The Halmes Homestead cheese plant

Material Information

The Halmes Homestead cheese plant
Thompson, George Halmes
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
118 leaves : charts, color photographs, color plans ; 30 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Cheese factories -- Designs and plans -- Nebraska -- Halmes ( lcsh )
Cheese factories ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 115-118).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
George Halmes Thompson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11306908 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .T564 ( lcc )

Full Text
Dedicated to my friend and companion Gi nger

An Architectural Thesis
Presented to the College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver In partial fullfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
Spring 1984

The Thesis of GEORGE HALMES THOMPSON is Approved
Committee Chairman: Ron Rinker
Principal Advisor: George Hoover
Gary Long
Cli ent :
Pete Halmes Halmes & Sons-uairy Plattsmouth, Nebraska
University of Colorado at Denver
May 1984

SITE .......................................
SOILS REPORT ...............................
CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA ........................
CODE RESEARCH ..............................
Definitions ...........................
Interviews ...........................
Letters ...............................
BLIOGRAPHY ...............................


The Halmes Homestead Cheese Plant
A hard-cheesemaking plant with a Dairy Bar restaurant located five miles west of Plattsmouth, Nebraska (25 miles south of Omaha) on the Halmes Dairy.
The cheese plant will require 30,000 sq. ft. of buildings with ancillary facilities for visitors to be developed on the site.
With initial production of approximately 1,000 lbs. of cheese a day, the cheese plant will concentrate on a high quality product aimed at the regional market. To promote the facility within its regional marketing area, the Dairy Bar restaurant will cater to tour groups and visitors "on a drive in the country".
Attention will be focused on the use of appropriate technology which is sympathetic to the cyclical nature of agricultural products.
By so doing, this cheese plant will also promote an awareness of the interdependence of man with nature which is exemplified by man's dependency on fel low man.

The programming and subsequent design of a cheesemaking plant should examine, not only the issues germane to cheese production, but also the intangible issues which directly affect and determine the quality of the built environment.
It is through analysis of the intangible issues (for example, the role of food producer, the cheese plant as factory, rural architecture,' and regionalism) that begins to develop the deeper implications of this design problem.
This cheesemaking facility will promote, beyond its economic considerations, an awareness of the vital interaction and responsibilities between the food producer and consumer. At the same time it will serve as an example of the successful integration of mans role with the environment as a mutually beneficial relationship. It is this integration of man in nature, and man in society, which exemplifies their mutual dependency.

Halmes Dairy
In 1867 Nicholas Halmes purchased 200 acres of land for $7.50 an acre. Using rock quarried from the hills overlooking the Platte River just north of the place, he built a home which was completed in 1867.
This house, with its 18"-24" rock walls, is still in use as the family's residence.
During the 1880's the first dairy barn and milk-cooling cave were constructed. This allowed Henrietta Halmes to establish her butter route in Plattsmouth, five miles away. By 1910 the dairy barn had to be remodeled to accomodate the larger milking herd. This increased milk production allowed Bertha Halmes to supply the local grocery in Plattsmouth with butter.
The changing of the milk laws for grading purposes in 1953 required the Halmes Dairy to remodel the dairy operation. At this time the butter-making operation was discontinued and the Plattsmouth Creamery started buying the Halmes' milk.
In 1956 the Halmes Dairy started to increase milk production to provide the larger bulk milk market. This has meant a major concentration upon a specific product. Much of the corn being raised is fed to the dairy cattle. All the bull calves become feedlot steers, with the cows being added to the dairy herd. Large silos (90 feet high) are used to provide a high quality feed through the winters. Today, the Halmes Dairy is milking 100 cows, producing 3,000 lbs. of milk a day.

, / HY
The Halmes Dairy has been farming ty' During this time they have had to seek a their land and their livelihood to insure result, they have developed a sympathetic Crops are still rotated, contoured terra'' runoff and wastes are contained to be us* methane production. Hedgerows and trees control wind erosion across the fields, N all the wildlife.
In the area of technological improv* early explorations into the use of a mor* design; air-tight silos which promote th*
corn; and a center pivot irrigation syst* examples and many others reveal a willing*' risk on innovative technological prospos* In summary, the clients maintain a v new ideas. Yet their principle concern t
Nothing is taken from the land without g Though a somewhat archaic idea to many, i ing of the land which has seen the Halmes years and into their second 100 years.
r land for almost 120 years, aceful co-existence between heir mutual survival. As a /elationship with their land, are maintained, cow lot as fertilizer and, soon, for. e still seen as essential to ides providing good cover for
nts, the Halmes Dairy made efficient milking parlor anaerobic breakdown of hay and on their rolling land. These ss to accept and take the
y receptive outlook towards always remained their land, ng something in return, has been this cyclical nutur-airy through their first 100


For generations the farms of America have been the proving grounds for the individual expression of man in his environment and his culture. As long as the farmers could provide the needed food for their family, they were free to follow their own religious and/or cultural beliefs.
In exchange for their freedom of beliefs, the farmers had to withstand the demands of a harsh environment. Through perserverance and understanding, the farmers gained a resepect for their land and were able to establish an existence upon it. Equally important, the farmers derived their self-respect, as an active component of society, from their role as food producers to America.
This working relationship between man and his land was contingent upon an understanding and obeying of the essential laws of nature. It was this respect for nature in the circular rhythm of life and death, planting and harvesting, which gave meaning to the farmer's existence and defined his contribution to society. Indeed, it was the acknowledgement of the circular rhythms of life which allowed the farmer to find a peaceful co-existence with the land, hence with himself and his society.
With the industrial revolution and the proselytizing of technical advancements in machinery and nitrogen fertilizers, the farmer began to follow the accepted industrial standards of mass production. The result being that the farmer's relationship with his land was viewed as an

(Role of Food Producer)
adversary confrontation. The circular rhythm of life, rotating crops and fallowed fields could be forced into a strictly linear production format under the guise of technical achievement and conquest. The land could be manipulated to whatever use was desired and the farmer's responsibility to the land was measured only by the profits derived from it.
This mass-production food factory approach of modern farming also estranged the relationship of the farmer and society. The primary social interaction and mutual respect in the market place was replaced by a strictly monetary relationship between the farmer and the grocery store chain. As a result, our society became less concerned and less respectful of the labor required to produce the nation's food. Today our society perceives the farmer as the anonymous face of food production. It views the farmer with the same contempt that it views factory owners and laborers who mass produce other insensitive products.
Our food producers need to re-establish the importance of their contributions to our society. The promotion of their labors within a regional context will underscore the need to maintain this mutually beneficial existence with society. It is this banding based on mutual needs and responsibilities that unites those regional characteristics which give meaning to our lives.

The rural architectural forms found in eastern Nebraska cannot be categorized as to a particular style. It is this absence of applied stylistic forms which contributes to the region's eclectic appearance. This allows the rural buildings to express an individual response to an appropriate building type for a given funtional requirement.
However, this is not to say that these buildings stand alone, unrelated to their immediate context. There is a sense of harmony evoked by rural buildings in their appropriate relationship to the site and to each other.
The issue of a rural architectural vernacular is often relegated to merely discussing the type of building forms prevelant in a specific region. This is the obvious analysis. It is more important that we understand that these picturesque qualities (see Sitte), which we associate with rural buildings, are often a response to other form-giving characteristics which lie beyond a predominant stylistic concern.
These form-giving characteristics are derived from a simple, natural response to site parameters (as determined by the topography and the climate) and by the need to define and contain space which is distinct from the surrounding anonymous space of the prairie.
Response to climate and topography often finds a regional agreement as to what is appropriate. These conclusions are substantiated by years of observation that indeed, the wind blows from the northwest in the

(Rural Architecture)
winter and the southeast in the summer. The issues of climate and topography become well-defined design parameters.
Space, and its enclosure and definition, is more of a user specific response. Here the hierarchy of spatial needs is determined by the relative importance of the building's function. The dominant building use occupies a space which is defined by the ancillary support buildings. It is this enclosure of space, by restricting endless views of the horizon, with a functional hierarchy of building types which recalls those picturesque qualities often associated with rural buildings.
Building Forms
A rural building typology too often evokes some nostalgic form by which we tie ourselves to some remembrance of things past. A close examination of rural buildings today reveals an evolution of building forms in response to the changing demands of technology. The current vocabulary of the built environment in rural settings is expressed in the 90-foot tall cylindrical silos and the intricate web of the 1,000-foot long center pivot irrigation system spinning over the hills. This ready acceptance of modern technology characterizes the rural builder today. As a result, rural building forms must allow the free expression of modern technology and materials. Yet it must also respond to those parameters (climate, topography, space) which originally shaped rural building form and arrangement.

The establishment of the vast telecommunications network has ushered in a new era of regionalism predicated by the increasing decentralization of the nations' services. Equally important in this era of regionalism is our concern with energy costs. Rising transportation costs have brought about the need to examine the total energy cost of moving goods and services thousands of miles.
Regionalism is the acknowledgement that there are areas defined by physical boundaries, such as rivers, which are unique unto themselves. These physical boundaries are further delineated by common experiences, such as the need for food, climate conditions or religious beliefs.
This sharing of experiences within a region allows its inhabitants to interact with each other as familiar entities. It allows the individual to feel a part of the larger whole. As a result it also instills a sense of mutual cooperation between the buyers and the sellers of goods and services.
This personal interaction between the buyers and sellers encourages a sense of accountability, with the result being that the quality of the goods and services rises. By promoting an awareness of this mutual dependency, the buyer and seller gain a heightened appreciation for the labors of their fellow man.
This mutual dependency, so necessary for regional growth plays a key role in the total energy costs and its corresponding impact upon our

(Regional ism)
environment. Appropriate utilization of technology (that which is sensitive to our environment) and resources will not interfere with the cyclical nature of our environment. An equilibrium will be established which strengthens our interdependency upon our environment.
It is this concern and appreciation for those factors, our environ-ment and our fellow man, which will ultimately determine the effective- ness of this new regionalism.

Architecture, as a living responsive organism, has always responded favorably to new discoveries in construction technology. With the advent of iron construction, long-span fire-proof factories quickly became commonplace. Indeed, the industrial revolution gave rise to a large market demand for ever larger buildings to take advantage of mass production techniques.
In time the factory was to become the epitome of modern construction techniques. Cost efficiency was measured by how large, or how many machines could fit within that one continuous clear-span factory. With the introduction of electric lighting and sophisticated heating and cooling mechanisms, the factory became encapsulated within this expression of building technology. The main concern was the machine, production was the main function of the machine and the building protecting the machine was constructed solely for the machine. The outcome of this new technology being applied only for the machine was that the people running the machines became of secondary concern. It was obvious that the machine was the superior work force as it could work twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This reverence for the machine has reached such a state that today we can use our technology to build huge antiseptic factories which literally allow no interaction between the interior and exterior.
It has been this wholesale attachment to the newest construction

(Cheese Plant as Factory)
technique and the manipulation of mechanical devices to produce an "optimum" working environment which has produced the dismal factories which blight our landscapes and destroys our workers. The most common architectural expression of factory has been demoted to just another shed with no windows. This shed could really be anything, that infinitely flexible space -- store hay in it, perhaps cows, certainly machinery of any type. Unfortunately we also store our workers within those infinite spaces for eight hours a day, five days a week, as a minimum!
No one would think of living in a house with no windows or natural light, yet our workers today are forced to spend the majority of their waking hours in a machine-oriented environment which most of us would find totally inhospitable. The places in which people must work require as much, if not more, care in design as the places they live. Indeed, all of our livelihoods depend upon the interaction with machines. We may only have to push five buttons to operate a given machine, yet if we have only a blank tin wall to look at all day we may soon lose interest in those five buttons -- oops the machine stops. It then becomes apparent that our new building technology must move beyond mere mechanical concerns and recognize that the human design factor then becomes more important than the antiseptic machine aesthetic.
Factories have always responded to the newest technology, yet this

(Cheese Plant as Factory)
technical concern has always focused on the quantitative aspects of construction -- how big, how much. Looking back we can see that many of the factories of the past have failed, productivity continues to plummet, job dissatisfaction further erodes the already meager output and the social consequences of a person spending forty hours a week for a lifetime in a totally inhospitable environment can't be measured. Therefore, it is now time to apply our technical prowess to an examination of the qualitative determinants in factory design.
This proposal, a cheesemaking plant on a working dairy farm will be an investigation into the typology of the factory. As such it will explore those elements which serve to make a factory responsive to the required interaction between man and machine and at the same time explore the relation of the factory to its environment.

1) To produce high quality hard cheeses.
2) To design a work environment conducive to quality cheesemaking.
3) To promote an awareness (to educate) in visitors and tour guests of the need to integrate our work environment with the natural
envi ronment.
4) To provide a setting which allows and promotes interaction between the consumer and the retailer.
5) To provide a relaxing environment which encourages visitors.
6) To utilize appropriate technology in a controlled waste treatment
process for methane gas.
7) To design an icemaking system for summer cooling needs.
8) To respond to the site in orientation to the climate conditions.
9) To respond to the sun in an energy efficient manner.
10) By designing a modular construction technique which allows for future expansion in a cost-effective manner.


