of the places he himself has known ... in thinking about the conservation of 'environment', I gradually came to realize that an environment was not a place; that the words were not interchangeable; and that the difference was critical. There is a great deal of talk these days about saving the environment. We must, for the environment sustains our bodies. But as humans we also require support for our spirits, and this is what certain kinds of places provide. The catalyst that converts any physical locationany environment if you willinto a place, is the process of experienceing deeply. A place is a piece of the whole environment that has been claimed by feelings. Viewed simply as a life-support system, the earth is an environment. Viewed as a resource that sustains our humanity, the earth is a collection of places. We never speak, for example, of an environment we have known; it is always places we have knownand recall. We are homesick for places, we are reminded of places, it is the sounds and smells and sights of places which haunts us and against which we often measure our present (Gussow 1971, pp.27-28).
Places have meaning. Places evoke feelings and memories.

Humans require that their habitat sustain more than just their physical bodies in space and time; the human habitat must be made up of places. Places, as the essential element of the human habitat, are spaces which exist in time and have meaning. Regardless of how "place" is defined, it is more than simply an environment or a space.
Placethe sense of place, place-making, the spirit of place or genius lociis one of the major concerns of landscape architecture. There have been several books written about the subject in recent years(l), it is also widely talked about in schools of design, and there is to greater and lesser degrees an effort within the landscape architecture profession to make places of meaning. Underlying all of these publications, discussions, and efforts regarding places and their making are theories about design. As a result, it is crucial to know about theories in landscape architecture, for they are the basis of place design.
A theory in landscape architecture which enables designers to design meaningful and healthful places is necessary. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore what a design theory in landscape architecture is; to look at some of the existing theories, their processes and their products; and to understand how each orders places. Such an analysis can lead to a proposal for a new comprehensive theory of design for landscape architecture which enables the designer to successfully make quality places. I believe the

philosophy practiced by Gandhi offers the basis for such a design theory. Gandhi's philosophy consists of the practice of three principles which are ahimsa (nonviolence), swaraj (homerule), and satvaoraha (truth-in-action).
Key Terms and Concepts
What is landscape architecture? What is a theory of design? What is a theory of design in landscape architecture? To address these questions, it is first necessary to understand the meaning of the words landscape, architecture, theory, and design.
Landscape. The word "landscape" is complex, indeed, the geographer D.W. Meinig suggests that there are at least ten different ways to look at the same landscape. Furthermore, the difficulty in understanding landscape" is because, "any landscape is composed not only of what lies before our eyes but also what lies within our heads" (Meinig 1979, p.34). Several of the dictionary definitions of the word "landscape" include; "A view or prospect of natural inland scenery, such as can be taken in at a glance from one point of view; Inland natural scenery or its representation in painting; The art of laying out grounds so as to produce the effect of natural scenery" (Oxford English Dictionary COED] 1971, p.1566).
Each of these definitions is limited and none is completely appropriate. Thus an examination of the two syllables,
"land" and "scape", is required for a better understanding of

the word landscape".
The first syllable "land" because of its many different meanings is at least as ambiguous as the word "landscape". Although, as J.B. Jackson points out there is some consistency in its meaning; "As far back as we can trace the word, 'land' meant a defined space, one with boundaries, though not necessarily one with fences or walls" (1984, p.7). The second syllable "scape" is "A view of scenery of any kind, whether consisting of land, water, cloud, or anything else" (OED 1971, p.2657). While "scape" means essentially a view, 'scape' could also indicate something like an organization or a system" (Jackson 1984, p.7). Therefore, a "scape" is not just a view but is an ordered view and a "landscape" is then an ordered view of a bounded space or land.
Architecture. Architecture is "The art or science of building or constructing edifices of any kind for human use" (OED 1971, p.109). Closer examination reveals that architecture is made up of three syllables which shed further light on the meaning of the word. The first syllable, "archi", is a prefix meaning "chief, principal, first in authority or order" (OED 1971, p.109). The middle syllable, "tect", originates from the Greek meaning "a roof" and "covered, hidden" (OED 1971, p.3248). In essence "tect" is synonymous with cover. The act of covering is essentially one of creating protection or shelter. The final syllable,

"ure", is a suffix which "primarily denotes action or process" (OED 1971, p.3570>. Consequently, the word "architecture" means the principal-protection-process or the principal process of creating protection.
Theory. A theory is quite simply, "A conception or mental scheme of something to be done, or of the method of doing it; a systematic statement of rules or principles to be followed" (OED 1971, p.3284).
Design. Design is an activity. Design is the central activity of landscape architecture. The meaning of design, as a verb, is, To form a plan or scheme of; to conceive and arrange in the mind; to originate mentally, plan out, contrive" (OED 1971, p.698). Clearly, landscape architecture is primarily concerned with the planning or design, of the changes to be implemented in the environment. As a result, "Designing implies putting forward proposals for future developments of the landscape" (Meeus and Vroom 1988, p.280).
What Constitutes a Theory of Design in Landscape Architecture?
Based on the above definitions, it is now possible to address the questions: what is landscape architecture?; what is a theory of design?; and what is a theory of design in landscape architecture? Seen together the words "landscape architecture", or the architecture of the landscape, mean the principal process of protection and/or creation of an ordered

view of a bounded space or land. A theory of design then consists of both the principles and a method of doing the activity of design or the planning out of changes to be implemented in the environment. Consequently, a theory of design in landscape architecture is a set of principles and method for the planning out of changes to be implemented in the principal process of protection and/or creation of an ordered view of a bounded space. While, a design theory of landscape architecture requires both a set of principles and a process, it also consists of an underlying worldview and land ethic.
Worldview. Fundamental to any understanding of landscape architecture is its grounding in the relationship of humans and nature. The study of this relationship, of humans and nature (which quite often involves a related understanding of what is commonly known as God), is known as philosophy, and more particularly as metaphysics. Implicit to each theory of design in landscape architecture is an underlying philosophy or worldview. Typically, this philosophy, as it relates to landscape architecture, has been a reflection of the human condition with respect to nature within a particular historical context. These worldviews have subsequently been developed and refined in other fields and each has, at some point, come to play a role in landscape architecture.

Land Ethic. Critical to any design theory of landscape architecture is the concept of land ethics. First proposed by Aldo Leopold in 1933 (1966, p.239), land ethics can be understood as a code which helps to establish the conduct for the interaction of humans with the land. Most design theories, especially those in landscape architecture, have an underlying land ethic.(2) This land ethic informs the designer how the design effort should proceed with respect to the interaction of humans and the land.
Design Principles. Each design theory has a set of principles or ideals that the designer strives to acheive in the design of places or objects. Usually, these principles are set forth by a group of pivotal figures who may be epitomized through the thought and works of a key person.
Design Process. While not always readily apparent each theory has a method or process by which a designer reaches the designed product. In some cases, this process occurs by intuition but usually follows in some fashion a more clearly stated or readily apparent method.
Design Product or Place. Each theory can be illustrated by a variety of built examples or characterizations of its formal qualities. For the purpose of this thesis, the design product can best be demonstrated by residential community projects because of parallels between the formal relationships of residence to landscape and those of humans

to nature.
Three Theories
The history of landscape architecture may be viewed as an evolutionary refinement of design for the interaction of people with places in time. Paralleling this history, there are three theories of design which have evolved in American landscape architecture. Unquestionably, each of these design theories was a holistic synthesis of the thoughts and ideas of its time. Consequently, each theory of design shows more sophistication than the one that came before, because each has attempted to encompass that which preceeded it as well as synthesize the current intellectual thought of its day. The first of the theories, picturesque design, is sometimes known as landscape gardening or garden design and it focuses its attention primarily on visual considerations. The second theory is functional design; its primary concern is the improvement of the social community of humans in and through their interaction with nature. The most recent theory, ecological design, takes its premise from the science of ecology and maintains that the balance of nature must be protected because it is necessary for the survival of humans. Certainly, there are other design theories in addition to these three, including formalism, modernism, and others, but the three theories presented in this thesis are indicative of a common thread within the development of the field of American landscape architecture.

A New Design Theory
While all of these design theories are viable ways of designing places, each reflects a worldview which is no longer appropriate. Therefore, I advocate developing a new design theory which reflects a worldview for our time. I believe the philosophy which Gandhi practiced could form the basis for such a theory, which I will call holistic design.

The theory of picturesque design in landscape architecture is oriented primarily to the art or visual aesthetic of the designed landscape. Landscape or picturesque gardening consists of "the arrangement of a garden so as to make it a pretty picture" (OED 1971, p.2167). Landscape gardening is "the romantic style of gardening, aiming at irregular or rugged beauty" (OED 1971, p.2167) in the design of the landscape. The goal of picturesque design in landscape architecture is to make places which consist of beautiful outdoor spaces or scenes to gaze upon or view.
Romanticism in the Capitalist State
On July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress. The American colonies had declared their right to a government independent from the British Crown. But this was not just a declaration of independence, it also marked the beginning of a political and intellectual experiment unlike any that preceeded i t.
Jeffersonian Democracy. Thomas Jefferson with the

assistance of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert
Livingston, and Roger Sherman drafted the Declaration of Independence (Norton et al. 1986, p.140). An examination o the Declaration of Independence reveals the differences of this experiment and its direction:
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happ i ness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed ...
The declaration closes with a listing of grievances and an
appeal for justice. When reading the Declaration of
Independence three critical differences from previous forms
of government become apparent; the first, is that it was
written within the realm of "human events;" the second, is
that "all men are created equal," all have natural rights
which consist of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness," and these rights are guarenteed by government;
and, thirdly, that these rights had been violated and
legitimate and reasonable recourse to justice had been
denied. To understand these three differences in direction
it is useful to look at their respective origins: Newton,

Locke, and the Magna Carta.
In 1686, Isaac Newton wrote, in less than a year, his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. While Newton's laws of nature, postulated in the Principia. apparently explained many things in the physical world, they also raised a serious metaphysical question. Newton's first law, the law of equilibrium, stated that "Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it" (Sears et al. 1983, p.21). The implication of this statement is that all the forces in nature were already present, always would be and always had been, consequently there could be no such thing as divine intervention because divine intervention stipulated the presence of an outside force to change things. Newton, who was undoubtably a question asker, asked the next logical question; does God exist? Newton spent the remainder of his life grappling with this and related theological questions in an attempt to resolve the contradiction of his laws of nature and God's existence as it was commonly understood in his day.
Newton's contradictions were resolved by a religious conception known as Deism. "Deists, schooled in the world of Newtonian physics, believed in what they called natural religion. God was relegated to a first cause which set the world in being; after which it ran itself according to natural law.... Many of the Founding Fathers were mild

