Terrace housing

Material Information

Terrace housing
Tryba, David Owen
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
88 leaves : maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Housing -- Colorado -- Louisville ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic -- Colorado -- Louisville ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
Housing ( fast )
Colorado -- Louisville ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 85-88).
General Note:
Cover title: Terrace housing, Louisville, Colorado.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
David Owen Tryba.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08673292 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1981 .T79 ( lcc )

Full Text


Chalmers G. Long Professor Instructor
John M. Prosser Urban Design
Paul A. Saporito Archi tect Theory
Donald S. Wollard Energy
Archi tect
Charles Klarich Engi neer Client Civil Engineer Marketi ng
Davis C. Holder Structural

As an architectural student my thoughts have always been provoked by the present "status quo" within our housing market. Because of this particular awareness I was lead to a thesis involving housing.
Whenever I have happened upon a dwelling, or set of dwellings that encompassed a "sense of place" something has made me stop, reflect, and enjoy this special "sense". Housing is the principal composition of our built environment. The place we live should allow for the everyday to become the exceptional. This type of creation is the primary motivation within our profession; creating a sense of place will always be the focus of my career.

Building Type: Housing Medium Density Middle Income Mixed use supporting facilities: neighborhood grocery daycare facilities clubhouse/pool central solar heating/storage and distribution community greenhouse parking and storage facility
Si te: a 31.7 acre parcel annexed in May 1981 to the City of Louisville, Colorado
S i te: 100 units + and included supporting facilities
Density: Owner requests approximately 10 acres be preserved as open space resulting in an apparent density of five units+ per acre, with an overall density of 3.1 units per acre.
Topography: the site is approximately rectangular with 1:4 proportions, the

Cl ient:
long axis is due east-west; a gully transversing the east-west axis splits the site approximately in half with resulting proportions 1:8 on the east-west axis; north and south slopes vary between 5 and 12 percent, with the north half of the site, sloping south, having the greatest variation in grade.
Jacobs Kahn and Company 6160 North Sicero Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60646
Charles Klarich Project Coordinator P.E.
Colorado Office 314 S. 80th Street Louisville, Colorado 80027

Living, dwelling, having a place to be; to be alone or together, is the total frame work of our way of life. It includes natural as well as man-made places. Living occurs within the microcosm of our homes as well as within our suburbs, our cities, the regions or boundries of our culture. Living in the one, man has always to be aware of the others. Today it is no longer possible to project or foresee man's physical living environment without being aware of his interdependance on all the levels of human activity including the necessity of adaption to new needs in an ever changing world.
There are only a few among us who are privileged enough to live in a custom-made home built to accomodate specific aims and needs. The vast majority has no choice other than to buy or rent whatever the market will provide. Looking at what the housing market is providing we see in general only boxes, manufactured in relation to numbers of people and distributed on a surface in relation to outdated economic principals. Today's product has little concern other than providing for the over-simplified needs of eating,

sleeping, cooking, and personal hygiene. This rigid process of design has forgotten the more differenciated needs of individuals and groups. Moreover, this product no longer satisfies the economics of either the developer or the buyer.
Today's housing product has been so "perfected" and so widely distributed that it has dictated a certain way of life. The market forces dwellers to confront a system which contains many deficiencies. Environmental, societal, "true" economic, and energy impacts have been neglected to produce the "architecture of isolation" that suburbia provides. These shelters appear like fully equipped space saucers sitting in the middle of a third of an acre launch pad. In this land of isolation there is often no need for human cooperation or interaction.
A new alternative must be developed to reincorporate the cooperative solutions for cooperative human needs. American society hungers for a reintroduction of the traditional marketplace, the sharing of common interests. My approach to this thesis problem will be to establish a means by which people can "share"

necessary living systems as much as possible up to the point where they would intrude upon the natural and accustomed privacy of the individual or group. My design will differ from the usual approach to housing in that my major concern is for the whole, as opposed to the whole as only a collection of the individual parts.


young single
young couple
young couple with children
middle age couple with teenage children
middle age couple with grown children
elderly couple/elderly single

People in this group generally are only moderately concerned with territory. They tend to be more gregarious and seek maximum social interaction with their peer group. Being away from units during workdays and fairly mobile on weekends, they benefit less from orientation amenities. They seek privacy in an environment that enhances social interaction, mostly privacy inside their unit. Identity is generally not a great concern since young, single people are fairly mobile moving a lot and are not able to pay for the more unique physical amenities that give a housing environment strong identity. Inconvenience is generally acceptable if the trade-offs in the form of lower rent, more interesting setting, and neighbors are there; they tend to walk farther and climb more stairs to their unit; they have less personal property to pack in and out. They require a full measure of safety from theft during their extended absence, and being in an age bracket that is highly vulnerable to physical harm, they need security and protection.

