The Belmont Hotel, Georgetown, Colorado

Material Information

The Belmont Hotel, Georgetown, Colorado
Thaler, Michele
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
74, [25] leaves : illustrations, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels, motels, etc -- Designs and plans -- Georgetown (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Georgetown ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 81-90).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Michele Thaler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11306931 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .T53 ( lcc )

Full Text

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An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture.
Michele Thaler Spring/1^84

The Thesis of Michele Thaler is approved.
Gary Long, Committee Chairman
Joal Cronenwett, Architect Principle Advisor
Michael Phillips, Associate Architect Advisor
Ronald J. Neely, Executive Director, Georgetown Society, Inc. Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver


Georgetown, Colorado, is a small mountain town located approximately 45 minutes west of Denver in a beautiful mountain valley. The town is situated on the valley floor adjacent to Clear Creek and is surrounded by mountain peaks that rise 3000-4000 feet above the town. It is also located in the Georgetown-Silver Plume Historic District and is reminescent of a wealthy mining community of the late 1800's. Today, Georgetown is home to approximately 800 people who strive to preserve the historic character of their town, while simultaneously addressing the issues that affect them as a small mountain community 100 years later. The economy of Georgetown is primarily dependent on tourism, but a careful balance is maintained between the roles of Georgetown as home to its residents and host to its visitors. A quality of life exists both in the lifestyle of its residents and the manner in which they have chosen to entertain their visitors. The spectacular natural setting, the historical character, the balance between resident and tourist, and the emphasis on quality are the essence of Georgetown which is safeguarded by those who have chosen this special place as
their home.
Georgetown offers the architect a number of challenges, the kind of challenges

which are of interest to me in terms of an architectural thesis project. I have chosen to do an infill project along 6th Street, the mainstreet of Georgetown's commercial district. Specifically, I have chosen to design The Belmont Hotel, named after the silver claim staked in 1864 that started Georgetown's boom years. It will be located on the northeast corner of 6th and Argentine Streets. The Belmont Hotel will be of the character of a "bed and breakfast inn and will include 25 rooms and a small restaurant.
The site along 6th Street was chosen because the four blocks that comprise 6th Street personify the spirit of Georgetown and its inherent dichotomies: old versus new, quality versus gimmackry, natural versus built environment, resident versus visitor, and economic growth and development versus maintenance of the status quo. The identification of this project as a hotel/restaurant is the result of a desire on my part to make this project as realistic as possible. After interviewing various local officials, 6th Street merchants, and Georgetown citizens, it became apparent that any infill project along 6th Street needed to be a "money-maker" to strengthen the town's economic base. It is

important that the project serve both resident and visitor in the character of 6th Street as a whole. Quality must be inherent both in the service provided by The Belmont Hotel and in its design. The design of this building must be sensitive to the natural setting, the historical context and the unique spirit of Georgetown. While the natural setting is an important design consideration and will be addressed during the design process, the issues that I wish to investigate are those of building in an historical context and responding to the spirit of place. Both are issues currently being explored in the architectural community. These subjects are covered in greater detail in this document, but my position on each is as follows:
1. The architecture of The Belmont Hotel must be contemporary not imitative in nature. The building should be immediately recognizable as a contemporary building, which is often difficult when historic architecture is mimicked. A modern building can be sensitive to its historical context while retaining an identity of its own.
2. The architectural image of The Belmont Hotel must respond to the unique spirit of Georgetown. This spirit goes beyond the physical

environment to include the intangible characteristics that give the town and its residents its sense of identity. At the Spirit of Place in San Francisco, July, 1983, Christian Norberg-Schultz stated his views with which I agree. The architectural image of a building is determined by how it stands on the ground, how is rises to the sky, and how it opens up to its surroundings. Beyond the language of space and form, a building must be articulated to express the unique character of its location.
In summary, what I will be striving for in the design of The Belmont Hotel will be a balance between old and new, historic and modern-day Georgetown. A strong setting exists, but there is room for additions. These additions can be an asset to the town while still maintaining those balances that are so care-
fully safeguarded by the people of Georgetown.


When Georgetown was first chosen as the location for my thesis project, I contacted Jennifer Moulten, Barker, Rinker, Seacat & Partners, P.C. That office is currently designing visitor facilities for the Colorado Historical Society to be located up the valley in conjunction with the historic Georgetown Loop Railroad. Although I was not interested in this project because of its location and minimal size, Ms. Moulten gave me other maps and information about planning projects her firm is also involved with in Georgetown, primarily involving the Downtown Improvement District. She also mentioned that the town was considering building its own visitor center and gave me names of people to contact in Georgetown.
My next stop was Ronald J. Neely, Executive Director of the Georgetown Society, Inc. the local historic preservation organization. Mr. Neely gave me suggestions for the functions that could be combined with a visitor center in order to make it large enough for my purposes. Such a hypothetical project could include, in addition to the visitor center, a small interpretive museum, the town's library, a multipurpose
room for meetings

and social functions and parking for a shuttle bus service. During the following tour of Georgetown, Mr. Neely pointed out possible sites for such a project. Also we discussed issues currently affecting the town.
With this information, I prepared my initial thesis for a cultural center at Georgetown, stating that site selection would be part of the pre-thesis process. After further research and additional trips to Georgetown, it became apparent that there were two alternatives. First, if I chose to do the visitor center, it needed to be located near the interchange and would serve as a gateway facility to the town.
The functions of this facility would be different from the original proposal and would need redefinition. Second, an infill project along 6th Street was becoming more attrative to me, but I was uncertain what such a project would be. After talking to Ron Neely again, he gave me a list of several people to contact to help me define the project, to assist in getting different viewpoints of Georgetown, and to pursue the ideas of building in an historic context and spirit of place.
While my general research of Georgetown (history, climate, spirit, etc.) was continuing, I contacted Walter Boreneman of the Colorado Historical Foundation. He

agreed with my assessment of the two options and spoke in detail of the "gateway to the town" option, impressing on me the current need for such a facility. In terms of an infill project on 6th Street, he suggested a small hotel, and mentioned that a hotel had been proposed for one of the possible sites, at the corner of 6th and Argentine Streets. The proposal, made by Duke Writer, the property owner, was not approved because of its size 5 stories (in a 2 story downtown).
At this point, I had decided to pursue the infill project on 6th Street. While the visitor center was also a legitimate project, and one of interest to me, the context of downtown Georgetown gives me the opportunity of dealing with the heart of the town and a more immediate historic context. My next contact was with Merrill Wilson, Architect, Colorado State Historic Preservation Office. We discussed at length the issue of infill in an historic district. While all approaches were discussed, we were both in agreement that contemporary architecture could be compatible with that of an earlier age, although few good examples of the approach exist.
Ms. Wilson suggested some buildings to look at and offered to let me return at a later date to browse through the projects she reviews of new proposed buildings that

affect historic properties throughout the State.
At this point, I decided to spend a couple days in Georgetown. I felt a need to experience the town at different times of the day. Also, being there would enable me to talk to a variety of people, and hopefully define my thesis proposal. In wanting it to be as realistic as possible, the process of project definition was lengthy and difficult, but also rewarding. In talking to the people of Georgetown, I explained my project, and asked their opinion of what type of facility was needed on 6th Street, and specifically how they saw each of three alternate sites being developed. The three sites were (fig. 1 ): 1) northeast corner of 6th and
Argentine, 2) midblock on the south side of 6th Street between Argentine and Rose Streets, between the Community Center and the Library, and 3) the southeast corner of 6th and Taos Streets, next to the Hotel de Paris. In addition, I asked what were the issues facing 6th Street and the downtown commercial district, and also Georgetown as a whole.
Although I spoke with many people while in Georgetown, I had two conversations that were particularly helpful. The first, over a cup of coffee, was with Cynthia

Fig. 1 .
Alternate Site Locations in Downtown Commercial District.