Deists" (Ekirch 1973, pp.14-15). Jefferson was certainly among the Deists and this is reflected in the way the Declaration of Independence was written. Since the world "ran itself according to natural law," the rights of men were solely an issue of human affairs and governments were to be instituted among only men. There would be no divine intervention and clearly people were responsible for all "human events."
In 1690, John Locke wrote his Second Treatise, of Civil Governmen t. In his Treatise. Locke stated that all men had natural rights and these consisted of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of property" (Lamprecht 1928, p.xxviii). Locke also stated within his Treatise that No government can have right to obedience from a people who have not freely consented to it" (Lamprecht 1928,, establishing that governments derived their power from natural authority versus devine authority. Clearly, when Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence he stated these two ideas, natural rights and natural authority, as the basis to "dissolve the political bands" which tied the colonists to the British Crown and Parliment. In fact the only noteworthy difference is Jefferson's use of "the pursuit of Happiness" instead of "property," suggesting that not only was the pursuit and possession of property important, it was also a source of happ i ness.
The Magna Carta of 1215 established that there would be

no "arbitrary infringements of personal liberty and rights of property" and thus regulated rights with respect to land tenure (Lai 1988, p.l£). This eventually led to the establishment of common law(3) in England whereby the rights to property were ensured (Lai 1988, p.17). By ensuring "personal liberty and rights of property," the Magna Carta and its interpretations over time encouraged the development of free enterprise or capitalism. The listing of grievances in the Declaration of Independence addressed the violations of the Magna Carta and subsequent Parlimentary laws which guaranteed the colonist's rights as land tenured citizens to carry out their business unencumbered. The Declaration of Independence was drafted expressly to set in motion the establishment of a secular government to ensure every man's natural rights and the freedom to pursue capitalism.
Cap i tali sm. Alexander Hamilton, the champion of capitalists, was Jefferson's intellectual nemesis. Both Jefferson and Hamilton were capitalists, but each practiced a different form of capitalism. Jefferson was from the Virginia Tidewater where agriculture, based on the use of slavery which required an investment of capital, was the primary means of income. Hamilton was from New York, formerly New Amsterdam, where the Dutch had firmly established an economy based on commerce and industry. Both men had a vision for the infant republican democracy which reflected their backgrounds. Jefferson's hope was to set up

a rural utopia of agrarian democracy, Hamilton's, was to institute a more urbane utopia of free enterprise.(4) As indicated by American history, Hamilton's capitalist dream has largely prevailed.
By winning the War of 1812, the United States secured its freedom from England, thus soldifying America as a nation and center of free enterprise. With this stability, the nation continued to grow, pushing the wilderness and the American Indians farther west, as the land was exploited for timber and other goods. This capitalist exploitation of resources enabled the urban middle-class of the eastern seaboard (Jackson 1970, p.6), to enjoy leisure time and in turn this created a need to develop an American culture devoted to the arts.
Romanticism and the Sublime. The westward advance of the American domination of the land or "manifest destiny had created not only leisure time but also guilt about the destruction of nature. Romanticism as a literary and artistic endeavour addressed both of these issues. Sentimentalism over nature and the Indian because of guilt feelings concerning their exploitation and extermination was a romantic reaction (Ekirch 1973, p.24). This sentimentalism or romanticism of nature is epitomized by the landscape painter George Catlin's 1832 proposal for a grand national park covering the Great Plains and the West to preserve in their wildness the American Indians (Rousseau's

"noble savage") and the buffalo (nature) for their aesthetic value. Romanticism fulfilled the sentimental need for nature by providing an idealized form of nature in art and 1i terature.
Romanticism can be best illustrated by the Hudson River
School painters led by Asher B. Durand, Thomas Cole, and
later Frederic Church. The Hudson River School painters were
on a quest to paint nature's ideal, the sublime or beautiful
landscape. Thomas Cole's letter to Robert Gilmor sets forth
the process by which to paint the ideal landscape:
But a departure from nature is not a necessary consequence in the painting of compositions: on the contrary, the most lovely and perfect parts of nature may be brought together, and combined in a whole, that shall surpass in beauty and effect any picture painted from a single view. I believe with you, that it is of the greatest importance for a painter always to have his mind upon nature, as the star by which he is to steer to excellence in his art. He who would paint compositions, and not be false, must sit down amidst his sketches, make selections, and combine them, and so have nature for every object that he paints (Cole 1825).
This imitation and adaptation of views of nature to paint a
more nearly perfect version of nature was at the heart of
roman t i ci sm.
The romanticists believed that ideal landscapes existed in two forms the sublime and the beautiful. Hugh Blair stated the differences between the two in a lecture of 1783 by saying "Nothing is more sublime than mighty power and strength. A stream that runs within its banks is a beautiful object; but when it rushes down with the impetuosity and

noise of a torrent, it becomes a sublime one" (Novak 1980, p.35). A sublime landscape painting was one in which the irregular or untamed quality of nature was depicted. The uncontrolled power of the sublime became an inspirational prospect of nature, a wild nature which was removed and at a distance from the romantic viewer. Clearly, the natural world, that which was wild, and the realm of men, that which was ordered, were two separate entities in the romantic-worldview. This development of the sublime ideal in the romantic movement reached its apex of influence when A.J. Downing's Landscape Gardening was published in 1841, and soon found its way onto "almost every parlour table" in the country (Simonds 1967, p.iv).
Land of Opportunity
Jefferson's vision of a utopia of agrarian democracy was based on his firm belief that Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever He had a chosen people; whose breasts He has made His peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue" (Peden 1955, p.164). The virtuous citizen was the base unit of Jefferson's democracy and therefore, "as few as possible shall be without a small portion of land. The small landowners are the most precious portion of the state" (Peden 1955, p.164). Jefferson saw the National Land Survey of 1785 as the ideal way to implement his utopia. The National Land Survey divided the land into rational units of townships, sections, and quarters, thus,

establishing a way of providing equal areas of land for each citizen. Each would have an investment in the land and consequently an interest in participating in the democrat i c governmen t.
While the National Land Survey established equal areas of land it also assumed that land like Newtonian space was undifferentiated. This attitude toward the land undermined a sense of rootedness to the land, it did so because location was known by an abstract cooordinate system rather than a geography of landmarks. In contrast, England had a fuedal land tenancy system based on geographical boundaries and upheld by common law (Lai 1988, p.19). To make the National Land Survey workable a gridiron system of roadways was required. The grid of roads ultimately made the marketplace equally accessible to both the rural and urban populace. Consequently, consumption became the operative mode of economy. The American gridiron became the ideal way to implement the capitalist cooption of land.
Rural and "Urban Land, too, now became a mere commodity, like labor: its market value expressed its only value" (Mumford 1961, p.422). Therefore, like other goods "land in America has also been regarded as a capital commodity, best free from public interference" (Lai 1988, p.47). Unencumbered land (particularly if it is idle or non-productive) lends itself to land speculation, the exploitation of its exchange value (extrinsic value) based upon supply and demand. Seen

in this way the land is viewed as having no intrinsic value, it has only an economic value. Therefore, whatever resources in the form of commodities can be taken from the land should be and sold for the greatest possible return with the smallest possible outlay of cash. The land is the individual's property and he or she has the right to take advantage of any opportunities that it might afford, the right to mine it, so to speak, for all it is worth. Although Jefferson saw the land as an opportunity to establish an agrarian democracy, it ultimately became an opportunity to be developed for material gain, for profit.
The Picturesque Landscape
Landscape gardening originated from landscape painting which was strictly an artistic endeavour concerned with scenery painting. During the first half of the nineteenth century in America Landscape gardening ... was largely the result of esthetic motivation in the cause of a new country, but it also depended heavily upon the rising sciences of horticulture, arboriculture, and pomology" (Creese 1985, pp.58-59). The interest in the botanical sciences and their application led to the formation of a number of agricultural and horticultural societies including the New York Horticultural Society in 1818 of which Downing later became the corresponding secretary. This interest in horticulture and the other botanical sciences had been inspired by Carolus Linnaeus' development of the modern botanical classification

system in the eigthteenth century. The science of horticulture and the art of landscape painting came together for the first time in America in 1825 when the Belgian nurseryman Andre Parmentier laid out the grounds of Dr. David Hosack's Hyde Park Estate in the picturesque style of landscape gardening.
Down i ng. Like Parmentier, Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852) brought together the fields of horticulture and landscape painting. Downing was the youngest son of a nurseryman, learned the business from his older brother and eventually took over the family nursery business in 1837. Not only was Downing directly involved in horticulture but he also witnessed the rise of the Hudson River School painters since he lived in the Hudson Yalley. Downing brought together his direct knowledge of horticulture and landscape painting, as well as the influence of the English landscape gardeners to formulate a theory of landscape gardening for Americans. He published his theory in a volume entitled A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening which brought him instant recognition and quickly went through several printings. Downing continued to expand upon his original ideas by editing The Horticulturalist magazine and writing two more books, Cottage Residences in 1842 and The Architecture of Country Houses in 1850.
Unquestionably Downing's greatest influence was as a writer rather than a designer. There were, however, several

projects that Downing worked on including the grounds of the State Hospital in Trenton, N.J. (1848), the Mall in Washington, D.C. (1851), and several residential estates in the Hudson Ualley including his own home Highland Gardens. Downing was also responsible for bringing the English trained architect Calvert Uaux, who would later design Central Park with Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., to America to work with him. While Downing did not design a great number of landscapes, he did play a role in the effort to have Central Park built in New York City by continually advocating for it in The Horticulturalist. Downing was also interested in the establishment of educational institutions for the study of agriculture and related subjects. Downing's greatest influence was on a more subtle level for "It was he who removed from the rural countryside the connotation of the awkward, unwashed, and unletteredand so described the delights and rewards of rural living that among the fashionable he started a massive exodus to the open countryside (Simonds 1967, p.ivC). Indeed, Downing "who was undoubtedly the father of the sflee-the-city movement,' soon converted thousands of urban stalwarts to the idea..." (Simonds 1967, p.ivC). The writings of Downing foreshadowed the suburbanization of American cities.
Pr i nci pies. There were two acceptable styles of gardens, the beautiful and the picturesque, within the theory of design Downing set forth. Downing described these as "the

Beautiful is nature or art obeying the universal laws of perfect existence (i.e. Beauty), easily, freely, harmoniously, and without the 'display' of power. The Picturesque is nature or art obeying the same laws rudely, violently, irregularly, and often displaying power only" (1841, p.53). The beautiful and the picturesque in landscape gardening correlated with the beautiful and the sublime in romantic thought, particularly that of the Hudson River School painters. Of the two Downing advocated for the picturesque by stating that "we think the Picturesque is beginning to be preferred" (1841, p.62), and by primarily directing the content of his treatise to the design of the picturesque garden.
Downing set down five principles by which to design either the beautiful or the picturesque style garden, these consisted of:
UNITY, or the 'production of a whole," is a leading principle of the highest importance, in every art of taste or design, without which no satisfactory result can be realized.... VARIETY must be considered as belonging more to the details than to the production of a whole, and it may be attained by disposing trees and shrubs in numerous different ways; and by the introduction of a great number of different species of vegetation, or kinds of walks, ornamental objects, buildings, and seats.... HARMONY may be considered the principle presiding over variety, and preventing it from becoming discordant.... THE IMITATION OF THE BEAUTY OF EXPRESSION, derived from a refined perception of the sentiment of nature ... THE RECOGNITION OF ART, founded on the immutability of the true as well as the beautiful (1841, pp.64-67).
The first three principles are clearly stated and therefore

easily understood but the other two are somewhat ambiguous. The principle of "the imitation of the beauty of expression" can be understood to mean the imitation of nature. This principle could more accurately be described as the process of design, that is, design was accomplished through the act of imitating nature. The last principle, "the recognition of art" meant the exercise of good taste in design. Obviously "Downing was concerned mainly with visual qualities" (Simonds 1967, p.iv), and his five principles of unity, variety, harmony, imitation of nature, and good taste were established to accomplish this end.
Imitating Nature
Downing's design process consisted of the intuitive
imitation of nature. The essential principle of his unique
and still valid approach is that all landscape design is an
abstract or idealized imitation of nature" (Simonds 1967,
p.iv). The design process also involved the assessment of
the site, by considering that,
When the area to be developed is small, the design, he proposed, should take into account all the positive qualities of the sitethe ground forms, cover, exposure, views and all other existing natural or architectural features--and bring them into artistic harmony. When the area to be considered is large or complex, each segment must be developed as an entity and all segments brought together into a unified whole (Simonds 1967, p.iv).
Ultimately the process can be characterized as the
arrangement and adjustment of the landscape to produce an
idealized natural scene and/or enframement of a striking view

