- Permanent Link:
- Mixed-use redevelopment in Boulder, Colorado contemporary design within a historical context
- Walsh, Stephen B
- Publication Date:
- Physical Description:
- 132 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Stores, shopping centers, etc -- Designs and plans -- Boulder (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
- Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
- Includes bibliographical references (leaves 73-76).
- General Note:
- Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
- Statement of Responsibility:
- Steven B. Walsh.
- Source Institution:
- University of Colorado Denver
- Holding Location:
- Auraria Library
- Rights Management:
- All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
- Resource Identifier:
- 13495953 ( OCLC )
- LD1190.A72 1984 .W3489 ( lcc )
CONTEMPORARY DESIGN WITHIN A HISTORICAL CONTEXT
College of Design and Planning
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
1190 A72 19 8U
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Fi gure/'Ground Map
The City of Boulder Description
Boulder Development Goals Cli mate
The Whittier Neighborhood Descri pti on Circulation Systems lOO yr Flood Boundaries Zoning Districts The Site
Analysi s: Wi nd/Sun/Vi ews/Sounds
Analysi s: Vegetat i on/Topo/Soi1s/Uti1i ties
Analysis: Adjacent Uses
Development of the Program General Building Program Parameters Resi denti al
Ci rculati on
Structural/HVAC/Uti1i t i es
Preliminary Analysis Scenario I Scenario II Scenario III
Individual Space Programming Resi denti al Retai1 Off ice
Zoning Bui 1di ng Energy Handi cap FIoodplane Mechanical PIumbi ng
Susan Stoltz Carolyn Hoyt Newsclipings Other Projects
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TABLE DF CONTENTS
The diversity of activities in Boulder, Colorado's history has had a profound impact on the existing urban fabric. The biggest impacts have occurred after the settlers displaced the Arapahoe indian encampments along what is now Boulder
of miners from Nebraska came here
Creek. In 1858, a group
in search of Silver and Gold. What started as a small
mining camp grew into a supply town with a population of three thousand. As ore deposits were depleted close in, the miners went ever higher into the mountains in search of the mother lode. With the incorporation of the city in 1871 and the arrival of the railroad in 1874 came increased trade and more people. That same year the state university was
founded giving Boulder the distinction of an education and cultural center. Between 4890 and 1895, seventyeight subdivisions were platted to make room for a blossoming
As Boulder grew to become an important trade center, property values began to rise leading to an increase in land speculation. The prosperity of the area around Boulder in the early part of this century began to look attractive to government and military planners due to decreasing availability of open spaces in the east as well as favorable climatic conditions which attracted the top minds of a developing nation. These administrations then began locating major facilities in the area and again these powerful forces were shaping the frontier. It followed that high technology firms began spinning off the educational and scientific community to become a major economic influence in the development of Boulder.
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should appear to be in -full command and one o-f the essentials is a certain amount of clear, open space not obstructed by the trees, buildings, or anything rising much above the surface. Today Boulder -faces a major crossroad in the -future of its growth. Four laws which are the major influence on the city today are a direct result of 01 instead's forward thinking; 1) The 35 foot building height limit, 2) The Blue Line, a boundary described by the 5,750 foot MSL topographic line above which city water is not supplied, 3) the Greenbelt system which oversees the purchase of 30% of the open space around Boulder and 4)the Danish Plan which limits growth within the city limits to 2% per year.
These powerful laws have been very influential in confining and maintaining the character which made Boulder attractive to all the previous inhabitants going back to the native americans. The growth limit, which is under fire by some of the shapers of the community, has initiated zoning districts that utilize the left over and obsolete land parcels within the established part of the city.
Boulders historical growth can be charted chronologically in the urban fabric accreted in the wake of the advancing town edge, just as the events in the life of a tree can be seen in its growth rings.
The richness in diversity of this fabric is nowhere as magnificent as at the seam along Folsom Avenue between the Whittier residential neighborhood to the west and the large scale commercial real estate to the east.
One site in particular along participating in a series "edge of the town" sites, railroad line, this site was
point for the goods supplying the town.
this seam has and still is of events which are typical of Located along the end of a initially used as a transfer
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transportation developed, this function became obsolete; resorting to be used as a wrecking yard, and finally to its present use as a lumber supply yard- Still an edge of the town activity, the city has engulfed it and time has past it by...unti1 now.
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F X GURE/GROUND MAP
In this thesis project, I intend to illustrate how architecture in Boulder can reinforce the identity and self image of a city which is made of such a diverse past, By establishing a point of departure which draws on forms which
are resultant of the historical influences which acted on the site, I hope to create a living, historical chronology which whispers of yesterday, speaks of today, and converses with tommorrow.
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I also intend to show how these allusions to different places in the dimension of time can lend continuity to places in the dimension of space. Since the forces that have acted on the site created a procession that connects two different places in space; it follows that any space in between will be a linkage reinforcing the experience of transition along that path.
This thesis explores speculative mixed-use development which incorporates a diverse mix of residential, retail, and commercial activities. The site is located in Boulder, Colorado at the east end of the blocl^ bounded by Spruce Street on the north, Folsom Avenue on the east, and Pearl Street on the south. It is my assumption that the client would seek to develop the site to its maximum potential in terms of space, marketability, and community image. The site is presently occupied by Bradfields Building Supply; a local lumberyard serving builders and local residents. The site covers 61,637 square feet (1.42 acres).
EVENTS LEADING TO PROBLEM:
As a citizen of Boulder for eight years I have resided in a downtown residential neighborhood. In this time 1 have developed a keen interest in the streets and alleys that feed the heart of this beautiful city. As a builder and student of architecture my observations have changed from "what is" to "what it could be."
The core area of Boulder has evolved over the years to the point that the economy and uses of some original buildings have fullfilled thier useful 1 life and are slowly being replaced by new buildings with new uses. Other building activities consist of in-fill construction on lots which have recently become buildable due to changes in zoning (see hi story).
Upon investigation of potential sites for the thesis project; I learned that Pearl Street from 18th to Folsom was a newly designated district zoned MUX (mixed use
CITY OF ECU L DEL
redeveloping). I have been interested in this type of development in Boulder as a future professional activity for a number of years and this information piqued my interest in pursueing this type of problem. As a result, I began talking to the developers of Mixed-Use projects in that district (see interviews) I learned that the Bradfields property was for sale but under contract (the contract is
It was at this point in the development of the thesis problem that I realized through my interpretation of the goals of the city administration that this intersection was the key point of entry to the original downtown boulder urban fabric. Conducting a figure/ground study of the city, I began to see different patterns which disclosed the development of the city outward from it's center. This is what leads me to the present thesis.
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THE CITY OF BOULDER
POPULATION. In 1970, Boulder's population was 66,870. Until the Danish Plan, the population experienced a rapid growth rate that nearly doubled its population between the years 1960 and 1970. The population in 1980 was 76,855.
GOVERNMENT. The city of Boulder operates under a counci 1manager form of government with nine unpaid council members elected to two and four year terms, one of whom is selected to serve as mayor for two year terms. The city council hires a city manager to handle the affairs of the city as dictated by the council.
EDUCATION. School district Re-2 serves all of Boulder County. There are 29 elementary and 14 secondary schools with low studentteacher ratios. The district also operates a vocationaltechnical school. The University of Colorado is located in Boulder with as many as 22,000 students in attendance.
LABOR. The major employers in Boulder are: International Business Machines, University of Colorado, Ball Brothers Beech Aircraft, Neodata, National Center for Atmospheric Research, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 1982 the civilian labor force in Boulder County was 108,743.
CONSTRUCTION. Construction activity seems to keep pace with population resulting in a steady vacancy rate. In 1982, 525 building permits were issued for residential construction. That same year 45 commercial permits were issued.
FINANCIAL. Boulder has seventeen financial institutions: eight commercial banks, seven savings and loan associations, and three industrial banks.
TRANSPORTATION- Boulder's commercial airline needs are met by Denver's Stapleton International Airport located east of Denver and about 27 miles from Boulder. The Boulder municipal airport has a 4,100 foot runway serving private aircraft. The Colorado Southern and Union Pacific Railroads serve Boulder with direct freight service. Major highways serving Boulder include U.S. 36, State route's 7, 72, 93, 119, and 398. RTD provides service both express commuter and local routes to the entire metropolitan region around Denver. From Denver, Greyhound and Trail ways provide service to the rest of the country. Amtrack is available out of Denver.
UTILITIES. The Public Service Company of Colorado supplies electrical power and natural gas. The City of Boulder supplies water and sewer service- 100 percent of the residences and industries in Boulder are served by the city sewer system.
FIRE. Fire protection is provided by the 75 city firemen from six stations. The fire insurance rating given Boulder is CLASS 4.
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. There are 420 lawyers, 12 investment firms, 73 CPA's, 727 realtors, and 76 architects. Boulder Community and Boulder Memorial Hospital give a combined bed capacity of 287.
RECREATION AND CULTURAL. Excellent year-round recreational opportunities exist in the Boulder area due to the extensive Boulder Park system which includes golf, tennis, swimming boating, hiking, fishing, hunting, football, baseball, basketball, rodeo, bicycling, and skiing. Cultural activities range from concerts, lecture series through the university, art galleries, drama groups, cinema, Shakespeare Festival, and the Public library.
BOULDER DEVELOPMENT GOALS
In the -fall of 1982, the Pearl street corridor committee was set up to study the area and develop a plan o-f action that would stem ad hoc development along Pearl Street. The following discussion is a summary of the precedings.
The city's vision of the corridor is "an interesting and varied shopping area which provides opportunities for urban density housing with some office space as well. The scale of new buildings will be comparable to the traditional buildings in downtown Boulder. Understanding that Pearl Street will become an important automobile and mass transit link between the crossroads mall and the Downtown, the planning challenge is to create and strengthen the pedestrian element along the corridor." They proposed to accomplish this by writing zoning regulations which "encourages a variety of uses, promotes store front first floors and attractive alley improvements, offers incentives for good design, and provides pedestrian amenities such as benches and trees for shade."
The result of this zoning should be a beneficial transitional zone between the corridor and the residential area, encouraged residential and small scale development, and creation of an identifiable character in the zone.
Some of the differences that reduced open space requirements and side yard setbacks, and the included on rooftops and balconi unchanged is the parking requi main constraint on development i capacity. However, in the mixed is allowed for projects that can Automotive traffic along Pearl
the MUX zone possess are the elimination of front open space required can be es. One facet that remained red with the result that the n this zone will be parking -use zone, parking reduction demonstrate shared parking, street is presently well
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within its capacity, however; as density increases in the downtown core area especially in residential development, Pearl street will become the main high volume arterial street east o-f the downtown core area. Recommendations from the transportation subcommittee in the area -from 18th to Folsom included the -following: Future development of Pearl street right o-f ways: the subcommittee suggested this not be
undertaken since the sidewalks are a valuable transportation resource; parking: recommendation was to simply increase the supply by adding head in and angle parking on adjacent side streets; alley improvements: to eliminate the congestion by paving and making them one way; street lighting: to enhance the pedestrian environment and encourage walking as an alternative mode of transportation by providing pedestrian scaled street lighting; and parking reduction: suggested that no further parking requirements be eased in future development since the supply of parking is already short. All these measures were seen as solutions to the problems created by the daily flow of vehicles.
In order to provide further incentives for development of pedestrian and energy amenities that might not otherwis be included in a development, the city has provided criteria that allow an increase in the floor area ratio (FAR). The maximum increase is from 1:1 to 2:1. The following bonuses apply:
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Site and building design providing sunlight for each residential unit and private outdoor space for each residential unit exceeding, when totalled with other project open space, 10% of the open space requirement a bonus not to exceed .25.
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Site and building design providing private outdoor space for each office unit within a proposed project equal in square feet to 10% of the lot area for buildings under 25 feet, 20 percent above 25 feet:
Site and building design providing a street front facade and an alley facade at a pedestrian scale including such features as awnings and windows.
Well defined building entrances, and other building
details: a bonus not to exceed .25
Site and building design providing a street side public open space of at least 500 square feet designed to compliment required right of way improvements and to function as a vest pocket park and exceeding, when totalled with other project open space, 10 V. of the open space requirement for the use a bonus not to exceed .50.
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Finally, other goals of the city in the development of this area can be found in the Downtown Boulder Framework Plan. The principle recommendations of that document which affect the site are: the improvement and redesign of major intersections which serve to reinforce the sense of progression and arrival; the preservation and enhancement of specific public views to the mountain backdrop; definition and identification of design elements for the boundaries, edges, and interface areas of the Downtown; and the improvement/development of alleys, mid-block plazas, and
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THE WHITTIER NEIGHBORHOOD
Located in central Boulder, the Whittier Neighborhood is roughly bounded by Canyon Blvd. on the south, Folsom Ave. on the east, Alpine avenue on the north, and Broadway on the west. It was one of the first established neighborhoods due to its proximity to the main commercial street in the city. As a desireable place in which to build a home, it became noted for its fine Victorian architecture which is preserved today thanks to an apprieciative community. Infill housing projects and redeveloping mixed use projects are begining to change the face of the neighborhood but the end result in most cases is a housing type that reflects the changing face of the residents.
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An advantage to this area is that it is within walking distance of entertainment, commerce, schools, church's, and all the basic services needed by a resident.
The people of the neighborhood today are very diverse; mainly comprised of renters, owners, single's, couple's, families, retired people, and students.
Spruce Street is a popular bicycle and pedestrian route while Pearl Street and Folsom are heavily used by cars, bus, and trucks.
THE WHITTIER NEIGHBORHOOD
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For many years during Boulder's infancy this site was considered the edge of town and as such its use was mainly as a railroad loading dock, later becoming a wrecking yard, and finally a building materials supply yard. As Boulder
began to grow outward during the middle 1900s, this area was left behind maintaining its industrial character and creating a "seam" where the residential fabric breaks off into a commercial one. The different phases of Boulder's progress is evident now when walking the site and surrounding area. The newly designated mixeduse zoning will determine the character that this area will take on in the future. Until 19B3, a railroad right-of-way passed through the middle of the block serving it's mainly industrial uses; in fact, the north end of the property is still zoned IA which is an industrial designation. This right of way has since been vacated.