Neely, member Board of Selectmen, former member Design Review Commission, and author Georgetown Landmarks. The second conversation was after the City Council meeting and included Mike Moore, Mayor, Nick Ulmer Member, Board of Selectmen, and Ron and Cynthia Neely. Several hours and a few beers later, I had received a fairly accurate "indoctrination." There were disagreements and lots of discussion, but the main conclusions, from my standpoint, of the two conservations are as follows:
1. If the site next to the community center is chosen, it would be most appropriate to do a rehabilitation and expansion of the center.
The building is historically significant as it was the original county courthouse building. The addition would be a large multipurpose room for meetings and social functions. There is disagreement whether such facility is appropriate on the town's mainstreet.
2. There was much discussion about the mixed nature of 6th Street.
From a functional standpoint, it is the heart of both resident and
tourist activity. While this is one of the characteristics that make

it unique, there is some question as to its economic feasibility.
There was agreement that any infill project needed to be a moneymaker.
3. Both of the other site alternatives could be developed in a similar fashion. A small hotel/restaurant would be appropriate for either.
In keeping with the mixed use nature of 6th Street, some area could also be developed as commercial. Gerogetown currently has two motels near the interchange, neither of which offers the flavor of Georgetown. The town has the potential of being developed as a destination place for visitors, and a small hotel would be a step in that direction. Actually a number of small hotels could be developed in the downtown area, as was the case during its boom years. Also, since the Victorian houses in Georgetown are too small to develop as bed and breakfast inns, the new hotel should have the same flavor and cater to a similar clientele. As such a hotel would be too small for a chain operation, it should be a "mom and pop" operation, with the owners/ managers living on site.
Although these conversations were very instrumental in leading me toward a hotel,

the final decision was made when I woke up in the drab motel room the next morning.
It was not the experience a visitor should have waking up in Georgetown. Thus, my decision was made to design a hotel. The 6th and Argentine site was selected as it is privately owned and has the greatest potential of being developed. It is the site of the proposed hotel, the status of which is unknown at this time.
The 6th and Taos site is owned by the Colonial Dames who own and operate the Hotel de Paris as a museum. They are not expected to either sell or develop that property.
The Belmont Hotel, as a hotel, should reflect the character of Georgetown in both its architecture and service. It should have the same high standards and quality that the Hotel de Paris had under the operation of Louis du Puy in the late 19th century. Also, it should have the charm and friendliness typical of today's bed and breakfast inns. The hotel should appeal to the destination tourist as well as providing for someone passing through the area. It would make a great weekend getaway from the hustle of the city life in nearby Denver. Also, it will provide the residents with a nice alternative for guests, which their small homes often
can not accommodate. The

restaurant should be of equal quality, and provide the atmosphere and cuisine for that special evening out. With its proximity of Denver, it would provide the opportunity to get out of the city for a quiet relaxed evening.
From an architectural standpoint, The Belmont should act as a terminus to 6th Street, balancing the Hotel de Paris at the other end. It will occupy an important location in that it will be one of the first buildings a visitor will see as he enters the historic district, turning east down 6th Street. Making a good impression will not be easy, as the visitor will be distracted by the two most recent additions to 6th Street, the County Courthouse Complex, and the Post Office. The Courthouse Complex is the source of much controversy, and is incompatible with the historic context. The Post Office is built in the Georgian style, a style not found elsewhere in Georgetown. Because there is no mail delivery in the town, this corner is very important in that all the residents come to the Post Office six days a week to pick up their mail. Therefore, The Belmont needs to be a strong statement to both residents and visitors of an example of contemporary architecture that has an identity of its own while simultaneously being

Views of the site to the north and east are shown in the accompanying photos (fig.3,4). The Post Office across the street to the west, the adjacent buildings
to the east, and typical buildings along 6th Street are also shown (fig.5-10 A view of Clear Creek, which flows on the west side of the Post Office is also shown (fig. 11). Two forks of the creek flow through the town, and meet at the northern end of town.

Fig. 4
View of Site Looking East


Fig. 6
Fig.. 8

Fig. 10 Library-
Source: Postcard by Frank J. Duca, Littleton, CO

Since the height limit is 351, a 3-story building is possible, occupy approximately one half of the site. Estimates for space are as follows:
Lobby 800
Office 200
Owners Living Quarters 1, 500
Storage 2,000
Mechanical 1,000
La undry 200
Public Restrooms 500
Circulation 2,000
25 Guest Rooms @ 400 sq. feet each Parking 44 cars 10,000
Eating Space 3,000
Office 100
Kitchen 1,000
Sto rage 1,000
Circulation 700
Parking will requirements
Total square feet


Georgetown is located at latitude N39421 longitude W10542 1, elevation 8500 feet (fig.12 ). The valley in which it is situated runs in a north-south direction, with two valleys divirging from its southern end. Surrounding peaks rise 3000 to 4000 feet above the town. Two seperate forks of Clear Creek enter the valley from the south, converge at a point within the town, and proceed to the north, down Clear Creek Canyon. Clear Creek is a tributary to the South Platte River.
Much of the land surrounding Georgetown is publicly owned, with a majority managed by the National Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. The National Forest Service is in the process of developing a Land and Resource Management Plan for the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests. The southern end of the Arapaho National Forest is adjacent to Georgetown. In the proposal version of this document, the area surrounding Georgetown, located in the upper montane forest zone, is described as follows.
The upper montane forest is found from roughly 8000 to 9000 feet (fig.13 ). Metamorphic and igneous rock characterize the region. Broad U-shaped valleys were carvedby glaciers. Soils are often shallow and rocky on the slopes, and

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sical and Biological Setting
Source:Proposed Land and Resource Management Plan
Physical and Biological Setting

deeper and more mature on the valley floors. Meandering streams, many darned by beavers, drain the slopes and grassy parks...Willows, alder, birch, grasses, and sedges cover the valley floors. The valley walls and ridge tops host fairly dense stands of aspen, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, limber pine, and lodgepole pine...Wildlife include deer, elk, bighorn sheep bear, beaver, and marten. Fish species include rainbow, brook, and brown trout, and kokanee salmon.
Being located approximately 12 miles east of the Continental Divide, Georgetown and its surroundings are somewhat protected from Pacific weather fronts and the result is a drier climate than those areas several miles to the west on the other side of the Divide. However, storms and high velocity winds are common. Winter winds are particularly bad, with Georgetown receiving the combined forces of winds sailing down both canyons from the south.
As published in the Climatography of the United States, No. 81, the precipitation
normals, in inches, for Georgetown are:
January .53
February .63
Ma rch 1.19

An eighteen year record of temperatures indicate a high temperature of 92 F a low temperature of -26 F and an average annual temperature of 43.5 F.
Mr. Tom McKee, Colorado State Climatologist, suggested that Denver climatological data would most accurately approximate that of Georgetown. This information is included in Appendix A. In addition, a report on Colorado Solar Radiation Data can be found in Appendix B. Although I am currently unequipped to do solar calculations, this information may be used at a later date.
As previously mentioned, two branches of Clear Creek flow through Georgetown with one across Argentine Street west of the project site. Although there are no adopted floodplain maps for the Town of Georgetown, a voided copy was provided
to me by the Colorado Water Conservation Board, with the assurance that the map was accurate, although unofficial (fig.14). It is stated in the unofficial Flood
Insurance Study that Clear Creek drains approximately 50 square miles and South