of nature.
The Hudson Uallev
The Hudson River was originally settled by the Dutch West Indies Company which was directed by the Amsterdam diamond merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the first patroon along the Hudson. The settlement pattern cf the Hudson Yalley followed the system of Patroons in Holland, which were essentially feudal serfdoms. The Dutch came to America specifically to pursue business interests or commerce based on the trade of the resources and agricultural production of the patroon's tracts of land. Following the Revolutionary War the Patroons on the lower half of the Hudson River were confiscated, split up, and resold to cover outstanding expenses of the war (Zukowsky and Stimson 1985, pp.7-9).
Thus, a whole collection of new estates for the wealthy were created, each needing to have its grounds laid out.
The Hudson River Galley extends northward from New York City to its end at Albany and Troy. The prime estate sites along the Hudson were located on terraces which overlooked the river, these terraces were a result of the geology of the area and most were usually located on the east side of the river facing the Catskill Mountains to the west of the river. The Catskills which form the west bank of the Hudson create a sense of landscape beauty, consequently the eastern terraces became ideal sites from which to take in the views. Because of the ideal sites along the river, the lower Hudson Ualley

became the first American suburb and the commute to New York City was accomplished by steamboat. The term "suburb" was first used by N.P. Willis in the 1840's to describe the connection of the Hudson Valley to New York City (Creese 1985, p.46).
The early estates of the Hudson Valley were si tuated close to the shore and the road which ran along the river for ease of access. Later the manors were moved up onto the terraces to take advantage of the views and the road, barns and other items of utility were placed behind the manor house, to remove them from view (Creese 1985, p.56). One of the first estates to take advantage of the views offered by the terrace locations was the manor of George P. Morris, Undercliff (figure 1), which was built between 1833 and 1835 (Creese 1985, p.66). While Downing was not the originator of this arrangement of the Hudson Valley estates for their emphasis of views, he was its primary proponent and as such he also made many improvements in the refinement of this style. Downing's home, Highland Gardens in Newburgh, was a sandstone English Gothic villa designed and built by himself in 1838-1839. Downing paid particular attention to the landscape of his estate and "So skillfully were the trees arranged, that all suspicion of town or road was removed.... You fancied the estate extended to the river as ornament, and included the mountains beyond" (Curtis 1853, pp.xxxii-xxxiii). The only known project that Downing was responsible

for both the landscape and architecture was Springside owned by Matthew Vasser in Poughkeepsie and built between 1850 and 1852 (Zukowsky and Stimson 1985, p.153). Downing was also responsible for the landscape design of a number of homes designed by A.J. Davis. Among the more notable estates of the Hudson Valley were Malkasten (1866-1867) designed by the landscape painter Alfred Bierstadt for himself and Olana (1870-1874) the estate of Frederic Church, who also designed his own manor and grounds.
The relationship of residences to the landscape in the Hudson Valley has several consistent characteristics. The first and most important is the view", that is the picture of nature seen from the observation point of the house. The sight lines for these pictures or views became a driving force in the design of an estate, as Downing's plan for a "Country Seat" clearly shows (figure 2). Another important characteristic was the perfection of the grounds of each estate to emulate the ideal form of nature, through ornamental embellishments of the landscape and architecture, the creation of the ideal image (figure 3). Lastly, each residence was a retreat, the houses were largely isolated, back from the highway, far from neighbors and nestled into perfect landscape settings. The estates of the Hudson Valley were creations of the wealth of capitalism and the need for an individualistic relationship with the ideal image of nature.

Functional design is concerned with the improvement of society by and through its interaction with nature. The practical requirements of society on a site and the physical and technical constraints of that site are central to the theory of functional design in landscape architecture. The word "functional" comes from the root word "function" which means "the action of performing" or "the mode of action by which it fulfills its purpose" (OED 1971, 1095). The purpose of functional design in landscape architecture is to make outdoor places which meet the needs of the human community while performing the technical requirements of a site.
Social Reform
The early establishment of capitalism in America, and its basis of commerce and industry, introduced three sets of problems. These three issues consisted of social justice, the rapid growth of cities, and the decline of environmental quality. The first of these, social justice, revolved around the need within any true democracy for all to have the right to vote and obtain an education. The second problem was a

result of rapid population growth in the urban centers of America which placed many stresses on the infastructure and people of the cities. Thirdly, the quality of the environment was rapidly declining because of the uncontrolled consumption of forests by the timber industry and unmitigated development of westward expansion.
Social Justice. At its inception, American representative democracy consisted of many double standards. The power to vote and hence the power to determine government was the perogative of just a few. Those who could vote came from the English speaking landed gentry, were educated, white, and male. This quickly changed as the right to vote was extended by the elimination of poll taxes and by allowing male immigrants to vote. While the extension of the right to vote broadened the base of government, it also increased the number of uneducated voters who were more susceptable to corruption.
The University of Virginia was founded in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as the first public, state sponsered institution of higher education. Prior to the University of Virginia, colleges and universities had been private affliations with religious sects until Benjamin Franklin founded the University of Pennsylvania in 1740. Jefferson envisioned that universities and colleges would be the culmination of a public school system education for all persons. Horace Mann, who was the head of Boston's Board of Education from 1837 to

1848, led the movement for the establishment of public schools. Later both Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. were involved in the effort to establish a nationwide system of colleges. This effort culminated in the Morrill Act of 1862 which established the land grant colleges (agriculture and mechanical schools).(5)
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 established a balance of power in the Senate between the southern slave states and the northern free states. While the compromise maintained political peace, it did not quiet the many passionate voices on both sides of the slavery issue. Of the multitude of writers on the subject, one stands out because he attempted to take an objective look at slavery and agriculture in the South. This writer was Olmsted. What is significant about the letters Olmsted published in the New York Daily Times (Roper 1973, p.B4), is that he attempted to suspend judgement about the moral acceptability of slavery and instead set out to examine its practicality. Olmsted's letters focused on agriculture and reported on the economic conditions of the South, the profitability of slavery and the cotton plantation, southern culture, and the subsistence farming populace. Despite all of the efforts by Olmsted and others to find a peaceful solution, the nation found itself in a civil war shortly after Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860. The Civil War ended four years later in 1865 and soon after that the thirteenth ammendment was added to the Constitution

abolishing slavery. Blacks had gained their freedom but it was not until 1920 and the passing of the nineteenth amendment that women, another oppressed group, gained the right to vote.
The Rapid Growth of Cities. The phenomenal growth of the cities along the eastern seaboard in the nineteenth century created a host of problems including a shortage of decent housing, inefficent transportation, and a need for clean water and safe sanitation. This population increase was a result of the daily arrival of new immigrants and the growth of industry based on mass production technologies. The same technology which helped create these urban problems had the potential to raise the standard of living for many people by making available inexpensive mass produced products.
While many of the problems of the city could be solved by technology not all could be, one of these was the people's need for respite from the intensity and pressure of the city.
In the early nineteenth century, the only way to escape the city and its problems was to move to the country which for many was not an economic option. Consequently, any visionary plan of social reform and improvement for the city during this time included the idea of a public park. In 1844 William Cullen Bryant wrote an article entitled "A New Park" in the Post calling for a public park in New York City.
Bryant continued to advocate for a park with the help of Downing who wrote about it in The Horticulturalist. The

argument for the need of a public park rested on two points, the recent and extensive use of rural cemetaries, Mt. Auburn in Boston, Laurel Hill in Philadelphia, and Greenwood in New York, for public pleasure gardens and the success of the first public park, Birkenhead Park designed by Joseph Paxton and built in England in 1844. The first of the rural cemetaries, Mt. Auburn, had been built outside of Boston based on the argument, put forth by Dr. Jacob Bigelow with the help of the Massachusetts Horticulture Society, that cemetaries in the city were a hygenic problem. Bryant's and Downing's efforts finally succeeded when in 1851 the New York legislature passed the First Park Act which set aside some land on Manhattan for the establishment of a public park. After a shift in location and an increase in size, work on Central Park was begun in 1857 under Park Engineer Egbert L. Viele and Park Superintendent Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr.
The Decline of Environmental Quality. Jefferson's purchase of the Louisana Territory from France in 1803 began the westward expansion of the nation which later became known as "manifest destiny".(6) The intent of Jefferson's Louisana Purchase was to provide land for all of the future citizens of the agrarian democracy, but these lands along with other subsequent expansions became not only farmland but were also developed in other ways. The Homestead Act of 1862 was adopted to facilitate the settlement of the West by offering one hundred sixty acres free to any person who would live on

and improve their property. The railroads were also a critical force in the development of the West, particularly after Congress passed the Railroad Act of 1862 to establish a transcontinental railroad which was completed in 1869. In addition to being the beneficiaries of government subsidies in the form of land(7) to underwrite their construction, railroads also created many of the cities of the American West (Norton et al. 1986, p.460). The building of the railroads was accompanied by the American Indian Wars (1850-1880) and the decimation of the buffalo which did much to disrupt the existing ecological balance of the environment in the West. The other major factor in the decline of the quality of the environment was the Timber and Stone Act of 1878 which allowed citizens to buy quarter sections of timber lands for *2.50. The lumber companies took advantage of the act by hiring others to file claims for timberland which they would turn over to the companies.(8) The Timber and Stone Act amounted to a forest land giveaway and led to the destruction of whole forests and the ruin of many watersheds.
In 1877, Carl Schurz, a German immigrant and the Secretary of the Interior, called for three reforms to stop the depredation of the environment. First, he set up a merit system for employees, which was designed to put a stop to the system of spoils in the Interior Department; this was later institutionalized for all U.S. government employees as the Civil Service Commission by the Pendleton Act of 1883.

Secondly, he recommended that all federal timber lands be withdrawn from entry under the pre-emption and homestead laws and be placed in a national forest reserve system (Ekirch 1973, p.87); this happened fourteen years later after a concerted effort by another immigrant from Germany and head of the forestry division, Bernard E. Fernow, to have the Forest Reserve Act passed in 1891 (Nash 1976, p.25). Schurz also proposed that these timber lands be managed in a manner similar to the German forest management systems. In 1897 this was implemented with the passage of the Forest Management Act. In 1898 Gifford Pinchot secured the appointment to the head of the forestry division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with the help of Olmsted and proceeded to oversee an unparalleled growth of the Forest Service during the administration of Teddy Roosevelt.
Romanticism and the Beautiful. The social reform of the mid-nineteenth century required a somewhat different way of seeing the world than the sublime view of romanticism provided; something more in line with the need to set things right that was so much a part of social reform. This view was still romantic as nature still held a sentimental value for many people in America because the western frontier was still rapidly being extended. Consequently, the beautiful landscape came to be preferred as its well ordered sensibility was more appropriate to the vision of social reform. Because the beautiful landscape was one in which

everything was in its place and it conveyed a sense of harmony and balance it appealed to those of a more socially minded nature. This sensitivity to the beautiful in the landscape came to the fore beginning with Olmsted and Vaux's design of Central Park in New York City and later came to dominate in the design of Prospect Park in Brooklyn.
Managing the Land
Gifford Pinchot has been among the greatest advocates of conservation or resource management. Pinchot passionately believed that nature's value was in its ability to be used for the benefit of society.
The central thing for which Conservation stands is to make this country the best possible place to live in, both for us and for our descendents. It stands against the waste of the natural resources which cannot be renewed, such as coal and iron: it stands for the perpetuation of the resources which can be renewed, such as food-producing soils and the forests; and most of all it stands for an equal opportunity for every American citizen to get his fair share of benefit from these resources, both now and hereafter. Conservation stands for the same kind of practical commonsense management of this country by the people that every business man stands for in handling of his own business (Pinchot 1910, p.79).
It [conservation] emphasized the comprehensive and well-planned management of all natural resources according to sound ethical and economic standards (Pinchot 1947, p.49).
This concept of conservation meant that the perceived needs
and wants or desires of society became the basis for
decisions regarding the use of natural resources; the
greatest good for the largest numbers at the least cost