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The site is currently vacant with the old bradfields building still standing on it. The south edge of the site has an irrigation ditch called the Whiterock Ditch running along it within the right of way. Along its banks are several willow trees approximatly 30 feet high. The site is essentially level but slopes slightly to the southeast with a drop of no more than a foot. The sun is unobstructed in its path across the sky with the exception that when the sun sets due west or north of west, it is blocked by a 3 story condominium project to the west. Winds are expected to be light on this site since the same project that blocks the setting sun blocks chinook winds which are common in the spring. Northerly winter winds are tempered by the mesa which is located 3 blocks to the north. The flood plane borders the site so an elevation of the building by some means would seem to be in order.
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STATION BEARING DISTANCE Y-LAT X-DEP
A E 15 N 195.O' + 50.5' +188.4
b S 31 E 24.0 - 20.6 + 12.4'
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D s 40.5 N 80.0' - 60.8' - 52.0'
E w 15 S 174.0 - 45.0' -168.1'
F N 15 N 122.0' +117.8' - 31.6'
G E 12.5 N 68.5' 14.B' 66.9
H N 15 M 180.0' 173.9 - 46.6
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+ 29.9 +200.8' 389.2
-198.1' +230.8 +431.6
-258.9' +178.8 +409.6
-303.9 + 10.7' 189.5
-186.1' - 20.9 - 10.2
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SITE: ANALYS I S
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM
The development of this program is the result o-f research conducted in the form of interviews of architects, planners, developers, neighborhoods, and users. Zoning rules and the special review process which includes neighborhood input are designed to insure that development proceeds in the best interests of the community by requiring amenities such as public space, adequate parking, and solar access to adjacent lots. These rulings are included for the good of everybody concerned; indeed, their inclusion should create stronger appeal and therefore a stronger demand for developments built under these guidelines. The problem stems from a housing prototype that results in part due to neighborhood input which is submitted during the planning and review phases (the neighborhood is comprised of single family detached homes). The resultant type is only partially adequate to satisfy the demands of a very diverse housing market which includes singles, "mingles" (two unrelated people sharing housing), childless couples, single mothers, singles working at home, and other combinations which require housing prototypes other than that used by nuclear families. As a case in point, a recently built mixeduse project on a nearby site quickly sold-out all the smaller more flexible housing units while the larger "family" type units which fall short of accomodating family activities are selling at a slower rate.
The nature of the site is a "gateway" to downtown Boulder along a high density urban corridor, namely Pearl Street. As a gateway, the site must function as a transitional element between the commercial activities and residential neighborhoods bordering it. In order to accomplish this it must provide flexibility that integrates the lifestyles of a diverse group of users into a system of socialization similar to the one eloquently aescribed by Jane Jacobs in
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her book "The Death and Life of Great American Cities."
"Classified telephone directories tell us the single greatest fact about cities; the immense number of parts that make up a city, and the diversuty of those parts. Diversity is natural to big cities."
Although Boulder is not a big city, the lessons learned by observing a big city are applicable to the microcosm in creating part of an urban fabric which embraces all that is good in the big city.
The main point in Ms. Jacobs book is that if diversity exists, it is because of socioeconomic relationships which are very simple compared to the intricacies of the urban mixtures they create.
These relationships are:
I. A district serving more than two functions insuring the presence of people who go outdoors on different schedules but use many facilities in common.
II. Short blocks with many corners to insure that pedestrian routes vary with the whim of the pedestrian, further insuring human contact.
III. Buildings of differing age on the same block so that the required rents vary, again to insure a diverse cross section of users.
IV. A dense concentration of people and activities.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM
RETAIL. The nature of retail activities which will take place on this site will be of a neighborhood scale. It will serve the residents in the area around the site within walking distance in order to achieve the primary goals of the MU-X zoning district. The proximity of the site halfway between Crossroads Mall and the Pearl Street hall would place any specialty function into competition with these larger shopping centers. The primary functions of this retail center will be to provide for the sale of convenience goods and services needed in day to day living. Typically, the anchor of a neighborhood retail center is a supermarket, however; on this site we will be addressing a walkin trade with a small grocery store. The idea here is that the fabric of the existing retail centers is too coarse to expect people to walk for services. As a result, the streets are choked with people in cars running short errands. By distributing the goods and services more homogenously across the city, they will be more pedestrian accessable.
The rest of the retail area is intended to be leased to small businesses that will cater to the increasingly diverse needs of future residents as the density of this area increases due to the new zoning. As the density of the population increases, so will the potential for success of increasingly specialized goods and services.
In the design of mind that we are that are living in that the physical the possibility of the users. For very common in nei vacuum repair next The shopper walks
the retail environment one should keep in social creatures, especially those of us a dense urban environment. It follows
organizational system should not preclude chance meetings and social interaction of instance, a linear organization which is ghborhood settings (ie. the 711 with door) is very destructive in these terms, directly from the street or his car to the
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point of use and then exits directly from where he came. Even if an encounter is made, there is nowhere to conduct a conversation other than an asphalt strip. This is not to advocate the maze which suburban shopping malls advocate in order to insure retailers a steady flow of window shoppers across thier store frontage. The situation which would be most desireable is where a resident of the neighborhood could walk to the retail area and feel a sense of arrival even before entering the store which he needs. This would imply some sort of ringed radial pattern with a common seating area at the focus, possibly sheltered, even incorporating a neighborhood information kiosk.
OFFICES. The office situation is very similar to the retail in that the type of professional activities should be of the nature commonly used by the neighborhood residents. This would include insurance extension offices, small law practices, medical and dental services and other activities which are oriented to residents within walking distance of the site. Those same residents may be self employed or simply need a small office to work in, for instance an architect, or other professional whose work very often takes them to thier clients. In this case an office here would be ideal. The point of access to the office must be accessable to the public and easily identified architecturally. If the office functions are above the ground level, they must be served by elevator to allow handicap access and the movement of heavy office equipment. This access point could be integrated as a subset to the retai1 circulation system.
RESIDENCES. High density housing in this area is what will make all this work. With increasing population density will come an increase in the demand for goods and services. If the residents' work places are located here as well then the needs for automobiles are greatly reduced, perhaps even eliminated. This site, because of its diversity of neighboring functions, requires that the housing be oriented
mainly to the north in order to establish a smooth transition between the Whittier neighborhood and the commercial activities of Pearl Street. Privacy and security are two very important issues which must be addressed. In order to achieve this, a physical separation of the commercial/public and the residential/private uses must be made. The separation must be carefully articulated in order to achieve the positive effects from the blend of day and night activities that mixed-use developments provide. The "eyes nn the street" that housing provides should render the commercial public spaces safe and enjoyable places to be.
DEVELOPMENT OF the: program
GENERAL BUILDING PROGRAM PARAMETERS
V OPEN SPACE
VII SITE PLANNING
GENERAL. BLJILD I MO PROGRAM PARAMETE
Investigate use of Double Orientation-Open ended format (see Sherwood).
Orient residential units to Spruce Street.
3 BDRM-3 stories high w/ direct access to garage.
2 BDRM-lower 2 stories high w/ direct access to garage.
1 BDRM-1 story on third level above 2 bdrm unit w/ no direct access to garage.
Provide storage space in garages.
GENERAL BUILDING PROGRAM PARAMETE
Layout should facilitate easy subdivisions as small as 250 sq. ft.
Maximize pedestrian oriented storefront footage along Pearl Street. Use human/pedestrian scale architectural elements.
Maximize storefront footage along Folsom using larger scale (appropriate to swift vehicular traffic) architectural elements.
Include a central public restroom for customer and employee use.
Ceiling hieght 107 127.
GENERAL BUILDING PROGRAM PARAMET
Layout should facilitate easy subdivisions as small as 250 sq. ft.
Provide access to natural light and ventilation from all points.
Investigate possible use of double loaded corridor system.
Insure that the point of access to Offices is clearly articulated.
Provide elevator to access office space if above ground 1evel.
Each level should contain a common conference room.
Provide drinking fountain, kitchenette, and restroom on each level.
Ceiling hieght 8' 10.
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Commercial access should be off Pearl Street as far from the intersection as possible.
Access may be allowed off Folsom if limited to southbound traffic with deceleration lane.
Residential access off Spruce St.- overflow guest parking in commercial garage.
Establish a strong connection between commercial parking and site activities, yet maintain minimum visual impact of parking on the site.
Provide two loading bays to serve all site uses, length 35', overhead clearance 14'.
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Public sidewalks should neighboring properties.
Provide human scale light fixtures along sidewalks.
Pave on-site pathways with small scale masonry elements. Public sidewalks of concrete.
Circulation system should be simple, clear, and well articulated to alleviate confusion created by the many site uses.
Integrate public sidewalks with retail frontage along Pearl Street.
Eliminate handicap barriers.
Minimize auto/pedestrian intersections.
GENERAL BUILDING PROGRAM PARANET
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Management ' Ir1
FLOOR AREA RATIO
MAXIMUM BUILDABLE AREA:
SPREAD OVER 3 LEVELS FOOTPRINT EQUALS:
REMAINING AREA FOR PARKING AND OPEN SPACE
All parking on gradeoutdoor FAR 1s1
Open space may be on roof or balcony
50% RESIDENTIAL: 50*/. 1 Bedroom at SOO sq. ft.
30820 sq. ft.
30% 2 Bedroom at 1000 sq. ft.
20% 3 Bedroom at 1500 sq. ft.
.5(30820)=15410; 15410/800=19.26=20 1 BDRM
.3(30820)=9246; 9246/1000= 9.25=10 2 BDRM
.2(30820)=6164; 6164/1500= 4.10= 4 3 BDRM
pen space required:
400 sq. ft./unit= 13,600 sq.
20 spaces 15 spaces 8_spaces 43 spaces
1 BDRM-1.0 space;
2 BDRM-1.5 space;
3 BDRM2.0 space;
50% COMMERCIAL: 30820 sq. ft.
Building footprint: 30820/3=10,273 sq.ft, Open space required: -O
Parking required: 30820/400=77 spaces
Total parking required: 120 sp.= 34,020 sq.ft. Total building footpr.: t.
NOTE: 54,566 is less than 61,637 therefore will fit.
Ala. PtfWW,) tAt-AT* J
Of 3o Â£.fK>c
12-fc x Â£7O -
ASSUMPTIONS! Some residential parking in private garages. FAR 1s1
Open space may be on root or balcony.
507. RESIDENTIAL! 347. 1 30,820 sq.ft.
BDRM at 800 sq.ft, (no garage) 517. 2 BDRM at 1200 sq.ft. (w/ garage) 157. 3 BDRM at 2000 sq.ft, (w/ garage)
50% COMMERCIAL: 30,820 sq.ft.
.34(308201=10480; 10480/ 800= 14-1 BDRM .51(30820=15720; 15720/1200= 14-2 BDRM
.15(30820)= 4623; 4623/2000= _4-3_BDRM
Open space required:
400 sq.ft./unit= 12,800 sq.ft.
Extra parking required:
1 BDRM 1.0 space; 14 spaces
2 BDRM 0.5 space; 7 spaces
3 BDRM 1.0 space; 4_spaces
Building footprint: 30820/3=10273 sq.ft. Open space required: 0
Parking required: 30820/400= 77 spaces
Total parking required: 102 sp.= 29,484 sq.ft. Total building footpr.: 20i546_sgifL
NOTE: 50,030 is less than 61,637 therefore will. fit.
10 z- a z-C, V
SITE TEST-SCENARIO III
5071 RESIDENTIAL: (by area)
61,637 sq. ft.
507. COMMERCIAL: (by area)
61,637 sq. ft.
Site area 61,637 sq. ft.
Develop site to maximum extent possible. FAR 2:1
Separate open space for public/private. Residential parking in attached garages. Commercial parking in underground garage.
3471 1 BDRM at 800 sq. ft. w/o garage
517. 2 BDRM at 1200 sq. ft. w/ atch. grge.
157. 3 BDRM at 2000 sq. ft. w/ atch. grge.
34(61,637)=20,957; 20,957/ 800=26-1 BDRM 51(61,637)=31,435; 31,435/1200=26-2 BDRM 15(61,637)= 9,246; 9,246/2000=4z3_BDRM
Open space required:
400 sq. ft./unit=22,400 sq. ft.
Extra parking required:
1 BDRM 1.0 sp: 26
2 BDRM 0.5 sp: 13
3 BDRM 1.0 sp: 4 = 43 spaces total
Building footprint=61,637/3 1evels=20,546
Open space required:__________
Parking required:61637/400=154 spaces
Total parking req.: 154+43=197=59,100 SF
10 ongrade (metered short term)
43 on grade res may be included u/g 52 resspaces in attached garages. Total bldg ftprnt: 2(61,637/3)=41,091 SF
TEST-SCENARI O I Â£ I
Mixed Use Redeveloping; areas in the process of changing to a mix of residential and commercial uses.
Permitted uses (use by right):
Detached dwelling units Attached dwelling units
Public elementary, junior, and senior high schools
PIayf i elds PIaygrounds
Golf courses operated by public agency, neighborhood, or homeowners assoc.
Recreational buildings for the sole use of the occupants
of a development
Small day care centers
Personal service outletstotaling less than 4000 sq. ft. including:
Barber and beauty shops Shoe repair
Laundry and dry cleaners Travel agencies Photographic studios Duplicating services Automatic teller machines
Neighborhood convenience stores totaling less than 2000 sq. ft.
1111 mi in i nn ii in mm
ZON I tv|(3
Restaurants less than 1000 sq. ft. 1/3 more allowed outdoors
Art studio and gallery totaling under 2000 sq. ft.
Crop, orchards, and -flower production Forest land
Accessory buildings and uses
More than one use within a building when the uses are meant to be complementary or provide places o-f residence in conjunction with places o-f employment; -furthermore, the uses are permitted in the individual district either by right or have been approved as a special review use
Permitted uses (when total project area is at least 50% residential):
Places tor the retailing of goods, provided the stores are meant primarily tor the convenience ot the residents ot the area only
Places tor the retailing ot goods, including but not limited to; drug, book, stationary, liquor, tlorist, and specialty shops
Medical and dental clinics
Indoor eating and drinking establishments which may include meal service on an outside patio not more than 1/3 the size ot the indoor eating space and no larger than 1000 sq. tt.