500-Year Flood Boundary

Zone Designations* With Date of Identification e.g.. 12/2/74
100-Year Flood Boundary
100-Year Flood Boundary^
500-Year Flood Boundary
Base Flood Elevation Line --------513
With Elevation In Feet**
Base Flood Elevation in Feet (EL 987)
Where Uniform Within Zone**
Elevation Reference Mark RM7^
River Mile M1.5
Referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
A Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and
flood hazard (actors not determined.
AO Areas of 100-year shallow flooding where depths
are between one (1) and three (3) Icet; average depths of inundation are shown, but no flood hazard factors are determined.
AH Areas of 100-year shallow Hooding where depths
are between one (1) and three (3) feet; base flood elevations are shown, but no flood hazard factors are determined.
A1-A30 Areas of 100-year flood; base flood elevations and flood hazard factors determined.
A99 Areas of 100-year flood to be protected by flood protection system under construction; base flood elevations and flood hazard factors not determined.
B Areas between limits of the 100-year flood and 500-
ycar flood; or certain areas subject to 100-year flooding with average depths less than one (1) foot or where the contributing drainage area is less than one square mile; or areas protected by levees from the base flood. (Medium shading)
C Areas of minimal flooding. (No shading)
D Areas of undetermined, but possible, flood hazards.
V Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave
action); base flood elevations and Hood hazard factors not determined.
V1-V30 Areas of 100-year coastal flood with velocity (wave action); base flood elevations and flood hazard factors determined.
500 0 500 FEET
f=lT=^T~ I-------1 -------- ~ D

Fig. 15
Section along 1-70 Denver to Dillon. Arrows show direction of Movement.
Source: Roadside
Geology Qf Colorado, Halka Chronic
A major fault zone runs through both Berthoucf and Loveland Passes, Dakota Sandstone is at controlling their position both ends of Dillon Reservoir dam
For geology of Central City district, see DENVER AREA
Uplift along Golden See the geology Fault may be as great museum at Colorado as 11,000 feet School of Mines
v ; 7 \ wiiu...
jinx > s ' ' geological landmark
9 \ ' Large avalanche tracks N illustrating the
1 mow Ihrouah dense k uoturnma of
upturning of sedimentary layers along the mountain front
Dillon Reservoir holds west slope water for sast slope use
Glacial lake and cirques appear at Loveland Pass
Hornblende gneiss is a dark gray rock with abundant tiny hornblende crystals
0 10 km 10 mi
Denver to Dillon

Clear Creek drains 30 square miles of the mountainous watershed above Georgetown before joining and flowing into Georgetown Lake. Watershed elevations range from 14,270 feet atop Gray's Peak at the Continental Divide to 8443 feet at the Georgetown Lake Spillway. As seen on figure 14 the proposed site for The Belmont Hotel lies within the 500 year floodplain. No protective measures will be taken since it is outside the governing 100-year floodplain.
Although I could not obtain a soil's report for Georgetown, a general summary was obtained from Roadside Geology of Colorado. Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the major geological features of the area along Interstate 70 from Denver to Dillon. The valley in which Georgetown is located has the distinctive U-shaped profile that is the hallmark of valley glaciation, though rock slides, avalanche debris, and dense forest have obscured it. The precambrian granite found around Georgetown is Silver Plum Granite and is 1450 million years old. Irregular bands of metamorphic rock can still be found in the area.
The hotel will be situated on the southern portion of the site (fig. 17). The main entrance facade will have a pleasant southern exposure. If the restaurant

Fig. 17 Vicinity Map

functions are placed on this side, sun protection will be provided by canvas awnings. The north facade will include the entrance from the parking lot and the service entrance to the kitchen. These entrances should be protected, as snow and ice melt slowly on the north side of the building. Views will be pleasant in all three directions from the hotel. These will include vistas of the valley to the north and south, views down Clear Creek, and views of 6th Street and its historical architecture.
The project site is located in the downtown development district in Georgetown (fig. 17 ) The architecture of the surrounding historic district is representative of the various styles of Victorian architecture. As outlined in the "Georgetown Design Review Guidelines" these styles include 1) a simplified version of the Gothic Revival style with its various subsequent stages of imbellishment; 2) the Italianate,
both in Italian box style and villa plan, representative of more properous times;
3) vernacular commercial structures with their false fronts and 4) the commercial Italianate, as represented by several handsome brick buildings on 6th Street, each detailed in a distinctive fashion.

Although all buildings are within the 35 foot height limitation, there is a variety of texture and color. The buildings successfully recognize their primary role of forming the edge to the street, which in turn becomes a pleasant pedestrian space. Teh buildings, although varied, are basically true to their typology. In terms of massing, the buildings are simple rectangular boxes with applied decoration to
the front facade. Each reflects the understanding that a building should have a base, middle, and top. The facade designs illustrate a comprehension of propation, a balance between vertical and horizontal elements, the placement of openings, and the use of vocabulary of applies decoration. Although designed from pattern book, a concept foreign to the modern-day architect, their basic elements must be understood in order to design a building sensitive and complimentary to them.
The richness of 6th Street goes beyond its architecture. It is the heart of the town. As the center of tourist activity it contains museums, shops, and restaurants. In terms of serving its local residents, it offers the Post Office, library bank, community center and grocery store. It also contains the city and county administrative facilities. On selected occasions 6th Street is closed to vehicular traffic and it becomes a total pedestrian space as it takes on a festive atmosphere

These occasions include the Independence Day Celebration, The Aspen Festival, and the Christmas Market. Activities include parades, street dancer, artisan booths, etc. The architecture of a hotel placed on this street should have a quietness and stability necessary on a day-to-day basis, but also the capability of celebrating on those special occasions.
The most obvious flaw of 6th Street is the holes it has within what should be a continuous dense fabric. The three sites considered for this project are the largest vacant areas on 6th Street proper. The back sides of 6th Street, i.e.
5th and 7th Streets, have much vacant area and thus the potential for well planned development as the town center. Of the vacant area, the project is probably the most important to be developed, as it is the fourth corner that defines the "main-street". The west end of 6th Street is currently weak, and a strong building on this site would be an important addition to the 6th Street fabric.
Other problems on 6th Street are the large amount of vehicular traffic, particularly during the tourist season, and the general state of disrepair of the streets and

sidewalks. Georgetown recently passed measures to improve these problems. To lessen the amount of traffic, thus encouraging the pedestrian nature of 6th Street, a one-way loop system will be established using 5th Street for eastbound traffic and 7th Street for westbound traffic. This will include building a bridge across 7th Street behind the project site. Other improvements include paving streets within the district with a local aggregate, and replacing and completing a flagstone sidewalk system throughout.
A storm drainage system will be installed; currently none exists. Street lighting will be added. Construction of these improvements are scheduled to begin this
summer (1984)


Since so much emphasis is placed on the historical heritage in Georgetown, an understanding of that history is crucial to the design of any new building in this context.
Georgetown is representative of the earliest settlements in Colorado. It's origin and early years of growth and development parallels that of Denver and other front range cities. The combined effect was the establishment of a foundation on which Colorado was to be built. Therefore, the importance of Georgetown is not self-contained, but is appreciated at a much larger scale.
The year was 1858 and the attraction was gold. The country was ripe for a new
gold rush. People were looking for relief from an economic depression resulting
from the great financial crash of 1857. Farmers had suffered an extensive failure
of crops that year. The gold rush in California had petered out. Thousands of
gold seekers poured into the area from both east and west. Most stopped temporarily at the new settlement of Auraria (Denver), which was becoming a
regional center for mining news and services. Here they would await the news

of the most recent gold strikes before fanning out into the mountain valleys. Most of those who came were young men in search of fortune, adventure and excitement. Because of the hardships involved and the uncertainty of success, few brought families. As a result, Auraria and most early mining camps were known for their rowdy and often lawless nature.
Two Kentucky farmers, George and David Griffith, were among those who arrived in Auraria in 1858. After spending the winter in Auraria, they set out on the trail of a major gold strike in the area that is now Idaho Springs. Unable to find any good unstaked claims, the brothers continued to follow the creek (Clear Creek) further into the mountains. Approximately 9 miles above Idaho Springs, they reached a place where the valley widened, and the masses of willows, the series of beaver dams and the dense forest of lodge pole pine made the going tough. It was here that the Griffiths discovered gold and the site that was to become Georgetown.
In terms of town development, the gold mining years were rather uneventful.
Gold mining was difficult; neither was it abundant nor easily obtained. Pyrites had to be crushed in order to obtain the ore. All efforts were addressed toward that end. Nevertheless, a few events took place that were important towards the