Young single best fit into efficiency or one-bedroom units which can either be integrated into interesting locations or clusters of larger house types--tops, corners, above garages, etc.--or in their own clusters tucked in inaccessible (usually interesting) site locations that could not accommodate clusters of larger house types.

If both are working, the description of young single generally applies. However, if one person remains at home, there is an increase in several of the human needs. For the person at home the amenities of a good orientation-daylighting, sunshine, view--are essential. Privacy increases in importance. While peer socialization is still very important, young couples need more time to be by themselves. For the most part young couples get along quite well in one-bedroom units, and if they can afford it, may have a two-bedroom unit for the option of having a guest room or study. The one-bedroom unit, which need not be a ground-oriented one, has the same location adaptability as the young single unit. A two-bedroom unit may also have a full kitchen rather than a kitchenette.

With the transition to a two-generation family, attention is focused on the development and well being of young children, so that the emphasis of human needs shifts.
The children's territory must be limited and well defined with physical barriers such as fences, railings, doors, gates, etc. Safety and territory become synonymous; barriers must be made secure with locking devices and spaces made free of hazards. Young children instinctively seek out good orientation; they quickly find the bright warm places on a cold winter day or the cool shady places on a hot summer day. Although they are affected by their perceptual world, they do not yet value view amenity or identity. Children require little privacy since they live in a "world of their own." With their limited motor skills, they experience considerable inconvenience which is further compounded if they must live in an adult world where everything is too big, too high, and too heavy.
Couples with young children may find their personal privacy and territory severely encroached

upon by the children and thus require a minimum amount of "adults only" space, at least during evening hours.
Couples with young children should be provided with optimal ground orientation and private outdoor play space.

The basic difference between couples with young children and grown children is usually the number of bedrooms needed. A private bedroom for each grown child is desirable, allowing privacy for all members of the family. Other space requirements increase in proportion to the number and size of members; for example, group spaces like the dining and living rooms must allow for more chairs, bigger tables, etc.
In response to the demand for diversity of spaces for socializing a new space, the play or family room, must be added.
Consequently units may require as many as four bedrooms, a separate dining room, a play or family room, a utility room, and possibly provisions for two cars. Since the family is at its largest size more private outdoor spaces is necessary.

Middle and late middle age is considered by many as the best time of life. Children are gone, housework and expenses are less, and free time is more plentiful. People are generally still physically active.
Since territory does not have to be shared with children, couples can spread out a bit and have more privacy. Convenience is desirable so that leisure time can be enjoyed. With fewer family members less outdoor space is required.
Most house types work well. Two bedrooms are about right: one for sleeping and one for a bedroom/study. A third bedroom is a nice luxury for overnight visitors. A separate dining room is important because people in this household group tend to entertain more frequently.

This group is at a time of life when a more restful and passive lifestyle can be enjoyed. Privacy becomes more important; the option of having total visual and acoustical separation is essential. Since our physical systems become less tolerant of extremes as they age, housing plans for the elderly should provide an even orientation--even temperature, very little air movement (chill factor), even daylighting such as north light. Because of their limited strength and stamina, convenience is essential for the elderly. For instance, units should be planned for minimum maintenance. In addition, the elderly require a greater sense of safety since they feel, and generally are, less able to protect themselves from harm. Good security with locks, night lighting, surveillance, and easy egress in case of fire are all necessary.

The elderly require efficiently organized space, less than before but enough to hold selected cherished possessions. Since stairs are difficult for the elderly to climb, they must be ground oriented. It takes particular care to integrate the smaller one or two-bedroom unit--ground orientedinto a cluster and still maintain privacy. A position in a cluster that allows for privacy on an optional basis is ideal. If the site can allow for some lower rise units, the elderly can cluster with their peers, but their units must be reasonably close to other household types, so they can enjoy the experience of watching children at play, people passing by, or doing simple outdoor activities, etc. Many elderly people love to garden so that enough daylight must be available.

A dwelling unit is a container of a family unit. It must be planned to meet the needs of each member of the family as well as the family as a whole. The needs of a family can be categorized into three:
the privacy of each individual member of the family;
the community living of the family;
the accommodation of visitors without unneccessary infringement upon the individual privacy and family life
Each dwelling unit must also be planned to accommodate different types of family in terms of different age groups involved.