Limited living units (LLU) when the number ot limited living units is less than 50% ot the total number ot
Z OlN| X NG
dwelling units in a project
Art and craft studio space and associated gallery
Uses permitted by special review only:
Indoor eating and drinking establishments which may include meal service on an outside patio not more than 1/3 the size of the indoor eating space
Membership clubs not conducted primarily for gain
Boarding or rooming houses, fraternities, sororities, dormitories, and bed breakfasts
Limited living units when the number of llus is equal to or greater than 507. of the total number of dwelling units in the project
Child care centers
Recreational buildings and uses operated by a private-nonprofit agency
Automobile parking lots and garages
Minimum open space per dwelling unit Minimum number of off street parking
400 sq. ft. detached units-
spaces per dwelling: spaces per dwelling: 1.5 attached units 1 bdrm 1.0 2 bdrm 1.5 3 bdrm 2.0 4 or more 3.0
Minimum number o-f off street parking spaces per square feet o-f floor area for non-residential uses and thier accessory uses: 1: 400
Minimum front yard landscaped setback from a street for all principle buildings and uses: 0 for first and second storey; 20 non-landscaped for third storey and above for third storey and above
Minimum front yard setback for all accessory buildings and uses: 55
Minimum side yard setbackfrom an interior lot line for all principle buildings and uses: 12 if any side yard is provided
Minimum setback from an interior side lot line or rear lot line for all accessory buildings or uses: 3 if any side or rear yard is is provided
Minimum sideyard landscaped setback from a street for all hui 1 Hi n r> <=, and 1 for every 2 feet- nf hnilri
ing height but no less than 10
ZON I |n|G
Minimum rear yard setback for all principle uses:
Minimum front and side yard setbacks from major roads:
b) major arterial streets of 6 lanes:
c) Major arterial streets of 4 lanes:
d) Major arterial or collector dtreets:
e) Major streets at intersection within 300 ft- of major arterial or other major streets:
40 from property line
90' from CL or 25 from the lot line adjoining the right of way which ever is greater
as above but; 78/25
as above but; 65.5/25
as above but; 74/25
Maximum height for all principle uses: 35
Maximum height for all accessory uses: 18
Principle building max i mum
floor area ratio:
NOTE: If zero lot line for all setback requirements
is desired, it may be allowed under the Planned
haJo/z. a znz/tiA^ c*ouu&^rc?iz.
uta&. e>y r-^it-rr
Unit Development special review process. NOTE: The following may be considered open space
1) Balconies and decks with a minimum useable width of six feet.
2) Roofs, when designed to provide passive or active recreational space for
the building occupants.
3) Internal atriums and plazas.
IBfe Afb OP&A iVAC#
ATRIUM^ ^ r^AZAt>
ZON X i\|(3
TABLE NO. 5-AWALL ANO OPENING PROTECTION OF OCCUPANCIES BASED ON LOCATION ON PROPERTY TYPES II ONE-HOUR. II N ANO V CONSTRUCTION: For exterior well and opening protection of Types II One-hour. Il-N and V buildings, see table below Exceptions to limitation for Types II One-hour. Il-N and Type V construction, as provided in Sections i M m BUILDING CODE
709.1903 and 2203 apply. For Types 1, ll-F.R.. Ill and IV construction, see Sections 1803.1903, 2003 and 2103. o
GROUP DESCRIPTION Of OCCUPANCY FIRE RESISTANCE Of EXTERIOR WALLS OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS z 1982 Uniform Building Code Boulder Building Code
IAny assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building Not applicable (See Sections 6t)2 and 603)
2Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of loss than 1000 and a stage 2.1Any building or ponion of a building having an assembly room w uh an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour elsewhere Not permuted less than 5 feet Protected less than lOleet
or Group B. Division 2 Occupancy
Sec also Section 602 CHAPTER FIVE-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load ot less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B. Division 2 Occupancy 2 hours less than 5 feet. 1 hour less than 40 feet Not permitted less than 5 Cm Protected less than 10 feet i
4Stadiums, reviewing stands and amusement park structures not included w ithin other Group A Occupancies 1 hour less than 10 feet Protected less than 10 feet 503 MIXED OCCUPANCY. In this project, the occupancy types are: R-3, B-2, B-3, and M according to chart 5-A. The required fire resistive separations and openings between all these occupancies is 1 hour according to chart 5-B.
B See also Section 702 1 Gasoline service stations, garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open tlame. welding, or use of flammable liquids 2 Dnnking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50. wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using material not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes, beyond the 12th grade, with less than 50 occupants in any room 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permuted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feel V
5 (Continued 1 TABLE NO. 5-AContinued TYPES II ONE-HOUR. Il-N ANO V ONLY T >
DESCRIPTION Of OCCUPANCY FIRE RESISTANCE Of EXTERIOR WALLS EXTERIOR WALLS 504 LOCATION ON PROPERTY. Eaves over windows no closer than 30" to property line.
B (Coni.) 3Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids Open parking garages iFor requirements. See Section 709 ) Heliports 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permuted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
4Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants, cold storage and creameries Rk-'tories and workshops using noncombustible and nonexplosive materials Sloraue and sales rooms of noncombustible and noncxplosive materials 1 hour less than 5 feet Not permuted less than 5 feet Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not
E See also Section 802 |Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by 50 or more persons for more than 12 hours per week or lour hours in any one day 2 Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by less than 50 persons for more than 12 hours per week or lour hours in any one day 3 Any building used for day-care purposes lor more than six children 2 hours less than 5 feet. 1 hour less than 10 feet1 Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet1 ** extend more than one third the distance to the property
H See also 1Storage, handling, use or sale of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other than flammable liquids (See also Section 901 UL Division 1.) See Chapter 9 and the Fire Code c 1 ine. ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREAS (see. 505). The allowable floor area of multistory buildings is twice that allowed by table 5-C for single story buildings.
902 and 903 2 Storage, handling, use or sale of Classes 1. II and III-A liquids: dry cleaning plants using Class 1.11 or ill-A liquids; paint stores wnh bulk handling, paint shops and spray-painting rooms and shops (See also Section 901 (a), Division 2.) 3 Woodworking establishments, planing mills, box factories, buffing rooms for tire-rebuilding plants and picking rooms: shops, lactones or warehouses where loose combustible libers or dust are manufactured, processed, generated or stored: and pin-refimshing rooms 4 Repair caraaes not classified as a Group B. Division 1 Occupancy 4 hours less than 5 feet. 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permuted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet 1 s O c n o
'Group E Group Divisions 2 and 3 Occupancies having an occupant load of not more than 20 may have extenor wall and opening protection as required for O i. Division 3 Occupancies.
510 SANITATION. A room with a w/c must be separated by
H (Com.) 5Aircraft repair hangars 1 hour less than 60 feet Protected less than 60 feet
1 See also Section 1002 1Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six (each accommodating more than five persons) Hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with nonambulatory patients and similar buildings (each accommodating more than five persons) 2 hours less than 5 feet. 1 hour elsew here Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
2Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes for children six years ot age or over (each accommodating more than five persons) 1 hour
3Mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained 2 hours less than 5 feet. 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet
M2 1Pnvace garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings (See also Section 1101. Division 1 ) 1 hour less than 3 feet (or may be protected on the extenor w ith materials approved for 1-hour tire-resistive construction) Not permitted less than 3 feet
2Fences over 6 feet high, tanks and towers Not regulated for fire resistance
R See also Section 1202 1Hotels and apartment houses Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons) 1 hour less than S feet Not permitted less than 5 feet
3Dwellings and lodging houses 1 hour less than 3 feet Not permitted less than 3 feet
For agricultural buildings. see Appendix Chapter 11.
NOTES: 11) See Section 504 tor types of walls affected and requirements covenng percentage ol openings permitted in extenor walls.
(2) For additional restnctions. see chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction
(3) For walls facing streets, yards and public ways, see Part IV
(4) Openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-lourihs-hour tire protection rating.
TABLE NO. 5-BREQUIRED SEPARATION IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY (In Hours)
A-1 A-2 A-2.1 A-3 A-4 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 E H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4-5 1 M2 n-1 R-3
A-1 N N N N 4 3 3 3 N 4 4 4 4 3 1 i 1
A-2 N N N N 3 1 1 l N 4 4 4 4 3 1 i 1
A-2.1 N N N N 3 1 1 1 N 4 4 4 4 3 1 i 1
A-3 N N N N 3 N 1 N N 4 4 4 4 3 1 i 1
A-4 N N N N 3 1 1 1 N 4 4 4 4 3 1 i 1
B-1 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 4 1 31 1
B-2 3 1 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 L 2 1 1 N
B-3 3 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 N
B-4 3 | 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 N 1 N
E N N N N N 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1
H-1 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 4 1 4 4
H-2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 \ 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-3 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 X 1 4 1 3 3
H-4-5 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
1 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 1 1 1
Ma | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
R-1 1 1 1 1 1 3* 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 1 1 N
R-3 1 1 1 1 l 1 N N N 1 4 3 3 3 1 1 N
Note: For detailed requirements and exceptions, see Section 503.
The three-hour separation may be reduced to two hours where tl . . .
vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons. This shall not apply where provisions of Section 702 (a) apply. 2For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter II.
he Group B. Division I Occupancy is limited to the storage of passenger motor
food prep rooms or storage by a tight fitting door. In other than dwelling units, toilet room floors must have a smooth, hard,
non-absorbent surface which extends up the walls at least 5 inches. Around w/c and urinals a similar finish up to 4 feet. Around showers to a height of 70 inches.
511 W/C ACCESS. W/C must have 30 inch wide and 24 inch clear space in front.
B-2: Drinking and dining
under 50 people, wholesale and retail stores, and office buildings are those types incorporated into this project which are included in this category.
B3: Open parking garages.
702 CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, AND ALLOWABLE AREA. Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection
TABLE NO. 5-C BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT* (In Square Feet)
OCCUPANCY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 II in II i. i v
F.R. FR ONE HOUR | N U ONE HOUR | N ]| H.T. | ONE HOUR | N
A-l Unlimited 29.900 Not Permuted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 29.900 13.500 Not Permitted 13,500 Not Permitted 13.500 10.500 Not Permiued
A) 3-4 Unlimited 29.900 13.500 9.100 13.500 9.100 13.500 10.500 6.000
B) 1-2-3' Unlimited 39.900 18.000 12.000 18.000 12.000 18.000 14.000 8.000
B- Unlimited 59.900 27.000 18.000 27.000 18.000 27.000 21.000 12.000
E Unlimited 45.200 20.200 13.500 20.200 13.500 20.200 15.700 9.100
K) 1-2- 15.000 12.400 5.600 3.700 5.600 3.700 5.600 4.400 2.500
H) 3-4-5 Unlimited 24.800 11.200 7.500 11.200 7.500 11.200 8.800 5.100
0 1-2 Unlimited 15.100 6.800 Not Permitted 6.800 Not Permitted 6,800 5,200 Not Permiued
1-3 Unlimited 15.100 Not Permitted
NT* See Chapter 11
R-l Unlimited 1 39.900 | 13.500 | 9.100 || 13.500 | 9.100 || 13.500 | 10.500 | 6.000
'Fur open parking garage*. ee Section 709.
-See Section 903 'See Section 1002 tbl
4 For agncuiiural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11 -'For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b). For multistory buildings, see Section SOS tb).
NNo requirements tor Ore resistance F.R.Fire resistive H.T.Heavy Timber
TABLE NO. 5-0 MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
OCCUPANCY FR FR ONE HOUR ONE HOUR " HI ONE HOUR -
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN FEET
Unlimited 160 65 65 65 50 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
\-l Unlimited 4 Not Permitted
A> 2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permuted 2 2 Not Permitted
A> 3-4 Unlimited 12 2 1 Y 1 2 2 1
B) 1-2-3' Unlimited 12 4 2 4 > 4 3 2
B-4 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
E2 Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
HI Unlimited 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
H) 2-3-4-5 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
l-l Unlimited 3 1 Not Permitted 1 Not Permitted 1 1 Not Permitted
1-2 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 2 Not Permuted *
R-l Unlimited .2 4 2* 4 2' 9 2 *
R-3 Unlimited i L_ 3 3 3 > 1 Lj_ 3
'For open parking garages, sec Section 709.
-See Section 802
4For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11 'For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 lb).
NNo requirements lor fire resistance F.R.Fire resistive H.T.Heavy Timber
with wholesale or retail sales in division two occupancies shall be separated from the public areas by a one hour fire resistive occupancy separation. Such areas may be expanded to 3000 square feet when sprinklers are installed and are not otherwise required.
703 LOCATION ON as in sec. 504.
704 EXIT FACILITIES, chapter 33.
705 LIGHT, VENTILATION, AND SANITATION. All occupied areas must have a minimum of 1/10 the floor area in glazed openings and 1/20 the floor area in operable ventilation or be provided with artificial light and ventilation as in sec. 605. Enclosed parking garages must have exhaust ventilation capable of 1.5 CFM per square foot
floor area minimum. Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one w/c. Separate
facilities shall be provided
BUILDING C CD D EE
Separate facilities than 4 employees
shall be provided and both sexes
when there are more are represented. Said
building or conveniently same property. Such
, 510. W/C rooms must be having a 3 square foot than 100 square inches
facility shall be located in that located in another building on the facilities shall conform to sec. provided with an operable window opening OR a verticle duct not less plus an additional 50 square inches for each additional facility OR a mechanically operated fan with a capacity of 4 air changes per hour. Any of these systems must discharge at least 5 feet from the nearest adjacent window.
706 SHAFT ENCLOSURES. see chapter 33 and sec. 1706.
707 SPRINKLER SYSTEMS. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed as specified in chapter 38.
709 OPEN PARKING GARAGES. For the purpose of this section, an open parking garage is a structure of type I or 11 construction which is open on two or more sides totaling not less than 40 '/. of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50 X of the exterior area at the side of each tier. The area of openings may be reduced below the minimum 50X for 40X of the perimeter, provided the percentage of the perimeter in which the openings are contained is increased proportionately. Construction shall be of non-combustable materials meeting the design requirements of chapter 23. Minimum clear height is 7 feet. Exterior walls within 20 feet of the lot line must have 1 hour construction.
GRQyp_M_REQUiREMENTS 1101 DEFINITIONS.
MIs Includes private garages, carports, and sheds.