Though the exact origin is unknown, it is thought that shepherds in the Indus Valley or Mesopotamia 4,000 to 8,000 years ago discovered the natural enzyme action which produces curds. The shepherds carried their milk in a pouch made from a sheep's stomach. This milk would then come in contact with the rennet in the stomach lining. This rennet would coagulate the milk into curds.
Over the centuries cheese has played an important role in the economics of peoples and of nations. It was vital to the early nomadic tribes, becoming a strong barter medium as it was easier to transport than milk and only improved with age.
By 2,000 P.C. cheese was a common food as cheese molds with small holes for draining the whey off curd have been found in ruins dating from that time.
The Roman Empire readily promoted the cheese industry. Cheese from Cheshire, England was brought back by legionnaires. The Via Domitia which linked the Pyrenees with Italy passed near the French town of Roquefort. The cheese produced in Roquefort was a smooth, soft and tasty contrast to the hard and dry Mediterranean cheeses. In fact,
Pliny the Elder in his Historia Naturalis (77 A.D.) describes these cheeses and others as being prized by Roman gourmets. These gourmets and aristocrats of Rome were willing to pay good prices for fine,exotic cheeses and the extensive Roman transportation network made it possible to taste a wide variety of cheeses.

(History of Cheese)
During the Middle Ages the monks of various abbeys in Europe continued to develop individual regional characteristics in their cheese. Even today we find that is those regional characteristics which invite us to sample a variety of cheeses.
Cheesemaking continued to be small "family" operation until the 15th or 16th centuries when farmers in England "joined their milk together" to make large wheels of cheeses. Since highway tolls were calculated on the number of cheeses rather than on the weight of cheese, there was an advantage to inflate the size of cheeses. Perhaps this is how we end up with "barrels" of cheese weighing from 450 lbs to 670 lbs. today!
Historically, however, cheeses were usually produced and consumed within a very small region. The transportation of perishable milk and delivery of cheese weighing 50 lbs. a cubic foot made local cheese production and consumption a necessity.
Larger commercial cheese operations didn't really become established until the development of the steam engine with its subsequent use on ships and railroads. By the 1850's cheese "factories" were producing enough cheese to take advantage of lower transportation costs.
The immigration of many Europeans during the 19th and early 20th centuries brought many knowledgable cheesemakers to the United States. Locating in milk producing areas, these "old world" cheesemakers produced their individual cheeses. Even today much of the regional

(History of Cheese)
cheese production is in the milk producing states which attracted immigrant cheesemakers, New York and Wisconsin.
Cheese consumption is proving to be a low-cost, high-protein ternative to meat products. Annual per capita consumption of cheese is now 14 pounds and rising. Unfortunately many of the regional flavor characteristics have been lost to modern production methods. However, as people eat more cheese they will start demanding a higher quality cheese, and this demand will be best met by the regional cheesemakers.

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Milk Purchase
The purchase of grade A raw milk from local dairies. Payment for milk is based on three criteria: the fat content of the milk; the solids-not-fat content of the milk; and the cost due to differences in fat composition of the milk.
Clarification (or Filtration) of Milk
Clarification of the raw milk, in addition to removing the extraneous material, also removes a considerable number of body cells (white and red blood cells) and a large number of bacteria. Clarification helps to produce a higher quality cheese.
Destroying of bacteria is essential to producing a uniform, better flavored cheese. However a well-aged sharp Cheddar is best obtained using raw milk, but it must be cured a minimum of two months to meet health laws.
The holding method of pasteurization requires a minimum milk temperature of 143F for 30 minutes. The high temperature, short hold method minimum milk temperature of 161F for 16 seconds is better suited for a continuous production output.
After pasteurization the milk is cooled to 86F and pumped to the cheese vat.

(Cheesemaking: An Introduction)
Add Starter
The starter is added to the warm milk and allowed to ripen to the desired lactic acid content. This acid content varies with the type of cheese being produced.
Add Color
If color is desired, Annatto color is added to give the cheese a light orange color.
Add Rennet
The temperature of the ripened milk must be between 86-88F at this stage. The rennet is stirred into the milk. The milk then sets for approximately 30 minutes to allow the desired coagulation to take pi ace.
Cutting the Curd
The curd is ready to be cut when the coagulated milk has a plasticlike texture and there is a clean, sharp break when cutting the surface. Using curd knives, the curd is cut into 1/4-inch cubes. This cutting action facilitates the later draining of the whey.
Cooking the Curd
Cooking starts about 10-15 minutes after the curd is cut, following a gentle stirring of the curd and whey. The temperature of the curd and

(Cheesemaking: An Introduction)
whey is slowly raised (one degree each five minutes for the first 15 minutes) to 98-101F in 45 minutes.
Draining the Curd
When the curd feels "springy" the whey should be drained as quickly as possible.
Knitting the Curds
This entails the manipulation of the curd to produce the characteristic texture of the various cheeses. The curd may be cheddared (cheddar cheese); hooped (Swiss cheese); or pulled and kneaded, "pasta-filata" (provolone).
Salting the Curds
Salting improves the flavor, texture and appearance of cheese by slowing lactic acid fermentation and suppressing the growth of undesirable micro-organisms. Salt also controls the moisture content of the cheese by drawing the whey out of the curd.
Pressing the Curds
This is the final step of curd processing. By compacting the textured curd the free whey is extruded and the cheese is given its characteristic shape. The curds are pressed by being confined in stainless steel forms or cloth bags for a fixed time period (usually overnight).

(Cheesemaking: An Introduction)
Round balls of Provolone are hung in cloth bags while Swiss cheese is compressed under weight so that the expanding carbon dioxide, "eyes", doesn't blow the cheese up like a balloon.
Ripening (Curing)
Ripening is the chemical and physical alternations which take place during the curing of cheese. Ripened cheeses, such as Cheddar, are those made from enzyme coagulated curds. These enzymes are derived from beneficial micro-organisms added as starters. During ripening the rigid insoluble protein of cheese is broken down to simpler compounds such as peptones and eventually to more soluble peptides and amino acids. This hydrolysis of protein during ripening is instrumental in the development of the characteristic texture and flavor of cheese.
Cheese ripening takes place in a controlled environment with a temperature from 36-75F for two months to a year, depending on the texture and flavor desired. Humidity levels may vary from 35-95 percent.
Longer ripening times produce a more distinctive tasting cheese than the minimum ripened cheeses found in our typical supermarkets.

The Halmes Homestead Cheese Plant will initially produce three distinctive cheese types Cheddar, Edam, and Provolone. Future expansion, which is dependent on sales and market demand, may require a fourth type Swiss, to complete the line.
Curd particles matted together Close texture, fi rm body Cheddar, Cheshire
Curd particles kept separate More open texture Edam, Gouda Colby, Monterey
Stretched curd Plastic curd, threadlike or flaky texture Provolone, Mozzarel1 a
Bacteria ripened throughout interior with the formation of eyes Gas holes or eyes throughout the cheese Swiss (large eyes) Asiago (small eyes)


This program deals only with those specific function areas necessary for cheese production. As more information is gathered, the size of thp allotted floor areas may fluctuate, room requirements may change and design parameters redefined. Hallway, restrooms, closets and other ancillary spaces have not been mentioned. These are required and will enter the building program during the schematic design phase.

Near the main entry. Readily accessible for business visitors. Description
The administrative offices shall convey the clients' philosphy of conducting business in an informal manner. Offices should be provided for sales, billings, operations and the owner operator. Secretary space for two work-stations. A small computer/records room centrally located. A conference meeting room should be adjacent to the offices.
Design Considerations
Administrative offices set the tone of the entire cheese plant operations. A well-lit (skylights) central court surrounded by the offices will serve as a reception area for business visitors, with secretary/receptionist providing visual supervison. A secondary entry/ exit will be located off the central court to provide easy access for the staff to plant operations and parking.
The administrative offices shall be clearly distinguished from the lobby entry area of tour guests.
Conference room, offices, records and files, secretary stations will all pinwheel off the central court area. This will facilitate interaction between the administrative staff, while promoting the clients' wish for an informal work atmosphere.

(Administration Offices)
Standard office furniture, master computer room with individual offices having interface terminals and other office support equipment.

Easy truck access, protected to the north and open to the south. Adjacent to pasteurization room.
Raw milk will be delivered six days a week. This milk must be weighed, tested, and stored at delivery. Storage for 15,000 lbs. of milk.
Design Considerations
An office containing the truck scale and milk pumping controls should overlook the receiving dock.
The milk pumping controls should allow great flexibility for blending different milk to obtain the best mix for different cheese types.
The milk storage tanks need a backup cooling system to prevent spoilage. A continuous temperature recorder would alert an employee to potential damaging temperature rises. The tanks may be placed outside which will facilitate the additional storage tanks of future expansion. Driveway and dock area large enough for truck traffic.
Office, pumps, refrigeration, truck scale, for 15,000 lbs. of milk.
insulated storage tanks

Between the milk receiving room and the cheese vat room.
Milk which meets quality standards will be pumped from the receiving tanks through a clarifer filter to the pasteurizing tanks. Pasteurized milk will have to be cooled to 86F before cheese making begins.
Design Considerations
Mechanical considerations determine the layout of the space. The heating and cooling of the milk should be efficient with heat pumps making use of the fluctuating temperature demands. All controls should be in central location. Pumps and supply lines (milk, steam, water) should be readily accessible for servicing.
Provisions should be made for future expansion and the pasteurization tanks and supply lines should accomodate these needs
Pasteurization tanks, steam heaters, pumps, cooling tanks.

Near the receiving dock, adjacent to the main cheese room.
The responsibility for quality control of the cheese plant rests upon its laboratory. Here the milk samples are tested for butterfat content (determinant for milk price), acidity (coagulation component), bacteria, flavor, and composition (percentage water and other solids).
On-line production responsibilities will include monitoring of incoming raw milk quality, acid content, pasteurization testing, and ripening (curing) tests. Sample cheese batches will be produced here as part of research and development.
Design Considerations
Tile and stainless steel surfaces easily cleanable.
Well designed support systems water, electrical, mechanical systems should provide flexible layout to explore new techniques.
Well lit space.
Controlled environment, filtered air.
Floors drain to facilitate cleaning.
Refrigerated storage, lab benches, wash sinks, sterilizer, microscopes, small cheese vat.

STARTER ROOM 400 sq. ft.
Within the testing and manufacturing laboratory, near the cheese
This is where the starter is made on a daily basis. The starter bacteria initiate the cheesmaking process. A controlled environment is essential to ensure that the starter cultures will maintain a day-to-day uniformity in the propagation of bacteria.
Design Considerations
All surfaces to be tile or stainless steel.
There should be no windows and there should be a purified air control using outside air which filters out dust.
An ultra-violet light in the air duct is needed to kill microorganisms and bacteriophage.
Chlorine fogging equipment is needed to sterilize the room.
Equi pment
Autoclave, incubator, refrigerator, wash sink, sterilizer, pasteurizer, innoculating cubicle.

CHEESE VAT ROOM 3,000 sq. ft.
Adjacent to pasteurizing room and cheese handling (hooping, ched-daring, milling) area.
The actual cheesemaking takes place here. Large tanks are filled with warm milk, the starter and rennet are added, the milk is coagulated, the curd is cooked and cut, the whey is drained. The whole operation takes place in one tank.
Design Considerations
This room should be located at a high point of the plant layout.
As the milk is condensed into cheese, the movement of the cheese curds for individual cheese type handling becomes crucial. Using gravity to move the cheese cured through its remaining processing (hooping, ched-daring, storage/curing, packaging) will reduce energy demand and ensure that the cheese curds are not adversely affected by pumping action.
Additional cheese vats will be needed for future expansion needs and their location should be considered in the design of the vat room.
As this will be a principle work space every effort should be made to provide a good work place for the employee. Natural light and views to the outside are needed.

(Cheese Vat Room)
Cheese vats, milk and steam lines, pumps, control panels for individual vats.

Adjacent to the cheese vat room and three to four feet lower to facilitate curd movement.
Here the variety of cheese curds are cheddared, hooped, stretched, or pressed depending on the cheese being produced. Curds from the vats flow down into work station to begin their specialized handling which is required for a distincitve cheese. Afterwards the cheese is weighed and wrapped for storage.
Design Considerations
The independent curd handling required for the variety of cheeses to be produced should be segregated within the area. This will allow the workers to work without interfering with the other curd processing systems, yet allow them to feel that they are contributing to the group production environment.
Aisles should be wide enough for moving the cheese along conveyor belts to the cheese hoops and presses. This new cheese (in blocks weighing from 40-250 lbs) is then weighed and wrapped for storage.
Adequate room is needed for equipment movement and machinery repair. Storage is needed for hoops and presses. All surfaces should be easily cleaned.

(({Cheese Processing Room)
Natural light and view windows will improve the employee's disposition.
Equi pment
Conveyor belts, presses, weighing and packaging machines, curd tables.