"A good house is a created thing made of many parts economically and meaningfully assembled.
It speaks not just of the materials from which it is made, but of the intangible rythms, spirits, and dreams of people's lives. It's site is only a tiny piece of the real world, yet this place is made to seem like an entire world. In its parts it accommodates important human activities, yet in sum it expresses an attitude toward life."
Charles Moore "A Place of Houses"

visual structure
acoustical control
environmental protection
air freshness control
securi ty
FHA minimum standards for room sizes ergonometrics

"a room is fixed in space by boundries; it is animated by light, organized by focus, and liberated by outlook"
C. Moore
"A Place of Houses"
Provide visual privacy between entries and the rooms within dwelling unit in order to avoid exposing the rooms to visitors.
Provide visual privacy between bedroom area and living/dining/family room so that function in each area can be pursued without disturbance.
Visual privacy should be provided between master bedroom and children's bedrooms. Also, there should be visual privacy between the children's bedrooms so that each child can have his or her own private moment whenever desired.
Bathroom interior should not be exposed to other habitable spaces as its occupant enters or exits, unless the bathroom is a private one such as the one for master bedroom.
There should be a close visual connection between kitchen and family/play room so that parents can have contact with the rest of the family while cooking.

Visual connection is necessary between the yard or balcony and the living area for parents to supervise young children playing in the yard or on the balcony.
There should be adequate view from the 1iving/family room. It is always desirable to see an open space and sky from the living area of each dwelling unit.

Quietness should be reguarded as a necessary amenity within a dwelling unit and within all habitable spaces.
assure that bedrooms will be sufficiently quiet to prevent interference with sleep at any hour.
there should be adequate sound barrier between bedroom area (night zone) and living/dining/ kitchen areas (day zones).
subsidiary spaces such as closets and baths, are advantageous to design into bedroom arrangements such that these create intermediate zones between bedrooms and living areas, (active spaces vs. passive space)
Noise sources of mechanical equipment, plumbing system, etc. should be isolated from dwelling units particularly from the bedroom areas within a dwelling unit.

Weather: avoid north entries if possible
provide airlock for main-entry
avoid unprotected exposure to service entry
use the land as an insulating medium whenever possible
operable insulation for all glazing
Sunlight: adequate daylight is essential in every room. The amount of daylight in each habitable room is related to the size of the room and its proportions.
if any part of a room is more than 20 feet from a direct source of sunlight, the required glass area should be at least 15% of the floor area.
incorporate permanent control devices whenever possible
operable control necessary where fixed control is undesirable

Air Freshness: Natural ventilation should be
provided in each habitable room; in general, the opening for a natural ventilation is 5% of the floor area.
Cross ventilation in individual rooms or through ventilation between rooms is essential for livable summer environment.
Mechanical ventilation should be provided in kitchen and bath.

Consideration should be given to security of all points of access to the building. Particularly the dwelling units on the ground level which are susceptible to security violations.
Since the family needs the dwelling unit as a refuge from the outside world, and since individual members need isolation, adequate dwelling space must give protection to the family from the outside, and to the individual members from the intrusion of the household itself; security for privacy and belongings.

egress (NFPA)
2 story units one exit
(common areas)
Stairway Enclosed--l-hr fire resistance
Travel to stairway 20 ft
Corridors Fire-resistant construction
No. of units 16 units
total both floors 12 combustible
Maximum floor area 4,000 sq ft per floor if combustible
First floor construction over basement 2-hr fire resistance not over 8 ft 6 in. in above grade
NOTE: NFPA also permits one exit direct to street or yard at grade by outside stair, or 1-hr fire-resistant enclosed stair serving that unit only and not communicating with basement.
smoke alarms in all bedroom areas
fire extinguishers; 1 per interior zone

egress (NFPA)
Corridors Travel to stair
Smokeproof tower or outside stair
No limitation
No limitation
No. of units total 2 per floor
Construction Fire resistant
First floor construction Fire resistant
3 story units (common areas)
1-hr fire resistance
Finish-flame spread less than 75 100-ft* 2 3 5
(150 ft sprinklered)
No limitation No limitation No limitation
When separated from stairway by Class C (Underwriters Laboratories) door; otherwise considered as part of stairway, requiring 2-hr fire resistance (incombustible) with Class C self-closing doors for each family unit entrance.
Limitations of the number of units serves as an effective limitation on length of corridors or public hallways.
Penetration of first floor construction permitted for 1 stairway where 2 exits are provided
for access to basement units, laundry rooms or storage rooms only when their openings are protected by Underwriters Class C doors.