TYPE OP CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER (Squat* F**l) HEIGHT
RAMP ACCESS MECHANICAL ACCESS
Automatic Fit* a a lingula lung SyaMm
1 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
11 F.R. 125,000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
11 1-liour 50,000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
H T' n T'
it rs 0 litis
TABLE NO. 7-AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
TABLE NO. 7 B-0PEN PARKING GARAGES EXTERIOR WALLS
DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINE TO BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION
E NO. 23 A-UNIFORM ANofcoNCENTRATED LOADS
USE OR OCCUPANCY UNIFORM LOAD* CONCEN TRATEO LOAD
1. Armories ISO 0
2. Assembly areas''and Fixed sealing areas 50 0
auditoriums and balconies therewith Movable seating and other areas 100 0
Stage areas and enclosed platforms 125 0
3. Cornices, marquees and residential balconies 60 0
4. Exit facilities5 100 0H
J. Garages General storage and/or repair 100 i
Private pleasure car storage 50 i
6. Hospitals Wards and rooms 40 loco1
7. Libraries Reading rooms 60 1000*
Stack rooms 125 1500*
8. Manufacturing Light 75 2000*
Heavy 125 3000*
9. Offices 50 2000'
10. Printing plants Press rooms 150 2500*
Composing and linotype rooms 100 2000*
II. Residential * 40 0*
12. Rest rooms 1
13. Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers 100 0
14. Roof deck Same as area served or for the type of occupancy accommodated
15. Schools Classrooms 40 1000'
16. Sidewalks and driveways Public access 250 1
17. Storage Light 125
18. Stores Retail 75 2000*
Wholesale 100 3000:
1102 CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, AND ALLOWABLE AREA. Buildings in M1 shall not exceed lOOO square feet in area or one story in height except -for provisions in this section. For a mixed occupancy building, the total area of private garages used exclusively for the parking o-f cars with a capacity o-f 9 or less may be 3000 square feet, provided the exterior wall and opening protection are as required for the major occupancy of the building.
1104 SPECIAL HAZARDS. Under no circumstances shall a private garage have an opening into a room used for sleeping. No flammable liquids may be stored without provisions made in the fire code.
1105 GARAGE FLOOR SURFACES. In areas where motor vehicles are stored or operated, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustable or asphaltic paving materials.
6RQUP_R_REQUIREMENIS 1201 DEFINITIONS.
R3: Dwellings and lodging houses.
1204 EXIT FACILITIES. Every sleeping room below the fourth floor must have an operable window or door approved for emergency egress. The units shall be operable from the inside without special tools and have a clear opening. All escape windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. Height no less than 24 inches and width no less than 20 inches. Finished sill height no more than 44 inches above the floor.
1205 LIGHT, VENTILATION, AND SANITATION. All habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than 1/10 the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All laundry rooms, bathrooms, etc. shall
TABLE NO. 17-BATRIUM OPENING AND AREA
HEIGHT M STORIES MINIMUM CLEAR OPENING'(FI.) MINIMUM AREA (Sq. Ft.)
34 20 400
3-7 30 900
8 or more 40 1600
'The specified dimensions aie ihc diameters of inscribed circles whose centers fall on a common axis for the full height of the atrium.
grounds, ph/a<. Wum and similar occupancies which arc generally accessible to the public. 'Exit facilities shall iru hide such uses as corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more persons, exterior exit balconies, stairways, fire escapes and similar uses.
''Residential occupantirs include private dwellings, apartments and hotel guest rooms.
7Resl room loads shall%c not less than the load lor the occupancy with which they arc associated, but need nos exceed SO pounds per square fool "Individual stair treads shall be designed to support a MWpound concentrated load placed in a position which would cause maximum stress. Stair stringers may be designed for the uniform load set forth in the table.
TABLE NO. 23-B SPECIAL LOADS1
USE VERTICAL LOAD LATERAL LOAD
CATEGORY DESCRIPTION (Pounds pci Squaic Fool Unless Otherwise Noted)
1. ( oiiMruction, public access at site (live load) Walkway See Sec. 4406 150
Canopy See Sec. 4407 150
2. Grandstands, eviewing stands and bleachers (live load) Seals and footboards I20! See Fix >1 note 3
3. Stage accessories, see Sec. Gridiions and fly galleries 75
1902 (live load) 1 oil block wells" 250 250
Head block wells and sheave beams4 250 250
4. ( ciling li anting (live load) Over stages 20
All uses except over stages 10'
3. Partitions and interior walls, see Sec. 2309 (live load) 3
6. Elevators and dumbwaiters (dead and live load) 2x1 ota! loads*'
7. Mechanical and electrical equip UK*ill (dead load) 1 otal loads
8. Cranes (dead and live load)' 9. Balcony tailings, guard tails and handrails final load including impact incicasc 1.25 x Total k>ad7 0 It) X Total load"
l-lxit facilities serving an occupant load gicalcr than $0 50**
10. Storage racks CXcr 8 feci high 1 otal loads' See lablc No. 23 J
be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than 1/20 the floor
square feet OR mechanical changes per hour all of which
area and a minimum of 1.5 ventilation capable of 5 air
TABLE NO 17 ATYPES OF CONSTRUCTION-FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (In Hours)
For Dalafla Chapters under Occupancy and Typas ol Construe lion and lor Excaptions saa Sac lion 170S.
TYPE 1 | TYPE II TYPE III | TYPE IV | TYPE V
NnHCOMBIMTHIt F COMBUSTIBLE
BUILDING ELEMENT Flra- Resistive Fire Raalattva t-Nr. N 1-Hr. N M.T. 1-Hr. N
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 180.1 (a) 4 1901 (a) 1 N 4 2003 (a) 4 2003(a) 4 2101(a) 1 X
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 1 N 1 X 1 1 N
Exterior Nonlrearing Walls inoTi.il 4 1901 (a) 1 N 4 2003(a) 4 2003 (a) 4 2101 (a) 1 N
Structural Frame1 1 2 1 X X l or H.T. 1 N
Part it mmis I'r-nuanenl 1J 1* 1* \ 1 X 1 or H.T. I N
sh.il I Enclosures 2 2 , 1 1 i 1 1 1706 1706
Floors 2 2 1 X 1 N H.T 1 N
Bools Sec "i.SOfi 1 1000 1 1906 N 1 X H.T. 1 N
Estonor Doors and W inr lose s See isaiib) 1003(b) 1903(b) I903(b 2003(b) 2003(b) 2101 (b) 2201 2201
NNo general requirement* lor lire re*istance H T Heavy Timber
SlAKtural frame elements in the extern* wall shall be protected against external lire expusure as required lor extern* bearing walls or the structural tramc. whichever is greater
-'Fire retardant treated wood lsee Section 4l7lmuy be used in the assembly. prvv ided lire resistance requirements are maintained See Sections IftOI and I9UI. respectively
TABLE NO. 23-FWIND STAGNATION PRESSURE (a.) AT STANDARO HEIGHT OF 30 FEET
Basic wind speed (mph)1 70 80 90 100 no 120 130
Pressure qt (psf) 13 17 21 26 31 37 44
'Wind speed from Section 2311 (b).
TABLE NO. 23-0COMBINED HEIGHT. EXPOSURE AND GUST FACTOR COEFFICIENT (C#)
HEI0HT ABOVE AVERAGE LEVEL Of ADJOINING GROUND, IN FEET EXPOSURE C EXPOSURE
a 20 1.2 0.7
20- 40 1.3 08
40 60 IS 10
60 100 16 II
100 150 1 8 1.3
150 200 1.9 1.4
300 400 2 2 18
TABLE NO. 23-C MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS'
METHOD t METHOD 2
TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN SQUARE FEET FOR ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER UNIFORM LOAD 2 RATE OF REDUC MAXIMUM REDUC
ROOF SLOPE 0 lo 200 201 to 600 Ovar 600 (Percent) (Percent)
1 flat or rise less than 4 inches per fool Aich m dome with rise less than one eighth of 20 16 12 20 OR 40
pci fool lo less than 12 inches per loot Arch oi dome wilh use one eighih of span lo less than three eighths of span 16 14 12 16 06 25
3. Rise 12 inches pci fool and giralcr. Atch or dome with rise three eighths ol span or greater 12 12 12 12
4 Awnings csccnt cloth covered* x 5 X 5 No Reductions Permitted
5. Greenhouses, lath houses and agricultural buildings4 to 10 10 10
Where snow loads occur, the roof structure shall be designed for such loads as determined by the building official. See Section 2305 (d). For special purpose roofs, see Section 2305 (e).
2See Section 2306 for live load reductions. The rate of reduction r in Section 2306 Formula (6-1) shall be as indicated in the table. The maximum reduction R shall not exceed the value indicated in the table.
As defined in Section 4506.
4See Section 2305 (c) for concentrated load requirements for greenhouse roof members.
TABLE NO 23 D-MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS'
1TPE OF MEMBER MEMBER L0A0ED WITH LIVE LORD ONLY ILL.) MEMBER LORDED WITH LIVE LORD PLUS 0ER0 LORO (L.L + R DU
Roof Member Supporting Plaster or Floor Mcmlx-r U 300 l./24i)
Sufficient slope or camber shall be provided lor Oat roots ii with Section 2305 (0-l.L. live load D.L Dead load
K factor as determined by Table No. 23-E L l ength of member hi same units as dellcclion
TABLE NO. 23 E-VALUE OF K"
UnwiionH leisaaeR' REINfORCED CONCREIE 2 STEEL
'"H 115 |2 1.21.\'./.\.)| fl.K If
'Seasoned lumber is lumber having a moisture content of less than 16 percent at time ol inst.illaiion and used under dry conditions of use such as in sovcicd structures.
2Scc also Section 2
A1 = Area of compression reinforcement.
Ai Area of nonprcsttesscd tension reinforcement.
BU I I D I JN|G
is directed outside. All habitable rooms within a dwelling should have similar ventilation with the exception that the operable window be 1/20 the floor area and a minimum of 5 square feet or the mechanical ventilation provide 2 airchanges per hour with 1/5 of the air from outdoors. For the purposes of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one half of the area of the common wall is open, unobstructed, and not less than 1/10 of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen containing a kitchen sink, a bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory, and either a shower or bathtub. These fixtures must be provided with hot and cold water.
1207 ROOM DIMENSIONS. Minimum ceiling height is 7-6" for habitable rooms. 70 is the minimum height for kitchens, halls, and bathrooms. When exposed beams are used 48" on center or more, the ceiling height will be measured from the top of the beam as long as the bottom of the beam is no lower than 7'0".
1210 FIRE WARNING AND SPRINKLER SYSTEMS. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with smoke detectors located centrally in hallways accessable to sleeping rooms. In new construction, smoke detectors will recieve thier power from the building wiring system.
1213 ACCESS TO BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES. Buildings containing more than 20 dwelling units must be accessable to the physically handicap by a level entry, ramp, or elevator. There must be an additional unit dwelling unit accessable to the handicapped for each 100 dwelling units in the project.
REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CONSTRUCTION
TABLE NO. 23-HPRESSURE COEFFICIENTS (C)(Continued)
STRUCTURE OR PART THEREOF DESCRIPTION C, FACTOR
Chimneys. tanks Eaves nr rakes w ithout overhangs away from building comers and ridges away from ends of building Cladding connections Add 0 5 to oulwaid or upward C'4 for appropriate location Square or rectangular 2 0 upward 1 4 any direction
Round or elliptical 0 8 any direction
Open-frame towers' * 2.0 any direction
Signs. Ilagpolcs. Iightpolcs. minor structures 1.4 any direction
'A structure with more than 30 percent of any one side open shall he considered an open structure Nonimpact resistant glaring shall be considered as an opening.
:l.ocal prcssiucs shall apply ovet a distance from the discontinuity of 10 led or 0.1 times the least width of the structure, whichever is smaller.
flic area to which the design pressure shall he applied shall be the projected area of all elements other than those in planes parallel to the direction of application 4l'or radio and transmission lowers, the area shall be the projected area of the members on one face multiplied by 2.0 for rectangular towers and I 8 for triangular lowers.
TABLE NO. 23-1HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR KFOR BUILDINGS OR OTHER STRUCTURES'
TYPE OR ARRANGEMENT OF RESISTING ELEMENTS VALUE' OF K
1 All building framing systems except as hereinafter classified 1,00
2 Buildings with a box system as specified in Section 2312 (bl EXCHTION: Buildings n* more than three stories in height with stud wall framing and using plywood horizontal diaphragms and plywood vertical shear panels for the lateral force system may use K 10 1 33
3. Buildings with a dual bracing system consisting of a ductile moment resisting space frame and shear walls or braced Irames using the follow ing design criteria: a The frames and shear walls or braced Irames shall resist the total lateral force in accordance with their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the shear walls ansi frames b. The shear walls or braced frames acting iiuk-nciulcnlly ol the ductile nioiiR'iil resisting portions ol the space Iranie shall resist the total requited lateral forces c. Tlic ductile moment-resisting space frame shall have the capacity to resist not less than 25 percent of the required lateral force 0 80
4 Buildings with a ductile moment-resisting space frame designed in accordance with the following criteria: The due tile moment-resisting space frame shall have tire capacity to resist the total required lateral force 0 67
5. Elevated tanks plus full contents, on four or more cross braced legs and not supported by a building 2 5'
6 Structures other than buildings and other than those set forth in 1'ablc No. 23-1 2 on
'Where wind load as specified m Section 2311 would produce higlier stresses, this load shall be used in lieu of the loads resulting from earthquake forces.
*Scc Figures Nos. 1. 2 and 3 in this chapter and definition of '/. as specified in Section 2312 (C)
'The minimum value of KC shall be 0.12 and the maximum value ol AT need not exceed 025
The tower shall be designed for an accidcnlial torsion of 5 percent as specified hi Section 2312 (c) 4 Elevated tanks which arc supported by buildings or do not conform to type or arrangement of sup|>oiling elements as described abuse shall be designed in accordance with Section 2312 (g) using = .3.
1702 STRUCTURAL FRAME. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses, and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and all other members which are essential to the stability of the building as a whole. The members of floor and roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members and not a part of the structural frame.
