Citation
Condominium development 707 Washington Street

Material Information

Title:
Condominium development 707 Washington Street
Alternate title:
Mise en scène
Creator:
Waldref, Blane
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
155 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, forms, maps, color photographs, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Condominiums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Remodeling for other use -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Remodeling for other use ( fast )
Condominiums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 154-155).
General Note:
At head of title on cover: Mise en scène.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Blane Waldref.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775608 ( OCLC )
ocm13775608
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .W338 ( lcc )

Full Text

VIEWS
SOUTH- ELEVATION


MISE EN SCENE CONDOMINIUM DEVELOPMENT 707 WASHINGTON STREET

BLANE WALDREF


The Thesis of Blane Waldref is approved
University of Colorado at Denver May 1986


CONDOMINIUM DEVELOPMENT 707 WASHINGTON STREET
/
An Architectural Thesis
Presented to the College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Blane Waldref Spring 1986


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Project Description Hypothesi s
Background
Area History
Historical Summary of the House Additional Biographical Data
Site
Site Map
Site Description Site Analysis Climate
Program
Buyer Profile Specific Requirements
Historic Preservation
Guidelines Tax Program
Desi
gn Solution
Phys
ical Factors
Systems
Structure
Conclusion
Appendices
Zoning Code Building Code Reference Data
Bibl
iography


mise en scene
(me zaN sen') Fr. 1. the stage setting of a play 2. surroundings; environment


INTRODUCTION


8

THE BONFILS MANSION
Washington Street Facac Bonfils Mansion
View of Bonfils Mansio from corner of Seventh and Washington
Seventh Avenue Facade Bonfils Mansion


A
Seventh Avenue View of Garden Wall
View of 700 Pearl from corner of Seventh and Pearl
View of Pergola from Terrace of Bonfils Mansion


Looking into the Walle' Garden from the Terrac of the Bonfils Mansion
Looking toward the Bonfils Mansion from within the Walled Garden


Proj
ict Description
Historic Preservation is an important issue in a nation as young as the United States. Industrialization and technology have allowed our country to advance materialistically at a rate unprecedented by most countries its age. Consequently, we have been inclined to eradicate much of our early architectural history in the name of progress, thereby leaving our own sense of heritage endangered and nearly undefined. The slow and time-tempered progress of earlier cultures allowed them the time for contemplation of their heritage and the insight as to what was relevant to preserving it. Advancement and economics could rarely afford destruction and replacement of their built environments. In fact!, most demolition and replacement were the products of natural
di sa
ster or war, not societal advancement.
In response to this concept of historic preservation, my thesis will concern the design of a housing project which will respond to the preservation of the existing Bonfils Mansion at the corner of Seventh Avenue and Washington Street in South Capitol Hill. The mansion will be preserved and rehabilitated while a newly designed condominium complex will be incorporated on the remainder of the site. Although the addition of new construction to the site is an historic intrusion to the original house, the value of the property in economic terms of highest and best use makes its continuance as a single-family residence nearly impossible while constituting a development potential which might be the demise of the house if taken advantage of improperly. My response to this situation is to maintain the Bonfils Mansion which is of


certifiable historic significance, while replacing older buildings on the site which are in disrepair and do not constitute historic preservation by their example or significance. The contingency is that the new construction, as an expression of modern needs, must maintain the flavor and continuity of the original historic neighborhood. This construction will be a medium-density condominium complex of no more than 30,000 square feet marketed to middle and upper income households.


Hypothesis
There are many approaches to design and design solutions. Different circumstances may warrant different responses. The project I have chosen to design is most clearly a problem of context. Context in this case is historical context, and it has many facets for the project. Historical context should provide an insight into the whole range of influences on the original design of the Bonfils house. Historical context should also provide a means of evaluating our current society and what influences it has on design. And finally, historical context should act as a means of connecting two periods of history, thus creating a complimentary blend of modern and historic.
The original historical context of the Bonfils home is rich and interesting. It takes one back to the turn of the century when Denver was still in a period of its early growth. At that time, design was most influenced by European styles. Denver had no traditional architecture to speak of, and the simpler brick and log buildings of its infancy were not considered appropriate for the stylish living the economics of this new frontier could now afford. Americans certainly considered European culture a heritage of their own and borrowed freely from it. The result was a very eclectic blend of the styles of several countries with France, England, Italy, and Germany being most commonly borrowed from. Although influences may have come from Europe, the resulting architectural statements were very American. The issue of
"suburban" living had quickly taken hold. As a relatively new city, Denver had plenty of open space to grow in, so residential neighborhoods


became a desirable and affordable option to downtown living. On the other hand, services and transportation were not as convenient as they are today, so construction remained centralized. The result was the detached single-family home on its own urban plot of land. This American ideal of home might emulate an English castle, a French chateau, or an Italian villa, but it rarely was inhabited by aristocracy and seldom had the property to go with it. Our economy was rapidly expanding, and though our society was affluent, the merchant class did not make a living off of the land per se; they made a living off of trade and the community of the city.
The American "palace" at this time was large by modern standards because hired help was still affordable to most. There was no income tax and spendable income allowed a homeowner to express his concepts of taste and fashionable display. Society and acceptance were important. The home had a clearly defined front which related to the community street and a clearly defined back which served recreation space and service access. The concept of the tree-lined avenue was prevalent. There was not only the issue of partaking in the procession and the promenade, but also the issue of viewing it. Homes lined the streets to create the processional ways while offering a fashionable facade to be recognized. The home was to be viewed as well as to offer a view of the street. The home also had a clearly defined sense of privacy. Spaces progressed from the public street to the semi-public porch to the private interior. Small, formal gardens replaced estate grounds and offered seclusion for owners to enjoy more natural settings. The Bonfils Mansion has all of
these characteristics.


Our
nation and Denver continued to grow and develop. The earlier fabric
of Denver's inner city didn't remain static. The continued development of tjie area made services more plentiful and easier to expand.
Congestion and pollution made the city less desirable to live in. Transportation with the mass production of the auto became highly individual and easy to manipulate. The ideal of the single-family home in the country continued to appeal to Americans, and now it was easier to move out of the city. Suburbs began to grow, and those who could afford it generally found the good life was outside the city core. A short commute could take one quickly away form the pressures of the growing city. Americans still held on to the European ideals of taste, but new issues were at hand. Modernism and the move towards a new, more egalitarian society may have been conceived in Europe, but it was easily applicable to a nation enamored with democracy and advancement.
Classical styles and old world references that came with them were viewed as elitist by some. The clean lines of Modernism were a new start. They were also more affordable and easier to produce if reduced to mass production by machine--a specialty of Americans. Unfortunately, their highly intel1ectualized approaches to light and space often lacked the warmth of more emotional earlier responses to these issues.
By the end of the Depression, our economy had largely contracted and individual incomes were greatly reduced by taxes. Maintenance and care of older structures were costly and labor intensive. Their style seemed foreign to a progressing society. It wasn't surprising that many of our early buildings were demolished because they had so quickly become


outdated. The few people who could afford to maintain them had often
moved to newer, more fashionable areas of town, while the increasing growth of urban areas called for a more efficient economic use of land. Office and commercial space expanded and encroached on older neighborhoods. Modern economical apartments replaced single-family dwellings in order to house the city workers who didn't have incomes for the support of an entire house. Many of the larger, older homes were cut up into rooming houses which resulted in intense wear and tear and the depletion of several of these structures. Residential privacy and image suffered furthering the evacuation of those in search of the better life. Highways and roads improved, and people who wanted the
best
were
of both worlds could still have it. City jobs and cultural events not out of reach to the commuter.
Several decades of this pattern led to deterioration of the inner city in many metropolitan areas. The free enterprise system had created an over-commercialized business area that only the hardiest urbanite could tolerate to live in. This is especially true in Denver, where residents have always been attracted to the beauty of Colorado's mountains and open space. Cities often lost much of their economic base of income tax to the suburbs and civic amenities suffered. The government was not oblivious to the blight of the city. Too wide a scattering of population not only overburdens the resources of a city, it also wears the community fabric too thin. Urban renewal was seen as an answer to encourage people to move back into the cities by removing areas of supposed urban blight. It often meant further loss of our quickly
disappearing architectural heritage as entire blocks of older
buildings


were' razed, rather than rehabilitated, in order to make way for new development. Parking to accommodate commuter traffic has been a further demise of historic structures.
Realizing the need for historical preservation, the government now subsidizes the effort with tax incentives. The free market has created a conflict of interest between development and preservation. The best way to take advantage of these tax credits is by deducting the value of preservation easements on a property. Such easements are donated as charitable gifts to qualified historical organizations. These can only be granted to properties which have certified historic significance, which is generally determined by a listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Even with this listing, a property and its proposed rehabilitation must pass review by the Secretary of the Interior to make sure it adheres to the Standards for Rehabilitation in order to take advantage of the various tax credits. The Standards for Rehabilitation are ultimately interpreted by an individual representing the US Department of the Interior, but they are rather specific in their aims. According to this agency, "rehabilitation is defined as the process of returning a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving those portions and features of the property which are
significant to its historic, architectural, and cultural values.
n 1
Of
Hume, Gary L. and Kay D. Weeks; Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings; US Department of Interior: Washington, DC; c.1983. p 5.


particular interest to the Bonfils Mansion are the standards which requi re:
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for a property which requires minimum alteration of a building, Structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2. The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when possible.^
These standards would require the original building be maintained with its exterior integrity and that no new structure should be attached to it. The grounds of the mansion should also be maintained to provide a sense of the original mansion atmosphere. The Bonfils Mansion is considered an important example of the city homes in the context of its original neighborhood of 19th and 20th century medium to large scale urban mansions on small lots. Of special historic interest is its garden conceived as an integral part of the total design for the house by its architects Hewitt and Biscoe. The garden was to complement and enhance the romantically ecletic building. It is an excellent and rare surviving example of the small, formal gardens, often walled, which were found to the sides or rears of turn-of-the-century urban homes. In this case, retention of the terraces, pergolas, balustraded masonry walls, iron fences, and small reflecting pool are necessary. This will


preserve the natural grade of the site, the vistas it offers from the terrace, and the sense of progression experienced through the gardens.
These rehabilitative standards place strict limitations on the alteration of the site in order to maintain its historic integrity. The new construction which is to be added for the condominiums is further restricted by these standards to be compatible with the size, scale, color, material, and character of the historical property and neighborhood.
These restrictions help define the problem physically, but historical context can be studied to provide further clues for the creation of new architecture. While retaining the historical value of the site is important, the response to modern construction techniques and materials is also important. The occupants of the new complex will have different characteristic lifestyles than those for which the first house was designed. The neighborhood of the site has also changed over the years.
In response to these new issues, our present historical context is important. The project should be seen as an effort to mend the badly destroyed earlier neighborhood fabric. By responding to the nearby homes of similar vintage, it can have a regenerative effect for the area, while encouraging further continuity of the original sense of place. As a product of our time, the project must also address the context of the large apartment buildings which surround it. They, too, have!had an effect on the character of the site.


The recent cultural climate of Denver also has significance for the

project. Up until the eighties, the population trend for Denver County had indicated a continual decrease. With the oil embargo of the mid-seventies, people not only reevaluated the cost of commuting, but oil companies began locating in Denver because of proximity to Colorado's fuel resources. This led to new growth in Denver's downtown. New office space and jobs attracted workers back to the city. As a result, Denver has begun to experience reinvestment into its historic areas as well as an increased demand for urban housing. This trend could provide the economic base for maintaining historic buildings as well as catalyze an effort to make city living culturally exciting once agairt. Part of this excitement is created by the character of the historic buildings which remain; part of it is also due to the growth of the area, and its response to our lives in the eighties. A balance must be maintained to ensure new growth does not destroy historically relevant buildings.
Because my thesis project is designed as a development without a specific user in mind, it can only respond to projections of the needs and desires of the eventual inhabitants of the buildings. Market analysis, feasibility studies, and market trends are all documentation of present historical context as well as ways to help define the design parameters. These studies are merely characteristic samplings of data on our society which indicate present values and trends. Obviously, few incomes can support a single-family dwelling in the middle of an inner neighborhood which has been zoned for higher density (unless the
city


home had been purchased and maintained by the same owner prior to the zonirig change). The ideal large home on its own lot may exist in the suburbs or neighborhoods zoned residential, but it is not viable in areas where economic return on land determines market value. Urban residents have come to expect a higher density living situation in exchange for closer proximity to services, jobs, and cultural
amenities. However, there is still a natural desire for some of the attributes which made the original urban mansions popular. Sensitivity to detail, style, light and space cannot be overlooked. The symbol of the home and its sense of garden space are still important issues to some homeowners, just as the house and its display were important when the Bonfils Mansion was constructed. The recent sales problems of Corbusian-type high-rise apartment buildings in the Denver market (the Waterford and Park Towers) are a good example of this image and density dilemma. Privacy and promenade, on the other hand, have changed since the turn of the century. Although views are still important, increased density and the speed and quantity of traffic have made many people value self-controlled seclusion. Promenade, though important to one in a public space, must be properly shielded from the occupant of a private space. This concept of privacy will also carry through to the public and private sections of a building. A welcoming entrance should give way to secure and private dwelling spaces. Interior spaces have changed due to the considerations of building costs, energy costs, and servant-1abor costs, and in response to the reduction of family sizes and differences in living situations. The addition to the home-buying market of singles, single-parent families, and unmarried friends owning
a unit together have changed space requirements. Few people remain at


home all day unless they work there. Our society is no longer supported in the same manner that it was when the Bonfils Mansion was first built.
Keeping historical changes and similarities in mind, the spirit of the Bonfils Mansion should serve as an important influence in the creation of the new project. Once again, styles have changed in architecture. This time, the lessons of the past have been granted some value of their own as evidenced by the eclecticism of Post Modernism. Although this style should not be followed for its sake of timeliness, it does offer one suggestion for the design relevance of historical precedence. By looking to the past, not merely to copy it, and using its explorations of form, scale, and community as relevant design data, one can avoid the problem of eclectic wittiness. In this manner, one can transcend imitation to provide a valuable link to our own architectural heritage as well as a bridge to a new one. It is in this humanitarian spirit of the project that one might look to the example of Helen Bonfils.
Sharing ones own resources for benefit of the community can have important results to the societal welfare of future generations as evidenced by the Bonfils Tumor Clinic, the Bonfils Theater, and the Holy Ghost Church. An historic rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Bonfils site not only helps preserve the memory of the woman responsible for this philanthropy, it also embodies the example of charitable
giving.


HISTORICAL
CONTEXT
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(mwNur


BACKGROUND


Area History
The original settlement of Denver began at the confluence area of the Platte River and Cherry Creek. With the discovery of gold in 1858, the region boomed. The original communities of Denver and Auraria became well established as more and more people came to take advantage of the area's natural resources. Agriculture, mining, and trade all flourished, and by 1860, Denver and Auraria incorporated. Curtis Park was originally the area for the well to do, but with the fire of 1864, many of these homes were destroyed. The donation of Brown's Hill for the site of the state capitol and the desire to build out of the previously settled Platte River basin made Capitol Hill an attractive area for Denver's wealthy. Large and medium scale urban mansions on small lots sprang up quickly. Trees were planted along every avenue.
By the turn of the century, the area was unquestionably the area of Denver's most prominent citizens.
At this time, Denver was a developing and affluent area. Even with the setback of the silver crash, Denver continued to attract a number of wealthy Europeans and members of British aristocracy. The area was named "The Newport of the West." Social ranks and expectations were firmly established. The need and desire for fashionable homes was great, and many people looked to Europe for "the finer things of life." French, German, English, and Italian architectural styles were freely copied and borrowed from. Nothing European could be discounted, although many exuberant designs exceeded good taste. Styles often
depended upon client taste or the schooling of the architect.


A fine home of this period was generally three stories. Rooms were large for entertaining, and ballrooms were common. Carriage houses and gardens generally completed a property. Upkeep was provided by cheap and plentiful domestic help. Homes were heated with easily obtained coal. Times changed, though, and help, utilities and upkeep costs continued to rise for these large homes, while personal incomes often decreased. As a result, some homes were destroyed and replaced while others were cut into small apartments. The Bonfils Mansion had the good fortune to remain intact as a single-family home until its recent renovation.


Hi st
orical Summary of the House
The following history is the actual information compiled for the Bonfils Mansion and used to obtain its listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Following it is an historical excerpt about the architects, Hewitt and Biscoe, from the application for the National Register for the house next door at 727 Washington Street. This home was designed by the same architects that designed the Bonfils Mansion, and their histories are provided as a matter of completeness.
It s stru Much for
hould be recognized that the history provided not only documents the cture, but also provides information about the property's owners, of our architectural heritage is more coherent when we have a sense the people who partook in it and made it possible. Their lives help
us better understand their environments and the functions thereof.