(economics and engineering for society).
Conservation, as defined by Pinchot and his colleagues, had come to mean, not the effort to achieve a balance with nature, but the more efficient planned use of nature's resources" (Ekirch 1973, pp.98-99). Consequently, development or use of the resource is usually taken to its threshold (carrying capacity), beyond which sustainable yields will not take place. It is the conserving or management of a resource to the point that its returns will not diminish. This point of view sees any part of the environment as having value only in so far as it is useful, that it can be measured economically. Because economic value is an extrinsic value rather than an intrinsic one, the proponents of this position take the view that their's is an objective point of view. Nature has no intrinsic value, but is instead available for human use and must be managed for its long-term benefit to people.
The Pastoral Landscape
When Downing wrote his Landscape Gardening he suggested there were two appropriate types of landscape gardens, the picturesque and the beautiful. The second of these ,the beautiful, later came to be known as the pastoral landscape. The term pastoral originated in England and referred to the landscape of neatly ordered rolling pasture land which was so pervasive in England. The idea and development of the pastoral landscape in America was popularized by Frederick

Law Olmsted Sr.
Olmsted. During his childhood, Olmsted (1822-1903), traveled extensively over New England with his family which instilled in him a great love of nature and the countryside as well as an incessant urge to travel. This urge led Olmsted as a young man to journey to China as a deck hand where he experienced the harsh realities of the injustices of the sailor's life. The next formative experience of Olmsted's life was his concerted attempt to be a farmer where he employed the most recent scientific techniques. In 1850 after several years of farming Olmsted traveled with his brother to England where the first noteworthy thing he saw was Birkenhead Park across the river from Liverpool which had been built expressly for the use of the common public. The remainder of his trip was spent in careful observation of the pastoral countryside of England while, Gradually and silently the charm comes over us; the beauty has entered our souls; we know not exactly when or how, but going away we remember it with a tender, subdued, filial-like joy" (Olmsted 1852, p.108). After his trip to England, Olmsted continued to farm for a short while longer but gave it up in 1852 to become a writer and soon after traveled to the South to report on the agriculture of the slave states. Olmsted's career as a writer culminated as editing publisher of Putnam's magazine. Each of these experiences (traveling, farming, and writing) was crucial to his first effort as a

landscape architect, the managing and design of Central Park at the age of thirty-five.
Olmsted and Vaux were among the first to use the term Landscape Architect to describe themselves and their profession. In many respects Olmsted was instrumental in the establishment and development of the profession of landscape architecture in America. Perhaps the most important contribution Olmsted made as a landscape architect was to popularize the idea of parks as an essential part of the social plan of any city, the consequence of which has been that virtually every major city as well as many smaller ones in the United States has an Olmstedian park(s). The significance of Olmsted's endeavours have clearly made him the greatest landscape architect America has known.
Principles. At the heart of all of the work Olmsted did was his social plan, a plan where the primary principle was the improvement of humanity. Olmsted believed that rural {natural) environs offered the best remedy for the nervous stresses of the city. Olmsted believed that recreation in natural settings was the best way to make the critical connection to nature for people, this included both passive and active recreation. Olmsted saw recreation as the key to this problem because he recoginized that Jefferson's ideal of agrarinism was no longer a workable solution. Therefore, he felt people needed access to nature in the city in the form of recreation. Olmsted believed as Jefferson had before him

that each individual had an inalienable right to the pursuit of happiness, therefore, "Planned parks were meant to be a countervailing force in the essentially commercial city, improving the urban environment; the planned suburb was a part of the city in the countryside" (Fein 1972, p.32).
Olmsted was always concerned with two elements in design. The first element was that every undertaking should have some kind of artistic underpinning or ordering principles, this usually meant the conception of a pastoral landscape. The second element was one of how to do it and at what cost. In other words, he was concerned about engineering and economy. The first was never open to question, the second was always always placed in terms of what was the most practicable and lasting solution. At the basis of accomplishing both the aesthetic and practical demands for the design of a site was the manipulation of the topography. In a letter Olmsted wrote to Vaux he stated that, The great merit of all the works you and I have done is that in them the larger opportunities of the topography have not been wasted in aiming at ordinary suburban gardening, cottage gardening, effects. We 'have left it alone' more than most gardeners can. But never too much, hardly enough" (McLaughlin 19B3, p.68). In Olmsted's "Description of a Plan for the Improvement of the Central Park 'Greensward'" he focses a significant amount of the description upon topographical concerns. He considers it

from two points of view, its natural characteristics or spatial qualities and its economy of construction or functional aspects. The topography was used to determine the functional requirements of transportation, drainage, and the layout of activities including recreation, both active and passive, and ammenities. The topography was also used to develop the spatial quality of the site and included such things as how it would be ordered, what the mood would be, and its formal character. The topography and its manipulation was the great unifying force in Olmsted's work.
Problem Solving
Olmsted's design process was innovative because of his
coordination of a team of professionals from both artistic
and engineering fields to solve the problems of a design. He
worked on or directed teams that included architects,
engineers, sculptors, foresters, and horticulturalists.
Effective cooperation among practitioners of different professions on so varied a range of tasks could take place because these men shared similar views regarding the 'process of design'. They accepted the principle that a design was the end result of an analytical, problem-solving processa meaningful solution rather than an isolated decoration (Fein 1972, p.28)
While the process involved a team of skilled professionals to design a project it was always proceeded by a careful written analysis of the site. "Olmsted always assessed the land and its capabilities before formulating a plan for its development. Although his assessment techniques were not

sophisticated, his intention was thoroughly modern" Riverside
In 1864 David Gage bought 1600 acres to the east of Chicago and called it Riverside Farm, a name taken from an original 20 acre farm which the 1600 acres surrounded but did not include. The farm provided food for Gage's Hotel Sherman in Chicago for several years. In 1868 Emery E. Childs, an eastern businessman, and his associates invested in Riverside with Gage in order to develop a better suburb outside of Chicago (Creese 1985, p.222). Olmsted, Vaux & Co., Landscape Architects were contracted to draw up a general plan for Riverside (figure 4) which was completed in 1869. While development was slow it was of a very high caliber and involved designers such as: Frederick Withers who was an architect from England and worked breifly for Downing prior to the latter's death; Calvert Vaux who was Olmsted's partner and also designed many of the residences built in Riverside; William Le Baron Jenney who invented the skyscraper; Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Purcell & Elmslie, all of whom were Prairie School architects (Creese 1985, p.221). The progress in development was all but halted after the Great Fire in Chicago (1871) because of an outbreak of fever and

ague at Riverside and the subsequent depression of 1873 only made matters worse and finally Olmsted and Vaux were forced to accept lots in lieu of payment which steadily lost value (Creese 1985, p.224). Fortunately a significant proportion of the infastructure was in place before Riverside developed serious financial problems and, consequently, it survived to become a desirable place to live.
Riverside was a suburb of Chicago located along the Des Plaines River and it was the first stop on the way out of Chicago on the railroad which was built in 1864. The Des Plaines River and the railroad were the only variations on the otherwise flat wooded site. Because of the lack of significant natural features beyond the river, Olmsted's initial report focused on the virtues of suburban life over life in the city where,
the mere proximity of dwellings which characterizes all strictly urban neighborhoods, is a prolific source of morbid conditions of the body and mind ... relief ... can be obtained in no way ... except by removal to suburban districts.... It would appear then, that the demands of suburban life, with reference to civilized refinement, are not to be a retrogression from, but an advance upon, those which are characteristic of town life, and that no great town can long exist without great suburbs (Olmsted, Vaux & Co. 1868, pp.5-6).
The report was as much a manifesto for suburban living as it
was an analysis of the site and the only significant
suggestions made regarding development were these about
transportation and architecture:
the idea being to suggest and imply leisure, contemplativeness and happy tranquility (Olmsted,

Vaux & Co. 1868, p.13).
We cannot- judiciously attempt to control the form of the houses which men shall build, we can only, at most, take care that if they build very ugly and inappropriate houses, they shall not be allowed to force them disagreeably upon our attention when we desire to pass along the road upon which they stand. We can require that no house shall be built within a certain number of feet of the highway, and we can insist that each house-holder shall maintain one or two living trees between his house and his highway-line (Olmsted,
Vaux & Co. 1868, p.18).
These ideas along with the suggestion to set aside a common park along the river for everyone were clearly the focus of the design of the plan.
To implement his ideas Olmsted set aside 700 of the 1600 acres for public open space, established a thirty foot setback and a requirement that at least two trees be planted in the front yard, generous lots (a minimum of 200' deep and 100' wide) and that the front yard also remain open and free of fences, the use of an irregular street pattern, a separation of commercial (to be located along the railroad tracks) and residential zones, and the use of the latest technology for the best possible infastructure. Olmsted stated his intentions for Riverside in a letter to the developers:
At Riverside we are attempting to apply the principles of Art upon which the beauty and interest of modern pleasure grounds thus depends to the arrangement of the streets and grounds of a town or suburban village, and especially to reconcile such an undertaking in a greater degree than has yet been done with all the usual requirements of convenience.... We cannot claim that what you will offer in respect to gas, water,

drainage, street- access, and other matters of convenience will be better than can be found in some of the more desirable residences of the city but what, besides more pure air and other conditions of health, you can offer, is a much higher degree of the gratification of true taste.
We have studied to lay out the public highways with reference not merely to the avoidance of the straight lines and angles of the city streets, but also as to admit of our arranging bodies of trees in such a manner that a considerable degree of the beauty which the play of light and shade over the varied lines of large masses of foliage gives to the finest gardens and parks may also be obtained.
We expect that in the interest and pleasure to be derived from this source in passing from one point to another at Riverside its most attractive characteristic will eventually be found.... The position of each tree upon and near the road we would have chosen not from regard to its relation to the house adjoining it but to the grove which will be looked upon from the house and which will form a most important advantage of a residence in it over a residence in an ordinary city house <01msted 1869, p.Z).
It is clear that Olmsted wished to make a pleasant place to live, a refuge from the ills of the city, a place to renew the mind, body, and soul.
Although Riverside was shaded by many trees, it was still a pastoral landscape because the even dappled shade which the trees provided made for a quiet place where nothing unusual or out of balance existed. Riverside was very simply ordered to create a place apart from the city and "For this social, as well as ecological and aesthetic, purpose, the Des Plaines River became the organizing land form around which to structure a system of open space" (Fein 1972, p.35). In fact the only thing which detracted from this was the Victorian architecture which looked back to Downing and that Olmsted

described as "stuck up." Riverside is an acheivement in design which is not so much a result of all the things that it does but instead that which it does not do, its strength is as an understated pastoral landscape.