STORAGE (ripening/curing) ROOMS 10,000 sq. ft.
Adjacent to the curd processing room and the shipping-loading dock. Description
A controlled environment is essential for proper curing. Depending on the type of cheese, different temperatures and humidity levels are required. Cheeses will be stored here for 4-12 months.
Design Considerations
Storage spaces must be well ventilated to prevent mold growth. The average temperature will be approximately 45-55F. This will require a well-insulated or earth-buried space. Cool air will be supplied from the ice house.
There will be separate storage areas with their own environmental controls to handle special cheese types, (Swiss cheese requires different temperatures depending eye formation).
Aisles should be wide enough to facilitate movement of cheese.
Shelf space should allow maximum stocking of cheese to allow air circulation around the blocks.
Inventory control and stock rotation should be considered in the final layout.
Storage rooms should accomodate initial production increases. The location of the storage should allow for future expansion while maintaining existing shipping docks and curd processing relationships.

(Storage Rooms)
Shelving, ventilators, humidity/temperature controls, inventory office.

PACKAGING ROOM 500 sq. ft.
Adjacent to the storage area and shipping area loading docks. Accessible to the retail sales and Dairy Bar.
Here the wrapping is removed from the cheese after curing. Large blocks of cheese are cut into retail or commercial proportions, then weighed and wrapped. Orders are put together here for commercial and retail accounts and the packaging office will maintain inventory control.
Design Considerations
A flexible layout is needed to accomodate large commercial orders. Smaller orders should be handled separately. Automated weighing and wrapping machines will determine room layout. Conveyor belts from the storage areas should run directly into the packaging machines. Packaging room should have large cooler to reduce spoilage during the summer months while cheese is waiting to be loaded.
Hobart packaging machine, conveyor belts from stroage and to loading dock. Shelving for cheese, packaging material storage.

Near the packaging department and retail sales outlet.
The Dairy Bar (seating 50) is intended to provide tour guests and outside visitors a chance to sample a variety of cheeses and other dairy products. By incorporating the retail sales outlet with the restaurant, customers will be more inclined to take something home to eat. This focusing of customers and vistors into one area will give the impression of the Dairy Bar being a popular place, thus ensuring repeat business.
The Dairy Bar will be designed with a small kitchen facility.
However, the initial operation of the Dairy Bar will focus on dairy products and baked goods. Large freezers and coolers will be needed for storage. This storage will be accessible from the rear for easy stocking.
Retail sales will need coolers for the cheese blocks. Cheese for retail sales will be handled in approximately 10-pound blocks. Wrapping and gift package samplers will also be handled here.
Design Considerations
The Dairy Bar should provide a relaxing atmosphere which allows the visitors to relax and enjoy the surroundings. Opening up to the south should be a patio which will invite people outside to enjoy the fresh air and scenery in the countryside.

(Dairy Bar Restaurant and Retail Sales)
Coolers, kitchen facilities, cutting counters, food storage and preparation, dish washing and storage, cash register.


The end of the production line. Adjacent to the packaging area and supply storage area.
This will be the main dock area of the cheese plant. From this dock supplies will be dispersed to storage areas. Retail orders will be collected and loaded onto the trucks here.
Design Considerations
This area should be distinctly separate from the employee and visitor parking areas and clearly visible for security reasons.
The dock area should be sheltered to the northwest winter winds and open to the south.
Space is needed to move supplies and cheese around with forklifts. There should be a clear separation from incoming supplies going to storage and packaged cheese ready for shipping.
Inventory control be handled through the adjacent packaging office.
Small forklift, storage for pallets.

GARAGE/SHOP 1,000 sq. ft.
Adjacent to the shipping and receiving loading docks.
Design Considerations
Parking for milk truck, delivery truck, and utility vehicle (pickup ruck).
Space should be provided for a partitioned shop repair area.
The garage should open to the south.

MECHANICAL ROOM 2,000 sq. ft.
A central location within the plant layout, yet situated so that future expansion needs can be easily met. This mechanical room/area should be sited to the north or northwest side of the plant, so that it does not interfere with plant operations and visitors to the south.
Cheeesemaking requires a multiplicity of mechanical and climate control considerations. Steam is required for pasteurizing milk, cooking curds and sterilizing equipment. Refrigeration is required for cooling pasteurized milk and maintaining the temperature of the cheese storage areas. High output electrical circuitry is needed for pumping the milk and curds. Backup generators should be included to prevent spoilage problems.
Design Considerations
The mechanical room should be accessible by repair equipment. Water, steam, electric and gas lines will be accessible. Sprinklers or other fire control devices should be included. Two exits are required. Pumps, with backups, will be needed to handle hot water from the solar collectors, cold water from the ice storage and whey disposal. An office/control station will coordinate the operation.

(Mechanical Room)
Equi pment
Pumps, backup generator, boiler, mechanical systems.
refrigeration, computer link to

ICE HOUSE 1,000 sq. ft.
Next to the mechanical room.
The ice house will facilitate the formation of a small ice mountain during the winter months. During the summer months the ice will be used for cooling off the pasteurized milk and keeping the cheese storage at 40-50F.
Design Considerations
The ice house should be heavily bermed to the south; yet there must be good ventilation through the building during the crucial ice-making months to insure proper ice formation. Movable doors or insulated tents should be considered. The ease of quickly closing off or opening the ice house depending on temperature fluctuations will determine the best solution.
Nozzles for the hoses should have pigtail helices for the best iceforming spray pattern.
The foundation design should consider the estimated 200-300 tons of ice and its expansion effects on the walls. Pipes running into the ice pile should be properly fixed to avoid movement during the summer meltdown.

(Ice House)
Insulating covers, water pump, hoses, nozzles.



Separated from the tour facilities; adjacent to the centrally located cheese vat room.
Design Consideration
Natural light, sun, views and access to a protected exterior patio. Should be accessible by a back hall from all work stations.
Showers, restrooms and lockers should be provided, with convenient employee parking nearby.
Horse-shoe pit, ping pong table, refrigerator, sink, showers, lockers.

RESIDENCE 1,500 sq. ft.
Unobtrusive location providing views of access road and cheese plant.
Due to its rural location, a manager's residence will provide onsite security and emergency maintenance for the cheese plant. An office will be provided which allows visual surveillance of the grounds in addition to the electronic sensor switch board. The switch board will show the location of a break-in or fire, and could also be programmed to "watch" over certain production procedures extending beyond the normal working day.
Design Considerations
The residence should be sited to give maximum privacy from the day-to-day plant operations. As a home, it will have to fulfill all the amenities required in today's housing market three bedrooms, kitchen/ dining area, living rooms, office, two baths, mudroom, proper climatic orientation.
This residence should complement the massing and spatial arrangement of site; yet there should be no confusion on the part of visitors or employees that the residence is a separate entity of the plant operations.

Single-family uniform building codes will be followed.
The usual household machines for living; stove, refrigerator, furnace, etc.
The office will require special equipment such as the switchboard/ computer link to the cheese plant.
Note: The program requirements of a single-family residence can be
quite lengthy. Since the residence exists in an ancillary relationship to the cheese plant, I have chosen to address those functional relationships which are directly related to the on-going operation of the cheese plant.

Main entry, Dairy Bar, raw milk receiving, shipping and receiving. Description
Tour group and Dairy Bar visitor parking with access roads for two-way travel.
Raw milk receiving dock with truck turnaround and one-lane road. Shipping/receiving and garage with large yard for maneuvering trucks around. A two-way access road is required.
Design Considerations
Roads and parking lots should be placed so they are not shaded in the winter.
The truck traffic road should be seperated from the vistor road.
The visitor's road should follow an intuitive path to the main entry.
The loading dock yard areas should face south and be protected by buildings to the west and north.
There should only be one entry road for security reasons.

(Parking and Roads)
Parking Required
35 visitor cars 15 staff and business 2 busses/with drop off 2 handicapped 2 truck docks 1 shipping/receiving yard
0 350 Sq. ft. each = 12,250
0 350 sq. ft. each = 5,250
0 500 sq. ft. each = 1,000
0 375 sq. ft. each = 750
0 600 sq. ft. each = 1,200
0 V o o o sq. ft. each = 3,000
The required roads will be determined by the site and floor plan development.

The by-product of cheesemaking is whey. Approximately 90% (by weight) of the milk used to make cheese is converted to whey. This aqueous solution containing milk solids has an undesirable smell and large impact on the environment if it is drained into a stream.
Whey and sewage will be drained off to a storage pit and slurry store located on the Halmes and Sons cattle lots. A methane digester is to be added to take advantage of the bio-gas. The addition of the whey to the manure enhances the bio-gas process giving a 20% increase in gas production (depending on the manure/whey proportions). This is due to the 4.3% lactose content in the whey.
This use of whey is more cost-efficient than other whey disposal techniques and the gas can be used for steam generation at the cheese plant.
A pipeline approximately 1,200 feet long will have to be laid connecting the cheese plant with the slurry store. This pipeline will cross a gravel county road which will require a county permit. No buildings or buried utilities are in the path of the proposed pipeline.

Interior Spaces
Administration 2,000 sq. ft,
Raw Milk Receiving 300 II II
Pasteurization 1,000 II II
Production and Testing Lab 1,000 II II
Starter Room 400 II II
Cheese Vat Room 3,000 II II
Cheese Processing Room 3,000 II II
Cheese Storage 10,000 II II
Packaging Room 500 II II
Dairy Bar and Retail Sales 3,000 II II
Loading and Receiving 500 II II
Garage Shop 1,000 II II
Mechanical 2,000 II II
Ice House 1,000 II II
Employee Lounge 300 II II
Residence 1,500 II II
29,600 sq. ft.
'ior Areas
Parking 23,450 II II
Patios 1,000 II II
Waste Treatment
24,450 sq. ft,


Legal Description
SE 1/4 SE 1/4 SEC. 7 T 12N, R 13E
Plattsmouth, Nebraska
Site Boundaries
The site (approximately 70 acres) is protected at its north boundary by a brush-covered terrace which separates the crop land from the grazing pasture. A small spring-fed creek runs along the west property line. To the east and south the property line is defined by two gravel county roads.
Site Environment
The proposed site is a small pasture well sheltered to the north by thick hedgerow brush. This provides good cover for a variety of animal life. Birds, hawks, pheasants, rabbits, and coyote are often seen near the small spring creek. The development of a nature trail through the site would enhance the experience of the cheese facility for the visitors. "A natural product in a natural environment."
The orientation of the site provides excellent solar access as there are no shade obstructions to the south. The site topography allows the buildings to be placed on a southeastern slope to take advantage of the best solar orientation while being protected from the harsh western sun.

Prevailing wind patterns in the area (from the northwest and the southeast) are free from the odors of farm animals.
Site Access to Transportation Routes
To the south of the site, one and one-quarter miles, is the State Route 66. This road provides good all-weather access to U.S. Highways 34 and 73/75 which are five miles to the east, in Plattsmouth.
These state highways provide good access to the Omaha area (25 miles north, population 400,000) and Lincoln (50 miles southeast, population 200,000).
Crossing over the Missouri River, which defines the eastern edge of Nebraska, on Highway 66 is the 1-29 interchange. This road runs north to Winnipeg, Canada and south to Kansas City, paralleling the Missouri River.
Studies by U.S.D.A. show that 90% of the cheese produced is transported by truck with the average distance being 318 miles and the farthest distance being 757 miles. These distances would put the Kansas City market (250 miles from Plattsmouth) in grasp. It is this proximity to milk producers and large city markets via excellent highways that helps to make this project so feasible.
Site Access Signage and Visitors
Development of an intuitive path leading to the visitor entrance is essential for promoting a relaxing and enjoyable experience.

Signage for the cheese plant will be placed at the U.S. Highway 34 and 1-29 interchange across the river from Plattsmouth. This will attract many visitors from the heavily traveled north-south interstate highway. The intersection of State Route 66 and Highway 73/75 will also have signage to atttract the state residents.
At the county road turnoff from State Route 66 will be signage announcing the proximity to the cheese plant.
Turning on the gravel road the cheese plant will be easily visible from the top of Bester School Hill. Continuing north on the gravel road for one and one-quarter miles, the visitor will be directed to the entry access road by means of a visible entry gate/sculpture and the small rent ion pond.
By this point the visitor will be following the intuitive path to the main visitors' entry and the small signage symbols will confirm what they already know.
Development of Area
To the north, two and one-half miles lies the Platte River which flows around hardwood-covered hills which rise 300' out of the river bottomland. A "quality" subdivision is in the process of being built there with an emphasis on the recreational aspects of the area. A small lake (35 acres) is to be developed at the nearby gravel pit and a smal1 ski facility with man-made snow is being proposed.

Signage will be placed near this recreation area to attract sitors to the facility.