1705 EXCEPTIONS. Interior nonload bearing partitions dividing portions of stores, offices, or similar places occupied by one tenant only and which do not establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or more may be constructed of: noncombustable materials, fire retardant treated wood, one hour fire resistive construction, or wood panels or similar light constructuion in which the height of the wall panel does not exceed 3/4 of the height of the ceiling and such partitions shall have not less than the upper fourth of glass.
vertically through floors shall be enclosed in a shaft of fire resistive construction having the time period set forth in table 17-A. Protection for stairways shall be as specified in sec. 3308 and 3309. Protection of openings; every opening into a shaft enclosure shall be protected by a self closing fire assembly conforming to section 4306 and having a fire protection rating of 1 hour for openings through 1 hour walls and 1.5 hour for openings through 2 hour walls. Termination of rubbish the chutes shall not be located stairways. In other than group R, rubbish and linen chutes shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building by a one-hour fire resistive separation. Elevator shafts; shafts housing elevators and extending through more than two stories shall
chutes; openings into in exit corridors or Division 3 occupancies,
TABLE NO. 23-JHORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR C_ FOR ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
PART OR PORTION OF BUILDINGS
I. Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls, interior bearing walls and partitions, interior nonhearing walls and partitions- -see also Section 2312
2. Cantilever elements: a Parapets
b. Chimneys or stacks
3. Exterior and interior ornamentations and appendages_______________________________
4 When connected to. part of. or housed within a building:
a. Penthouses, anchorage and supports f
chimneys, stacks and tanks, including contents b Siorajc racks w iih upper storage level at more than I feet in height, plus contents c. All equipment or machinery ________
5 Suspended ceiling framing systems (applies to Seismic Zones Nos. 2. 3 and 4 onlyfsec also Section 4701 (c)
6 Connections for prefabricated strucluial elements other than walls, w ith force applied at center of gravity of assembly ___________________
DIRECTION OF HORIZONTAL FORCE
Normal to flat
Normal to ILM
lCr for elements laterally self suppixlcd indy at the ground level may be two thirds of value-shown.
*IV for sloraee racks shall be the weight of lire- racks plus conicnis I lie value ol (' for racks over two storage support levels in height shall be 0.24 lor the levels below the lop two levels In lieu of the tabulated values steel storage racks may be designed in accordance w iih U B C Standard No. 27-11
Where a number of storage tack units are interconnected so that there are a minimum of four vertical elements in each direction on each column line ilcsipncd to resist horizontal forces, the design coefficients may be as for a building w iih K values from Table No. 231. CS = 0.2 for use in the formula I' = ZIKCSW and IV equal to the total dead load plus SO percent of the rack rated capacity Where the design and rack configurations are in accordance with this paragraph, the design provisions in U.B.C. Standard No. 27 11 do not apply
'fix flexible and flexibly mounted equipment arul machinery, the appropriate values of ( p shall be determined with consideration given to both the dynamic properties of the equipment and machinery ami to ilic building or structure in which it is placed but shall he not less than the listed values The design of the equipment and machinery and their anchorage is an integral part of the design and specification of such equipment and machinery
Isir essential facilities and lilc safely systems, the design and detailing ol equipment which must remain in place and be functional following a major earthquake shall consider drifts in accordance with Section 2312 (k).
TABLE NO. 23-KVALUES FOR OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR I
TYPE OF OCCUPANCY 1
Essential facilities1 15
Any building where the primary occupancy is for Assembly use fix more than 300 persons (in one room) 1.25
All others 10
See Section 2312 (k) for definition and additional requirements for essential facilities.
be vented to the outside. The area of vents shall be not less than 3.5 7. of the area of the elevator shaft with a minimum of 3 square feet per elevator.
1711 GUARDRAILS. any occupied area greater than 30 inches above grade or floor below shall have a guardrail no less than 42 inches high and no void openings which would allow a 6 inch sphere to pass through. Guardrails in R3 and M may be 36 inches high.
1715 ATRIUMS. Buildings of other than group H occupancy with automatic sprinkler protection throughout may have atriums complying with the provisions of this section. See table 17-B. When a required exit enters the atrium space, the travel distance from the doorway of the tenant space to an enclosed stairway, horizontal exit, exterior door or exit passageway shall not exceed 100 feet.
3302 DETERMINATION OF OCCUPANT LOAD.
See table 33A.
3303 EXITS REQUIRED. Every building shall have at least one exit and not less than two exits where required by table 33-A. Basements and occupied roofs will be provided with exits as required of stories. The second story shall be provided with 2 exits where the occupancy is 10 or more. The width of an exit will be the occupancy load divided by 50 measured in feet. The exits must be arranged so that if only two are required, they be separated by 1/2 the diagonal length of the longest dimension of the building. The maximum distance to an exit shall be 150 feet, 200 if sprinklered, 250 for open parking garages.
3304 DOORS. This section shall apply to every exit door
TABLE NO 33-AMINIMUM EGRESS AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS
UM' MINIMUM Of mo EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE RE0UIRE0 WHERE NUMBER Of OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST occu PANT L0A0 rACIOR* (*9 "_1 ACCESS BV MEANS Of A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED TOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED ASMDICATCO'
1 Aircraft Hangars (no repair! 10 500 Yes
2 Aik lion Rooms 30 7 Yes
3 Assembly Areas, (omen tralcd Use (without fixed seals) Auditoriums Bulling Alleys (Assembly arcasl Churches and Chapels Dance floors Lodge Rooms Reviewing Stands Stadiums 50 7 Yes* 4
4 Assembly Areas. Less-concentrated Use Conference Rooms Dining Rims Drinking Establishments Exhibit Rooms Gymnasiums Lounges Stages 50 15 Yes* '
3 Children's Homes and Homes fur the Aged 6 80 Yes'
6 Classrooms 50 20 Yes"
7 Dormitories 10 50 Yes1
8 Dwellings 10 300 No
9 Garage. Parking 30 200 Yes'*
10 Hospitals and Sanitariums Nursing Homes 6 80 Yes
11 Hotels and Apartments 10 200 Yes*
12 Kitchen--Commercial 30 200 No
13 l ibrary Reading Room 50 50 Yes*
14 l.ockcr Rooms 30 50 Yes
15 Mechanical 1 qmpment Room 30 3(a) No
16 Nurseries for Children (Day-care) 7 35 Yes
serving an area having an occupant load of 10 or more. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of travel when serving 50 or more. Minimum exit door is 3-0" by 6'-8", shall swing 90 degrees clear, and be mounted to have a clear opening of 32" minimum. No door leaf will exceed 4 feet in width. Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors cannot be considered exits. The change of level on either side of a door shall not exceed 1/2 inch and the length of the landing on either side is a minimum of 5 feet. In R3 the following exceptions exist; a door may open at the top step of stairs provided it does not swing over that step, screen doors may swing over steps and landings, when a door swings over a landing, the length of the landing need only be the width of the door.
3305 CORRIDORS AND EXTERIOR EXIT BALCONIES. Minimum width is 44" except in R-3 it is 36". Minimum height is 7'-0" from the bottom of the lowest projection. It must be possible to go either direction when two exits are required except for dead ends where maximum distance to an exit is 20* .
3306 STAIRWAYS. Minimum width is 44" for 50 or more occupants; 36" for 49 11 ; 30" for 10 or less. Risers 4" minimum, 7.5maximum. Minimum tread length is 10". Variations in dimensions on the same set of stairs may not exceed 3/8". Private stairways and stairs to unoccupied roofs may be constructed with an 8" rise and 9" run. Winding, circular, and spiral stairs see page 552 UBC. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landingto less than one-half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7" when fully open. Maximum distance between landings is 12'-0". Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 nor
TABLE NO. 23 HPRESSURE COEFFICIENTS (C)
STRUCTURE OR PART THEREOF DESCRIPTION C, FACTOR
Primary frames Method 1 (Normal Force Method)
and systems Wind* aid wall 0 K inward
1 reward wall 0 5 outward
Leew ard roof or flat roof Windward roof 0 7 mil w ard
Slrpc<9:12 0 7 outward
Slope 9 12 to 12:12 0 4 inward
Slope >12:12 0.7 inward
Enclosed structures 0.7 outward
Open structures' Method 2 (Projected Area Method) On vertical projected area 1.2 outward
Structures 40 feet or 1 T horizontal
less in height any direction
Structures over 40 feet 1 4 horizontal
in height On horizontal projected area any direction
Enclosed structure 0.7 upwuid
Open structure1 1 2 upward
Elements and Wall elements
components All structures 1.2 inward
Enclosed structures 1 1 outward
Open structures 1 6 mil w ard
Parapets Roof elements Enclosed structures 1 1 inward or outward
Slope <9 12 1 1 outward
Slope 9 l2lo 12:12 1 1 < ml ward or 0 8 inward
Slope >12:12 Open structures1 1 1 outward or inward
Slope <9:12 1 6 outward
Slope 9 12 to 12:12 1 6 (Hitward or 0 8 inward
Slope >12:12 1 6 outward or 1 1 inward
Local areas at Wall comers 2 0 outward
discontinuities2 Canopies or overhangs at eaves
or rakes Roof ridges at ends of buildings or caves and roof edges at 2.8 upward
building comers 3.0 upward
BU I I_D I MC3 COD
more than 34" above the nosing of the treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than 6" beyond the top and bottom risers. Headroom must be 66" minimum from the tread nose vertically to the ceiling directly above.
3601 PENTHOUSES AND ROOF STRUCTURES. No penthouse or other projection above the roof in structures of other than Type I construction shall exceed 28 in height above the roof when used as an enclosure for tanks or for elevators which run to the roof and in all other cases shall not extend more than 12 in height above the roof. The aggregate area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall not exceed 33 1/371 of the area of the supporting roof. No penthouses, bulkhead or any other similar projection above the roof shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equiptment or shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof. Roof structures shall be constructed with walls, floors, and roof as required for the main portion of the building.
TABLE NO. 33-AMINIMUM EGRESS AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS (Continued)
USE' MINIMUM Of TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REOUIRED WHERE NUMBER Of OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST occu PANT LOAD FACTOR* (SO FT) ACCESS BY MEANS Of A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED1
17. Offices 30 1110 Yes'
18. School Shops and Vocational Rooms 50 50 Yes
19. Skating Rinks 50 50 on Yes'
skating area: 15 on the deck
20. StoresRetails Sales Rooms Basement Ground Moor Upper 1 lours T 50 10 20 30 50 Yes Yes Yes
21. Swimming Pools 50 50 for the pool area; 15 on the deck Yes'
22 Warehouses 30 300 No
23. Lobby Accessory to Assembly (Xcupancy 50 7 Yes
24. Malls (sec Appendix Chapter 7)
25. All others 50 100
'Refer lo Sections 3320 and 3321 for other specific requirements.
Elevators shall not be construed as providing a required exit
JAcccss to secondary areas on balconies or mezzanines may be by stairs only, except when such secondary areas contain the only asailahlc toilet facilities.
Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers need not comply.
5 Access to floors other than that closest to grade may be by stairs only, except when the only available toilet facilities arc on other levels.
Access to floors other than that closest to grade and lo garages used in connection w ilh apartment houses may be by stairs only.
7Sce Section 3303 for basement exit requirements
"See Section 1213 for access to buildings and facilities in hotels and apartments.
TTiis table shall not he used to determine working space requirements per person.
l0Acccss requirements for conference rooms, dining rooms, lounges and exhibit rooms that arc part of an office use shall be the same as required for the office use.
"When the floor closest to the grade offers the same programs and activities available on other floors, access lo the other floors may be by stairs only, except when the only available toilet facilities arc on other levels.
SOLAR ACCESS/ENERGY CODE
The following information is taken from the Solar Access booklet published by the City of Boulder.
SITING. The ordinance sets standards for the siting of new developments. It requires that, to the maximum extent feasible, all units in new developments which are not planned to incorporate solar features have:
1) Thier long axis within 30 degrees of east-west.
2) Roofs which are physically and structurally capable of supporting at least 75 square feet of solar colectors per dwelling unit.
3) Unimpeded solar access through the provisions of this ordinance or through private covenants.
The planning staff or the Planning Board may waive the solar siting requirement for reasons of topography or lot configuration, or reduction in other aspects of energy efficient site planning (density, transportation). The incorporation of solar energy systems or other renewable energy systems may also be viable alternatives to the solar siting ordinance.
The degree of solar access protection in the NUX zone is defined by a 25' solar fence located on the property lines of the protected buildings. The extent of protection
guarantees a minimum of four hours of unobstructed sunlight on Dec. 21.
The following procedure must be followed in order to obtain a building permit:
1) Draw the proposed site plan.
2) Determine the height of the shadow casting portion of the roof.
3) Draw the approximate shadow cast by the proposed structure.
4) If the shadow cast is entirely within the property lines, the proposed building is in compli ance. O /
If the shadow cast is not within the property line, the following exceptions may apply: w l/
1) If the neighboring property is already shaded by existing buildings, mountains, trees, or other objects, you can build anything which does not add to those existing shadows. -r V \ V r
a. It it \ ^1 1
2) If your proposed building or addition would shade part of your neighbors property which is outside the building envelope, you are exempt from the ordinance.
3) A minimal amount of shading, as outlined in the ordinance, may qualify for an exemption and is not prohibited. > >
4) If your plans require more shading of adjacent land than the basic solar access provisions would allow, you may apply for an exception.
Standard wheelchair specifications:
42" long 25" wide
19.5 seat-to-floor 29" armrest-to-floor 36" push handles-to-f1oor 11" collapsed width
Required turning spaces 60" x 60"
Maximum gradient: 57.
Parking space width: 12 feet; direct access to facility Ramp handrails: 32 to floor
Entrances: minimum 1/building-accessable to elevators Doors: minimum 32" wide-single motion to open Stairs: maximum riser 7"
Toilet rooms: 1 toilet stall 3 feet wide 5 feet deep stall door swings out32" wide handrails on each side 33 high handrails parrallel to floor water closet seat 20" to floor
Drinking fountains: 1 per floor
1 per 150 occupants
addn'1 40 add 1
rvFic^L. f&sui mieHV?
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International Conference of Buildino Officials. Uniform Buildina Code. Whittier, California: ICBO, 1982.
Jacobs. Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961.
Lang, Jon; Burnette, Charles; lioleski, Walter; and Vachon, David. Desiqninq For Human Behavior. Stroudsburq, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Koss, Inc., 1974.