the development of a town. The Griffiths brought their family (father, brothers, wife) to the area and they staked out the entire valley below their site as a homestead ranch for their father. In June 1860, the Griffith Mining District was officially established, officials were elected and laws adopted.
The gold rush had petered out when the value of silver was recognized and its abundant supply was discovered in the Griffith Mining District, beginning with the staking of the Belmont claim in 1864. This boom was to last 30 years and provide the setting for the establishment of a permanent town. By 1867, two separate camps had developed in the valley: Georgetown to the north and Elizabethtown to the south. In 1867, these two towns united under the name of Georgetown.
The town was officially incorporated that year and granted a charter by the Territory of Colorado (which had been established in 1861). The charter established an "alcalde" form of government in which the Police Judge is invested with all three powers of government, and is assisted by a Board of Selectmen. This system is still being used by Georgetown today, 116 years later.
Georgetown grew quickly, but efforts were made to have the growth occur in an

orderly fashion. The town was laid out on basically a grid system, surveyed, and blocks and lots established. The main commercial district which
was originally located on Main Street, was now developing along Alpine Street (6th Street), in the area that was Elizabethtown (fig.18 ) The population was growing at a rapid pace, and reached 3000 by 1870. Many families had settled here, and while the emphasis was still on mining, other facilities were being established. Highlights of the major development during those boom years are as follows:
1867 -
- Georgetown granted a Post Office
- Barton House opened its doors, 'finest in the territory" (fig. 19 )
(burned to the ground in 1869)
- 4 Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges established
- triweekly stagecoach service with the East (Chicago to Georgetown
Fig. 19 - Barton House
Source: Denver Public Library, Western History Department

Fig. 18 - Georgetown, looking north
Source: Denver Public Library, Western History Department

McClellan opera house
Fig. 20 - McClellan Opera House
Source: Denver Public Library, Western History Department
-beginning of the Colorado Miner, Colorado's first newspaper -first school started for a dozen pupils
-Erskine McClellan opened first place of public assembly in upper Clear Creek
-Georgetown "steals" county seat from Idaho Springs
-four established churches (Episcopal, Methodist, Congregational and Catholic)
-McClellan Opera House (fig. 20 ),
first opera house in Colorado

Fig. 21 -Alpine Hose House Source: Georgetown Landmarks, drawing by
Markay Reynolds Villario
(destroyed by fire in 1892)
(1870's 80s were glory days in theatrical history of the Rocky Mountain West. Scarcely a night went by without an attraction).
-first volunteer fire company established, the Alpine Hose House (fig.21 ). (Building erected in 1874/ tower added in 18800
-2 story brick school opened; town's first major public building and center of assorted social activities
-three additional fire companies

Fig. 22 - Hotel De Paris
Source: Postcard, Jeff Black Photographies,
established. It was this commitment that preserved Georgetown from any major fire.
-Louis du Puy opened the Hotel de Paris (fig.22 ) Had a national reputation for its fine food, wine and accommodations.
-Cushman Block, town's only three story building; top floor used as theatre (Georgetown enjoyed two opera houses from 1876-1882.)
-railroad reaches Georgetown
-height of population: 5000 residents

Fig. 23 Georgetown Loop Source: A0H. Dunton Collection
This stale map shows the configuration of the "Georgetown l.oop section of ti between Georgetown and SiU er Plume. The direct-line distance between the two towi just over two miles, but the railroad needed 1.47 miles and three and a half circles to the grade to acceptable proportions. (Colorado Railroad Museum Collection)
-Jesse Randall establishes second newspaper, the Georgetown Courier
-Catholic school and hospital established
-completion of the famous Georgetown loop, (fig. 23 ) which was to become one of the country's scenic attraction^ as travel in the west for pleasure was just beginning

Georgetown had become one of the major cities in Colorado, which had acquired statehood in 1876. The boom years were properous ones for Georgetown and it was a good life,, It's pride and dignity are reflected in its accomplishments. In the 1880's the sense of the town's permanence and refinement was reinforced by the construction of many fine brick structures, flagstone sidewalks, and a city park. The city attracted a variety of wealthy investors, businessmen and tourists from across the nation. The environment was one in which ideas and hopes could be exchanged in the shaping not only of Georgetown, but of Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region.
The price of silver had begun to decline in the 1880's, but not enough to seriously affect the mining operations. But the "silver question" remained an ongoing issue of great controversy. In August 1893, President Cleveland called a special session of Congress to vote on the issue, resulting in a repeal of the Sherman Act and the devaluation of silver. This was to prove to be the destruction of the west as it was known in 1890. In Georgetown, mines closed and many of its citizens were forced to leave. Those who remained were faced with severe economic conditions.
The panic of 1897 provided the final blow, and the population dwindled, reaching

its low point in the 1930's with roughly 200 residents. Whereas gold had been responsible for Georgetown's beginning, but it also was responsible for the town' demise. The town's wealth and glory came from its silver mines, giving Georgetown its heritage as "The Silver Queen".
In 1940, Benjamin Poff Draper wrote,
"Georgetown was a real cradle of Americanism, of empire building. There was nothing exotic or old-worldish about its events or people. Today it
is almost a ghost town, but peopled with the ghosts of high endeavor, strenuous thinking, bold adventure, vigorous work, and satisfying achievement. The 300 present day inhabitants are guardians of a great past, not derelicts of a great devastation. Theirs is the happy privilege of showing the visitors the shaded streets of this now quiet village and the occasional glimpses of the glory that was Georgetown." (Georgetown, High Points in the Story of the Famous Colorado Silver Camp.)
In recognizing Georgetown's residents as "guardians of the past" whose privilege it is to share with its visitors "the glory that once was Georgetown," Mr. Draper identified the essence of this town that has remained constant to the present day
It is Georgetown's role as a tourist center that is responsible for its survival Primarily since World War II, Georgetown's resident and tourist populations have

continued to grow. This can be attributed to its proximity to Denver, the identification of its historical significance, its spectacular natural setting, the revived romanticism of small towns, and its strategic location on a major highway (now Interstate 70), which also happens to be the major access route to the ski areas from Denver. Although Georgetown caters to a variety of tourists, it is basically a daytime operation, with most tourists coming to Georgetown for the day or stopping there for a few hours, eg. the apres-ski crowd. The tourist trade is expected to increase next year with the reopening of the historic Georgetown Loop, which is in the final stages of its reconstruction. Georgetown has taken pride in that it has always presented the visitor with quality. This quality is evident in both the setting and in the commercial ventures along 6th Street which cater to the tourist. These high standards work for both the town and the visitor and should be maintained despite any pressures to the contrary.
Organized preservation efforts are relatively new in Georgetown. The Colonial Dames made the first move in 1954 when they purchased the Hotel De Paris,

which was an operable hotel at the time, and turned it into a museum. Of critical importance was the establishment of the Georgetown-Silver Plume Historic Mining District as a national historic landmark under the Historic Preservation Act of 1966. The Georgetown Society, the local historic preservation organization, was created in 1970, and has been a very active group since that time. Their major ongoing project is a five-part residential restoration program designed to depict the various lifestyles of 19th Century Georgetown. The Society also works closely on a daily basis with the local officials in a variety of ways, but with one goal in mind: to preserve the historic character of Georgetown, both in terms of protecting the existing structures and assuring that growth and development is compatible with the character of the town.
In addition to the protection Georgetown receives under the Historic Preservation Act of 1966, there are controls at the local level. In 1970, the Historic
Preservation Commission (now the Design Review Commission) was established under Ordinance 274. One of their primary duties is the review of new construction
and exterior alterations of existing structures. They have the power to grant