Friable Silt Loam
The friable silt loam soil constitutes the major portion of the first 60 inches (depth) of the site. Yellowish-brown clay is found in increasing proportions until the clay strata is reached at depths ranging from 5'-10'- Information on the strength and characteristics of this clay strata is unavailable at this time.
Water runoff is rapid, due to the low organic matter content of the friable silt loam and the increasing proportions of clay in the subsoil.
Land shaping and installing the septic absorption field on the contour is generally necessary for proper operation.
Foundations for buildings need to be properly designed to accomodate the slope or grading is needed to modify the slopes.
Roads need to be designed so that the surface pavement and base material are thick enough to compensate for the low strength of the soil material. Good surface drainage will reduce damage by frost action.
Side ditches are needed for adequate surface draining of roads.
Bearing Capacity for Monoma Silt Loam
The low strength soil requires a controlled earth fill. Soil should be compacted in six-inch lifts to 90% standard proctor density. Total fill under slabs should be 2-3 feet. Foundations should be placed at 3'-41 deep with allowable pressure at 1.5 KSF.

(Soils Report)
Soils Summary
The farmers of the area prefer to build their large barns and sheds into hills so that the foundations can rest on the clay strata five to ten feet below the surface. With the preliminary soils report prescribing two to three feet of compacted fill for slabs I feel that the farmers' approach bears some further examination; especially since the compacted fill must be below frostline (30-36 inches). Additional excavation for the footings may reach the denser, stronger clay strata.
A soils strength report on the clay strata will be needed.
The soils report mentions that foundations need to accomodate the slope or grade to modify the slope. More information is needed to define the parameters of foundation design. If the foundations are placed on the clay strata, consideration must be given to lateral pressure on the foundation from the uphill soil and rapid water runoff.
Runoff from the surrounding hill on the site will be a major concern for building palcement. Surface drainage will need to be controlled by a perimeter ditch. This ditch can be used to fill the retention pond on the site.


Regional Climate
Plattsmouth, Nebraska is located on the west bank of the Missouri River approximately two miles south of the mouth of the Platte River.
The climate is relatively warm during the summer (highs of 90F are common) and cold during the winter (25F average). Humidity levels are fairly high with 80 percent relative humidity early in the day.
Precipitation averages about 30 inches a year. About 75 percent of the precipitation falls between April and September, with only 10 percent of the total percipitation occurring during the winter months.
The average wind speed is eleven miles per hour, with the winds coming from the north-northwest during January, February, March and April and from the south-southeast the rest of the year.
Solar Data
There are 6,049 heating degree days with 1,173 cooling degree days (base 65F) during the average year, with the sunshine levels ranging from 50 percent in the winter to 75 percent in the summer.
Climatological Data Conclusions
The cold northwest winds and the summer breezes from the southeast become major factors in the site design. The cheese facility must be located such that it is not in the line of prevailing winds crossing nearby cattle lots.

(Climatological Data)
Though there is relatively little precipitation during the winter months, the average winter temperature (25F) and 50 percent sunshine ensure that any moisture on the ground will remain frozen, and present possible hazards for visitors and employees.
With the highest temperatures and rainfall coinciding during the summer visitor season, some kind of overhead covering should be provided near the outdoor visitor areas.

Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
' m -... . . .. ...,
Narrative Climatological Summary
Omaha, Nebraska, is situated on the west bank of the Missouri River. The river level at Omaha is normally about 965 feet above sea level and the rolling hills in and a-round Omaha rise to about 1,300 feet above sea level. The climate is typical continental with relatively warm summers and cold, dry winters. It is situated midway between two distinctive climatic zones, the humid east and the dry west. Fluctuations between these two zones produce weather conditions for periods that are characteristic of either zone, or combinations of both. Omaha is also affected by most storms or "lows" that cross the country. This causes periodic and rapid changes in weather, especially during the winter months.
Most of the precipitation in Omaha falls during sharp showers or thunderstorms, and these occur mostly during the growing season, April to September. Of the total precipitation, about 75 percent falls during the 6-month period, April to September, mostly as evening or nighttime showers and thunderstorms. Although winters are relatively cold, precipitation is light, with only 10 percent of the total annual precipitation falling during the winter months.
Sunshine is fairly abundant, ranging around 50 percent of the possible in the winter to 75 percent of the possible in the summer.
The average date for the last occurrence in the spring of temperatures as low as 32 F. is April 14, and for the first occurrence of 32 F. or lower in autumn is October 20. The longest freeze free period on record is 219 days in 1924, and the shortest period 152 days in 1885. The average length of the freeze free period is 188 days.

(Table Revised 1973. Base Period for Climatological Normals: 1931-1960)
Station OMAHA# NEBRASKA EPPLEV AIRFIELD Standard tine used; CENTRAL Latitude A1 II' N Longitude 95" 5* W Elevation tground) 9T7 feet
Temperature l _ Precipitation Relative humidity Wind 1 St Mean number ol day* ** 1 S 2
Nonael Extremes $ S.nw l< e pellet* Fatten mile SiNuite to auntet % Tempera* urea Wa* I Mm
1 I 1 i 1 >. E 1 l a j i J if > S S 1 oc 2 n E 75 xi f A 1 T. -3 3 1 5 T. E > l- 2 i I S If E s § 1 6 3 2 % V y E ^ E £ I > E ra E £ 6 ^ 1 s * X 00 (L X 06 oca X 12 tim X 18 f) 1 1 I 1 l i Q. -i I # 8 i Q > i £ f! g I l l 2 C s 1 Q. u 1 O i 11 t a 0 n 2 m E E 8 B 1 c X ~ ? 1 } 0 2 A C 2 A 1 0 a if 1 i
() (b) (b) (b) 9 9 (b) (b) 37 37 17 37 37 37 9 9 9 9 37 15 37 37 37 37 17 17 37 17 17 37 37 9 9
J 31.7 12.9 22.3 64 1964 -17 1966 1324 0.82 3.70 1949 0.05 1943 1.32 1967 7.9 25.7 1936 13.1 1949 73 75 64 66 11.2 NNW 37! hw 193B 33 6.1 9 B 1* 7 2 * 2 0 15 30 7
F 36.0 17.0 26.5 78 1972 -17 1971 1076 0.95 2.97 1965 5.10 I960 2.24 1954 7.5 25.4 1963 18.3 1965 72 75 39 60 11.5 NNw 57 NW 1947 55 6.3 7 8 13 7 2 2 0 26 3
M 46. 27.3 36.9 89 i960* 4 19654 71 1.45 3.59 1961 0.12 1956 1.45 1959 7.1 27.2 1948 13.0 1946 70 75 53 51 12.8 NNw 73 NW 1950 53 6.6 7 1 1* 9 2 1 1 0 23 0
A 62.4 40.9 51.7 93 1965 18 1970 405 2.56 6.45 1951 0.23 1936 2.56 1938 0.1 8.6 1945 8.6 19*5 67 75 51 47 13.2 NSW 65 NW 1937 59 6.4 7 9 14 9 * 1 0 5 0
H 73.9 32.1 63.0 97 1967 31 1967 164 3.48 10.33 1959 0.36 1940 3.58 1964 0. 1 2.0 1945 2.0 1945 70 77 53 30 11.5 SSE 73 N* 1936 62 6.3 7 10 14 12 * 8 1 3 a 01
J B3. 62.4 71.1 103 1971 40 1969 30 4.53 10.61 1947 1.03 1972 3.40 1942 0.0 0.0 0.0 73 B0 56 54 10.6 SSE 72 N 1942 67 5.7 8 11 11 11 0 10 1 0 0
J B9.7 67.J 78.5 102 1970 44 1972 0 3.37 9.60 1938 0.52 1936 3.37 1958 0.0 0.0 o.o 78 83 58 37 9. 1 SSE 109 N 1936 76 4.8 11 13 7 9 0 1 12 0 0
A 6.9 65.5 76.2 107 1964 43 1967 6 3.98 9.12 1939 0.73 1941 3.40 1959 0.0 o.c 0.0 79 83 59 58 9.2 SSE 66 N 194* 71 4.7 13 10 9 0 1 0 0
S 70.5 55.3 66.9 100 1971 31 19724 90 2.63 13.75 1963 0.41 19334 6.47 1965 T T 1961 T 1901 82 07 61 61 9.7 SSE 47 E 1948 67 4.0 19 1 10 0 0 3 1 2 0
0 67.5 43.1 53.7 95 1963 13 1972 126 1.73 4.99 1961 T 1952 3.13 1968 0.3 7.2 1941 7.2 1941 76 ei 55 57 10.1 SSE 62 NW 1966 67 4.7 13 0 10 6 * 3 I 0 6 0
N 48.9 28.8 38.9 00 1964 -9 1964 783 1.26 4.05 1948 ) 04 19554 2.53 1948 2.4 12.0 1957 0.7 1937 76 80 62 6! 11.2 SSE 36 NW 1951 52 3.9 9 1 13 3 1 1 l C 1 20
D 37.2 19.1 28.2 67 1964 -13 19684 1141 0.80 3.30 1941 T 1943 1.79 1941 5.9 19.9 1969 10.2 1969 77 79 66 70 10.8 SSE 32 NW 1938 40 6.* 8 7 1* 6 2 2 0 10 28 2
YR 61.9 41.0 51.5 107 1964 19714 6218 27.56 13.75 1965 T 19524 6.47 1963 32.ol 27.2 1948 18.^ 1965 75 79 38 58 10.9 109 N 1936 62 5.7 112 107 1*6 99 9 *9 15 33 *0 139 13
$ For period August 1963 through the current year.
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Highest temperature 114 in July 1936; lowest temperature -32 in January 1884; maximum precipitation in 24 hours 7.03 in August 1903; maximum monthly snowfall 29.2 in March 1912.
(Table Revised 1975. Base Period for Climatological Normals: 1941-1970)
t a > 9 1 0 £ 1 I! > 0 ii Mean numbar of day! Averapa ttat'on
Sunnw to aunaet 1 [ Sf is !> 5 2 £ 5 8 I K £ 2> t 0 It Tempar# Max turaa *F Min pretaure mb
m G £ £ S 0 a. 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 11 11 11 11 2
55 6.1 9 8 14 7 3 a 2 0 19 30 8 989.1
35 6.3 7 8 l\ 7 2 2 0 9 27 3 982.6
55 6.7 7 6 16 9 2 1 1 0 4 21 0 977.2
S'* 6.3 7 9 14 9 a 4 1 a 6 0 976.6
62 6.3 7 10 14 12 a 8 1 2 0 0 976.0
66 5.6 9 10 11 n 0 10 a 0 0 0 0 976.5
76 4.8 12 12 7 9 0 8 l 13 0 0 0 979.7
72 4.7 13 10 0 9 0 6 1 8 0 0 0 980.2
67 4.6 13 7 10 8 0 5 1 2 0 a 0 981.7
67 4.7 13 8 10 6 a 3 2 0 5 0 982.8
52 6.0 9 7 14 5 1 1 1 0 1 20 981.4
46 6.4 8 7 16 6 2 2 0 11 29 2 981.1
62 3.7 114 104 1*7 99 9 *0 15 3* *0 137 12 979.9
*nR *nt* comparable exposures. Annual extremes have heen exceeded at other sites In the locality as follows: monthly antwfaU 29 2 In MarchV 1q126 'CSt 1 em'>''ra turr ",2 ln lonuary 1S8'., maximum precipitation in 24 hours 7.01 in AuKust 1901; maximum
(Caution: Letters and symbols may have different meanings in 1941-1970 tables than in earlier tables. See notes.)