The Medi Buil wi nd with
Few owne Guil si
gm
The
THE WOOD-MORRIS-BONFILS MANSION 707 Washington Street Denver, Colorado
Bonfils House brings a touch of Europe to Denver with its French terranean styling designed by architects M. Biscoe and Hewitt, t in either 1909 or 1911, the home displays lunettes over the ows as the outstanding motif and other motifs on the front carved white stucco.
The solid construction of the home reflects the great care that was given to building in the early 1900s. The materials in the home consist of concrete for the foundation, brick stucco for the exterior walls, a wood frame roof of medium flat pitch, and difficult framing with a built-up clay tile covering. The interior was built with yellow pine floors, and plastered walls and ceilings. The fifteen rooms include a parlor, a dining room, kitchen, four bedrooms on the first floor, five bedrooms on the second, five baths, a breakfast room, library and pantry. In 1928 a brick addition was made; and in 1957 a second garage was added.
homes in the Denver area can boast of having three outstanding rs, but the Wood-Morris-Bonfi 1 s house can. These three owners, ford S. Wood, Andrew S. Hughes, and Miss Helen Bonfils, each made ificant contributions to the development of the Denver area.
first owner, Guilford S. Wood, who obtained the title for the land
in 1907 and built the home in either 1909 or 1911, made his fortune,


like so many of Colorado's historical figures, in gold and silver. He was both President of the Vindication Consolidated Gold Mining Company and Vice President of the South Sierras Power Company. He was not only a business man, but a concerned Denver citizen as well. Realizing that the young city of Denver needed play areas for her children, he founded the Denver Playground Association, in recognition of the educative value of recreation.
The second owner, Andrew S. Hughes, made his contribution to Denver by making her a major link in cross country transportation. He was virtually a pioneer in this effort and helped to establish the overland stage line. He also served as Traffic Manager of Denver, a form of early day Denver planning. He died on March 17, 1924, leaving the home to his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Randolph Morris, who lived there until her death in 1934 and his death in 1937. Helen Bonfils obtained the title to the property, becoming the third owner.
The old saying that the third time is a charm must be true for the home's third owner, Miss Helen Bonfils, was a great philanthropist. Indeed, one could almost ask of her: What didn't she donate and help build? Although she is well known for her contribution to Denver theatre, called The Bonfils Theatre and founded in 1953, she contributed to Denver's schools, churches and hospitals. She continued in her father's footsteps by helping to set up and finance the University of Colorado Medical Center, by giving financial support for the Bonfils Tumor Clinic and by supporting the Belle Bonfils Blood Bank in 1943 to 1945. She is also credited with helping to establish the University of


of Colorado's School of Nursing expansion in 1942 and in 1956 the establishment of the Colorado Foundation of Research in Tuberculosis.
She was also interested in education and co-financed the Margery Reed Mayo Day Nursery; she also gave $500,000 to St. Mary's Academy. She donated to one hundred churches of all denominations but is most recognized for her donation to the Holy Ghost Catholic Church for which she received the Pro Ecclesis of Pontiface Medal (the Papal Cross) from Pope Pius III and the first Mother Pancratis Bonfils Medallion from the Sisters of Loretto.
Even though her list of awards is long for her financial support to many institutions, this does not give a true insight into her genuine love of people. She also supported individuals who were in need, specifically old women in the Denver area. They would come to her office and she would say to each one, "Come right in, honey," and give her a check. No wonder Helen Bonfils is described by one of her friends as "the kindest person I ever knew."
And so, it is only fitting that a house that holds so many memories of her owners leading Denver from an unsophisticated boom town to one of growing sophistication be officially recognized.
Thi4 house as a memorial to the three distinguished families that once called it home is a memorial as well to the contributions each made to the community of Denver. All three families are noted philanthropists and trusts still stand in their names for this purpose. Both the Woods and the Bonfils made major contributions to the field of education and


the processes of education in Denver and in Colorado. All three families were leaders in industry and finance in the State. The Bonfils, today a highly prominent family, have likewise done much to forward the arts in Denver, the theatre and other cultural pastimes.
Architecturally, the house represents a past era of fine and gracious living within the city limits of Denver, favored by Denver's first families. It is of a piece with other large mansions and yet it has a unique flavor of its own.
so
It i yet 1 i ves Denv
curious that the families, whose names are household words, were private as to make it difficult even now to reconstruct the they lived in this grand old mansion. It is truly a landmark in er history and architecture.
This history was prepared by Mary M. Clement, Historic Denver


Architects Maurice Biscoe and his partner Henry Harwood Hewitt were primarily residential architects while they practiced in Denver. They designed a number of large homes in the Country Club section of the city, and they also designed the buildings for Clayton College and Colorado General Hospital.
Biscoe, originally associated with the New York architectural firm of Tracy and Swartwout, first came to Denver to supervise the construction of St. John's Cathedral. That firm also designed the Denver Post Office Building. Biscoe traveled between Denver and New York for twenty years and maintained a Denver office with Fisher and Fisher. In 1920, he returned east to become associated with Andrews, Jacquese and Rantoul of Boston, the firm that designed the Equitable Building in downtown Denver. Biscoe died in Massachusetts in 1953.
Hewitt, originally from Bloomington, Indiana, studied at MIT and in Europe for several years. He came to Denver after a year in Chicago and became Biscoe's partner. In 1913, Hewitt moved to Los Angeles where he is best known for his school buildings.


Addi
tional Biographical Data
Helen Bonfils owned the house at 707 Washington Street from 1947 until 1971. Helen had been born in 1889 in Peekskill, New York. She moved with her family to Denver in 1895 when her father came out to run the Denver Post. She eventually took over the prosperous family paper in 1933 and managed it until her death in 1972. Her real love, though, was directing and acting in plays. She is often described as a theatrical and dramatic woman. She lived her life that way.
She met her first husband, director George Somnes, when she was a member of the El itch Gardens stock company in 1936. After their marriage she begafi a career as a theatrical producer on Broadway. She continued to manage the newspaper while pursuing her theatrical interests. She eventually helped form the community theater in Denver calling it the Denver Civic Theater. Through her contributions and management, the Bonfils Theater was built to house the group. Helen would often take parts in their plays. She continued to play an active role in the Denvbr and New York theater communities until her death.
She and George bought the house on Washington Street in 1947, and they lived there happily until his death in 1956. She remarried in 1959 to Michael Davis and continued to live in the house. Davis had been her chauffeur, and with her help, he made a fortune in oil. Davis won the house from Helen in a divorce settlement in 1971. He, in turn, sold it to Phyllis McGuire of Las Vegasonce a member of the McGuire Sisters singing trio. The property was recently purchased by the Encore


Development group (of which former lieutenant governor Mark Hogan is a member) through realtor and former governor Stephen L.R. McNichols.
While occupied by Helen Bonfils, the house was furnished with luxurious French antiques. Colors were predominantly neutral or light pastels except in the study, which had darker earthtones. The large front room and terraces were often used for meetings and social occasions. The dining room had black tile and mirrors. The garden and lawn were seldom used for entertaining; they were a secluded area filled with shrubbery, bushes, and wild flowers which cut off the intrusion of the street. The grounds had small walks and were not formally arranged or manicured. After Helen's death, the house was allowed to deteriorate under the ownership of Mike Davis. Phyllis McGuire continued to let it decline, while at the same time stripping it of its better fixtures. Not until the purchase by the Encore group did the house receive any restorative
measures.


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Site Description
Legal Description: Lots 20-17, Block 17, Arlington Heights Addition to Denver, together with the vacated alley adjacent thereto, City and County of Denver, State of Colorado.
Access: The site is bordered on the east side by Washington Street--a busy one-way street with two lanes and parking on the west side. The south side of the site is along Seventh Avenue--a two-way, two-lane through street with parking on the north side. The west side of the site borders Pearl Street, which is two lanes, two-way and not very busy. There is parking on both sides of that street. All streets originally had a tree-lined avenue character. Seventh Avenue has best maintained this quieter image and has several gracious turn-of-the-century homes still lining its way. Two single-family homes are adjacent to the site on its north property line.
which had been completely built up with mansions by the earlier part of this century. Several of these grand homes still exist within the immediate neighborhood. The Governor's Mansion, the Grant-Humphreys Mansion, the John Porter House, the Malo House, the
g House--all listed as Denver
Kassler-Dunklee House, another Mediterranean-style home, also designed by architects Hewitt and Biscoe. Governors Park and the grounds of the
South Capitol Hill. The Bonfils Mansion is located in an area
property. Next door is the
Grant-Humphreys Mansion are accessible park space within a block of the


site. Several high-rise apartments of approximately 10 stories also surround the property. Small retail shops, restaurants, and offices as well as larger office buildings can be found within a block or two of the site, especially to the south on Sixth Avenue or to the west on Pennsylvania, Logan, and Grant Streets.
Connections: The site is located only five to ten minutes from the Central Business District or Cherry Creek Center. Stapleton Airport is twenty minutes away. Speer Boulevard, Broadway, East Sixth Avenue and 1-25 are all easily reached and accessible.
Vegetation: Elms, pines, and poplars should be retained along Seventh Avenue, Washington Street, and within the garden area. Bushes and shrubs within the garden should also be maintained, but would need to be trimmed and thinned. Most of the lawn near the streets, in the garden, and in front of the Bonfils Mansion could be saved. All vegetation would be of value to maintain the residential character of the site while at the same time providing visual relief from the busy streets on three sides of the property.
Vievis: Good views of the mountains and southern metropolitan area can
be obtained from the terrace and second levels of the Bonfils Mansion. Similar views (including night-time city views) could be taken advantage of from the same elevations on the remainder of the site. The southerly exposed interior garden affords a pleasant view within the site. Views
to the immediate structures neighboring the site are primarily of apartment buildings.


Drai
nage: The site has a natural slope to the southwest with excellent
solar exposure. The site slopes lightly over 2 feet along Washington, about 18 feet along Seventh, and 13 feet on Pearl. The total difference of elevation across the site is about 21 feet.
Utilities: Public utilities of gas, water, sanitary sewer and storm sewer could be tapped off of Pearl Street. Electricity and phone service would also be hooked up off of Pearl Street. The infrastructure of this area of Denver should have no trouble supporting the new development.
Soil
s: Soils tests were not directly available. According to recent
excavation at the site, soils were sandy and typical of those in the Cherry Creek basin. Design data for soils on the site was obtained from Davis Holder. In his report, blue shale is identified existing 47 feet below ground surface. The point bearing capacity of the soil is given as 3500 PSF maximum with a dead load requirement of 15 KSF minimum. The allowable skin friction of the soil is 3500 PSF. The water table and swelling soils were not identified as design problems for this site. Consequently, foundations would be recommended as drilled piers with a
mini
mum of 5 feet of penetration into bedrock.


THE SITE
3 5TOPY
APAPTM^WT


SOLAR ANGLES


SOLAR ANGLES & VIEWS
WEST ELEVATION


The following climatic analysis was based on information from several sources. These sources are listed in the bibliography at the end of
this analysis. Researching and combining several sources of climatic information not only allowed a wide range of input influence, but it also allowed the selection of data which seemed most appropriate for the Denver region. Numerical data seemed to vary from source to source, depending upon where the data was taken and when; consequently, it was compiled to represent the general climatic circumstances. I believe the validity of the resource data is high, as the various studies were compiled over a long enough period of time to avoid excessive influence of unusual years. The resource data also seemed to be focused on more recent years, as this data is probably more representative of our climate today than weather data from several decades ago.
The Mahoney tables were used as the climatic assessment technique through the computer program CLIMAT. Although the suggestions obtained seemed appropriate, it should be noted that this method is ideally suited to warmer, wetter climates than the one of Denver.
From
semi
whic
temp
cole
seve
the climatic analysis of Denver it can be seen that this region is -arid with mild, sunny weather. There is a low relative humidity h makes temperature extremes more tolerable. There are large erature changes from day to night. Winter winds can cause severe spells, but summer afternoon clouds keep temperatures from reaching re highs. Winds are predominantly light and from the south, but it
shoijld be noted that the most intense winds are from the northwest. Precipitation is greatest in the spring. Summer has the second greatest


amount of precipitation and winter the least. In Denver, it is important to note that the core city is typically two to four degrees warmer than the outlying areas during the winter months. There is a less pronounced temperature difference in the summer. The downtown area also receives less precipitation than the surrounding areas with the precipitation difference of snowfall in the winter months varying from an average of 66 inches per year at the airport to 56 inches in the central part of the city.
From the climatic information, it can be concluded that buildings should be predominantly designed to deal with the cold. Compact, massive and wel1-insulated design is recommended. Openings should be small, well sealed and equipped to have some insulating value. Buildings should be oriented on an east-west axis so that they can take advantage of the solar benefits of this sunny region. Openings should direct sunlight to massive areas which can retain the solar energy and release it at night. Openings should also have protection from the summer sun. Air exchanges should be minimized and buildings should be well sealed. Quantity of precipitation is seldom a problem, but freeze-thaw cycles should be accounted for. Buildings might take advantage of mild southern breezes, and protection might be included for northwest winds. Outdoor sleeping seems a luxury as it would be relevant at only limited times.
For
the
further details, see the CLIMAT printout, climate graph NOAA tables, and the resources listed.
and table,


o :z O oo C_. o_. 3 ~T1 < .
4i on cn -4 00 00 00 *4 cn -Pi -Fi -pi Daily Max.
cn h* or 40 O'! oc ro O o CD 4i ro
ro 4 cn O oo -P* o cn cn CD cn 1*
H1 ro oo 4^ on on on 4^ oo ro 11 1* Daily Min.
oo oo cn -4 cn *4 h* i ro ro 00 -Pi 1
o or ro O ro -P* o 00 oo 00 00 00 m
2
^0 m
1* 4 i> OO K* ro cn cn cn cn 11 03 Mean 70
3>
Cn 4 -Pi o on CD on ro -pi -p> cn cn 1
c=
i1 70
71 74 87 97 O O 99 96 CD i1 84 83 76 65 Extreme High m
1 Hi ro -pi -Pi -P* ro 11 1 1 11 1 ro Extreme Low
or ro CD 40 11 00 o cn OO -Pi 00 cn
O o H-* i* 1* 11 1 ro ro J O 0
4i cn o i> ro on -pi *4 i* ro cn cn Average 10 70
4 CD l1 oo 00 oo -P* o i* i* CD cn m
0

l-- ro oo -Pi 4i cn 4i -4 -p^ ro 11 11 70
cn CO 4^ cn 4* -P* o 4 i*1 **'4 "4 i* CD j CD cn 4i 3
1
1 1
o o o O O o o o o o 0 O Minimum O
Z
o o 0J> O o i1 oo o 1* 0 O
4i h- on o cn -4 o -pi oo oo 00 H-*
CJ1 on oo on -p* 4^ or. -Pi -pi cn cn 4i 9 AM
1* o CO o ~4 4 oo 1 cn o ro co CE SO c= m
o oo 4 oo 4 '1 o oo o *4 00 1 r 3 r > 3= a -h
-P* -pi OO oo OO OO -pi 00 oo -P* -Pi -P> 3 PM H1 t1
00 cn o "4 cn cn o cn ro i* cn cn 1 < -< m
4 o o 00 oo o *4 oo oo OO 4 4
CD no 00 00 no no CD CD t* o 11 o CD CD Mean Hourly
oo CO oo 4^ on *4 OO 00 cn oo 4 cn Speed Prevailing
oo OO oo OO oo OO OO oo oo CO CO 00 sz
Direction 11

~n 0
cn -c* 4^ -P> -P> on 4i 4^ cn cn -Pi -Pi Speed 3
oo on "4 ro cn J OO cn oo CD 1* 00
\
m
NE sr :z: Z s: sw sw 00 SW z s: IZ SI =: Direction 00 -H
ro ro ro ro 00 00 00 00 00 00 ro ro Radiation,, (BTU/D-Ft )
ro -p> 4 OD 1 oo -pi 4^> oo ro 00 -pi
on -pi 40 co oo 4^ OO CD 1* CD 4
cc o ro cn cn ro 00 00 ro 00 -Pi 0
00
1' I* ro oo oo oo OO oo ro ro ro 1 Hr/Mo. cz
on 4 cn oo cn CD 1* CD 4i 1* CD z
4 ro CO 40 *4 CD O 00 00 CD 00 4i 00
=E
on on *4 03 4 CO 00 "4 ~4 cn cn cn Precent of 11 z
-P* i 00 on CD 11 4J o cn 4 CD -pi Possi ble m
CLIMATE TABLE DENVER, COLORADO


££L. H-UMItfirr % TeMPaCATUWS TL ^lATIOM^/p-Fr2) SUfjSttlW^ hk./mo.
CLIMATE &EAPH- LEMVEE, CO
PSgClPiTAflOM '/mo.