Lanqdon, Philip. "The American House." Atlantic, September 1984, pp. 45-73.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planninq. Cambridqe, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1971.
Mackay, David. Multiple Family Housinq. New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1977.
Macsai, John. Housjmg^ New York: Wiley and Sons, 1982.
SI SL_ I OGRAPHY
Moore, Gary T. , ed. Emerg^ngMethods^nEnv^ronmental
DesignandPlanninQ^ Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1970.
Mazria, Edward. The____Passive___Sgl_ar_Energy_Bgok^ Emmaus,
Pennsylvania: The Rodale Press, 1979.
Norcross, Dr. Carl. Tgwnhguses_and_Cgndgmi_ni_umsi_ResideQt^s Uike^an^Disl^ikes^ Washington D. C. : The Urban Land. Institute, 1974.
Ramsey, Charles G. and Sleeper, Harold R. Architectural Graphi_c Stagdards^ New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1956.
Portman, John and Jonathan Barnett. The___________Arch i_tec tAs
Deyeigger^ New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.
Schmertz, Mildred F. Apartments,___Townhouses,____and
Condominiums.^ New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
Sherwood, Roger. Mgdern______Hgusi^ngPrgtgtyges^ Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1978.
Sprei regen, Paul D. Urban_Designi_The_Architecture_gÂ£_Tgwns andCities^ New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965.
Steele, Fred I. Phys^cal^__Settings___and___Or gan l^z at i^onal
Devel^ggment ^ Reading, Mass. : Addi son-Wesl ey Publishing Co., 1973.
Venturi, Robert. Q9!DEl.!=>Li.tÂ¥_and__Contradiction____in
Architecture^ New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977.
Weincek, Earl J. Peari Street Piacei A mixedUse
t _iQ_Bouider i_Coior ado^ 1984.
Witherspoon, Robert E. et al MixedUseDeveiogmentsiNew
Ways_of _Land_Ljsei Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1976.
QX B1_ X OGRAPHY
I met with Carolyn Hoyt, an architect with McStain Enterprises in Boulder on September 19th,1984. McStain developed the Whittier square mixed use project located west of the site on Pearl Street. In our meeting we began with a discussion of my need to develop a program and choose a site in which to conduct a thesis investigation. Two sites were immediatly brought to my attention; the first was near Old World lighting which is located about 3 blocks east of the Pearl Street mall. It is currently occupied by some residences thus the program might have to assume that these would be demolished. The second site, which I ultimately selected, was located at the NW intersection of Pearl and Folsom. The Bradfield Building Supply is currently out of buisiness and the property has been sold to an investment company which it is presumed will be sitting on it for a period of time. The site is also located at the eastern end of the newly designated MUX zone, therefor it will become a sort of gateway to this part of town. It's location at the intersection of so many circulation systems, residential, and economic centers made this a good choise for a site to work with.
As the meeting progressed, Carolyn brought to my attention the difficulty presented by complying with all the regulations imposed on this type of development. In order to incorporate all the design features which make the project marketable, the design must go through the Planned Unit Development process of special review. Under this arrangement, the Whittier Neighborhood Group is asked for its input during the design development phase. Planning, Fire, and Building departments must approve the plan as well. By the time everybody has had thier input, and the costs for the property and it's improvement is figured in; the project may no longer be a profitable endeavor. Whether
APPEND I X
the project is approved or not, the developer must compete with other builders for building permits which are distributed yearly in a competition which is based on design and energy features which add cost to the projects. Projects of medium scale and mixed-use nature which are undertaken by major developers will become rare under these circumstances. What development that does take place will be by very small builders infilling residential neighborhoods with projects of questionable integrity when seen as a whole.
In a meeting with Susan Stoltz Office on September 28, we using this thesis project as a She explained the implications
of the the Boulder Planning discussed the possibility of test of the mixeduse zoning, of mixed-use zoning and what
the goals of the Planning office were in drafting that ordinance (this is explained in detail under the heading of "Goals of the City").
Crystal Grey and John Wolff were mentioned as vocal members of the Whittier neighborhood group. She said that this group has been very influential in guiding development under the PUD process.
Susan also said that "carrots" are held out to the developers such as increases in the buildable floor area ratio (FAR) and availability of building permits for including site and design amenities such as solar access, energy conserving design, and public open space.
A loophole does exist in the PUD process that exempts developers from the permit alocation process if 4 or less dwelling units are to be built on one site. She said that this has had disastrous results in some instances in the Goss/Grove neighborhood.
After an initial investigation of the site with a simple design which attempted to develop the site to the maximum extent possible with the least cost input, I again met with Sus'an to see if new issues would be brought out- One issue was to insure that the dwelling units open space be sheltered and private. That it be separate from the public space. She also felt that the interpretation of the regulations could be modified if good reason is presented. Indeed, if a freer hand were given to developers of a nearby-site, a better project may have resulted. She said that if I develop the site as a planned unit development, the setbacks outlined in the MUX zone could be eliminated.
A very interesting result of the discussion was the possibility of building parking capacity over and above the requirements in order to sell parking rights to adjacent properties. They in turn would not have to provide as much parking on thier site. As a result the quality of the urban spaces might be drastically improved if parking was not such a major design influence. The only eligable properties that could employ this scheme would be those that are within 100 yards of the site.
A final note was that the of shielding from the busy landscaped buffer zone.
site could traffic of
possibly use some sort Folsom St., possibly a
* ^ ^ 4-rCr| ' .... m ___>* mci/tant ('Knap the Whitt
JleiidenU of the Whittier neighborhood will be surveyed this weekend by the neighborhood association, "People for the Whittier Community."
Crystal Gray said about 1,500 surveys will be handed out today and collected Sunday in the area bounded ?oughly by Folsom Street, Arapahoe Avenue, Broadway and Bluff Street.
The surveys will test public opinion on neighborhood issues and determine the profile of Whittier neighborhood residents.
Among the information to be gathered are reasons the
( Residents of Whittier Area Like Community Atmosphere
ByDABYL GIBSON (Xlamer^Staff Writer The preliminary reiulU of a Whittier neighborhood survey show residents of the core area neighborhood live there because they like its character.
They do not want to see more housing, dense development, more students, low-income bousing or more traffic.
A total of 386 Whittier'households responded to the survey drawn up by the neighborhood association, "People for the Whittier Community."
The neighborhood boundaries are roughly from Canyon Boulevard on the south to Bluff Street on the north and from Broadway on the west to 28th Street on the east.
The results of the survey will be reviewed in a neighborhood meeting at 7:30 p.m. Tuesday at the Whittier School gymnasium.
The greatest number of the people surveyed said they moved to Whittier and stayed there because of the character of the old neighborhood.
A full 84.7 percent said they do not want to see more housing in the neighborhood.
The survey also shows:
58.8 percent would prefer single-family housing if more development is necessary.
52.1 percent want families in the
bousing. Only 4.1 percent saw the need for more student housing in Whittier. ;
48.4 percent do not favor low-in- j come bousing In the neighborhood. -68.1 percent do not want more flexible toning which would allow neighborhood businesses to move In.
57.8 percent think there Is too much traffic in the neighborhood.
64.6 percent think Canyon Boulevard, not one of the residential streets through Whittier, should be the major traffic link between the Downtown ; Boulder Mall and Crossroads.
The majority of residents surveyed say they would like neighborhood programs which gave assistance in rehabilitating older homes and weatherii-ing homes.
A majority favor a neighborhood committee to review new development proposals and a design committee to offer suggestions on renovations.
Of the respondents the majority were females from 18 to 30 years old who are married and live in singlefamily homes which they own. The majority have college degrees, work in professions and have a household income of f 10.000 to 819,000 Although Whittier is considered a core neighborhood within walking distance of most services, 47.2 percent listed cars as their major means of transportation.
resident chose the Whittier neighborhood, bousing needs of the irei. opinions about zoning changes, conditions of streets, alleys and sidewalks and needs that are not being met for the neighbors.
The residents will be asked whether they support projects such as a community greenhouse, a community garden, a neighborhood food co-op, a neighborhood development review committee and a neighborhood committee to enforce city regulations for such things as weed control and snow removal.
Students from the University of Colorado Center for Community Design and Development helped draw up the survey and will tabulate the results.
APPEND I X
Whittier Neighborhood Faces Transition
___iBtri Staff Writer
For mlliiottl flf television viewers. It is
the neighborhood where Mork sod Mindy
Bat for the poople who rtsily make their homes there, k is Jost Whittier.
Historic houses like the one at 1111 Pine St. used as s Mork and Mindy" set. are
commonplace in Whittier. They sit side hy side dwarfing the smaller homes, most 'dating from before the turn of the century.
The Whiteley-HeUems House at 170* Pine ^t. is a Bi-room mansion named "The Poplars" by its builder. Richard Whiteley. an ISM Colorado state senator. His wife. iOJa, was the first woman to graduate ;from the University of Colorado.
; The Temple House at 1507 Pine St. dates from 1M2, when it was an elegant showpiece. Its builder was Edwin Temple. g ;miner, cattle rancher and CU regent. ^
At the heart of the neighborhood is Whittier School, the oldest continuously used school in Colorado. It will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 1913 "The school is really the center of the neighborhood," said Crystal Gray, s Whittier resident for 10 years.
The Whittier neighborhood association claims the school boundaries as the neighborhood boundaries. They go from Bluff Street south to Canyon Boulevard and from Broadway east to Folsom Street.
School teachers and administrators mingle with the parents at neighborhood social events. Classes are held in rooms with high ceilings and the feel of an old schoolhouse In the summer, children play in the alleys within their tightly packed blocks. They walk to the Spruce Pool tn to mini-parks in the neighborhood.
(Continued ea ^ge 4) .
- Saturday, August U, 1980
pldvWhittier Neighborhood Faces Transition
frnm Pin It '-fiiliira PprucrnaHt pnmm*rria 1 iri The neenriatinn foil snarl in a
(Continued From Page 1)
** Adults can walk to stores, work, Restaurants and even the local lumberyard.
r "This is really kind of a porch-sitting Neighborhood," said Gray. "There's a ^eal sense of community, a real source e*f support."
And while the houses are arms fcngth from each other, "It's almost ** you have a certain degree of privacy among all these people," she addled. * r>. .
B\ut Whittier is a neighborhood in traa sition. :<
The school enrollment is down, indi-\ istin g s change in the Whittier popula-tionWom families to mobile young sr*ngleis and childless couples. ...>
i.-Com pact luxury condominiums and hig h Alensity apartments are being canned \out of the old mansions or built oh l*ud\ where bulldozers remove cen-tiiry-ild\cottages.
The City Council has targeted Pearl Street, im the heart of Whittier, as a commercial corridor ideal for a mix of stores and, apartments with a mass transit sy stem down the street linking downtown B. oulder with the Crossroads Mall V
-The expanded boundaries for the
future Crossroads jbommercial area breathe down the neck of Whittier homeowners.
The City Council has soned the residential area for a more dense .'population than it now holds. /* The city estimates Whittier residents have more cars per household than the average, indicating people still drive when they live in one of the city's most convenient walking neighborhoods. "They dont use the downtown efficiently." explained Gray. ^ v Land speculators buy and sell property and development rights as values escalate beyond what is affordable for
a 1/0r3on familv . ^ \ l* '
The association fell apart In a difference of opinion over its first big issue, proposed street improvements.
Gray, Miller and others shucked the image of the old association and formed People for the Whittier Community with the goal of not only fighting city hall, but taking positive steps for the neighborhood.
They instituted tree planting programs. got the city to close streets and convert them to parks and fought for a low-income housing project in Whittier.
This year, the association convinced
the City Council to throw out a private the average family! V* ,* developers pla&s for a five-story luxu-"Its hard to have a neighborhood in ; ry condominium complex on Folsom transition because you dpnt'havTl^ Street. . i
----- . . tajd eight-year The next project is a complex of 42
Miller. "People "limited living units" on Pearl and
sense of stability Whittier resident B.J are worried about whether they can stay .... Is the neighborhood going to be so dense in 10 years that we cant sleep at night with the people walking down the street at two in the morning?"
To hold Us own against change,' Whittier neighbors formed an association in 1977. But they discovered that living in a diverse neighborhood means differing opinions. r
ltth streets, the corner which used to be the neighborhood Christmas tree lot.
"Sometimes I think all I do is go to meetings," said Gray of the pace the neighborhood association must set tc keep one step ahead of developers.
But she thinks Whittier is worth the trouble. */ *.
"Its the best place in Boulder to Uve."
A P F' E N D I X
Wandering through Whittier neighborhood
ci-w-s R,,i wr
) DIWi; JOHMKK J
Whmifi is a neighborhood m tranaiuon moving from an tnonmenl of aemi neglected houark and odd pockets of busln*ae* into a high-density are* from vacant lots with an occasional horse or flock of chickens to the ant of chir example- of upscale genirificalion Whittier s a celebration of Ingenuity Some additions that have sprung up to lake advantage of the highrrdensttv toning are visual tnamages of convenience Others pay at least a nodding respect to tradition or break new visual ground
It is. 1 think, the fare of Boulder-Future And It bears the name of the only school around thai honor* a poet Renovation remodelings and expansions dot the neighborhood kkr dandelions on the lawn Construction Is supposed to *be in keeping with the character of the neighborhood ore city official told me I laughed Whit tier's rampant eclecticism ought not accommodate a duster of yens or a pagoda A scaled-down version of the begrsm s tower perhaps would be a tad out of place Almost anything alar goes MODERN VTKRSIONb of "Victorian' compete with vintage Boulder gingerbread bud, by turn of-the century miners with an eye for aesthetics New Lngland salt hoses Btoref rants convened to passive solai No-nonsense Eisenhower modem Cedar ahake contemporary Convened carnage houses and greenhouse-garage combinations Disneyland gothic and dilapidated deco
The renovation of downtown that produced the Pearl 61reel Mall spilled over into neighboring Whittier, bringing tome bnck crosswalks and an ex-penment with "neekdown" curb design As near as I can tell, the neckdowns haven't had the effect of slowing traffic that planners promised Pine Street, which is becoming one of thr major east-west routes for all of Boulder, carries heavy speeding traffic despite the school light flashers and signs It's claimed many a venturesome cat of my acquaintance
Pine Street residents worry about the blossoming raceway outside their doors because of the tykes who bounce about the Whittier achoolyard. the group of blind people that uses It as a route to work and school each day THE AREA'S architectural potpourri, growing richer as thr neighborhood copes with increasing density. 1* a treat for the casual strobe: There are lovingly tended gardens, natural landscaping and those that reflea less than bemgi. neglect Old-timers 'contributions include a steam-powered backyard saw a colorful collection of wind-powered whirligigs of recycled bleach bottles Mountain driftwood chock-a-block with seduro. hunting trophies and handmade bird houses
The diversity of the residents adds an extra richness, for WTutuer Is no ghetto for any group Elementary school and university students live next door Heurees share gardening tips with single parents Voung ms mods cook outdoors while exchanging pleasantries with backyard inventors work big on their latest protects
Solar conversions and add-ons spice the conversations of anyone with a good expanse of southern exposure Older houses increasingly sport photovoltaic panel- and other Increasingly ingenious sun-catchers ON AGAIN. OFF AG AIN plans are presented in expand thr park apace near Spruce pool, to *do something about the lew mduatnet clustered about the railroad tracks near Pearl Street A full-sized complex of limited living uniu modem miruatunxjUons of apartments microchips for meeung the human need for one a own apace. is being finished thr second in the ares One of the more vigilant netghborhind organizations in the city Stepan anxious watch over each large scale changt robing along with the sms lie i one:.