Average Temperature
V.r J.n | Feb ! Mar Apr *> Junt July Aug Spt Oct Nov Dec Annual
| J 8 57.0 6C. 72.9 7 t.P 75.9 63.C 52.9- C.8 79.7 51.3
i**? 19.9 3?.* ! Ci.5 53.9 58.9 72. 76." 7" .* 6 3.6 78.0 5^.6
3 1.6 ;s. 36 1 6.7> 96.8 73.9 76. 1 79.3 66.6 56 8 9 C 9 73.*- 51.7
19* 2*.* 28.6 *6.0 50. r 5.6 76.2 b 6 ! 55. 1 .CO 5P. 5
J 9.' ?6.6 33. 50.2 57.T 59.? 73.9 77.2 71.C 65.8 5f .8, 39.8 57.8
10*' 28.6 21 . 7*.? 9 8.6 58.9 .... 77.0 *3.? 6* 7 6". 3 ?8.| 51.5
J 20.1 25 . j 32.0 57.0 62.7 71.9 76.1 76.9 70.C 5*. £> 39.8 77.6 Si."
1 * ?3.9 36.6 52. 66 .r '3.8 79.0 75 .C 61 .* 56.7 9*.7 79.9 51.7
1.5- 1 .* 25. J* 1 *6 * 61.7 71 .5 7 1 .9 70. 1 69.5 59.1 35.5 29.* ....
1*5 1 20.3 28 . ; 30.7 96.1 63.7 66.8 79.7 79.7 67.0 s.J 39.5 70.1 97.9
1*5? 22.2] 3* . 3' * 51.1 62.6 7 8.9 77.6 72.9 68.0 50.* 38.9 26.7 51 .
1*57 29.5,1 31 . *p. 5 6.5 61.5 77.6 76.5 76.9 68.0 60. 1 9 1 3? 1 51.5
1*5* 19.6 *0. ; 35.) 5 5.3 58 8 76.2 82.6 76.3 70.9 53.9 5.7 31.6 53.9
1955 2*.TJ 20. 36.5 59.9. 66.9 ...7 62." 8C.D 69.* 44 * 37.6 23.9 51.8
lcSfc 21. J 26. i 37.6 .... t? 5 77.6 71.Oj 76.2 76.6 66.8 41.1 .... 32.9 57.5
1*57 17.6. 32. 36. V 50. 51.67 6 1.7 1* 76.3 63.9 51. 37.1 35.0 51.*
195 26.7 2C. 35. T 6* 7 69.7 73.1 75.8 67.5 5". 1 2.7 26.6 51.0
1*5 if .r 25. J* .* SC. 6 67.1 79.C 79.7 78.9 65.0 50.8 33.1 39.9 50.7
19e,<- 20. V 19. 2 7.1 53.7- 62.2 70.0 75.* 75.6 67.T 56.7 1.3 "* 9.5
1*61 2* .6 31 . 39.5 50.*1 6C.1 71.6 77.tV 75.1 67.3 5!. a 38.0 20.1 5*.?
196? 1.* 31.9 7C. 1 72.3 75.6 75.0 63.2 5 01 2.0 50.8
196 7 1 7. V 27. * .'* 5%. r 67.1 76.3 79.0 79.3 67.8 6* * 99.1 17.8 57.1
1 9 6 2 6 33. 3. 52.6 6f.a 71.9 80.1 70.5 65.3 5 3 T 2.2 25.7 51 .9
196* 2*.q H 27.1 53.7- 66.1 71.8 75.7 79.1 61.01 57.7 2.9 36.9 51 .1
19fct 19.9.1 28 . ! ** .1 98. ? 61 .P 72.6 79.9 71.0 63.7 5". 90.1 28.3 50.8
1967 2*.V 2* ** .5 55.6 59 1 7C.8 79.9 71.7 62.5 52. 1 38.. 26.9 51 1
196* 22.6. 2 7 .j 3 **.6 57.5. 56.0 79 .tV 76.9 75.0 65.9 55.8 37.9 29.0 51.1
1969 1 8 71 26^7* 31. V 5 3.1 63.2 67.9| 78.2 75.6 67.7 5C. 1 91.0 29.6 *9.9
19 7 C 16.S 32Ja 7*. .... 79.3 77.3 76.3 66.2 51 . 38.2 29.8 51.6
1971 17.8 2sJ 37.? 59.9. 6C.8 77.1 7*.7( 79.7 67.8 58. a 91.2 26.9 51.5
1*7? 2o.a 25. 90.8 51.Z 62.8 .... 79.6 73.6 65.9 99. J7.1 21 .1 *9.5
1977 22.6. 2* . 5C. 5.8 73.3 75.5 77.6 69.? 5". 3 J... 22.7 51.3
197* 18.8 3C,fc *2 i 52.8 69.8 87.7 70.5 59. r 0.7 26.9 51.1
1975 2 ? 5i 22 | 9> 31.71 .... 72. V, 76.9 79.7 62.6 58 91.6 30.9 51.*
1976 .s| JUs| s... 6C.r 72. r 79.0 76.3 67.9 98 S 33.3 29.1 51.8
19 7 * 13.1 37.2! *1.8 59.' 7C.7- 75.1 80.6 72.5 67.9 53. ] 39.7 26.7 53.0
19 7 i?.a 15. 35.7* 52.8 61 .V 73.7 77.3 75.5 71.1 53. 39.8 79.9 9.9
19*9 10.7* 17 1 39.8 5C.C 61.8 61.8 72.7 76.0 75.7 66.7 35.8 30.3
198f 2 ? * [ 37. * 50.7 "* 76.6 69.7 99. a *0.3 26.1 99.8
198 1 ..lj *4 j 9C.8 JT.. .... 7... 76.6 71.0 69.8 SO. ? 0.6 22.9 SC 6
**f * 21.7- 30.8 26. 35. 37.8 97. y 2.8 72.8 72.3 62.5 77.5 §7.7 67.y 75.2 66.9 77.0 59. a 65 fc 0 Jf.7 8.7 27.9 35.9 51 .1 61.0
a* X 12.6 1 7 . 27.8 91.9 52.3 62.1 55.7 29.7 18.8 1 1
Heating Degree Days
Season July Aug Septf Oct 'Nov[0*c J.n Fab | Mar Apr May jjune Total
I'M 1 d i it*; 2 8 3 805 1*99 1 1 16 1D20 *31 7? 19 6 7 C?
1 -* 7 v. 1 ir 78* 685 ;i3* 1590, 1058 6* 1 31* 120 0. 59|
1 76 3 6* 3 35 96 673 1*58; 11 IT 99* 96* 3*9 55 19 5 7 3C
1 ** 44 2*J *7 353 676 172 7: 1 7 9 6 1191 1168 361 55 0. 696
19*5 .. c % It* 25T 670 86* 1**C ires! 6*? 501 185 1 3 375*
19*1 67 S 1* 3 r 3 5* 7* 1 113? 1216 i"2o; 615 795 ? 9 1 ' 5 7 59
196 7 t IV i' IT 79) 1 129 13 r 7 1085. 631 JIC 2 76 1 1 6111
1 96P 6 2- 1! 60 313 ? 126*, 1*70 1'66 ic?e 353 1*0' 56 6**1
1*6 9 7 1 a ol ? si 78 719 1?9 2 1 5 C 7 9)7 89* 3*8 68 2 67 35
1 -71 a d us! 26. 7,7 10851 1958 1106 853 3 19 17 2' 1 6 32*
19M 7> v i\ 226! 707 1113 139? 11*3 7*1 cl 1*' 17 5992
1977 >1 . T i'i 66 831- 1357 1307 101*, 636 37 11 O' 6 380
197 J 7* c a 90 75* SO. 1"0 19?7 95* 1C2 379 19 0: 31 6030
197* * IV 30C "1 1115 13)1 1189, 10?* *69 7? 1 1 6*23
1975 .. a 3 191 251 6*51 lpSl 1219 ..i1 757 ?tl 177; 33*7
1976 7T1 t 3 61 522 9* 7 126* 1596 883 57* : 19 1C 1 606$
1977 78 : I ?e: 311 75* 1 19b 1637 1375 910 37? 160 1 68 1 1
1978 79 1 a 'Â¥ 350 759 is! 1676 1133 775 51 166. 1 7 68 Cl
1979 8' 61 t V .... H 1316 1790 987 **c 1 38 *
1980 -81 a j its ... n. 1198; 1259 1018 7* J 791 ... o' 607
1981 ? 1 9 s| 5? H 1
Cooling Degree Days
See Station Location table.
Record atan values above are weans through the current year for the period beginning in 1873 for tenperature, 1871 for precipitation and 1936 for snowfall.

' '~=': - ... , - " ' Elevation above T lie M= AMON
Se Ground
leva- c
1 L.
E m E - C7 e : i
Location i c t ~ i c c i 1 S Latitude Longitude e E p E a e * u 3 D 3 e ? 1 l 'i - Resarks
i i i 1 S 1 -i I i 1 < ; a North fcfST "C = c il f a 13 C a E a t M to! E 0 -C i a. \ ? I li c X 17 s * C7 c 3 CD £ 0 I* tv 1 eL

1 *>tri i t 1 0/1 , - 12/1/71 -1* 16* 65' 56' 1035 34 16 24 Sort' wind- w exposure .
I. t f F arr.a- )
*dwar. Pu.Iding 12/ *1 urn'2 - ft. F 41 18' 9- 58' 103- 43 26 39 Nor t1 window exposure.
1 > Frr.a~ Street
T-.llr.D- Bui 1 dine 1* 3/72 10/23/78 1 f t. w '.1 18' 6 5* 56' 1035 60 38 36
1 it *. Fama- Str.. t !
t ft r -jAtc- Hojm 1 ;pec-:-E .
1 t1 dr. a88 a88 b Li fectiv-E 8/1 /88.
V. a ju. ?_ 1 ding 15tk 7' 2/93 5/17/99 2c it. w 41 16' 95 56 103- 97 92 j 86
i t .'ff ice Bui 1 din. 5/1 8 / C|Q 1/26/iL 60v f t.NW 61 18' Q5e 56' 1037 121 115 115 107 Hoof exposure affected t \
.1 -:t : 18 th lIocf tower .
Fed. ral Office Buildin.-, 15 th K lVdg< i n 7/3 * 6/1/35 700 ft.SE 41 16' 95 56' 1020 200 170 170 169 1 1 Better instrument exposure
AT. r*OR7 !
Ad .t :-;tration Building .r-^na Vur.ipal Aimrt e, 1/35 6/12/41 3 r.i NF 41* 18' 95 54' 978 46 31 31 29 3
k/i J/41 12/13 7- -00 ft N 41* 18' 95 54' 9'8 68 5 5 3 3 3 b Effective 9/1/54.
h9'7 b71 c 33 c 33 d33 f 33 e30 c Effective 11'1 5-.
u 1 A ; r r- rt r .v Airfield h20 e 30 e30 j d Effective 9/1 55. e Effective 12/31/61. f Effective 5,1/61. g Cotrr-issioned 221c' L

! t he rmome ter site 8 /1 h Effective 8/1/63.
8/1/77 2 -i. NW -1 19' 95 54' 977 120 NA 3 i4 NA i Net moved 12/13/74.
: A.r: ield NWSF0 relocated 10 mi. NW 11-04 N. 72nd Street, 6/1
A. r art Hui d ir.. e 1 77 Pre sen t app 1 mi . 41* 18- 9 5" 5-' 97" J20 NA NA NA J3 NA 4 J- NA FAA operation.
eA r f 1. I j , J Net moved 6/1/77. k Type change 9/22/79.
SIT 5"R1PT10N: Prie. and
ordering information available through: National Climatic Center, Federal Building, Asheville, N.
28801, ATTN: Publications.
1 certify that this is an official publication of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina 28801.
and is compiled from records on file at the
Director, National Climatic Center


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Based on 1982 Uniform Building Code
Mixed Occupancy
Sec. 503 When a building is used for more than one occupancy
purpose, each part of the building comprising a distinct "occupancy" shall be separated from any other section.
Location on Property
Sec. 504 General:
Buildings shall adjoin or have access to public space, yard or street on not less than one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained.
Sec. 504 Fire Resistance of Walls:
Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection as set in Table 5-A.
Sec. 504 Buildings on Same Property and Buildings Containing Courts
For the purposes of determining the required wall and opening protection and roof covering requirements, buildings on the same property and court walls of buildings over one story in height shall be assumed to have a property line between them.

(Code Research)
Allowable Floor Areas
Sec. 505a One-Story Areas
The area of a one-story building shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table 5-C.
Sec. 505c Mezzanines
Unless considered as a separate story, the floor area of all mezzanines shall be included in calculating the allowable floor area.
Sec. 505e Area Separation Walls
Each portion of a building separated by one or more separation walls may be considered a separate building, providing that the area separation walls meet the following requirements.
1) Area separation walls shall not be less than four-hour fire resistive construction in Types I, II-F.R., Ill and IV buildings and two-hour fire resistive construction in Types II one-hour buildings.
2) Area separation walls shall extend to the outer edges of horizontal projecting elements unless they do not contain concealed spaces.

(Code Research)
Height of Build Sec. 507 -
Sec. 509 -
Sec. 510a
ings and Increases
Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases
The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the character of the occupancy and the type of construction.
Arcades connecting buildings and used exclusively as passageways need not be considered as adjacent buildings for the provisions of this chapter, provided that the walls of the building adjoining the arcades are finished with the same construction as required for the exterjor walls of the building, with no communicating openings between the arcades and the building, except doors; and provided that the arcades are of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction or of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant treated wood or of heavy timber construction with 1-inch nominal sheathing.
- Mater Closet Room Separation
A room in which a water closet is located shall be

(Code Research)
separated from food preparation or storage rooms by a tight-fitting door.
Sec. 510b Floors and Wall in Mater Closet Compartment and Showers
In other than dwelling units, toilet room floors shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface such as Portland cement, concrete, ceramic tile or other approved material which extends upward onto the walls at least 5 inches. Walls within water closet compartments and walls within 2 feet of the front and sides of urinals shall be similarly finished to a height of 4 feet and, except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
In all occupancies, accesories such as grab bars, towel bars, paper dispensers and soap dishes, etc., provided on or within walls, shall be installed and sealed to protect structural elements from moisture.
Showers in all occupancies shall be finished as specified above to a height of not less than 70 inches above the drain inlet. Materials other than structural elements used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.

(Code Research)
Access to Toilets and Other Facilities Sec. 511a Access to Water Closets
Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in width and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required by Table No. 33-A, at least one such facility for each sex or a separate facility usable by either sex shall comply with the requirement of this section. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, such facilities must be available to all occupants and both sexes. All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed width of not less than 32 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms.
This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position.
Not more than one door may encroach into the 44-inch space.