CLIMATE GRAPH DENVER, COLORADO
NOTE
S:
1. Precipitation data compiled from maximum and minimum monthly values. The average monthly values correspond to the monthly normal totals. Maximum and minimum values are taken from individually recorded highs and lows for each specific month. See End Note 1 for complete' reference.
2. Relative humidity percentages found by interpolating between monthly average percentages recorded for 5 AM, 11 AM, 5 PM, and 11 PM. See End Note 1 for complete reference.
3. Temperature profile compiled from daily maximum and minimum values for the month indicated. The mean values were taken from monthly normal values. Extreme values were taken from individually recorded highs and lows for each month. See End Note 1 for complete reference.
4. Radiation daily values found by adding up hourly data taken for sunlit hours on the 21st of each month for the 40 Degree North Latitude. See End Note 4 for complete reference.
5. Monthly hours of sunlight compiled from recorded monthly quantities. See End Note 8 for complete reference.
END


CLIMAT
LOCATION LONGITUDE LATITUDE ALTITUDE DENVER 104.52 39.45 5280
TABLE 1
CLIMATIC DATA (DEG C)
MONTH MAX MIN RANGE
JAN 5.6 -9.6 15.1
FEB 6.9 -7.7 14.6
MAR 9.9 -5.2 15
APR 15.8 .1 15.6
MAY 21.3 5.4 15.9
JUN 27.7 10.5 17.2
JUL 31.3 14.1 17.2
AUG 30.4 13.4 17
SEP 26.1 8.3 17.7
OCT 19.2 2.3 16.8
NOV 10.9 -4.7 15.6
DEC 7.3 -7.8 15.1
HIGH = 31.3 LOW = -9.6
AMT = 10.8 AMR 40.8
TABLE 2
CLIMATIC 1 DATA (RH, PRECIP, WIND)
M NTH MAX MIN AVE G RAIN WP WS
JAN 49 46 47.5 2 .6 s NW
FEB 52 46 49 2 .7 s NW
MAR 51 41 46 2 1.2 s NW
APR 45 32 38.5 2 2.1 s NW
MAY 47 36 41.5 2 2.7 s SW
JUN 53 41 47 2 1.4 s s
JUL 48 36 42 2 1.5 s SW
AUG 48 36 42 2 1.3 s SW
SEP 50 37 43.5 2 1.1 s NW
OCT 40 30 35 2 1 s NW
NOV 50 46 48 2 .7 s W
DEC 51 49 50 2 .5 s NE
TOTAL 14.8


TABLE 3 DIAGNOSIS
( --DAY ) ( -NIGHT ) STRESS
MAX UP LOW MIN UP LOW D N
JAN 5.5 27 20 -9.7 20 C C
FEB 6.9 27 20 -7.7 20 C C
MAR 9.8 27 20 -5.2 20 C C
APR 15.8 27 20 .1 20 C C
MAY 21.2 27 20 5.4 20 0 C
JUN 27.7 27 20 10.5 20 H C
JUL 31.2 27 20 14.1 20 H 0
AUG 30.3 27 20 13.3 20 H 0
SEP 26.1 27 20 8.3 20 0 C
OCT 19.2 27 20 2.2 20 C C
NOV 10.8 27 20 -4.7 20 C C
DEC 7.3 27 20 -7.9 20 C C
TABLE 4 INDICATORS
MONTH HI H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
JAN 0 0 0 1 0 1
FEB 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAR 0 0 0 1 0 1
APR 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAY 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUN 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUL 0 0 0 1 1 0
AUG 0 0 0 1 1 0
SEP 0 0 0 1 0 0
OCT 0 0 0 1 0 1
NOV 0 0 0 1 0 1
DEC 0 0 0 1 0 1
TOTAL 0 0 0 12 2 7
LAYOUT: Buildings should be orientated on an east-west axis, the long elevations facing north and south to reduce exposure to the sun.
SPACING: Compact planning is recommended if the air movement requirement is significant.
AIR
not
need
MOVEMENT: If air movement is never essential, and is desirable for more than a month, rooms can be double banked as there is not much for cross ventilation.
OPENINGS: "Very small," less than 20% of the wall.


WALLS:
Both external and internal walls should be massive.
ROOlfS: A heavy roof, with substantial thermal capacity, giving
lag
of at least 8 hours.
OUTDOOR SLEEPING: It should be provided on roofs, balconies or
pat
sky
os, so that sleepers are exposed to the coldest part of the (the zenith) to increase heat loss by outgoing radiation.
RAIN PROTECTION:
SIZE
POS
PRO
WALL
ROOF
EXTE
TABLE 4
DETAIL RECOMMENDATIONS OF OPENINGS: Medium 25-40%
TION OF OPENINGS:
ECTION OF OPENINGS:
S AND FLOORS: Heavy, over 8 hours time-lag.
S: Heavy, over 8 hours time-lag.
RNAL FEATURES: Space for outdoor sleeping required,
a time i n
night


Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
1982
DENVER, COLORADO
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: Arctic air from
Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexic^; warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the
Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing
westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only 33 days of the year, and in
only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine
to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of
unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has the least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
noaa
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND / NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION / DATA. AND INFORMATION SERVICE
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER ASHEVILLE. N C


Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station. OCNVCft, COLORADO STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AP Standard time used: MOUNTAIN
23C6Z Temperatur f Degree day* Precipitation In Inche* Relative humidity, pet.
Average* Eatrc me* Date 6 5 "F Wats equival nt Snow Ice pe Met* 1 1 1 |
Month
£ 5 05 1 1 1 1 23
A . \ 2 J l I f r 1 u 5
5 o t a l 1 i O 5 5 1 3 J as 3 o <3* S Lora time)
JA l.i] I?.-. 30. 3 73 76 - 3 7 1071 r 0. 3? 0.70 11-12 * .0 ?.* 11 -1; 61 * 6 * 1 09
f l Ht,.? 17.0 37.0 71 72 -15 6 910 r 0.09 o.n* I-? 1.0 0. r 3-* 67 *2 31 50
wap St .9 2 7.3 *1.1 60 70 1 7 7 733 c 0.10 0.1 1 * 2.1 1 . * 6* 36 3 2 55
ape hi .6 33.1 *7.* 8 0 11 20 21 522 c 0. 3* 0.17 * -5 7.n 0. ft 19-71 53 2 7i 2* *6
Ma v 66.0 *3.3 55.1 0* 77 3? 6 306 6 3. 0 1 .70 12-13 T T 13 69 *3 * r 63
jut t 75.5 SO. 7 63.1 9 3 79 *1 9 92 *7 2.76 l.?* 17-10 t 0.0 O.f 72 *2 * i 65
JUl 06.9 58.9 77.7 99 73 50 in 3 2*7 0.9? 0.60 30-1 0.0 0.0 63 3* 29 52
aur. P6. S 59.0 73.1 93 1 5* ?5 0 757 1.16 0.39 l 1-1? 0.0 0.0 7* 50 36 61
SI p T J.f *9.5 61.7 9* * 39 30 151 59 1.30 0. 5 12-13 0.0 0.0 73 *6 *6 66
0C T 62.9 55.0 *9.0 00 7 27 19 *07 t 1.51 0.50 0 1.2 1.? 19 69 37 37 6H
NO V S0.6 72.7 35.7 72 6 I 1 2* 075 0 P. 7 0. ? 7 1 1 1.0 0.7 27 7? * *0 60
DLC *3.1 10.7 30.9 69 17 -7 30 1050 0 7.3* ?.no 2* 2 7.1 23.6 2* 65 *6 53 61
JUL TCP OEC OEC
vt ae 67.* 36.? *9.3 99 ?3 -15 s 6200 611 1 5 ?.oo 2* *0.0 23.6 ?* 66 *0 39 60
Latitude .,
Wind
fir* illnnt _S
* l V 1 1 l
F n J; .!?
?0 1 7 7.R
2 3 1 .* t.*
76 2.0 9. 3
29 1 . 10.7
76 0.1 7.9
1 1 1 1 0.7
17 0.3 7.3
1 0 7.7 7.5
16 0.2 7.5
1 7 0.7 6.0
13 1.7 6.0
2? 0. 7 0.6
71 0.6 7.9
rmile
I
V % t;
t u i)l 1 i S o
** N ,
73 1
30 ri 19
*1 u 2
r 9 1 9
30 7
37 15
75 i 7*
30 27
31 27
32 w 1 9
37 1 2*
JAN
** NW * *
longitude r ^
\
f, l h Stint * tit t met
\ f A f? V \\ !i
t u O
6 0 6 P V 0 1*
'5 5 * 11 * 1 3
*0 5.0 11 s 1 2
3 5 3 9 n 10
'3 7.3 2 ti 10
5 5.7 10 11
9 * 7 12 i'
*7 6 .* 3 16 i:
'7 6 * 7 i*
0 5.1 1 7 n
'0 5.7 7 1 3 10
*5 6.5 5 l- 1 3
10 5.7 95 12* 1*1
Elevation ')round)

t**2
Nu* K*t nt Us t Average tt I'Hf
j
1 "*
f if _r_ \t.,** j ...
h y ? s' . IM | | 1 He*
,! ? - ; s*

.1 5 ;* t1 i .* 8 S ; h t A 6 ,. 1.
* 3 t , 1 , 1
* n i 0 7 7* 6 *36.1
i i i <* 1 7* J *30.3
o 0 r | 1* *' ? 3
t* * V* 0 | 0 1 i U *33.*
11 0 J 7 J 3 *36,1
0 1 . 1 0 te *
i* 0 t 1 0 9*C.5
11 0 * t 3 0 3 3 3 T 0
p 1 l r ? I 3 9 3 *36.*
* 0 0 2 " 1 1 7* 3 !*.l
B 3 n 0 r! * 3*.*
7" - <* P 71 ? !6t It *35.1
DATA CORRECTED AFTER PUBLICATION Of THE MONTHLY ISSUE.
* Winds under Fastest Mile hri!ln< ire F* Normals, Means, And Extremes
Temperature* F Normal Degree day* Precipitation In inches Relative humidity pet. Wind

Normal Extreme* Water equivalent Snow. Ice pellets j 5 1 H tilTH i 23 1 F#*te*t mile
£ 1 E .! A ? E >1 A f > l | it a r. 5 > f! r .9 k > r i i r 3 I 7 E i £ i i 1 > Minimum j monthly 1 i 5 1 >- if 11 S >- i l5 5 > ns (l I 1 1 ora h i f 1 It It f V
(a) *0 *0 *0 *0 *8 *0 *0 72 2 J ?2 22 39 15 * 51
J *3.5 16.2 29.9 71 1902 -25 1963 1000 0 0.61 .M 19*0 0.01 1952 J .0? 196? 23.7 19*0 12.* 196? 63 *5 *01 63 0.9 S 5 3 N 1976
r *6.7 19.* 32.1 76 1963 -30 1936 902 0 0.67 1 .66 1960 0.01 1970 1 .01 1953 10.3 1961 9.5 1953 65 * ! *7 60 9.1 5 99 NW 1953
M 50.1 21.0 37.0 0* 1971 -1 1 19*3 861 0 1.71 2.09 19** 0.13 19*5 1 .*0 1959 29.7 196 1 16.1 195? 67 *; 01 6? 9.9 5 9 1 MW 195?
A 61.0 33.9 *7.5 5 1960 -2 1975 575 0 1.93 *.17 19*7 0.03 1963 3 .25 1997 20.3 |9J^ 17.3 1957 67 3 1 30 57 10.3 S 96 Nk 1 90T
M 70.3 *3.6 57.0 96 19*2 77 195* 751 11 7.6* 7.31 1957 0.06 197* 3 .55 1973 13.6 1950 10.7 1950 71 33 36 61 9.6 5 50 U 1970
J 00.1 51.9 66.0 10* 1936 30 1951 00 1 3* 1.93 * .69 1967 0.09 1900 3 .16 1970 0.3 1951 0.3 1951 69 37 35 5* 9.0 S 0 7 5 1956
J 67.* 50.6 73.0 10* 1939 3 197? 0 261 1 70 6.91 1965 0.17 1939 2 .*7 1965 0.0 o.q 60 3* 3* 56 5 56 sw 1905
A 65.0 57.* 71.6 101 1930 *1 196* 0 203 1.29 5.05 1979 0.06 1960 3 .*! 1951 O.C 0.0 66 3ft 35 50 0.2 S 2 N 1970
5 TT.7 *7.0 62.B 97 I960 20 1971 170 63 1.13 *.67 1961 T 19** 7 .** 1936 21 3 1936 19.* 19361 60 31 30 59 0.1 5 0 7 NW 1955
0 66.0 37.? 52.0 00 19*7 3 1969 *00 8 1.13 *.17 1969 0.05 1962 1 .71 19*7 31.2 1969 12. * 196* 6* 36 35 50 0.1 5 5 NU 1950
N 53.3 75.* 39.* 79 19*1 -0 1950 760 0 0.76 2.97 19*6 0.01 1999 1 .2* 1975 39.1 19*6 15. S 19*6 60 * M 09 05 0.5 5 0 1 1*02
0 *6.2 10.9 37.6 75 1900 -10 197? 100* 0 0. 1 7.0* 1973 0.03 1977 2 .00 1902 30. 1 97 31 23.6 1902 6* * *1 50 63 0.0 5 51 N| 1*53
va 6* 0 36.2 50.1 10* JUL 1939 -30 EEB 1936 6016 600 15.51 7.31 *AV 1957 T SEP 19*9 3 .55 NAY 1973 39.1 NOV 19*6 23.6 OEC 1902 67 f 39 60 0.9 5 56 SW JUL 1905
NORMALS. MEANS. AMD EXTREMES TABLE NOTE(S): 1. Extreme wind data in through 1981.
() Length of record, years, throuqh the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent In cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING MIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
HIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WINO Speed Is fastest observed 1-mlnute value when the dlrrrtlon Is In tens of degrees.
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites In the local tty as followa:

5 in Aug. 1878.
Wind
Pina teat mile: ft 5 W In Mnv l1*' I,
Prrcipltnt ion Maximum monthly 8.57 In Mav 187*
Minimum monthly 0.00 In fVc . l ? 1
Maximum In 2U hours: h. 53 In Mnv 187b
Snpwfnll Mu \ T(iiuim itt, Mt t It 1 v 57 . Itt !V . INI J


Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Year | Jan J Feb Ma' Apr May June July Aug | Sept | Oct Nov D.c (Annuel 1 teeton, July; Aug .Sept Oct [ Nov! Dec Jen ] Feb Mer Apr May tuna Tetel
l** | JS.T 19. j. W.v 4 5.9 75.6 7*. 3 6 3.2 53.n n. 7 3*. 3 1 51.9 M* ?- 1 M 1 1 >? 31? : j 1 *t M 1 7 *.*
!!* t.; l M 7?.* 6 3.1 5* * C.7 30. 7 1 *9.7 M* J * 4 7 ; 7% ?7> 470 1 1? IC'.t 1 'a? 4*5
" * * a: .* 71.5 59. V 57.* 1.9 JO. * i M* -6t - ' 121 : 375 * J 1 96 9 ? 1 | n*a 1 106 *11 ?*5 6 4 4Pf.
** 1 J'.. .... v... 31.* 1 .7 7*.* 71.? *3.* * 7 13.* 17.a j Sl. M* 5*6* t , j ?>r 33? 4*1 9? 112? 1 "1 7 691
i, / * t * 7?.5 7?.* a*..? 55.* 1 3. S 1 33.1 a*.a 1964-67 : * 41 *9* in 95* *3? 67y 9ft
* 59.7 **.. 7?.# 7?.9 4#.. 7 51.3 3*.* 1 ?*.* s .? 1 9 A . a It 1 r 7 ? 9 1 it 1 0*6 6 5 751
6 .3 7?.. 71.* 63.? 9.5 a*.ft 3?.* . a. t. M* 6 -49 15 J* 1*5 39* 6 7 1 111* 9?S "2 1 101 I 37ft
1*.. 11.5 a* .6 46.* a*.9 60.5 59.* J. 1 36.3 St. a 1 94 9- / c 601 769 99 1 C6I 73* 969 632 200 76 6tfj*
Mil ?. 33. r. J.* 57.J , at. 73.5 70.7 61.5 **.? 31.1 79.0 *. 1 M5-71 * M* 5 ft* 77C 7 1018 5 ft 617 508 329
I*..* 5*.* i 73. 1 72.3 65.6 53.3 J?. 3 32.6 50.6 19*1-77 ? e ?7J .7. 771 in 1043 32 6 ? 1 16 2*6
S3.* 7*,. 71 .? 66.0 5*. * *3.1 31 .* 51 .* 1977-73 *2 1! 1*7 39* 94C 1 ?3! 1 16? *20 771 6*6 ?9C
31 !i 52* !.? a-., s 7*.* 72.7 65.7 57.3 a. 3 1*. 7 51.5 1973-1* ft 0 i*a 321 718 lt?l 1 ? 7 7 *31 671 507 137 67
Ml ' 59.r a - 75. 73.1 63.9 5*." 36.7 35.a 50.? 197a 7 ; 9 199 361 603 ir* 1C?* 57 85? 421 332 65 4 7*
MS* 1 Ja.O 7.7 L;.: *5.* at.9 J.a 7?.? 69.7 45.S 53.* IT.? 35.7 51.5 1 975* 71 c 195 363 8*0 * 1006 7* C 859 *69 25* 4*
2'. S3.9 4'.* 71.5 7?.6 fcl .* 51 . 36.9 39.6 5t. ? 1976-77 t 7 M2 53* 75V 9C 1104 7*9 771 1ST 5 5V
I.. p?.f .a. * *1.7 4 1 70.7 73.6 6* .a S3.* C 6 36.* 51 .* 197?*tp 2 1 a 36 35* 737 9?: 1706 934 665 *15 335
J*-.? J7.t 1 .* 56.? 7*. * 7?.* 73. P 61.1 a*. 1 37.6 36.5 sr.t 1979-79 : ?' V 344 111 1 ?* M 50 5*
?*. s*.: 1' 1 57 ? a*. ? 73.? 73.* 65.0 57.0 39.5 74.5 9.7 197*-#- : 7; 56 3*7 120* '76 828 51* 297 59-
Mil 31.7 ! 35.? 3*.* *e .* 55.7 46. | 71 . 72.2 56.3 50.C 3*.7 77.7 6.9 m;-*i * a 54 36* 6*3 111 653
29.* 5 3 5*. 7?.* 77.5 6?.a 53 .a *1.3 33.6 9.7 M*l-*.? - 1? 19 37! 570 99)1071 n MJ 3C6 SSM
IH j-:; ?7.a 33.: *4.6 Si.i t*.- 75.* 7 C 42.5 5?.7 C.O 33.7 *9.7 c *67
Mtr j*.: 2 7.4 I?*.: 5:.2 57.1 a *. 7?.7 73.7 55.7 55.1 3.3 35.0 *9.6
Mat Mar 2*. 3a." 2*. 1-?.? k?.4 *.t *.? 5t.7 5?.6 *..6 t 6 7*.* 69.1 70.6 at.? 65.0 t?.l 52.? 52.5 1.5 *0.5 31.9 26.5 50.5 *9 k Cooling Degree Days
Ma * ?*.7 35.5 l*.-* kr.t 32.: 3. ' 53.9 l.* 71.7 **.l 60.9 51.9 35.7 76.9 ft.* Yeer Jan Feb Marj Apr {May Junej July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total
19 70 3*. 3*.* 3 3.5 *3.7 56.6 6 ? ./Ir 73.9 59.5 *5.9 39.1 33.3 *9.5 196V : r : rj 35 % 1 312 2ft* 6 0 0 0 721
197: z c c z 16 9 ! 222 *6? 0 0 0 0 65!
1971 32.ii 3C.4 3*. ?.* 5*.2 a*.r 70.4 7?.* 57.5 *9 * 39.1 31.9 *9.5
MT? 3:.s 3a.2 **.e *!.! 57.c a 3 t:.? 71.0 6 ? 1 52.1 32.9 7*.9 9.9 1971 z c z n 0 1*9 203 2* * 53 0 0 0 453
MT J 2'.3 31. 39.9 *3.? 55.a *7.5 71.0 73.5 59.9 5*. 5 39.5 31.6 9.9 197? 2 c c c 6 11c 210 207 28 1 0 0 562
197* 2.7 21.? *3.2 *7.* *1.6 4 .* 7*.7 *9.5 59.a 5?.* 38.0 31.7 50.5 1973 c c c 0 2 138 199 ?70 21 1 0 0 631
ItT! 31.7 ** T.! *.l 5*.3 a*.3 72.7 70.1 59.S 53.2 36.6 37.5 99.* 197a c 0 c c 36 176 307 157 39 c 0 0 715
197S C r c 0 3 69 2*6 192 39 5 0 0 55*
197* 3?.3 3*.3 37.1 9.2 5a. 7 *4.3 75.3 70.7 61.6 **.* 39.5 35.5 51.0
MTT 3t.' 3*.9 51.1 a:. 7 7!. 9 7*.3 70.7 66.6 53.3 0.3 35.1 52.5 1976 0 c z c 3 112 32* 176 52 0 0 0 667
M7I 31... *3.3 5*.* a* M 7* .7 *9 .a 65.0 53.1 37.6 *9. 7 197? c c c 2 11 21 * 297 162 93 0 0 0 799
MTV ie.e 3a.; *:.* *9.1 5*.S 65.i 73.7 *9.5 66.3 53.8 33.3 1976 0 0 c C 12 152 301 171 103 2 0 0 7*6
Mar 26.0 3*.l it.: 7.T 57.1 7 9 76.* 73.2 65.6 52.* 1.7 37.2 1979 c 0 c c 2 11 ? 275 163 102 7 0 0 661
I960 0 c s ? 10 22* 358 ?6 3 18 1 0 0 9*4
Mi 1 3.3 36./ *1.2 56.* 57.1 7 r 7S.9 72.C 66.? 5?.6 *5.9 35.1 5* 1
Mr 3C.3 32.' i.i *7.a 55.1 a *.1 72.7 73.1 61.7 *9.0 35.7 19*1 c c c 7 6 195 3*6 ?36 121 1 0 0 912
rcoD sr.e 32. Si.7 *7.6 sa.7 *6.7 72.* 71.3 62.6 51.6 39.4 32.* 50.3 1962 c c 0 c 6 *2 2*7 257 59 0 0 0 611
** I a £.* 51.3 60.3 *9. a 1 6 6 6.6 es.o 77.0 65.5 5?.6 *5.1 63.5
**la 17.3 2*1. !| ri 3*.6 0 5.7.* Si.9 57.a *6.6 37.7 26.6 19.7 37.0
Precipitation Snowfall
Year Jan 1 Febl Mar Apr M.y June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Season July! Aug |Sept[ Oct Nov | Dec | Jan | Feb ' Mar Apr Maypune Total
J C.23 c.:r 0. 3 1.3* 2.96 1.22 0.7? 1.26 0.07 0.77 0.*1 0.37 9.12 19a 3-a* 0.0 o.c c.c 1.0 2.3 3. 12.1 3.3 21.1 23.6 7.7 0.0 61.1
19** i.ee -.25 i 2.M 3.9? 1.73 0.92 3.3* 0. a t 7 0.06 0.5? 0.37 15.5* 19**-*5 0.0 0.0 c.c C.O 5.5 5. 12.2 6.2 3.0 23.0 7 0.0 55.6
Mas 3.70 0 a 9 0.13 2.55 2.C? 2.19 2.55 1.17 0.76 o.*o 0.09 15.39 1995-96 C.O 0.0 T 2.3 3.8 0. 10.2 *6 3.2 7 0.6 0.0 25.7
Mat O.a* 0.27 C.5? 2.09 1.95 c.i? 1 6 P 1.36 1.16 0.86 2.97 0.0* 19.3* 19aa-*T c.c o.c 0.* 3.6 39.1 c. 7.3 12.3 12.0 *.7 1.3 7 61 .6
a Ma 7 0.37 C.tT l.c* l.jr .ai 2.76 1 .5? 1 .27 0.91 3 1 0.73 0.27 19.06 19a 7-a| 0.0 C.O o.c 3.1 6.* 4. 23.7 7. 3 22.0 5.5 T 0.0 7* .*
1 9a i 1 .* o.* 1.71 2.5? i.i* 1 .9* 0. t r 0. 1 0. a 5 0.16 0.65 0.2* 12.62 19*8-99 C.O 0.0 o.c c.i 6.7 *. 20.5 P. * M.2 12.7 T 0.0 60.1
19*9 1.17 C.C3 2.79 1 .** 3.31 * .27 1.35 0.9? 0.28 1 36 0.01 0.33 16.78 19*9-53 c.c C.C 0.0 7.2 C.O 6. 1 8.8 2.9 5.* 9.0 13.6 0.0 52.9
MS? 0.0 0.70 0.31 *" 2.SO 3.32 0.56 0.27 1.56 0.12 1.00 0.3? 13.93 195C-51 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.c 11. 5. 15.7 1 0.5 17.6 12.9 0.0 0.3 7*.6
MSI 0.13 C 71 1 7 2.31 1.76 2 .27 0.63 * 7 0.97 2.16 1.17 0.69 M.*3 1951-52 c.c c.c *.2 7.7 1 5 11. 0.3 in.2 25.2 11.2 7 0.0 6*. 5
MS? 0.01 c.ar 2.1? 2.7* 3.06 0.1? 1 .06 1 .*1 0.5a 0.16 1.31 0.19 13.*3 1952-53 c.c o.c c.c 1.2 1 5 3. 7.* 1 6.5 11.8 12.0 1.7 0.0 66.2
its: 0.39 1.39 1.15 1.2* ?.*6 1 .*6 1 .9* 1.25 0.20 0.** 1.00 1 .02 M.73 1953-5* c.c 0.0 0.0 C.I 7.2 1*. 2.7 0.6 6.3 7.6 2.6 0.0 *1.5
195* 0 ? 3 0.0* C.*9 C.B* 0.60 0.66 1 .99 0.51 0.77 0.06 0.57 0.71 7.51 195*-55 0.0 0.0 c.c P.* 3.9 8. 3.5 1 2.2 19.5 * .9 0.0 0.0 53.C
MSS 0.23 0.15 .... c... 2..T 1 .39 2.99 2.*1 2.7? 0.66 0.56 0.15 16.05 1955-56 C.C C.O C.O *.l 7.3 2. 6.3 1 C.5 13.0 3.7 7 0.0 *7.6
19Sfr 0.3* 0.77 C.i* 0.7? 2.3a 0 .* *.17 1.63 0.01 0.?7 1.25 o.a? 13.72 1956-57 0.0 o.c c.c C.6 21.3 6. 5.3 1.6 8.9 25.5 8.1 0.0 76.3
1 9 S T 0.3? C.73 1.09 *13 7.31 1 .09 1.29 2.03 0 2 2.62 0 9 0.06 71 .56 1957-56 0.0 o.c T 3.9 3.0 0. 1.9 1 2.0 1*.* 1* 1 0.0 0.0 57.1
MS* 0.73 1.::! 1.*! 1.7J 9.*a 1 .*7 3.50 1.17 1.51 0.37 0.7* o.a* 18.80 1958-59 C.O C.O T 2.6 9.7 7. 17.a 1 7.5 26.1 17.6 7 0.0 99.3
1959 1.2* 1.31! 2.13 1.35 3.33 0.** 0.83 o.?s 1.8? 2.*6 o.*o 0 ?6 16.5a 1959-40 C.O 0.0 12.9 11.6 5.3 2. 10.7 1 ft. 3 9.0 9.3 7 0.0 60. C
Mar C.77 1 .eel C.i 2.56 2.27 0.63 1.31 0.06 0.38 2.*6 0.*9 1 .50 1* 98 M6C-61 0.0 0.0 o.c *.t 5.1 17.1 I .0 7.9 29.2 8.6 6.* 0.0 80. i
1961 C.C7 o.tti 2.51 1.26 *.12 1.11 1 .60 1.21 *.67 0.77 0.93 0.30 19.01 1961-62 0.0 0.0 5.8 6.? 11.* 3. 17.2 11.3 6.8 10.0 0.0 0.0 72.5
196? 1.33 1.051 C.52 1.1C O.t* 1 .5? 0.5* o.*a 0.19 0.05 0.66 0.17 8.*5 1962-43 c.c 0.0 C.7 c.c 5.C 1.2 9.1 7.1 11.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 36.!
1963 0.71 0.211 I. *2 C.33 c.ai 3.59 0.55 2.S? 1.25 0.31 0 5 0.51 12.23 1963-6* 0.C 0.0 0.0 1.1 3.5 5. 2.6 1 ?. 7 1 8 .* 12.1 1.0 0.0 57.!
196* 0.26 l.c*: 1.3* 1.25 2.53 0.1? 0.7? 0.27 0.*1 0.18 0.66 o.*o 10.1* 196*-65 0.0 0.0 o.c 6.0 *. 13.2 1 7.1 M .9 0. 3 7 0.0 55.*
1 96 *. 1.30 1.27, 1.2C 1.3! I.i? 9.1* 6.9] 1.06 2.56 0. *5 0.36 0.53 21.87 1965-66 0.0 C.O 5.5 C.C 5.5 5.6 3.6 1 6 2.6 6.* 2.9 0.0 6 *
1 96 6 0.30 1.2* C. 37 1 6 3.3* 1 .*1 1.0* 2.06 1.15 0.96 0.32 0.17 10.81 1966-67 o.c c.c T 6.J 3.0 1. 9.9 *.* 6.6 3.6 3.0 0.0 0.7
1 9a T 0.1* 0.3* C.7 3.9* *.77 .69 3.25 0.63 0.60 1.13 1.01 1.0* 23.31 1 1967-ai 0.0 C.O o.c 1.7 *. 13.: 3.0 7.3 9.2 15.1 7 0.0 58.(
ltai 0.51 C.T.; C.i* 2.J9 0.71 0.50 1.3a 2.53 0.59 0.75 0.71 0.51 12.13 I 1968-69 C.O 0.0 0.0 C.aj 5.8 6. 2.8 *.? 13.2 T 0.0 0.0 33.3
196* 0.17 0 1.1c 1.33 a. 12 2.99 1.81 0.79 1 .67 *.17 0.6? 0.32 21.52 I969-7C C.O 0.0 C.O 31.2 5.1 3. 1 0.9 0.3 20.5 * .7 7 0.0 65.e
197C 0.1c 0.::; 1.3a 0.97 O.a* 3.13 1.67 0.5* 2.*7 0.68 1.19 0.0* 13.73 197C-71 0.0 C.O *.* 5.9 9.2 c. 1.6 11.9 9.6 6.0 7 0.0 56.7
1971 0.35 0.7* r.£3 i .96 1.3* 0 ? 3 1 .2P 0.85 2.85 0.** 0.1a 0.25 10.9a 1 1971 -72, c.c c.c 17.2 3.1 1 .* 8. 10.9 9. 1 7.1 17.2 0.0 0.0 7* .*
1972 C.36 C .** 3.5: 3.3 2 C 9 2 .9* 0.63 2.71 2.07 0.67 1.69 C.70 16.87 1 1972-73. C.O o.c C.O 9.7| 19.* 9. 12.1 3.0 15.1 2* 8 1.0 0.0 9* .9
197! i.Sl 0.16 1.7* 3.7? 5.06 C.2P 2.*7 1.26 2.85 0 7 0.6 3 2.6* 22.9a 1973-7* 0.0 C.O o.c 2.3i 9.3 30. * 8.2 1 P.3 12.1 17.8 0.0 T 91.5
197 a 1.03 c.i: i.:r 2.2* 0.2* 2.01 ?. 3* 0.16 0.96 1.68 1.06 0.29 1 0 3 19T*-7Sj c.c C.O 1 .6 l.C| 11.9 ?. i 3.6 a. 0 1 3 10.9 6.1 0.0 55.'
MTS C.23 0.3* 1.19 l.M 2 ic 2.11 2.7* 2.00 0.?* 0.30 1.66 0 7 15.51
19 7 5-761 C.O C.O c.c 2.71 15.2 7.: 3.2 6.* 18.7 1.2 0.0 0.0 5*.7
1 9 71 C 1 9 C.5* 1.3. 1.27 1.3* 0.63 2.31 2.50 1 88 0.93 0.3? 0. ia 13.91 1976-77, C.O 0.0 C.C 7.7, *.5 3. i 2.* 3.1 9.6 7 0.0 0.0 3*.4
197' 0.16 0.2* 1 2 a 2.1 3 2.3* 1 .0? 2.9* 1.00 0.10 O.a* 0.59 0. c 3 10.3* 1977-78, o.c 0.0 0.0 3.3, I r. 7 5.5 6.? 1.6 * .6 13.5 0.0 *6.5
1976 C.27 c : 1.62 3.*6 1.17 0.5a 0.26 0.07 1.95 0.50 0.6? 11.70 1976 -79, c.c o.c T 2-7! 6.9 1 2 9.1 5.6 18.2 8.1 1.2 0.0 73.:
M7* C.3a 0..: U2! :.*i 3.53 : .39 O.t 1 5.85 C. 36 1 .:* 1.66 1 .C6 70.36 19T9-Cj c.c 0.0 C.C 2.7j ??. J 16*5 12.3 9.6 12.1 10.0 7 0.0 65.*
i ti r O.ea 0.*5 1.1! 2.S* 0 .09 2.93 1.65 0.63 0.10 0.64 0.10 13.67 1 960-61) c.c C.O o.c ! 7.1 1.2 *.l *.3 2* 0 2.9 7 0.0 *5.1
Me i C.2*. C. J* ;.:i 3.7* : .63 0.9" 1.16 0.35 0.79 0.*? 0.6* 12.59 itii-s: c.c C.O C.O 3.3 . 9 a 8 1.8 2.1 2.0 7 0.0 26.'
ms: 0.3 ?| c.r* C.lf 3.3* 2 .26 0.9? 1.16 1.38 1.51 0 7 2.3* M.95 1962-83: c.cj o.r c.r. 1.2} 1.6 27. ]
sre^st tcc*r 1 1
lav | C.a7j 0.S' 1.1: 1.9 * 2M2 l .*9 1 .* 1.*? 1.10 1 .CO 0.67 0.63 1 55 **t ia | ci C.C 1 1.6 - 7.6 7.0 7.9 7.5 12.1 1.6 7 5*.l
lnc:c*tfK < utiui move or relocation of in(trunra(. station Locsticxi tsbi* .
Kfcorc r* an value s above an- means through the currant year for the period beginning ir. 1672 for temperature and precipitation, 1935 for snowfall. Temperature and precipitation are frerr Citv Office locations through 193-*. Heating degree days are from Citv Office locations through Ji*re 1939. Snowfall if from City Office locations through Jvaie 193-. Otherwise the data are from Airport locations.