a Certificate of Appropriateness or request changes to bring proposed projects into compliance. To aid in this review process, Design Review Guidelines were published in 1979. There are seperate guidelines for the three sections of the town (the Historic Area, the Transition Area, and the Meadows Area) because each has developed with a distinct character. The Historic Area is the heart of the town, containing the major commercial area, city townhall, Post Office, bank, library, county buildings, community center. The Transition Area contains the Interstate exchange and its inherent commercial strip. It acts as the "gateway" to the town. The Meadows is primarily the new residential subdivision. This section attracts the majority of new residents.
The problems which face the Town of Georgetown today reflect the issues that will affect its future. There has been a moratorium since 1978 on the issuance of building permits due to a problem with the sewage treatment facility. In effect this has controlled growth and development. When the problem is resolved, the growth issue will again have to be addressed. While there is controversy

about the desirability of growth, it is needed to boost the economic base of the town.
The number of visitors is expected to increase starting next year with the reopening of the Georgetown Loop. While the people are not a problem, the traffic is. There is talk of creating a visitor center/parking area near the entrance to the town. A shuttle bus service is part of this proposal. As discussed in the site analysis section, capital improvements within the Downtown Special Improvement District will shortly be underway. The most current issue facing
Georgetown is the possible extension of the railroad into the town proper. There is much controversy surrounding this issue, and the decision will affect the character of the town. There is strong disagreement whether the affact would be positive or negative.
The town does not have a Master Plan. Historically, the Town Officials have chosen to act in a reactionary manner, reacting to needs or threats as they occur. The adequacy of this approach in the future remains to be seen.


Much has already been written in this document that conveys the spirit of Georgetown* It is a complex spirit in its layered effect. There is a distinct sense of place in the natural setting that existed in this quiet mountain valley prior to Georgetown's beginning. Polly Chandler captured the romantic spirit of this beautiful valley and its surrounding mountain peaks, in her book, This is Georgetown.
It is mountainsides of snow-frosted evergreens in the winter.
It is a rushing stream called Clear Creek, swollen and foaming with melted snow from the high peaks in the spring, singing a quiet song the rest of the year.
It is pasque flowers whose gentle lavender-blue cups turn bare hillsides into a soft, blue haze sometimes before all the snow has melted.
And whole fields and mountainsides of wildflowers, a Persian carpet of
them including Colorado's state flower, the exquisite blue columbine.
In fall it is golden aspen, miles of them trembling in the wind, gleaming in the sun against the dark green backdrop of evergreens.
It is Indian summer days with evening closing in earlier and earlier and a smoky blue haze on the mountains.
The next layer is the architectural setting that remains from its boom years as the "Silver Queen." These structures are more than a stage set, in that they convey the lifestyle and more intimately, the personality of the people who lived and worked in them. Taking a stroll around Georgetown on a quiet day, one can

easily imagine life in the mining town over 100 years ago. There are a large number of well preserved houses representing various levels of prosperity along these tree-lined streets. There are three small churches and one can feel the strength of their presence. There are the three fire houses, which continue to be the focal points for the town. On 6th Street, especially in the late hours of the
evening when it is abandoned, there is a certain ambiance that takes the viewer back to its days when this street had a bustling night life with its hotels, opera houses, and saloons. The historical setting adds another dimension to the sense of place established by Mother Nature.
The last component to the spirit of place is Georgetown as a small town which approximately 1000 people have chosen as their home. There are natives who, although small in number, are influential in preserving the town's traditions and assuring that new residents imbibe the true spirit of Georgetown. The majority of residents have moved here for a variety of reasons, and as is typical in any small town, represent a wide spectrum of interests and personalities. What they have in common is that they all recognize a unique quality in

Georgetown and they have made a conscious choice to live here Once again,
Polly Chandler sums it up quite nicely.
Georgetown is home. It is lights shining through thick snowfall in winter. It is a feeling of welcome and the coffee pot always on the stove when friends drop in, a bit of serenity left in this modern bustle. It is a carpet of golden leaves on the grass, and smoke rising from the red chimney of a little white house. (This Is Georgetown)
This is indeed the romantic view of Georgetown, but in my opinion, romanticism is the key to its identity and its appeal. This atmosphere provides the visitor a change of pace and relief from the hectic pace of modern day life. In addition to the practical design parametics, the romanticism and charm of Georgetown must be incorporated into The Belmont Hotel. This can be accomplished through special care and attention to the detailed design that determines a building's architectural image. The experience of staying at The Belmont should be rich beyond the visual elements, however. The hotel guest should have the sensation of actually sharing Georgetown with its residents, if only on a temporary basis. What it feels like to be in this place should remain in the visitor's memory. If this is

achieved, the hotel will be a success. It will be a special place for the guest and it will contribute in a positive way to 6th Street and Georgetown as a whole.


The issue of building in a historic context is currently receiving much attention from both architects and preservationists. Basically, it is an issue of context, only when the context is an historic district, there is an additional level of complexity which involves the preservationists. First, the matter of context in a general sense will be examined.
There are basically four approaches an architect can take in response to context:
1. Ignore it
2. Contrast it
3. Imitate it
4. Compliment it
Ignoring context in the past may have been a conscious or unconscious decision. There was a time when most architects did not realize that context was or even should be of concern to them as a design parameter. But this is no longer the case, and an architect today, who chooses to ignore context does so knowingly and willingly. The motives may differ, however. In some cases, the context may be in such poor condition that the best approach is to ignore it and try to

establish the beginnings of a new context. On the other hand, ignoring context could be the result of ego on the part of either the architect or client, in wanting a building to be a monument to an individual or a corporation. There is validity in this approach, but it must be carefully considered as to its appropriateness.
The contrast theory is also a legitimate approach, but one that involves a great deal of skill to successfully accomplish. It involves a deliberate decision on the part of the architect that the building will be most successful and the surrounding will benefit most if the building contrasts with the context. It differs from the "ignore it" approach in that the context is worth responding to, and there is a genuine belief that a contrasting building will be an asset to its surroundings. Of the four approaches, this is probably the most difficult to do well.
The third approach is that of imitation. Architecture that mimicks its surroundings can do so to various extents. When a predominant style exists in an area, an architect may choose to design in that style completely, in which case it is difficult to recognize the addition as a new building. This does not bother some

architects who are acting oat Qf respect for the context, and wish to preserve its character. Others feel very strongly that a modern building should be easily recognized as such. To a lesser degree, imitative architecture may involve the direct borrowing of elements from adjacent structures, e.g. the extension of a cornice line. While this approach is less bothersome, some architects object to such literal copying and feel it is a weak approach to design.
The last approach is that of complimenting the context, while still achieving a strong identity for the new building. It requires a great deal of care and attention to detail to find just the right balance between the two. The tools the architects work with are massing, scale, proportion, materials, color, texture, and placement and orientation of the building on site. Responding to the context in any one or combination of the above catagories may be all that is necessary to achieve that balance. The end result is neither contrast nor imitation, but compatibility.
In the case of the historic district, the current controversy is mainly between the last two catagories. Certainly, an architect would not be allowed to ignore a historic context in today's favorable environment to preservation. For the