(Code Research)
2. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter of not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped. When such water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 32 inches when located at the end and a clear width of 34 inches when located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the water clsoet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructed access not less than 48 inches in width shall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the handicapped.
4. Grab bars near each side or one side and the back of the toilet stool securely attached 33 inches to 36 inches above and parallel to the floor. Grab bars at the side shall be 42 inches long with the front end positioned 24 inches in front of the water closet stool. Grab bars at the back shall be not
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(Code Research)
less than 24 inches long for room installations and 36 inches long where the water closet is installed in a stall. Grab bars shall have an outside diameter of not less than 1-1/4 inch nor more than 1-1/2 inches and shall provide a clearance of 1-1/2 inches between the grab bar and adjacent surface.
Grab bars need not be provided in Group R, Divison 1 apartment houses.
5. When it can be established that the facilities are usable by a person in a wheelchair, dimensions other than those above shall be acceptable.
Sec. 511b Access to Lavatories, Mirrors and Towel Fixtures
In other than Group R, Division 3; Group M; Group R, Division 1 apartment houses and Group B, Divisions 2 and 4 storage occupancies, toilet room facilities shall be as follows:
1. Except for the projection of bowls and waste piping, a clear unobstructed space 30 inches in width, 29 inches in height and 17 inches in depth shall be provided under at least one lavatory.
2. Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall be
installed so that the bottom of the mirror is within 40 inches of the floor.

(Code Research)
3. Where towel and disposal fixtures are provided, they shall be accessible to the physically handicapped and at least one shall be within 40 inches of the floor.
Sec. 511c Water Fountains
Where water fountains are provided, at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front, hand-operated controls. When fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
Sec. 51 Id Telephones
Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall not be less than 30 inches in width.
Requirements for Group A Occupancies
Sec. 601 Group A Occupancy
Division 3: Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage.
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(Code Research)
Sec. 602 General
Buildings or parts of building classed in Group A because of use or character of this occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables 5-C and 5-D and shall not exceed in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506, 507.
Location on Property Sec. 603 General
Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main enterance to the building shall be located on a public street or on the access way. The main assembly floor of Division 1 Occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 604 General
Stairs, exits and smoke-proof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.

(Code Research)
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation Sec. 605 General
All enclosed portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system.
Toilet rooms shall be provided with a fully operable exterior window at least 3 square feet in area; or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the toilet facility.
There shall be provided an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex, and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
For other requirements on water closets, see Sections 510 and 511.

(Code Research)
Requirements for Group B Occupancies Sec. 701 Group B Occupancy
Division 2; Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling.
Division 4: Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants, cold storage and creameries. Factories and workshops using noncombustible and nonexplosive materials. Storage and sales rooms of noncombustible and nonexplosive materials. For occupancy separations, see Table No. 5-B.
Sec. 702 General
Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
Sec. 702 Special Provisions
Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in
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(Code Research)
connection with wholesale and retail sales in Division 2 occupancies shall be separated from the public areas by a one-hour fire-resistive cocupancy separation as defined in Chapter 5.
Construction Height and Allowable Area Sec. 702a General
Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505,
506 and 507.
Storage areas in excess of 1,000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales in Division 2 Occupancies shall be separated from the public areas by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation as defined in Chapter 5. Such areas may be increased to 3,000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
Location on Property Sec. 703
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and
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(Code Research)
openings, as determined by location on the property see Sec. 504 and Part IV.
Exit Facilities Sec. 704
Stairs, exits and smoke-proof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation Sec. 705
All portions of Group B Occupancies customarily used by human beings shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a
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(Code Research)
building adjacent thereto on the same property.
Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where food is prepared, stored or served shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish as specified in Section 510(b), shall have hand-washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto, and shall be separated from food preparation or storage rooms as specified in Section 510(a).
Toilet rooms shall be provided with a fully openable exterior window at least 3 square feet in area; or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the toilet facility, with 50 additional inches for each additional facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system capable of providing a complete change of air every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be connected directly to the outside, and the point of discharge shall be at least 5 feet from any openable window.
For other requirements, on water closets, see Section 510.
Requirements for Group R Occupancies Sec. 1201 Group R Occupancies
Division 3: Dwellings and lodging houses. For occupancy separations, see Table 5-B

(Code Research)
Construction, Height and Allowable Area Sec. 1202 General
Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables 5-C and 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506, 507.
Exit Facilities Sec. 1204
Stairs, exits and smokeproof enclosures shall be as specified in Chapter 33.
Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency escape or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools.
All escape or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of escape or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor.
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Lfght, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1205a Light and Ventilation
All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1-1/2 square feet.
Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen equipped with a kitchen sink. Every dwelling unit and every lodging house shall be provided with a bathroom equipped with facilities consisting of a water closet, lavatory and either a bathtub or shower. Each sink, lavatory and either a bathtub or shower shall be equipped with hot and cold running water necessary for its normal operation.
For other requirements on water closets, see Section 510.

(Code Research)
Room Dimensions
Sec. 1207 Ceiling Heights
Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as permitted. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet.
Floor Area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall not be less than 150 square feet of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet.
Width. Habitable rooms other than a kitchen shall not be less than 7 feet in any dimension.
Sec. 1211
Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70F at a point 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.
Sec. 3301 General
Every building or portion thereof shall be provided with exits as required by this chapter.

(Code Research)
Exit is a continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way and shall include intervening aisles, doors, doorways, corridoers, exterior exit balconies, ramps, stairways, smoke-proof enclosures, horizontal exits, exit passageways, exit courts and yards.
Occupant Load
Sec. 3302 Determination of Occupant Load
In determining the occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time.
Exits Required
Sec. 3303 Number of Exits
Every buliding or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit, not less than two exits where required by Table 33-A. Basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required by this sub-section.
Width the total width of exits in feet shall not be less than the total occupant load divided by 50.
Pi stance the maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door shall not exceed 150 feet.

(Code Research)

Sec. 3304 Exit doors serving an occupant load of 10 or more.
Swing exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel.
Width and Height Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height. When installed, exit doors shall be capable of opening so that the clear width of the exit is not less than 32 inches.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Sec. 3305 General
This section applies to every corridor serving as a required exit for an occupant load of 10 or more.
Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less than 44 inches in width.
Access to Exits. Dead ends shall not exceed 20 feet in length.
Sec. 3305 General
Every stairway having two or more risers serving any building shall conform to the requirements of this section.

(Code Research)
Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or more shall not be less than 44 inches in width.
Rise and Run. The rise of every step shall not be less than 4 inches or greater than 7-1/2 inches, the run shall not be less than 10 inches.
Distance Between Landings. There shall not be more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each
Sec. 3307 General
Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this section.
Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stai rways.
Slope. The slope of ramps shall not be steeper than one vertical to 12 horizontal as required by Table 33-A. Other ramps shall not be steeper than one vertical to eight horizontal.
Special Hazards
Sec. 3322 Boiler, Furnace and Incinerator Rooms
Any room containing a boiler, furnace, incinerator

(Code Research)
or other fuel-fired equipment shall be provided with two exits when both of the following conditions exist: the room exceeds 500 square feet and the fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 BTU per hour input capacity.

(Code Research)
Group Description of Occupancy Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls Openings in Exterior Walls
A See A1 so Sec. 602 3-Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour less than 40 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet.
B See A1 so Sec. 702 2-Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, printing plants, municipal police and fire 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet, protec-ed less than 10 feet.
stations, factories and workshops using material not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling.
4-Ice plants, power plants, 1 hour less Not permitted
pumping plants, cold storage and than 5 feet less than
creameries. Factories and work- 5 feet,
shops using noncombustible and nom-explosive materials. Storage and sales rooms of noncombustible and nonexplosive materials

(Code Research)
A-3 B-2 B-4 m2-i R-3
A-3 - none none 1 1
B-2 none - none 1 none
B-4 none none - none none
m2-i 1 1 none - 1
R-3 1 none none 1 '
Occupancy Construction Type
II One-hour - None One-hour III None
A-3 13,500 9,100 13,500 9,100
B-2 18,000 12,000 18,000 12,000
B-4 17,000 18,000 27,000 18,000
M^l (see Sec. 1102)
R-3 unlimited

(Code Research)
Construction Type
One hour - None One hour - None
Maximum Height (ft.) 65 55 65 55
Occupancy Maximum Story Height
A-3 2 1 2 1
B-2 4 2 4 2
B-4 4 2 4 2
m2i 1 1 1 1
R-3 3 3 3 3


(Code Research)
Abbreviated Checklist for Accommodating Physically Disabled People Handicapped does not mean wheelchairs.
1. Dimensional/Operational
Wheelchair travel paths.
Two wheelchairs to pass.
180 turn in a wheelchair.
Stationary occupied wheelchair space.
Wheelchair reach-front approach.
Wheelchair reach-side approach.
Range of reach over a desk in a wheelchair.
Items projecting into a travel space.
Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc.
Openings on travel path surface. Openings on travel paths.
Slope of travel paths.
Cross-slopes of travel paths. Entrance ramps, curb ramps.
Usable Limits
36" or more in width.
60" or more.
At least 60" diameter clearance. 30" x 48" or more.
15" to 48" above the floor.
9" to 54" above the floor.
17" to 24" across.
No more than 4" if between 27" and 80" above the floor.
With one hand without tight grasping, pinching, or twisting.
No more than 1/2" unless ramped.
No more than 1/2" wide.
No steeper than 1:20 (5%).
(Short runs of steeper grades are negotiable. Provide rest areas.)
No steeper than 1:50 (2%). (Tilted paths of any length are difficult to negotiate.)
no steeper than 1:12 (8-1/3%). (Short runs of steeper grades are negotiable.)

(Code Research)
Exterior Facilities Parking signs.
Parking stall.
Parking quantities and locations.
Passenger loading zones.
Ramp configuration (includes curb ramps).
Usable Limits
Reserved, symbol of access, freestanding sign.
At least 36" travel aisle required on either side of car or van.
When provided, a reasonable number, but no less than two located close to an accessible entrance.
Signed, with curb ramp, to entrance walk.
At least 36" wide, no more than a 30-foot run to a level resting space of at least 60"; at least a 60" level space top and bottom; handrails on both sides with at least a 12" extension.
3. Building Entrances Door widths.
Maneuvering clearance (at pull side).
Doors in series (vestibules). Door opening forces.
24" impassable; 30" extremely difficult; 32" usable; 36: -accessible.
12" to 24" on latch side of door.
No more than 1/2" high; up to 1: can be negotiated by some.
At least 80" between two doors in series; 48" plus width of door is better.
Reasonable or add assisting openers.

(Code Research)
4. Stairs and Handrails Treads and risers.
Handrail configurations.
5. Toilet Rooms Entrance.
Toilet stalls.
Grab bars.
Water closets.
Uri nals Lavatories.
Usable Limits
No less than 11" treads, no greater than 7: risers. Minimum nosings; open stairs not recommended.
32" to 34" above tread, 18" extension beyond top riser, 18" plus tread width extension beyond bottom riser, 1-1/2" diameter, 1-1/2" clearance from wall. At least one side should be continuous; both sides preferred.
32" door usable, 36" door preferred. Privacy screens undesirable; at least a 42" path around required.
36" or 60" in width; at least 60" in depth. 32" clear opening to enter. A lavatory within is desi rable.
32" to 34" above the floor; both sides of 36" stall; w.c. side and rear of 60" stal1.
Top of seat height 17" to 19" above floor; wall mount preferred.
No more than 17" from lip to floor.
No less than 27" clearance beneath; no more than 34" to top edge. Insulate hot water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles.

(Code Research)
Item Usable Limits
5. Toilet Rooms (Cont.)
Towel dispensers, mirrors, etc.
6. Drinking Fountains
7. Public Telephones
Confi guration
Lower edge or operable part no more than 48" above floor. Full length wall mirors recommended.
No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less than 30" wide.
Spout opening no higher than 36" above floor. Water flow as parallel to front as possible. Lever or push-button controls.
Clear access, 54" or less to coin slot.


Current zoning of the site is Agricultural. This could be changed for a conditional use for Planned Agri-Business Development if the site contains 20 acres.
Article 8 Agriculture Resource District
608-803 #10 Agricultural Resource District conditional use permits
shal 1 be required for tank storage and distribution of
fuel if located within 2,500 feet of a residence.
Art icle 8 - 608-80s
The height and minimum lot requi rements shall be as follows:
bt lot front side rear maximum
area width yard yard yard height
Residential 10 450' 45' 25' 25' 40'
Use s 20 660' 45' 25' 25' 65'
Article 15 - Special Use Permits
608-1503, 1504 General performace standards to protect the health,
safety and welfare of surrounding land use patterns covers noise, maladourous gas, pollution.
608-1505 Special Use Permits requiring state and/or federal
permits. All state and federal permits must be issued and included before the County Zoning Administration processes the application.