^Method of Test Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (tunnel test), NFPA 255.
Not over 20 ft. of travel distance may be in dead-end corridor.

Bulk storage/dwelling unit
D.U. Type: Eff. 1-BP 2-BR 3-BR 4-BR
Cubic feet 80 80 112 144 176
bedroom: 6'0" lineal ft. minimum
master bedroom: 10'0" lineal ft. preferred
space near entrance for baby carriage, bicycles, rams, tires, garden tools, etc.
hanging space near entrance for working clothes, childrens outdoor garments, raincoats, boots, etc.
space for cleaning equipment, ironing board, etc.
space for linen, towels, bedding, etc.
space for tools, and maintenance supplies.
space for toys and games
general bulk storage for very infrequently used large articles.

FHA Minimum property standards, Chapter IV
Minimum Area (Sq. Ft.)
Name of Space LU with 0-BR LU with 1 -BR LU with 2-BR LU with 3-BR LU wi th 4-BR Least Dimension
LR 160 160 170 180 12*-0"
DR 100 100 no 120 8' -4"
K 60 60 70 80 5'-4"
Kette 30 40 3'-6"
BR (primary) 120 120 120 120 9-4!'
BR (secondary) 80 80 80 8' -0"
Total area, BR's 120 200 280 380
Abbreviations: BR Bedroom DR - Dining Room
LU Living Unit LR Living Room Kette Kitchenette

Working and circulation space to be considered
Min. side to side measure for a worker 30"
Min. front to back measure for a worker 27"
Min. distance from side of sink to turn
in counter 18"
Table space for a seated worker 24"
Min. distance between fixed equipment:
Front of sink and opposite equipment 42"
Front of range and opposite equipment 42"
Front of range or brm. clos. & opposite equipment 42"
Front of refrigerator and opposite
cabinet 42"
Front of two parts of equipment likely
to be used by two persons at the 48"
same time
Front of drawer for standing room and
pulling out 36"
Front of drawer cabinet for pulling out drawer and working at side

HUD standards for living room:
60" minimum between facing seating
24" minimum clear circulation between furniture grouping
30" minimum clear for use of desk
36" minimum clear for main traffic
60" minimum distance between t.v. set and
viewer's seating


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The site is a container of dwelling units and other elements such as parking areas, driveways, pedestrian paths, informal gathering areas, playgrounds, ball courts, etc. The site has to accommodate the needs of all ages at all time, including children and the physically disabled or elderly.
Furthermore, the physical setting of the site should be such that a visitor of a resident coming to the place for the first time should be able to find the resident he is visiting without disturbing the activities taking place within the site. Thus, the needs of the residents using various elements within the site can be categorized into three groups:
the privacy of each individual dwelling unit and of the people involved in different activities within the site;
the social interaction among the residents within the site as well as the neighbors of the site;
the accommodation of visitors and all service related activities.

IDENTITY Residents of any neighborhood want to feel part of the development in which they live, to be proud of it, and identify with it. Feeling part of a neighborhood requires knowing one's neighbors and being able to meet friends easily while on foot. By its very nature, terrace housing suggests a greater sense of community than suburban-type singlefamily housing; as demonstrated when the two are contrasted: clustered versus linear, compact versus sprawl, public versus private, pedestrian versus auto, community versus individual.

Public Open Space is owned by every one.
It is maintained at public expense and is usable by all. Examples of this type of open space would be public parks, playgrounds, roads, and sidewalks. Public open space boundaries must be readily understood by all people; for instance, a gate or fence may signal that the public space ends and that private space begins. Often public open space is not publically owned but controlled by community residents. However, the same rights for public access and circulation should be possible, with routes made clear to the general public.

Semi-Public Open Space is space owned by the residents and set aside for their communal use. Nonresident use is limited to guests, with general public barred. A user knows the limited right of use and acts accordingly lest he be asked to leave.
Typically people have some business or reason for being there, and are not just passing time.
Semi-public can be divided into more and less private access. For instance, semipublic space used for unit access would have to be less private to allow visitors to reach the units; or recreation areas more private by barring all nonresidents.
Semi-Public Space can be used as a security barrier. In medium density housing open space ownership has shifted from predominantly public to semi-public. Access is limited to residents, friends, or those who have some specific business to complete. Lobbies, parking areas, and interconnecting walkways can be locked and arranged so access is controlled through a gate. This space is important as a screen for eliminating unwanted visitors.