90'
40 NL
attitude angles


Bi bliography
1. ASHRAE (1976) Climate Data for Air Conditioning Design Rocky Mountain Chapter Region Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Environs, First Edition.
2. Community Resource Development, County Information Service, Cooperative Extension Service, Colorado State University, 1974, Denver County, Colorado, Office of the Director, Community Resource Development, Ft. Collins, Colorado.
3. Koenigsberger, O.H., Ingersoll, T.A., Mayhew, A., Szokolay, S.V., 1974, Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part One: Climatic Design, Longman; London.
4. McGuinness, Stein, Reynolds, 1980, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, Sixth Edition, John Wiley & Sons; New York.
5. Ruffner, J.A., 1974, The Weather Almanac, Book Tower; Detroit.
6. Szokolay, S.V., 1980, Environmental Science Handbook.
7. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1980, Climates of the States, Second Edition, Volume 1, Book Tower; Detroit.
8. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1980, Climatological Data National Summary, Volume 31, Number 13, National Climatic Center; Asheville, NC.
9. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1981, Climatological Data Annual Summary, Volume 86, Number 13, National Climatic Center; Asheville, NC.



PROGRAM


Buyer Profile
Because there is no specific client or group for which my condominium project is to be designed, it was necessary to seek out a definition for the type of buyer which would eventually live in this complex. As is common with speculative developments, this information can be obtained and compiled in a market study. A market study should involve an assessment of trends in lifestyles in the area and in the nation; it should also study the market competition which will exist when sales are made. Important information would be local and regional demographics, comparative sales values of similar projects, and comparative sales success of projects in the immediate market area.
Through my own research of the condominium/townhouse market in Den|er--a study concentrated primarily in the Cherry Creek area which is considered the site's secondary marketand by reviewing a feasibility study for housing at the site, the following information was obtained.
The density restrictions of the historic site require a limited number of units be constructed, maybe fifteen at the most. Land cost is about $1,000,000. As such, unit prices will probably be high in order to make the project economically feasible. This will place unit prices in a $200,000 price range, a range which does have potential in the Denver market.
A buyer able to afford housing in this price range generally has several options available in the current real estate market. The higher density


of q condominium project will seldom appeal to families with
The
mobi
are
chi 1 dren.
Generally, adult-only households will be interested in this arrangement.
advantages they see in this type of housing are high security,
freedom from upkeep, smaller living spaces to care for, and ease of
lity. The specific advantages the Bonfils Mansion site has to offer architectural uniqueness, historical and social prestige, close
proximity to downtown work, shopping, entertainment and cultural events,
and
Club
close proximity to Cherry Creek shopping and the Denver Country
trel
fa
Typi two-un affo whose to thei with impo featu recr green be! o
gathe main 1 i v i
cal buyers of this type of housing will be young single or person professional households of ages 25 to 40. Sometimes two ated singles will jointly purchase a property that neither could rd alone. Other buyers might be empty nesters between 45 and 60 children have moved away from home. Incomes in Denver which tend vor higher-end housing typically belong to older professionals in r fifties. The buyers described typically favor simple floor plans ample space. The convenience of secure underground parking is also rtant. Luxury image, easy access, light, and views are important res. Older people will want single-floor units. Excessive eational or community features are not as desirable as accessible space. Most people able to afford this type of unit already ng to social clubs and organizations which offer them recreation and ring spaces. Consequently, the additional monthly cost of taining these facilities can be a negative factor in overall monthly ng costs. This is especially true when clubs and organizations are
within close proximity to the home.


Prog
ram
Specific Requirements
707 Washington
The existing Bonfils Mansion will remain a single dwelling in order to maintain its historic integrity. The servants' wing, added in the late 1920's, will be removed, leaving a structure of approximately 7500 square feet, not including the basement of 3355 square feet.
Restoration, repairs, and improved weather proofing would be required on this structure.
The interior garden should be maintained, trimmed, and restored. This historic area with its fountain will be used as a common greenspace. Plantings should be natural material, orderly arranged as is historically correct.
700 Pearl
Complete demolition of this structure. Its state of disrepair makes restoration difficult and costly. The house, though interesting, is not an exceptional architectural example and has no specific historical value. Consequently, historic designation and tax credits cannot be obtained for it.


New
Construction
Provide fifteen condominium units maximum. These will consist of the fo lowing:
Five one-bedroom units with loft or den
Spaces
Li vi ng Di ni ng
Kitchen with Nook Den
Bedroom Baths (2)
Entry Laundry Closet Space Ci rculation
Five two-bedroom units
Spaces
Li vi ng Di ni ng
Kitchen with Nook
Master Bedroom
Bedroom
Baths (2 1/2)
Entry
Laundry
Closet Space
Ci rculation
Square Feet
270
140
200
120
170
150
100
50
150
150
1500 x 5 = 7500 total
Square Feet
270
140
200
180
160
200
100
50
200
150
1650 x 5 = 8250 total


Five two-bedroom units with den
Spaces
Square Feet
Li vi ng Di ni ng
270
140
200
150
180
160
200
100
50
200
150
Kitchen with Nook Den
Master Bedroom Bedroom
Baths (2 1/2) Entry Laundry Closet Space Ci rculati on
1800 x 5 = 9000 total
Thebuilding image should be residential-mansion in character. Color, materials, construction, and style should complement the Bonfils Mansion. The scale should also be compatible with the original house.
In this case, three to four stories of structure should be a maximum.
All units should have a minimum of 50 square feet of balcony or patio space. Privacy and security from the street should be maintained in each unit. One third to one half of the units should be single level as stairs are generally not a desirable feature to more mature buyers.
Floor plans should be well organized with functionally different spaces and activity areas clearly delineated.
Special attention should be paid to light, apartment access, views, and interior spaciousness. The kitchen and nook should function as an intimate entertainment area, while the dining room is generally reserved for more formal entertaining. The living room should work well with both areas. The master bedroom should be a suite of rooms allowing
space for dressing and sitting areas. Baths should be elegant with


qua!
ity tile, double sinks, step tubs, and steam showers. Studies
should have the option of working as a home office or guest room. Most residents will have a typical eight to five work week. Special interior features should include hardwood floors, wood paneling, natural wood trim, special mouldings, top quality hardware, built-ins, and stained and leaded glass.
Provide common space for entry, lobby and circulation.
Acce
shou
i nvi
afte
shoul
gard
possi
with
prox
un
Spaces
Foyer
Lobby
Manager's Office Ci rculation
Total New Living Space =
Square Feet
100
500
100
2300
3000
27,750 square feet
ss to condominium units will be interior. A passenger drop off Id be provided at the curb. Circulation should be secure and ting. An open, luxurious lobby should greet occupants and visitors r passing through the front doors and security foyer. This area d serve as a waiting space as well as common access to the interior en. Hallways should be wider then regulation and lit by windows if ible. Units should have some type of individual identity expressed in the hallways. The manager's office should be located in close imity to the lobby. *
* Provide parking and mechanical and waste disposal space for all
its.
Spaces
Square Feet
6400
200
60
Parking for 25 Cars Mechani cal Waste Disposal
6660


Parking will be interior, underground, and secure. This will reduce the visual impact on the site and further the complex's luxury image.
Direct interior access should take building occupants from their parking space to their units. Back elevators or stairs should be avoided. An average of 1.5 parking spaces will be provided per unit. Two spaces will be provided for the Bonfils Mansion unit. The mechanical space will serve as a utility space for all the new construction. Waste disposal should be easily accessed by all units, yet shielded from view by owners, visitors and passers by. Waste disposal should be easily accessed by collection truck.
* Pn r
ovide additional amenities if possible. These might include a ooftop sun deck with hot tub, additional storage space for units, and
a
community room for parties or exercise equipment.


views
TO
MOUMTA IMS AMD
CITY g
jfpOOR
SPACE-
"Che. Complex
TU^_
AVEMOE-
S
-fU£ Klft&USOftJtoD


Views


HISTORIC PRESERVATION


Guide!ines
The Secretary of the Interior is responsible for establishing all regulations and administration for the preservation of properties listed in or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Certified historic preservation has a very strict set of standards which must be adhered to in any rehabilitation project. These standards are important to epsure that historical work is properly identified and preserved.
These standards are also the criteria a project must meet in order to take advantage of investment tax credits from the government. These credits are available under the Tax Reform Act of 1976, the Revenue Act of 1978, and the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, but they are not necessarily the same as tax deductions for preservation easements. In order for rehabilitation work to qualify for the investment tax credits, the Secretary of the Interior is required by law to certify that a project is "consistent with the historic character of the structure or the district in which it is located" as well as to ascertain that the historic character of a building is preserved in the process of rehabilitation. Evaluation of a project will be done by qualified historic preservation professionals who can be contacted through the State Historical Society, Historic Denver, Inc., or the National Park Service. These professionals will help determine which particular property's materials and features are important in defining its historic character and what the potential impact will be from work needed to make a rehabilitation suitable for efficient contemporary use. The following are the criteria obtained from the Standards for Rehabilitation provided by the National Park Service.


Rehab i1itation.
Rehabilitation" is defined as the process of returning
a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an efficient contemporary use whilp preserving those portions and features of the property which are significant to its historic, architectural, and cultural values.
The
Standards for Rehabilitation are as follows:
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for a property which requires minimal alteration of the building, structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2.
The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when possible.
3.
All buildings, structures, and sites shall be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations that have no historical basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance shall be discouraged.
4.
Changes which may have taken place in the course of time are evidence of the history and development of a building, structure, or site and its environment. These changes may have acquired


significance in their own right, and this significance shall be recognized and respected.
5.
Distinctive stylistic features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize a building, structure, or site shall be treated with sensitivity.
6.
Deteriorated architectural features shall be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of features, substantiated by historic, physical, or pictorial evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural elements from other buildings or structures.
7.
The surface cleaning of structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Sandblasting and other cleaning methods that will damage the historic building materials shall not be undertaken.
8.
Every reasonable effort shall be made to protect and preserve archeological resources affected by, or adjacent to any project.
9.
Contemporary design for alterations and additions to existing properties shall not be discouraged when such alterations and


additions do not destroy significant historical, architectural or cultural material, and such design is compatible with the size, scale, color, material, and character of the property, neighborhood or environment.
10. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to structures shall be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were to be removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unimpaired.
In addition to and accompanying these standards, there is a set of guidelines issued by the National Park Service which is intended to offer general design and technical recommendations for specific types of problems, work, and materials encountered in rehabilitating historic buildings. These are meant to provide a model process for owners, developers, and federal agency managers to follow. They are a handy reference and should be consulted in the Standards handbook for any historic preservation project.
For the Bonfils Mansion rehabilitation it has been determined that the south, east and west facades of the building must be maintained as well as the interior garden. The home is considered a noteworthy example of turn-of-the-century urban mansions built on small lots with an integrally designed, formal, walled garden to the back of the house.
The French Mediterranean architectural style is unique to Denver. From this evaluation, the structures and spaces composing and complementing these features are mandatory for and integral to the rehabilitation


process. Surprisingly, no restrictions have been placed on the interior division of spaces, though their architectural detailing was to be maintained.


Tax Program
Besides preservation security, rehabilitation projects and their costs can have definite financial advantages to an owner or developer. Tax incentives can make historic preservation a viable alternative to demolition and subsequent new construction. In order to take advantage of investment tax credits on rehabilitation work, a project must have the ultimate approval of the Secretary of the Interior as a certified rehabilitation as previously mentioned, and the IRS must then be notified of the project's status by the Secretary. The project must also be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, or it must be located in a National Register Historic District in order to be certified. Such a designation is also required in order to take advantage of tax credits from a preservation easement. The Bonfils Mansion gained a listing on the National Register of Historic places in 1974 against the wishes of its owner at the time, Mike Davis. This process was conducted independently of the owner by the State Historical Society and was protested by his 1awyer--later the listing realtor for the property--Stephen L.R. McNichols.
The immediate tax programs applicable to this project would be the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, which allows a 25 percent credit on certified historic structures for qualified rehabilitation expenditures, and the tax credits from facade and open space easements.
Facade, preservation, and open space easements benefit a donor because the value of that easement, as determined by qualified appraisal, may be


deducted from federal income tax as a charitable gift. The value of easements are established as the difference between the property's market value before and after the easements are created. The difference is primarily a result of the changes to the property's highest density use because the easements are permanent and cannot be relinquished with changes in property owners. The easements are given in perpetuity to a non-profit organization set up to supervise the ongoing maintenance of the property. The organization best prepared to receive and administer facade easements in Colorado is the Colorado Historical Foundation, an affiliate of the Colorado Historical Society. Historic Denver, Inc. is also qualified to receive easements.
Tax benefits for an historic easement can be maximized by planning a gift schedule in advance. The value of a contribution may be taken in one year or carried forward over a five-year period. In this way, easements may be given in one year to take advantage of a sales opportunity while postponing the deduction until the following year. Taxes affected by a preservative easement include Federal Income Tax, Federal Gift Tax, Federal Estate Tax, State Income Tax, and Property Taxes. Property taxes can be reduced through an easement because fair market assessed value is decreased.
The value of an easement will vary from building to building. For example, the Oxford Hotel facade was appraised at approximately 25 percent of the total value and a deduction of $3,000,000 was taken. The contribution was reviewed by the Internal Revenue Service during three separate audits and no adjustment was suggested. For the Bonfils


Mansion, the value of the easement would be about one to two million
dol
con
st
to
ti
A p bui sti as por Gene the from site to are
ars. The property owners of the recent development felt this ituted about half a million dollars in direct tax benefits.
reservation easement will ensure the historical character of a ding is maintained, but it does have some flexibility. The donor 1 owns and maintains the building. He is free to make all decisions the use and sale of the building as well as to alterations of the ions of the structure and property not included in the easement, rally, the limitations are that the portions of property covered by easement may not be substantially changed without written consent the donor. This most likely prevents further development of the or demolition of the structure. The point of the easement is not prohibit changes to the building, but to make certain that changes compatible with the historical integrity of the building.


DESIGN SOLUTION


PHYSICAL FACTORS


PROJECT SUMMARY


Project Description
A mylti-family residential project providing fourteen units to be sold as condominiums. Approximately 30,000 SF of new living space will be provided. Twenty-eight parking spaces will be provided on two levels. This equals about 9,600 SF of parking. Garage entrances will be located on Seventh Avenue and Pearl Street. The new building will consist of seven levels total. There will be five floor levels of living space and two levels of parking. Parking levels will be partially underground and dug into the hillside of the site. The Bonfils Mansion will be retained as is with the servants wing on the west side removed. Garage structures for the mansion will be demolished with a replacement garage added as part of the new construction. Garden structures complementary to the Bonfils Mansion will be retained and rehabilitated. The house and garage at 700 Pearl Street will be demolished and replaced with the newly constructed condominiums.