same reason an architect would have a great deal of difficulty convincing a client of the validity of the contrast theory. Examples of both the imitative and complimentary approaches exist in 2 small Western mountain towns, both which have mining history similar to Georgetown. Telluride, Colorado, has made its design guidelines so stringent that all new architecture is but a direct copy of the old.
A visitor to this town has difficulty in distinguishing new from old. In another example, Park City, Utah, was forced to face this dilemma in the midst of a new boom, that of being developed as a ski resort town. Because the development took place so quickly, many mistakes were made. As the dust settled, design guidelines were formulated and adopted. The philosophy of the town is one of encouraging innovative contemporary architecture that compliments the old buildings without trying to look like old buildings.
Georgetown is a typical example of the conflict behind these approaches. They have adopted Design Review Guidelines which state that their intent is not to return the town to a bygone era, to create an artificial atmosphere, or to invite mimicry that will only caricature the past. While they support the theory, they are uncertain of how to turn it into reality. There is skepticism about whether or not

it is possible to achieve new design that is both modern yet sensitive. The most recent public building in Georgetown, the Clear Creek County Courthouse Complex (1978) was an attempt at this approach, but the end result, for a variety of reasons, is a disaster by the admission of both the architect and the town. This has only strengthened skepticism, \ and several people are looking more favorably toward imitative architecture. This approach appears safer, more conservative, and more comfortable.
The architectural community is responsible to a large extent for the skepticism surrounding the issue of building modern in an historic district. Few examples exist of this being done successfully. They are still searching for the answers also. Because of the controversy and strong emotions involved, many architects are reluctant to get involved in this design issue and those that do are often hesitant and timid in their approach. But architects, in conjunction with preservationists, continue to explore this issue. Such an effort if taking place this month (November 1983) in Alexandria, Virginia, at a conference on infill architecture co-sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.

In the process of designing The Belmont Hotel, I hope to meet this challenge.
It is critical that this project set a precedent for future architecture in Georgetown. A success would reinstill confidence in the town's philosophy of new design as outlined in the Design Review Guidelines. A failure, on the other hand, would only lend support to the imitative approach, which in my opinion would be the wrong direction for Georgetown to turn.


New construction in Georgetown is governed by three sets of regulatory codes and guidelines:
1. Local Ordinance No. 320, Georgetown Land Use, Development and Historic Preservation Code
2. Georgetown Design Review Guidelines
3. Uniform Building Code and related construction codes
Local Ordinance No. 320, Georgetown Land Use, Development and Historic Preservation Code
The purpose of this document, referred to as the Code, is to regulate land use and development in the Town of Georgetown. The Code reflects the ubiquitous concern for preserving Georgetown's unique geographical setting and historical heritage. It recognizes the character of the town as a whole, and then establishes eight zoning districts based on the specific character of each district and its suitability for particular uses (FIG.24 )
The project site is located in District II, Old Town Business District. The following section is taken from the Code, Article III-D.

I Old Town Residential
II Old Town Business
III-A Old Town Gateway
III-B Old Town Mixed Use
IV Trans ition
V Meadows
VI West Meadows
VII Town Entrance
VIII West Slope
Town Boundary District Boundary Project Site
Scale: 1" = 10001
fig. 24 land use and development district map

It is the intent of the regulations and guidelines established for the Old Town Business District to:
1. preserve and enchance the District as the focus of the community's activities;
2. encourage the continuation of the historically pedestrian-oriented character of the area and discourage automobile-dependent commercial enterprises whenever feasible;
3. insure that construction of new buildings and rehabilitation of older buildings in the District is in harmony with and does not detract from the historic building styles in the District;
4. provide opportunities for new businesses to be integrated with the area; and
5. to insure that signs erected in the District are adequate
to serve their principal functions of identifying businesses and other uses and informing the public and are in harmony with the historic character, style, and pedestrian orientation of the District.
District Description
The Old Town Business District includes the territory bounded on the south by 5th Street, on the north by 7th Street, on the east by Griffith Street, and on the west by Argentine Street; specifically all of the Blocks 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23.
District Character
The Old Town Business District is the nucleus of the old historic area of Georgetown; if contains the basic town retail business and governmental activities, and serves as a focus of special community

events. The spine of the District is 6th Streetthe historic business street; business uses are also located on 5th and 7th Streets and along the cross-streets in the District.
The historic commercial buildings in the District are typical of the mining camp and established town phases of Georgetown's 19th century development. The false front buildings of frame construction represent the earliest period, while the brick structures with more elaborate window and roofline detailing represent the Italianate influences during the more established period. Buildings are generally two or three stories in height or have false fronts to simulate multi-story buildings. Buildings are built next to the sidewalk and usually adjoin one another in the block; some have open areas to the rear on the same lot.
A. Uses Permitted
The following uses shall be permitted in this District:
1. Retail businesses, provided that no individual building
or use shall exceed 10,000 square feet in total floor area;
2. Medical and dental clinics
3. Membership clubs (which may include recreational facilities)
4. Offices, including professional, finance, insurance, real estate and other services
5. Indoor eating and drinking establishments, which may include meal service on an outdoor patio not more than one-third the size of the indoor eating space
6. Automobile parking lots, subject to the requirements of Section B. of Article XV.
7. Personal service outlets, including, but not limited to, barber and beauty shops, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, dry cleaning outlets, travel agencies and photographic studios

These sections will be referenced, if necessary, during the design process. Georgetown Design Review Guidelines
In 1979, Georgetown adopted Design Review Guidelines as a means of measuring the compatibility of renovation, rehabilitation, and new construction projects with the existing historical context of the town.
The intent of the design guidelines is to provide a range of design choices within each area which will encourage development that is compatible with the existing or desired character of the area and which will discourage the introduction of incompatible elements of design or building style. Present day designs and materials are encouraged when used in a manner which is compatible with the sense of the past that is being preserved. Economic feasibility and durability of proposed improvements, together with aesthetic harmony, are primary concerns
It is not the intent of these guidelines to return the town to a bygone era. Nor is the intent to create an artificial atmosphere or to invite mimicry that will only caricature the past. The intent is to preserve and protect the special character and identity of Georgetown.
Similar to the Code, the Design Review Guidelines also subdivides Georgetown into three areas whose characters are distinct from one another. These areas are out-
. l*r
lined in fig. It is these guidlines that are used during the review process

by the Historic Preservation Committee for a Certificate of Appropriateness. The project site is in the Historic Area.
1. Boundaries. From Eleventh Street and its lineal extension to the east and west town limits south to the south town limits of Georgetown.
2. Definition. This area includes all but a few of Georgetown's historic structures and the hillsides which form the natural setting of the town. In this area consideration of the design of historic structures shall take precedence over the design of post 1920 structures.
Site Development
The Historic Area has a rectangular block pattern with narrow edges of property lots facing the street. The key design element is the diversity of structures. The major or primary facade of the building should be oriented toward the street and aligned parallel to the neighboring structures.
1. Residential; Setbacks and placement of structures on site should conform to those on the block front.
2. Commercial: Buildings form a continuous facade along the property line adjacent to the major street.
Building Design
(For additions and alterations to existing structures please read Section VIII)

1. Scale and proportion; The height, width, length and general proportions of a building should conform generally but not exactly match other buildings in the area.
2. Vertical and horizontal emphasis; The structures of the Historic Area are definitely vertical in appearance. This appearance is created by the general proportions and the vertical proportions of door and window openings.
3. Windows and doors;
a. Residential: Windows are typically tall, double hung, wood frame windows. Dormers, oriel bay, bow and small accent windows are common. Single pane picture windows, horizontal awning windows, sliding windows and windows with horizontally oriented panes, and plastic imitation or diagonal grid subdivisions of window panes are not appropriate. Wood panel and wood carved doors are appropriate. Metal Swiss Chalet and Dutch doors are not appropriate. Windows
and doorways may have accent ornamentation.
b. Commercial; Display windows are appropriate on the ground floor. Upper story windows should be vertical. Doorways may be recessed. Windows and doors may have accent ornamentation when it is integral to the building design.
4. Roof form:
a. Residential; Hip, mansard and high pitched gable roofs are acceptable for main structures with lesser pitch common for porches or additions. Gable end should face street.
b. Commercial; Roofs may be flat, hipped, mansard or gable.
Pseudo mansard is not appropriate.
5. Architectural features and details: On historic structures, architectural features should be preserved and restored whenever possible. New construction should use architectural embellishments only where integral to the building design.
Canvas awnings are appropriate.