(Cass County P&Z Ordinances)
608-1507 Development Plans
List of 12 criteria to be followed in submitting preliminary development plan for special use permits.
Article 16 Off-Street Parking and Loading Requirements
608-1602 Off-Street Parking
Retail sales and restaurants require one space per 300 square feet gross floor area.
Manufacturing and similar uses require one space for every two employees of the largest working shift.
608-1603 Parking Area Requirements
#2 Parking Lot shall be surfaced with a dust-free material such as concrete or asphalt.
608-1604 Off-Street Loading Requirements
Loading Area Gross Floor Area
(one) 500 sq. ft. for 5,000 20,000 sq. ft.
(one) 500 sq. ft. for every 20,000 sq. ft. or
Article 23 Deals with amendments and initiation of zoning changes.
608-2304 Discusses the guidelines of the comprehensive plan and should be addressed when proposing a new Agri-Resource Development.

(Cass County P&Z Ordinances)
The Comprehensive County Development Plan for Cass County 1983 should be consulted as a reference to understand current zoning and land use patterns.
Summary Cass County Planning and Zoning
Though the Halmes and Sons cheese plant site is located on land zoned as Agricultural, the Cass County Zoning Administrater will be amenable to an Agricultural-Business use compatible with existing and projected future land use patterns.
It is suggested that the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control, Department of Health, Department of Economic Development be interviewed while I'm researching in Nebraska over semester break.
Cass County is following the 1976 Uniform Building Code. I feel that this reflects the slow progress of the building department and county government. My code research uses the 1982 Uniform Building Code and as such, anticipates any changes by the Cass County Building Department in this area.
The special use permits required from state and federal authorities before submitting applications to Cass County has the potential to create a substantial cash drain. It is recommended that this permit process be fully explored and applications filed as soon as the architectural programming reveals a need for special permits.


p. 42 Item lp Floors Construction
The floors of all rooms in which milk products are processed, handled or stored shall be constructed of concrete or other equally impervious and easily cleaned materials; and shall be smooth, properly sloped, provided with trapped drains. Cold-storage rooms used for storing milk products need not to be provided with floor drains when floors are sloped to drain one or more exits.
p. 43 Item 2p Walls and Ceilings Construction
Walls and ceilings of rooms in which milk products are handled, processed or stored, or in which equipment is washed, shall have a smooth, washable, light-colored surface, in good repair. (Ceramic tile would meet all these specifications.)
p. 43 Item 3p Doors and Windows
... shall be provided to prevent the access of flies and rodents.
p. 44 Item 4p Lighting and Ventilation
All rooms in which milk products are handled ... shall be well lighted and well ventilated.
Adequate light sources shall furnish at least 20 foot-candles in all work areas ... storage rooms shall have at least 5 foot-candles of

(Nebraska Pasteurized Milk Law)
p. 44 Item 5p Separate Rooms
There shall be separate rooms for:
1. The processing, cooling and packageing of milk products.
2. The cleaning of milk containers cans and bottles.
3. Cleaning and sanitizing facilities for milk tank truck ... (Will suggest a visible articulation of the building form.)
p. 45 Item 6p Toilet-Sewage Disposal Facilities
Toilet rooms shall not open directly into any room in which milk products are processed.
The provision of an intervening room or vestibule between the toilet room and any milk processing room will minimize the spread of odors and flies.
p. 46 Item 7p Water Supply
Water for milk plant purposes shall be from a supply properly located, protected, and operated and shall be easily accessible, adequate, and of a safe, sanitary quality.
p. 47 Item 8p Hand-Washing Facilities
Convenient hand-washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold running water, soap, and individual sanitary towels ...

(Nebraska Pasteurized Milk Law)
p. 48 Item 9p Milk Plant Cleanliness
1. Only equipment directly related to processing operations is permitted in the milk processing rooms.
3. No trash or solid waste is stored within the plant except in covered containers.
p. 48 Item lOp Sanitary Piping
All sanitary pipings, fittings and connections exposed to milk products ... shall consist of smooth, impervious, corrosion resistant, non-toxic, easily cleanable material ...
2. All sanitary piping, connections and fittings shall consist of ... stainless steel of the A.I.S.I. 300 series ...
p. 73 Item 20p Personnel Cleanliness
... All persons engaged in the processing and handling of milk products shall wear clean outer garments ...(this suggests a laundry is needed to maintain cleanliness standards).
p. 77 Item 17p Cooling of Milk
All raw milk and milk products shall be maintained at 45F (7C) or less until processed ... except those to be cultured. (Milk is allowed to ripen to raise the lactic acid content for cheese production.)
p. 78 Item 22p Surroundings
The milk plant shall be kept neat, clean, and free from conditions

(Nebraska Pasteurized Milk Law)
which might attract ... flies, insects, rodents ... or which constitute a nuisance. (All buildings should be self-contained with well defined and controlled storage areas.)
As the above statutes are 1n abbreviated form, it is recommended that the Nebraska Pasteurized Milk Law be thoroguhly examined.
The Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Dairies and Foods (State Office Building, 301 Centennial Mall South, Lincoln,
Nebraska 68509, (402) 471-2341) should be kept fully informed of all phases of design and construction to insure compliance with the many regulatory codes.


The protein in milk which is coagulated by the rennet to form the curd. The breakdown of the casein protein by enzymes into easily digestable soluble peptones is a determining characteristic of cheese curing.
The process of producing a cheese that has a close knit texture and waxy body with good slicing characteristics. This requires four additional steps in the cheesemaking process:
1) Allow the acidity (lactic acid) to develop to 45-55%
2) Keeping the curd warm (98F-100F).
3) Turning the slabs of cheese every 10-15 minutes to facilitate the draining of the whey.
4) Careful stacking of curd slabs as to moisture and acid content.
The curd formation process by which the casein is broken down by lactic acid and enzymes. Temperature control of this stage is very important and kept between 72F-95F. Distinct differences in texture and physical characteristics are influenced by the coagulation temperature.

Lactic Acid
Coagulated casein produced by the combined action of lactic acid and coagulating enzymes, which contains most of the fat, water, albumen, lactose and ash of the milk. At curding the water constitutes 1/3 of the total weight.
The holes in Swiss (Emmentaler) cheese. By using a special starter culture which converts lactic acid and lactates to propionic and acetic acids during ripening, carbon dioxide is produced. This carbon dioxide collects to form eyes. Eye formation depends on curd pressing overnight followed by a regulated temperature curing process (ranging from 50F-76F) to ensure proper eye formation without excessive bloating of the cheese. The eyes take 3-4 months for proper formation. Eyes should be of uniform size and have a glossy shine.
Produced by the breakdown of lactose by microorganisms (bacteria) present in the starter.
The sugar molecule present in milk.
The membrane extract containing the enzyme "rennin" which is used to coagulate the protein casein which is essential in the curding process. Rennet is extracted from the fourth stomach of young milk-fed

(Definitions) Ripening Milk
The holding the milk for a period of time (1-2 days) or by the addition of starter to attain the desired degree of acidity to influence the rate of coagulation.
A bacterial culture added to warm milk (86F-90F) to break the lactose down to lactic acid. The starter culture is instrumental in
1) governing the flavor, body, texture of the cheese;
2) the production of lactic acid which helps the coagulating enzyme;
3) the lactic acid facilitating moisture (whey) expulsion;
4) retarding the growth of undesirable bacteria in the curd and cheese.
The liquid waste of the curding process. It is removed by cutting the curd into small pieces (1/4" square) which allows the whey to be expelled. Whey contains albumen (proteins), milk sugar, ash, and small amounts of fat.

Merlin Znemenacek (Zim)
Plant Manager
Cheesemaking Plant Lab and Retail Sales University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Zim stressed that volume of cheese production is very important. Larger volumes promoted greater efficiency of the equipment and enable competitive bidding in a variety of marketing areas.
The retail operation is extremely important in maintaining market image and consumer sales.
Swiss cheesemaking requires the pressed blocks of finished cheese to be stored at 40F for two weeks then moved to 75F storage to facilitate eye formation.
Smaller cheese operations use frozen cultures which must be stored at -55F to maintain potency. About 4-1/2 ounces of culture are required for 5,000 lbs. of milk. Different (starter) cultures give cheese its many varieties of tastes and textures.
Zim cited an article in Dairy Field Magazine, Dec. '83, p. 80 which explored whey and manure slurries. The addition of whey to the manure slurry will produce a gas which is 62% methane vs. 50% methane gas from manure alone. However, Zim cautioned that too much whey will reduce methane production and the additional whey will have to be handled in an environmentally suitable manner.

Lanny Bundy Plant Manager
Oxford Cheese Company Oxford Nebraska
Mozzarella and Provolone Cheese
;r Ray Mitchell Republican City.
I wasn't able to tour the plant because Lanny didn't want to lose any trade secrets.
Approximately 55,000 lbs of cheese are made a day using 60 employees, Milk is brought in from a 100-mile radius and stored in two silos holding 30,000 gallons (258,000 lbs.).
Cheese is made by the six-vat method vats three for starter and cooking and three finishing (draining off whey) tables. Each vat holds 30,000 lbs. so 180,000 lbs. of milk may be out at any one time.
Coolers and warehouse space can never be too large. Provolone must
be stored for 30 days before using. Separate areas are needed to store different grades of cheese. The present cooler is 30'x50'x30' high and can be double stacked to hold 24 loads (semi-load 40,000 lbs. of cheese). This isn't enough space now.
Loading dock area should be large enough to allow forklifts to maneuver around while cheese orders are being put together. Access of the loading area to the coolers is important. Yet the loading area should not interfere with the day-to-day operation of moving cheese into
coolers. This was one very troublesome point at the Oxford Cheese

Steam was provided with a 500-h.p. boiler. Water was provided by on-site wells which pumped 250,000 gallons a day. Italian cheeses use more water as the curd must be washed. Colby and cheddar cheesemaking might use only 100,000 gal. a day.
Wastes (whey) disposal was filtered to remove excess milkfat. The remaining liquid was used by area farmers to fertilize the fields, any remaining liquid was pumped to a large pit to be evaporated. The remote location of this plant allowed the open lagoon sewage disposal approach. Other plants closer to larger cities would have more stringent waste control.
Starter for the cheese is the area of biggest concern. Bad starter will produce undergrade cheese, used as hog feed, at a large loss.
Sanitation is the most important consideration to produce a consistent good-quality cheese. The U.S.D.A. out of Minneapolis has all the regulations, thousands of pages. Easier just to have the inspector come out and tell you what to do.
Large equipment for better efficiency is good up to a certain size, but with a large operation it is harder to maintain quality.
Inventory control is very important, especially in the shipping area. Best control is achieved in a large enough warehouse area.

Dodge Dairy Products, Inc.
Dodge, Nebraska 68633 402-693-2231
Dan Wadzinski Father, bought operation and built to current size.
Paul Wadzinski Son, gave tour.
To produce the 28,000 lbs. of cheese a day they have five of their own trucks, one waste truck (to haul whey) and three contract haulers for milk. Employees needed range from 40-45 depending on production.
It is best to maintain consistent production levels.
Maximum production would be 50,000 lbs. of cheese a day (500,000 lbs. milk/day) for best profit margin and quality.
Interior building materials 1-1/4" tiles needed on floor to resist hot water hosing and equipment movement. All walls should be tiled or covered with stainless steel panels. The steel panels are quick and easy to clean with a foam cleanser and rinse.
Paul recommends double (or triple) drive-through stalls for unloading milk. These fully enclosed stalls should provide ventilation for exhaust fumes. There should be clearance for semi-trailer tubes, though most of the milk will arrive in the smaller, straight-body trucks.
After unloading the milk the trucks are pulled forward in the stalls to wash down the tanks and let another truck pull in behind to unload.

Dodge Dairy now has four milk silos (one 20,000-gal., two 30,000-gal., and one 40,000-gal.). Compressed air is used to agitate the milk in the silos. Ammonia is used in all the cooling equipment because it is less expensive to replace than freeon. There must be enough silo capacity so that new milk doesn't have to be mixed in with old milk.
This will allow the silo to empty out for cleaning between each filling.
The milk is pasteurized in a triple tube hot plate pasteurizer.
This allows the milk proteins to be gradually heated until it crosses the hot plate (162F) for six seconds. Paul feels that he gets a higher cheese yield with this method as the protein is handled more gently with the heat. The triple tube method allows regeneration of the heat as the pasteurized milk warms the incoming cold milk. By using slip-fit joints in the tubing there are no washers to break down or decay.
After pasteurization the milk is pumped to the cheesemaking tables where the starter is added and the curd is formed with the whey being drained off. The curd is then moved to the finishing table where it is cooked for about 40 minutes at 100F.
When cooking is over and the curd has reached its proper consistency, it is moved to a molder which presses the curd into pans (approximately 15 lbs.). These pans are placed in a cold water vat to cool the pan and hold the shape of the cheese. Ideally, the cheese will come out of the vat at 40F.