CIVIL ENGINEERING


Utility Connections
All
utilities will be accessed form Pearl Street. The 6-inch water line will be tapped in Pearl Street as shown in order to bring water to the building. Sewage will be collected in one pipe under the ground floor of the parking garage where it will leave the building at its southwest corner. From this point, the 8-inch sanitary sewer in Pearl Street will be tapped just before reaching the manhole at the intersection of Seventh Avenue and Pearl Street. The line has excess capacity according to City Engineer and should have no trouble handling 13 more living units. Because the depth of the line is nearly 10 feet below street grade, positive gravity flow should easily drain the pipe. The storm sewer will be accessed in Pearl Street as previously mentioned. Its 10-foot depth below curb flowline should make it possible to gravity drain the on-site storm sewer pipes. The 4-inch gas line found six feet below street grade in Pearl Street will adequately supply the condominium units' needs. A pipe will be run from Pearl Street into the west side of the building. From there it will drop vertically to the first level garage ceiling following it into the basement boiler room. Electric lines can be accessed at the connection point at the southeast corner of Pearl Street and Seventh Avenue. A small cut in the asphalt of Seventh Avenue would be required to bring the line over to the building where it would enter the building on its southwest corner. An overhead Mountain Bell line on the west side of Pearl Street would provide phone service to the building by connecting to the line and
bringing the service line into the west side of the building.


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Site Detention
Rainfall detention for the site will be required as only 1 cfs per acre can be released in Denver. The maximum intensity 100-year storm for the site occurs at 30 minutes and requires just over 2000 cf of detention. Roof gutters will collect rainfall from the roof areas and direct it to one of three locations. These will be on the two-car garage roof/terrace, the roof/sundeck on the condominium building, and the garden area between the condominiums and the house. Site drainage from the back driveway and garden area will also be collected in the garden. These three locations will collect 242 cf, 384 cf and 1411 cf, respectively. Drain pipes with orifices sized to release a 0.1 cfs flow rate will connect via a small storm sewer constructed on-site to the public storm sewer in Pearl Street. The public storm sewer should have no trouble handling the released capacity from the site as no detention facilities were included in the original site landscaping and surface areas were scarcely increased in the redevelopment project, ff from the front yard of the Bonfils Mansion and the 5-foot strip of grass outside the site retaining walls along Seventh Avenue will be released as free flow to the street gutter where it will reach the storm sewer through the inlet at Seventh Avenue and Pearl Street. By sloping drives, walks and grassed areas away from the building, the natural nage of the hillside should prevent any ponding of water.
hard
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Calculate, Q fo/Rthe. too-'in stor.^ s/ttl
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&UIL.DIMG* ROOFS |2 296 SF 6. 26 Ac. o_ OSS
Eo/Jo^erE 4 176 5P OilO Ac. 0.16
LAn/M lo 019 SF 0. Z2> +o_ 0.35
ze(.e>s) 4- 0.1 r.96)+. ,z%C.3e) CC o.b i 6-61 a< 0.68 TOTAL.
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a
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2,90
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D5W
Date:
By:
Project: | jEFFELSon LctAoouS
D(i ________^v.g f <-r---
I2juu
Conference Report
Project Notes
Memorandum
1
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D J (C (A T \3 .j |W> t^X'UOT.
DESIGN STL I DOS WEST INC
PLinnmi; F.nmncirm^ l .iml-.i'Jiv Ardmtcmrc 1440 Blake Street, Suite .ithl I u mvt. n..i >'2
vKYS


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SasE- cc&r $65.36/5F Totac. sf 29/6/
AVERA^E. F^arfRlMr £ 2(7in)<-7fc44f-4332+-2o2 ftjEAA(' REMI/YIETER C 2(5T7)<- 2 (HV70) 1-426+- 24>+44)] 4 S 52>|
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4 2, 092. ,275
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BASE CO^T # 41 '5/ TOTAL 6F 15620 /SF
A\/E£A£=£ footprint teco
AMETER. 3Z7
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COMTlM 6£fJC(ES XI-1 4 44-64 /6F
x 13550
4 606,485
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SoD 7400 sf **2,00
1'R£ES IS *&50.00
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Fart# removal. ^7 (57,^0 cr) $ |.so cy
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"fOTrtL- COST 51 $/f,l(aL&13
Mz&A&F coer pgp. uOi#J6 Mir* 4l(p|69^ = $£17,400


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING


Structural System
The structural system used for this building is entirely concrete. Lightweight roof slabs, two-way floor slabs, columns, grade beams, and drilled piers are all made of concrete. Concrete was the most appropriate material capable of handling the large live loads of the parking garage as well as meeting the requirements of fireproofing for the entire building. Because the building is seven stories, a Type I construction became necessary. Concrete efficiently meets the fireproofing for structural members in this type construction as well as offering a good deal of soundproofing. Concrete also offered a lower priced construction than steel for this type of building according to the Marshall Valuation Service. Keeping the structural system of the building homogeneous will also reduce expansion/contraction stresses between materials. Exterior walls and interior partitions are all non-bearing and are constructed of steel stud framing with gypsum board coverings. The exterior walls are further covered with metal lath and studcoing. Drilled piles of concrete found the entire load to bedrock. Beams were eliminated in the floor slabs by going to a two-way, flat-plate slab system. These floor slabs also act as rigid diaphragms and carry lateral loads to the elevator shaft, thereby reducing the structural requirements of the columns.


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Flexure 1.2Coefficients for rectangular sections without compression reinforcement A-cx Oltimave srRETj^rft de^Uoaj aids aci sp I7-7S
p = 1L OJ-f = Ty h Ku = CJ
c : : I IQ u au = f y ( 1
d A Mu
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a
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A, in square inches and Mu is in ft kips
fc
4,000
(it Ku fy= 40,000 fy<= 50,000 fy= 60,000 fy = 80,000 C/. % iu
P au P au P au P au 'd
.020 71 .0020 2.96 .0016 3.71 .0013 4.45 .0010 5.93 .028 .024 .988
.030 106 .0030 2.95 .0024 3.6? .0020 4.41 .0015 5.89 .042 .035 .982
.040 141 .0040 2.93 .0032 3.66 .0027' 4.39 ,0020 5.86 .056 .047 .976
.050 175 .0050 2.91 .0040 3.64 .0033 4.37 .0025 5.82 .069 .059 .971
.060 208 .0060 2.89 .0048 3.62 .0040 4.34 .0030 5.79 .083 .071 .965
.070 242,/ .0070 2.88 .0056 3.60 .0047 4.31 .0035 5.75 .097 .083 .959
.080 274 .0080 2.86 .0064 3.57 .0053 4.29 .0040 5.72 .111 .094 .953
.090 307 .0090 2.84 .0072 3.55 .0060 4.26 .0045 5.68 .125 .106 .947
.100 339 .0100 2.82 .0080 3.53 .0067 4.23 .0050 5.65 .139 .118 .941
.110 370 .0110 2.81 .0088 3.51 .0073 4.21 .0055 5.61 .153 .130 .935
.120 401 .0120 2.79 10096 3.48 .0080 4.18 .0060 5.58 .167 .142 .529
.130 432 .0130 2.77 .0104 3.46 .0087 4.15 .0065 5.54 .180 .153 .923
.140 462 .0140 2.75 .0112 3.44 .0093 4.13 .0070 5.50 .194 .165 .917
.150 492 .0150 2.73 .0120 3.42 .0100 4.10 .0075 5.47 .208 .177 .912
.160 522 .0160 2.72 .0128 3.40 .0107 4.08 .0080 5.43 .222 .189 .906
.170 551 .0170 2.70 .0136 3.37 .0113 4.05 .0085 5.40 .236 .201 '-C o Q \
TTStT "579' . 0T8CT T768 .0144' 3.35 70120 4.02 .0090 5.36 .250 .212 .894
.190 607 .0190 2.66 .0152 3.33 .0127 4.00 .0095 5.33 .264 .224 .888
.200 635 .0200 2.65 .0160 3.31 .0133 3.97 .0100 5.29 .278 .236 .882
.210 662 .0210 2.63 .0168 3.29 .0140 3.94 .0105 5.26 .292 .248 .876
.220 689 .0220 2.61 .0176 3.26 .0147 3.92 .0110 5.22 .305 .260 .870
.230 716 .0230 2.59 .0184 3.24 .0153 3.89 .0115 5.19 .319 .271 .864
.240 742 .0240 2.58 .0192 3.22 .0160 3.86 .0120 5.15 .333 .283 .858
.250 767 .0250 2.56 .0200 3.20 .0167 3.84 .0125 5.12 .347 .295 .853
.260 792 .0260 2.54 .0208 3.17 .0173 3.81 .0130 5.08 .361 .307 .847
.2 70 817 .0270 2.52 .0216 3.15 .0180 3.78 .0135 5.04 .375 .319 .841
.280 841 .0280 2.50 .0224 3.13 .0187 3.76 .0140 5.0i . .389 .330 .835
.290 865 .0290 2.49 .0232 3.11 .0193 3.73 .403 .342 .829
.300 889 .0300 2.47 .0240 3.09 .0200 3.70 .416 .354 .823
.310 912 .0310 2.45 .0248 3.06 .0207 3.68 .430 .366 .817
.320 935 .0320 2.43 .0256 3.04 .0213 3.65 .444 .378 .811
.330 957 .0330 2.42 .0264 3.02 .458 .389 .805
.340 978 .0340 2.40 .0272 3.00 .472 .401 .799
.350 1000 .0350 2.38 .486 .413 .794
.360 1021 .0360 2.36 .500 .425 .788
.370 1041 .0370 2.35 .514 .437 .782
1. When hf / d a/d, beam Is designed as rectangular section; when hf / d ^a/d, Is designed as a T section
(See Flexure 2).
2. Values of p above upper solid line are for percentages smaller than p min., p min. 200/fy, See section 10.5, ACI 318-71.
3. Values of p below lower solid line would exceed p max. =* 0.75 Pfa. For values of pmax iee values of (Pw 0.75 pf) max. in Flexure 2. See Section 10.3.2. ACI 318-71.
4. For deflection see Section 9.5 ACI 318-71 and "Deflection" chapter In this handbook.
5. Check for Crack Control where fy ^>40,000 See Section 10.6. ACI 318-71 and under chapter "Reinforcement" In this handbook.
6. The capacity reduction factor 0 =* 0.9 has been Included In the table values.
7. For use of this Table, see Flexure Examples 1 to 10, 15, 16
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; i' x 10"
im ical in 4 faces
0.10f'cA = 40 kip<>
For <|>P at 1
Ci icily OT(,) Balance 40 k <> o,
= 0) Pu (k) l>Mn lk-: ft.)
20' 24 28 (in.) (in.) (in.)
0 0 0 0 0 1.83 4 76 86 7.89 21
0 0 0 0 0 1.90 5j60 81 9.29 28
0 0 0 0 0 1.96 678 75 10.98 36
3 0 0 0 0 2.01 8,47 67 12.86 44'
1 0 0 0 0 2.05 10 94 57 14.82 53
7 3 0 0 0 2.08 15|82 44 17.30 65
8 4 0 0 0 2.07 36,44 20 17.97 73 |
0 0 0 0 0 1.78 3*97 79 10.55 37
2 0 0 0 0 1.82 A 67 70 12.59
1 0 0 0 0 1.85 1052 59 15.06
8 14 0 0 1.87| 16104 44 17.70 70
12" X 12"
0.10rc Au = 57 kips
0 o| 0 0 0 2.10 5 .61 134 9.79 37
0 0 0 0 0 2.19 6 .42 129 11.36 43
5 0 0 0 0 2.27 7 .45 124 13.21 60
7 0 0 0 0 2.35 E .67 118 15.19 73
2 i5 0 0 0 2.43 10.46 109 17.66 89.
>0 -3 0 0 0 2.49. 13.25 91 19.71 103
6 d9; 72 601 0 2.57| 23.58 62 25.22 13?
0 i 0 0 0 2.00 .78 134 11.25 50
.5 0 0 0 0 2.07 .83 128 13.31 67
8 0 0 0 0 2.13 .24 121 15.77 86
'2 67 0 Oi 0 2.181 10.17 112 18.50 103
17 78 61 oj 0, 2.23 1 i.77 101 21.45 122
9 ?iL 72 59 0 2.27 17f.26 85 24.87 144
1< X 14"
i.lAf'c A = 78 kips
_ 1 J "
0 0 0 0. 2.37 1.52 191 11.74 59
0 0 0 0 2.47 1.32 188 13.49 75
0 0 0 0, 2.57 3.24 183 15.38 92
89 0 0 Oi 2.68 ?.48 177 17.77 114
102 0 0 O' 2.78 11.00 164 19.92 133
34 103 83 0 2.94 1 5.18 143 25.33 182
0 0 0 0 2.18 5.94 195 11.81 62
0 0 0 0| 2.26 5.77 192 13.89 84
80 0 0 0! 2.35 7.82 188 16.25 110
75 0 0 0 2.43 ?.13 182 18.94 140
10 86 0 0 2.50 1 3.67 175 21.79 166
129 101 83 0 2.57 1 2.86 165 25.32 197
144 113 V3 79] 2.63 1 5.25 142 28.24 222

f* j page 2-11.
"Typical Interaction Curve", Fip. 3-11, page 3-18. siH Splices carry design compression only.
3-21
Bars Grade 60 SQUARE Short columns; no TIED COLUMNS 16" X 16' sidesway ^ Bars symmetrical in 4 face 0.10 t'cA For = 102 kips P at 121 <*)
Concrete
i'c = 4,000 Pn (kips)Ultimate Usable Capacity 102
Pii OT(1> Balance k <> o<2>
0.80 e 0.80 M/P = e (in.) [ = 0.70) 4>M

P Bars % (k) Po (in.) 2" 3 4" 6' 8" 12" 16' 20" 24' 28' (in.) (in.) (k) (in.) ft.)
4*8 1.23 587 1.59 553 476 408 307 235 126 0 0 0 0 2.63 7.46 257 13.78 91
4*9 1.56 614 1.58 578 499 430 327 261 150 0 0 0 0 2.74 8.23 255 15.54 112
4*10 1.98 648 1.56 609 527 456 351 283 177 118 0 0 0 2.87 9.24 252 17.80 138
4*11 2.44 685 1.51 640 554 481 372 300 199 135 0 0 0 3.01 10.38 241 19.85 163
4*14 3.52 773 1.46 717 623 543 425 346 246 179 135 108 0 3.22 13.25 226 25.15 225
4*18 6.25 994 1.33 907 789 691 547 444 318 248 203 170 142 3.54 23.05 178 37.76 367
8*6 1.37 599 1.50 554 472 400 296 220 128 0 0 o 0 2.43 6.95 261 14.36 101
8*7 1.87 639 1.46 589 503 429 322 253 153 107 0 0 0 2.53 7.84 259 16.67 133
8-48 2.47 688 1.42 630 538 461 350 280 179 127 0 0 0 2.63 8.91 2 56 19.35 170
8*9 3.13 74! 1.38 674 578 496 379 306 207 147 114 0 0 2.72 10.09 253 22.10 209
O 4* co 3.97 809 1.34 732 627 540 415 337 240 172 134 109 0 2.82 11.66 248 25.58 255
8*11 4.87 883 1.27 789 675 581 448 364 259 193 150 123 104 2.91 13.68 231 28.53 288
8-414 7.03 1058 1.19 931 795 685 531 435 310 240 194 159 135 3.04 18.99 205 36.47 376
12*10 5.95 970 1.26 865 739 636 492 399 289 222 175 144 j 123 2.89 15.01 238 33.40 344
12*11 7.31 1081 1.20 950 809 696 538 436 314 243 196 162 138 2.96 18.53 213 37.28 393
SQUARE TIED COLUMNS 18" X 18" 0.10I'c A j 129 kips
4*9 1.23 744 1.81 726 637 557 430 344 199 0 o o| o 2.90 8.40 330 15.76 131
4-410 1.57 778 1.80 758 667 586 457 369 233 152 0 0 0 3.03 9.30 328 17.88 162
4*11 1.93 815 1.77 791 697 613 481 391 262 175 0 0 0 3.19 10.25 322 19.90 193
4*14 2.78 902 1.72 872 771 681 541 445 326 230 171 136 0 3.44 12.56 314 24.96 267
4*18 4.94 1124 1.60 1072 951 844 680 565 419 329 267 215 179 3.86 19.29 279 37.14 442
8*6 1.09 728 1.73 702 610 526 395 298 172 0 0 0 0 2.59 7.21 338 14.64 118
8-47 1.48 769 1.69 738 643 557 424 336 203 140 o 0 0 2.70 8.01 336 17.10 156
CO CO 1.95 817 1.66 781 681 593 456 366 236 165 0 0, 0 2.81 8.96 334 19.63 200
8-49 2.47 870 1.62 828 723 631 489 396 270 191 147 0 0 2.91 10.01 331 22.37 247
8*10 3.14 939 1.58 888 776 679 531 432 308 222 171 !39j 0 3.03 11.36 327 25.66 306
8-411 3.85 1012 1.52 950 829 725 568 465 338 249 193 157] 133 3.15 12.84 319 28.63 361
8 414 5.56 1187 1.43 1102 961 841 664 544 401 315 247 203 171 3.32 16.52 306 36.33 470
12*10 4.70 1100 1.51 1030 898 786 618 504 368 282 223 183 156 3.13 14.13 321 33.43 416
12*11 5.78 1210 1.45 1122 976 853 671 549 40 i 316 251 206 175 3.23 16.39 309 37.50 485
16*10 6.27 1261 1.46 1175 1023 896 706 579 425 335 270 224 191 3^ 16.82 321 40.78 527
(1) See "Slender Columns, Capacity Reduction for", page 2-1 1.
(2) See "Control Points for Interaction Curves"; "Typical Interaction Curve", Fig. 3-11, page 3-18.
(3) "OT" is zero tension in bars on the tension side. Splices carry design compression only.
ill STEEL INSTITUTE
CONCRETE REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE


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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Mechanical Engineering
General
The layout of the site allows maximum solar advantage. Less than one quarter of the units have no direct southern exposure, and those units are provided with western exposure. Thus, all units should have ample views and sunlight. Trees are planted on the east, west, and south side of the building to help shield the summer sun while roof overhangs provide protection for the upper floor windows. Balconies project over the largest glazed openings of French doors in nearly each unit, while trellises are utilized over patios on the garden level. Entrances to the ouilding are located on the east, south, and west elevations in order that public circulation areas receive direct sunlight, thus keeping them free from ice and snow build-up. The main building entrance and the garden are both oriented to the south in order to take advantage of predominant southern breezes while being sheltered from severe northern winds.
Condominium units have at least two outside exposures to maximize the potential for light and cross ventilation. Units also share common walls, thus reducing the total amount of building envelope exposed and minimizing building heat losses. No major expanses of glass are found in the building, and all windows and doors would be double glazed. Exterior walls have six inches of batt insulation in order to reduce heat losses.