3. Suitable curbs or barriers shall be provided to protect public walkways and to prevent parking in areas where parking is not permitted.
4. All open off street parking areas with five or more spaces shall be screened from any adjoining residential lot.
5. Wheel or bumper guards shall be located so that no part of any vehicle shall extend beyond the boundary lines of the parking area, intrude on pedestrian walkways, or come in contact with walls,fences, or plantings.
6. Landscaping, layout and other design or construction of parking areas shall comply with the applicable design criteria as established by the Historical Preservation Committee for approval of a Certificate of Appropriateness.
Other section of the Code that may be applicable depending on the final design of The Belmont Hotel are:
Article IV A, Fences, Hedges and Walls Article IV D, Lighting
Article V, Signs

landscaping; and a detailed landscaping showing spacing, sizes and specific types of landscaping material.
In the case of the proposed Belmont Hotel, the permits and approvals required would be the Certificate of Appropriateness and the Building Permit. The only review agency involved would be the Historical Preservation Committee. No special use permits would be necessary as the proposed use is permitted, and the construction involves neither designated flood hazard areas nor designated geological hazard areas. At. the discretion of the review agency, the project may be reviewed by any other town department or agency which may be concerned with any aspect of the proposed development.
Regarding off-street parking (Article IV B) for The Belmont Hotel, a minimum of one space per unit plus one space per 300 square feet of floor area for non-residential uses is required. This amounts to a minimum of parking spaces to be provided on site. Other criteria for parking are as follows:
1. Access of a minimum of 10 feet shall be provided to all off street parking areas.
2. Parking areas must be paved with asphalt, concrete or similar permanent surfacing if all streets in the District are paved.

11. Maximum height for accessory buildings: 20 feet
12. Minimum off-street parking: see Article IV B
13. Minimum width of pedestrian corridor alleyways: 12 feet
D. Permitted Signs: See Article V
E. Design Criteria
Any activity requiring a Certificate of Appropriateness shall be subject to the design review guidelines applicable to the District as adopted by the Historical Preservation Commission.
The Certificate of Appropriateness referenced above is required for any new construction, and must be obtained prior to obtaining any building or sign permit or any certificate of occupancy. The issuance of the Certificate of Appropriateness is the responsibility of the Historical Preservation Committee. The items involved in the review process include location and size of all proposed buildings; maximum height of all buildings; total number of dwelling units, number of units per building and nature of units (e.g. motel units); the internal traffic circulation system including off street parking areas, service areas, loading areas and major points of access to public rights-of-way; location, height and size of proposed signs and lighting devices for entire development; a general landscaping plan showing approximate areas for screening, ornamental or other types of

8. Indoor amusement and entertainment establishments *9. Dwelling units and lodging units, provided such units are located within a mixed-use building
10. Churches
11. Parks, play-fields and playgrounds
12. Essential governmental and public utility uses, facilities, services and buildings
13. Financial institutions
14. Printing and publishing establishments, duplicating services
15. Public or private museums
16. Accessory buildings and uses.
B. Special Uses
The following uses shall be permitted only as special uses:
1. Parking garages
2. Gasoline service stations
3. Lodging units (including rooming houses) when located in an individual building and not within mixed-use building
C. Area and Bulk Regulations
1. Minimum lot area: 2,500 square feet
2. Minimum lot area per ground level lodging unit: 1000 square feet
3. Minimum floor area per dwelling unit: 600 square feet
4. Minimum floor area per lodging unit: 400 square feet
5. Minimum front yard for principal buildings and uses: None
6. Minimum side yard for principal buildings and uses: None
7. Minimum rear yard for principal buildings and uses: None
8. Minimum front yard for accessory buildings: 15 feet
9. Minimum side and rear yards for accessory buildings: same as for principal buildings
10. Maximum height for principal buildings: 35 feet

1. Wall materials; Materials are typically four inch exposed
2 . lap siding or unpainted brick. In some cases vertical board and batten may also be appropriate. The following materials will be deemed inappropriate: diagonal board and batten, vertically or diagonally sawn wood panels, lap siding wider than four exposed inches, rough wood shakes, concrete block, stucco, "rustic" used brick, asbestos or asphalt shingles or panels, and plywood panels. Painting of new structures is encouraged. Roof materials: See qeneral guidelines. Heavy wood shakes are not appropriate. In the commercial area, standing seam metal roofs may also be used
Uniform Building Code and related construction codes
Page 54 Occupancy Classification retail stores B-2 restaurant/bar A-3 hotel R-l
Page 59 Basic Allowable Floor Area for 1 story building Table 5-C A3 13,500 (IV) B2 18,000 R1 13,500
Page 60 Table 5-D Maximum Height of Buildings 4 stories area and height limits sec. 505, 506, 507 Type of Construction heavy timber construction Type IV

Page 24 Egress/Access
Dining/Drinking-minimum of 2 exits other than elevator required
when number of occupants is more than 50 -square foot per occupant-15 square feet -access by means of ramp or elevator provided for handicapped
Hotels-minimum of 2 exits required where number of occupants is more than 10
-200 square feet per occupant -handicapped access
Retail (ground floor)-2 exits required where number of occupants
is more than 50 -30 square feet per occupant -handicapped access required
Page 90 Handicapped Accessibility Hotels
buildings containing more than 20 guest rooms shall be accessible to physically handicapped by a level entry, ramp, or elevator. The number of guest rooms accessible to physically handicapped shall be a minimum of 1 unit for 21-99 room hotel.
In accessible units, toilet facilities
-30" doorways (clear and unobstructed width)
-clear space of not less that 44" on each side of access doors
-except in guest room, clear space in restroom of 60" diameter
-clear space minimum 42" wide, 48" long in front of 1 water closet -grab bars
-clear space 26" width, 27" height, 12" deep under i lavatory
-at least 1 mirror within 40" of floor -towel and disposal fixtures within 40"
of floor

-shower areas
-doors and panels of shower/bath enclosures of shatter-resistant materials -glazing in doors and panels of shower/bath of fully tempered, laminated safety glass or approved plastic
Page 85 Requirements for Group R Occupancies
1 hour-fire resistive construction throughout
every sleeping room below the 4th story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. Such windows must have minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet, 24" minimum height, 20" minimum width, will height maximum of 44" above floor
Requirements Based on Type of Construction structural frame-Type IV heavy timber exterior nonbearing wa11-Type III partitions permanent-Type III