If Whittier la the face of Boulder-Future it a vital place to be a strong commitment to diversity Not without ns problems but with the energy to fare them and the dedication to making It work for thi people who cal!
Pink flsminfov Hand guard oulatdr this anianli f tainted boon i ahowcasr
2 pet. growth limit reaffirmed
By BRIGHID KELLY Camera Stafl Writer
Boulder's growth limits will remain at 2 percent unless voters decide otherwise.
City Council members unani mously reaffirmed Tuesday night their support for the 2 percent limit and set down some ground rules for future debates on the growth management ordinance.
Council members also agreed that debates would not include suggestions to limit commercial and industrial growth at least for the time being.
The ordinance limits residential growth to 2 percent yearly. In 1981, voters approved the current ordinance as a successor to the Danish Plan that had expired.
Council member Bev Sears suggested clarifying the councils stance on the 2 percent limit to allay any worries that residents may have after a May 17 town meeting on the ordi nance.
Council member Annette Anderson agreed, saying its important to make sure people dont fear it is in danger.
At the town meeting of the City Council and Planning Board, various building industry representatives urged overhauling the ordinance and finding a replacement.
Builders, who have voiced support for the philosophy of growth management, contend the current system does not work and fails to provide enough building permits to accommodate Boulders needs.
Last year, the city reached its 1,049 building permit quota early, which triggered a competi tive system for 1984 permits.
After two permit allocation sessions this year, only 165 remain for more than 500 proposed homes.
The builders concerns led city officials to begin examining how they administer the ordinance.
Last weeks town meeting served as the first opportunity for local community groups to provide opinions to council and Planning Board members.
One problem with the first town meeting, from Mayor Ruth Corrells perspective, was the absence of John Q. Public.
Of the 42 people who spoke, very few represented the average resident and most came from interest' groups who have finances at stake, she said.
Finding a way to entice response from people other than those with special interests will be the topic of a council study session next week.
Remaining discussions will focus on implementing the ordinance not overhauling it. Previously, debate topics included placing growth restrictions on commercial and industrial development.
Anderson suggested postpon ing that idea for a couple of years, saying city leaders have enough on their hands.
Councilman Spenser Havlick, however, said he sees a strong relationship between the growth rates of housing and of business-; es. I
The council decided any ideas about limiting commercial or industrial growth should be part of an impact analysis, not part of revised policies.
In other action, the council approved a million master plan for Boulder Creek. The plan calls for a linear park along the creek from the mouth of Boulder Canyon to 55th Street.
Complete with bike paths and pedestrian trails, the park would tost $2.5 million.
Other possible funding sources could include lottery money, the state recreational trails program, community development grants and fund-raisers.
APPEND I X
Builder files suit over growth
City proceeding to make changes in growth plan
With one suit filed and another threatened by disgruntled developers, the city is proceeding to tune a revised growth management system designed to ease developers discomfort.
Tuesday at 7:30 a.m. the Boulder City Council will take a look at the proposed new system. City staff met with developers to collect complaints and suggestions for making the new system less burdensome and more efficient.
City Planning Director Ed Gawf plans to take the new system to the Planning board for approval in mid-November and to the City Council around the first of 1985 The current ordinance awards points to developments based on several quality factors downtown location, moderate-priced units included, energy saving features, proximity to bus routes and shopping and libraries, landscaping, phasing, etc.
Developers complained that the ordinance forced them to buy points by adding on costly features and to develop small, multi-family units which buyers didnt want. Some said they were excluded from competition because they were building single family Hornes outside the core area and others admitted to hoarauig permits they didnt need because they had no guarantee of permits when they were ready to build.
Changes in the new ordinance would include:
There would be no competition for points. Projects would only have to meet those quality requirements included in the city code No area or housing type would receive special treatment.
The majority of permits would be handed out on a prorated basis If there were too few permits to go around, every project would receive a portion of the permits it had requested. A developer could request up to 20 permits i:> each of four allocations per year. Each developer would receive at least one permit.
Developers willing to provide some extras could compete in a winner-takc-all lotterv They could ask for as many as 40 permits and. if lucky, could receive all 40. Losers would automatical^ be moved to the pro-rated group
(From Page 1A>
tion, for providing moderate-income housing and for other amenities.
During the last permit allocation. Arapahoe Ridge 7 request-
Dewitt Boice. owner of the company, refused to discuss the suit Saturday. However, during hearings on the city's latest allocation of building permits in June, he told the City Council. "Theres no possible wav we can get enough points to build. Its a futile thing and very frustrating.
A similar suit is still pending in Boulder district court. In that suit, developer Phil Geil charges the ranking system is arbitrary and wants his Meadow Glen subdivision exempted from the competition because it was approved before 1977.
City staff have been meeting with developers for six months to work out a less trying system to divvy up the limited number of building permits available The City Council is scheduled to look at the revised system at 7:30 a.m. Tuesday and the sys tern is expected to be approved and in effect around the first of 1985
City Attorney Joe de Raismes said he has been meeting with Boice s attorney for four months and that the city hoped the revised allocation system would reassure the developer Paul Danish, author of the original controlled-growth ordinance. said Saturday, This strikes me as very strange timing. It suggests that they are attempting to win (concessions in the new ordinance) by intimidation. And if that is whats
behind it, 1 hope they are unhappily surprised.
Boices suit claims the developer has a vested right" to receive the .permits required to complete the project, because the project complies with all the rules in effect when fi was approved.
By handing out 90 percent of the permits needed, the city allowed the project to develop to a point where it has no flexibili-tv to comply with the new regu lations, Boice claims. New developments approved more recently can meet the new rules and snap up the permits availa ble.
In addition to receiving per mits to complete his project and declaring the merit system invalid, the complainants are asking foi $3.9 million in damages However, according to City Attorney de Raismes, the federal Local Government Antitrust Act signed into law in 1984 exempts cities from such dollar damages
Boice charges the city violated the U S Constitution by taking plaintiff's property without just compensation." He argues the land can be used for nothing but residences, and Boice can t build homes without building permits
The defendants have re strained trade by favoring those developers with multi-family projects because they can pro vide the moderate-income units worth 50 of the possible 15C points, the suit contends In addition, other developers have been allowed to use moderate income units in a multi-familv project to buy points for a single family development.
Duilder files lawsuit over growth limits
Suit also seeks permits for housing development
By LINDA CORNETT Camera Staff Writar
A frustrated Boulder homebuilder has filed suit in federal district court demanding that he receive building permits he requested and that the citys growth management system be overturned.
The suit Is apparently not connected with the Boulder Builders Group, an organization of developers and others in the homebuilding industry, which Indicated last week it may challenge the growth management system in court.
A spokesman for that group was not available for comment Saturday.
The city limits residential building permits to 2 percent per year. Voters approved a five-year test of the cap in a 1876 election. The City Council approved an ordinance continuing the cap in 1981. It was not until November 1983 that homebuilders begaq requesting more permits than were available.
The suit filed in federal court in Denver was served to the city Friday by Boice Homes Inc., developer of the Arapahoe Ridge 7 subdivision, and by DL$ Land Company which sold the land and Jack Lippoldt who holds a note on the property
Defendants are the city, CUy Council and Planning Board, individual council members and "John Doea 1-10 other real-
Theres no possible way we can get enough points to build. Its a futile thing.
plaintiff Dewitt Boice, owner of Boice Homes Inc., during a June hearing on Boulder's allocation of building permits
dential developers which the suit claims have been unfairly favored by winning building permits.
Arapahoe Ridge 7 is a seven-year-old development near 55th Street and Arapahoe Avenue with a planned total of 108 units. From April of 1977 when the development was approved by tbe city to November of 1913, Boice received 96 building permits. Since 1983. only two have been granted.
The difficulty, according to the suit, is that tbe subdivision was designed based on requirements at the time. Under the current system for handing out permits, Arapahoe Ridge 7 cannot earn enough points to receive permits. Points are awarded (or a downtown loca-(bee BUILDER. Page IA)
Downtown parking squeeze to get tighter
Superblock will turn free spaces into paid ones
Tbi approval ol a boirl aod cooler eon center for douotown Boulder a Supcrblock ma; bt good oes for those aupporUop growing business aod trade on U>< west tdpr of tbe city'a buj.ot" diflnrl
But the plant apcli cxuaruoo for a rare Boulder commodity free down town parkUip da> or night. for acveral hundred cart
Aod downtown parking, at businesses, workers aod ahoppera know. it to abort enough supply at It it A vacant lot at Ninth Street aod Caoyon Boulevard called the people a parking lot.* provider a place for about MX- vehicle! a day Tbe iaod it toor. to become paid city, parking and private parking for the 27S room Canyon Ceoter hotel
Mott of the cart that park on the lot belong to downtown workers I can't imagine what I'U do when they close the lot." said a First National Bank employee who would oot give her oame There Just isn't anywhere else for me to park
She aaid abt began parking in the lot after getting 12 parking tickets last year at all da> meters near the bank Some of their were my fault tbe said but about three fourths of them wen because the meters didn't work right
For downtown workers the alternt lives art slim They can pa> for a permit In a city lot. fight for an all day meter park in a nearb) neighborhood aod wall take the bus or ride a bicycle The people's parking lot' it owned b> Burlington Northern Rsilro.d aod for years bat been undeveloped and rather neglected
Some people call it tbe moon crater lot Bouncing over its potholes they at), is what driving on the moon must be iikt
It s not actuaU) supposed u. be a parking lot.*' said Anita Oswald the city 's business manager of parkinr op erauoo* "But when the owners tried to fenre It off aod put up signs a while ago people Just drove over the fences and tore dowc tht signs
This (Vongnold of parking anarch) Is chaotic when compared with ar. ad,, eeot city owned lot tha: has evtol> measured sparer or a paved turfaci ir the peopli r lot people park wherever aod however lhc> car But those who park there don't coni plain lex- mud about the chaos or Uii potholes After all it's fret (onstructior. o' the Canyor Center botrl wil probably begin on tht lot or it winter ot early spring said Thumas Tbnrpt of Uii Cat. A WMthlngtoo
Rod Randoi and his panne;
muv nvnva- rompaiv oH
Parking solutions vary widely
;_________BELINDA CORNETT ----------------------------------------
Camera Staff Writer
When more than 750 downtown workers were asked how they would ease the downtown parking crunch, solutions ranged from serious to comical.
But John Varsos, an employee of IntraWest Bank of Boulder, took the challenge seriously.
As a result, he will pick up a $50 check this morning for his suggestion to put diagonal parking along both jides of Pine, from Broadway east to
the edge of the congestion. The Dowil7th and Arapahoe to Pine to town Boulder Association supplied thcars. allow free parking on the prize. perimeter and provide a shuttle
Varsos was one of 758 workers wbfervice^ answered the survey distributed i' Authorize offices in homes August to six downtown employers. Tfc* workers dont have to go survey was sponsored by the Downtow ^0W*0WI!to Boulder Parking Work Group - . Require all new buildings
collection of businesses and individua downtown 1 build underground interested in the downtown parkin P^ing lots; shortage And, This is the frontier,
His suggestion was favored by repr>e 01d We,tL "h*rf gre*t ds' sentatives of the .lx employers ttU *re wbrldged w,lh. be city and county, the Dally Camen
IntraWest Bank, First National Ban f" *nd l Jj**'; n
and United Bank ; Subcommittees of the Down-
~ , .. 4. town Parking Work Force will
On the less serious side was thii formed to work on results
Make cars like the cars in the Je Irom the parking survey, sons That way they fold into briefcase., and we dont need any parking lots at all just landing pads."
Some favored historical solutions:
Change the Pearl Street Mall back to how it was in 1960 and install overhead parking above the mall, or Tear down the mall and reinstall parking meters. That will help get rid of the (transients) on the mail.
One suggested: The 100 year flood (on Boulder Creek) and then start over.
More practical solutions included:
Reserve church parking lots for downtown workers, creating closer lots and parking meters for shoppers:
Use money from parking tickets to build new parking lots;
Approve downtown development only if parking spaces are available first;
Earmark one downtown lot for earpool parking only;
Close tbe downtown from 9th to
APPEND X X
Bou/der's Feature Newspaper
Community task force charts Boulders downtown future
By KATHLFFN SMITH
Planning to rtnor In the heirt* of manv It hex uccettfullv %haprd
the rilv's long term land turn policies. restricted Out-of-control growth and led to revamping of the Crossroads Mall.
Now. planning will also help ensure the suc-
cess of Boulders downtown This year, a 15 member community task force will chart the future of downtown developments, proposing creative solutions to the city's core-area problems.
The task force mostly downtown merchants and neighborhood representatives was formed at the urging of the City Council and concerned community members IjisI summer, many voiced dissatisfaction with the growing numbers of buildings blocking the view of Boulder's mountain backdrop, with commercial projects spilling into surrounding neighborhoods, and with increased traffic causing more noise, pollution and parking problems
With no long term remedy in sight, the Ci lv Council requested a comprehensive study of the downtown with input from Boulder residents l-ate last year, nationally prominent city planners and architects led fourcnmimtoi-ty workshops here. The city planning staff summarised the resulting ideas for the task force, which began weekly meetings Iasi month
By mid April, the task force will devise a downtown masterplan."This in turn will he reviewed revised and adopted bv the City Council.