The development's recreation space-play areas, swimming pool and gardens should be semi-public space and protected from unauthorized use. This assures privacy to resident users and may encourage them to take an active part in policing and maintaining the space.

All units should have some private outdoor space, whether a yard, a balcony, or a terrace. (A terrace is usually over some living space, in effect a roof garden.)
The size of private gardens depends on who lives there, what outdoor needs they have, and what open space facilities are nearby.
As we might expect, families, especially those with children under five, need more space than couples without children, or elderly and unmarried people. With adequate community recreation space for active play, private gardens need serve only for outdoor cooking, eating, gardening, tinkering with equipment, garbage and tool storage, and general outdoor enjoyment. All in all, this should be far less space than found on a %-acre suburban lot.
Assuring proper orientation is the main problem. Private suburban gardens are large enough to allow some sunshine regardless of the yard orientation. On the other hand, since the garden in a medium-density housing development is smaller and shadowed by two- to four-story buildings nearby, it must be perfectly oriented.

a natural open space for solitude a child daycare facility informal gathering places with trees, flowers, benches, etc., preferably nearby children's play areas so that there will be interaction (visual, social) between all age groups.
a community shelter such as a "clubhouse" a neighborhood grocery dai ry
deli and bakery goods toiletries
magazi nes/newspapers a swimming pool tennis court(s) community greenhouse
vegetables bedding plants
flowers house plants
community solar storage area for community facili ties bikeway
1.5 parking spaces/dwelling unit visitor parking areas

social interaction
visual structure acoustical control circulation accessability environmental protection safety/securi ty
FHA minimums standard site dimensions

Pedestrian circulation network should not only serve as a path from dwelling unit to various common facilities but also serve as a place where the residents can stroll. Parents can push baby carriages, children can ride bicycles or roller skate, and handicapped people may be able to use wheel chairs. Because of such a wide range of use, the pedestrian circulation network should be very carefully planned to accommodate all types of activities on the network itself as well as the areas intimately connected to the network such as, play areas, dwelling units, driveways, parking areas, etc.
There should be a treed area within the site for residents to relax. An informal gathering area could be connected or incorporated to treed area for residents to get together informally, conversing, watching children playing, residents strolling ty, etc. The open informal area for gathering should be planned in such a way that it could be turned into a ice skating area during the cold season. Also proper planning should be considered for outdoor furniture such as lamps benches, tables, places for flowers, etc.

Buildings should be oriented toward all desirable parts in the vicinity of the site, and within the site, including the mountains, open fields, streams, etc. (see pg. 55, map)
People relaxing in passive recreational areas should be able to watch children and teenagers participating in active recreation.
Provide visual privacy between dwelling units so that a room within one dwelling unit is not exposed to a room in another dwelling unit through a window, or a balcony of one dwelling unit is not fully exposed to the balcony of another unit.
There should be adequate visual privacy for the dwelling units on the ground level orientated to the streets and pedestrian paths within the site. Also insure that no bright lights on the streets are directly penetrable into any dwelling units.

service or delivery areas should be visually separate from dwelling units.
there should be adequate visual supervision between dwelling units and playground areas.

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Play ground should be located where parents can have a visual connection from their dwelling units. The play ground should be provided with equipment which permits a wide range of normal play activities.
Consider the design of environments as objects which provoke the imaginative use generated by children:
a small area for preschool children
apparatus areas for younger and older children
open space for informal play
drinking fountains
access to toilet facilities on the ground level
The play ground can be incorporated with nursery and day-care center.
There should be a hard surfaced area where older children can play basketball, handball, volleyball, etc. This area should be away from young children's play area to avoid any conflict which may result in hurting little children.

provide sound insulation between dwelling units.
any type of communal activity that constitutes a point source for noise shodld be controlled by some means of sound attenuation.
unit types such as elderly and singles warrant some special type of physical separation
the orientation of buildings should be considered in relation to noise sources. Sounds are reflected in a manner similar to light, the amount of reflection varying with the sound absorptive qualities and the shape of the reflecting surface. Increased noise by reverberations or reflection may occur in buildings grouped around a narrow court and along lanes with tall buildings.

easy access from every dwelling unit to all the common facilities within the site such as parking areas, recreational areas, pedestrian networks, informal gathering places, etc.
easy accessibility from and to a public street
the various facilities around the site such as a public transportation stop, grocery stores, drug stores, community center, library, etc. should be easily accessible.
emergency vehicles such as ambulances and fire equipment should be able to have direct access to every dwelling unit.
easy access for service vehicles such as moving trucks, delivery trucks, refuse collection trucks, snow removal equipment.