Identifying the two thesis ideas of building in an historical context and responding to spirit of place enriched the thesis experience. During the design process these ideas enabled me to focus my energies and explore design alternatives within a structured framework. At the conclusion of the project, they provide a standard against which to measure the success of the project, and from the opposing standpoint, the validity of the thesis idea.
In terms of responding to spirit of place, I discovered that a great deal of research and experience was required to understand the essence of Georgetown. The work I completed during the pre-thesis was an important step in that direction.
The additional time spent on the project this semester enabled me to go beyond that initial research and develop an intuitive feeling for what was appropriate architecture for Georgetown. I attempted to incorporate into my design those innate characteristics that reflect the spirit of the town. These include a reflective quietness, a sense of dignity, and a casual elegance. The visitor to Georgetown should be able to sense these qualities whether walking the tree-lined

streets, or sitting in the hotel lobby. I feel both the exterior and interior of the hotel would provide the visitor with such an experience.
In the chapter on building in an historic context, I stated that there were four alternatives: ignoring the context, contrasting it, imitating it, or complimenting it. This semester, I discovered that the alternatives are not so clear cut, and the appropriate response draws from a combination. My design represents an attempt at complimenting the context by quietly imitating and contrasting it. First of all, I discoverd that there is a difference between imitating and copying. Copying is the literal replication of a previous style. Imitation is pulling from the vocabulary of a typology and capturing its essence. I attempted to imitate the typology represented on 6th Street by using the vocabulary, e.g. store front, double-hung windows, cornice, and facade proportions. These elements were simplified to represent the modern sense of the building.
Secondly, I discovered that contrasting the context in such a strong historical setting, had to be done in a subtle manner. I attempted to achieve this through defining the corner and entrance by subtly breaking the rectangular massing of the building at those points. Materials, although similar in type and color, are used in a modern sense. Color adds to the life of the building at the pedestrian level

and is carried into the interior. The lack of detail on the facade also contrasts with the old, and reflects the modern sense of the hotel.
The last issue that is significant is the handling of interior space. Prior to starting design, I had not recognized it as an issue. A visitor to the hotel should have a sense of space definition and scale that was appropriate in the Victorian era. After researching this issue, I came to understand the compartmentalization of spaces, the sense of entry into spaces, and the procession through spaces with key focal points along the way. I attempted to incorporate these ideas into both the public and private spaces of the hotel.
In summary, I feel that The Belmont Hotel would be a complimentary addition to 6th Street. Also, the hotel would provide a rich experience to the Georgetown










Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, et al Pattern Language Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York, Oxford University Press, 1977
A detailed description of the patterns that form towns, neighborhoods, houses, gardens and rooms. A good source book for the detailed approach to programming.
Palmer, Mickey A. The Architect's Guide to Facility Programming. Washington D.C. The American Institute of Architects, 1981.
A good resource throughout the semester. Covers the fundamentals of programming, the techniques and tools of programming and its application.
Preiser, Wolfgang. Facility Programming. Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross Inc., 1978.
A series of articles relating to programming issues.
Analysis of Precedent. The Student Publication of the School of Design at North Carolina State University, Vol 28, 1979.
An analysis in graphic form of the concepts behind the works of eight prominent architects. Good reference for formulating parti.

Ching, Francis. Architecture: Form Space and Order. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
a good resource for early conceptual thinking about form and spatial relationships, circulation, proportion, scale, and ordering principles.
Chronic, Halka. Roadside Geology of Colorado. Missoula, Montana, Mountain Press Publishing Co., 1980.
Geological information on the Georgetown area.
De Chiara, Joseph and John Hancock Callender, Editors. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. San Francisco, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1973.
General information, including space requirements for hotels and restaurants.
Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes. Prepared by the AIA Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1980.
A handbook for understanding the climate in which one builds and using this climate advantageously.
Untermann, Richard and Robert Small. Site Planning for Cluster Housing. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1977.
Excellent section on site analysis

White, Edward T. Concept Sourcebook,, A Vocalulary of Architectural Forms. Tuscon, Architectural Media Ltd., 1975.
A brainstorming manual for early concept development.
White, Edward T. Site Analysis Diagramming Information for Architectural Design. Florida, Architectural Media, 1983.
"Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests Land and Resource Management Plan," Draft copy. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 1982.
The draft Environmental Impact Statement and Forest Plan for the specified national forest land, the southern end of which is near Georgetown, contains a description of the natural environment in that area.
"Climatological Data Annual Summary," Colorado 1982, Volume 87, Number 13. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration.
Doesken, Nolan J., Thomas B. McKee, and David M. Ebel. "Colorado Solar Radiation Data With Supplemental Climatic Data." Colorado Climate Center, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, August 1982.
"Flood Insurance Study, Town of Georgetown, Colorado, Clear Creek County."
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Insurance Administration, March 1978.
This report has been voided due to a few errors. However, for my purposes, the information is the best available resource.

"Local Climatological Data, Annual Summary With Comparative Data, Denver, Colorado, 1982." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Drake, Cheryl. Walking Tour Guide. Georgetown National Historic District. Prepared for Georgetown Society, Inc., 1979.
An extensive tour guide of 52 buildings with a discussion of the architectural significance of each. Good section on definition of pertinent architectural terms.
Draper, Benjamin Poff. Georgetown, High Points in the Story of the Famous Colorado Silver Camp. Georgetown, Colorado, 1940.
A history focussing primarily on Georgetown's boom years. A good resource in terms of looking at town development from the types of buildings (schools, churches, and houses) needed to respond to the town's growing needs.
Hill, Alice Polk. Tales of the Colorado Pioneers. Glorieta, New Mexico, The Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1976.
First published in 1884, this book gives a first hand account of Colorado life during its early years. It contains a chapter on Georgetown.
Leyendecker, Liston E. Georgetown Colorado's Silver Queen 1859 1876. Fort Collins, Colorado, Centennial Publications, 1977.

Good history of Georgetown., Beautiful 1874 lithograph of the city. Excellent bibliography.
Morgan, Gary. Rails Around the Loop. The Story of the Georgetown Loop. Ft. Collins, Colorado, Centennial Publications, 1983.
A history to the present day of the historic Georgetown Loop, which is an important element to future growth of Georgetown.
Neely, Cynthis Wadsworth. Georgetown Landmarks; History Architecture. Georgetown, Colorado, Georgetown Society, Inc., 1978.
An excellent discussion of the architectural landmarks. Also a good bibliography of original sources.
Wolle, Muriel Sibell. Stampede to Timberline. Boulder, Colorado, published by Muriel S. Wolle, 1957.
A pictorial history of the mining towns in Colorado. Important for its impression of Georgetown in the 1950's.
The Clear Creek Courant, "Special Georgetown Loop RR Edition." Clear Creek Courant & Evergreen Today, 1983 Edition.
Local newspaper special edition primarily containing articles involving the reconstruction of the Georgetown Loop. Other current local issues are also discussed.
Downtown Design Plan. Georgetown, Colorado. Colorado, September, 1981.
Briscoe Maphis,

A master plan study for improvement in the downtown section of Georgetown.
Georgetown Loop Historic Mining Area. The State Historical Society of Colorado, 1979.
An up-to-date history of the efforts and partners involved in the reconstruction of the Loop and related development projects.
Georgetown Loop Study. Barker-Rinker-Seacat & Partners, P.C. Preliminary report, prepared for the Colorado Historical Society, January 1983.
A recommended master plan for future developments and improvements in the Georgetown-Silver Plume Historic Landmark District.
"Georgetown, Silver Queen of the Rockies." Georgetown Chamber of Commerce.
A tourist brochure outlining things to do in Georgetown. Also includes a list of annual special events held in the town. Helps to define the spirit of Georgetown.
Historic Georgetown, Centennial Gazette 1868-1968. Denver, Colorado, The A.B. Hirschfeld Press, 1968.
A publication celebrating Georgetown's centennial year; oriented to the tourist, but reflects character of the town today.

Bloomer, Kent C and Charles W. Moore. Body, Memory and Architecture. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1977.
A study of architecture from the standpoint of how it affects individuals and communities on an emotional level. Excellent bibliography.
Chandler, Polly. This Is Georgetown. No publisher listed. 1972.
A collection of thoughts and sketches about Georgetown which help to define the spirit and character of the town.
Chandler, Polly. We'll Be Back Tomorrow...
A collection of articles that were published in various local newspapers and magazines. Shove insight into the special quality of life in Georgetown.
Moore, Charles, Gerald Allen and Donlyn Lyndon. The Place of Houses. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.
An excellent collection of case studies of the "spirit of place."
Norberg-Schultz, Christian. Genius Loci; Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York, Rizzoli, 1979.
A philosophical discussion of the "spirit of place," how to recognize and define it for any location. Mr. Norberg-Schultz was the main speaker at a symposium this