The theory of ecological design in landscape architecture is based on the science of ecology and is interested in the preservation of the balance of nature, because it is necessary for the survival of humans. The word "ecology" was first used by Reiter in 1865 to describe the science of the relationships of organisms and their environments. In 1865, Reiter joined the two Greek words oikos. house and logy. the study of, to form the word "ecology" meaning the study of house Environmentali sm
The earliest environmentalist efforts consisted of George Catlin's plea to set aside vast areas of the West as a national park and later Henry David Thoreau also joined in this early call for national parks. After being urged by

Olmsted and others the first step toward a national park system of natural and undisturbed wilds was taken in 1864 when the federal government turned the Yosemite Valley over to the state of California to preserve and manage its scenic beauty. Eight years later, in 1872, Yellowstone was established as the first National Park. After many years of fighting, John Muir with the support of Olmsted succeeded in having the trusteeship of Yosemite returned to the federal government as a national park in 1891, where he hoped that it would be better protected. In 1892, following the Yosemite crusade, the Sierra Club was chartered by Muir and others "to explore, enjoy, and protect the nation's scenic resources," and has since become one of the most influential voices in environmental advocacy. From its beginning the environmental movement has been concerned with protecting nature but it was the transcendentalists who inspired the effort.
Transcendentalism. Ralph Waldo Emerson became the guiding spirit of the transcendentalist thinkers shortly after publishing Nature in 1836. Fundamental to the transcendentalist point of view was the concept of nature as "Intermediary between God and man, nature also carried a portion of the Divinity to each individual"

in romanticism nature was merely representative of divinity. God was to be found in nature not in the church, God was an immanant force. The consequence of this view necessitated that nature/God required protection from wanton human consumption.
In 1837, Emerson gave the Harvard graduation address, where among the graduating class was the scholar Henry David Thoreau. In his address entitled The American Scholar, Emerson quite clearly states that "The first in time and the first in importance of the influences upon the mind is that of nature.... The scholar is he of all men whom this spectacle most engages" (Mumford 1968, p.33). Emerson's address was obviously an inspirational turning point for Thoreau. Thoreau went on to conduct his now famous experiment in essential living at Walden Pond (1845-1847) of which he published an account of in the book Walden in 1854. Walden was a record of one man's observation of and impact on nature. By his own admission Thoreau's only guilt was that he had left his mark at Walden Pond instead of an invisible set of tracks as he would have preferred; he had regretably disturbed nature.
Ecology and Planning. For John Muir the inspiration of Emerson's and Thoreau's writings, combined with his own deeply felt belief that God was to be found in every aspect of nature, led him to a life long study and love of nature.
As great as Muir's achievements were as an advocate he was an

equally effective natural scientist, formulating a now widely accepted theory of glacial geology from his observations of glacial action in the Sierras. Following in the footsteps of Muir was another natural scientist, Aldo Leopold. Leopold who was a graduate of the Yale School of Forestry, spent his early years in the U.S. Forest Service on the Kabib Plateau of Arizona, where he learned ecology the hard way. Practicing the game management doctrine of the day Leopold removed the wolves only to have the deer population grow, as he expected, and then crash with a slim hope of recovery (while the forest also suffered damage from overgrazing by the deer). This experience forced Leopold to revise many of his ideas about the environment which he eventually set forth in A Sand County Almanac, posthumously published by his son, the hydrologist Luna Leopold (who taught for many years in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley). The science of ecology was later set forth more explicitly when Eugene Odum published his classic, Fundamentals of Ecology in 1951. Odum subsequently proposed a system of ecological classifications or "compartments" for use in ecological applications to land use in a 1969 article entitled "The strategy of Eco-System Development" in Science magazine.
Odum was not the only person to advocate using ecology in planning, it had in fact been proposed over one hundred years previously. George Perkins Marsh recorded a number of

historical examples in his book Man and Nature written in 1864 of what can best be described as ecological disasters which were directly explicable by the exceeding of the carrying capacity of ecosystems by human civilizations. "The great lesson of Man and Nature was that nature did 'not' heal herself" (Lowenthal 1965, p.xxv); consequently, it was critical to do planning which took into account natural systems. Marsh's efforts to implement an ecological attitude in land use by humans were followed by those of a series of planners with a natural science orientation. The forester and planner Benton MacKaye worked out one of the earliest ecosystem approaches to planning; he identified several catagories of land that were particularly valuable or vulnerable which should be protected (Fabos 1979, p.53). Patrick Geddes, the Scottish botanist and planner, was a pioneer at resolving environmental conflicts and he also set up a classification system of natural resources (Fabos 1979, p.53). Later, Geddes' follower Lewis Mumford wrote his voluminous collection of critical historical surveys of the human environment and advocated the concept of the "regional city" (Hill 1985, p.412). The science of ecology and its application in planning has played a major role in supporting the environmentalist viewpoint by making it an argument based on a directly applicable scientific grounding.
The Environment in Law and Art. The environmentalists are one of the most visible political forces in America

today, this is due in large part to their recent legal successes. Broadly speaking there are three different types of environmental legislation: protection, mitigation, and remedy. Environmental protection legislation has the longest history, beginning with the establishment of Yellowstone as a national park and including: the Antiquites Act <1906) for the protection of sites of scientific or historical interest as national monuments; the National Parks Act <1916); the Wilderness Act (1964) to establish a national wilderness preservation system in the national forests; and the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968). During the 1960's and 1970's much of the legislation setting standards or criteria for environmental mitigation was written, including the National Environmental Protection Act and the Clean Air Act. There has also been legislation written recently to remedy the damage already done to the environment, such as the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund to cleanup toxic wastes sites. The environmental movement has also been successful in the courts through the efforts of organizations like the Sierra Club, the Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Environmental Defense Fund. One of the most effective environmental court battle was the Mineral King case <1972), in which the Sierra Club sued to block the issuance of a Forest Service permit for the development of the Mineral King Valley by Walt Disney Enterprises. The Sierra Club eventually lost the case which

went before the Supreme Court on the grounds that the decision to grant a permit was not injurious to the club itself, however, if the Sierra Club had filed on behalf of the Mineral King Valley then it would be a different matter. In losing the case the Sierra Club had won a far greater battle, that is, the precedence that trees have standing in court. The environment can now be represented in a United States court of law.
During its history the environmental movement has been closely tied to the arts. The arts, particularly literature, have been the most effective means of communication for the environmentalists. The literature on the environment ranges from philosophy and experiential accounts to scientific and aesthetic investigations that have been written by a variety of people such as Emerson, Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Muir, John Burroughs, Mary Austin, Aldo Leopold, Loren Eiseley, Wallace Stegner, Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard, and many others. In the visual arts the field of photography has come to dominate the communication of the environment through the work of Ansel Adams, Eliot Porter, and a number of other recent photographers. In both environmental literature and photography two characteristics consistently reappear, the attention to detail and process. These characteristics encourage both the reader and viewer alike to seek a greater awareness of nature.
Protecting the Land

Although many people have argued for the protection of
the land, few have said it so simply or profoundly as Aldo
Leopold. Leopold put forward the concept of land ethics as a
necessary attitude to any real progress toward the protection
of the land. He believed that land ethics is the next
evolutionary step in the development of both humans and
nature. Leopold defined land ethics this way:
All ethics so far evolved rest upon a single premise: that the individual is a member of a community of interdependent parts. His instincts prompt him to compete for his place in the community, but his ethics prompt him also to co-operate (perhaps in order that there may be a place to compete for).... The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land (Leopold, 1966, p.239).
His concept for a land ethic rested on the idea of "a
community of interdependent parts" or an ecological web of
organisms and environment which necessitated the need to
"co-operate." Furthermore, "a land ethic changes the role of
Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain
member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his
fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such"
(Leopold, 1966, p.240). Leopold advocates a biocentric point
of view and rejects the anthropocentric "conqueror" as a
model of human interaction with the land. Not only does he
call for a fundamentally different way of seeing the role of
humans in their relationship to nature but he also outlines
the problem with the current view and states the benefit of
the alternative in this passage:

Conservation is getting nowhere because it is incompatible with our Abrahamic concept of land. We abuse land because we regard it as commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect. There is no other way for land to survive the impact of mechanized man, nor for us to reap from it the esthetic harvest it is capable, under science, of contributing to culture.
That land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved is an extension of ethics. That land yields a cultural harvest is a fact long known, but latterly often forgotten (Leopold, 1966, pp. xviii-xix).
The fundamental problem is a person's ownership of land as an
economic unit. Leopold suggests humans should, instead, act
as if they belonged to the land, to be the people of a place.
He believes that science will provide the necessary ability to realize that potential.
The scientific study of nature is of critical importance because it will bring further understanding of how natural processes operate and what the role of humans in these systems are. Consequently, the land is seen as being intrinsically valuable because of the information to be found within the land. Since humans are part of the interconnected system of nature it is necessary to protect the land for survival. The information value of the land is understood to be of far greater worth than any economic gain which might otherwise be sacrificed by protecting the land.
The Natural Landscape
The natural landscape is that part of the environment which is ideally undisturbed by human intervention. Critical

to the natural landscape is that its ecological systems and cycles should not be interupted or changed. Just as important is the belief that people cannot design a landscape of any more aesthetic beauty than would otherwise be found in nature. Therefore, the design of the natural landscape endeavours to minimize human impact on the environment and this is best accomplished through the use of ecological principles.
McHarg. Born in Scotland in 1920, Ian McHarg developed a great love for the countryside during his childhood and youth which was spent between the "gray impression of gloom and dreary ugliness" of the industrial city of Glasgow and the Western Highlands, where it "was always exhilarating and joy could be found" (1969, p.2). McHarg spent the six years of World War II in military service as a paratrooper where he surely learned the necessity to think rationally and the need for explicit forms of communication. Shortly after his studies at Harvard, McHarg was diagnosed as having tuberculosis and, consequently, spent some time in the grimey Southfield Colony for Consumptives before getting a transfer to a Swiss sanitarium in the purity of the natural alpine meadows, where he quickly regained his health (Ledger 1987, p.34). These are the three formative experiences in McHarg's life: the city-country dichotomy, war, and illness. Each is clearly reflected in his theory of design.
Perhaps McHarg's greatest contribution to the

professions of landscape architecture and planning has been through his book Design with Nature in which he outlines his theory of design.(9) The importance of McHarg's theory cannot be denied because it has renewed a sense of respectability in the field while attempting to establish a level of consistency and legitimacy. Maybe as important has been his influence as a teacher at the University of Pennsylvania where many of his students have gone on to practice, like himself, his theories as well as teach them at other universities. Some of these former students include Anne Spirn, Micheal Hough, Carol Franklin, Leslie Sauer, Meto Vroom, Jon Berger, Narendra Juneja, and many others. Without a doubt, McHarg and his colleagues have had a greater impact on the fields of landscape architecture and planning in the latter half of the twentieth century than any other individual or group of individuals.
Principles. The principles of McHarg's theory of ecological design are based on the science of ecology. Underlying this theory are three fundamental forces. The first is the need to address the current view and situation: the dichotomy of humans and nature, city and countryside, war and peace. The unity of humans and nature is essential to survive, We need this unity to survive" (McHarg 1969, p.Z4>. Secondly, the theory if it is to be workable requires a "planning process that is rational, explicit, replicable, and can employ the values of the community" (McHarg 1969, p.115).