separate pedestrian and vehicular movement
children's play areas should be away from any kind of vehicular movement to insure that there be no conflict between the two areas.
where pedestrian circulation networks and vehicular networks meet, careful considera tion should be given to avoid any conflict
refuse disposal points should be located at such a place that it can be easily reached by residents as well as by refuse collector without any inconvenience and visual distraction to the residents and vi si tors.
the circulation from parking areas should be direct.
circulation between one dwelling unit to another should be interesting as well as direct.

orientation of buildings should be against the prevailing winter wind and towards the prevailing summer breeze
provide weather and solar protection for frequently used facilities such as public transit stop, etc.
constantly used pedestrian paths connecting buildings should have means of weather protection.
nodes consisting of trees, or other solar control devices should be provided as a means of solar control in summer for active and passive recreational areas.
common facilities such as playground, swimming pool, basketball, tennis courts, should have as much exposure to sun as possible.
see CLIMATE, p. 63.

all the common facilities such as parking, informal gathering areas, play areas, etc. should be properly lighted during the dark hours to enhance security and safety.
security considerations should not diminish the choices and possibilities such amenities as a convenient and pleasant informal gathering area for the residents, and play areas for children of different age groups.
all the physical elements in the site such as driveways, parking areas, play areas, pedestrian paths, informal gathering areas, etc. should be carefully designed to avoid any accidents.

Condi tion
Width in feet
Lane for moving traffic 10
Lane for parallel parking 8
One-way residential service street without
parking -minimum curb to curb 18
One-way residential service street with
parking permitted on one side 20
Two-way residential service streets -no parking 26
Two-way residential service streets -with parking 36
Dead-end streets (600 ft maximum) -provide cul-de-sac wide enough for two lanes of traffic unobstructed by parking and turning
diameter of 80 ft. (If these conditions cannot be met, maximum length for cul-de-sac should not exceed 350 feet) For shorter dead-ends provide 50 ft. diameter at end, free of parked cars, for turning. (If parking is anticipated, add 20 ft to diameter.)
no parking within 25 of intersection
parking 250' max. from dwelling unit 100' preferred
driveways and service roads should be furnished with lighting at 120 to 160 ft spacing.

Louisville enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Louisville's weather; arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. The good climate results largely from Louisville's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuli form clouds so shade the town that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.

In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Louisville's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold ai from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.

In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Louisville, which reaches its peak in May. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower. .

Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.

ZONE 10: The Great Plains
Station Data
Latitude: 3945'N Longitude: 10452'W Time Zone: Mountain Elevation: 5283'
TABLE 1: Daily Solar Data (mean)
Â¥ir . Mi.,: -.. ANNUAL AVERAGE
Total Horizontal Insolation (KJ/M2-Day) 9534 12790 17368 21328 24229 26678 25792 23198 19507 14759 10027 8305 17800
Direct Beam Normal Incidence (KJ/M2-Day) 19795 23034 26273 29512 32031 34910 34191 31671 29152 25193 21234 18715 27190
Total Horizontal Insolation (BTUIFT2-Day) 840 1127 1530 1879 2134.9 2350.7 2272.6 2044 1726.8 1300.5 883,5 731 8 1568
Direct Beam Normal Incidence (BTUIFT2-Day) 1746 2032 2317 2603 2825 3079 3016 2794 2571 2222 1873 1651 2398
Total South Wall Insolation (BTU 1 FT2-Day) 1362 1349 1241 941 717 633 674 862 1179 1402 1303 1164 1069
Percent of Possible Sunshine 72 71 70 66 64 70 70 72 74 72 65 68 70
Mean Cloud Cover 5.5 5 8 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.0 5.0 4 9 4 4 4.5 5.3 5 2 5.3
Percent of Total Horizontal to Extraterrestrial Insolation 59 60 60 62 61 64 63 63 64 62 60 58 62
TABLE 2: Climate Data
TEMPERATURE (F) (Mr* .. . .. ,> 5 V-!-. : " m wm UK*' ANNUAL AVERAGE
Average Monthly 29.9 32 8 37.0 47.5 57.0 66.0 73 0 716 62 8 52 0 39 4 32.6 50.1
Average Daily Maximum 43.5 46.2 50.1 61.0 70.3 80 1 87.4 85 8 77 7 66 8 53.3 46 2 64 0
Average Daily Minimum 162 19.4 23 8 33 9 43 6 51 9 58 6 57 4 47 8 37.2 25 4 18 9 36 2
Winter/Summer Design 1 91
Total Heating Deg-Days for Month 1088 902 868 525 253 80 0 0 120 408 768 1004 6016
Total Cooling Deg-Days for Month 0 0 0 0 0 110 248 208 54 5 0 0 625
Percent Relative Humidity (Night) 63 66 65 54 61 62 59 59 63 60 67 65 62
Wind Direction S S S S S S S S S S S S S
Wind Speed (MPH) 9.2 9 3 9.9 10.4 9 4 9.0 8 5 8.2 8.2 8 2 8.7 90 90