Heati ng
Heat will be provided for the building in two zones. One zone will deal with the parking garages. A second zone will handle the apartment spaces, halls, and lobbies. Parking garages will be heated by gas-fired, tube-type, infrared heating units. Three of these units will be provided for each parking level. An exhaust duct will connect the three units to a flue which vents out the roof of the building. These units provide efficiency by heating only the massive objects in the parking garages while eliminating the need for warming the air which must be circulated through the garages. Heat for the public spaces and condominium units will be provided by a gas-fired boiler located in the mechanical room in the first level of the building. Circulation will be provided by a two-pipe pumped system consisting of a hot supply loop and a hot return loop. Each unit will be designed as an individual thermal zone having its own thermostat. This thermostat will be connected to a centrally located fan coil unit. The fan coil until will blow warmed air through ducts to each room within a condominium. Grilles on the ducts will further provide adjusting for heat control. Perimeter baseboard heat elements (fin-tube radiation) will offset heat loss through exterior walls. For cost-effective billing, a BTU meter will be provided on the water line to each unit to determine the amount of heading water a unit is using. Public spaces will be heated solely by
fin-ftube radiation on or near exterior walls.


doiLEiZ Room im Fl R.6T lEV£L-
HEATING


Conditioni ng
Ai r
Living space will be provided with air conditioning. This system will consist of a 60-ton chiller with a fan coil heat rejection unit and pump circulating chilled water through a continuous loop. Each condominium will have its own individual loop drawing water to its centrally located fan coil unit. This unit will chill air which will be blown through the ductwork to each room within the condominium. A thermostat and grilles on the ducts will allow individual adjustments for temperature. For cost-effective billing, a BTU meter for measuring cooling water will be attached to the water line to each unit. The chiller, pump, and heat rejection unit will be located in the mechanical room at the top of the tower. This location provides ample floor space for all equipment while minimizing the visual impact of the system.


DNIIOOD
ViV zcigj.0(7


Ventilation
The parking garages are provided with mechanical ventilating systems rated at 1.5 cfm/SF. These systems draw air through electronically monitored louvers on the south side of the building and exhaust air through electronically coordinated fans and louvers on the west side of the building. The louvers and exhaust fans will run on a carbon monoxide sensing system. The ventilating system does not need to warm air in the winter due to the use of the infrared heaters. The louvers areilocated to maximize cross ventilation. They exhaust air to the west; predominant southern winds should not carry this exhaust toward any nearby intake vents as there are none in nearby buildings. The air conditioning system has its own air intake and exhaust vents located in the top floor of the tower. The square footage of louvered openings should be adequate for the 60-ton chiller. The location of this system in the tower keeps exhaust air and system noise away from condominium units while maximizing the dissipation of exhaust air.
Condominium units and public halls and lobbies in the building are all provided with operable windows. Thus, natural ventilation is taken advantage of via these exterior windows which exceed the minimum opening requirement of 0.05x the total floor area of a habitable room.
Internally located bathroom and laundry areas are provided with mechanical ventilation supplying a minimum of 5 ach and are connected to flues which exhaust out the roof of the building.


Fire Protection
A fire protection system would be required for this building. Only the two levels of parking garage, the main lobby, and the third level hallway would be required to be sprinkled, but a wet standpipe is required for any building over four stories. This building would require only one 4-inch standpipe located on each floor in the public hallway near the tower fire stair. A fire extinguisher must also be provided at each of these locations. A fire entry room would be provided on the first level of the building just behind the elevator. A fire rated wall would separate this room from the boiler room. The fire entry room shown would be of adequate size for a fire pump, generator, heater, necessary gauges, and the 4-inch water line in and out.


CONCLUSION


Cone!usi on
Historic preservation and rehabilitation in conjunction with new construction presents an interesting and challenging problem. Combining buildings from two different historic periods results in several conflicts of interest. Maintaining the ambiance of a turn-of-the-century home and its garden while introducing a multi-family building on the site seems contradictory. Building scales, lifestyles, and craftsmanship of detailing are all different. However, the differences can be resolved. New construction was first and foremost sited to avoid destruction of historic elements. Then massing, materials, and detailing were used in new construction to bring down the scale of the building sympathetically; as a result, the historic gap was bridged between the two structures. Circulation patterns were also used to keep public street access separate from the quiet, private entrances to the garden. In this way, the garden green space became the neutral
di vi
der as well as the active link between the private residence and the
condominium building.
New construction on an historic site is, ideally, a situation to be avoided. However, with continued trends of infill development in our society, the way they are, the problem of linking new construction to an old neighborhood is likely to increase. Respect for existing neighborhoods and structures should be of paramount concern for developers, builders, and architects working in such areas. The disruption and disregard of carelessly planned new projects in older neighborhoods will ultimately lead to the devaluing of all properties


and an unpleasant environment for everyone in the area. East Colfax is an illustrative example of this dilemma. Because tax credits may not be adequate to offset the lost profits from down-scaled developing, new zoning may be required to insure new projects are in harmony with old neighborhoods. In order to encourage historic preservation and rehabilitation as well as sympathetic small-scale developing, inflated land prices from up zoning must be brought down. This may be accomplished by down zoning and by reducing the allowable densities in certain historic areas. With virtually thousands of acres of vacant land in its core city and a small growth in population projected, the city of Denver may well have to make changes to bring building interests back to the central city. Small-scale developments may be the answer to filling in the gaps in Denver's urban fabric by offering an appealing alternative to suburban commuting and urban congestion. Not only are there a greater number of builders and developers who can handle small-scale developments, these projects also blend better with the scale and character of historic areas. By drawing influence from the existing architecture of past eras, we might well learn a lesson for providing pleasant and humane architecture for present and future generations.


APPENDICES


ZONING CODE REVIEW
Location: 707 Washington Street Denver, Colorado
Code: Denver County Zoning Ordinance
ng: R-3
Zoni
Permitted use of dwelling: Multiple unit
If square footage is greater than 50,000, support shops can be operated.
Outdoor waste disposal: Closed containers required
Open
Rear
Side
10/85
space requirement:
Front setback:
setback:
Residential structure 1-3 stories 20% of zone lot Residential structure 4 or more stories 30% of zone lots
Cannot be more than 6' above grade
Should be greater than 10'. Can be reduced to 5' if the building faces the longer dimension on the side of the block.
Minimum of 20' for a building and 5 minimum for a detached structure if there is no alley. With an alley, there is a 5' setback for garages which are detached and open onto the alley. Detached structures not opening onto the alley and trash fixtures may be on the property line. Other structures must be 20' from the alley centerline.
Secti on Page
59-177 4196
59-177 4199
59-178 4200
59-179 4201
59-179 4201
59-179 4201
59-179 4201
59-179
4201
setback:
Minimum of 7'6" for multidwelling units. Detached garages need no setback if they are on the rear 1/3 of the lot and at least 85' from the front lot line on lots over 125' deep.
A 21' side setback can be used for parking vehicles. 59-
179
4202
Encroachments: Building detailing can project 18" into any setback.


Cornices, eaves, and gutters 3' in front,
5' into rear, 3' into side but no more than 1/2 the distance into side setbacks less than 51.
Outside stairs 5 in front, 10' in rear, 3' on the side.
Access ramps Any encroachment allowed if no alternative location is available and if the construction is compatible with the structure's character.
Unwalled porches, terraces, and balconies -5' into front and rear.
Chimneys (width less than 6) 18" in any di recti on.
Light control accessories (permanent) 5' in front, 10' in rear, 3' on side;
(non-permanent) any distance into any space.
Canopies Any distance into any space.
Structure below grade any distance into any space.
Gas and electric meters 3' in any direction
if screened by a masonry wall. 59-179
Fences and walls: If 4' or less in height, they
can be placed anywhere between front line of zone lot and front setback. If 6 or less on a corner lot, they may be placed on the rear line of a zone lot or they may be placed anywhere from the rear line forward to the rear of the structure.
Retaining walls on public ROW may be any height. The same applies on the shorter side of a zone lot if the other side is vacant.
Heights are measured from the lowest grade within 3 of the wal1. 59-179
Maximum bulk (chimneys and flues excluded): See following drawings for graphic conditions along side lines, zone lot lines, and no alley situations. 59-179
Maximum gross floor area is three times the area
of the zone lot. 59-179
4202-3
4203
4203-4
4204
Minimum floor area of each unit is 600 square feet.
59-179
4204


Signage: May be on wall, window, or ground.
Allows 2 signs maximum for each front 1ine of the zone lot.
Allows 2 square feet for every 1000 square feet of zone lot but not more than 96 square feet and no one sign greater than 32 square feet.
Wall and window signs may be a maximum of 25' above grade and may project the width of the sign from the building.
Ground signs may be a maximum of 25' above grade and must be set in 5' from boundary lines.
All signs may be illuminated from a
concealed light source. 59-548
Identification signs for residential
buildings may not be more than 4 per
building or 20 square feet per sign.
Such signs shall not be more than 12' above grade.
Directional signs shall not be more
than 1000 square inches or 8' above
grade. They may be illuminated by a
concealed light source. 59-537
Parking: Spaces within a structure should be 8.5' minimum width for large cars.
There should be a maximum of 50% compact car spaces.
Class one parking provides 1.5 spaces
per unit in multi unit dwelling. 59-586
No offstreet loading is required. 59-596
4333-4
4329
4346-7
4354


r
ZONING
SULK PLAMLS K-3
Slp£ LIMB'S
if srp.eer iu ppowr, no allby
/ /
C£2(e'
20'
ALLOWA0 |3UIUP!MC^ A££A
K-s^tsa. cn u _________
P£APUkJ£
stpep-t
IP STKErr IM F=pONT, ALLEY IN P.EAP
20'
(^AUL£Y
I// AUU3WA0UP (/ BUltpiN
1/ / / Me/k
I^.s^tMck'
m
2D



ZONING
CHART 1
OFF-STREET PARKING
LARGE CARS
a b c d e f1 P
-V fltfl wWrh Tl#fl I* ;it' d>n] thW irfih rvrk U|th f*l If* tantat l until width 1 two ftw kin with CHtnt *od katwaan (w'k If (wfk tvirlff ( (
n r*" 1 5 12 0 23 0 2t 0
U to" 9 0 12 0 23 0 30 0 -
30" 1*4" f'O" 14.9 17.3 110 11 0 17 0 11 0 44 1 45 4 37.4 37.1
45" '4 It. 4 13 5 12 0 57 3 44 3
t'O" It I 13 0 17 7 52 6 44 7
60 8'4" 20 7 11 5 t 8 5t 9 55 4
t'O" 210 110 10 4 40 0 55 5
90" IV' It 0 23 0* 1 5 41.0
t'O" It 0 23 0 t 0 41.0
Two ff (ucwlil**
COMPACT CARS
EXAMPLE
a b C d e V P
pg*lr>| rtf fl w*frh ddti If r*wod hatni (vrVta (urk tta'lop d
0 7.5 7.5 11.0' 19.0.' 26.0 26.0
30" 7.5 14.0 11.0 15.0 39.0 32.5
45" 7.5 15.9 11.0 10.6 42.8 37.9
60" 7.5 16.7 14.0 8.7' 47.5 40.4
90' 7.5 15.0' 18.0 7.5 4 8.0' 48.0
K
f-
4
T mtf (t*C *!!
4353


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST
Project Name PPL Thesis__________________________________________
Location 707 Washington Street___________________________
Denver, Colorado_______________________________
Applicable Code Name Denver Building Code, 1979__________________
Code Check by Blane Waldref______________________________ Date 10/85
1. Fire Zone _______3____________________________________________
2. Occupancy Classification Group H, Division 2__________________
Principal Occupancy H-2____________________________________
Others (specify) Parking Garage, G-3_______________
3. Occupancy Separation required
______H2______ to ______G3________ = _______2______ Hours
4. Construction Type V_____________________________________
5. Maximum allowable Basic Floor Area: 10,374____________________
If adjacent to open area on
two or more sides: 5%, 2 1/2%, 1 1/4%/ft. by which minimum
width exceeds 20 feet.___________________
If over one story: 200% of area permitted for one-story
bui1di ngs_______________________________
If sprinklered: _____________________________________________
6. Maximum allowable height:
Feet V-50 feet for H-2_______________________________________
Stories V-3 stories for H-2________________________________
7. Fire Resistance of exterior wall (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type)
SECTION
1601
1301
1301
1201
Table 5B Table 5C Table 5-C
506 b
505 b
Table 5-D Table 5-D
1 hour less than 5 feet
Table 17-B


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
8. Openings in exterior walls: (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type)
Openings shall not be permitted in ext, walls located less than 1707 b
5 ft. from adjacent PL or CL of street or alley.__________________
Set-back requiring protection of openings in ext. walls Table 17-C
= d ft.
9. Windows required in rooms: _______________________________________ ____________
Window area required: __________________________________________ ____________
10. Enclosed or semi-endosed courts size required __________________ 1305 a
Minimum 3 up to 2 stories then 6" for each additional story, when entirely surrounded increase width by 50%____________________
11. Minimum ceiling height in rooms: No portion less than 5'-0,
71 over 50%___________________ 1305 b
12. Minimum floor area of rooms: _____________________________________ ____________
13. Fire resistive requirements:
Ejxterior bearing walls (2, 1803A) 1 Hours Hours Hours Hours Table 17-B
Interior bearing walls 1 Table 17-A
Eixterior non-bearing walls 1 Table 17-A
Structural frame 1 Table 17-A
Permanent partitions 1 Hours Table 17-A
Vertical openings 1 Hours Table 17-A
FIoors 1 Hours Table 17-A
Roofs (Section 1806) 1 Hours Table 17-A
Exterior doors 3/4 if less than 5' setback Hours 1707 c
Exterior windows 3/4 if less than 20' setback Hours 1707 c
Inner court walls PL between opp. walls - Hours 1707 d
exterior opening requirements apply.
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) No more 1 Hours 1715 b
than 1/3 area of a room
Roof coverings Class C 1 Hours 3204 b


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Boiler room enclosure 1 Hours 1716
14. Structural requirements: Flramework 1 Hours Tabl e 17-A
Sjtai rs 1 Hours Tabl e 17-A
FI oors 1 Hours Table 17-A
Roofs Where every part of roof structure is 25 above floor, noncombustible material protected by sprinkler or resistive material 1 Hours Table 17-A
Partitions Noncombustible, fire-resistive 1 Hours Tabl e 17-A
15. Exits:
Occupancy load basis (square feet per occupant)
Occupancy Type (Use)_________Basis_______Actual Load Table 33-A
Hotels and Apartments 150 Occupant = Floor Area
Load SF/Occupant
Number of exits required: 2 or more exits req'd. when occ. load
exceeds: Exits Req'd.
Hotels and Apartments 10 2
Minimum width of exits: 3 ft. 3303 d
Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total 3302 j
occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among
separate exits, and including a percentage of the_________
occupant loads of adjacent floors.________________________
Exit separation arrangement:
Exits will be accessible in at least 2 different directions. 3302 k
Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25'
apart minimum.
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit 100' 3322 b