And thirdly, that the natural world and its processes are inherently healthful and, therefore, intrinsically beautiful. In order to accomplish these requirements McHarg proposes the application of the science of ecology to planning and design or the practice of planning and design from within an ecological view.
McHarg believes that planning and design based on the
ecological view is the best possible way to accomplish the
most important of all tasks, which is, "Survival ... the
first concern" (1969, p.100). The principles or criteria
employed in the theory to meet this end are:
The first is negentropy, the increase in levels of order. The second is apperception, the capacity to transmute energy into information and thence to meaningand to respond to this. The third is symbiosis, the cooperative arrangement that permits increase in levels of order and requires apperception. The fourth is fitness and fittingthe selection of a fit environment, and of the organism, to accomplish a better fitting. The final criterion is the presence of health or pathologythe evidence of creative fitting, requiring negentropy, apperception and symbiosis (McHarg 1969, p.196)
The application of these principles in the planning process
begins with the first, "negentropy," which is understood to
be the essence of "evolution as the creative process" (McHarg
1969, p.53). Consequently, Homo sapiens are seen as the
highest level of order and, as such;
If one can view the biosphere as a single superorganism, then the Naturalist considers that man is an enzyme capable of its regulation, and conscious of it. He is of the system and entirely dependent upon it, but has the responsibility for management, derived from his apperception. This is

his rolesteward of the biosphere and its
consciousness (McHarg 1969, p.124)
Applying the second criteria, "apperception," requires that "knowledge of physical and biological processes ... is essential to understand nature, to propose use or change" (McHarg 1969, p.127). The third principle, "symbiosis" (and succession and evolution), affirms that "it is necessary to understand nature as an interacting process that represents a relative value system, and that can be interpreted as proferring opportunities for human usebut also revealing constraints, and even prohibitions to certain of these." (McHarg 1969, p.127). The fourth, "fitness," is "by definition creative and will be revealed in the form of fitness that is life-enhancing" (McHarg 1969, p.173). The last one, "health," becomes the measure for evaluation and would obviously point to the ultimate possibility of survival.
The Ecological Method
The process or method of design employed by McHarg is best known for its overlay maps or seive mapping techniques, but the ecological method consists of more than just maps.
The ecological method is always carried out by a team of scientists, planners, and designers and it employs rational method: the evidence is derived, in the main, from exact sciences" (McHarg 1969, p.105). Furthermore, "the method is explicit. Any other person, accepting the method and

evidence, is likely to reach the same conclusions as those demonstrated in the study" (McHarg 1969, p.105). More specifically, the steps of McHarg's process, as adapted by Frederick Steiner and Kenneth Brooks, consist of the following:
1. Establish the goals of the planning studydefine the issue being addressed.
2. Ecological inventory and analysis of regional datadefine the parts of the system and show how they interrelate.
3. Suitablity analysis of the regiondetermine the suitabilities for various land uses, such as, housing, agriculture, forestry, recreation, commercial and industrial development, and transportation.
4. Alternativespresent different organizations of the environment based on the suitability analyses and develop different schemes for realizing the desired alternative.
5. Implementationemploy the various strategies, tactics, and processes chosen to realize the desired alternative.
6. Administrationmanage the plan.
7. Evaluationgauge the results of the plan over time and make needed adjustments (1981, p.496).
Of the seven steps in the ecological planning method, the
second and third ones are the most explicitly developed and
are also the most familiar parts.
The inventory and analysis phase consists of the use of the overlay mapping technique which has three broad catagories and eight subcatagories and a number of additional sub-subcatagories. These catagories consist of:
1. sociocultural (humans).
2. biological
a. wildlife (mammals, birds, reptiles, fish)
b. vegetation (plants).
3. physical
a. climate (microclimate, macroclimate)
b. hydrology (surface water, groundwater)

c. soils d. physiography (slope, elevation)
e. and geology (surficial geology, bedrock geology) (Steiner and Brooks 1981, p.49B).
McHarg suggests that these catagories should be studied in a
sequence which reflects their age; beginning with the oldest
(geology) and moving to the most recent (humans), reflecting
a progression through evolutionary time. The method of
suitability analysis, which requires an ecological inventory
and analysis, "can be used for both the conservation and
development of resources" (Steiner 1983, p.407). The steps
involved in the suitability analysis consist of:
1. Identify land uses and define the needs for each use.
2. Relate land-use needs to natural factors.
3. Identify the relationship between specific mapped phenomena concerning the biophysical environment and land-use needs.
4. Map the concurrences of desired phenomena and formulate rules of combination to express a gradient of suitability. This step should result in maps of land-use opportunities.
5. Identify the constraints between potential land uses and biophysical processes.
6. Overlay maps of constraints and opportunities and through rules of combination develop a map of intrinsic suitabilities for various land uses.
7. Develop a composite map of the highest suitabilities of the various land uses. (Steiner 1983, p.406)
Clearly, these two steps of the ecological method encompass a significant if not most of the work for the designer or planner but they also necessitate the "clear statement of planning goals and objectives, and thorough assessment of community needs" (Steiner 1983, p.406), as well as, the subsequent development of alternatives, implementation,

administration, and evaluation for any project.
The Woodlands
The idea of The Woodlands new town originated with its developer, Texas oilman George Mitchell. Mitchell had watched the poorly planned development of Houston's Memorial area and believed that it could be done better by developing a totally new community that was both racially and economically integrated (Morgan and King 1987, pp.7-8). The building of the new airport for Houston in the late 1960's spurred the development to the northwest of Houston along Interstate-45 toward Conroe. Mitchell was perceptive enough to predict where urban growth would continue and as a result the Mitchell Energy and Development Corporation assembled a parcel of over 16,000 acres during the mid 1960's for the development of a new town.
The site of The Woodlands was exactly as the name describes, woodlands. It was also very flat and, thus, water was of critical importance, both as a drainage issue and because of the need to maintain the existing mechanism of aquifer recharge on the site. The first plan drawn up for The Woodlands was the Kamrath Plan. This first plan was done in 1966 and was nothing more than a typical subdivision layout but it did indicate the need for additional funding, including federal aid. The second plan, or the Ross Plan, of 1968 was submitted to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under the original New Community Act

<1968) for financial assistance (Morgan and King 1987, pp. 27-28). This second plan was rejected by HUD, consequently, Mitchell decided that the best manner in which to get the necessary federal money was to assemble a team comprised of the best available professionals to accomplish the planning of his dream. The team was made up of Gladstone Associates (economics and marketing), William L. Pereira Associates (master planning and design), Richard P. Browne Associates (development, engineering, and HUD liaison), and Wallace, McHarg, Roberts and Todd (WMRT) (environmental planning) (Morgan and King 1987, p.29). This team put together the final plan, the physical component of which was based largely on the work of WMRT under the direction of McHarg. The plan was submitted to HUD's New Community Development Corporation under the revised New Community Act (1970) which guaranteed up to $50 million in funds for a single project. Late in 1971 the application was accepted for the maximum allowable funding.
The Woodlands new town was initially planned for a projected population of 150,000 on 16,973 acres including 3909 acres of open space (23H) comprised of pathways, lakes, equestrian trails, golf courses and parks (Morgan and King 1987, p.49). The 20 year development plan proposed a build-out of 12,495 single-family detached units, 14,830 single-family attached units, and 20,050 multiple-family units for a total of 47,375 units with an average density of

7.5 units to the acre (Morgan and King 1987, p.50). The master plan (figure 7) was organized around a metro center and a university or town center with seven residential villages each with elementary schools and recreation facilities (Morgan and King 1987, p.49). The first of the villages to be developed was the 1750 acre Grogan's Mill with an adjacent industrial park of 135 acres (Morgan and King 1987, p.52). From the beginning Mitchell believed there should be a place for higher education in his new community, so he dedicated 400 acres to the University of Houston (Morgan and King 1987, p.38). He also believed in the need for a cooperative religious facility; this concept led to the formation of the Religious Institutions Planning Group (Morgan and King 1987, p.43) which later became known as Interfaith and was supposed to be involved in the planning process. The development plan for The Woodlands was not merely a subdivision plan it was rather a complete social program as well as an ecological one.
The team agreed with Mitchell that the greatest asset of the development parcel was its natural woodlands, therefore any plan must protect and take advantage of the existing forest. To achieve this outcome seven key environmental goals were established for The Woodlands, these were:
1. minimum disruption of the surface and subsurface hydrologic regimen;
2. preservation of the woodland environment;
3. establishment of a natural drainage system in floodplains, swales, ponds, and on recharge soils;

4. preservation of vegetation noted for species diversity, high quality, stability and uniqueness;
5. provision of wildlife habitats and movement corridors, so that wildlife now living on the site may remain;
6. minimization of development cost;
7. avoidance of hazards to life or health (Wallace, McHarg, Roberts and Todd [WMRT] 1974(2),
In An Ecological Plan WMRT stated the process by which this was to be accomplished and included the following steps:
1. inventory and mapping of ecological data
2. interpretation of data
3. determination of landscape tolerances based on the data
4. determination of development intensities for various land uses
5. establishment of a design synthesis
6. matching of development intensities with landscape tolerance
7. creation of land and site planning guidelines
6. preparation of a master land use plan responsive to environmental as well as social, economic and financial objectives (WMRT 1974(2), pp.5-6).
The results of the first of these steps was contained in An
Ecological Inventory. The inventory consisted of a
compilation of seven catagories of information regarding
natural systems, in map, written, and graphic form, these were:
1. geology and groundwater hydrology (physiography, surficial geology, bedrock geology, groundwater hydrology)
2. surface hydrology
3. limnology (surface hydrology)
4. pedology (soils)
5. plant ecology (vegetation)
6. wildlife
7. climatology (macro-, mezo-, and microclimates).
This inventory emphasized the view that the landscape was an interacting process and in this case its single most

important aspect was the hydrologic cycle.
Steps two through six of the ecological plan for The Woodlands were used to develop the site planning guidelines where the most important considerations were the hydrologic and drainage systems and their relationship to soil permeability. The seventh step consisted of a set of strategies for local site planning in The Woodlands which were contained in the report Guidelines for Site Planning.
The strategies contained in this report by WMRT can be summarized as follows:
hydrologic/drainage the use of natural storm channels, creeks, and floodplains; waller ponds for storage; and recharge zones soils the use of permeable soils for recharge;
the use of impermeable soils for water storage and development
vegetation the maintenance of quality, diversity, special stands, and floodplain vegetation wildlife the establishment of wildlife corridors climate storm, solar, and ventilation considerations
The clear/cover area was also carefully correlated with the requirements for each density and type of dwelling unit in order to set standards for the design of individual site plans. Ultimately, the guidelines became a way structuring an interrelationship of the hydrologic/drainage system, the permeability of soils, and housing/vegetation typologies.
The final step of the ecological plan was the preparation of the master plan. While the master plan and the resulting residential areas and neighborhoods (figures 8 and 9) appear to be like many others in the United States

there are several significant differences. The first and certainly the most important is the extent to which the design of The Woodlands respects the natural integrity of the ecological system and in particular the hydrologic process that is central to the ecology of the coastal plain. The second significant difference is the extensive maintenance of the existing mature forest and hence the presence of mature trees in the yards of new homes, an unusual circumstance in newly developed suburban America. The final difference is the attempt to create a utopian new town, a clear contrast to the typically economically motivated development scenario. Even though the developers, planners, and designers of The Woodlands have had ambitious social and ecological goals, the new community has also been an economic success. This indicates the concern of Americans about environmental quality, as well as, a desire to live in an ecologically designed built environment. The success of The Woodlands is that it has redefined the standard of quality for suburban America much like the Hudson Valley and Riverside did in their time and place.