What might their vision of downtown include
lte downtown plan will rover a spectrum
of i oiii pills 11 mu pi esen iitg iirigliliorhoods to lie- exlei mr look. bulk and Inighl ol Inlui IniiMingv Nothing s lm-n sparcsl ilisciission
during recent planning sessions, but a few chief topics are emerging Task force business leaders hope the plan reinforces the downtown as the city's foral point ami suggests specific subjects for public jpd'or private action Neighborhood representatives are pushing for more residential construction downtown, particularly on the edges of retail and office areas
Everyone seems to agree that traffic circulation and parking need to he improved and alternatives to the automobile encouraged "I'd like to see the downtown mall lierome what might be railed the town square like the plazas in other countries where everyone feels safe, secure and welcome." says task force member Fred Shelton, owner of Fred's Restaurant on the Pearl Street Mall The mall was a boon to downtown shop owners when it was first constructed in IH77 Many new stores and restaurants opened to serve both residents and tourists fin* king to llie downtown But now the mall s prestige ap pears to lc slipping
Shelton worries that panhandlers drunks and drug dealers" are disrupting the mall s at mmpherr causing would l*e uvtnmcr* to palnmiu* shop*- elsewhere especiaHv at C irwsroads
Promoting the eitv-* core as an arts
renlri aunv krlast inifb* r*mnii-i .irt tin Mto.ileHi aod lews' lip- 'low Mow it -Him' retail sales
Whittier Resid Fund Street In
Property owners in the south Whittier neighborhood of Boulder will share (550,000 of the cost of upgrading streets and sidewalks, the Boulder City Council decided Tuesday.
The council voted to approve formation of an assessment district for that neighborhood southeast of the downtown area. The total cost of the proposed street improvements is $1.1 million, with the city transportation department picking up half and property owners in the neighborhood paying the other half. * ' '
The area, roughly bounded by Pearl Street, Folsom Street, Canyon Boulevard and 17th Street, is one of the last of Boulder's old neighborhoods with substandard streets and few sidewalks, curbs or gutters.
The finished product will include widened and improved streets, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, landscaping, two mini-parks, some bike lanes
jrmt >m rci t
For ihh group. *t really is a pari of a whole market rroUliritNin strategy for the Am nlmvn mvs C.'itv Planner Susan Stair. who works close-It with tlie task force
t hree years ago the idea failed to win voter approx al as pan of a ST 9 million hood issue, whirh would have restored the Boulder Theatre and mnstnirted a performing arts facility
Now rather than a publicly fuodrd arts facility a ml lalsuatix r publicpm ale effoct is being explored According to task force memlier Stna Simantoh. the city could donate land for the protect A develojirr could then huiM a theater for the cits along with pritalelt owned nlfirex nr retail space C rty land between 13th and 14th streets near Arapahoe Avenue Is onr potential site Rut thla la onlv one of mam cultural proposals for the downtown Task forre mrmliers hate suggested a network of rummiinitv at Ih Hies a botanic garden an ire sk.Oing rink on Ihe Bonkler f ountx t imrthoiise lawn, a historir.il museum and a sculpture p.uk
Ideallv all the programs could lie part of a community arts plan This would link downtnwn .utilities with those at' Cl's Marks Auditorium, the Boo It lei llieativ anil esentualls therl-Is s arts tardily Marks Auditorium is slated lor rrnmatMin in I lie next two sears anil the Boulder
Theatre, now closed, may soon he restored and reopened as part of a large commercial pro feet
But the task lorce will also have to handle a somewhat conflicting issue how to preserve the surrounding neighborhoods while the downtown is developing.
For Shelton, the economic health of the downtown is just as important for the businesses as It is for the neighborhoods The neighborhoods have to reaHir that what happens downtnwn affects them If there is a slum downtown, then they're nest door to it."
however, don't always welcome developments such as five-story office buildings or large retail complexes
In recent years, areas like Mapleton Mill and the east anil west Pearl nelghlwirhoods have felt the strain of com metrisl gmwih downtown More businesses have meant more traffic congestion Often neighborhood streets are lined with the parked cars ol Imtli shoppers and downtow n employees
Ihe city's Division of Research and F.valualinn recently surveyed downtnwn residents to determine how-satisfied they are with their neighborhood* Predictably, l'c>|H>ni|enls genera ll\ fell happy with the safety and aesthetic qualities ol their neighborhoods hut not with Iraffir volume, parking
availability and noise
Task forre member Crystal Gray believes future downtown developments must he more sensitive to neighborhood concerns "It's something that has to he continually restated,' she says.
Gray and other neighborhood representatives ham proposed several wa vs to deal with Ihe problem:
developing symbols of entry to neighltorlKtuds to clearly separate them from commercial areas.
establishing a permit parking system which would allow short term parking Cars parked longer than two hours would need stickers to identify them as belonging to neighborhood residents
promoting developments on the boundaries of downtown which arc compatible with the neighhorlihods.
This last suggestion might include creating some kind of "mixed-use zone between commercial and residential areas Something like this has already been tried on Pearl Street east of the mall, and Gray suggests that a certain percentage of housing he required in oilier comincni.il projects on tin* downtowns edges
"VI ere also extrrmrlv concerned ih.it (developments downtown! have pedestrians in mind. adds Gray. I>n-douhteillv, this will be a major point as Ihe (ask force discusses wavs to improve trans|Kirlatk>n links to die downtown anil reduce traffie in he area
City trail ir statistics show
Two CV students completed this three dimensional model of Utmlder a dow ntow n ft w ill be userf to prepare a downtown masterplan this spring At Ihe bottom of the photo i the intersection of Walnut and 15th streets. Thr llnulder Count} ( ourthousr ran he seen at the to/1 of the photo, near the middle
that about 150 000 motor
vehicle trips are logged daily on downtnwn streets While this is 40 (100 trips short of thr streets' capacity. thr dow ntow n may need at least 7.000 more parking spares or more than double the number it has now if it cun linuex to grow "We're going to have to rethink the current (transput lationt philosopln downtown and "find alternaliies to the automobile Slot/ says
I bis wont la* easy as ntanv residents teem omvilling to part with their cars Task
lorce members, however, have sjircific remedies in mind, including improving Mryclp and pedestrian routes between C roxsrnads. Ihiivrr sity Hill anil Ihe downtown andnr speeding up construction of tlw park and hikewav along Boulder Creek
Other alternative* might lie building satellite" parking lots on the city's periphery. with shuttle oi RID sen ire to I hi' downtown, or encouraging downtown businesses to give their employees' bus passes
Whether anv of these pro-
posals will actually work another question for the ta-l forre In die coming week* memlier* willdwrus* how dif ferenl ideas rnttld lie funded anil implemented
Before a final plan is hand rd to the room i| a city-hired marketing firm will determine Ihe inerall feavhilitx ol tin-task force* iarmu< pruyios.iK and suggest substitute* if needed
l lie public is rnrouraged to attend task lone meetings.
Monday* from 6 .in p m to 9 3U pm at I lit Pe.irl st
An intelligent building
la.) lu- iliulil
'l Uking Olfhr %|iai ill fll.-fi- lll-il I IIkI tUlllM-ll
ii Hu- lap f pri.l.nuinal ouu.k-d h> aiiuioi every i working nuu jimI
harmonlring burgundy carpel '>'<'* nnnslly punctuated hy slate blue am the rose wall* change silver gri) < a pair blue gray in several offi.-r
('harry and lira** arr ihr primnr material* Thr rnnwl cherry n-l mu hlr rrreptlnn desk l a cabinetmaker
Stairway lo the ptminoucu condominium
ullacdi, ai Tne Regmlry
br.ua la* h lu.uiu.-a* atrvKn. Acv.mi1-mg In marketing Junior Coiilhc)
Kr>. a mndral. JtaKsguari loot olfire will, a h hath an.I a drop dead llrw .4 llu- tlalirolia kno f*r about al a iii>.inIf >uu want somc-lliing a link HUM. iuu.li>. you miglii fii on
tin il.unvl Inn- iui tin i.taat M|iiana l.a.l two loom Mule Willi plu.sh mauve arpi-i MMrd ui l-urgon.l). Inn. I.lird bailiruoiii giii-iiliousr confer mi* foo.ii and expansive pficali deck li> pun I. aJ -iai uioiuiiiy in
iiiwli of Luge lull'
"Wr'kr ipaf. .1 no expenav," All.raill oid. a* In- k-alird agJilial the
I..U. liillli'd oil Mir "IHM budget'' Writ, kl jiii u*> M Iwu* a*
loud lo comphle i.' r plailliril Im.Ii
i arr inr pngni an liUcvl nn-d lo t.-rp llu- project on km- Imail, lall) Hr .lul cieiyil.uig b> i-oliiiiulli-r
hr -ml aiul I MX' cum el lull llul llu- ..(.Klllal Ui -ugil w.MlIII get loM ill iIh- shuffle, bill I m rral |k--rJ Willi H.r May II lul nil! oul A> all III
Thr building was designed with ihr option of rilhrr leasing or purchasing space. and occupant* arr iMng l-lh.
The Registry is one o Boulder's poshesl office buildings, designed lo combine the home, the office, and the dub m one environment Above a penthouse suite offers private access to a greenhouse
share computer services If thcv wishl, an energy monitoring system, and a tight security system "Tbls Is what we i alt an 'Intelligent building.1 said Alhearn
Thr lintel exclusive club amhlnire Is created through the u*e of rxprn-slve Interior finishes, fashionable rotors, and the omlsk>n of fixtun-s asso-rialrd with |hllr places (there arr no
______________ urinals In the mens rrstnaim. for
thr harried exec who nerd* in gi-i thr e*am|4r|.
tunic (Hit Hose I* the dominant enlnr
Wired for a hit more than sound. thnnighoui. la-ginning with fhe Mesl The g.-gMry h..4e.l up lo raMr nu. imridr in thr -k-n .re* amt I etc. hum h* an .* hm Ik In ft a r.nin..ind npwar.1 m a r--ri w*si retinal i -mpulrr I-..i|-.mI-. .in ilm. .e wwM .4 ihr Inter** ill* II-
oprning nntn segurslrred balconies; livo story Inwnhnuse suites, wet bars ami private bathrooms
Wlien von m-ril a hrealhrr, you ran lake a break on Ihr o|islalr* veranda ami lake ynnr phone with yon phone jack* abound, even In the halhrm.ni in the garden level eaer rise spa. known as the Personal Alton-
ular formal garden
ing Image Is important This Is a heaulifiil ptare lo hting cftrnl* In." said Tom Kr-lsay Jim llirkman. ai.*r ney leases his fp.nl comer office and is no! hesitant lo point mil the prime view Ihruugh the double f"r<-nrh lours.
The future of The ft.-gislry Imdis as rosy as iis mauve r.ilr.-d walk
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Spruce Street Condominiums
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2224C.2230C 2234C 224'. 2242'. 2.*r.j3 22S2' 2263 22&4C 22701.22 4C
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IN THE HEART OF THE CITY...
The Challenge tc C'eate ena integrate c r.e* ana exc'hng aoiec: ano* re; dencet offce? ana shops h.r. an e
The Result: Wnitbar Squer-: laea y located Wmttier Square is in the very heal of tne city. between Spruce ana F ean along 23rc At such it is eq^ d-stant tro*r. tnc Pea' Street Mai! ana in* new Crossroads l^a'. acting as a nature link tc these two viorant urDan area'
S> des:pn, Whittier Square .* a mas'e: planned development projecting an urbar village atmosphere.
Designed to ret.ect the original arc* terura character of the neighborhood
Stylish cenoomm ums are placed adjacent tc a r*c.r. adornment of shops and offices Al: shnc a cent a1 pan., generous landscaped and i*eope-oriented an added bene!:: to living and working p'ay ng and shopping at Wnitner Square Whitt'* Squse designed to become a landma'k community meet.ng the unusual challenge* of artfully bienaing the oio and new and of revitalizing and enriching the uroen fabric
Ye' ar'otnc: oufstand.ng project of McSta>n Boulder s premier real estate
x i cirM3-=J-=i^
linns arr upprnxiiiLiu- ami limy li
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bedroom 2 b6*io6
TERRACED LOW-RISE CONDOMINIUM HOMES
living rqj 15* IS
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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
STEVEN B. WALSH 1985
The Bradfield Block
Steven B. Walsh
S t e:
A 67,000 square -foot lot on the northwest corner Pearl and Folsom Ave. in Boulder, Co. T>e site is on occupied hy a vacant lumber yard which ,it is assumed be ^emo^ished. Tve site is bordered by a mix c^ urns i ny residential neighbor1-1 ood s and commercial ^n^erpri
e sen tly would includ-ses.
Promam: The pnoposed buildinr is a Mixed-Use development which is
ten t with +he soniny o^ the site : MU-X.
Total buildi^v an^a: 187, ?4 so . ft.
Gross Retail snare: 38,84? so. ft.
Gross Office snace: 89,004 so. ft.
Gross Residential : 74, 64 so , . (Lof ts
?4,815 so. . (Townho?
Gross Parking area: 49,989 so . ft. ( 161 s
1c units) les- 9 uni 1 a c e s)
Consists of Steel reinforced concrete
in place. Foundation is drilled oiens end ''pv. iny on bedrock which lies 16 feet below made.
Floors are post-tension slabs. Vertical is provided with concrete columns. Tve residences on the third level a^d tve to to the north o^ the buildiny are coustru wood ^rame; fe foundation beinv nrovide floor slabs of tve building portion 'ire below the respective residence.
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i cal Svs^e"1:
Pippa fluid (heated or cooled deoe^diny +o individual leased snace: thermostat c ^ah / coil units nrovide heat exchange to
i ro^ seas on on trolled the space.
Pegi Sprees have autonomous Wa.c systems.
Projected 0osts: Tvp> land cost is 17 ^ollaTm /sc. **t.
.\veraye buildiny cost is ^6 dollars /so. ^t. Total buildiny cost: $10,800,000.00 nlus land
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