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Allowable exit sequence:
Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an_______
individual living unit shall not exceed 50 feet or traverse more than one flight of stairs. ~
Exit doors:
Minimum width allowed ______________________3 ft.__________
Maximum leaf width allowed _________________4 ft.__________
Width required for no. of occupants _______________________
(See minimum width of exits previous page)_______________
Exit corridors:
Minimum allowable width 44 in. (3'-8)______________________
Required to have exit at each end of corridor? No__________
when 2 exits are req'd. except for deadend allowance.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes Maximum length 20' can be extended to 501 if sprinkling system is used________
Wall fire resistance required 1 hour_______________________
Doors and frames fire resistance required: 45 min._________
16. Stairs:
Minimum width 44 in. (3*-8) For occ. load of +50_____________
36 in.________ For occ. load of 50-___________
Maximum riser allowed 7.5 in.________________________________
Minimum tread allowed 10 in._________________________________
Are winders allowed? Yes in private stairways required tread
width provided 12" from narrowest side, none less than 6"
Landings:
Minimum size Dimension measured in direction of travel = width of stairway but not exceeding 5*-0 w/straight run________________________________________________
Maximum size required 51-0 w/straight run____________________
3322 b
3303 d
3303 e
3302 j
3304 b
3304 e
3304 f
3304 q Table 33-B
3305 b 3305 b
3305 c 3305 c 3305 d
3305 g 3305


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Maximum vertical distance between landings 121-6_____________ 3305 g
Minimum vertical distance between landings __________________ ___________
Required height of rails (21-6 to 21-10) 30-34" above tread 3305 i
nosing_____________________________
Handrai1s:
Required at each side? Yes________________________________________ 3305 i
Intermediate rails required at stairs 88" wide___________ 3305 i
Maximum width between int. rails Equal spacing________________ 3305 i
Exceptions applicable Individual units_______________________ ___________
Height above nosing 30-34"___________________________________ 3305 i
Balusters required? 42" high_________________________________1714
UBC = 6" max.
Intermediate rail required? Yes, 9" max._____________________ 1714
Maximum post spacing allowed ________________________________ ___________
Handrails return to wall at ends? Yes_________________________ 3305 i
Handrails extend beyond stair 6" (at least one handrail 3305 i
at both top and bottom)
Stair to roof required? Yes, if in bldg. 4+ stories, one 3305 n
stairway shall extend to roof with hinged door.
Stair to basement restrictions Provide barrier to prevent 3305 h
persons from going to basement.________________________________
Stair access to roof required? Yes, see above._____________________________
Access to roof required? No____________________________________
Stair enclosure required? Yes___________________Hours 1________ 3308 b
Exceptions Enclosure shall not be required for a stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected w/corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Horizontal exit requirements (if applicable) __________________ ___________


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Ramps:
Maximum slope to use as exit 1:12_____________________________ 3306 c
Handrails required On at least one side min. 32" high_________ 3306 e
measured from surface of ramp. Extend 1 ft. beyond top and bottom of ramp.
Exit signs required? Yes, at every req'd. exit door w/occ. 3312 b
load of +30______________________________
Balcony rails? _________________________________________________
Where required? All unenclosed floor, roof openings, open 1714
and glazed sides of stairs, ramps and_______
landings, balconies, etc.___________________
Height required? 42" (3'-6)___________________________________ 1714
Balusters or intermediate rails required _6" o.c. max. UBC
17. Penthouses:
Area limitations 33-1/3% of the area supporting roof________________ 3301 b
Height limitations None in Type I construction______________________ 3601 a
Use limitations Use only for shelter of mechanical equip. 3601 c
or vertical shaft openings_____________________
Construction requirements Shall have walls, floor and a_________ 3601 d
roof constructed as the main part of bldg, unless penth.________
walls are +5'-0 from PL may be of 1 hour construction.
18. Parapet walls:
Where required All exterior walls (see exceptions)__________________ 1710 a
Height 30" above where roof surface and wall intersect______________ 1710 b
19. Fire extinguishing systems:
Sprinklers required When floor area exceeds 1,500 SF____________ 3803 a
but not if 20 SF of window opening is provided in_______________
every 50 linear feet on at least 2 sides of the building
Dry standpipes required ________________________________________ ___________
Location _____________________________________________________ ___________
Number required ______________________________________________ ___________


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Number outlets required
Hose required
Siamese connection required

Wet standpipes required In bldgs. +4 stories____________________ 3806 a
Number required (hose run) One or more 4" s. pipes___________ 3806 d
for +/=4 stories (100 ft. max, distance to any point_________
in bldg.)
Location In a public corridor w/in 10' of the opening________ 3806 b
of a reqd. stairway on all floor levels.____________________
Fire extinguishers required At each standpipe location__________ 3806 e
20. Toijlet room requirements: Code utilized?
Fixture count requirements:
Public restrooms not required___________________________________ 509 al
Each dwelling unit shall have 1 water closet, one_______________ 509 a5
1 avatory, one bathtub or shower, and one kitchen
s| ink with garbage disposal. Each unit in 2+ unit
b uildings shall have a space and rough-in for
1 aundry equipment. For 3+ unit building, provide
one laundry tray and one washer for the first ten
u nits, then one washer for each add11. 15 units.
Showers required?
Walls No requirements___________________________________________ 509 b 5A
Floors No requirements__________________________________________ 509 b 5A
Compartments No requirements__________________________________ 509 b 5B
Handicapped requirements 1 in every 8 units must________________ 510 b
accommodate handicapped.________________________________________
Leave 36" width and 3211 clear space in front of 510 cl
water closet____________________________________________________
Clear space under lavatory 26" width, 12 deep, 29" high________ 510 c2
21. Skylights:
Locations ______________________________________________________ 6005 a7
Separation Min. A'-O between units______________________________ 6005 a5


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
Maximum size 100 sq. ft.________________________________________ 6005 a6
Maximum aggregate area in room 25% of room area sheltered 6005 al
by roof._______________________
Curb height 9" above roof plane_________________________________ ____________
22. Elevators and escalators: Not required
Maximum number in each shaft ___________________________________ ____________
Ventilate penthouse? ___________________________________________ ____________
Machine room wall construction
23. Use of public property:
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? Yes___________ 4507
Marquees, canopies, etc:
Support from building Entirely 4505 b
Material restrictions Laminated safety glass, 4506 c
plastic, fabric 4505 c
Distance above walk 8'-0 (canvas 7') 4506 a 4505 a
Maximum distance of extension over walk min. 2'-0 insid< e 4501 g
curb line Maximum height
Drainage Toward the building 4505 cl
Other projections: Minimum height above "ground" +8'-0; 1" per 1" of 4504 a
clearance up to 41-0
Maximum allowable projection
Bay window, porch, balconies
Cornices, etc.


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (con't)
24. Fire alarm:
Required basis All H-2 of +4 stories (exempt 4 stories) Type Manual pull stations.____________________________________
25. Emergency lights or power required? In exit ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way -illuminate to one foot candle at floor level.
3811 a
5310 a
26. Access doors required in exterior walls without, openings?


DEMOGRAPHICS



POPULATION
DENVER REGION(1), DENVER COUNTY, AND STUDY AREA(2)
1970-1983
Compound Annual Average
1984-^1 Growth Rates Annual Change
1970 1980 1970-80 1980-84 1970-80 1980-84
Total Denver Region^ 1,238,273 1,618,471 1,764,250 2.7% 2.2% 38,020 36,445
Denver County 515,332 492,365 505,100 -0.45% 0.64% -2,298 12,735
Study Area^ 19,759 17,503 17,326 -1.21% -0.25% -226 -177
Includes Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson Counties.
121
v Study area includes Census Tracts 32.03, 34, 38, and 39.01. See map. f 31
v Based on DRCOG 1984 Population and Household Estimates.
Source: 1980 US Census, Denver Regional Council of Governments


POPULATION PROJECTIONS
DENVER REGION^1 \ DENVER COUNTY, AND STUDY AREA^
1984-2000
1984-2000 1984-2000
Compounded Average
Annual Annual
1984 1990 2000 Growth Rate Change
Total Denver Region^ 1,764,250 2,019,600 2,513,000 2.2% 46,797
Denver County 505,100 524,600 542,400 0.5% 2,331
Study Area^ 17,326 17,068 16,646 -0.25% -37
^ Included Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties.
(21
v Study area includes Census Tracts 32.03, 34, 38, and 39.01. See map.
(31
v Population projections are based on data from 1980-1984 found in DRCOG 1984 Population and Household Estimates.
Source: Denver Regional Council of Governments


1979 INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS
DENVER REGION' ', DENVER COUNTY, AND STUDY AREA' '
1979 Per Capita Income 1979 Median Household Income Less Than $14,999 $15,000- $24,999 $25,000- $34,999 $35,000- $49,999 $50,000 & Above Total Households
Denver Region* Number of Households Percent $ 9,101 $19,982 219,213 36.0% 167,090 27.4% 113,774 18.7% 70,873 11.6% 37,736 6.2% 608,686 > 99.9%lJJ
Denver County Number of Households Percent $ 8,555 $15,506 43,017 36.1% 34,408 28.8% 21,286 17.8% 12,670 10.6% 7,907 6.6% 119,228 99.9%
Study Area Number of Households Percent $15,943(4) $22,384 ^ 1,038 22.0% 1,183 25.1% 909 19.3% 705 14.4% 888 18.8% 4,723 100.1%
^ Denver Region includes the counties of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson.
^ Study area includes Census Tracts 32.03, 34, 38, and 39.01. See map.
(3)
' Percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.
^ Represents an average of these values for the Census Tracts of the study area.
*Source: 1980 US Census.
Source: DRC0G 1979 Family Income


MEDIAN VALUE OF OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS ^1^
(21
DENVER SMSA , DENVER COUNTY , AND STUDY AREAUj
1980 VALUES
Denver SMSA Denver County Study Area
Number Distribution Number 1 Distribution Number Di stributii
Less than $39,999 22,950 7.3% 11,971 13.7% 213 4.5%
$40,000 $49,999 35,450 8.1% 12,052 13.8% 220 4.7%
$50,000 $59,999 45,037 14.4% 16,348 18.8% 369 7.8%
$60,000 $79,999 113,115 36.1% 26,490 30.4% 1,401 29.7%
$80,000 $99,999 54,889 17.5% 10,398 11.9% 941 19.9%
$100,000 $149,999 37,186 11.8% 6,939 8.0% 772 16.4%
$150,000 $199,999 8,625 2.8% 1,747 2.0% 326 6.9%
$200,000 or more 5,898 1.9% 1,261 1.5% 478 10.1%
Total Specified Owner- 313,160
Occupied Housing Units 100.0% 87,206 100.1% 4,720 100.0%
Median Value / I \ $70,500 $62,000 $96,550
' Single family houses (2) v Study area includes on less than ten Census Tracts 32. acres without 03, 34, 38 and commercial. 39.01. See map.
Source: 1980 US Census.


DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY AGE
DENVER REGION^1 ^, DENVER COUNTY, STUDY AREA^
Under 75 Years Median
14 Years 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 & Over Total Age
Denver Region Number Percent 360,878 22.0% 145,006 9.0% 164,683 10.0% 336,718 21.0% 202,781 13.0% 150,177 9.0% 123,127 8.0% 72,946 5.0% 47,991 3.0% 1,618,461 28.8
Denver County Number Percent 90,654 18.4% 37,528 7.6% 54,768 11.1% 106,885 21.7% 48,824 9.9% 44,375 9.0% 47,408 9.6% 35,441 7.2% 26,482 5.4% 492,365 30.2
Study Area Number Percent 2,109 12.1% 803 4.6% 1,112 6.4% 4,083 23.3% 1,927 11.0% 1,655 9.5% 2,101 12.0% 1,972 11.3% 1,741 10.0% 17,503 39.4
^ Denver Region includes the counties of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson. ^ Study area includes Census Tracts 32.03, 34, 38, and 39.01. See map.
Source: 1980 US Bureau of the Census.


MISCELLANEOUS DATA
DENVER REGION^, DENVER COUNTY, AND STUDY AREA^
Living in Same House in 1984 as 1975 Mean Travel Time to Work (min.) Household Growth 1980-1984 Persons per Household 1980 Persons per Family 1980
Denver Region 39.8% 22.1 11.38% 2.61 3.19
Denver County 44.4% 20.3 1.82% 2.27 3.03
Study Area 53.6% 17.67 -3.13% 2.09 2.68
^ Denver Region includes the counties of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson.
^ Study area includes Census Tracts 32.03, 34, 38, and 39.01. See map.
Sources: ,1980 US Census, Denver Regional Council of Governments 1984 Population and Household Estimates.




This chart compiled with the help of Debra David,. Architecture 700. *
PROJECT
'At.
TYPEL-I
LIMITS
UNSOLD
ACREAGE/ DENSITY
AVERAGE
1 The Abbey at Cherry Creek 28# Adam;
Carr i Homes
16
23/acre
liC-50
2 Park Estates Townhomes
Ogden Townhomes
T ownh
3 Number 1 South Townh
?6/acr e
27/acre
4 Polo Club North 2552 E. Alameda
Attad
Homes
3/acre
50-60
5 Barclay Towers 1625 Larimer
Renta
4-iV/acre
>0-40
F'arkway Center Ejpeer -From 11th to 14th Rent? 50/acre 23
Qnerry North 2303 S. University T own! 5 * O / aui cr *"'0_ crni UJ uJ U
Madison Hill 200 Madison T own! IS 14/acre 7'cr crcr N* wJ > 1 , 1
Polo Club 3131 E. Alameda Condi (Res, 0 152/acre 65
* Park Lane 460 S. Marion Pkwy Cond1 (Res 0 i 50
Hi 11 top Alameda 2< Grape Pati' n 17/acre 30-50
The Avenue 4th Zf. Cook T own 4 40-50
--- means that data was not
available or doss not apply
note:


BIBLIOGRAPHY


General Bibliography
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Abel, Joseph H. and Fred N. Severud; Apartment Houses; The Maple Press Co.: USA; c. 1947.
Alpern, Andrew; Apartments for the Affluent; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York; c. 1975.
Brettell, Richard R.; Historic Denver; Historic Denver, Inc.: Denver, Colorado; c. 1973.
Burns, Leland S.; Housing: Symbol and Shelter; University of California: Los Angeles; c. 1970.
Chauliaquet, Baratsabal, Batellier; Solar Energy in Buildings; John Wiley and Sons; New York; c. 1979.
hing, Francis D.K.; Architecture: Form, Space, and Order; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company: New York; c. 1979.
7. Colorado State Historical Society; File on Bonfils Mansion.
8.
9.
10.
Davis, Sally and Betty Baldwin; Denver Dwellings and Descendants; Sage Books: Denver, Colorado; c. 1963.
ichelberger, Douglas J.; "Le Tout Ensemble"; University of Colorado; Student Thesis: Denver, Colorado; Spring 1984.
Evans, Martin; Housing, Climate, and Comfort; John Wiley and Sons: New York; c. 1980.
11. Havekost, Dan, HWH Associates; File on Encore Development.
12. Historic Denver, Inc.; "Preservation Easement Program"; Historic
Denver, Inc.: Denver, Colorado.
13. Hume, Gary L. and Kay D. Weeks; Standards for Rehabilitation and
Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings; US Department of Interior: Washington, DC; c. 1983.
14. Jencks, Charles; The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, Fourth
Edition; Rizzoli: New York; c. 1984.
15. Morris, Langdon E., Jr.; Denver Landmarks; Charles W. Cleworth:
Denver, Colorado; c. 1979.
16. Packard, Robert T., Editor; Architectural Graphics Standards,
Seventh Edition; John Wiley and Sons: New York; c. 1981.
17. Real Estate Research Corporation; Infill Development Strategies; ULI
and American Planning Association: Washington, DC; c. 1982.
18. Robinson Engineering; File of 707 Washington Street.


19.
Schwab, Von Gerhard; Differentiated Housing Estates; Karl Kramer Verlag: Stuttgart; c. 1975.
20. Scully, Vincent J., Jr.; The Shingle Style and the Stick Style; Yal
University: New Haven, Connecticut; c. 1971.
21. Sherwood, Roger; Modern Housing Prototypes; Harvard University
Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts; c. 1978.
22. Walter, Marc; Grand Hotel; The Vendome Press: New York; c. 1984.




I
I
I






SECTION A-A
SECTION B-B


PtQLL£P PlCX
LEVEL 7


(j>
<*>

S 13A31




<6
LEVEL 1
LEVEL 2


NORTH ELEVATION


WASHINGTON STREET
if
PEARL STREET
'rn'*
SEVENTH AND PEARL PERSPECTIVE
GARDEN ELEVATION


MISE EN SCENE
CONDOMINIUM DEVELOPMENT
707 WASHINGTON STREET DENVER, COLORADO
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS FOR
THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER SPRING 1986
BY BLANE WALDREF