TABLE 3: Daily Solar Radiation on Tilted Surfaces
^Calculated Values) (Engineering Units \BTU/FT2-Day])
'To find Total Solar Radiation on a Tilted Surface add the figure from TABLE 3a. to that of TABLE 3b.)
Reflectivity = 0.2) (Multiply values by \RHOI0.2 \ for other reflectivities)
TABLE 3a: Direct Beam+Diffuse
i7! --rr- ~T77 Ttt- TiTT
TILT m sftlTrl t |$f?f m.'J: vW- - -.V: w ' > t * ANNUAL AVERAGE
15 1139 1402 1750 1994 2176 2363 2300 2134 1924 1581 1160 979 1742
30 1363 1571 1866 1994 2090 2236 2191 2098 2005 1766 1367 1168 1811
45 1506 1683 1870 1878 1883 1978 1954 1938 1963 1842 1490 1287 1773
60 1554 1671 1761 1652 1570 1607 1606 1665 1804 1803 1521 1327 1628
75 1505 1557 1546 1332 1173 1149 1169 1298 1536 1653 1457 1285 1388
90 1362 1349 1241 941 717 633 674 862 1179 1402 1303 1164 1069
45 ORIENT 15 1042 1312 1676 1944 2150 2342 2276 2091 1856 1487 1072 900 1679
30 1184 1423 1726 1916 2054 2212 2160 2032 1881 1589 1200 1018 1700
45 1253 1453 1694 1796 1871 1986 1952 1879 1815 1604 1255 1075 1636
60 1246 1395 1562 1590 1611 1689 1668 1641 1648 1520 1234 1067 1489
75 1164 1266 1362 1319 1296 1339 1330 1337 1411 1363 1143 996 1277
90 1017 1065 1094 1009 956 970 970 1002 1112 1126 988 872 1015
90 ORIENT 15 820 1106 1493 1829 2081 2290 2215 1988 1687 1268 866 713 1530
30 783 1053 1409 1715 1943 2131 2062 1858 1586 1201 826 680 1437
45 733 977 1292 1554 1752 1912 1854 1675 1446 1107 771 637 1309
60 664 875 1143 1356 1518 1649 1601 1453 1274 983 696 576 1 149
75 970 750 971 1131 1254 1355 1318 1203 1074 838 596 493 963
90 471 612 779 889 976 1048 1021 938 854 677 491 407 764
TABLE 3b: Reflected
TILT / v Vj-T - (Trf fl fr ? ANNUAL AVERAGE
ANY ORIENT 15 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 4 3 2 5
30 11 15 20 25 29 31 30 27 23 17 12 10 21
45 25 33 45 55 63 69 67 60 51 38 26 21 46
60 42 56 76 94 107 118 114 102 86 65 44 37 78
75 62 84 113 139 158 174 168 151 128 96 66 54 116
90 84 113 153 188 213 235 227 204 173 130 88 73 157

January 15, 1981

A total of 23 subsurface borings were completed during the investigation. The location map and boring logs are shown on Figure 1, attached.
The soils immediately beneath the topsoil over a majority of the site consisted of windblown fine sands with various amounts of clays and silts. These fine sands were lightly cemented, very porous and with low dry densities.
In most areas these fine sands were underlain by sands and gravels, which, in turn, were underlain by siltstone and/or claystone.
However, in several of the borings near the southerly portion of the site, the soils immediately below the topsoil consisted of clays with various amounts of fine sands and silt. A more detailed and complete description of the soils encountered in this soils and foundation investigation are presented in Figure 1.

Groundwater level observations were taken as the borings were being advanced, immediately after completion, and several days after completion. The depth of the groundwater ranged from 3 to 18 feet below the existing ground surface as shown on Figure 1. The actual level of the groundwater at the site can be expected to fluctuate somewhat throughout the year depending on variations in precipitation, surface runoff, application of irrigation water, and usage of Goodhue Ditch. Future development on the site and in areas adjacent to the site which would appreciably change existing land use can also contribute to a rise or fall in the groundwater table. Field observations lead us to believe that in the southerly portion of the site, the groundwater table was near the ground surface in the past causing swamp-like conditions. Proper drainage or surface fill may be required to keep the water table below any structures.