Clearly, each theory of design in landscape architecture has developed out of the thought and events of its time. To better understand the places created by the use of these design theories, it is imperative to know how each orders a place, how the worldview of each is reflected in these places, how the principles enable the designer to design these places, and how the design process reflects the relevant land ethic. While each of these theories of design has strengths, each also has weaknesses. Finally, the prospect of the future of these design theories in landscape architecture requires review.
What Makes a Place a Place?
What does make a place a place? Places are an ordering of space and time and their meaning. Physics addresses questions of space and time in the natural world in an attempt to explain natural phenomena. Metaphysics addresses questions of meaning about nature for human beings, that is it attempts to order space and time for meaningful human understanding. Therefore, places of a particular worldview

or culture should reflect the metaphysics of that worldview, both should order space and time and their meaning in the same manner.
Space. The concepts of location and orientation are critical to any understanding of space. Both location and orientation need a system of reference. Location in space can be abstractly or experientially defined. To define location in abstract space requires a cartesian or serial system, such as room numbering for a series of like classrooms. To define location in space experientially a minimum of two points of reference are necessary, such as landmarks. Orientation requires a face to understand directions. Orientation in space can be derived from either an internal or external set of directions, that is left and right (internal) or east and west (external). Both location and orientation are necessary to understand space in any meaningful way.
Time. Time can be concieved of in two ways. Linear
time is one way, the alternative is, as Joseph Epes Brown
states, "a perennial reality of now" (Highwater 1982, p.89). Linear time, which includes causal time, has a past, present, and future or this was, this is, and this will be. Time as "a perennial reality of now" means life is to be lived in the
moment (what is to live every day as if it were the first and
the last simultaneously) or all is always now. Each of the

design theories presented so far uses causal time.
Meaning. There are two different ways to arrive at an understanding of a meaning. The first is intellectually, the second is experientially. The first of these, intellectual, is the interest of the field of semiotics. The second, experience, is the subject of gestalt pyschology.
Semiotics holds that meaning can be arrived at through an intellectual interpretation of a sign or symbol. This happens on a number of different levels from visual signs in the environment to the words of a language. All signs and symbols share three common characteristics. The first characteristic is that each symbol is an object, that is it is experienced as being separate and at a distance. The second characteristic is that each symbol refers to another other than itself, be it an action or an object. The third characteristic is that a symbol is culturally bound, that is the culture has determined that a particular symbol refers to a specific object or action; consequently, symbols are learned.
Gestalt pyschology holds that meaning can be arrived at by the interpretation of experiences. Experiences are, and can only be, subjective. Experiences are subjective because an experience exists only for those with and within the experience, that is "I see your behavior. You see my behavior. But I do not and never have and never will see your 'experience' of me. Just as you cannot "see" my

experience of you" (Laing 1967, p.18). Experiences can never be objectified, that is packaged and made available to others. Consequently, the ability to experience, sensation or the discernment of differences, is a priori to an experience. Therefore, experience is primary and intellection is secondary.
Neither a symbol or an experience can be understood without structure or order. A symbol becomes understandable because of its location in a sequence of symbols, such as a word in a sentence, or because of its location in space, such as a window in a building. An experience becomes understandable only as it unfolds within a context, that is how the differences become apparent. Experiences can have meaning by themselves but for a meaning to be intelligible to more than one symbols are necessary for communication.
Places are constructs of space and time which create meaning. For space, time and meaning to be understandable order is necessary. Places require order.
Order in Newtonion Physics, Romanticism, and Transcendentalism
Each of the theories of design outlined in the previous chapters and their respective worldviews have metaphysical constructs which are based on Newtonian Physics. As a result, a review of Newton's physics and the several related metaphysical orderings of the world is useful. It is also helpful to look at the Puritan view of the world to

understand how Newton's laws of nature altered the classical conception of the world.
Space, Time, and Meaning in the Puritan World. "In the first half of the eighteenth century the colonies, and particularly New England, were still loyal to the traditional organization of time and space" (Jackson 1979, p,156). The Puritans of New England were firmly entrenched in Calvinism. John Calvin was a Swiss minister and theologian of the Reformation. Calvin theorized, based on the Bible, that God was both infinite and transcendent, that man was made in the image of God, and man is therefore superior to nature. Calvin understood men, who are all descended from Adam, to be less than God because of Adam's fall from grace (Eve, the serpent, and the apple). Calvin believed that salvation, from this fall from grace, was accomplished by living a moral and righteous life as set forth in the teachings of Christ; merely believing was not sufficent for salvation. The Puritan ordering of space and time reflected Calvin's theological teachings.
The Puritans concieved of "space as centripetal and hierarchical" (Jackson 1979, p.156). God was located in the center, the position of most importance. Because they were created in the image of God, men were located around this center and their relative proximity was indicative of their level of sanctity. Everything outside of these two inner circles, the realms of God and men, was considered profane;

this was the wilderness which it was man's mandate to subdue.
The order of space in the Puritan universe was structured
The Puritans understood "time as a stately procession of inevitable events leading to a dramatic climax" (Jackson 1979, p.156). Time was "inevitable" because the fate of their lives was predetermined by God and had started with Adam's fall and its "dramatic climax" would take place on judgement day. Their lives were made up of a slow and steady progression towards greater virtue and the eventual judgement of their moral character on the day of reckoning. Time for the Puritans looked essentially like the following diagram.
Adam' s
The purpose of life for the Puritan was to worship God, according to Christ's teaching's, by leading a morally sound life while carrying out God's mandate to subdue and have dominion over the earth. Meaning in the Puritan world could be seen like this:

subdue ------e>
Clearly, the Puritans had an anthropocentric, male dominated view of the world; God and nature were understood in terms of their own lives, that is where, when, and how they were in the world.
Space and Time in Newtonian Physics. To understand space and time in Newtonian Physics it is useful to review Newton's first law which states that "Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it" 72

versus the Puritan concept of time which was comprised of a gradually unfolding fate predetermined by God. The natural laws that Newton postulated called into question, in a fundamental sense, the Puritan universe.
Meaning in Romanticism and Transcendentalism. While Newton changed the concepts of time and space in the intellectual world, the ministers, who were often the best educated person in town during the eighteenth century, changed these concepts in the everyday world of the common person by the way in which they conducted services. This radical shift in thinking happened during the Great Awakening and later the Great Revival in America. The Great Awakening, which occured between 1730 and 1740, changed the idea of religous conversion from a slow gradual process to an instantaneous event (Jackson 1979, p.156). After this time was understood to be comprised of causes and effects. The Great Awakening also changed the concept of space by decreeing that "all spaceswhether in the church or elsewherewere of equal value, undifferentiated and even interchangeable" (Jackson 1979, p.157), which led to the holding of services outside in many cases and later the large camp revivals of the Great Revival. Consequently the change in the concepts of time and space required a new way of interpreting or seeing the world as meaningful, hence the development of Romanticism and Transcendentalism.
Romanticism held that God was transcendent, that God

gave people dominion over and stewardship of the earth, and that the laws of nature were the laws of God. Therefore, the purpose of life consisted of controlling nature based on God's laws as manifested in nature. As a result, the romantic worldview came to look like this:
dominion & stewardship
laws of nature
HUMANS controlling NATURE
Transcendentalism was different in that it believed that God was to be found in nature and this would be apparent upon close observation of the wonders of nature. Therefore, God's mandate for humans was to be stewards of the earth, which meant to protect nature in all its splendor, because it and God were one in the same. Since God and nature were the same, it was also believed that nature was to be carefully observed because in this way people would come to know how to care for nature their God.(10) The Transcendentalist worldview was ordered in a manner similar to the diagram below.
These worldviews have been crucial to the shaping of places, because the worldview is instrumental in determining the values of the designer. The values of the designer are a

critical part of designing any place in the landscape, as a landscape is an ordered view of a bounded space or land. To understand how places are ordered it is important to look at their point of view.
The Order of Place in Picturesque Design
If the goal of picturesque design in landscape architecture is to make places which consist of beautiful outdoor spaces or scenes to gaze upon or view, then, what makes for a beautiful scene or view? The quality of beauty in a scene is a matter of what the viewer (or designer) considers to be beautiful (that is good taste), which is a function of how he or she sees the world, their worldview. Underlying the theory and practice of picturesque design is the romantic worldview and in particular the sublime aspect of romanticism. A sublime landscape is one in which the raw power of nature is depicted and can be understood as a symbol of the all powerful God. The diagram below shows the essential structure of the romantic worldview as seen from the sublime perspective.
Downing's picturesque design theory also embraces the romantic worldview as it is structured above because the

picturesque like the sublime is a symbolic landscape which idealizes untamed wildness. Here the underlying land ethic can best be described as development; development of the opportunities of the land for their exchange value and the satisfaction of the wants of man. The design process, imitating nature, is like this land ethic because it also seeks to satisfy the consumptive wants of man by creating a desirable and sentimental image of nature. The Hudson Valley as a place structures space in this manner.
An analysis of the spatial order of a residence in the landscape of the Hudson Valley reveals how it parallels the relationship of man to nature (as a symbol of God) in the sublime aspect of the romantic worldview. The relationship of house to land can be described as follows: the residence is the point from which the view is taken in (the viewpoint); the immediate yard or grounds can be understood as the foreground which serves to enframe the view; beyond this lies the middleground, in this case the wide expanse of the Hudson River; and in the distance the Catskills (background) which become a prospect of nature. This prospect of the Catskills to the west is the view of a wild nature of untamed power which can be understood as symbolic of the mighty power of God. It is the view of the symbolic Garden of Eden: a garden of primal innocence; a garden of the past, of days when man knew neither good nor evil; a place removed and in the distance, the heaven of the future. This view of the

symbolic Garden of Eden is a view by which to find orientation in the world and to give life a direction and purpose. Clearly, the Hudson Valley is consistent with the romantic sublime and the picturesque design theory in landscape architecture set forth by Downing will enable the designer to design places of and for this way of seeing and being in the world.
The Order of Place in Functional Design
The purpose of functional design in landscape architecture is to make outdoor places which meet the needs of the human community while performing the technical requirements of a site. The needs of people which functional design in landscape architecture most clearly address are as a place to escape to from the city to live and as a usable place for passive and active recreation. Implicit to the theory and practice of functional design is the beautiful aspect of the romantic attitude. A beautiful landscape scene is one where everything is well ordered and an atmosphere of calm is present, representative of the benign and loving goodness of God. The following diagram illustrates the structure in the romantic perspective of the beautiful:
stewardship of earth
aws of nature
HUMANS management NATURE
benign & as a refuge
^calming in God

The functional design theory which Olmsted practiced was based on the romantic worldview as it is ordered above where the beautiful in romanticism and its counterpart, the pastoral landscape of functional design, serve to provide a calm quiet refuge from the stresses of life. The land ethic within this particular romantic view is that of managing the land so as to maximize through conservation its use value for people. Like the land ethic or management of the land, the of design process is one of problem solving to maximize the potential of a place to meet the needs of humans. At Riverside the structuring of space is similar to the way in which this romantic worldview is ordered.
An investigation of the ordering of space at Riverside illuminates the parallels of residence and landscape to humans and nature (refuge of God). Here the houses look out upon a landscape of carefully arranged trees which evenly filter the light into a pleasant dappled shade striking a mood of serenity. The effect becomes one of a peaceful presence, the presence of God. It is representative of the Garden of Eden as a peaceful refuge, hence it becomes a place to reflect on the meaning of life. Riverside is certainly a place which compliments the beautiful aspect of the romantic worldview.
The Order of Place in Ecological Design
Since the objective of ecological design is the protection of natural places and their systems through the

planning of the human habitat, then, it becomes imperative to define what is natural. In this case, natural can be understood to be that part of nature which is least tainted by human intervention, that is, the wilderness or what is percieved as nature in its most pure state (virgin land).
This quality of purity or wildness is the ideal of nature upon which the transcendentalist worldview is based and McHarg's ecological design theory of landscape architecture parallels. This view of the world encompasses a land ethic of protection of the environment, a system of protection which is founded on the information gathered from the scientific study of nature. Fundamental to this process of design or the ecological method, is its basis on the use of scientific information gleaned from nature to plan the landscape. The Woodlands as a place also treats nature as being in need of protection and the structure of space reflects this.
A review of the spatial morphology of the residences and landscape in The Woodlands new town shows how it is similar to the relationship of humans and nature in
transcendentalism. The housing of The Woodlands is located such that it will have the smallest possible impact on ecological processes in the landscape. This is clearly a protective approach through a preventive mechanism which minimizes the harmful presence of humans to nature and nature to humans. This approach also puts humans in the role of

bystanders or mere observers of nature who are not integrally involved in the ongoing process of nature. The reduction of impact to the environment in The Woodlands is consistent with the transcendentalist view which would also require a least impact position in order to protect nature (God) from ignorant human intervention. Unquestionably, McHarg's ecological method is a thorough and systematic way of protecting the processes of nature.
Prospectus: The Need for a New Theory
Each theory of design in landscape architecture reviewed has been appropriate for its time and worldview, each has produced places of quality, and all are viable ways of working. By comparing the underlying worldviews of these theories (see appendix), the differences in how nature is understood in each case become apparent in the diagram below:
as a symbol of God
as a refuge in God
Rom.-sublime (picturesque)
Rom.-beautiful (functional)
Transcendental (ecological)
In the above diagram the land ethic of each worldview (development, management, and protection) characterizes the manner in which humans act in respect to nature. The attitudes or environmental ethic from which these actions take place can be breifly described as opportunist (romantic