Italian cheeses require a brine soak to get the cheese temperature down and to stop the enzyme action of the starter. Wadzinski's now are using a super cooled brine tank for soaking overnight, but this will soon be replaced by a flow-through conveyor belt brine bath.
This automated system will use a triple tube cooling system with compressed air providing all the agitation for the brine. This brine solution is 90% salt and 0F. The tank will recirculate about five times an hour, which will allow 4,000-6,000 lbs. of cheese to be processed per hour. The cheese is rinsed and blow-dried upon leaving the brine, and ready for packaging and storage.
After packaging the cheese moves directly into the cooler where it is stacked on pallets. By only having a small conveyor belt door entering the cooler, the energy losses are reduced.
The plant itself needs air changes every 5-6 minutes to maintain a good atmosphere for cheese. This air must be filtered. Overheating is a big problem, especially in the cheesemaking and finishing rooms where there can be up to 18,000 lbs. of cheese at 80-100F.
Whey reatment
Waste disposal is another critical area of concern. The sewage from Dodge Dairy is monitered three times a week and excessive B.O.D. count is expensive. Located next to town, they must use the town's sewage treatment which is quite expensive.

Wadzinski's use a whey filter and evaporator system which cuts back on the whey disposal problem. The whey is to be used for making ricotta cheese in the next expansion phase. Making ricotta cheese from whey is a secret process and people aren't anxious to talk about it very much.
For now the excess butterfat (cream) is separated from the whey and sold to a local creamery.
The whey is run through a series of filters which remove the lactose and proteins. About 160,000 lbs. of lactose are filtered out each day. After being filtered out the proteins are placed in a spray dryer to be dehydrated. The dried powder (35% protein) is then bagged in a separate room to reduce the dust. The remaining whey liquid is stored in a 20,000-gallon tank which is then picked up by tank trucks for removal. It is best to have the whey operation located at the opposite end of the building where the cheese is made. This will reduce the possiblity of a phage attack which can ruin several vats of cheese.
The dehydrating machinery generates a lot of noise and low frequency fibrations, so requires sound insulation. Whey storage tanks should be high enough to have a gravity feed for trucks. This means one less pumping operation to worry about. There should pit with a drain and a hose to rinse down spilled whey and reduce the fly problem.
Water consumption runs about 31,000 gallons a day. Being located within a mile of the city well, they can't have their own wells. This

has forced them to adopt conservation measures in water consumption. A
20.000- gallon tank holds enough water for fire and back-up water supplies. Electric consumption runs from 85,000 to 100,000 KWH a month during
the winter. Average bills are around $3,500 a month.
Oil consumption for the boilers is about 15,000 gallons, with the
20.000- gallon tank buried under the parking lot.
There should be two boilers, 500-h.p. capacity, with one serving as a stand-by. The boiler room is large with tall ceilings like the dehydrating room (30 ft. ceilings). Steam is needed for pasteurization, curd cooking and cleaning tanks.
Air compressors (60-h.p.) are needed for agitating the milk in silos, washing systems, fast drying of cheese, wrapping room and evaporator.
Electric service requires a 440-volt system as the series connected motors are more efficient. A backup generator will pay for itself the first time power goes down. The electric control room should be located in a dry room and have enough room to work in if extra lines need to be added. All electrical chases should be located so that mositure can't corrode connections. Outside chases or ceiling chases are recommended.
Ammonia is used for all cooling. Those lines running from the compressors to the cooling units should all be located outside the building to reduce the problems of line breakage.
U.S.D.A. regulations are so thick that it is best to deal with the local representative and do whatever he/she tells you. Basically nothing

should be located directly against the walls or lie on the floor. Easily cleaned surfaces are real important to prevent problems.
Expansion needs are addressed in the location of the "make" room -being able to add more making and finishing vats (or tables) without interfering with day-to-day operations. Cooler size and location is also important. Need to store 10 semi-loads (40,000 lbs. each) and easily load the semis while continuing daily operation. It is better to have low ceilings and not double stack semi loads. This reduces cooling volume and is easier to maintain proper cooling temperatures.
Paul Wadzinski has agreed to be my technical advisor on this project. We will communicate by mail and telephone as I work towrds the final solution.
As a result of this tour and others in the eastern part of Nebraska,
I have decided to follow the Dodge Dairy Plant as a guideline in laying out equipment, establishing production guidelines, and quality control. Essentially then, my cheese plant will focus on Italian cheeses to maintain profitability. A smaller cheese vat will produce about 1,500 lbs. of specialty cheese for the gourmet cheese market.

December 20, 1983
Dwayne Heap
Glacier Mountain Cheese Co.
Gallatin Gateway, MT 406-763-4433
Main business is with Kraft Foods in Salt Lake City supplying process cheese in 640-lb. barrels (3'x4 kegs).
Design capacity is 150,000 lbs. of milk a day. Each silo will hold 175,000 lbs. of milk.
Usually make 4-5 tons of cheese a day. Using excess milk from summer will make 6 tons of milk a day (sometimes get milk from California and Wisconsin). School lunch programs create seasonal milk demands. If you can contract independently with local dairies, you can avoid this massive seasonal fluctuations, especially during school holidays.
Need double drive-through tanker bays for delivery of milk and whey pickup keeps all mess located in one place. The floors must be adequately sloped to drain milk from "tubes" (milk in semi-trailers). Gravity feed works best.
Mentioning my gravity designed cheese plant Dwayne thought it was a good idea. All the old cheese plants were set up to allow curds and whey to be transported by gravity.
Triple tube pasteurizer is the way to go. Cold incoming fresh milk is used to chill the pasteurized milk going into the vats.
For steam production want to have a short head of steam, will also reduce pipe expense.

Separate rooms are needed for the separators essential to remove excess milkfat from the whey. Need to have butter churn machine. The separator is extremely noisy, requires a soundproof room with glass windows to check out operating procedures.
Need good drains to handle fat deposits this will be handled by pumping all wastes into the Halmes Manure Pit.
Good fresh air intakes are really impct nix readily absorbs
Steam costs are expensive feasible to explore alternative energy -solar or wood chips. 80-lb. boiler is too small.
Natural cheeses (hard cheese) one needs to understand the act of cheesemaking. Labor costs of specialty (hard) cheeses rise quickly.
Must design a productive employee environment.
Pipe costs: 2" stainless, $4.00 ft.
2" elbow, $60.00 3" 3-way valve, $1,500.00 welds are $30.00 each
Just added on to the factory starting to design a new set-up.

Staff: 2 full time summer for cheese counter
1 ful1 time winter.

Labs are important for starters (other than frozen ones) and to check milkfat content.
Grandfather worked for Utah Cheese Co. Star (Valley??) the owner won three world fair competitions.
Father wants to do small specialty cheeses needs separate area to make 500 lbs. a day. Will need small office space/records, storage.
Should be connected to steam lines, milk lines, access to coolers, packaging.
The Dairy Ice Cream Shop the guys call it a hobby they do some restaurant supply. They can sell it at retail cheaper than the restaurant can ship it in from out-of-state.


Axler, Bruce H., The Cheese Handbook, Hastings House, New York, NY:
Barratt, Krome, Logic and Design, Eastview Editions, Westfield, NJ:
Croome, Derek J., Noise and the Design of Buildings and Services, Construction Press-Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex UK: 1982.
DeChiara, Joseph D., Site Planning Standards, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY: 1978.
Decker, John, Cheesemaking, Berlin Publishing Company, Columbus, OH:
Drury, Jolyon, Factories-Planning, Design and Modernization, Nicols Publishing, New York, NY: 1981.
Dubin, Fred and C. G. Long, Energy Conservation Standards, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY: 1978.
Giedion, Sigfried, Space, Time, and Architecture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.: 1949.
Glegg, Gordon L., The Design of Design, Cambridge University Press, London, Eng.: 1969.
Goble, Emerson, Buildings for Industry, Architectural Record, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY: 1972.
Grube, Oswald W., Industrial Buildings and Factories, Praeger Publishers, New York, NY: 1971.
Hopf, Peter S., Designers Guide to OSHA, A.I.A., McGraw-Hill, New York, nV: 1982.
Kepes, Gyorgy, Module, Proportion, Symetry, Rhythm, George Brazil ler,
New York, NY: 1966.
Lang, Jon, et al., Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and Behavioral Sciences, Community Development Series, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, PA: 1974.

(Books cont.)
Muther, Richard, Practical Plant Layout, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY:
Newer Knowledge of Cheese, Rosemont, IL: 1983.
Palmer, Mickey, A., The Architects Guide to Facility Programing, A.I.A., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY: 1981.
Papanek, Victor J., Design for the Real World, Pantheon Books/Random House, New York, NY: 1971.
Peters, Paulhans & Freidman Wild, Centers for Storage and Distribution Design and Planning Series, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY: 1972.
Russell, Barry, Building Systems, Industrialization and Architecture,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY: 1981.
Sitte, Camille, City Planning According to Artistic Priciples, translated by George and Christianne Collins, New York, NY: 1965.
Tandy, Clifford, Landscape of Industry, Halstead Press, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, NT! 1$75.
Tourbier, J. T. and R. Westmacott, Water Resources Protection Technology:
A Handbook of Measures to Protect Water Resources in Land Development, Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC: 1981.
Uniform Building Code 1982, International Conference of Building Officials.
U. S. Department of Labor, General Industry Guidelines #2206, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: June 1981.
Whitaker, James H., Agricultural Buildings and Structures, Reston Publishing, Reston, VA: 1979.
Wilster, G. H.; Ph.d., Practical Cheesemaking, Oregon State Book Stores, Corvallis, OR: 1974.

"Elimination of Plant Wastes in Cheese Plants:, American Dairy Record, Vol. 35, Aug. '73, p. 20.
"Sanitation The Key to High Volume Good Quality", American Dairy Record, Vol. 40, Nov. '78, p. 30-32
"Canada's Most Advanced Cheese Plant", Chilton's Food Engineering,
Vol. 52, Oct. '80, P. 81. '
"Cheesemaking Cultures", Chilton's Food Engineering, Vol. 50, Oct. '78, p. 197.
"Cheese Plant Pollution Control", Chilton's Food Engineering, Vol. 50, Dec. '78, p. 144.
"Clever Use of Cheese Trimmings", Chilton's Food Engineering, Vol. 54, Nov. '82, p. 106.
"Continuous Cheese-Whey Processing", Chilton's Food Engineering,
Vol. 53, Sept. '81, p. 73-77.
"Three Major Cheese Packaging Methods", Chilton's Food Engineering,
Vol. 50, March '78, p. 105-108.
"Cheesemaking Becomes Alternative to Selling Only Milk", Dairy Herd Management, Vol. 17, 1982, p. 42, 44-46.
"Cheese Ripening Research Trends and Perspectives", Journal Dairy Science, Vol. 61, Aug. '78, p. 198-203.
"Revival of On-Farm Cheesemaking Costs and REturns", New Farm, Rodale Press, V. 1, Jan. 79, p. 58-62.
"Farm Building Australia", by John Andrews, Progressive Architecture, Vol. 63, June '82, p. 96-102.
"Multi-Family Farm Self-Sufficient in Energy", by Emilio Ambasz, Progressive Architecture, Vol. 59, April 78, p. 142-143.
"A Physicist Who Would Like to Put the World on Ice", by Richard Woodly, Smithsonian, Dec. '82, p. 105-111.

(Bibliography) (Magazines cont.)
"From Ewe's Milk and a Bit of Mold: A Fromage Fit for Charlemagne", by Robert Wernick, Smithsonian, Feb. '83, p. 57-63.

For me, school has always been a chance to experiment, to explore, to create, to push beyond those traditional boundaries of my past experience. It is here at school that we begin to nurture the seeds of dreams and ideals. In essence, school is the starting point where these seeds are sprouted and nurtured here a root structure of design philosophy is started.
Thesis then, becomes the time to transplant our ideas, the last academic project and, in a way, our first professional project. This project marks the turning point from school and leads us towards our future paths, explorations, and growth in design.
This thesis, "A Cheese Plant in Nebraska", is the anticipation of this future growth, but like all growth it looks back and reflects on its roots.
Personally, it was looking back to those halcyon days of my youth, working on my uncle's farm, milking cows, building barns, making hay ... developing an appreciation for the dynamics of nature, discovering that in nature nothing is static, either there is growth and life or death.
It was this view of nature which encouraged me to see my thesis as a logical growth of my design education and to reaach beyond those project-types dealt with so frequently at the academic level.
Culturally, this project allowed me to examine the roots of regional architecture, specifically within the rural environment. Here I was

able to develop an understanding of the influences of topography, climate, and spatial considerations; and how these elements worked together to create the picturesque compositions which we associate with rural buildings.
Architecturally, this cheese plant looks back to the early days of the modern movement. Those early efforts gave meaning to the work place -Gropius' Fagus Shoe Factory, Behrens' A.E.G. Building, Thomas Gilbert's Hoover Vacuum Factory, Aalto's Sunila Pulp Factory, and others became an unconscious force within me, compelling me to express architecturally the importance of the workplace, not only to the community at large, but more importantly, to give meaning to the factory worker.
I feel then, that this thesis exploration was a successful learning experience, pushing me beyond those areas for which my academic background had prepared me. It was taking my education (thus far) and applying it toward a new and unusual building-type, encompassing all those architectural considerations within a different set of criteria.
This pushing beyond the traditional boundaries of our past experiences, be they in the classroom or out in the "real world", best defines the educational process. The result is what constituted my thesis project.
George Thompson May 18, 1984