We recommend the installation of a perimeter drainage system around all structures with floor slabs proposed to be constructed below the ground surface. The drainage system should consist of perforated or open joint tiles surrounded by a minimum of 4 inches of washed gravel placed a minimum of one foot below the top of the floor slab around the outside of all areas to be constructed below grade. The drainage conduits should drain to a positive gravity discharge if available or to a pumped sump.

Wetting of foundation soils should be prevented during and after construction (except where wetting of soil is necessary to obtain required compaction).
The following methods of preventing wetting of foundation soils at the construction are recommended:
1. Mechanically compact all fill around the building, especially the backfill. Compaction by ponding or saturation must not be permitted.
2. Provide an adequate grade for rapid runoff of surface water away from the structure (5% if practicable).
3. Discharge roof downspouts and other collection systems well beyond the limits of
the backfill.
4. Avoid heavy watering near foundations (plants that require watering should not be placed near foundations).
5. Observe and comply with any other usual precautions which may be indicated during design and construction.

Most of the foundation systems will be placed on the windblown, clayey, silty, fine sands, classified as SM-SC, using the Unified Soil Classification. The gradation curve and Atter-berg Limits of these fine sands are shown on Figure 3A. Though these fine sands vary in clay and silt contents, we believe the clays to range from 15 to 25 percent and the silts 20 to 30 percent. These fine sands were found to have densities as low as 90 pounds per cubic foot in their natural state. Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C summarize the results of consolidation tests performed on three representative soil samples obtained from different locations on the site.
The figures show the consolidation under various loads at natural moisture content and under saturated conditions. As shown, the samples were able to support high loads with little consolidation at their natural moisture content, but when the samples were saturated, considerable consolidation occurred. These consolidation characteristics typify behavior of a collapsible soil. Settlements in the order of magnitude of 4 to 5 inches could be expected with footings carrying normal loads placed directly on these soils.

Floor slabs and other siabs-on-grade can be placed directly on natural, undisturbed materials at the site. We recommend that all floor slabs be separated from foundation elements with two layers of tempered hardboard with silicant lubricant between. This detail should be used around the perimeter of slabs adjacent to foundation walls and around any interior columns and load-bearing partitions.
Prior to placement of any new fill or construction of the slabs, we recommend that all moderately organic topsoil and decomposable vegetation be removed from the existing ground surface. Following stripping, the exposed surface should be carefully examined to identify any poorly compacted areas.. Any such areas which cannot be densified in place, should be removed down to undisturbed, satisfactory soil. Placement of any new fill should be compacted to a minimum of 90% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T99.

A majority of the structures will have to be placed on the collapsible soils described above. In our opinion, the structures can be placed on conventional spread footings and isolated column pads provided recommendations outlined in this report are followed.
In summary, structures can be founded on conventional spread footings at normal design depths providing the following conditions are met:
1. compact a minimum of two feet beneath proposed footings to a minimum of 95% of maximum density, as determined by AASHTO T99. The minimum width of area to be compacted is 14" on each side of the footing plus the width of footing (i.e., a 16" wide footing requires 44" in minimum width of area to be compacted). The moisture content of the soil to be compacted should be brought above 10%, but must not exceed the optimum moisture content of 13%.

2. the footings should be designed with the use of Figure 4. The owner/designer may wish to reduce maximum expected settlement of the foundation system by lowering the soils bearing capacity which can be interpolated from Figure 4. Allowable bearing is based on dead load plus maximum anticipated live load. Maximum allowable soil bearing capacity is 1200 pounds per square foot.
3. differential settlement must be considered in the design of the foundation system and can be estimated from Figure 4. The differential settlement should be kept to a minimum and in no case exceed 1/2-inch. This can be achieved by keeping the loads as uniform as possible throughout the footings.

4. foundation walls supported by footings should be designed as grade beams capable of spanning a minimum distance of 12 feet. The amount of reinforcing steel used should not be less than two No. 5 bars both top and bottom of the foundation wall. Reinforcement should be continuous around corners. Differential settlement will be minimized by proper reinforcement of foundation walls.
5. prevent any unnecessary water from entering the foundation soils as described in the section entitled, "Wetting of Foundation Soils."







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