- sublime), conservationist (romantic beautiful), and environmentalist (transcendental). Both the land ethics and environmental ethics of these worldviews see the role of humans relative to nature as varying from dominance to stewardship.
Land ethic development management protection
Env. ethic opportunist conservationist environmentalist
dominion stewardship
These worldviews can be further characterized as moving from an anthropocentric viewpoint toward a biocentric one.
Rom.-sublime Rom.-beautiful Transcendental
individual social reform environmental
capitalism reform
anthropocentric biocentric
While each of these worldviews differ in how nature is seen, their land ethic, and their environmental ethic, they are similar because all three see nature in edenic terms, that is to say nature is perceived as being good. Indeed, the perception of nature as edenic is a consistent part of American thought.
Downing, Olmsted, and McHarg were persons of their own time as were the theories they practiced, even so, all three men shared several activities in common which were not a function of their time. All three men were practitioners and as such each brought many things from outside the field of

landscape architecture to bear on the field and thus have helped to shape the field in significant ways. All three men were writers and because of this influenced not only the profession but in each case the public at large as well. Additionally, all three men were in some way involved in the education of future landscape architects and each was to some degree politically active. Because of the breadth of their activities these three men provide good role models for landscape architects; they demonstrate the need for landscape architects to be generalists as much or more than they need to be experts and as generalists they also need to be leaders because they can bring many different aspects of knowledge and forms of experience together in holistic and meaningful ways.
It is useful to make a comparison of the ideal landscapes which the use of the principles and processes of each of the three theories of design will produce. The following diagram indicates that the aesthetic ideal of the landscape shifts from an image of nature to the reality of nature itself.
Picturesque Functional Ecological
picturesque pastoral natural
image ----------------------m reality
An examination of the design process of each reveals that they vary from an intuitive method to a highly rational one.

Picturesque Functional Ecological
The three places reviewed, the Hudson Valley, Riverside, and The Woodlands, and are representative of products of the theories. The three places illustrate the differences between site size, between individuality and community, and between attention to details and broad concepts.
Picturesque Functional Ecological
Hudson Valley Riverside The Woodlands
small sites --------------------large site
individuality community
details broad concepts
Finally, it should also be noted that these theories vary in the attitude of their approach from the artistic to the scientif ic.
Picturesque Functional Ecological artistic as--------------scientific
Obviously these theories vary in a number of aspects but they also have some fundamental simularities.
Fundamental to each of these theories of design and their underlying worldviews are a physical and metaphysical construct of the world. In this case all three are based on

Newtonian physics and their metaphysical constructs are also similar. Since the time when Newton postulated his laws of nature much has been learned which suggests that Newtonian physics cannot explain all of physical nature, it can only adequately describe a limited aspect of reality. The current thinking in physics today, known as Quantum mechanics, in fact states that the Newtonian assumptions about space and time are incorrect. Understandably, this will also require an examination of the metaphysical constructs of reality which are based on Newton's physics. Here all three worldviews are based on the metaphysical separation of humans and nature; this is a necessity because Newtonian space is an undifferentiated space of independent and isolated bodies and, consequently, any metaphysics based on Newton's theories must reflect this concept. All three positions are alike in that they assume nature to be an object out there at a distance within the view; they vary only in so far as how they describe this view, be it in artistic or scientific terms. Additionally, each of these views see humans in a negative manner. This is because each sees nature in edenic terms and, furthermore, the creation of humanity, cities, in the view of all three are undesirable places which is reinforced by the apparent need to escape to nature that suburbs represent. Ultimately, I believe these are problems of profound consequences. Not only are people left in a self-conscious framework of negativity, it also allows no way

to be simultaneously fully human and integrated in the natural world; as it is we can only concieve of being human outside of nature or alternatively to be a part of nature would require being less than human." Therefore, it is imperative to propose a new theory of design in landscape architecture which attempts to see beyond these problems. It is necessary to seek a new way of ordering our view of the world and hence the need for a new theory. I believe that quantum mechanics and holism should be used as a foundation upon which to propose this new landscape architecture design theory and the philosophy which Gandhi practiced should be used as a structure to order such a theory around, which shall be called holistic design.

One of the recurring themes in the history of American landscape architecture has been the integration of the thought and spirit of the time into theories of design. This ability to synthesize a wide range of issues and concerns is the strength of both theory and practice in landscape architecture. It is the integration of all relevant aspects and issues of a subject into a cohesive order or whole that creates a holistic theory. In their own right, each of the three design theories discussed thus far was holistic in its time. For any design theory to be truly holistic, it cannot end with the structuring of a comprehensive order. The theory must go on to embrace the concept of holism or wholeness.
A cursory etymological investigation of the word "holistic" reveals that it is related to a number of other words including hale, heal, holy, and whole as well as health, hologram, holograph, wholeness and many others. The origin of all these related words is the Anglo-Saxon word "hale" meaning whole or healthy. The theoretical physicist, David Bohm, examines the relationships of these words and

their implications:
It is instructive to consider that the word 'health' in English is based on an Anglo-Saxon word 'hale' meaning 'whole': that is, to be healthy is to be whole, which is, I think, roughly the equivalent of the Hebrew 'shalem'. Likewise, the English 'holy' is based on the same root as 'whole'. All of this indicates that man has sensed always that wholeness or integrity is an absolute necessity to make life worth living. Yet, over the ages, he has generally lived in fragmentation (1980, p.3).
Clearly, a holistic design theory which is based on wholeness must also concern itself with health. The goal that holistic design should strive for in the design of places is good health. The necessities of good health for both the land and people, beginning with the most basic include:
1. needs, which consist of sustenance or nourishment of the body and spirit in the form of clean air, clean water, and good food or soil (11);
2. security, meaning safety from harm and the knowledge that one's integrity will not be jeapordized (12);
3. nurturing, which means to have and share both love and caring;
4. growth, which requires development through good work and play; and
5. creativity.(13)
Each of the above necessities reflects a concern for quality. Critical to good health is the quality of each of these, none of which can be quantified, there is no such thing as a quantity of quality, quality cannot be objectively measured

only subjectively experienced. These necessities are the ideals of good health.(14) The goal of holistic design is to endeavour to create places which encourage and sustain these ideals of good health and hence the integrity of the land and humans alike.
The Search for Meaning in the Nuclear Age
On August 6, 1945, the atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. This event has changed forever, at its innermost core, the human experience of being. Since that point in time, human beings collectively have been confronted with the question: will the human species(15) and the earth as the human habitat survive? Underlying this question is the circumstance of the individual's experience of profound alienation and overwhelming fragmentation within human ex i stence.
Alienation and Fragmentation. Alienation and fragmentaion are both states of being which are contrary to that of good health. Alienation is the state of being estranged, isolated, or disconnected. Fragmentation is the state of being broken, disintegrated, or incomplete. The redress of alienation and fragmentation is accomplished by the process of healing life's essential bonds. Alienation and fragmentation exist because of a fundamental contradiction in a person's or society's circumstance. To truly resolve any fundamental contradiction requires the

restructuring of the worldview within which the contradiction exists.(16) A crucial part of any worldview is its spiritual interpretation of reality, therefore, inherent in any effort that attempts to overcome contradiction is a search for spirituality.
The spiritual search is a timeless one. Susan Sontag states that "Every era has to reinvent the project of 'spirituality' for itself. (Spirituality = plans, terminologies, ideas of deportment aimed at resolving the painful structural contradictions inherent in the human situation, at the completion of human consciousness, at transcendence.)" (1966, p.3). One of today's contradictions consists of a way of living which implies a future but in no way guarantees it. The possibility of a future at times appears dubious in the face of such pressing issues as AIDS, environmental toxins, limited resources, terrorism, and nuclear weapons. Another contradiction is the belief in the necessity and development of artificially sustained environments, such as many of the cities of the western United States which rely on water from remote watersheds. Because of their magnitude each of these problems produce within people a sense of hopelessness and powerlessness, both symptoms of alienation and fragmentation. Consequently, the spiritual project of this time is to rebuild the essential bonds of life, one of these is the bond between people and places. The making of places and therefore, the healing of

some of life's essential bonds is the responsibility of all people but particularly that of landscape architects.
Gandhi. The search for meaning requires the process of healing the discontinuities of alienation and fragmentation. On many different fronts, such as the civil rights movement, the peace movement, and the environmental movement, this search for meaning has looked to the struggles of Mohandis K. Gandhi for direction.(17) Gandhi has become a guide in this process because he enabled people to find meaning in their lives. Gandhi brought meaning to people's lives by empowering them; he presented them with a vision, he fostered within them a sense of what was permanent, and he connected them to each other, their time, and their place. How did Gandhi accomplish this?
Gandhi's whole effort to achieve freedom for India without sacrificing the basic human dignity of both the Indians and the British rested on three principles, which were ahimsa. swaraj, and satvagraha. These three Sanskrit words can be roughly translated as follows: ahimsa -nonviolence, swaraj homerule, and satvagraha -truth-in-action. The importance of nonviolence, for Gandhi, was that it established the limits within which action could take place. The second principle, homerule, is concerned with the activity of establishing order within the home. The last principle, truth-in-action, requires that any appropriate or just action has its basis in truth. I believe

that these three principles can and should be used to develop a holistic theory of design in landscape architecture.
Quantum Mechanics. Quantum mechanics, sometimes known as the new physics, began with Max Planck's Quantum Hypothesis in 1900 which postulated that radiating energy consisted of discrete "energy packets" or quanta, instead of, as was previously assumed, a smooth and continuous release of radiating energy. The first consistent formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics was later made in Brussels, Belgium in 1927 and became known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. (Niels Bohr, who was the leading figure in this formulation of quantum mechanics was from Copenhagen.) Quantum mechanics and Newtonian physics postulate fundamentally different constructs of reality; space and time as structured by quantum mechanics are based on a set of premises unlike those in Newtonian physics. Newtonian physics "describes 'things'; individual objects in space and their changes in time," whereas, quantum mechanics "describes statistical behavior of systems' [constructs of space-time and mass-energy]" (Zukav 1979,
p. 66 ) .
According to quantum mechanics, space and time are not separate, that is space and time are concieved of as space-time. Unlike the integrated space-time of quantum mechanics, "Most of us think of space and time as separate because that is the way that we think that we [usually]

experience them. For example, we seem to have some control over our position in space, but none at all over our position in time.... We can choose to stand perfectly still, in which case our position in space does not change, but there is no way that we can stand still in time" (Zukav 1979, p.170). We do not seem to experience timelessness, but in fact we can. The theoretical physicist Louis de Broglie states "In space-time everything which for each of us constitutes the past, the present, and the future is given in block.... Each observer, as his time passes, discovers, so to speak, new slices of space-time which appear to him as successive aspects of the material world" (1949, p.114). Therefore, it can be said that all of time already exists in space-time and that space-time is interconnected and full. Space-time cannot be empty because if it were then, it would still consist of independent and isolated bodies which is contrary to the evidence; space-time is implicitly full.
The implied fullness of reality reveals the other basic difference between Newtonian physics and quantum mechanics. Inherent to Newtonian physics is the assumption that all of reality is ultimately explainable, that is, it is completely explicit. In contrast, quantum mechanics states that it can never be completely explained (Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) or said another way: reality is intrinsically mysterious. Thus, quantum mechanics postulates that the world is an "undivided wholeness in flowing movement" or that